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Sample records for package astm type

  1. Final Report, Volume 5, Data Package for ASTM A923 Supporting Inclusion of A890-5 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (Cast Equivalent of 2507)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    Volume 5 is the Data Package for the evaluation of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Castings prepared at the end of work comprised in volumes 3 and 4. The document deals with the various evaluation methods used in the work documented in volume 3 and 4. This document covers materials regarding evaluation of the A890-5A material in terms of inclusion in ASTM A923. The various tests which were conducted on the A890-5A material are included in this document.

  2. Final Report, Volume 5, Data Package for ASTM A923 Supporting Inclusion of A890-5A Super Duplex Stainless Steel ( Cast Equivalent of 2507)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30

    Volume 5 is the Data Package for the evaluation of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Castings prepared at the end of work comprised in volumes 3 and 4. The document deals with the various evaluation methods used in the work documented in volume 3 and 4. This document covers materials regarding evaluation of the A890-5A material in terms of inclusion in ASTM A923. The various tests which were conducted on the A890-5A material are included in this document.

  3. Standard specification for nonoriented electrical steel, fully processed types (metric). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-6 on Magnetic Properties and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A06.02 on Materials Specifications. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as A 677M-83. Last previous edition was A 677M-96.

  4. Standard specification for non-oriented electrical steel fully processed types. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-6 on Magnetic Properties and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A06.02 on Materials Specifications. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as A 677-73. Last previous edition A 677-96.

  5. ASTM METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASTM is a not-for-profit organization that provides a forum for producers, users, ultimate consumers, and those having a general interest (representatives of government and academia) to meet on common ground and write standards for materials, products, systems, and services. From...

  6. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes.

  7. Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding.

  8. 49 CFR 173.413 - Requirements for Type B packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.413 Requirements for Type B packages. Except as provided in § 173.416, each Type B(U) or Type B(M) package must be designed and... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Type B packages. 173.413...

  9. Types: A data abstraction package in FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, S. )

    1990-08-01

    TYPES is a collection of Fortran programs which allow the creation and manipulation of abstract data objects'' without the need for a preprocessor. Each data object is assigned a type'' as it is created which implies participation in a set of characteristic operations. Available types include scalars, logicals, ordered sets, stacks, queues, sequences, trees, arrays, character strings, block text, histograms, virtual and allocatable memories. A data object may contain integers, reals, or other data objects in any combination. In addition to the type specific operations, a set of universal utilities allows for copying input/output to disk, naming, editing, displaying, user input, interactive creation, tests for equality of contents or structure, machine to machine translation or source code creation for and data object. TYPES is available on VAX/VMS, SUN 3, SPARC, DEC/Ultrix, Silicon Graphics 4D and Cray/Unicos machines. The capabilities of the package are discussed together with characteristic applications and experience in writing the GVerify package.

  10. TYPE B RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE FAILURE MODES AND CONTENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Allen Smith, A

    2007-02-21

    Type B radioactive material package failures can occur due to any one of the following: inadequate design, manufacture, and maintenance of packages, load conditions beyond those anticipated in the regulations, and improper package loading and operation. The rigorous package design evaluations performed in the certification process, robust package manufacture quality assurance programs, and demanding load conditions prescribed in the regulations are all well established. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of Type B package loading with respect to an overbatch which may cause a package failure.

  11. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type A packaging tests. 173.465 Section 173.465 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.465 Type A packaging tests. (a) The...

  12. 49 CFR 173.415 - Authorized Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evaluation or comparative data showing that the construction methods, packaging design, and materials of... standards for fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71 and is used in accordance with § 173.471. (c) Any Type B(U... packaging. Each offeror of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file for at least one year after...

  13. Evaluation of various generic types of building sealants against ASTM C-920, standard specification for elastomeric joint sealants

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorillo, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    A number of sealant manufacturers suggest that although they supply primers for their sealants, in many cases the primers may not be necessary. They usually suggest running a test on the substrates the sealants are to be used with to determine if the primers are needed. This paper will discuss the results of testing several commercially available polysulfide, silicone and polyurethane sealants against ASTM C-920, Standard Specification for Elastomeric Joint Sealants. Morar, plate glass and anodized aluminum were used as the substrates. Where manufacturers supplied primers, the sealant was tested with and without their primer. Where the manufacturer did not recommend primers, testing was only doe without a primer.

  14. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  15. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios.

  16. Sensitization Behavior of Type 409 Ferritic Stainless Steel: Confronting DL-EPR Test and Practice W of ASTM A763

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, Taís Campos; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes; Sayeg, Isaac Jamil; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2014-06-01

    Stainless steels employed for manufacturing automotive exhaust systems must withstand severe thermal cycles, corrosive environment due to urea decomposition, and welding operations. AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel can be considered a low-cost alternative for this application. However, depending on the manufacturing conditions during welding cycles, this material can be sensitized due to the precipitation of chromium carbides at grain boundaries. In this work, the intergranular corrosion resistances of the AISI 409 ferritic stainless steel were evaluated after annealing at 300, 500, and 700 °C for 2, 4, and 6 h. Solution-annealed samples were also tested for comparison purposes. Two methodologies were used to assess the sensitization behavior of the 409 stainless steel samples: the first one was based on the ASTM A763 (practice W), while the second one was based on the double-loop electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation test. It was possible to identify that the annealing treatment performed at 500 °C was more critical to the occurrence of intergranular corrosion.

  17. THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-03-26

    The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

  18. TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

    2013-10-11

    This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

  19. Development of an Air Transport Type A Fissile Package

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Ebert, K.

    2011-07-13

    This paper presents the summary of testing by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to support development of a light weight (<140 lbs) air transport qualified Type A Fissile Packaging. The package design incorporates features and materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight. The light weight package is being designed to provide confinement to the contents when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of an air transportable Type A Fissile radioactive material shipping package. The objective of these tests was to provide design input to the final design for the LORX Type A Fissile Air Transport Packaging when subjected to the performance requirements of the drop, crush and puncture probe test of 10CFR71. The post test evaluation of the prototype packages indicates that all of the tested designs would satisfactorily confine the content within the packaging. The differences in the performance of the prototypes varied significantly depending on the core materials and their relative densities. Information gathered from these tests is being used to develop the final design for the Department of Homeland Security.

  20. Documentation and verification required for type A packaging use

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.H.

    1997-07-30

    This document furnishes knowledge and methods for verifying compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging requirements for shipping Type A quantities of radioactive material. The primary emphasis is on the requirements identified in 49 CFR 173.415(a), which states, ``Each offeror of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file for at least one year after the shipment, and shall provide to DOT on request, complete documentation of tests and an engineering evaluation of comparative data showing that the construction methods, packaging design, and materials of construction comply with that specification.`` This guidance document uses a checklist to show compliance.

  1. DOT-7A Type A packaging test and evaluation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for qualifying a DOT-7A Type A packaging for use. WHC qualifies DOT-7A packaging for two purposes. The first is to provide packages for use by WHC (manufacturer-qualified). The second is to provide a contracted service in support of DOE/EM-76 (DOE-qualified). This document includes descriptions of the performance tests, the personnel involved and their qualifications, appropriate safety and quality assurance considerations, and the procedures to be followed when WHC performs the tests (either as the manufacturer, or on behalf of the DOE`s certification program).

  2. 49 CFR 173.415 - Authorized Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71 and is used in accordance with § 173.471. (c) Any Type B(U) or Type B... least one year after the latest shipment, and shall provide to DOT on request, complete documentation of... of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file for at least two years after the offeror's...

  3. DOT-7A Type A packaging design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide instruction for designing a U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A packaging. Another purpose for this Design Guide is to support the evaluation and testing activities that are performed on new designs by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test facility. This evaluation and testing program is called the DOT-7A Program. When an applicant has determined that a DOT-7A packaging is needed and not commercially available, a design may be created according to this document. The design should include a packaging drawing, specifications, analysis report, operating instructions, and a Packaging Qualification Checklist; all of which should be forwarded to a DOE/HQ approved test facility for evaluation and testing. This report is being submitted through the Engineering Documentation System so that it may be used for reference and information purposes.

  4. 49 CFR 178.350 - Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.350 Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. (a) Each packaging must meet all applicable requirements of...

  5. 49 CFR 178.350 - Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.350 Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. (a) Each packaging must meet all applicable requirements of...

  6. 49 CFR 178.350 - Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. 178... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.350 Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. (a) Each packaging must meet all applicable requirements of...

  7. ASTM A 312 -- Quality? Who bears the burden?

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, H.; Kohler, K.

    2000-05-01

    Premature failure occurred in welded type 316L stainless steel pipe ordered to ASTM A 312. This specification can result in great variability in weld-seam quality, affecting corrosion resistance. ASTM A 312 does not sufficiently protect many end users. A clarifying statement should be inserted in this specification, and a new ASTM specification for pipe produced by automated welding mills with in-line induction coil heat treatment should be developed.

  8. Determination of damage functions for the pitting of AISI type 403 blade alloy and ASTM A470/471 disk alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yancheng

    The prediction of pitting accumulation on turbine blades and disks is of particular importance to predict localized corrosion damages in low pressure (LP) steam turbines. Damage Function Analysis (DFA) and Deterministic Extreme Value Statistics (DEVS) have been employed to predict the pitting damage on AISI Type 403 stainless steel (SS) blade alloy and ASTM A470/471 disk steel in simulated LP steam turbine environments within the phase transition zone. The passivity properties of Type 403 SS and A470/471 steel in the passive regions, including defect type, defect concentration in the barrier film, barrier film thickness, and the steady-state current density, agree with the predictions of the Point Defect Model (PDM) for an n-type semiconductor. Optimization of the PDM based impedance model on the experimental electrochemical impedance data has yielded a set of parameter values that can be used to predict the barrier film growth on Type 403 SS in deaerated borate buffer solution ( pH = 8.2) at ambient temperature. Experimental relationships between the breakdown potential and chloride activity, pH, temperature, and potential scan rate have demonstrated the applicability of the PDM for describing passivity breakdown on Type 403 SS and A470/471 steel. The obtained parameter values were used to calculate the breakdown potential, induction time, and their distributions, via the PDM, which represents the first quantitative characterization of the passivity breakdown behavior on Type 403 SS. Pitting damage functions for Type 403 SS have been experimentally determined for the first time. However, low pit density on A470/471 steel led to insufficient pit numbers on the 1.27 cm2 surface for the effective determination of damage functions. DEVS has been demonstrated by predicting the average maximum pit depth for 750 hours from short-term (24 hours and 240 hours) maximum pit depth data on Type 403 SS in deaerated buffer solution with 0.10 M NaCl at an applied potential of 0

  9. 49 CFR 178.350 - Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. 178... Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A. (a) Each packaging must meet all applicable requirements of subpart... of §§ 173.403, 173.410, 173.412, 173.415 and 173.465 of this subchapter for Type A packaging....

  10. Laboratory Study on Prevention of CaO-Containing ASTM "D-Type" Inclusions in Al-Deoxidized Low-Oxygen Steel Melts During Basic Slag Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Min; Wang, Xin-Hua; Yang, Die; Lei, Shao-Long; Wang, Kun-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Present work was attempted to explore the possibility of preventing CaO-containing inclusions in Al-deoxidized low-oxygen special steel during basic slag refining, which were known as ASTM D-type inclusions. Based on the analysis on formation thermodynamics of CaO-containing inclusions, a series of laboratory experiments were designed and carried out in a vacuum induction furnace. During the experiments, slag/steel reaction equilibrium was intentionally suppressed with the aim to decrease the CaO contents in inclusions, which is different from ordinary concept that slag/steel reaction should be promoted for better control of inclusions. The obtained results showed that high cleanliness of steel was obtained in all the steel melts, with total oxygen contents varied between 0.0003 and 0.0010 pct. Simultaneously, formation of CaO-containing inclusions was successfully prohibited, and all the formed oxide inclusions were MgO-Al2O3 or/and Al2O3 in very small sizes of about 1 to 3 μm. And 90 pct to nearly 98 pct of them were wrapped by relative thicker MnS outer surface layers to produce dual-phased "(MgO-Al2O3) + MnS" or "Al2O3 + MnS" complex inclusions. Because of much better ductility of MnS, certain deformability of these complex inclusions can be expected which is helpful to improve fatigue resistance property of steel. Only very limited number of singular MnS inclusions were with sizes larger than 13 μm, which were formed during solidification because of. In the end, formation of oxide inclusions in steel was qualitatively evaluated and discussed.

  11. 77 FR 67678 - Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for Type B Transportation Packages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for Type B Transportation Packages AGENCY... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2012-XX, ``Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for Type B... Plan for Transport Packages for Radioactive Material,'' for the review of content specifications...

  12. Effect of Insolation Boundary Conditions on Type B Package Internal Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hovingh, J; Shah, VL

    2002-05-30

    The prescription of the initial conditions and the final conditions for a thermal accident for Type B packages are different for differing regulations. This paper presents an analytical method for estimating the effect of the boundary conditions on post-fire peak internal package temperatures. Results are given for several boundary conditions for a Type B drum-type package.

  13. Inducible human immunodeficiency virus type 1 packaging cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, H; Rabson, A B; Kaul, M; Ron, Y; Dougherty, J P

    1996-01-01

    Packaging cell lines are important tools for transferring genes into eukaryotic cells. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based packaging cell lines are difficult to obtain, in part owing to the problem that some HIV-1 proteins are cytotoxic in a variety of cells. To overcome this, we have developed an HIV-1-based packaging cell line which has an inducible expression system. The tetracycline-inducible expression system was utilized to control the expression of the Rev regulatory protein, which in turn controls the expression of the late proteins including Gag, Pol, and Env. Western blotting (immunoblotting) demonstrated that the expression of p24gag and gp120env from the packaging cells peaked on days 6 and 7 postinduction. Reverse transcriptase activity could be detected by day 4 after induction and also peaked on days 6 and 7. Defective vector virus could be propagated, yielding titers as high as 7 x 10(3) CFU/ml, while replication-competent virus was not detectable at any time. Thus, the cell line should enable the transfer of specific genes into CD4+ cells and should be a useful tool for studying the biology of HIV-1. We have also established an inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line which could be used to propagate HIV-1 vectors that require only Env in trans. The env-minus vector virus titer produced from the Env-expressing cells reached 2 x 10(4) CFU/ml. The inducible HIV-1 Env-expressing cell line should be a useful tool for the study of HIV-1 Env as well. PMID:8676479

  14. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  15. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  16. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  17. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  18. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cylindrical packages, onto each of the quarters of each rim. (3) For fiberboard or wood rectangular packages... quarters of each rim from a height of 0.3 m (1 foot). (5) The target for the free drop test must be a...

  19. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cylindrical packages, onto each of the quarters of each rim. (3) For fiberboard or wood rectangular packages... quarters of each rim from a height of 0.3 m (1 foot). (5) The target for the free drop test must be a...

  20. 10 CFR 71.61 - Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special requirements for Type B packages containing more... TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.61 Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2. A Type B package containing more than 105A2 must be designed so...

  1. 10 CFR 71.61 - Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special requirements for Type B packages containing more... TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.61 Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2. A Type B package containing more than 105A2 must be designed so...

  2. 10 CFR 71.61 - Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special requirements for Type B packages containing more... TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.61 Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2. A Type B package containing more than 105A2 must be designed so...

  3. 10 CFR 71.61 - Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special requirements for Type B packages containing more... TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.61 Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2. A Type B package containing more than 105A2 must be designed so...

  4. 10 CFR 71.61 - Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special requirements for Type B packages containing more... TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.61 Special requirements for Type B packages containing more than 105A2. A Type B package containing more than 105A2 must be designed so...

  5. FABRICATION AND DEPLOYMENT OF THE 9979 TYPE AF RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2013-10-10

    This paper summarizes the development, testing, and certification of the 9979 Type A Fissile Packaging that replaces the UN1A2 Specification Shipping Package eliminated from Department of Transportation (DOT) 49 CFR 173. The DOT Specification Package was used for many decades by the U.S. nuclear industry as a fissile waste container until its removal as an authorized container by DOT. This paper will discuss stream lining procurement of high volume radioactive material packaging manufacturing, such as the 9979, to minimize packaging production costs without sacrificing Quality Assurance. The authorized content envelope (combustible and non-combustible) as well as planned content envelope expansion will be discussed.

  6. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each of the quarters of each rim. (3) For fiberboard or wood rectangular packages with a mass of 50 kg... less, a separate specimen must be subjected to a free drop onto each of the quarters of each rim from...

  7. 49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) For packages containing fissile material, the free drop test specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this..., horizontal surface of such mass and rigidity that any increase in its resistance to displacement...

  8. 21 CFR 610.62 - Proper name; package label; legible type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... label; legible type. (a) Position. The proper name of the product on the package label shall be placed above any trademark or trade name identifying the product and symmetrically arranged with respect to... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proper name; package label; legible type....

  9. 21 CFR 610.62 - Proper name; package label; legible type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... label; legible type. (a) Position. The proper name of the product on the package label shall be placed above any trademark or trade name identifying the product and symmetrically arranged with respect to... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Proper name; package label; legible type....

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW TYPE A(F)RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2008-09-14

    In a coordinated effort, the Department of Transportation (DOT) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proposed the elimination of the Specification Packaging from 49 CFR 173.[1] In accordance with the Federal Register, issued on October 1, 2004, new fabrication of Specification Packages would no longer be authorized. In accordance with the NRC final rulemaking published January 26, 2004, Specification Packagings are mandated by law to be removed from service no later than October 1, 2008. This coordinated effort and resulting rulemaking initiated a planned phase out of Specification Type B and Type A fissile (F) material transportation packages within the Department of Energy (DOE) and its subcontractors. One of the Specification Packages affected by this regulatory change is the UN1A2 Specification Package, per DOT 49 CFR 173.417(a)(6). To maintain continuing shipments of DOE materials currently transported in UN1A2 Specification Package after the existing authorization expires, a replacement Type A(F) material packaging design is under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory. This paper presents a summary of the prototype design effort and testing of the new Type A(F) Package development for the DOE. This paper discusses the progress made in the development of a Type A Fissile Packaging to replace the expiring 49 CFR UN1A2 Specification Fissile Package. The Specification Package was mostly a single-use waste disposal container. The design requirements and authorized radioactive material contents of the UN1A2 Specification Package were defined in 49 CFR. A UN1A2 Specification Package was authorized to ship up to 350 grams of U-235 in any enrichment and in any non-pyrophoric form. The design was specified as a 55-gallon 1A2 drum overpack with a body constructed from 18 gauge steel with a 16 gauge drum lid. Drum closure was specified as a standard 12-gauge ring closure. The inner product container size was not specified but was listed as any

  11. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  12. Types of packaging waste from secondary sources (supermarkets)--the situation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Hardy, Darron W; Curran, Beverley A

    2009-03-01

    Packaging waste is a contributing factor to the large quantity of waste that is sent to landfill in the UK. This research focuses on waste from the secondary packaging sector in the UK. In particular, supermarkets were investigated as they supply a large section of consumers with their grocery and other requirements and generate high quantities of packaging waste due to the high turnover within the store. In general, supermarkets use either metal cages or wooden pallets to transport products from depot to store. Investigation shows that packaging waste produced when using the wooden pallets is greater than for metal cages but the use of wooden pallets allows for greater versatility when in the store. The type of transit packaging used depends on what the products are initially packaged in and how the supermarket supply chain works. All cardboard and high-grade plastic is recycled but, depending on the facilities at the stores, the low-grade plastic can be recycled as well. This paper details types of packaging used within the supermarket secondary packaging sector and how waste can be reduced. To reduce the amount of packaging waste produced by the supermarkets, the products will have to be wrapped differently by the producers so that less packaging is needed in transit. PMID:18976897

  13. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado

    2015-02-01

    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food. PMID:25420687

  14. Hypothetical accident condition thermal analysis and testing of a Type B drum package

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.J.; Alstine, M.N. Van; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-07-01

    A thermophysical property model developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) has been benchmarked against two Type B drum package fire test results. The model 9973 package was fire tested after a 30 ft. top down drop and puncture, and an undamaged model 9975 package containing a heater (21W) was fire tested to determine content heat source effects. Analysis results using a refined version of a previously developed HAC fiberboard model compared well against the test data from both the 9973 and 9975 packages.

  15. ASTM Standards for Reactor Dosimetry and Pressure Vessel Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN, PATRICK J.

    1999-09-14

    The ASTM standards provide guidance and instruction on how to field and interpret reactor dosimetry. They provide a roadmap towards understanding the current ''state-of-the-art'' in reactor dosimetry, as reflected by the technical community. The consensus basis to the ASTM standards assures the user of an unbiased presentation of technical procedures and interpretations of the measurements. Some insight into the types of standards and the way in which they are organized can assist one in using them in an expeditious manner. Two example are presented to help orient new users to the breadth and interrelationship between the ASTM nuclear metrology standards. One example involves the testing of a new ''widget'' to verify the radiation hardness. The second example involves quantifying the radiation damage at a pressure vessel critical weld location through surveillance dosimetry and calculation.

  16. Type of packaging affects the colour stability of vitamin E enriched beef.

    PubMed

    Nassu, Renata T; Uttaro, Bethany; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Zawadski, Sophie; Juárez, Manuel; Dugan, Michael E R

    2012-12-01

    Colour stability is a very important parameter for meat retail display, as appearance of the product is the deciding factor for consumers at time of purchase. This study investigated the possibility of extending appearance shelf-life through the combined use of packaging method (overwrapping - OVER, modified atmosphere - MAP, vacuum skin packaging - VSP and a combination of modified atmosphere and vacuum skin packaging - MAPVSP) and antioxidants (vitamin E enriched beef). Retail attributes (appearance, lean colour, % surface discolouration), as well as colour space analysis of images for red, green and blue parameters were measured over 18days. MAPVSP provided the most desirable retail appearance during the first 4days of retail display, while VSP-HB had the best colour stability. Overall, packaging type was more influential than α-tocopherol levels on meat colour stability, although α-tocopherol levels (>4μgg(-1) meat) had a protective effect when using high oxygen packaging methods. PMID:22953936

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HS99 AIR TRANSPORT TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2012-07-10

    An air-transport Type A Fissile radioactive shipping package for the transport of special form uranium sources has been developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Homeland Security. The Package model number is HS99 for Homeland Security Model 99. This paper presents the major design features of the HS99 and highlights engineered materials necessary for meeting the design requirements for this light-weight Type AF packaging. A discussion is provided demonstrating how the HS99 complies with the regulatory safety requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The paper summarizes the results of structural testing to specified in 10 CFR 71 for Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Conditions events. Planned and proposed future missions for this packaging are also addressed.

  18. 9977 TYPE B PACKAGING INTERNAL DATA COLLECTION FEASIBILITY TESTING - MAGNETIC FIELD COMMUNICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of this report is to document the findings from proof-of-concept testing performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) R&D Engineering and Visible Assets, Inc. for the DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) to determine if RuBee (IEEE 1902.1) tags and readers could be used to provide a communication link from within a drum-style DOE certified Type B radioactive materials packaging. A Model 9977 Type B Packaging was used to test the read/write capability and range performance of a RuBee tag and reader. Testing was performed with the RuBee tags placed in various locations inside the packaging including inside the drum on the outside of the lid of the containment vessel and also inside of the containment vessel. This report documents the test methods and results. A path forward will also be recommended.

  19. Regulatory compliance guide for DOT-7A type A packaging design

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-06-04

    The purpose of this guide is to provide instruction for assuring that the regulatory design requirements for a DOT-7A Type A packaging are met. This guide also supports the testing and evaluation activities that are performed on new packaging designs by a DOE-approved test facility through the DOE`s DOT-7A Test Program. This Guide was updated to incorporate regulatory changes implemented by HM-169A (49 CFR, `Transportation`).

  20. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A type A packaging. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D L

    1997-08-04

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program. This document supersedes DOE Evaluation Document for DOT-7A Type A Packaging (Edling 1987), originally issued in 1987 by Monsanto Research Corporation Mound Laboratory (MLM), Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy, Security Evaluation Program (I)P-4. Mound Laboratory issued four revisions to the document between November 1988 and December 1989. In September 1989, the program was transferred to Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) in Richland, Washington. One additional revision was issued in March 1990 by Westinghouse Hanford. This revision reflects the earlier material and incorporates a number of changes. Evaluation and testing activities on 1208 three DOT-7A Program Dockets resulted in the qualification of three new packaging configurations, which are incorporated herein and summarized. This document presents approximately 300 different packagings that have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT-7A, type A packaging per 49 CFR 178.350.

  1. 49 CFR 173.415 - Authorized Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standards for fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71 and is used in accordance with § 173.471. (c) Any Type B(U... latest shipment, and shall provide to DOT on request, complete documentation of tests and an...

  2. Leak testing United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission type b packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTPP) is a one of its kind research and development facility operated by the Department of Energy, Carlsbad Area Office. Located in southeastern New Mexico, the WTPP is designed to demonstrate the safe, permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive nuclear waste, accumulated from 40 years of nuclear weapons production. Before the waste can be disposed of, it must first be safely transported from generator storage sites to the WIPP. To accomplish this, the TRUPACT-II was designed and fabricated. This double containment, non-vented waste packaging successfully completed a rigorous testing program, and in 1989 received a Certificate of Compliance (C of C) from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Currently, the TRUPACT-II is in use at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to transport waste on site for characterization. The DOE/CAO is responsible for maintaining the TRUPACT-II C of C. The C of C requires performance of nondestructive examination (NDE), e.g., visual testing (VT), dimensional inspections, Liquid Dye Penetrant testing (PT), and Helium Leak Detection (HLD). The Waste Isolation Division (WID) uses HLD for verification of the containment integrity. The following HLD tests are performed on annual basis or when required, i.e. repairs or component replacement: (1) fabrication verification leak tests on both the outer containment vessel (OCV) and the inner containment vessel (ICV); (2) assembly verification leak tests on the OCV and ICV upper main o-rings; and (3) assembly verification leak tests on the OCV and the ICV vent port plugs. These tests are addressed in detail as part of this presentation.

  3. 9978 AND 9975 TYPE B PACKAGING INTERNAL DATA COLLECTION FEASIBILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Fogle, R.

    2012-05-07

    The objective of this report is to document the findings from a series of proof-of-concept tests performed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) R and D Engineering, for the DOE Packaging Certification Program to determine if a viable radio link could be established from within the stainless steel confines of several drum-style DOE certified Type B radioactive materials packagings. Two in-hand, off-the-shelf radio systems were tested. The first system was a Wi-Fi Librestream Onsight{trademark} camera with a Fortress ES820 Access Point and the second was the On-Ramp Wireless Ultra-Link Processing{trademark} (ULP) radio system. These radio systems were tested within the Model 9975 and 9978 Type B packagings at the SRNL. This report documents the test methods and results. A path forward will also be recommended.

  4. Rubber compounding materials -- ground coal. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    This classification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee on Rubber and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D11.20 on Compounding Materials and Procedures. The current edition was approved March 15, 1193 and published in May 1993.

  5. ASTM standards on thermocouples, 2nd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This edition has been expanded to include sixteen selected ASTM methods and practices on thermocouples. It also contains a Temperature Electromotive Force (EMF) Table for the NICROSIL-NISIL Thermocouple System.

  6. TEST & EVALUATION REPORT FOR THE HEDGEHOG-II PACKAGING SYSTEMS DOT-7A TYPE A CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D.L.

    2003-12-29

    This report documents the US. Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A compliance test and evaluation results for the Hedgehog-II packaging systems. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations provide primary and secondary containment. The approved packaging configurations described within this report are designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be in solid or liquid form. Liquids transported in the approved 1 L glass bottle assembly shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 1.6. Liquids transported in all other approved configurations shall have a specific gravity of less than or equal to 2.0. The solid contents, including packaging, are limited in weight to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles. The approved Hedgehog-II packaging configurations described in this report may be transported by air, and have been evaluated as meeting the applicable International Air Transport Association/International Civil Aviation Organization (IATA/ICAO) Dangerous Goods Regulations in addition to the DOT requirements.

  7. Practical Thermal Evaluation Methods For HAC Fire Analysis In Type B Radiaoactive Material (RAM) Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, Glenn; Hensel, Stephen J; Gupta, Narendra K.

    2013-03-28

    Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR Part 71.73) requires that Type B radioactive material (RAM) packages satisfy certain Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) thermal design requirements to ensure package safety during accidental fire conditions. Compliance with thermal design requirements can be met by prototype tests, analyses only or a combination of tests and analyses. Normally, it is impractical to meet all the HAC using tests only and the analytical methods are too complex due to the multi-physics non-linear nature of the fire event. Therefore, a combination of tests and thermal analyses methods using commercial heat transfer software are used to meet the necessary design requirements. The authors, along with his other colleagues at Savannah River National Laboratory in Aiken, SC, USA, have successfully used this 'tests and analyses' approach in the design and certification of several United States' DOE/NNSA certified packages, e.g. 9975, 9977, 9978, 9979, H1700, and Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This paper will describe these methods and it is hoped that the RAM Type B package designers and analysts can use them for their applications.

  8. 78 FR 26090 - Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for Type B Transportation Packages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... this RIS as a draft for public comment on November 13, 2012 (77 FR 67678), for a 45-day comment period... COMMISSION Content Specifications and Shielding Evaluations for Type B Transportation Packages AGENCY... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-04, ``Content Specifications...

  9. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for Type A packages. 173.412 Section 173.412 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS...

  10. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases. 173.466 Section 173.466 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  11. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A Type A Packaging. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). The program is currently administered by the DOE, Office of Facility Safety Analysis, DOE/EH-32, at DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program.

  12. SHIPMENT OF TWO DOE-STD-3013 CONTAINERS IN A 9977 TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2011-06-06

    The 9977 is a certified Type B Packaging authorized to ship uranium and plutonium in metal and oxide forms. Historically, the standard container for these materials has been the DOE-STD-3013 which was specifically designed for the long term storage of plutonium bearing materials. The Department of Energy has used the 9975 Packaging containing a single 3013 container for the transportation and storage of these materials. In order to reduce container, shipping, and storage costs, the 9977 Packaging is being certified for transportation and storage of two 3013 containers. The challenges and risks of this content and the 9977s ability to meet the Code of Federal Regulations for the transport of these materials are presented.

  13. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  14. SHIPMENT OF NON-TRADITIONAL CONTENTS IN THE 9977 TYPE B PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.

    2011-06-06

    The 9977 is a certified Type B Packaging authorized to ship uranium and plutonium in metal and oxide forms. These materials are typically confined within metallic containers designed for ease of handling and to prevent the spread of contamination. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) uses Pu and U sources for the training of domestic and international customs agents in the identification and detection of radioactive materials (RAM). These materials are packed in polycarbonate containers which permit the trainees to view the RAM. The safety basis was made to authorize the use of these unusual containers. The inclusion of the PNNL Training Source Contents into the 9977 Packaging imposed unique conditions previously unanalyzed. The use of polycarbonate as a content container material, while different from any configuration previously considered, does not raise any safety issues with the package which continues to operate with a large safety margin for temperatures, pressures, containment, dose rates, and subcriticality.

  15. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is incorporated by reference into this subpart: ASTM...

  16. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is incorporated by reference into this subpart: ASTM...

  17. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is incorporated by reference into this subpart: ASTM...

  18. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is incorporated by reference into this subpart: ASTM...

  19. 46 CFR 163.003-3 - ASTM standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ASTM standard. 163.003-3 Section 163.003-3 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-3 ASTM standard. The following standard of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is incorporated by reference into this subpart: ASTM...

  20. A Notch-Saddle-Compensation Technique in Butterfly-Type Laser Module Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Ying-Chien; Kuang, Jao-Hwa; Sheen, Maw-Tyan; Hsu, Pu-Hsien; Cheng, Wood-Hi

    2007-06-01

    A quantitative postweld shift (PWS) correction employing a notch-saddle-compensation technique (NSCT) in a laser-welded butterfly-type laser module package is presented. A predetermined notch geometry is proposed to guide the welding compensation in the specific direction and magnitude precisely. The results show that 82% to 99% of the relative coupling efficiency before welding for the laser modules is achieved by using the NSCT. The fiber shifts due to the PWS can be realigned back closer to their original optimum position after applying the NSCT, and hence, the coupling loss due to the PWS can be regained. In comparison to the published studies on PWS compensation by the mechanical adjustment using the qualitative estimation and plastic deformation, the advantages of using this novel NSCT are the quantitative and nondestructive compensations in butterfly-type laser module packages. Therefore, high-yield butterfly-type laser modules used in lightwave transmission systems are developed and fabricated.

  1. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Roadside and Vehicle Systems—5 GHz Band... from ASTM via the Internet at http://www.astm.org....

  2. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Roadside and Vehicle Systems—5 GHz Band... from ASTM via the Internet at http://www.astm.org....

  3. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Roadside and Vehicle Systems—5 GHz Band... from ASTM via the Internet at http://www.astm.org....

  4. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard). 90.379 Section 90.379 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service Regulations Governing the Licensing and...

  5. Programmed packaging of multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Daniela; Marianecci, Carlotta; Carafa, Maria; Marchini, Cristina; Montani, Maura; Amici, Augusto; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2010-05-01

    A programmed packaging strategy to develop a multicomponent envelope-type nanoparticle system (MENS) is presented. To this end, we took specific advantage of using in-house tailored liposomes that have been recently shown to exhibit intrinsic endosomal rupture properties that allow plasmid DNA to escape from endosomes and to enter the nucleus with extremely high efficiency. Transfection efficiency experiments on NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts indicate that MENS is a promising transfection candidate.

  6. ANTS2 package: simulation and experimental data processing for Anger camera type detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Solovov, V.; Martins, R.; Neves, F.; Domingos, V.; Chepel, V.

    2016-04-01

    ANTS2 is a simulation and data processing package developed for position sensitive detectors with Anger camera type readout. The simulation module of ANTS2 is based on ROOT package from CERN, which is used to store the detector geometry and to perform 3D navigation. The module is capable of simulating particle sources, performing particle tracking, generating photons of primary and secondary scintillation, tracing optical photons and generating photosensor signals. The reconstruction module features several position reconstruction methods based on the statistical reconstruction algorithms (including GPU-based implementations), artificial neural networks and k-NN searches. The module can process simulated as well as imported experimental data containing photosensor signals. A custom library for B-spline parameterization of spatial response of photosensors is implemented which can be used to calculate and parameterize the spatial response of a detector. The package includes a graphical user interface with an extensive set of configuration, visualization and analysis tools. ANTS2 is being developed with the focus on the iterative (adaptive) reconstruction of the detector response using flood field irradiation data. The package is implemented in C++ programming language and it is a multiplatform, open source project.

  7. Productivity Techniques and Quality Aspects in the Criticality Safety Evaluation of Y-12 Type-B Fissile Material Packages

    SciTech Connect

    DeClue, J. F.

    2011-06-28

    The inventory of certified Type-B fissile material packages consists of ten performance-based packages for offsite transportation purposes, serving transportation programs at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The containment vessels range from 5 to 19 in. in diameter and from 17 to 58 in. in height. The drum assembly external to the containment vessel ranges from 18 to 34 in. in diameter and from 26 to 71 in. in height. The weight of the packaging (drum assembly and containment vessel) ranges from 239 to 1550 lb. The older DT-nn series of Cellotex-based packages are being phased-out and replaced by a new generation of Kaolite-based ('Y-12 patented insulation') packages capable of withstanding the dynamic crush test 10 CFR 71.73(c)(2). Three replacement packages are in various stages of development; two are in use. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package, which does not conform to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for Type-B packages, is no longer authorized for service on public roads. The ES-3100 shipping package is an example of a Kaolite-based Type-B fissile material package developed as a replacement package for the DOT 6M. With expanded utility, the ES-3100 is designed and licensed for transporting highly enriched uranium and plutonium materials on public roads. The ES-3100 provides added capability for air transport of up to 7-kg quantities of uranium material. This paper presents the productivity techniques and quality aspects in the criticality safety evaluation of Y-12 packages using the ES-3100 as an example.

  8. Type B package for the transport of large medical and industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Darrell Dwaine; Noss, Philip W

    2010-09-14

    AREVA Federal Services LLC, under contract to the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Offsite Source Recovery Project, is developing a new Type B(U)-96 package for the transport of unwanted or abandoned high activity gamma and neutron radioactive sealed sources (sources). The sources were used primarily in medical or industrial devices, and are of domestic (USA) or foreign origin. To promote public safety and mitigate the possibility of loss or misuse, the Offsite Source Recovery Project is recovering and managing sources worldwide. The package, denoted the LANL-B, is designed to accommodate the sources within an internal gamma shield. The sources are located either in the IAEA's Long Term Storage Shield (LTSS), or within intact medical or industrial irradiation devices. As the sources are already shielded separately, the package does not include any shielding of its own. A particular challenge in the design of the LANL-B has been weight. Since the LTSS shield weighs approximately 5,000 lb [2,270 kg], and the total package gross weight must be limited to 10,000 lb [4,540 kg], the net weight of the package was limited to 5,000 lb, for an efficiency of 50% (i.e., the payload weight is 50% of the gross weight of the package). This required implementation of a light-weight bell-jar concept, in which the containment takes the form of a vertical bell which is bolted to a base. A single impact limiter is used on the bottom, to protect the elastomer seals and bolted joint. A top-end impact is mitigated by the deformation of a tori spherically-shaped head. Impacts in various orientations on the bottom end are mitigated by a cylindrical, polyurethane foam-filled impact limiter. Internally, energy is absorbed using honeycomb blocks at each end, which fill the torispherical head volumes. As many of the sources are considered to be in normal form, the LANL-B package offers leak-tight containment using an elastomer seal at the joint between the bell and the base, as well as on the

  9. Standard specification for cadmium. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.04 on Zinc and Cadmium. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 440-66T. Last previous edition was B 440-76.

  10. ASTM update for stainless steels II

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, R.M.

    1999-10-01

    Specifiers and users of stainless steel (SS) should be aware that the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has revised several of its SS specifications. These changes affect grades commonly used in process and other industries. These changes are discussed.

  11. ASTM Validates Air Pollution Test Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has validated six basic methods for measuring pollutants in ambient air as the first part of its Project Threshold. Aim of the project is to establish nationwide consistency in measuring pollutants; determining precision, accuracy and reproducibility of 35 standard measuring methods. (BL)

  12. Graded approach for eastablishment of QA (quality assurance) requirements for type B packaging of radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Fabian, R.R.; Woodruff, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    A study that was conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the US Congress to assess the effectiveness of quality assurance (QA) activities has demonstrated a need to modify and improve the application of QA requirements for the nuclear industry. As a result, the packaging community, along with the nuclear industry as a whole, has taken action to increase the efficacy of the QA function. The results of the study indicate that a graded approach for establishing QA requirements is the preferred method. The essence of the graded approach is the establishment of applicable QA requirements to an extent consistent with the importance to safety of an item, component, system, or activity. This paper presents the process that is used to develop the graded approach for QA requirements pertaining to Type B packaging.

  13. Effects of calf diet, antioxidants, packaging type and storage time on beef steak storage.

    PubMed

    Franco, Daniel; González, Laura; Bispo, Esperanza; Latorre, Alicia; Moreno, Teresa; Sineiro, Jorge; Sánchez, Marivel; Núñez, María José

    2012-04-01

    The effect of basal dietary supplemented with vegetable oils plus vitamin E (sunflower, soybean, linseed and a basal diet control), type of packaging (MAP or vacuum), addition of natural antioxidant (grape seed, rosemary) and storage time (0, 7, 14 and 21 days) on lipid oxidation, color stability, vitamin E content, and total aerobic bacterial counts in steaks of Longissimus thoracis was studied. The triple interaction diet × time × packaging affected oxidative stability, redness and yellowness of the meat. TBARS values did not increase with time in vacuum-packaged samples for all dietary treatments. However, samples from MAP and control showed the highest TBARS values after 21 days of storage (0.72 mg MDA/kg of meat, P<0.05). Both exogenous antioxidant extracts and MAP maintained low total aerobic counts in steaks until the 21st day. Calves should be fed a diet supplemented with L-VE, stored in MAP and treated with grape seed extract to extend the shelf life of their meat. PMID:22193039

  14. A COMPARISON OF TWO THERMAL INSULATION AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS FOR USE IN TYPE B PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-16

    This paper presents the summary of design features and test results of two Type B Shipping Package prototype configurations comprising different insulating materials developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the Department of Energy. The materials evaluated, a closed-cell polyurethane foam and a vacuformed ceramic fiber material, were selected to provide adequate structural protection to the package containment vessel during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and to provide thermal protection during the HAC fire. Polyurethane foam has been used in shipping package designs for many years because of the stiffness it provides to the structure and because of the thermal protection it provides during fire scenarios. This comparison describes how ceramic fiber material offers an alternative to the polyurethane foam in a specific overpack design. Because of the high operating temperature ({approx}2,300 F) of the ceramic material, it allows for contents with higher heat loads to be shipped than is possible with polyurethane foam. Methods of manufacturing and design considerations using the two materials will be addressed.

  15. Shelf-life of almond pastry cookies with different types of packaging and levels of temperature.

    PubMed

    Romeo, F V; De Luca, S; Piscopo, A; Santisi, V; Poiana, M

    2010-06-01

    Almond pastries are typical cookies of the south of Italy. Introduction of new packaging for this kind of cookies requires shelf-life assessments. This study, related to different types of packaging under various storage conditions of time and temperature, identifies critical parameters, as color and texture, to track during storage studies and to extend the shelf-life. The cookies were packed in three different ways and stored at two different temperatures. The pastries were separately stored: (1) in polyvinylchloride film; (2) in aluminum foil (ALL); (3) with modified atmosphere (MAP) in plastic vessels sealed into a polyamide/ polyethylene film; and (4) in vessels without any polymeric film. The storage temperatures were 20 and 30 °C. Evolution of texture, water activity, dry matter and color was assessed. Texture was evaluated by a texture analyzer with a puncturing test. Indices for hardening were the area under the curve (N × mm) up to 10 mm of distance, and the maximum force (N) corresponding to the crust fracture. The best results were obtained with ALL packaging and MAP condition, and above all, in all the trials a temperature of 30 °C reduced the crust hardness. PMID:21339139

  16. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging

  17. 49 CFR 173.467 - Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests for demonstrating the ability of Type B and... Type B and fissile materials packagings to withstand accident conditions in transportation. Each Type B... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  18. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the... lowest part of the packaging specimen to the upper surface of the target must be 9 m (30 feet) or...

  19. Measuring the Real Fracture Toughness of Ceramics: ASTM C 1421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Jonathan; Quinn, George; Jenkins, Michael

    ASTM C 1421 "Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature" is a high-quality, technicallyrigorous, full-consensus standard that may have finally answered the question, "What is the 'real' fracture toughness of ceramics?" This document was eight years in the actual standardization process (although an estimated two decades of preparation work may have preceded the actual standardization process). Three different types of notch/crack geometries are employed in flexure beams: single edge precracked beam (SEPB); chevron-notched beam (CNB), and surface crack in flexure (SCF). Extensive experimental, analytical, and numerical evaluations were conducted in order to mitigate interferences that frequently lower the accuracy of fracture toughness test results. Several round robins (e.g. Versailles Advanced Materials and Standards {VAMAS}) verified and validated the choice of dimensions and test parameters included in the standard. In addition, the standard reference material NIST SRM 2100 was developed and can be used in concert with ASTM C 1421 to validate a fracture toughness test setup or test protocol.

  20. Upgrading UNLV's ASTM E477 test facility to meet the current requirements of ASTM E477

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fojas, Ronn Reinier

    A by-product of Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is noise that is produced by fans, compressors, and other related equipments and the noises from the turbulence that is created by moving air. Sometimes, it is impractical to modify the sources of the noise, which requires designers to modify the path of the noise, the duct system. These modifications might include installing an in-duct silencer or acoustical lining on the inside walls of the ducts. The testing and the precise quantification of the performance of these silencers and duct linings are necessary for any designer to be able to make the correct modifications to the ventilation system. The ASTM E477 code calls for strict standardization of the testing of such noise attenuation devices. The ASTM E477 test facility used by the Center for Mechanical & Environmental Systems Technology (CMEST) at UNLV was first constructed in 1991 and required upgrades to meet the newer revisions of the ASTM code. This study includes making modifications to the facility (1) to increase sound input, (2) reduce sound leakage, and (3) to integrate the measurement systems. These upgrades will bring the facility into compliance with the current version of the ASTM E477 test standard.

  1. Comparison of attrition test methods: ASTM standard fluidized bed vs jet cup

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, R.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.; Jothimurugesan, K.; Spivey, J.J.; Gangwal, S.K.

    2000-05-01

    Attrition resistance is one of the key design parameters for catalysts used in fluidized-bed and slurry phase types of reactors. The ASTM fluidized-bed test has been one of the most commonly used attrition resistance evaluation methods; however, it requires the use of 50 g samples--a large amount for catalyst development studies. Recently a test using the jet cup requiring only 5 g samples has been proposed. In the present study, two series of spray-dried iron catalysts were evaluated using both the ASTM fluidized-bed test and a test based on the jet cup to determine this comparability. It is shown that the two tests give comparable results. This paper, by reporting a comparison of the jet-cup test with the ASTM standard, provides a basis for utilizing the more efficient jet cup with confidence in catalyst attrition studies.

  2. ASTM standardization of electrochemical noise measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, J.R.; Eden, D.A.; Yaffe, M.R.; Fahey, J.V.; Reichert, D.L.; Silverman, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    The increased utilization of electrochemical noise measurement in corrosion research and industrial process monitoring prompted the formation in 1991 of an ASTM Task Group within the G1 Corrosion of Metals Committee. The scope of the task group was to develop standards that describe instruments and methods for making and analyzing electrochemical noise measurements. Task group activities are focused exclusively on measurements to be made in the laboratory. The initial goal has been to develop consensus on: (a) terminology, (b) specifications and configurations for laboratory instrumentation, (c) laboratory apparatus, and (d) data analysis methods. A round robin was also organized to develop a body of data on different material/environment systems using a variety of instrument configurations and data analysis techniques. A guide for making valid electrochemical noise results is being prepared based on the round robin results. The status of the effort to address these and other standardization issues within the ASTM G1.11.04 Task Group on Electrochemical Noise Measurement will be presented.

  3. Specificity of neomycin analogues bound to the packaging region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA.

    PubMed

    McPike, Mark P; Goodisman, Jerry; Dabrowiak, James C

    2004-04-15

    The packaging region of HIV-1 RNA contains a number of structural features which are important in the life cycle of the virus, making this segment of RNA a potential target for new types of AIDS-directed drugs. We studied the binding of three neomycin analogues (neo-guanidino, neo-acridine, and neo-neo) to a 171-mer RNA molecule from the packaging region of HIV-1 using quantitative footprinting and circular dichroism. Neo-guanidino produced footprinting patterns and effects on the CD similar to those observed for neomycin and paromomycin, indicating that all three compounds bind to the same regions of the 171-mer. Neo-guanidino binds to SL 1 where it joins the large internal loop, near a bulge in the stem of SL 1, and on SL 2. Neo-acridine, which has an acridine attached to neomycin, and neo-neo, which has two neomycins linked by a flexible tether, bind bivalently, and give very different footprinting and CD results from the other compounds. The neomycin portion of neo-acridine binds to the same sites as neomycin, while the attached acridine group appears to bind to a duplex region in the main stem of the folded 171-mer. Since the footprinting data for this analogue show few enhancements, bivalent binding of neo-acridine appears to stabilize the folded structure of RNA by effectively 'stapling' parts of the structure together. Neo-neo induces significant structural changes in RNA where neomycin binds. This may be related to the inability of both neomycins of neo-neo it find optimal binding sites adjacent to one another without changing RNA structure. The intensity of a strong negative CD band in the spectrum of psi-RNA at 208 nm is sensitive to drug-induced changes in RNA structure. Neo-guanidino and neo-neo (also neomycin and paromomycin), which change RNA structure, cause an increase in intensity while neo-acridine, which induces little distortion to RNA, causes a decrease in intensity. Molecular modeling analysis shows that C-5' of ribose of neo-acridine and neo

  4. Pressure Build-Up During the Fire Test in Type B(U) Packages Containing Water - 13280

    SciTech Connect

    Feldkamp, Martin; Nehrig, Marko; Bletzer, Claus; Wille, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The safety assessment of packages for the transport of radioactive materials with content containing liquids requires special consideration. The main focus is on water as supplementary liquid content in Type B(U) packages. A typical content of a Type B(U) package is ion exchange resin, waste of a nuclear power plant, which is not dried, normally only drained. Besides the saturated ion exchange resin, a small amount of free water can be included in these contents. Compared to the safety assessment of packages with dry content, attention must be paid to some more specific issues. An overview of these issues is provided. The physical and chemical compatibility of the content itself and the content compatibility with the packages materials must be demonstrated for the assessment. Regarding the mechanical resistance the package has to withstand the forces resulting from the freezing liquid. The most interesting point, however, is the pressure build-up inside the package due to vaporization. This could for example be caused by radiolysis of the liquid and must be taken into account for the storage period. If the package is stressed by the total inner pressure, this pressure leads to mechanical loads to the package body, the lid and the lid bolts. Thus, the pressure is the driving force on the gasket system regarding the activity release and a possible loss of tightness. The total pressure in any calculation is the sum of partial pressures of different gases which can be caused by different effects. The pressure build-up inside the package caused by the regulatory thermal test (30 min at 800 deg. C), as part of the cumulative test scenario under accident conditions of transport is discussed primarily. To determine the pressure, the temperature distribution in the content must be calculated for the whole period from beginning of the thermal test until cooling-down. In this case, while calculating the temperature distribution, conduction and radiation as well as evaporation

  5. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. PMID:23434738

  6. 10 CFR 71.51 - Additional requirements for Type B packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 71.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE... substantial reduction in the effectiveness of the packaging; and (2) Section 71.73 (“Hypothetical accident..., except that for Krypton-85, an effective A2 value equal to 10 A2 may be used. (c) Compliance with...

  7. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  8. NOTE: Practical and dosimetric implications of a new type of packaging for radiographic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, S.; DeWagter, C.

    2005-04-01

    Recently, Kodak introduced new light-tight packages (vacuum packaging, aluminium layer under black polyethylene and different paper) for their oncology films (EDR-2, X-Omat V and PPL-2). In order to avoid additional uncertainty and to ensure transferability of previously published results, we assessed in this study the effect of the old and new packages on the dosimetric response of EDR-2 radiographic film. Therefore, sensitometric measurements were performed for different film assemblies (new envelope + new paper, old envelope + old paper, new envelope without paper and old envelope without paper). In addition, to assess possible effects of the package on the film depth dose response, packaged films were irradiated in parallel geometry, and central depth dose curves were retrieved. For the perpendicular geometry, on the other hand, the effect of the package was assessed at large depth for a high intensity-modulated inverse-pyramid beam. The results of the sensitometric measurements reveal no difference between the packages. However, the white colour of the paper in both the packages induces a dose-dependent increase in optical density (0 0.12) of the film. The depth dose curves show better reproducibility for the new package and the new paper improves the accuracy of film dosimetry, but despite the company's effort to evacuate the air out of the new envelope, it remains necessary to clamp the films in the phantom for the parallel irradiation geometry. At 5 cm depth, the films irradiated in parallel geometry show an under-response of 3 5% compared to films irradiated perpendicularly. Finally, even at locations of large photon scatter, no filtration effect from the aluminium layer incorporated in the new envelope has been observed for perpendicular irradiation geometry.

  9. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants

    SciTech Connect

    Adrados, A.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study of the influence of materials in the pyrolysis of real plastic waste samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic compounds remain unaltered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components give rise to an increase in char formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components promote the production of aqueous phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellulosic components increase CO and CO{sub 2} contents in the gases. - Abstract: In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm{sup 3} reactor, swept with 1 L min{sup -1} N{sub 2}, at 500 Degree-Sign C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg{sup -1}). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}; their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg{sup -1}. The amount of CO-CO{sub 2} increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  10. ASTM standards in radiological decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Meservey, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee E10.03 was formed following a steering committee meeting held in April 1980. The meeting was initiated as a result of labor union concern for the safety of workers on decommissioning projects. Of particular concern at that time was the need for proper training of the workers and a means of tracking worker radiation-exposure records as they traveled to various decommissioning job sites. The steering committee concluded not only that worker protection standards were necessary for decommissioning activities but also that all phases of a decommissioning project could benefit from the appropriate guides or standards. These would provide worker protection, technical guidance, and consistency for decommissioning work. It recommended that Subcommittee E10.03 be formed and dedicated to the preparation of guides and standards that would support all phases of nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning. Subcommittee E10.03 has met regularly on a semiannual basis since that time.

  11. ASTM assessment standards garner nods, some warnings from information vendors

    SciTech Connect

    Prickett, D.S. )

    1993-08-01

    The American Society for Testing of Materials ASTM; (Philadelphia) early this year adopted standards for Phase I real estate site assessments. Many in the real estate, banking and lending communities have welcomed the standards as a partial solution to uncertainties associated with environmental due diligence requirements under CERCLA. Some, however, view the standards as minimum criteria for exercising due diligence, rather than a panacea for potential CERCLA liability problems. The author discusses the new standards with a descriptive statement prepared by ASTM, two essentially favorable views on the ASTM criteria and a cautionary statement about use of the standards in practice.

  12. Effect of different types of plastic packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of pistachio nuts during storage.

    PubMed

    Shakerardekani, Ahmad; Karim, Roselina

    2013-04-01

    Pistachio nut (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the popular tree nuts in the world. Proper selection of packaging materials is necessary to prevent absorption of moisture and aflatoxin formation which will influence the overall product quality and safety. This research is undertaken to study the effect of different type of flexible packaging films on the moisture and aflatoxin contents of whole pistachio nuts during storage at ambient temperature (22-28 °C) and relative humidity of 85-100%. Five types of plastic films tested were low density polyethylene (LDPE) which serves as the control, food-grade polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon (LDPE/PA), polyamide/polypropylene (PA/PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The moisture content and aflatoxin content of pistachio nuts were measured using oven drying method and HPLC, respectively. Sample were analysed at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 months during the storage period. Results showed that there was an increase in moisture content with the increase in storage time of pistachio nuts. The increase in moisture content was associated with the aflatoxin level of pistachio nuts during storage time. All the packaging materials except LDPE delayed the moisture absorption and aflatoxin formation of the product. The most suitable packaging materials for maintaining the quality and safety of pistachio nuts is PET films followed by nylon, PA/PP and PVC. The shelf-life of pistachio can be extended from 2 months (Control) to 5 months when PET is used as the packaging material. PMID:24425936

  13. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the... subjected to the test specified in § 173.465(e) except that the height of the drop must be 1.7 m (5.5...

  14. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the... subjected to the test specified in § 173.465(e) except that the height of the drop must be 1.7 m (5.5...

  15. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... capable of withstanding the following tests: (1) Free drop test. The packaging specimen must drop onto the target so as to suffer the maximum damage to its containment. The height of the drop measured from the... subjected to the test specified in § 173.465(e) except that the height of the drop must be 1.7 m (5.5...

  16. Standards activity for contamination control at ASTM and IEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jack T.

    2014-09-01

    The paper will discuss recent work at ASTM and IEST to update existing standards and introduce new standards. Committee work on standards of interest to contamination control engineers will be discussed. IEST-STD-CC1246E was released in the last year, and changes from revision D will be highlighted. A new ASTM Standard Practice for Spacecraft Hardware Thermal Vacuum Bakeout will also be emphasized.

  17. Standard radiographic examination for soundness of welds in steel by comparison to graded ASTM E 390 reference radiographs. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This radiograph is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-7 on Nondestructive Testing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E07.02 on Reference Radiological Images. Current edition approved May 10, 1998 and published September 1998.

  18. Model of ASTM Flammability Test in Microgravity: Iron Rods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    There is extensive qualitative results from burning metallic materials in a NASA/ASTM flammability test system in normal gravity. However, this data was shown to be inconclusive for applications involving oxygen-enriched atmospheres under microgravity conditions by conducting tests using the 2.2-second Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Drop Tower. Data from neither type of test has been reduced to fundamental kinetic and dynamic systems parameters. This paper reports the initial model analysis for burning iron rods under microgravity conditions using data obtained at the LERC tower and modeling the burning system after ignition. Under the conditions of the test the burning mass regresses up the rod to be detached upon deceleration at the end of the drop. The model describes the burning system as a semi-batch, well-mixed reactor with product accumulation only. This model is consistent with the 2.0-second duration of the test. Transient temperature and pressure measurements are made on the chamber volume. The rod solid-liquid interface melting rate is obtained from film records. The model consists of a set of 17 non-linear, first-order differential equations which are solved using MATLAB. This analysis confirms that a first-order rate, in oxygen concentration, is consistent for the iron-oxygen kinetic reaction. An apparent activation energy of 246.8 kJ/mol is consistent for this model.

  19. The requirement of the DEAD-box protein DDX24 for the packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jing; Rong Liwei; Zhou Yongdong; Roy, Bibhuti Bushan; Lu, Jennifer; Abrahamyan, Levon; Mouland, Andrew J.; Pan Qinghua; Chen Liang

    2008-05-25

    RNA helicases play important roles in RNA metabolism. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) does not carry its own RNA helicase, the virus thus needs to exploit cellular RNA helicases to promote the replication of its RNA at various steps such as transcription, folding and transport. In this study, we report that knockdown of a DEAD-box protein named DDX24 inhibits the packaging of HIV-1 RNA and thus diminishes viral infectivity. The decreased viral RNA packaging as a result of DDX24-knockdown is observed only in the context of the Rev/RRE (Rev response element)-dependent but not the CTE (constitutive transport element)-mediated nuclear export of viral RNA, which is explained by the specific interaction of DDX24 with the Rev protein. We propose that DDX24 acts at the early phase of HIV-1 RNA metabolism prior to nuclear export and the consequence of this action extends to the viral RNA packaging stage during virus assembly.

  20. CAFE: A Computer Tool for Accurate Simulation of the Regulatory Pool Fire Environment for Type B Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Gritzo, L.A.; Koski, J.A.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1999-03-16

    The Container Analysis Fire Environment computer code (CAFE) is intended to provide Type B package designers with an enhanced engulfing fire boundary condition when combined with the PATRAN/P-Thermal commercial code. Historically an engulfing fire boundary condition has been modeled as {sigma}T{sup 4} where {sigma} is the Stefan-Boltzman constant, and T is the fire temperature. The CAFE code includes the necessary chemistry, thermal radiation, and fluid mechanics to model an engulfing fire. Effects included are the local cooling of gases that form a protective boundary layer that reduces the incoming radiant heat flux to values lower than expected from a simple {sigma}T{sup 4} model. In addition, the effect of object shape on mixing that may increase the local fire temperature is included. Both high and low temperature regions that depend upon the local availability of oxygen are also calculated. Thus the competing effects that can both increase and decrease the local values of radiant heat flux are included in a reamer that is not predictable a-priori. The CAFE package consists of a group of computer subroutines that can be linked to workstation-based thermal analysis codes in order to predict package performance during regulatory and other accident fire scenarios.

  1. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 1. ASTM F2338-09 precision and bias studies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Godorov, Phillip; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method is applicable for leak-testing rigid and semi-rigid non-lidded trays; trays or cups sealed with porous barrier lidding materials; rigid, nonporous packages; and flexible, nonporous packages. Part 1 of this series describes the precision and bias studies performed in 2008 to expand this method's scope to include rigid, nonporous packages completely or partially filled with liquid. Round robin tests using three VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak testers (Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC, Tuckahoe, NY) were performed at three test sites. Test packages were 1-mL glass syringes. Positive controls had laser-drilled holes in the barrel ranging from about 5 to 15 microm in nominal diameter. Two different leak tests methods were performed at each site: a "gas leak test" performed at 250 mbar (absolute) and a "liquid leak test" performed at about 1 mbar (absolute). The gas leak test was used to test empty, air-filled syringes. All defects with holes > or = 5.0 microm and all no-defect controls were correctly identified. The only false negative result was attributed to a single syringe with a < 5.0-microm hole. Tests performed using a calibrated air leak supported a 0.10-cm3 x min(-1) (ccm) sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). The liquid leak test was used to test both empty, air-filled syringes and water-filled syringes. Test results were 100% accurate for all empty and water-filled syringes, both without holes and with holes (5, 10, and 15 microm). Tests performed using calibrated air flow leaks of 0, 0.05, and 0.10 ccm were also 100% accurate; data supported a 0.10-ccm sensitivity limit (99/99 lower tolerance limit). Quantitative differential pressure results strongly correlated to hole size using either liquid or gas vacuum decay leak tests. The higher vacuum liquid leak test gave noticeably higher pressure readings when water was present in the

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory TRA Type 1 Shipping Container and TRA Type 2 Shipping Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Havlovick, B.J.

    1992-07-27

    The TRA Type I Shipping Container and TRA Type II Shipping Capsule were designed and fabricated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as special form containers for the transport of non-fissile radioisotopes and fissile radioisotopes in exempt quantities. The Type I container measures 0.75 in. outside diameter and 3.000 in long. The Type II capsule is 0.495 in. outside diameter 2.000 in. long. The container and capsule were tested and evaluated to determine their compliance with Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 173, which governs packages for special form radioactive material. This report is based upon those tests and evaluations. The results of those tests and evaluations demonstrate the container and capsule are in full compliance with the special form shipping container regulations of 49 CFR 173.

  3. ASTM standards help corporate real estate executives manage environmental information

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, M.J.; McCarter, B.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM; Philadelphia) new environmental due diligence standards assist executives in supporting environmental risk management procedures. ASTM standards help clarify environmental due diligence procedures for real estate transactions. These standards are being accepted by firms nationwide. The transaction screen and the Phase I environmental site assessment comprise the ASTM standards, and incorporate reviews of government environmental databases. The transaction screen, often called a pre-Phase I or Phase Zero, is an information-gathering process consisting of a questionnaire completed by a knowledgeable party, a nontechnical site inspection and a review of government environmental records. A limited historical investigation of fire insurance maps or contact with the local fire marshal, who typically maintains records of leaking USTs, is included. Emphasis on information review helps corporate real estate executives maintain organized information gathering an analysis systems.

  4. ANTS — a simulation package for secondary scintillation Anger-camera type detector in thermal neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.; Defendi, I.; Engels, R.; Fraga, F. A. F.; Fraga, M. M. F. R.; Guerard, B.; Jurkovic, M.; Kemmerling, G.; Manzin, G.; Margato, L. M. S.; Niko, H.; Pereira, L.; Petrillo, C.; Peyaud, A.; Piscitelli, F.; Raspino, D.; Rhodes, N. J.; Sacchetti, F.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Van Esch, P.; Zeitelhack, K.

    2012-08-01

    A custom and fully interactive simulation package ANTS (Anger-camera type Neutron detector: Toolkit for Simulations) has been developed to optimize the design and operation conditions of secondary scintillation Anger-camera type gaseous detectors for thermal neutron imaging. The simulation code accounts for all physical processes related to the neutron capture, energy deposition pattern, drift of electrons of the primary ionization and secondary scintillation. The photons are traced considering the wavelength-resolved refraction and transmission of the output window. Photo-detection accounts for the wavelength-resolved quantum efficiency, angular response, area sensitivity, gain and single-photoelectron spectra of the photomultipliers (PMTs). The package allows for several geometrical shapes of the PMT photocathode (round, hexagonal and square) and offers a flexible PMT array configuration: up to 100 PMTs in a custom arrangement with the square or hexagonal packing. Several read-out patterns of the PMT array are implemented. Reconstruction of the neutron capture position (projection on the plane of the light emission) is performed using the center of gravity, maximum likelihood or weighted least squares algorithm. Simulation results reproduce well the preliminary results obtained with a small-scale detector prototype. ANTS executables can be downloaded from http://coimbra.lip.pt/~andrei/.

  5. Image analysis of corrosion pit initiation on ASTM type A240 stainless steel and ASTM type A 1008 carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nine, H. M. Zulker

    The adversity of metallic corrosion is of growing concern to industrial engineers and scientists. Corrosion attacks metal surface and causes structural as well as direct and indirect economic losses. Multiple corrosion monitoring tools are available although those are time-consuming and costly. Due to the availability of image capturing devices in today's world, image based corrosion control technique is a unique innovation. By setting up stainless steel SS 304 and low carbon steel QD 1008 panels in distilled water, half-saturated sodium chloride and saturated sodium chloride solutions and subsequent RGB image analysis in Matlab, in this research, a simple and cost-effective corrosion measurement tool has identified and investigated. Additionally, the open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results have been compared with RGB analysis to gratify the corrosion. Additionally, to understand the importance of ambiguity in crisis communication, the communication process between Union Carbide and Indian Government regarding the Bhopal incident in 1984 was analyzed.

  6. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Haydary, J.; Susa, D.; Dudáš, J.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ► Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ► Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ► Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ► Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  7. Nautilus: a bioinformatics package for the analysis of HIV type 1 targeted deep sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Kijak, Gustavo H; Pham, Phuc; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Harbolick, Elizabeth A; Eller, Leigh Anne; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2013-10-01

    The advent of next generation sequencing technologies is providing new insight into HIV-1 diversity and evolution, which has created the need for bioinformatics tools that could be applied to the characterization of viral quasispecies. Here we present Nautilus, a bioinformatics package for the analysis of HIV-1 targeted deep sequencing data. The DeepHaplo module determines the nucleotide base frequency and read depth at each position and computes the haplotype frequencies based on the linkage among polymorphisms in the same next generation sequence read. The Motifs module computes the frequency of the variants in the setting of their sequence context and mapping orientation, which allows for the validation of polymorphisms and haplotypes when strand bias is suspected. Both modules are accessed through a user-friendly GUI, which runs on Mac OS X (version 10.7.4 or later), and are based on Python, JAVA, and R scripts. Nautilus is available from www.hivresearch.org/research.php?ServiceID=5&SubServiceID=6 . PMID:23809062

  8. High density packaging technology ultra thin package & new tab package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Osamu; Shimamoto, Haruo; Ueda, Tetsuya; Shimomura, Kou; Hata, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Toru; Fukushima, Jiro; Banjo, Toshinobu; Yamamoto, Isamu

    1989-09-01

    As electronic devices become more highly integrated, the demand for small, high pin count packages has been increasing. We have developed two new types of IC packages in response to this demand. One is an ultra thin small outline package (TSOP) which has been reduced in size from the standard SOP and the other, which uses Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) technology, is a super thin, high pin count TAB in cap (T.I.C.) package. In this paper, we present these packages and their features along with the technologies used to improve package reliability and TAB. Thin packages are vulnerable to high humidity exposure, especially after heat shock.1 The following items were therefore investigated in order to improve humidity resistance: (1) The molding compound thermal stress, (2) Water absorption into the molding compound and its effect on package cracking during solder dipping, (3) Chip attach pad area and its affect on package cracking, (4) Adhesion between molding resin and chip attach pad and its affect on humidity resistance. With the improvements made as a result of these investigations, the reliability of the new thin packages is similar to that of the standard thicker plastic packages.

  9. Standard specification for glass fiber felt thermal insulation. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-01-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-16 on Thermal Insulation and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.23 on Blanket and Loose Fill Insulation. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1996. Published January 1997. Originally published as C 1086-87. Last previous edition was C 1086-90a.

  10. Standard classification of coals by rank. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This classification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-5 on Coal and Coke and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D05.18 on Classification of Coals. The current edition was approved on Sep. 10, 1998. It was published in November 1998. It was originally published as D 388-34T. The last previous edition D 388-98.

  11. Standard specification for nickel alloy forgings. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1997. Published March 1998. Originally published as B 564-72. Last previous edition B 564-97.

  12. Standard classification for rubber compounding materials -- ground coal. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    This classification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-11 Rubber and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D11.20 on Compounding Materials and Procedures. The current edition was approved on Mar. 15, 1993. It was published in May 1993. It was reapproved 1998.

  13. Standard specification for nickel-molybdenum alloy rod. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1997 and published February 1998. Originally published as B 335-58T. Last previous edition was B 335-95.

  14. Standard specification for nuclear grade zirconium oxide pellets. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.03 on Neutron Absorber Materials Specifications. Current edition approved May 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as C 1066-86. Last previous edition C 1066-92.

  15. Standard specification for UNS N08367 welded tube. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1997 and published February 1998. Originally published as B 676-80. Last previous edition was B 676-96.

  16. Standard specification for castings, nickel and nickel alloy. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.18 on Castings. Current edition approved Sep. 10, 1998. Published November 1998. Originally published as B 332-58T. Redesignated as A 494 in 1963. Last previous edition A 494/A 494M-94.

  17. Nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum-copper alloy rod. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1997. Published February 1998. Originally published as B581-73. Last previous edition B581-93.

  18. Standard specification for nuclear grade hafnium oxide pellets. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.03 on Neutron Absorber Materials Specifications. Current edition approved May 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as C 1076-87. Last previous edition C 1076-92.

  19. HACCP: Integrating Science and Management through ASTM Standards

    EPA Science Inventory

    From a technical perspective, hazard analysis-critical control point (HACCP) evaluation may be considered a risk management tool suited to a wide range of applications. As one outcome of a symposium convened by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in August, 2005, th...

  20. Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-16 on Fasteners and is the responsibility of Subcommittee F16.02 on Steel Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, and Washers. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1997. Published July 1998. Originally published as A 563-66. Last previous edition A 563-96.

  1. Self-Enhanced Ultrasensitive Photoelectrochemical Biosensor Based on Nanocapsule Packaging Both Donor-Acceptor-Type Photoactive Material and Its Sensitizer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying-Ning; Liang, Wen-Bin; Xiong, Cheng-Yi; Yuan, Ya-Li; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a self-enhanced ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) biosensor was established based on a functionalized nanocapsule packaging both donor-acceptor-type photoactive material and its sensitizer. The functionalized nanocapsule with self-enhanced PEC responses was achieved first by packaging both the donor-acceptor-type photoactive material (poly{4,8-bis[5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-4,6-diyl}, PTB7-Th) and its sensitizer (nano-C60, fullerene) in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form a nanocapsule, which significantly enhanced PEC signal and stability of the PEC biosensor. Moreover, a quadratic enzymes-assisted target recycling amplification strategy was introduced to the system for ultrasensitive determination. Compared with other established PEC biosensors, our proposed self-enhanced approach showed higher effectivity, accuracy, sensitivity, and convenience without any addition of coreactant or sensitizers into the testing electrolyte for photocurrent amplification and performed excellent analytical properties for microRNA estimation down to femtomole level with microRNA-141 as a model. Additionally, the proposed PEC biosensor was employed for estimation of microRNA in different cancer cells and pharmacodynamic evaluation in cancer cells. This self-enhanced PEC strategy has laid the foundation for fabrication of simple, effective, and ultrasensitive PEC diagnostic devices, leading to the possibility for early diagnosis, timely stage estimation, and accurate prognosis judgment of disease. PMID:27513736

  2. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    PubMed

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work. PMID:23428565

  3. The development of ASTM standards for metallographic preparation practices of thermally sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, G.A.; Diaz, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    The primary objective of metallographic examinations of thermally sprayed coatings is to reveal the constituents and structure of the coatings and substrates by means of the microscope after proper metallographic preparation is performed. Because of the diversity of coating types and the personal element, the standardization of metallographic preparation of thermally sprayed coatings is essential. An ASTM subcommittee was formed with the support of the ASM Thermal Spray Committee to provide the laboratories involved in coating characterization with guidelines that will provide consistent metallographic procedures that produce an accurate evaluation of the wide range of thermally sprayed coatings. The methods used to establish this standard will be discussed in this paper.

  4. Effect of forage and retail packaging types on meat quality of long-term chilled lamb loins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H B; Stuart, A; Rosenvold, K; Maclennan, G

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different forage regimes and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems [high oxygen (HiOx-MAP): 80% O2 and 20% CO2; and CO2-MAP: 20% CO2 and 80% N2] on color and lipid oxidation stability and sensory attributes of long-term chilled lamb loins during retail display. Lambs (n = 124) were randomly assigned to several pasture-feeding regimes for 12 wk before slaughter. Some had ryegrass (n = 18), lucerne (n = 18), chicory (n = 19), plantain (n = 16), or red clover (Clover 12; n = 17) for all 12 wk. Some were assigned a regime of red clover for 11 wk and pasture for 1 wk (Clover 11; n = 18), with others on red clover for 9 wk and pasture for 3 wk (Clover 9; n = 18). After the lambs were slaughtered, the paired loins (M. longissimus dorsi) were excised at 24 h postmortem, vacuum-packed and stored at -1.5 °C for 9 wk. Cuts were then made from each loin and randomly allocated to either HiOx-MAP or CO2-MAP, and displayed for 7 d at 4 °C under light. Chemical attributes including lipid oxidation, surface color-reversing ability, oxygen consumption, and meat quality attributes (color stability and sensory characteristics) were determined. Among the different forage types, the loins from lambs finished on ryegrass appeared to have greater color stability and less lipid oxidation than the loins from lambs finished on other forage types (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the loins from lambs finished on lucerne had the least color and lipid oxidation stabilities and least color-reversing ability (P < 0.05). The loins from lambs finished on chicory had higher aroma and flavor scores than other pasture types in general (P < 0.05). HiOx-MAP negatively influenced meat quality attributes of lamb loins during display, as substantial increases in surface discoloration and lipid oxidation were observed, along with significant decreases in aroma and flavor during retail display compared with the loins in CO2-MAP. These results

  5. Composition of incipient passivating layers on heat-rejecting aluminum in carboxylate- and silicate-inhibited coolants: Correlation with ASTM D 4340 weight losses

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, F.T.; Moylan, T.E.; Simko, S.J.; Militello, M.C.

    1999-08-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy identified compositional differences between passivating layers initially formed in carboxylated coolants, in silicated coolants, and in a mixture thereof on well-controlled 319 aluminum surfaces under heat-rejecting conditions. The layer formed in silicated coolant was primarily silica, while that in carboxylated coolant was primarily hydrated alumina. Competition between inhibitor packages when carboxylated coolant was contaminated from the start with low levels of silicated coolant produced films which were not simply patchwise mixtures of the pure-coolant film types. The surface analytical results aid the interpretation of subtle differences in weight losses under the ASTM Standard Test Method for Corrosion of Cast Aluminum Alloys in Engine Coolants Under Heat-Rejecting Conditions (D 4340) in carboxylated versus silicated coolants that became more pronounced when testing was carried out at a vehicle-like 50% coolant concentration. Results from time-resolved D4340 measurements and from a two-step cleaning procedure further contribute towards proper evaluation of D4340 weight losses in the different coolant types.

  6. An analysis of the consequences of accidents involving shipments of multiple Type A radioactive material (RAM) packages

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, N.C.; McClure, J.D.; Reardon, P.C.; Wangler, M.

    1989-01-01

    Comparing the results of the RADTRANIII calculations with a normalized set of results, both for incident-free transport and vehicular accident cases, the calculated consequences in the current analysis are lower. Even for the High-Activity Shipment, the total expected population dose from either incident-free transport or vehicular accidents is small, and smaller than that estimated in USNRC 1977. The results of the simulation in which parameters were varied randomly and independently indicate that, regardless of the input values assumed, the maximum total population dose from the High-Activity Shipment and the simultaneous occurrence of the least conservative value for each input parameter might be as high as 300 person-rem for a single shipment. The values for either of the other shipments (DOT Exemption or Common Carrier) would be significantly lower. The potential average individual radiation doses from accidents involving multiple Type A package shipments are comparable to the increase in the normal background radiation dose of 0.09 rem/person/year (90 mrem) that an individual would receive by moving from sea level to 5000 ft elevation. The maximum dose to an individual (one very near the accident scene) for the High Activity Shipment would be approximately 0.3 rem (300 mrem) in a maximum severity accident. This is within the individual dose guidelines outlined by NCRP (0.5 rem). Even at the high levels postulated for multiple package shipments under DOT controlled exemptions, the potential risks to the public in terms of expected population dose in the current analysis are below those already found to be acceptable. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Development of ASTM standards in support of advanced ceramics development

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.; Quinn, G.D.; McClung, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    The ASTM Committee C-28 on Advanced Ceramics was organized in 1986 when it became apparent that ceramics were being considered for extensive use in such applications as heat engines in the automotive and aerospace industries. It was determined that these standards should be written for the production, inspection, testing, data analysis, reliability, and probabilistic design for utilization of advanced ceramics. Advanced ceramics include both monolithic and composite materials. The ASTM Committee C-28 is organized into five subcommittees as follows: Properties and performance, design and evaluation, characterization and processing, ceramic composites, and nomenclature. A summary overview is given of work performed to date and ongoing efforts in developing standards by these various subcommittees.

  8. Verification of the ASTM G-124 Purge Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Katherine E.; Davis, Samuel Eddie

    2009-01-01

    ASTM G-124 seeks to evaluate combustion characteristics of metals in high-purity (greater than 99%) oxygen atmospheres. ASTM G-124 provides the following equation to determine the minimum number of purges required to reach this level of purity in a test chamber: n = -4/log10(Pa/Ph), where "n" is the total number of purge cycles required, Ph is the absolute pressure used for the purge on each cycle and Pa is the atmospheric pressure or the vent pressure. The origin of this equation is not known and has been the source of frequent questions as to its accuracy and reliability. This paper shows the derivation of the G-124 purge equation, and experimentally explores the equation to determine if it accurately predicts the number of cycles required.

  9. Recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 replication and packaging is entirely supported by a herpes simplex virus type 1 amplicon expressing Rep and Cap.

    PubMed Central

    Conway, J E; Zolotukhin, S; Muzyczka, N; Hayward, G S; Byrne, B J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 (rAAV) vectors have recently been shown to have great utility as gene transfer agents both in vitro and in vivo. One of the problems associated with the use of rAAV vectors has been the difficulty of large-scale vector production. Low-efficiency plasmid transfection of the rAAV vector and complementing AAV type 2 (AAV-2) functions (rep and cap) followed by superinfection with adenovirus has been the standard approach to rAAV production. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the ability of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) amplicon expressing AAV-2 Rep and Cap to support replication and packaging of rAAV vectors. HSV-1 amplicon vectors were constructed which contain the AAV-2 rep and cap genes under control of their native promoters (p5, p19, and p40). An HSV-1 amplicon vector, HSV-RC/KOS or HSV-RC/d27, was generated by supplying helper functions with either wild-type HSV-1 (KOS strain) or the ICP27-deleted mutant of HSV-1, d27-1, respectively. Replication of the amplicon stocks is not inhibited by the presence of AAV-2 Rep proteins, which highlights important differences between HSV-1 and adenovirus replication and the mechanism of providing helper function for productive AAV infection. Coinfection of rAAV and HSV-RC/KOS resulted in the replication and amplification of rAAV genomes. Similarly, rescue and replication of rAAV genomes occurred when rAAV vector plasmids were transfected into cells followed by HSV-RC/KOS infection and when two rAAV proviral cell lines were infected with HSV-RC/KOS or HSV-RC/d27. Production of infectious rAAV by rescue from two rAAV proviral cell lines has also been achieved with HSV-RC/KOS and HSV-RC/d27. The particle titer of rAAV produced with HSV-RC/d27 is equal to that achieved by supplying rep and cap by transfection followed by adenovirus superinfection. Importantly, no detectable wild-type AAV-2 is generated with this approach. These results demonstrate

  10. Corrosion potential for aluminum alloys measured by ASTM G 69

    SciTech Connect

    Burleigh, T.D. ); Bovard, F.S. ); Rennick, R.C.

    1993-08-01

    ASTM G 69, [open quotes]Standard Practice for Measurement of Corrosion Potentials of Aluminum Alloys[close quotes], is a useful method to discern the temper of a given aluminum alloy. Corrosion potentials (E[sub corr]) often can be used to differentiate between different alloys since copper or zinc in solid solution will cause significant differences in E[sub corr]. Measured E[sub corr] of various aluminum alloys and other non-aluminum metals were listed.

  11. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  12. Standard practice for prediction of the long-term behavior of materials, including waste forms, used in engineered barrier systems (EBS) for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.13 on Repository Waste Package Materials Testing. The current edition was approved Dec. 10, 1997. It was published August 1998, and previously published as C 1174-91. The last previous edition was C 1174-91.

  13. Effects of vegetable type, package atmosphere and storage temperature on growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; O'Beirne, D

    2001-08-01

    The survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43888 and NCTC 12900) and Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19114 and NCTC 11994) during storage (4 and 8 degrees C) on ready-to-use (RTU) packaged vegetables (lettuce, swedes (rutabaga), dry coleslaw mix, soybean sprouts) were studied. The vegetables were sealed within oriented polypropylene packaging film, and modified atmospheres developed in packs during storage due to produce respiration. Survival and growth patterns were dependent on vegetable type, package atmosphere, storage temperature and bacterial strain. Populations of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 increased (P<0.05, by 1.5 to 2.5 log cycles, depending on strain) during a 12-day storage period on shredded lettuce (8 degrees C). L. monocytogenes populations also increased (by approximately 1 log cycle) on packaged swedes, did not change significantly (P>0.05) in packages of soybean sprouts and decreased by approximately 1.5 log cycles (P<0.05) on coleslaw mix (8 degrees C). E. coli O157:H7 populations on packaged coleslaw and soybean sprouts increased (by 1.5 to 2.5 log cycles) up to day 5, but declined during subsequent storage (8 degrees C). On packaged swedes (8 degrees C), populations of E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43888 increased (by approximately 1 log cycle) during storage, whereas populations of strain 12900 increased between days 2 and 5, and declined during subsequent storage. Reducing the storage temperature from 8 to 4 degrees C reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 on packaged RTU vegetables. However, viable populations remained at the end of the storage period at 4 degrees C. PMID:11641769

  14. Study on the influence of temperature, storage time and packaging type on di-n-butylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate release into packed meals.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Del Prete, Ernesto; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-eat meals packed in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and aluminium dishes, supplied to patients in two hospitals in the Campania region (Italy), were studied to evaluate the probable migration of di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from the packaging into the food. The influence of temperature, storage time and type of package on the migration process was considered, analysing the meals according to three time ranges, before the packaging (T(0)) and after 60 min (T(1)) and 120 min (T(2)) from packaging during the storage in thermostatic delivery carts. At T(0) in the meals sampled before packaging in PET dishes, mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.023 ± 0.002 µg/g and 0.069 ± 0.041 µg/g, respectively; the DBP level increased 230% and that of DEHP increased 208% by time T(0) versus T(2). In the meals sampled before packaging (T(0)) in aluminium dishes, the mean levels of DBP and DEHP were 0.030 ± 0.001 µg/g and 0.057 ± 0.015 µg/g, respectively. The significant increase in contaminant levels over storage times for meals packed in PET dishes demonstrates that from packages made of plastic materials the migration of phthalic acid esters into foods is possible. In meals packed in PET dishes, the highest DBP and DEHP increases were observed in the T(0) to T(1) range, which represented the time interval over which meals were kept hot, and mainly in the first ones, where the highest temperatures have been recorded. PMID:23185971

  15. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  16. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  17. Recommendations for fluorescence instrument qualification: the new ASTM Standard Guide.

    PubMed

    DeRose, Paul C; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2010-03-01

    Aimed at improving quality assurance and quantitation for modern fluorescence techniques, ASTM International (ASTM) is about to release a Standard Guide for Fluorescence, reviewed here. The guide's main focus is on steady state fluorometry, for which available standards and instrument characterization procedures are discussed along with their purpose, suitability, and general instructions for use. These include the most relevant instrument properties needing qualification, such as linearity and spectral responsivity of the detection system, spectral irradiance reaching the sample, wavelength accuracy, sensitivity or limit of detection for an analyte, and day-to-day performance verification. With proper consideration of method-inherent requirements and limitations, many of these procedures and standards can be adapted to other fluorescence techniques. In addition, procedures for the determination of other relevant fluorometric quantities including fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are briefly introduced. The guide is a clear and concise reference geared for users of fluorescence instrumentation at all levels of experience and is intended to aid in the ongoing standardization of fluorescence measurements. PMID:20136134

  18. Standard practice for handling densified articles of aluminum oxide reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-34 on Occupational Health and Safety and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E34.70 on Single Crystal Ceramic Whiskers. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998. Published June 1998. Originally published as E 1435-91. Last previous edition E 1435-91. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  19. Standard test method for vinyl chloride in workplace atmospheres (charcoal tube method). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.04 on Workplace Atmospheres. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published July 1998. Originally published as D 4766-88. Last previous edition D 4766-88(1993). Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  20. Discussion on FRP design properties based on flexural tests (ASTM D-790) and tensile tests (ASTM D-638)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    Tensile and flexural test results on the same laminate can have significant difference with the reported flexural strength being up to 100% greater than the tensile strength using the standard ASTM reporting methods. Taken at face value, these results can lead to nonconservative designs. The flexural test method is much simpler and less expensive, but must be used with a clear understanding of how they were computed and with sound engineering judgment since the flexural strength is calculated with linear bending theory at failure loads that are usually in the nonlinear range. This is significant since the general accepted design practice is to use linear theory in the design of FRP equipment. Manufacturers reporting this value should thus have a clear understanding of the difference between the reported results for flexural strength and the required design strength. This paper shows how to determine the proper design value from a flexural test which results in safe designs of FRP equipment and shows that the reported flexural strength from the ASTM D-790 method should not be used in design of FRP equipment.

  1. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  2. Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K (HERV-K) Particles Package and Transmit HERV-K–Related Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H.; Dube, Derek; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Chan, Susana; Meng, Fan; Dai, Manhong; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Gitlin, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) make up 8% of the human genome. While the youngest of these retroviruses, HERV-K(HML-2), termed HK2, is able to code for all viral proteins and produce virus-like particles, it is not known if these virus particles package and transmit HK2-related sequences. Here, we analyzed the capacity of HK2 for packaging and transmitting HK2 sequences. We created an HK2 probe, termed Bogota, which can be packaged into HK2 viruses, and transfected it into cells that make HK2 particles. Supernatants of the transfected cells, which contained HK2 viral particles, then were added to target cells, and the transmissibility of the HK2 Bogota reporter was tracked by G418 resistance. Our studies revealed that contemporary HK2 virions produced by some teratocarcinoma and breast cancer cell lines, as well as by peripheral blood lymphocytes from lymphoma patients, can package HK2 Bogota probes, and these viruses transmitted these probes to other cells. After transmission, HK2 Bogota transcripts undergo reverse transcription, a step impaired by antiretroviral agents or by introduction of mutations into the probe sequences required for reverse transcription. HK2 viruses were more efficiently transmitted in the presence of HK2 Rec or HIV-1 Tat and Vif. Transmitted Bogota probes formed episomes but did not integrate into the cellular genome. Resistance to integration might explain the relatively low number of HK2 insertions that were acquired during the last 25 million years of evolution. Whether transient transmission of modern HK2 sequences, which encode two putative oncoproteins, can lead to disease remains to be studied. IMPORTANCE Retroviruses invaded the genome of human ancestors over the course of millions of years, yet these viruses generally have been inactivated during evolution, with only remnants of these infectious sequences remaining in the human genome. One of these viruses, termed HK2, still is capable of producing virus particles

  3. Interpreting the ASTM 'content standard for digital geospatial metadata'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nebert, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM and the Federal Geographic Data Committee have developed a content standard for spatial metadata to facilitate documentation, discovery, and retrieval of digital spatial data using vendor-independent terminology. Spatial metadata elements are identifiable quality and content characteristics of a data set that can be tied to a geographic location or area. Several Office of Management and Budget Circulars and initiatives have been issued that specify improved cataloguing of and accessibility to federal data holdings. An Executive Order further requires the use of the metadata content standard to document digital spatial data sets. Collection and reporting of spatial metadata for field investigations performed for the federal government is an anticipated requirement. This paper provides an overview of the draft spatial metadata content standard and a description of how the standard could be applied to investigations collecting spatially-referenced field data.

  4. Biocompatibility of metal injection molded versus wrought ASTM F562 (MP35N) and ASTM F1537 (CCM) cobalt alloys.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Sago, Alan; West, Shari; Farina, Jeff; Eckert, John; Broadley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative analysis between biocompatibility test results of wrought and Metal Injection Molded (MIM) ASTM F562-02 UNS R30035 (MP35N) and F1537 UNS R31538 (CCM) alloy samples that have undergone the same generic orthopedic implant's mechanical, chemical surface pre-treatment, and a designed pre-testing sample preparation method. Because the biocompatibility properties resulting from this new MIM cobalt alloy process are not well understood, we conducted tests to evaluate cytotoxicity (in vitro), hemolysis (in vitro), toxicity effects (in vivo), tissue irritation level (in vivo), and pyrogenicity count (in vitro) on such samples. We show that our developed MIM MP35N and CCM materials and treatment processes are biocompatible, and that both the MIM and wrought samples, although somewhat different in microstructure and surface, do not show significant differences in biocompatibility. PMID:21537059

  5. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... Roadside and Vehicle Systems—5 GHz Band Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control... 19428-2959. Copies may also be obtained from ASTM via the Internet at http://www.astm.org....

  6. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... Roadside and Vehicle Systems—5 GHz Band Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control... 19428-2959. Copies may also be obtained from ASTM via the Internet at http://www.astm.org....

  7. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... Roadside and Vehicle Systems—5 GHz Band Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control... 19428-2959. Copies may also be obtained from ASTM via the Internet at http://www.astm.org....

  8. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard. 95.1509 Section 95.1509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service On-Board Units (DSRCS-OBUs) § 95.1509 ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard....

  9. 47 CFR 95.1509 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at the Federal Communications Commission, 445... Roadside and Vehicle Systems—5 GHz Band Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Medium Access Control... 19428-2959. Copies may also be obtained from ASTM via the Internet at http://www.astm.org....

  10. Influence of package, type of apple juice and temperature on the production of patulin by Byssochlamys nivea and Byssochlamys fulva.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Simas, Rosineide Costa; Almeida, Carlos A A; Cabral, Elaine C; Rauber, Ricardo H; Mallmann, Carlos A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Rosenthal, Amauri; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2010-08-15

    Although the production of patulin in apple fruits is mainly by Penicillium expansum, there is no information on the ability of heat resistant moulds that may survive pasteurization to produce this mycotoxin in juice packages during storage and distribution. In this study, the production of patulin by Byssochlamys spp (Byssochlamys nivea FRR 4421, B. nivea ATCC 24008 and Byssochlamys fulva IOC 4518) in cloudy and clarified apple juices packaged in laminated paperboard packages or in polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) and stored at both 21 degrees C and 30 degrees C, was investigated. The three Byssochlamys strains were able to produce patulin in both cloudy and clarified apple juices. Overall, the lower the storage temperature, the lower the patulin levels and mycelium dry weight in the apple juices (p<0.05). The greatest variations in pH and degrees Brix were observed in the juices from which the greatest mycelium dry weights were recovered. The maximum levels of patulin recovered from the juices were ca. 150 microg/kg at 21 degrees C and 220 microg/kg at 30 degrees C. HPLC-UV, HPCL-DAD and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the ability of B. fulva IOC 4518 to produce patulin. Due to the heat resistance of B. nivea and B. fulva and their ability to produce patulin either in PET bottles or in laminated paperboard packages, the control of contamination and the incidence of these fungi should be a matter of concern for food safety. Control measures taken by juice industries must also focus on controlling the ascospores of heat resistant moulds. PMID:20633943

  11. The effect of antioxidants, packaging type and frozen storage time on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, Mirosława

    2014-04-01

    Oil-soluble rosemary extract (OR) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were added individually and in mixture (MIX) to raw turkey meatballs. After cooking and chilling, samples were air- and vacuum-packaged and frozen stored for 90 days. The synthetic antioxidant, the natural antioxidant and their mixture significantly decreased TBA values. Lipid oxidation was most effectively inhibited by a mixture of BHT and OR during storage in the air, and by BHT in vacuum-packaged samples. A lower rate of the hydrolytic process was observed in BHT samples. All additives stabilized the red colour of turkey meatballs, but samples with a mixture of natural and synthetic antioxidants showed higher a(∗) values than OR samples. Vacuum-packaged turkey meatballs were darker in colour, and the contribution of redness in these samples continued to increase until day 80. OR added alone or in combination with BHT maintained the quality of turkey meatballs during frozen storage, but samples with the synthetic antioxidant were characterized by a non-typical flavour after a longer time of storage. PMID:24262557

  12. Effect of closure and packaging type on 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines and other impact odorants of Riesling and Cabernet Franc wines.

    PubMed

    Blake, Amy; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Brindle, Ian D; Inglis, Debbie; Sears, M; Pickering, Gary J

    2009-06-10

    3-Alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) represent an important and potent class of grape- and insect-derived odor-active compounds associated with wine quality. Thirty nanograms per liter each of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), and 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine (SBMP) was added to Riesling and Cabernet Franc wines and monitored with headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry over 18 months to investigate the effects of various closure and packaging options on MPs. Changes in MP concentrations during bottle aging varied with closure/packaging option, with the greatest decrease evident in Tetrapak cartons. After 18 months, IBMP, IPMP, and SBMP in both Tetrapak-stored wines decreased by approximately 45, 32, and 26%, respectively. Similar changes were observed in other impact odorants to previous studies, including a greater decrease in odorant concentrations in wines closed with synthetic corks compared to natural corks and screw caps. These differences are thought to be due to the differential sorptive capacities of the various closure types. Overall, the data suggest that differences in gas permeability/contribution from the different closure and packaging options strongly associate with changes in wine composition during aging. PMID:19432423

  13. Preparation of ultrasound microbubbles crosslinked to albumin nanoparticles packaged with tissue-type plasminogen activator gene plasmid and method of in vivo transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ji; Shang-Yi, Ji; Xia, He; Wen-Ping, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Aims To observe the effect of constructed ultrasound microbubble crosslinked to albium nanoparticles packaged with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) gene plasmid on the in vivo transfection. Methods The rabbits were chosen for all experiments. A highly expressive gene plasmid for tPA was constructed and packaged into a prepared nanoparticle with bovine serum albumin (BSA). This albium nanoparticle packaged with tPA gene plasmid was crosslinked to an ultrasound microbubble prepared with BSA and sucrose to form a nano-targeting vector system for tPA gene transfection. The transfection and effective expression of tPA in heart, liver, leg skeletal muscle and the cervical rib were detected with polyclonal antibodies to tPA using immunohistochemical method; the tPA level and D-dimer content of blood were also tested. Results The expression of tPA could be seen in the tissues mentioned above, with the increase in blood tPA level and D-dimer content from 0.20 ± 0.05 µg/L and 81.76 ± 9.84 µg/L before the operation, to the higher levels of 0.44 ± 0.05 µg/L and 669.28 ± 97.74 µg/L after transfection. Conclusion The nano-targeting vector system for tPA gene was contructed successfully. This provides a new theory and experimental method for the nano-targeted transgene.

  14. The fatigue-crack propagation behavior of ASTM A533-B steel tested in vacuo at LWR operating temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fatigue-crack propagation (FCP) behavior of ASTM A533-B-1 steel was characterized in vacuo at 288/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted at two stress ratios: R = 0.05 and R = 0.7. Results of these tests were compared with results from previous studies for the same type of steel tested in an air environment, and FCP rates in vacuo were generally lower than those in air. Stress ratio effects in vacuo were not as great as those in air, and both stress ratio effects and environmental effects are discussed from the standpoint of crack closure concepts.

  15. Laser induced damage in optical materials: 8th ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1977-05-01

    The Eighth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was hosted by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, from 13 to 15 July 1976. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Office of Naval Research. About 160 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, and Brazil. The Symposium was divided into five half-day sessions concerning Bulk Material Properties and Thermal Behavior, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Film Properties, Thin Film Damage, and Scaling Laws and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to new materials for use at 10.6 microm in mirror substrates, windo s, and coatings. New techniques in film deposition and advances in diamond-turning of optics were described. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons of the Symposium. The Ninth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 4-6 October 1977 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. PMID:20168679

  16. Laser-induced damage in optical materials: sixteenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Guenther, A H; Milam, D; Newnam, B E

    1987-03-01

    The Sixteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, CO, 15-17 Oct. 1984. The Symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Approximately 180 scientists attended the Symposium, including representatives from England, France, The Netherlands, Scotland, and West Germany. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Materials and Measurements, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the Symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high-power apparatus. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6,microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin-film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. Harold E. Bennett of the U.S. Naval Weapons Center, Arthur H. Guenther of the U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, David Milam of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos National Laboratory were cochairmen of the Symposium. PMID:20454228

  17. Laser induced damage in optical materials: ninth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1978-08-01

    The Ninth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 4-6 October 1977. The symposium was under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy (formerly ERDA), and the Office of Naval Research. About 185 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, Union of South Africa, and the Soviet Union. The Symposium was divided into sessions concerning Laser Windows and Materials, Mirrors and Surfaces, Thin Films, Laser Glass and Glass Lasers, and Fundamental Mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the uv region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength were also discussed. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The Tenth Annual Symposium is scheduled for 12-14 September 1978 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. PMID:20203792

  18. Development of an ASTM Graphite Oxidation Test Method

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Burchell, Timothy D

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation behavior of graphite is of practical interest because of extended use of graphite materials in nuclear reactors. High temperature gas-cooled reactors are expected to become the nuclear reactors of the next generation. The most critical factor in their safe operation is an air-ingress accident, in which case the graphite materials in the moderator and reflector would come in contact with oxygen at a high temperature. Many results on graphite oxidation have been obtained from TGA measurements using commercial instruments, with sample sizes of a few hundred milligrams. They have demonstrated that graphite oxidation is in kinetic control regime at low temperatures, but becomes diffusion-limited at high temperatures. These effects are better understood from measurement results with large size samples, on which the shape and structural factors that control diffusion can be more clearly evidenced. An ASTM test for characterization of oxidation resistance of machined carbon and graphite materials is being developed with ORNL participation. The test recommends the use of large machined samples (~ 20 grams) in a dry air flow system. We will report on recent results and progress in this direction.

  19. Fracture Toughness of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Applying ASTM C1421

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Swab, Jeffrey J.; Tice, Jason; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2014-11-03

    The three methods of determining the quasi-static Mode I fracture toughness (KIc) (surface crack in flexure – SC, single-edge precracked beam – PB, and chevron notched beam – VB) found in ASTM C1421 were applied to a variety of advanced ceramic materials. All three methods produced valid and comparable KIc values for the Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4 and SiAlON ceramics examined. However, not all methods could successfully be applied to B4C, ZrO2 and WC ceramics due to a variety of material factors. The coarse-grained microstructure of one B4C hindered the ability to observe and measure the precracks generated in the SCmore » and PB methods while the transformation toughening in the ZrO2 prevented the formation of the SC and PB precracks and thus made it impossible to use either method on this ceramic. The high strength and elastic modulus of the WC made it impossible to achieve stable crack growth using the VB method because the specimen stored a tremendous amount of energy prior to fracture. Even though these methods have passed the rigors of the standardization process there are still some issues to be resolved when the methods are applied to certain classes of ceramics. We recommend that at least two of these methods be employed to determine the KIc, especially when a new or unfamiliar ceramic is being evaluated.« less

  20. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety. Pursuant to... 110-314, made the provisions of ASTM F963-07, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety... toy chests). The requirements of ASTM F963-08 became effective on August 16, 2009, except for...

  1. Standard specification for steel, sheet, carbon, for pressure vessels. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.19 on Sheet Steel and Strip. Current edition approved Jun. 10, 1998. Published September 1998. Originally published as A 414-71. Last previous edition A 414/A 414M-97. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  2. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  3. Laser induced damage in optical materials: tenth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Glass, A J; Guenther, A H

    1979-07-01

    The tenth annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 12-14 September 1978. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. About 175 scientists attended, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, West Germany, and the Soviet Union. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning the measurement of absorption characteristics, bulk material properties, mirrors and surfaces, thin film damage, coating materials and design, and breakdown phenomena. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for use from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was also discussed. In commemoration of the tenth symposium in this series, a number of comprehensive review papers were presented to assess the state of the art in various facets of laser induced damage in optical materials. Alexander J. Glass of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory were co-chairpersons. The eleventh annual symposium is scheduled for 30-31 October 1979 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. PMID:20212622

  4. Laser induced damage in optical materials: eleventh ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Glass, A J; Guenther, A H; Newnam, B

    1980-07-15

    The eleventh Symposium on Optical Materials for High-Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 30-31 October 1979. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-1, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of Naval Research. About 150 scientists attended the symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Japan, West Germany, and Denmark. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning transparent optical materials and the measurement of their properties, mirrors and surfaces, thin film characteristics, thin film damage, considerations for high-power systems, and finally theory and breakdown. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high-power apparatus. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was discussed in detail. Harold E. Bennett of the Naval Weapons Center, Alexander J. Glass of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory were cochairpersons. The twelfth annual symposium is scheduled for 30 September-1 October 1980 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. PMID:20234423

  5. Laser induced damage in optical materials: twelfth ASTM symposium.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H E; Glass, A J; Guenther, A H; Newnam, B

    1981-09-01

    The twelfth annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado, 30 Sept.-l Oct., 1980. The symposium was held under the auspices of ASTM Committee F-l, Subcommittee on Laser Standards, with the joint sponsorship of NBS, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Department of Energy, the Office of Naval Research, and the Air Force Office of Scientific research. Over 150 scientists attended the symposium, including representatives of the United Kingdom, France, Japan, and West Germany. The symposium was divided into sessions concerning materials and measurements, mirrors and surfaces, thin films, and finally fundamental mechanisms. As in previous years, the emphasis of the papers presented at the symposium was directed toward new frontiers and new developments. Particular emphasis was given to materials for high power systems. The wavelength range of prime interest was from 10.6 microm to the UV region. Highlights included surface characterization, thin film-substrate boundaries, and advances in fundamental laser-matter threshold interactions and mechanisms. The scaling of damage thresholds with pulse duration, focal area, and wavelength was discussed in detail. Harold E. Bennett of the Naval Weapons Center, Alexander J. Glass of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Arthur H. Guenther of the Air Force Weapons Laboratory, and Brian E. Newnam of the Los Alamos National Laboratory were cochairmen of the symposium. The thirteenth annual symposium is scheduled for 17-18 Nov. 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado. PMID:20333088

  6. Fracture Toughness of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Applying ASTM C1421

    SciTech Connect

    Swab, Jeffrey J.; Tice, Jason; Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Kraft, Reuben H.

    2014-11-03

    The three methods of determining the quasi-static Mode I fracture toughness (KIc) (surface crack in flexure – SC, single-edge precracked beam – PB, and chevron notched beam – VB) found in ASTM C1421 were applied to a variety of advanced ceramic materials. All three methods produced valid and comparable KIc values for the Al2O3, SiC, Si3N4 and SiAlON ceramics examined. However, not all methods could successfully be applied to B4C, ZrO2 and WC ceramics due to a variety of material factors. The coarse-grained microstructure of one B4C hindered the ability to observe and measure the precracks generated in the SC and PB methods while the transformation toughening in the ZrO2 prevented the formation of the SC and PB precracks and thus made it impossible to use either method on this ceramic. The high strength and elastic modulus of the WC made it impossible to achieve stable crack growth using the VB method because the specimen stored a tremendous amount of energy prior to fracture. Even though these methods have passed the rigors of the standardization process there are still some issues to be resolved when the methods are applied to certain classes of ceramics. We recommend that at least two of these methods be employed to determine the KIc, especially when a new or unfamiliar ceramic is being evaluated.

  7. Guide to ASTM test methods for the analysis of coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Kishore Nadkarni

    2008-07-01

    The guide includes brief descriptions of all 56 ASTM test methods that cover the physical, chemical, and spectroscopic analytical techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively identify over 40 chemical and physical properties of coal, coke, their products, and by-products.

  8. Proceedings of the ASTM 8th international symposium zirconium in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Van Swam, L.F.P.; Eucken, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the ASTM 8th international symposium on zirconium in the nuclear industry. Topics covered include: Behavior of pressure tubes, Corrosion, Nodular corrosion, Basic metallurgy, and Creep and growth.

  9. Guide for measurement of ionizing dose-rate burnout of semiconductor devices. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-1 on Electronics and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F01.11 on Quality and Hardness Assurance. Current edition approved May 10, 1998 and published July 1998.

  10. Standard specification for centrifugally cast austenitic steel pipe for high-temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-01

    This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM. This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.18 on Castings. Current edition approved Oct. 25, 1993. Published December 1993. Originally published as A 451-61T. Last previous edition was A 451-92. Reapproved 1997.

  11. Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, Darrel

    This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.

  12. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  13. Final evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company, WRAP-1,208 liter waste drum, docket 94-35-7A, type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) Drum. The WRAP-1 Drum was tested for DOE-HQ in August 1994, by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under docket number 94-35-7A. Additionally, comparison and evaluation of the approved, as-tested packaging configuration was performed by WHC in September 1995. The WRAP-1 Drum was evaluated against the performance of the DOT-17C, 208 1 (55-gal) steel drums tested and evaluated under dockets 89-13-7A/90-18-7A and 94-37-7A.

  14. Effect of plasticizer type and concentration on physical properties of biodegradable films based on sugar palm (arenga pinnata) starch for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, sugar palm starch (SPS) films were developed using glycerol (G), sorbitol (S) or their combination (GS) as plasticizers at the ratio of 15, 30 and 45 (wt)% using casting technique. The addition of plasticizers to SPS film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittle and fragile nature of unplasticized SPS films. Increased plasticizer concentration resulted to an increase in film thickness, moisture content and solubility. On the contrary, density and water absorption of plasticized films decreased with increasing plasticizer concentration. Raising the plasticizer content from 15 to 45 % showed less effect on the moisture content and water absorption of S-plasticized films. Films containing glycerol and glycerol-sorbitol plasticizer (G, and GS) demonstrated higher moisture content, solubility and water absorption capacity compared to S-plasticized films. The results obtained in this study showed that plasticizer type and concentration significantly improves film properties and enhances their suitability for food packaging applications. PMID:26787952

  15. Packaging investigation of optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhike, Zhang; Yu, Liu; Jianguo, Liu; Ninghua, Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Compared with microelectronic packaging, optoelectronic packaging as a new packaging type has been developed rapidly and it will play an essential role in optical communication. In this paper, we try to summarize the development history, research status, technology issues and future prospects, and hope to provide a meaningful reference. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2013AA014201, 2013AA014203) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61177080, 61335004, 61275031).

  16. Changes in use of types of tobacco products by pack sizes and price segments, prices paid and consumption following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Coomber, Kerri; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe changes among smokers in use of various types of tobacco products, reported prices paid and cigarette consumption following the standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia. Methods National cross-sectional telephone surveys of adult smokers were conducted from April 2012 (6 months before transition to plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months afterwards). Multivariable logistic regression assessed changes in products, brands and pack types/sizes; multivariable linear regression examined changes in inflation-adjusted prices paid and reported cigarette consumption between the pre-PP and three subsequent periods—the transition phase, PP year 1 and PP post-tax (post a 12.5% tax increase in December 2013). Results The proportion of current smokers using roll-your-own (RYO) products fluctuated over the study period. Proportions using value brands of factory-made (FM) cigarettes increased from pre-PP (21.4%) to PP year 1 (25.5%; p=0.002) and PP post-tax (27.8%; p<0.001). Inflation-adjusted prices paid increased in the PP year 1 and PP post-tax phases; the largest increases were among premium FM brands, the smallest among value brands. Consumption did not change in PP year 1 among daily, regular or current smokers or among smokers of brands in any market segment. Consumption among regular smokers declined significantly in PP post-tax (mean=14.0, SE=0.33) compared to PP year 1 (mean=14.8, SE=0.17; p=0.037). Conclusions Introduction of PP was associated with an increase in use of value brands, likely due to increased numbers available and smaller increases in prices for value relative to premium brands. Reported consumption declined following the December 2013 tax increase.

  17. Molding compound trends in a denser packaging world: Qualification tests and reliability concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Lo, R. H. Y.; Chen, A. S.; Belani, J. G.

    1993-12-01

    Molding compound development has traditionally been driven by the memory market, then subsequent applications filter down to other IC technologies such as logic, analog, and ASIC. However, this strategy has changed lately with the introduction of thin packages such as PQFP & TSOP. Rather than targeting a compound for a family of IC such as DRAM or SRAM, compound development efforts are now focused at specific classes of packages. The configurations of these thin packages impose new functional requirements that need to be revisited to provide the optimized combination of properties. The evolution of qualification tests mirrors the advances in epoxy and compounding technologies. From the first standard novolac-based epoxies of the 1970s to the latest 3(sup rd)-generation ultra-low stress materials, longer test times at increasingly harsher environments were achieved. This paper benchmarks the current reliability tests used by the electronic industry, examines those tests that affect and are affected by the molding compounds, discusses the relevance of accelerated testing, and addresses the major reliability issues facing current molding compound development efforts. Six compound-related reliability concerns were selected: moldability, package stresses, package cracking, halogen-induced intermetallic growth at bond pads, moisture-induced corrosion, and interfacial delamination. Causes of each failure type are surveyed and remedies are recommended. Accelerated tests are designed to apply to a limited quantity of devices, bias, or environmental conditions larger than usual ratings, to intensify failure mechanisms that would occur under normal operating conditions. The observed behavior is then extrapolated from the lot to the entire population. Emphasis is on compressing the time necessary to obtain reliability data. This approach has two main drawbacks. With increasingly complex devices, even accelerated tests are expensive. And with new technologies, it becomes

  18. Heat treatment temperature influence on ASTM A890 GR 6A super duplex stainless steel microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Marcelo; E-mail: marcelo.martins@sulzer.com; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    2005-09-15

    Duplex and super duplex stainless steels are ferrous alloys with up to 26% chromium, 8% nickel, 5% molybdenum and 0.3% nitrogen, which are largely used in applications in media containing ions from the halogen family, mainly the chloride ion (Cl{sup -}). The emergence of this material aimed at substituting Copper-Nickel alloys (Cupro-Nickel) that despite presenting good corrosion resistance, has mechanical properties quite inferior to steel properties. The metallurgy of duplex and super duplex stainless steel is complex due to high sensitiveness to sigma phase precipitation that becomes apparent, due to the temperatures they are exposed on cooling from solidification as well as from heat treatment processes. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of heat treating temperatures on the microstructure and hardness of ASTM A890/A890M Gr 6A super duplex stainless steel type. Microstructure control is of extreme importance for castings, as the chemical composition and cooling during solidification inevitably provide conditions for precipitation of sigma phase. Higher hardness in these materials is directly associated to high sigma phase concentration in the microstructure, precipitated in the ferrite/austenite interface. While heat treatment temperature during solution treatment increases, the sigma phase content in the microstructure decreases and consequently, the material hardness diminishes. When the sigma phase was completely dissolved by the heat treatment, the material hardness was influenced only due to ferrite and austenite contents in the microstructure.

  19. Final evaluation & test report for the standard waste box (docket 01-53-7A) type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY, D L

    2001-10-15

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A compliance test and evaluation results of the Standard Waste Box. Testing and evaluation activities documented herein are on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Safety, Health and Security (EM-5), Germantown, Maryland. Duratek Federal Services, Inc., Northwest Operations performed an evaluation of the changes as documented herein under Docket 01-53-7A.

  20. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  2. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  3. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested

  4. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  5. Romanian experience on packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, G.

    2007-07-01

    With more than twenty years ago, the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), through its Reliability and Testing Laboratory, was licensed by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body- CNCAN and to carry out qualification tests [1] for packages intended to be used for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities [2] are packaged in accordance with national [3] and the IAEA's Regulations [1,6] for a safe transport to the disposal center. Subjecting these packages to the normal and simulating test conditions accomplish the evaluation and certification in order to prove the package technical performances. The paper describes the qualification tests for type A and B packages used for transport and storage of radioactive materials, during a period of 20 years of experience. Testing is used to substantiate assumption in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. The Romanian test facilities [1,3,6] are used to simulate the required qualification tests and have been developed at INR Pitesti, the main supplier of type A packages used for transport and storage of low radioactive wastes in Romania. The testing programme will continue to be a strong option to support future package development, to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on radioactive material packages or component sections, such as packages used for transport of radioactive sources to be used for industrial or medical purposes [2,8]. The paper describes and contain illustrations showing some of the various tests packages which have been performed during certain periods and how they relate to normal conditions and minor mishaps during transport. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design there are also presented and commented. (authors)

  6. Field data on testing of natural gas vehicle (NGV) containers using proposed ASTM standard test method for examination of gas-filled filament-wound pressure vessels using acoustic emission (ASTM-E070403-95/1)

    SciTech Connect

    Fultineer, R.D. Jr.; Mitchell, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    There are many composite wrapped pressure vessels in service. These containers are most widely used for gas storage in natural gas vehicles (NGV). A standard has been developed for the testing of these vessels by the subcommittee ASTM E07.04.03 Acoustic Emission (AE) applications. The AE test method is supported by both field test data and laboratory destructive testing. The test method describes a global volumetric testing technique which is offered as an alternative to the current practice of visual inspection.

  7. Effect of Electromigration on the Type of Drop Failure of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Joints in PBGA Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M. L.; Zhao, N.

    2015-10-01

    Board-level drop tests of plastic ball grid array (PBGA) packages were performed in accordance with the Joint Electron Devices Engineering Council standard to investigate the effect of electromigration (EM) on the drop reliability of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder joints with two substrate surface finishes, organic solderability preservative (OSP) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG). In the as-soldered state, drop failures occurred at the substrate sides only, with cracks propagating within the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer for OSP solder joints and along the IMC/Ni-P interface for ENEPIG solder joints. The drop lifetime of OSP solder joints was approximately twice that of ENEPIG joints. EM had an important effect on crack formation and drop lifetime of the PBGA solder joints. ENEPIG solder joints performed better in drop reliability tests after EM, that is, the drop lifetime of ENEPIG joints decreased by 43% whereas that of OSP solder joints decreased by 91%, compared with the as-soldered cases. The more serious polarity effect, i.e., excessive growth of the interfacial IMC at the anode, was responsible for the sharper decrease in drop lifetime. The different types of drop failure of PBGA solder joints before and after EM, including the position of initiation and the propagation path of cracks, are discussed on the basis of the growth behavior of interfacial IMC.

  8. An evaluation of efforts by nuclear power plants to use ASTM D3803-89

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1995-02-01

    The number of nuclear power plants are now using ASTM D3803-89, {open_quotes}Standard Test Method for Nuclear-Grade Activated Carbon{close_quotes} for routine surveillance testing of adsorbents. In order to judge the impact of this change, we have gathered radioiodine removal test results from our data base on a system-by-system basis (i.e. control room, technical support center, and spent fuel pool) and compared test results obtained for the same kind of systems using the new and older test methods. Included in this comparison are systems with and without humidity control. Results are discussed from the standpoint of what to expect if a change to testing using ASTM D3803-89 is contemplated, especially regarding test results in light existing acceptance criteria. Additionally, the results are discussed from the standpoint of the sensitivity of the ASTM test method to detect when the performance of the carbon in air cleaning systems has been compromised (compared to the older methods). Finally, we offer some suggestions for how other plants might upgrade their carbon testing to incorporate testing to ASTM D3803-89.

  9. 78 FR 64248 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-ASTM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Section 6(b) of the Act on November 10, 2004 (69 FR 65226). The last notification was filed with the... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--ASTM... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''),...

  10. ASTM D1076 CATEGORY 4 LATEX AND QUANTIFYING GUAYULE (NRG) AND HEVEA (NR) LATEX PROTEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule latex is commercially available as a low protein natural rubber latex (Yulex®) which does not contain any protein that can be detected by the ASTM D6499 antigenic protein standard developed to quantify Hevea natural rubber latex (NRL) antigenic protein. In this paper, we discuss how best to...

  11. Total chemically bound nitrogen in water by pyrolysis and chemiluminescence detection. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee on Water and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D19.06 on Methods for Analysis for Organic Substances in Water. Current edition approved Sept. 15, 1991. Published February 1992.

  12. Standard specification for nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum-copper alloy plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1997 and published February 1998. Originally published as B 582-73. Last previous edition was B 582-92.

  13. Standard specification for castings, zirconium-base, corrosion resistant, for general application. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.05 on Castings. Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1997 and published February 1998. Originally published as B 752-85. Last previous edition was B 752-91(1995).

  14. Standard specification for nuclear-grade aluminum oxide powder. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.03 on Neutron Absorber Materials Specifications. Current edition approved May 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as C 1031-84. Last previous edition C 1031-90.

  15. Standard specification for tantalum and tantalum alloy plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.03 on Niobium and Tantalum. Current edition approved May 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 708-82. Last previous edition was B 708-92.

  16. Standard specification for high-strength low-alloy structural steel. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.02 on Structural Steel for Bridges, Buildings, Rolling Stock, and Ships. Current edition approved Sep. 10, 1998. Published December 1998.

  17. Standard specification for forged carbon and alloy steel flanges for low-temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Mar. 10, 1998 and published October 1998.

  18. Standard specification for nickel-molybdenum alloy plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1998 and published November 1998. Originally published as B 333-58T. Last previous edition was B 333-95a.

  19. Standard specification for alloy/steel bolting materials for low-temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Sep. 10, 1997 and published September 1998.

  20. Standard specification for cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-tungsten alloy (UNS R31233) rod. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1997 and published February 1998. Originally published as B 815-91. Last previous edition was B 815-91.

  1. Standard specification for alloy-steel bolting materials for special applications. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Mar. 10, 1998 and published September 1998.

  2. Standard specification for thermoplastic gas pressure pipe, tubing, and fittings. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-17 on Plastic Piping Systems and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F17.60 on Gas. The current edition was approved May 10, 1998 and published October 1998. It was originally published as D 2513-66. The last previous edition was D 2513-97.

  3. Standard specification for zirconium and zirconium alloy sheet, strip, and plate for nuclear application. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.02 on Zirconium and Hafnium. Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1997. Published April 1998. Originally published as B 352-60T. Last previous edition B 352-92.

  4. Fracture Toughness Properties of Savannah River Site Storage Tank ASTM A285 Low Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2002-05-22

    A materials test program was developed to measure mechanical properties of ASTM A285 Grade B low carbon steel for application to structural and flaw stability analysis of storage tanks at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Under this plan, fracture toughness and tensile testing are being performed at conditions that are representative of storage tank

  5. Standard specification for tantalum and tantalum alloy rod and wire. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.03 on Niobium and Tantalum. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published October 1998. Originally published as B 365-61T. Last previous edition was B 365-92.

  6. Standard specification for steel strand, uncoated seven-wire for prestressed concrete. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.05 on Steel Reinforcement. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published December 1998. Originally published as A 416-57T. Last previous edition A 416-97.

  7. Standard specification for spray-applied rigid cellular polyurethane thermal insulation. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-11-01

    DoD adopted. This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-16 on Thermal Insulation and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.22 on Organic and Nonhomogeneous Inorganic Thermal Insulations. Current edition approved Sep. 10, 1996. Published November 1996. Originally published as C 1029-85. Last previous edition was C 1029-90.

  8. Applications of ASTM Standard E 1457 - The high temperature crack growth standard

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, A. )

    1993-03-01

    The ASTM Committee on Fracture Testing has developed Standard E 1457, 'Method for the Measurement of Creep Crack Growth Rates in Metals'. This Standard gives attention to the effect of elevated-temperature service life, and is pertinent to such materials as the high temperature Al alloys being contemplated for the High Speed Civil Transport and the NASP structure's intermetallics. 8 refs.

  9. Standard specification for tantalum and tantalum alloy seamless and welded tubes. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.03 on Niobium and Tantalum. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 521-70. Last previous edition was B 521-92.

  10. Standard specification for alloy steel forgings for nonmagnetic retaining rings for generators. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.06 on Steel Forgings and Billets. Current edition approved Nov. 10, 1997 and published August 1998. Originally published as A 289-46. Last previous edition was A 289-94.

  11. Standard specification for nickel-molybdenum alloy plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1997. Published February 1998. Originally published as B 333-58T. Last previous edition B 333-95a.

  12. Standard descriptive nomenclature of constituents of aggregates for radiation-shielding concrete. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1992-05-01

    This nomenclature is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.41 on Concrete for Radiation Shielding. Current edition approved Mar. 15, 1992 and published May 1992. Originally published as C 638-73. Last previous edition was C 638-84(1990). It was reapproved 1997.

  13. Standard specification for anchor bolts, steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi yield strength. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-16 on Fasteners and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F16.02 on Steel Bolts, Nuts, Rivets, and Washers. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1997 and published July 1998. Originally published as F 1554-94. Last previous edition was F 1554-94.

  14. Standard specification for zirconium and zirconium alloy strip, sheet, and plate. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.02 on Zirconium and Hafnium. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as B 551-71. Last previous edition B 551-92.

  15. Standard practice for conducting moist SO{sub 2} tests. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee G-1 on Corrosion of Metals and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee G01.05 on Laboratory Corrosion Tests. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published November 1998. Originally published as G 87-97. Last previous edition was G 87-97.

  16. Standard specification for general requirements for steel plates for pressure vessels. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.11 on Steel Plates for Boilers and Pressure Vessels. Current edition approved Sep. 10, 1997. Published November 1998. Originally published as A 20-50T. Last previous edition A 20/A 20M-97a.

  17. Combustion Gas Properties I-ASTM Jet a Fuel and Dry Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Wear, J. D.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of computations was made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for ASTM jet A fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0.

  18. Standard practice for use of scrap tires in civil engineering applications. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-34 on Biotechnology and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D34.06 on Recovery and Reuse. The current edition was approved on Jun. 10, 1998. It was published in August 1998.

  19. Standard test method for resistance of concrete to rapid freezing and thawing. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.67 on Resistance of Concrete to Its Environment. Current edition approved Jun. 10, 1997 and published June 1998. Originally published as C 666-71. Last previous edition was C 666-92.

  20. Standard specification for fibrous glass duct lining insulation (thermal and sound absorbing material). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-16 on Thermal Insulation and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.23 on Blanket and Loose Fill Insulation. Current edition approved Jan. 10, 1998 and published June 1998. It was originally published as C 1071-86. The last previous edition was C 1071-91.

  1. Manual sampling of coal from tops of railroad cars. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-01

    This practice is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-5 on Coal and Coke and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D05.23 on Coal Sampling. The current edition was approved July 24, 1989 and published in August 1989.

  2. PROPOSED ASTM METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ASBESTOS IN AIR BY TEM AND INFORMATION ON INTERFERING FIBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft of the ASTM Test Method for air entitled: "Airborne Asbestos Concentration in Ambient and Indoor Atmospheres as Determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy Direct Transfer (TEM)" (ASTM Z7077Z) is an adaptation of the International Standard, ISO 10312. It is currently...

  3. Neural biomarkers for assessing different types of imagery in pictorial health warning labels for cigarette packaging: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Newman-Norlund, Roger D; Thrasher, James F; Fridriksson, Johann; Brixius, William; Froeliger, Brett; Hammond, David; Cummings, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Objective Countries around the world have increasingly adopted pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) for tobacco packages to warn consumers about smoking-related risks. Research on how pictorial HWLs work has primarily analysed self-reported responses to HWLs; studies at the neural level comparing the brain's response to different types of HWLs may provide an important complement to prior studies, especially if self-reported responses are systematically biased. In this study we characterise the brain's response to three types of pictorial HWLs for which prior self-report studies indicated different levels of efficacy. Methods Current smokers rated pictorial HWLs and then observed the same HWLs during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Fifty 18–50-year-old current adult smokers who were free from neurological disorders were recruited from the general population and participated in the study. Demographics, smoking-related behaviours and self-reported ratings of pictorial HWL stimuli were obtained prior to scanning. Brain responses to HWLs were assessed using fMRI, focusing on a priori regions of interest. Results Pictorial HWL stimuli elicited activation in a broad network of brain areas associated with visual processing and emotion. Participants who rated the stimuli as more emotionally arousing also showed greater neural responses at these sites. Conclusions Self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs are correlated with neural responses in brain areas associated with visual and emotional processing. Study results cross-validate self-reported ratings of pictorial HWLs and provide insights into how pictorial HWLs are processed. PMID:25552613

  4. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  5. The Major Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Packaging Signal Is Present on All HIV-2 RNA Species: Cotranslational RNA Encapsidation and Limitation of Gag Protein Confer Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Stephen D. C.; Allen, Jane F.; Lever, Andrew M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Deletion of a region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) 5′ leader RNA reduces genomic RNA encapsidation to about 5% that of wild-type virus with no defect in viral protein production but severely limits virus spread in Jurkat T cells, indicating that this region contains a major cis-acting encapsidation signal, or psi (Ψ). Being upstream of the major splice donor, it is present on all viral transcripts. We have shown that HIV-2 selects its genomic RNA for encapsidation cotranslationally, rendering wild-type HIV-2 unable to encapsidate vector RNAs in trans . Virus with Ψ deleted, however, encapsidates an HIV-2 vector, demonstrating competition for Gag protein. HIV-2 overcomes the lack of packaging signal location specificity by two novel mechanisms, cotranslational packaging and competition for limiting Gag polyprotein. PMID:11711596

  6. Tpetra Kernel Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs. Templated on the scalar and ordinal types so that any valid floating-point type, as well as any valid integer type can be used with these classes. Other non-standard types, such as 3-by-3 matrices for the scalar type and mod-based integers for ordinal types, can also be used. Tpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vectormore » operations for the next generation of Trilinos preconditioners and solvers, It can be considered as the follow-on to Epetra. Tpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface, The most common implementation of this interface will be MPI.« less

  7. Quality of osmotically pre-treated and vacuum dried pineapple cubes on storage as influenced by type of solutes and packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Paul, Prodyut Kumar; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Bhowmick, Nilesh

    2014-08-01

    The quality and stability of osmotically pre-treated and subsequently vacuum dried pineapple cubes using three different solutes and packed in three different types of packaging materials on storage was evaluated. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design with two factors and three replications for each treatment. Treatment combinations were considered as one factor and storage interval as another factor. Pineapple cubes stored in glass bottle showed very little percentage variation in moisture content due to its high moisture barrier properties. In all treatment combination, acidity values were invariably found to increase as the storage progressed. For all three different osmotic treatments, HDPE pouch packet always showed highest acidity followed by PVDC pouch. Again among three solutes under consideration, invert sugar recorded a rapid increase in acidity than other solutes. In pineapple cubes osmotically treated with sucrose solution, the rates of decrease of total sugar content were lower than that of invert sugar and sorbitol treated pineapple cubes. The percentage decrease of total sugar content was highest when the osmotically dehydrated pineapple cubes were packed in HDPE pouch and it was least in glass bottles. There was a gradual decrease in ascorbic acid content with the extension of storage period and this decrease was statistically significant at all storage intervals up to six-month. Lowest value of ascorbic acid content (15.210 mg per 100 g initial solid) was recorded in invert sugar treated pineapple cube packed in HDPE pouch after 6 months of storage. PMID:25114348

  8. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation's hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation's system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  9. Radioactive material packaging performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1992-06-01

    In an effort to provide uniform packaging of hazardous material on an international level, recommendations for the transport of dangerous goods have been developed by the United Nations. These recommendations are performance oriented and contrast with a large number of packaging specifications in the US Department of Transportation`s hazard materials regulations. This dual system presents problems when international shipments enter the US Department of Transportation`s system. Faced with the question of continuing a dual system or aligning with the international system, the Research and Special Programs Administration of the US Department of Transportation responded with Docket HM-181. This began the transition toward the international transportation system. Following close behind is Docket HM-169A, which addressed low specific activity radioactive material packaging. This paper will discuss the differences between performance-oriented and specification packaging, the transition toward performance-oriented packaging by the US Department of Transportation, and performance-oriented testing of radioactive material packaging by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Dockets HM-181 and HM-169A will be discussed along with Type A (low activity) and Type B (high activity) radioactive material packaging evaluations.

  10. RECLAMATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Bellamy, S.

    2011-06-06

    Radioactive material packages are withdrawn from use for various reasons; loss of mission, decertification, damage, replacement, etc. While the packages themselves may be decertified, various components may still be able to perform to their required standards and find useful service. The Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems group of the Savannah River National Laboratory has been reducing the cost of producing new Type B Packagings by reclaiming, refurbishing, and returning to service the containment vessels from older decertified packagings. The program and its benefits are presented.

  11. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  12. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  13. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  14. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  15. 21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80 Food...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and labeling operations shall be adequately controlled: (1) To...

  16. Overview of ASTM standard activities in support of advanced structural ceramics development

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.; Quinn, G.D.; McClung, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    An overview is presented of the activities of ASTM Committee C-28 on Advanced Ceramics. This activity originated in 1986 when it became apparent that advanced ceramics were being considered for extensive use in applications such as advanced heat engines, heat exchangers, combustors, etc. in aerospace and energy conservation activities. These applications require optimum material behavior with physical and mechanical property reproducibility, component reliability, and well defined methods of data treatment and material analysis for both monolithic and composite ceramic materials. As new materials are introduced into the market place, these issues are best dealt with via standard methods. Therefore, a progress report is given describing activities of the five standard writing subcommittees who support the ASTM Committee C-28 effort. Accomplishments to date are given, as well as likely future activities, including a brief summary of joint cooperative efforts with international standard formulating organizations.

  17. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  18. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... meets the standards for packaging of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the...

  19. Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, chromium-molybdenum. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1993-03-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.11 on Steel for Boilers and Pressure Vessels. Current edition approved Dec. 15, 1992 and published March 1993. Originally published as A 387-55T. Last previous edition was A 387/A 387M-90a. It was reapproved 1997.

  20. Standard specification for high-strength low-alloy columbium-vanadium structural steel. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    DoD adopted. This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.02 on Structural Steel for Bridges, Buildings, Rolling Stock, and Ships. Current edition approved Dec. 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as A 572-66. Last previous edition A 572/A 572M-97b.

  1. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.; Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  2. ASTM international workshop on standards and measurements for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carl G; Yaszemski, Michael J; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A

    2015-07-01

    The "Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds" was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN, and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active "guide" documents for educational purposes, but few standard "test methods" or "practices." Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition, and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Workshop participants emphasized the need to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization. Finally, participants noted that standards would be more broadly accepted if their impact in the TEMPs community could be quantified. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus is turning to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  3. Development of an ASTM standard guide on performing vulnerability assessments for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, D.D.

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes an effort undertaken by subcommittee C26.12 (Safeguards) of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop a standard guide for performing vulnerability assessments (VAs). VAs are performed to determine the effectiveness of safeguards and security systems for both domestic and international nuclear facilities. These assessments address a range of threats, including theft of nuclear material and sabotage, and use an array of methods. The approach to performing and documenting VAs is varied and is largely dependent upon the tools used to perform them. This diversity can lead to tools being misused, making validation of VAs more difficult. The development of a standard guide for performing VAs would, if generally accepted, alleviate these concerns. ASTM provides a forum for developing guides that includes a high level of peer review to assure that the result is acceptable to all potential users. Additionally, the ASTM is widely recognized for setting standards, and endorsement by the Society may increase the likelihood of acceptance by the nuclear community. The goal of this work is to develop a guide that is independent of the tools being used to perform the VA and applicable to the spectrum of threats described above.

  4. Development of an ASTM standard guide on performing vulnerability assessment for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkey, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes an effort undertaken by subcommittee C26.12 (Safeguards) of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop a standard guide for performing vulnerability assessments (VAs). VAs are performed to determine the effectiveness of safeguards and security systems for both domestic and international nuclear facilities. These assessments address a range of threats, including theft of nuclear material and sabotage, and use an array of methods. The approach to performing and documenting VAs is varied and is largely dependent upon the tools used to perform them. Ibis diversity can lead to tools being misused, making validation of VAs more difficult. The development of a standard guide for performing VAs would, if generally accepted, alleviate these concerns. ASTM provides a forum for developing guides that includes a high level of peer review to assure that the result is acceptable to all potential users. Additionally, the ASTM is widely recognized for setting standards, and endorsement by the Society may increase the likelihood of acceptance by the nuclear community. The goal of this work is to develop a guide that is independent of the tools being used to perform the VA and applicable to the spectrum of threats described above.

  5. CCR+: Metadata Based Extended Personal Health Record Data Model Interoperable with the ASTM CCR Standard

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Jang, Tae Hun; Seo, Hwa Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Extension of the standard model while retaining compliance with it is a challenging issue because there is currently no method for semantically or syntactically verifying an extended data model. A metadata-based extended model, named CCR+, was designed and implemented to achieve interoperability between standard and extended models. Methods Furthermore, a multilayered validation method was devised to validate the standard and extended models. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Community Care Record (CCR) standard was selected to evaluate the CCR+ model; two CCR and one CCR+ XML files were evaluated. Results In total, 188 metadata were extracted from the ASTM CCR standard; these metadata are semantically interconnected and registered in the metadata registry. An extended-data-model-specific validation file was generated from these metadata. This file can be used in a smartphone application (Health Avatar CCR+) as a part of a multilayered validation. The new CCR+ model was successfully evaluated via a patient-centric exchange scenario involving multiple hospitals, with the results supporting both syntactic and semantic interoperability between the standard CCR and extended, CCR+, model. Conclusions A feasible method for delivering an extended model that complies with the standard model is presented herein. There is a great need to extend static standard models such as the ASTM CCR in various domains: the methods presented here represent an important reference for achieving interoperability between standard and extended models. PMID:24627817

  6. 49 CFR 173.459 - Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mixing of fissile material packages with non... (Radioactive) Materials § 173.459 Mixing of fissile material packages with non-fissile or fissile-excepted material packages. Mixing of fissile material packages with other types of Class 7 (radioactive)...

  7. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  8. 49 CFR 175.703 - Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages containing Class 7 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transport, by air— (1) Vented Type B(M) packages, packages which require external cooling by an ancillary... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (d) Packages with radiation levels at the package surface or...

  9. Learning Activity Packages for the V-TECS Secretarial Catalog of Performance Objectives, Criterion-Referenced Measures and Performance Guides for Stenographic, Typing, and Related Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This booklet describes the thirteen sets of learning activity packages developed around the performance objectives specified in the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog. The thirteen sets provide information and learning activities for the following duties: (1) performing mail activities; (2)…

  10. Comparative results of autogenous ignition temperature measurements by ASTM G 72 and pressurized scanning calorimetry in gaseous oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Lowrie, R.

    1986-01-01

    The autogenous ignition temperature of four materials was determined by ASTM (G 72) and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry at 0.68-, 3.4-, and 6.8-MPa oxygen pressure. All four materials were found to ignite at lower temperatures in the ASTM method. The four materials evaluated in this program were Neoprene, Vespel SP-21, Fluorel E-2160, and nylon 6/6.

  11. Cyclic Polarization Behavior of ASTM A537-Cl.1 Steel in the Vapor Space Above Simulated Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2004-11-01

    An assessment of the potential degradation mechanisms of Types I and II High-Level Waste (HLW) Tanks determined that pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking were the two most significant degradation mechanisms. Specifically, nitrate induced stress corrosion cracking was determined to be the principal degradation mechanism for the primary tank steel of non-stress relieved tanks. Controls on the solution chemistry have been in place to preclude the initiation and propagation of degradation in the tanks. However, recent experience has shown that steel not in contact with the bulk waste solution or slurry, but exposed to the ''vapor space'' above the bulk waste, may be vulnerable to the initiation and propagation of degradation, including pitting and stress corrosion cracking. A program to resolve the issues associated with potential vapor space corrosion is in place. The objective of the program is to develop understanding of vapor space (VSC) and liquid/air interface (LAIC) corrosion to ensure a defensible technical basis to provide accurate corrosion evaluations with regard to vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion (similar to current evaluations). There are several needs for a technically defensible basis with sufficient understanding to perform these evaluations. These include understanding of the (1) surface chemistry evolution, (2) corrosion response through coupon testing, and (3) mechanistic understanding through electrochemical studies. Experimentation performed in FY02 determined the potential for vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion of ASTM A285-70 and ASTM A537-Cl.1 steels. The material surface characteristics, i.e. mill-scale, polished, were found to play a key role in the pitting response. The experimentation indicated that the potential for limited vapor space and liquid/air interface pitting exists at 1.5M nitrate solution when using chemistry controls designed to prevent stress corrosion cracking. Experimentation performed in

  12. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  13. Efficacy of UV-C irradiation for inactivation of food-borne pathogens on sliced cheese packaged with different types and thicknesses of plastic films.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficacy of using UV-C light to inactivate sliced cheese inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and, packaged with 0.07 mm films of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) was investigated. The results show that compared with PET and PVC, PP and PE films showed significantly reduced levels of the three pathogens compared to inoculated but non-treated controls. Therefore, PP and PE films of different thicknesses (0.07 mm, 0.10 mm, and 0.13 mm) were then evaluated for pathogen reduction of inoculated sliced cheese samples. Compared with 0.10 and 0.13 mm, 0.07 mm thick PP and PE films did not show statistically significant reductions compared to non-packaged treated samples. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of PP and PE films. These results suggest that adjusted PP or PE film packaging in conjunction with UV-C radiation can be applied to control foodborne pathogens in the dairy industry. PMID:27052716

  14. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  15. 49 CFR 178.910 - Marking of Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be applied instead of the symbol; (ii) The code number designating the Large Packaging design type according to § 178.905. The letter “W” must follow the Large Packaging design type identification code on a...) Mark every Large Packaging in a durable and clearly visible manner. The marking may be applied in...

  16. Packaging for logistical support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

    Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

  17. A modified ASTM G-75 abrasion test helps select candidate alloys for service in a corrosive and abrasive slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A.; Morrison, W.S.; Jenkins, C.F.; Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC )

    1989-01-01

    The design of a hazardous waste immobilization facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) set material requirements for both abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance in process equipment. Standard ASTM slurry wear test G75 was modified to permit evaluation and comparison of abrasive resistance of candidate materials of construction in the laboratory. However, corrosion was found to contribute significantly to overall metal loss during the testing. Consequently, the abrasive slurry used for the testing was modified by adjusting its chemistry to include appropriate corrosive species. The Miller numbers obtained in the modified G75 Miller abrasion test are described. Pilot plant observations for Type 304L austenitic stainless steel were available. These data were used to generate a Morrison-Miller Ratio'' in order to determine anticipated field abrasion properties for other alloys. Hardness for many of the alloys fell in a narrow range about Rockwell B90, but performance varied significantly in response to slurry chemistry. This effect if synergistic may often be overlooked in the selection process, and it needs to be addressed. Some pilot plant testing of other alloys is essential to confirm the calculated abrasion rates and the approach of using the Morrison-Miller ratio. 6 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. ASTM Photovoltaic Performance Standards: Their Use at the National Renewable Energy Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.

    2007-07-01

    The performance of photovoltaic devices is typically rated in terms of their peak power with respect to a specific spectrum, total irradiance and temperature. The PV Cell and Module Performance Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colo., has been measuring the performance of cells and modules for the U.S. terrestrial PV community since 1980. NREL typically calibrates 200 cells and modules per month. The laboratory follows the procedures described in ASTM International standards for calibrating its primary reference cells (E 1125), spectral responsivity measurements (E 1021), secondary reference cells (E 948), secondary modules (E 1036), concentrator modules (E 2527), and multi-junction cells and modules (E 2236).

  19. Fatigue-crack propagation behavior of ASTM A27 cast steel in simulated Hanford groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1986-09-01

    Fatigue-crack propagation (FCP) tests were conducted on specimens of cast ASTM A27 steel in simulated Hanford ground-water at 150/sup 0/C and 250C/sup 0/C. Fatigue loadings were employed as the most feasible means of accelerating the environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) process. A tentative threshold for EAC was established, and an example calculation was used to show how such a threshold can be related to allowable stress levels and flaw sizes to assure that EAC will not occur.

  20. Friction and wear testing source book: Selected references from ASTM standards and ASM handbooks

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    A collection of key standards and reference articles about friction, lubrication, and wear makes this a valuable reference book to answer questions about wear mechanisms and testing, and how different measurement methods compare to each other. The focus is on test methods, with supporting material on analysis of wear-related failures. Selected information is reprinted from ASTM Standards, Volumes 2.05, 3.02, 5.02, 5.03 and 13.01, and ASM Handbooks, Volumes 8 (Mechanical Testing), 11 (Failure Analysis and Prevention) and 18 (Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology).

  1. Impact of ASTM Standard E722 update on radiation damage metrics.

    SciTech Connect

    DePriest, Kendall Russell

    2014-06-01

    The impact of recent changes to the ASTM Standard E722 is investigated. The methodological changes in the production of the displacement kerma factors for silicon has significant impact for some energy regions of the 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence response function. When evaluating the integral over all neutrons energies in various spectra important to the SNL electronics testing community, the change in the response results in an increase in the total 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence of 2 7%. Response functions have been produced and are available for users of both the NuGET and MCNP codes.

  2. Crevice corrosion of Alloy 625 in chlorinated ASTM artificial ocean water

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, R.S.; Jurinski, M.P.; Scully, J.R. . Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Factors controlling the initiation and propagation of crevice corrosion on alloy 625 (UNS N06625) in ocean water of ambient temperature were explored within the contexts of the Oldfield-Sutton model for critical crevice corrosion solution (CCS) development and the ohmic criterion for crevice corrosion initiation. Data supported an earlier claim that a critical potential drop must be exceeded to initiate crevice corrosion. Steady-state crevice corrosion propagation was found to be under ohmic control. Chlorine decreased the time required for initiation and possibly raised propagation rates in ASTM artificial ocean water. Addition of molybdate (MoO[sub 4][sup 2[minus

  3. Application of ASTM E-1559 Apparatus to Study H2O Desorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Perry, Radford, III; Meadows, George A.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA James Webb Space Telescope project identified a need to measure water vapor desorption from cryogenic surfaces in order to validate predictions of spacecraft design performance. A review of available scientific literature indicated no such measurements had been reported below 131 K. Contamination control personnel at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center recognized the possibility they readily possessed the means to collect these measurements at lower temperatures using an existing apparatus commonly employed for making outgassing observations. This presentation will relate how the ASTM E-1559 Molekit apparatus was used without physical modification to measure water vapor sublimation down to 120 K and compare this data to existing equilibrium vapor pressure models.

  4. Permeation of 70% isopropyl alcohol through surgical gloves: comparison of the standard methods ASTM F739 and EN 374.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Erja A; Vainiotalo, Sinikka; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2003-06-01

    Standard test methods ASTM F739 and EN 374 were compared by assessing the permeation of 70% isopropyl alcohol (2-propanol) through seven brands of surgical gloves. The two standards differ in the flow rates of the collection medium and in the chemical permeation rate at which the breakthrough time (BTT) is detected, the EN detection level being 10 times higher than the permeation rate used by ASTM. In a departure from the EN standard method, a 4 h testing time was used instead of 8 h. All of the tested gloves were from the same manufacturer and were made from either natural rubber (NR) (six brands) or chloroprene rubber (CR) (one brand). Two of the NR glove brands were double layered. For the thin NR gloves (0.22, 0.28 and 0.27 mm) the permeation rates were higher throughout the tests with a flow rate of 474 ml/min (EN) of the collection medium (nitrogen) compared with the permeation rates obtained with a flow rate of 52 ml/min (ASTM). These resulted in BTTs of 4.6, 6.5 and 7.6 min (EN) and 4.8, 6.5 and 9.1 min (ASTM), respectively. No statistical difference could be observed between the BTT values obtained with the two standard methods for any of the thin gloves. Thus, although the ASTM standard has a lower criterion for the detection of permeation, it does not necessarily produce shorter BTTs. For the better barriers the methods yielded more equivalent permeation rate curves and thus the EN BTTs were longer than the ASTM BTTs: the EN results were 21, 80, 122 and >240 min compared with the ASTM results of 12, 32, 38 and 103 min for glove thicknesses of 0.37 (NR), 0.22 + 0.22 (double layered NR), 0.31 + 0.29 (double layered NR) and 0.19 mm (CR), respectively. PMID:12765871

  5. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  6. 76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... where the packaging is manufactured and each location where the design qualification tests are conducted...; (6) Description of the packaging design type (e.g. dimensions, materials, closures, thickness, etc... requirements. * * * * * (l) Record retention. Following each design qualification test and each periodic...

  7. KLU2 Direct Linear Solver Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-04

    KLU2 is a direct sparse solver for solving unsymmetric linear systems. It is related to the existing KLU solver, (in Amesos package and also as a stand-alone package from University of Florida) but provides template support for scalar and ordinal types. It uses a left looking LU factorization method.

  8. Relation between the national handbook of recommended methods for water data acquisition and ASTM standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glysson, G. Douglas; Skinner, John V.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1950's, intense demands for water and growing concerns about declines in the quality of water generated the need for more water-resources data. About thirty Federal agencies, hundreds of State, county and local agencies, and many private organizations had been collecting water data. However, because of differences in procedures and equipment, many of the data bases were incompatible. In 1964, as a step toward establishing more uniformity, the Bureau of the Budget (now the Office of Management and Budget, OMB) issued 'Circular A-67' which presented guidelines for collecting water data and also served as a catalyst for creating the Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC) within the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper discusses past, present, and future aspects of the relation between methods in the National Handbook and standards published by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Committee D-19 on Water's Subcommittee D-19.07 on Sediment, Geomorphology, and Open Channel Flow. The discussion also covers historical aspects of standards - development work jointly conducted by OWDC and ASTM.

  9. Effect of casting parameters on the microstructure of ASTM F-75 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mancha, H.; Castro, M.; Mendez, M.; Mendez, J.; Cepeda, F.

    1996-10-01

    Hip replacement implants fabricated from the ASTM F-75 alloy sometimes fail in a sudden catastrophic way. In general, fractures start at microstructural defects subjected to stress-corrosion under chemical attack by body fluids. In this paper the results of a study on the effect of casting parameters on the microstructure of ASTM F-75 alloy are presented. The pre-heating mold and the liquid temperatures were varied between 900 and 1,000 C, and 1,410 and 1,470 C, respectively. The best static strength and ductility were obtained when shrinkage microporosity and the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} eutectic carbides precipitation at grain boundaries were minimized by increasing the pre-heating mold temperature up to 1,000 C and keeping intermediate pouring temperatures at 1,455 C. Under these casting conditions, however, the solidification rates are low leading to large grain sizes which reduce the strength of the material under dynamic loading conditions. The volume fraction of the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} blocky carbides, appears to have a small variation with casting conditions, however, their size and space distributions seem to be very important to determine the mechanical properties of the as-cast alloys.

  10. Methods of Calculation of Resistance to Polarization (Corrosion Rate) Using ASTM G 59

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, L L; King, K J; Martin, S I; Rebak, R B

    2006-02-05

    The corrosion rate of a metal (alloy) can be measured using: (1) Immersion tests or weight loss such as in ASTM G 1 and G 31 or (2) Electrochemical techniques such as in ASTM G 59. In the polarization resistance (PR) or linear polarization method (G 59), the resistance to polarization (Rp) of a metal is measured in the electrolyte of interest in the vicinity of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). This polarization resistance can be mathematically converted into corrosion rates (CR). A plot of E vs. I in the vicinity of E{sub corr} is generated by increasing the potential at a fixed rate of 0.1667 mV/s and measuring the output current. The polarization resistance (Rp) is defined as the slope of a potential (E) (Y axis) vs. Current (I) (X axis) plot in the vicinity of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). When the potential is ramped and the current is measured, E is the independent variable and I is the dependent variable. In a proper mathematical plot, E should be represented in the X axis and I in the Y axis. However, in the conventions of the corrosion community, E is always plotted in the Y axis and I in the X axis. Therefore, how this plot of Delta E/Delta I is analyzed is a matter of current debate.

  11. Na and Li ion diffusion in modified ASTM C 1260 test by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X. Balcom, B.J.; Thomas, M.D.A.; Bremner, T.W.

    2008-12-15

    In the current study, MRI was applied to investigate lithium and sodium ion diffusion in cement paste and mortars containing inert sand and borosilicate glass. Paste and mortars were treated by complying with ASTM C 1260. Lithium and sodium distribution profiles were collected at different ages after different treatments. Results revealed that sodium ions had a greater diffusion rate than lithium ions, suggesting that Na reaches the aggregate particle surface before Li. Results also showed that Na and Li ions had a competitive diffusion process in mortars; soaking in a solution with higher [Li] favored Li diffusion but hindered Na diffusion. In mortars containing glass, a substantial amount of Li was consumed by the formation of ASR products. When [Li] in soaking solution was reduced to 0.37 N, a distinctive Na distribution profile was observed, indicating the free-state Na ions were continuously transformed to solid reaction products by ASR. Hence, in the modified ASTM C 1260 test, [Li] in the storage solution should be controlled at 0.74 N, in order to completely prevent the consumption of Na ions and thus stop ASR.

  12. Low-energy photon spectroscopy data in support of ASTM method development

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, D. E.; Boone, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry (C-INC) Radioassay Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation since 1948 to measure fission-product and actinide activities from the U.S. weapons testing program. Since the cessation of testing in 1992, the facility has remained in continuous operation by analyzing samples for environmental, bioassay and research projects. In addition to the many gamma spectroscopy systems, two independent planar germanium detectors are employed for measurement of x-rays and low-energy gsunma rays. 'These counters were used to collect data of select isotopes to support the development of a new ASTM standard, 'Standard Practice for High-Resolution Low-Energy Photon Spectrometry of Water'. This standard is being developed by ASTM Subcommittee D19.04 as a tool for measurement of low-energy gamma-rays and x-rays fiom approximately 4 keV to 150 keV. This work describes empirical counting results obtained fkom traceable sources covering the energy range of interest. Specifically, the isotopes used were 5%i, 55Fe, Am, I, Cd, and 57C0 which provide a range of 5.9 to 136 keV. Mixed nuclide sources were also counted for the purpose of providing data for coincidence summing effects. All data is presented in hardcopy and accompanying electronic form.

  13. Cavitation erosion - corrosion behaviour of ASTM A27 runner steel in natural river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tôn-Thât, L.

    2014-03-01

    Cavitation erosion is still one of the most important degradation modes in hydraulic turbine runners. Part of researches in this field focuses on finding new materials, coatings and surface treatments to improve the resistance properties of runners to this phenomenon. However, only few studies are focused on the deleterious effect of the environment. Actually, in some cases a synergistic effect between cavitation erosion mechanisms and corrosion kinetics can establish and increase erosion rate. In the present study, the cavitation erosion-corrosion behaviour of ASTM A27 steel in natural river water is investigated. This paper state the approach which has been used to enlighten the synergy between both phenomena. For this, a 20 kHz vibratory test according ASTM G32 standard is coupled to an electrochemical cell to be able to follow the different corrosion parameters during the tests to get evidence of the damaging mechanism. Moreover, mass losses have been followed during the exposure time. The classical degradation parameters (cumulative weight loss and erosion rate) are determined. Furthermore, a particular effort has been implemented to determine the evolution of surface damages in terms of pitting, surface cracking, material removal and surface corrosion. For this, scanning electron microscopy has been used to link the microstructure to the material removal mechanisms.

  14. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana A.

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  15. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  16. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  17. Packaging - Materials review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  18. Packaging - Materials review

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  19. An Arbitrary Precision Computation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-06-14

    This package permits a scientist to perform computations using an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision (the equivalent of hundreds or even thousands of digits), by making only minor changes to conventional C++ or Fortran-90 soruce code. This software takes advantage of certain properties of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, together with advanced numeric algorithms, custom data types and operator overloading. Also included in this package is the "Experimental Mathematician's Toolkit", which incorporates many of these facilitiesmore » into an easy-to-use interactive program.« less

  20. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  1. Standard test method for airborne asbestos concentration in ambient and indoor atmospheres as determined by transmission electron microscopy direct transfer (TEM). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.07 on Asbestos. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998. Published October 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  2. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-06-13

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

  3. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  4. Summary: Update to ASTM guide E 1523 to charge control and charge referencing techniques in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, D.R.

    2005-05-01

    An updated version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide E 1523 to the methods to charge control and charge referencing techniques in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been released by ASTM [Annual Book of ASTM Standards Surface Analysis (American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004), Vol. 03.06]. The guide is meant to acquaint x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) users with the various charge control and charge referencing techniques that are and have been used in the acquisition and interpretation of XPS data from surfaces of insulating specimens. The current guide has been expanded to include new references as well as recommendations for reporting information on charge control and charge referencing. The previous version of the document had been published in 1997 [D. R. Baer and K. D. Bomben, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 754 (1998)].

  5. ATLAS software packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  6. Modular avionics packaging standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, M.; McNichols, J. K.

    The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology independence with common functions, improved maintainability and life cycle costs are discussed. Progress made in MAP is briefly reviewed.

  7. Trends in Food Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  8. Packaging of electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzin, L.

    1966-01-01

    Study of design approaches that are taken toward optimizing the packaging of electronic modules with respect to size, shape, component orientation, interconnections, and structural support. The study does not present a solution to specific packaging problems, but rather the factors to be considered to achieve optimum packaging designs.

  9. Rapid electrochemical screening of engine coolants. Correlation of electrochemical potentiometric measurements with ASTM D 1384 glassware corrosion test

    SciTech Connect

    Doucet, G.P.; Jackson, J.M.; Kriegel, O.A.; Passwater, D.K.; Prieto, N.E.

    1999-08-01

    Engine coolants are typically subjected to comprehensive performance evaluations that involve multiple laboratory and field tests. These tests can take several weeks to conduct and can be expensive. The tests can involve everything from preliminary chemical screening to long term fleet tests. An important test conducted at the beginning of coolant formula development to screen the corrosion performance of engine coolants is described in ASTM D 1384. If the coolant formula passes the test, it is then subjected to more rigorous testing. Conducting the test described in ASTM D 1384 takes two weeks, and determining the coolant corrosion performance under several test parameters can takes resources and time that users seldom have. Therefore, it is very desirable to have tests that can be used for rapid screening and quality assurance of coolants. The purpose of this study was to conduct electrochemical tests that can ultimately be used for quick initial screening of engine coolants. The specific intent of the electrochemical tests is to use ASTM D 1384 as a model and to attempt to duplicate its results. Implementation of the electrochemical tests could accelerate the process of selecting promising coolant formulas and reduce coolant evaluation time and cost. Various electrochemical tests were conducted to determine the corrosion performance of several engine coolant formulas. The test results were compared to those obtained from the ASTM D 1384 test. These tests were conducted on the same metal specimens and under similar conditions as those used in the ASTM D 1384 test. The electrochemical tests included the determination of open circuit potential (OCP) for the various metal specimens, anodic and cathodic polarization curves for the various metal specimens, corrosion rate for metal specimens involved in a galvanic triad, and critical pitting potential (CPP) for aluminum (pitting of aluminum engine components and cooling systems is a cause for concern). The details for

  10. Comparison of combustion characteristics of ASTM A-1, propane, and natural-gas fuels in an annular turbojet combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The performance of an annular turbojet combustor using natural-gas fuel is compared with that obtained using ASTM A-1 and propane fuels. Propane gas was used to simulate operation with vaporized kerosene fuels. The results obtained at severe operating conditions and altitude relight conditions show that natural gas is inferior to both ASTM A-1 and propane fuels. Combustion efficiencies were significantly lower and combustor pressures for relight were higher with natural-gas fuel than with the other fuels. The inferior performance of natural gas is shown to be caused by the chemical stability of the methane molecule.

  11. Annual book of ASTM standards. Part 17. Refractories, glass, and other ceramic materials; manufactured carbon and graphite products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The standards are assembled in each part in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designation numbers. Each part has two tables of contents: a list of the standards in alphanumeric sequence of their ASTM designations; and a list of the standards classified according to subject. A subject index of the standards and tentatives in each part appears at the back of each volume. This part contains standards concerning refractories; glass and glass products; ceramic whitewares; porcelain enamel and related ceramic-metal systems; ceramics for electronics; manufactured carbon and graphite products; and general methods of testing.

  12. Meros Preconditioner Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-01

    Meros uses the compositional, aggregation, and overload operator capabilities of TSF to provide an object-oriented package providing segregated/block preconditioners for linear systems related to fully-coupled Navier-Stokes problems. This class of preconditioners exploits the special properties of these problems to segregate the equations and use multi-level preconditioners (through ML) on the matrix sub-blocks. Several preconditioners are provided, including the Fp and BFB preconditioners of Kay & Loghin and Silvester, Elman, Kay & Wathen. The overall performancemore » and scalability of these preconditioners approaches that of multigrid for certain types of problems. Meros also provides more traditional pressure projection methods including SIMPLE and SIMPLEC.« less

  13. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  14. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  15. JAVA SWING-BASED PLOTTING PACKAGE RESIDING WITHIN XAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Chu, Paul; Pelaia II, Tom

    2007-01-01

    A data plotting package residing in the XAL tools set is presented. This package is based on Java SWING, and therefore it has the same portability as Java itself. The data types for charts, bar-charts, and color-surface plots are described. The algorithms, performance, interactive capabilities, limitations, and the best usage practices of this plotting package are discussed.

  16. 49 CFR 178.910 - Marking of Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS... in § 178.503(e)(1)(ii), the United Nations packaging symbol as illustrated in § 178.503(e)(1)(i). For... applied instead of the symbol; (ii) The code number designating the Large Packaging design type...

  17. 49 CFR 178.935 - Standards for wooden Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Packaging types are designated: (1) 50C natural wood. (2) 50D plywood. (3) 50F reconstituted wood. (b... Packagings. Each Large Packaging part must consist of uncut wood or a piece equivalent in strength and... effective are used). (ii) Plywood used in construction must be at least 3-ply. Plywood must be made of...

  18. 49 CFR 178.930 - Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Large Packaging types are designated: (1) 50G fiberboard (2) (b) Construction requirements for....7 of this subchapter). (ii) Manufacturers' joints in the outer packaging of Large Packagings must be... means at least equally effective. Where joints are made by gluing or taping, a water resistant...

  19. Designing cathodic protection systems for marine structures and vehicles. ASTM special technical publication 1370

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, H.P.

    1999-07-01

    Cathodic protection is an important method of protecting structures and ships from the corrosive effects of seawater. Poor designs can be far more costly to implement than optimal designs, Improper design can cause overprotection, with resulting paint blistering and accelerated corrosion of some alloys, underprotection, with resultant structure corrosion, or stray current corrosion of nearby structures. The first ASTM symposium specifically aimed at cathodic protection in seawater was intended to compile all the criteria and philosophy for designing both sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems for structures and vehicles in seawater. The papers which are included in this STP are significant in that they summarize the major seawater cathodic protection system design philosophies. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  20. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness of ASTM A533, Grade B Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.M.; Link, R.E.

    1999-05-01

    The dynamic fracture toughness of an ASTM A533, Grade B steel plate was determined at several temperatures in the ductile-brittle transition region. Crack-tip loading rates ranged from approximately 10(sup3) to 10(sup5) MPa m/s. The fracture toughness was shown to decrease with increased loading rate. The dynamic fracture toughness was compared with results from previous investigations, and it was shown that the decrease in toughness due to increased loading rate at the highest test temperature was not as severe as reported in previous investigations. It was also shown that the reference temperature. T(sub0) was better index of the fracture toughness vs. temperature relationship than the nil-ductility temperature, RT(subNDT), for this material.

  1. Hydrogen embrittlement: Prevention and control; ASTM Special Technical Publication, No. 962

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, L.

    1988-01-01

    The control and prevention of hydrogen embrittlement in metals are discussed, with a focus on test methods, in reviews and reports presented at the ASTM national symposium held in Los Angeles in May 1985. Sections are devoted to current standards and projections, hydrogen in steel and Ti, relative susceptibility, hydrogen in welding, case histories of prevention and control, and ongoing research. Topics addressed include electrochemical aspects, accelerated acceptance testing methods, the barnacle electrode method, the disk pressure test, a bent-beam test for H2S stress corrosion cracking, diffusible hydrogen testing by gas chromatography, surface films for embrittlement prevention, the effects of strain on hydrogen entry and transport in ferrous alloys, and the temperature dependence of fatigue crack propagation in Nb-H alloys.

  2. The chemistry modifications to ASTM A707 for offshore structural integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.A.; Price, S.

    1997-12-31

    The development of low alloy steels for offshore applications has generally led to the selection of increasingly leaner chemistries which are tailored to meet specific design requirements. Low carbon, low alloy, copper bearing steels based on the ASTM A707 grade system have attractive considerable interest for applications combining high strength and toughness with good weldability. Forgemasters Steel and Engineering has been intimately involved in the development of A707 variants which has led to contracts for the production of forged components for the Auger and Mars platforms. A thorough review of structure property relationships with regard to the role of copper precipitation during aging, has been undertaken. Comparisons have been drawn with conventional low carbon, low alloy steels where similar properties are achieved with tempered bainitic microstructures.

  3. Ramberg-Osgood strain-hardening characterization on an ASTM A302-B steel

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1995-11-01

    Many elastic-plastic fracture mechanisms analysis procedures require knowledge of the true stress versus true strain response of the material being analyzed. The most common strain-hardening relationship employed is of the form first proposed by Ramberg and Osgood. Here, the Ramberg-Osgood strain-hardening exponents and coefficients are characterized for an unirradiated ASTM A302-B steel over a wide range of temperatures from {minus}129 to 260 C. The strain-hardening exponent increases only slightly with temperature over this range, while the coefficient decreases with increasing temperature. Tensile specimens irradiated to 0.002, 0.029, and 0.046 dpa exhibited significant increases in the strain-hardening exponent with increasing neutron irradiation level.

  4. Comparisons of ASTM standards cited in the NRC standard review plan, NUREG-0800 and related documents

    SciTech Connect

    Ankrum, A.R.; Bohlander, K.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Pawlowski, R.A.; Spiesman, J.B.

    1995-10-01

    This report provides the results of comparisons of the cited and latest versions of ASTM standards cited in the NRC Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG 0800) and related documents. The comparisons were performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in support of the NRC`s Standard Review Plan Update and Development Program. Significant changes to the standards, from the cited version to the latest version, are described and discussed in a tabular format for each standard. Recommendations for updating each citation in the Standard Review Plan are presented. Technical considerations and suggested changes are included for related regulatory documents (i.e., Regulatory Guides and the Code of Federal Regulations) citing the standard. The results and recommendations presented in this document have not been subjected to NRC staff review.

  5. Microstructure and embrittlement of the fine-grained heat-affected zone of ASTM4130 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li-Ying; Wang, Yong; Han, Tao; Li, Chao-Wen

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructure features of the fine-grained heat-affected zone (FGHAZ) of ASTM4130 steel was investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and welding thermal simulation test. It is found that serious embrittlement occurs in the FGHAZ with an 81.37% decrease of toughness, compared with that of the base metal. Microstructure analysis reveals that the FGHAZ is mainly composed of acicular, equiaxed ferrite, granular ferrite, martensite, and martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent. The FGHAZ embrittlement is mainly induced by granular ferrite because of carbides located at its boundaries and sub-boundaries. Meanwhile, the existence of martensite and M-A constituent, which distribute in a discontinuous network, is also detrimental to the mechanical properties.

  6. Development of ASTM standards in support of advanced ceramics -- continuing efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, C.R.

    1998-02-01

    An update is presented of the activities of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee C-28 on Advanced Ceramics. Since its inception in 1986, this committee, which has five standard producing subcommittees, has written and published over 32 consensus standards. These standards are concerned with mechanical testing of monolithic and composite ceramics, nondestructive examination, statistical analysis and design, powder characterization, quantitative microscopy, fractography, and terminology. These standards ensure optimum material behavior with physical and mechanical property reproducibility, component reliability, and well-defined methods of data treatment and material analysis for both monolithic and composite materials. Committee C-28 continues to sponsor technical symposia and to cooperate in the development of international standards. An update of recent and current activities as well as possible new areas of standardization work will be presented.

  7. Effect of crack curvature on stress intensity factors for ASTM standard compact tension specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alam, J.; Mendelson, A.

    1983-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (SIF) are calculated using the method of lines for the compact tension specimen in tensile and shear loading for curved crack fronts. For the purely elastic case, it was found that as the crack front curvature increases, the SIF value at the center of the specimen decreases while increasing at the surface. For the higher values of crack front curvatures, the maximum value of the SIF occurs at an interior point located adjacent to the surface. A thickness average SIF was computed for parabolically applied shear loading. These results were used to assess the requirements of ASTM standards E399-71 and E399-81 on the shape of crack fronts. The SIF is assumed to reflect the average stress environment near the crack edge.

  8. Stress analysis of the cracked lap shear specimens: An ASTM round robin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  9. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  10. Standard specification for coextruded poly (vinyl chloride) (pvc) non-pressure plastic pipe having reprocessed-recycled content. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-17 on Plastic Piping Systems and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F17.25 on Vinyl Based Pipe. Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1997 and published October 1998. Originally published as F 1760-96. Last previous edition was F 1760-96.

  11. Standard specification for ferritic ductile iron pressure-retaining castings for use at elevated temperatures. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-4 on Iron Castings and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A04.02 on Malleable and Ductile Iron Castings. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998. Published October 1998. Originally published as A 395-55T. Last previous edition was A 395-88(1993).

  12. Analysis of the Second ASTM Round-Robin Program on Opening-Load Measurement using the adjusted compliance ratio technique

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, J.K.; Phillips, E.P.

    1999-07-01

    The results of the Second Round-Robin on Opening-Load Measurement established the basis for a recent addition to ASTM E 647--``Recommended Practice for Determination of Fatigue Crack Opening Load from Compliance''. The technique involves characterizing the deviation in linearity of a load-displacement curve and reporting, as a minimum, the opening load corresponding to a 2% slope offset. The opening load and associated {Delta}K{sub eff} values reported showed significant scatter although this scatter was reduced when the data were subjected to a rigorous accept/reject criterion. Refinements in the method of handling data with high noise have further reduced scatter compared with the original analysis. Since each participant provided digitized load-displacement curves, the data from 17 test samples (10 participants) were reanalyzed using the adjusted compliance ratio (ACR) technique to evaluate {Delta}K{sub eff}. A comparison between the two methods shows that the ACR technique gives a higher mean value of {Delta}K{sub eff} than does the ASTM procedure. The ACR technique also shows a stronger correlation with crack growth rate data than does the ASTM procedure, with a slope comparable to that of a typical fatigue crack growth rate test. However, the mean value of {Delta}K{sub eff} based on the ASTM procedure shows better agreement with high stress ratio closure free data than does the ACR technique. This seemingly contradictory result can be partially explained in terms of second-order effects not normally considered significant.

  13. Standard specification for aluminum and aluminum-alloy seamless condenser and heat-exchanger tubes with integral fins. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-7 on Light Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B07.03 on Aluminum Alloy Wrought Products. Current edition approved May 15, 1995. Published July 1995. Originally published as B 404-63T. Last previous edition B 404-92a.

  14. Standard test method for corrosion of low-embrittling cadmium plate by aircraft maintenance chemicals. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1989-02-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F-7 on Aerospace and Aircraft and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F07.07 on Qualification Testing of Aircraft Cleaning Materials. Current edition approved Nov. 17, 1988. Published February 1989 and reapproved 1998.

  15. Standard specification for UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 rod. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1997 and published February 1998. Originally published as B 572-72. Last previous edition was B 572-94.

  16. Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, carbon steel, high strength, for moderate and lower temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the responsibility of Subcommittee A01.11 on Steel Plates for Boilers and Pressure Vessels. Current edition approved Sep. 10, 1998. Published December 1998. Originally published as A 612-70. Last previous edition A 612/A 612M-90(1996).

  17. Standard specification for hot isostatically-pressed alloy steel flanges, fittings, valves, and parts for high temperature service. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Mar. 10, 1998 and published September 1998.

  18. Standard specification for nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powder. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-26 on Nuclear Fuel Cycle and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C26.03 on Neutron Absorber Materials Specifications. Current edition approved May 10, 1997. Published May 1998. Originally published as C 888-78 Last previous edition was C 888-90.

  19. Standard specification for continuous grain flow forged carbon and alloy steel crankshafts for medium speed diesel engines. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.06 on Steel Forgings and Billets. Current edition approved Jan. 10, 1998 and published August 1998.

  20. Standard test method for compressive strength of grouts for preplaced-aggregate concrete in the laboratory. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    DoD adopted. This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-9 on Concrete and Concrete Aggregates and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C09.41 on Concrete for Radiation Shielding. Current edition approved Feb. 10, 1986 and published October 1998. Originally published as C 942-81. Last previous edition was C 942-86(1991).

  1. Standard specification for seamless and welded titanium and titanium alloy tubes for condensers and heat exchangers. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    DoD adopted. This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.01 on Titanium. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 388-58T. Last previous edition was B 388-95.

  2. Standard specification for steel castings, carbon, low alloy, and stainless steel, heavy-walled for steam turbines. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.18 on Castings. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published August 1998. Originally published as A 356-52T. Last previous edition was A 356-96.

  3. Total carbon and organic carbon in water by ultraviolet, or persulfate oxidation, or both, and infrared detection. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-19 on Water and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D19.06 on Methods for Analysis for Organic Substances in Water. Current edition approved Sept. 15, 1994. Published November 1994. Originally published as D4839-88. Last previous edition D4839-88.

  4. High-Performance Power-Semiconductor Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, David; Hansen, Irving; Berman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    A 600-V, 50-A transistor and 1,200-V, 50-A diode in rugged, compact, lightweight packages intended for use in inverter-type power supplies having switching frequencies up to 20 kHz. Packages provide low-inductance connections, low loss, electrical isolation, and long-life hermetic seal. Low inductance achieved by making all electrical connections to each package on same plane. Also reduces high-frequency losses by reducing coupling into inherent shorted turns in packaging material around conductor axes. Stranded internal power conductors aid conduction at high frequencies, where skin effect predominates. Design of packages solves historical problem of separation of electrical interface from thermal interface of high-power semiconductor device.

  5. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  6. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  7. 49 CFR 173.417 - Authorized fissile materials packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... listed in § 173.415, limited to the Class 7 (radioactive) materials specified in 10 CFR part 71, subpart... fissile material packages in 10 CFR part 71; or (iii) Any Type AF, Type B(U)F, or Type B(M)F packaging... of fissile materials in 10 CFR part 71, and is approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  8. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  9. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  10. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  11. Stratimikos Wrapper Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-08-22

    Stratimikos is a small package of C++ wrappers for linear solver and preconditioning functionality exposed through Thyra interfaces. This package makes is possible to aggregate all of the general linear solver capability from the packages Amesos, AztecOO, Belos, lfpack, ML and others into a simple to use, parameter-list driven, interface to linear solvers. This initial version of Stratimikos contains just one utility class for building linear solvrs and preconditioners out of Epetra-based linear operators.

  12. The ZOOM minimization package

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  13. Numerical simulation of a flow past a triangular sail-type blade of a wind generator using the ANSYS FLUENT software package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaiynov, K.; Tanasheva, N. K.; Min'kov, L. L.; Nusupbekov, B. R.; Stepanova, Yu. O.; Rozhkova, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    An air flow past a single triangular sail-type blade of a wind turbine is analyzed by numerical simulation for low velocities of the incoming flow. The results of numerical simulation indicate a monotonic increase in the drag force and the lift force as functions of the incoming flow; empirical dependences of these quantities are obtained.

  14. Optical smart packaging to reduce transmitted information.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Luisa; Tebaldi, Myrian; Barrera, John Fredy; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a smart image-packaging optical technique that uses what we believe is a new concept to save byte space when transmitting data. The technique supports a large set of images mapped into modulated speckle patterns. Then, they are multiplexed into a single package. This operation results in a substantial decreasing of the final amount of bytes of the package with respect to the amount resulting from the addition of the images without using the method. Besides, there are no requirements on the type of images to be processed. We present results that proof the potentiality of the technique. PMID:22274339

  15. Novel food packaging systems with natural antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Irkin, Reyhan; Esmer, Ozlem Kizilirmak

    2015-10-01

    A new type of packaging that combines food packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods to enhance product microbial safety and to extend shelf-life is attracting interest in the packaging industry. Several antimicrobial compounds can be combined with different types of packaging materials. But in recent years, since consumer demand for natural food ingredients has increased because of safety and availability, these natural compounds are beginning to replace the chemical additives in foods and are perceived to be safer and claimed to alleviate safety concerns. Recent research studies are mainly focused on the application of natural antimicrobials in food packaging system. Biologically derived compounds like bacteriocins, phytochemicals, enzymes can be used in antimicrobial food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of most important knowledge about application of natural antimicrobial packagings with model food systems and their antimicrobial effects on food products. PMID:26396358

  16. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  17. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  18. NRF TRIGA packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1995-11-01

    Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA{reg_sign}) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask`s small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads.

  19. The West: Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Alexandria, VA.

    This document consists of the printed components only of a PBS curriculum package intended to be used with the 9-videotape PBS documentary series entitled "The West." The complete curriculum package includes a teacher's guide, lesson plans, a student guide, audio tapes, a video index, and promotional poster. The teacher's guide and lesson plans…

  20. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  1. The optimization of mechanical properties for nuclear transportation casks in ASTM A350 LF5

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.; Honeyman, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Transport flasks are required for the movement of spent nuclear fuel. Due to their nature of operation, it is necessary that these flasks are produced from forged steels with exceptional toughness properties. The material specification generally cited for flask manufacture is ASTM A350 Grade LF5 Class 1, a carbon-manganese-nickel alloy. The range of chemical analysis permitted by this specification is very broad and it is the responsibility of the material manufacturer to select a composition within this range which will satisfy all the mechanical properties requirements, and to ensure safe and reliable performance. Forgemasters Steel and Engineering Limited have experience in the manufacture of large high integrity fuel element flask forgings which extend over several decades. This experience and involvement in international standards in US, Europe and Japan has facilitated the development of an optimized analysis with a low carbon content, nickel levels towards the top end of the allowed range, a deliberate aluminum addition to control grain size and strictly controlled residual element levels. The resultant steel has excellent low temperature impact properties which greatly exceed the requirements of the specification. This analysis is now being adopted for the manufacture of all current transport flasks.

  2. Processing and properties of superclean ASTM A508 Cl. 4 forgings

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, A.V.; Handerhan, K.J.; Manzo, G.J.; Simkins, G.P.

    1988-12-31

    Steels with improved resistance to temper embrittlement are now being produced using ``superclean`` steelmaking technology. This technology involves the use of scrap control, proper electric arc furnace and ladle refining furnace practices to produce steel with very low Mn, Si, P, S and other residual impurities such as Sn, As and Sb. This technology has been applied on a production basis to modified ASTM A508 Cl- 4 material intended for high temperature pressure vessel forgings. Processing and properties of this superclean material are reviewed. In addition, the cleanliness and mechanical properties are compared to conventionally melted A508 Cl. 4 material. The ``superclean`` A508 Cl. 4 mod. was found to meet all specification requirements. In addition, the superclean material was found to possess superior upper shelf CVN properties, a lower FATT{sub 50} and NDTT, along with superior microcleanliness compared to conventional material. Finally, the superclean material was found to be immune to temper embrittlement based on the short-term embrittlement treatments examined.

  3. Advances in fatigue crack closure measurement and analysis: Second volume. ASTM special technical publication 1343

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.C.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The discovery of the phenomenon of plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure by Elber was truly a landmark event in the study of fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the development of practical engineering methods for fatigue life management. Subsequent research identified other contributing mechanisms for crack closure, including crack surface roughness and oxide debris. Fatigue crack closure is now understood to be an intrinsic feature of crack growth behavior that must be considered to understand or treat many FCG problems, although closure may not be an issue in all problems and does not always provide a complete explanation of crack growth behavior. As the thirtieth anniversary of the Elber discovery approached, the strong, continuing international interest in crack closure prompted the organization of another ASTM symposium. An international audience numbering over sixty-five persons heard thirty papers contributed by authors from twelve different countries, with more than half of the papers originating from outside the United States. This STP volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts for twenty-seven of those presentations, plus one peer-reviewed paper that could not be presented at the symposium. Topics covered are: Fundamental Studies; Experimental Characterization of Closure; Load History Effects; Surface Roughness Effects; and Closure Effects on Crack Behavior. Separate abstracts were prepared for all 28 papers.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of a magnesium galvanic anode under ASTM test method G 97-89 conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, J.; Betancourt, L.; Rodriguez, C.

    1996-07-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a magnesium galvanic anode in an aerated 5 g/L calcium sulfate + 0.1 g/L magnesium hydroxide solution was investigated by measuring electrochemical impedance under the conditions of ASTM Test Method G 97-89. Impedance spectra showed the capacitance of a porous layer (C{sub po}) in the high-frequency region, the resistive component (R{sub po}) of the porous layer (R{sub po}) in the frequency range between 100 Hz and 1,000 Hz, and the resistance of charge transfer (R{sub t}) in the low-frequency region. R{sub po} and R{sub t} increased with time, whereas C{sub po} decreased with immersion time. Since the resistance of a film is proportional to its resistivity and thickness, an increase in R{sub po} was interpreted to mean passivation increased with immersion time. This increase in protection with time provided evidence for the existence of a protective layer over the magnesium anode surface. This layer was identified as Mg(OH){sub 2} using x-ray diffraction of corrosion products formed on the magnesium anode.

  5. Corrosion behavior of ASTM A106 and AISI 316SS in KOH and nickel acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, J.J.; Baron, E.; Saldeho, J.

    1999-11-01

    The present work is concerned with the corrosion behavior of ASTM A106 B grade and AISI 316 stainless steel in the presence of three different environments: a mixture or an emulsion formed by oil-KOH-nickel acetate solution, a KOH (40 wt. %) solution and a nickel acetate (14 wt. %) solution, which are representative fluids used during a PDVSA proprietary process for improving heavy crude oils. Corrosion rate measurements and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior were evaluated through weight loss (in the laboratory and in situ measurements), and mechanical testing (constant load and slow strain rate tests). In the emulsion the corrosion rate was almost undetectable for both steels and the evidence suggested that no SCC had taken place. However, the corrosion rate of the carbon steel in 40wt.% KOH solution at 130 C was 2.8 mm/y, showing the presence of pitting corrosion. On the other hand, the stainless steel showed an undetectable corrosion rate. Though SCC was not observed in any of the materials tested in presence of KOH at both 30 and 130 C, a deterioration in the mechanical properties was found for the high temperature case for carbon steel. During nickel acetate solution tests at 130 C, the A 106 steel showed a relatively high corrosion rate (5.9 mm/y) and the formation of pits. For the stainless steel case, acetate solution had no corrosive effect whatsoever. This last environment offered no SCC susceptibility for any material at both temperatures tested.

  6. Roofing research and standards development: Fourth volume. ASTM special technical publication 1349

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, T.J.; Rossiter, W.J. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    As the roofing industry has stabilized, a broad variety of roof systems have found general acceptance by the building owners, architects, engineers, contractors, and others who select and install roofs. These roof systems include those based on conventional built-up membranes using glass and synthetic reinforcements, synthetic polymeric membranes using elastomers and thermoplastics, polymer-modified membranes, and sprayed polyurethane foam. ASTM Committee D8 on Roofing, Waterproofing, and Bituminous Materials has contributed significantly in many important ways to the roofing community's stabilization including issuing standard specifications to assist consumers in the selection and use of these systems. This is not surprising, as it has always been among the purpose of D8 to provide standards to assist in the selection and use of low-sloped and steep roofing. The Committee's scope includes development of standards associated with application, inspection, maintenance, and analyses. Some of the issues facing the roofing community today--for example, enhanced system durability, better methods of material characterization, environmental impact, recycling of materials and systems, industry conversation to the S.I. system metric--readily fall within D8's scope. The availability of sound standard can contribute to the resolution of many of these issues.

  7. Characterization of Multilayered Multipass Friction Stir Weld on ASTM A572 G50 Steel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lim, Yong Chae; Sanderson, Samuel; Mahoney, Murray; Yu, Xinghua; Qiao, Dongxiao; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    A multilayered multipass friction stir weld (MM-FSW) on ASTM A572 Grade 50 steel was characterized to understand its potential application for thick-section structures. The 15-mm-thick section was fabricated by stacking up three steel plates and then friction stir welding the plates together in a total of 5 passes. The unique butt/lap joint configuration encountered in the multilayer weld was examined to understand the effect of tool rotation direction on the joint quality especially the formation of hooking defect. Charpy V-notch impact toughness tests showed generally higher impact toughness energy for the stir zone than the base metal with a ductilemore » fracture mode. The microhardness value was measured from 195 to 220 HV in the stir zone, while the base metal showed an average value of 170 HV. The microstructure in the stir zone and the adjacent heat affected zone was quantified using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) including Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). The increased toughness and hardness were correlated with the refined microstructure in stir zone, resulting from severe plastic deformation and subsequent dynamic recrystallization during friction stir welding.« less

  8. Characterization of Multilayered Multipass Friction Stir Weld on ASTM A572 G50 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Yong Chae; Sanderson, Samuel; Mahoney, Murray; Yu, Xinghua; Qiao, Dongxiao; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    A multilayered multipass friction stir weld (MM-FSW) on ASTM A572 Grade 50 steel was characterized to understand its potential application for thick-section structures. The 15-mm-thick section was fabricated by stacking up three steel plates and then friction stir welding the plates together in a total of 5 passes. The unique butt/lap joint configuration encountered in the multilayer weld was examined to understand the effect of tool rotation direction on the joint quality especially the formation of hooking defect. Charpy V-notch impact toughness tests showed generally higher impact toughness energy for the stir zone than the base metal with a ductile fracture mode. The microhardness value was measured from 195 to 220 HV in the stir zone, while the base metal showed an average value of 170 HV. The microstructure in the stir zone and the adjacent heat affected zone was quantified using Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) including Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). The increased toughness and hardness were correlated with the refined microstructure in stir zone, resulting from severe plastic deformation and subsequent dynamic recrystallization during friction stir welding.

  9. The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.

    1992-07-31

    This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 6M - special form package

    SciTech Connect

    Schaich, R.W.

    1982-07-01

    The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge Nation al Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities in special form of non-fissile radioactive materials.

  11. Modular electronics packaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

  12. Chip Scale Package Implementation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    1998-01-01

    The JPL-led MicrotypeBGA Consortium of enterprises representing government agencies and private companies have jointed together to pool in-kind resources for developing the quality and reliability of chip scale packages (CSPs) for a variety of projects. In the process of building the Consortium CSP test vehicles, many challenges were identified regarding various aspects of technology implementation. This paper will present our experience in the areas of technology implementation challenges, including design and building both standard and microvia boards, and assembly of two types of test vehicles. We also discuss the most current package isothermal aging to 2,000 hours at 100 C and 125 C and thermal cycling test results to 1,700 cycles in the range of -30 to 100 C.

  13. 49 CFR 178.920 - Standards for metal Large Packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Large Packaging types are designated: (1) 50A steel (2) 50B aluminum (3) 50N metal (other than steel or aluminum) (b) Each Large Packaging must be made of suitable ductile metal materials. Welds must be made so as to maintain design type integrity of the receptacle under conditions normally incident...

  14. Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

  15. Standard specification for cobalt-chromium-nickel-molybdenum-tungsten alloy (UNS R31233) plate, sheet and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 818-91. Last previous edition was B 818-93.

  16. Standard specification for seamless ferritic and austenitic alloy-steel boiler, superheater, and heat-exchanger tubes. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.10 on Tubing. Current edition approved Oct. 10 and Nov. 10, 1995. 1995 and was published April 1996. Originally published as A 213-39T. Last previous edition was A 213/A 213M-94b.

  17. Standard specification for nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy (UNS N06110) rod and bar. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 756-86. Last previous edition was B 756-93.

  18. Standard specification for nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum alloy (UNS N08320) plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as B 620-77. Last previous edition was B 620-93.

  19. Standard specification for nickel-iron-chromium-molybdenum-columbium stabilized alloy (UNS N08700) bar and wire. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-04-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Feb. 15, 1995. Published April 1995. Originally published as B 672-74. Last previous edition was B 672-85.

  20. Standard specification for nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloys (UNS N06110) plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt, and Alloys Containing Nickel or Cobalt or Both as Principal Constituents. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1998 and published October 1998. Originally published as B 755-86. Last previous edition was B 755-93.

  1. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...On July 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). The Department has conducted expedited (120-day) sunset reviews for both orders pursuant to section 751(c)(3)(B) of the Act and 19......

  2. Leak testing in parenteral packaging: establishment of direct correlation between helium leak rate measurements and microbial ingress for two different leak types.

    PubMed

    Morrical, Bradley D; Goverde, Marcel; Grausse, Jean; Gerwig, Tanja; Vorgrimler, Lothar; Morgen, Rachel; Büttiker, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    A direct test method using helium leak detection was developed to determine microbial ingress in parenteral vial/rubber closure systems. The purpose of this study was to establish a direct correlation between the helium leak rate and the presence of ingress when vials were submersed under pressure in a broth of bacteria. Results were obtained for two different types of leaks: microholes that have been laser-drilled into thin metal plates, and thin copper wire that was placed between the rubber closure and the glass vial's sealing surface. The results from the microholes showed that the helium leak rate was a function of the square of the hole diameter and fit well with theoretical calculations. The relationship with the wire gave a far more complex dependence and was not modeled theoretically. Comparison with the microbial challenge showed that for microholes a lower size limit was found to be 2 microm with a corresponding leak rate of 1.4 x 10(-3) mbarl/s. For the fine wire experiment the lower limit was 15-microm wire and a corresponding leak rate of 1.3 x 10(-5) mbarl/s. From these tests a safe, lower limit, leak rate was established. PMID:17933206

  3. TSF Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soerator objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.

  4. Seawater Chemistry Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-23

    SeaChem Seawater Chemistry package provides routines to calculate pH, carbonate chemistry, density, and other quantities for seawater, based on the latest community standards. The chemistry is adapted from fortran routines provided by the OCMIP3/NOCES project, details of which are available at http://www.ipsl.jussieu.fr/OCMIP/. The SeaChem package can generate Fortran subroutines as well as Python wrappers for those routines. Thus the same code can be used by Python or Fortran analysis packages and Fortran ocean models alike.

  5. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  6. A logical extension of the ASTM Standard E96 to determine the dependence of water vapor transmission on relative humidity

    SciTech Connect

    Lackey, J.C.; Marchand, R.G.; Kumaran, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    It is well known that the water vapor transmission properties of hygroscopic building materials depend on the local relative humidities(rh). Traditionally, the ASTM Standard E96 specifies only two conditions of rh. The dry cup method in the standard corresponds to a mean rh of 25% and the wet cup to 75%. This information is not enough to describe the behavior of the material through the entire range of rh. European Standards have already proposed an extension of the existing standard to address this issue. ASTM standard should follow this change. A logical extension of the E96 standard to include the effect of rh on water vapor transmission properties has been proposed and is being discussed by one of the C16 Committee Task Groups. This paper presents the application of the proposed extension to several common building materials. The details include the operating principles of a constant temperature-rh chamber and the effects on the test results, of the vapor resistance offered by still air inside the cup, the surface resistances and buoyancy. The experimental data were used to critically assess the above effects. The data as well as the analyses of the data are expected to provide guidance to refine the existing ASTM Standard.

  7. Prospects for Adapting Current ASTM Wear and Erosion Tests for Bulk Materials to Thin Films, Coatings, and Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2007-01-01

    Most of ASTM Committee G2's erosion, wear, and friction test standards were developed for use with bulk materials, yet there is a growing need to evaluate the tribological behavior of films, coatings, and surface treatments (FCSTs), some that affect layers only tens of nanometers to a few micrometers thick. Tribotesting standards for bulk materials can sometimes be modified for use on FCSTs, but the conditions and methods developed for bulk materials may sometimes be too severe or inapplicable. An internet search and literature review indicated that a number of G2 Committee standards are currently being used for FCSTs. Of these, ASTM G99 and G65 seem to be the most popular. When attempting to apply an existing wear standard for bulk materials to FCSTs, two key issues must be addressed: (1) whether changes are needed in the magnitudes of the applied conditions, and (2) whether more precise methods are needed to measure the magnitude of surface damage. Straightforward calculations underscore the limitations for wear measurement of thin layers when evaluated using block-on-ring and pin-on-disk tests. Finally, suggestions are given for modifying selected ASTM G2 standards to enable their use on films, coatings, and surface treatments.

  8. Considerations on the ASTM standards 1789-04 and 1422-05 on the forensic examination of ink.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Cedric; Margot, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    The ASTM standards on Writing Ink Identification (ASTM 1789-04) and on Writing Ink Comparison (ASTM 1422-05) are the most up-to-date guidelines that have been published on the forensic analysis of ink. The aim of these documents is to cover most aspects of the forensic analysis of ink evidence, from the analysis of ink samples, the comparison of the analytical profile of these samples (with the aim to differentiate them or not), through to the interpretation of the result of the examination of these samples in a forensic context. Significant evolutions in the technology available to forensic scientists, in the quality assurance requirements brought onto them, and in the understanding of frameworks to interpret forensic evidence have been made in recent years. This article reviews the two standards in the light of these evolutions and proposes some practical improvements in terms of the standardization of the analyses, the comparison of ink samples, and the interpretation of ink examination. Some of these suggestions have already been included in a DHS funded project aimed at creating a digital ink library for the United States Secret Service. PMID:20487143

  9. ASTM standards for measuring solar reflectance and infrared emittance of construction materials and comparing their steady-state surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Levinson, R.; Berdahl, P.

    1996-08-01

    Numerous experiments on individual buildings in California and Florida show that painting roofs white reduces air conditioning load up to 50%, depending on the thermal resistance or amount of insulation under the roof. The savings, of course, are strong functions of the thermal integrity of a building and climate. In earlier work, the authors have estimated the national energy savings potential from reflective roofs and paved surfaces. Achieving this potential, however, is conditional on receiving the necessary Federal, states, and electric utilities support to develop materials with high solar reflectance and design effective implementation programs. An important step in initiating an effective program in this area is to work with the american Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the industry to create test procedures, rating, and labeling for building and paving materials. A subcommittee of ASTM E06, E06.42, on Cool Construction Materials, was formed as the vehicle to develop standard practices for measuring, rating, and labeling cool construction materials. The subcommittee has also undertaken the development of a standard practice for calculating a solar reflectance index (SRI) of horizontal and low-sloped surfaces. SRI is a measure of the relative steady-state temperature of a surface with respect to a standard white surface (SRI = 100) and a standard black surface (SRI = 0) under standard solar and ambient conditions. This paper discusses the technical issues relating to development of these two ASTM standards.

  10. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.

    1998-02-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

  11. Identification of collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) from ASTM E595 of silicone damper fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Myriam P.; Labatete-Goeppinger, Aura C.; Fowler, Jesse D.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane damping fluids used for structural deployment mechanisms are not required to be low outgassing. During normal use, these damping fluids are typically encapsulated; however, an unintentional leak may occur which would cause an undesirable contamination at the leak point and form volatile condensable that could reach contamination-sensitive surfaces, degrading the performance of satellites. The collected volatile condensable material (CVCM) at 25 °C from ASTM E595 of a damping fluid, MeSi-300K, was < 0.10%, when the damping fluid was maintained at 125 °C for 24 hours under 10-6 Torr vacuum. MeSi-300K viscosity is 300,000 cSt, which indicates an average molecular weight (MW) of 204,000. This large MW polymer would contain about 2,756 dimethyl siloxane (DMS) units in the chain. These long chains are not expected to be volatile; however, during manufacture, linear chains and cyclic compounds of a smaller number of DMS units produced are volatile. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the CVCM. Characterization of these materials revealed that the CVCM contained higher MW siloxanes, straight chain and cyclic, in the range of 682 to 1196 (9 to 16 DMS units), whereas CVCM from spacequalified, silicone-based materials have lower MW, 222 to 542 (3 to 7 DMS units). Consequently, contamination from MeSi-300K material would produce greater amounts of higher-MW siloxanes than space-qualified silicones. These higher-MW species would be harder to remove by evaporation and could remain on sensitive surfaces.

  12. "Programmed packaging" for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, M; Sakurai, Y; Akita, H; Harashima, H

    2014-11-10

    We report on the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) based on our packaging concept "Programmed packaging" to control not only intracellular trafficking but also the biodistribution of encapsulated compounds such as nucleic acids/proteins/peptides. Our strategy for achieving this is based on molecular mechanisms of cell biology such as endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, etc. In this review, we summarize the concept of programmed packaging and discuss some of our recent successful examples of using MENDs. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was applied as a new methodology for identifying a new ligand toward cell or mitochondria. The delivery of siRNA to tumors and the tumor vasculature was achieved using pH sensitive lipid (YSK05), which was newly designed and optimized under in vivo conditions. The efficient delivery of pDNA to immune cells such as dendritic cells has also been developed using the KALA ligand, which can be a breakthrough technology for DNA vaccine. Finally, ss-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like surfactant (ssPalm) which is a lipid like material with pH-activatable and SS-cleavable properties is also introduced as a proof of our concept. PMID:24780263

  13. Auxiliary propulsion system flight package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.

    1987-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

  14. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  15. Packaging for Posterity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sias, Jim

    1990-01-01

    A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

  16. Waste Package Program

    SciTech Connect

    Culbreth, W.; Ladkany, S.

    1991-07-21

    This was a progress report on the research program of waste packages at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The report has the overviews of what the program has done from January 1991 to June 1991, such as task assignments for personnel, equipment acquisitions, and staff meetings and travels on behalf of the project. Also, included was an abstract on the structural analysis of the waste package container design. (MB)

  17. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  19. Battery packaging - Technology review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  20. The ENSDF Java Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.A.

    2005-05-24

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  1. Electronic Packaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  3. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  4. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  5. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  6. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  7. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  8. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    S. LeStrange

    1999-11-15

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.

  9. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  10. Packaging signals in alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Frolova, E; Frolov, I; Schlesinger, S

    1997-01-01

    Alphaviruses synthesize large amounts of both genomic and subgenomic RNA in infected cells, but usually only the genomic RNA is packaged. This implies the existence of an encapsidation or packaging signal which would be responsible for selectivity. Previously, we had identified a region of the Sindbis virus genome that interacts specifically with the viral capsid protein. This 132-nucleotide (nt) fragment lies within the coding region of the nsP1 gene (nt 945 to 1076). We proposed that the 132-mer is important for capsid recognition and initiates the formation of the viral nucleocapsid. To study the encapsidation of Sindbis virus RNAs in infected cells, we designed a new assay that uses the self-replicating Sindbis virus genomes (replicons) which lack the viral structural protein genes and contain heterologous sequences under the control of the subgenomic RNA promoter. These replicons can be packaged into viral particles by using defective helper RNAs that contain the structural protein genes (P. Bredenbeek, I. Frolov, C. M. Rice, and S. Schlesinger, J. Virol. 67:6439-6446, 1993). Insertion of the 132-mer into the subgenomic RNA significantly increased the packaging of this RNA into viral particles. We have used this assay and defective helpers that contain the structural protein genes of Ross River virus (RRV) to investigate the location of the encapsidation signal in the RRV genome. Our results show that there are several fragments that could act as packaging signals. They are all located in a different region of the genome than the signal for the Sindbis virus genome. For RRV, the strongest packaging signal lies between nt 2761 and 3062 in the nsP2 gene. This is the same region that was proposed to contain the packaging signal for Semliki Forest virus genomic RNA. PMID:8985344

  11. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  12. Neural Network Simulation Package from Ohio State University

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the Neural Network Simulation Package acquired from Ohio State University. The package known as Neural Shell V2.1 was evaluated and benchmarked at the INEL Supercomputing Center (ISC). The emphasis was on the Back Propagation Net which is currently considered one of the more promising types of neural networks. This report also provides additional documentation that may be helpful to anyone using the package.

  13. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, B.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form, highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile radioactive material. This SEP evaluates five shipments of DSWCs used for the transport and storage of Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel to the Plutonium Finishing Plant Protected Area.

  14. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  15. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.; Cadieux, James R.

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  16. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  17. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  19. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  20. TSF Interface Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  1. ASTM E 1559 method for measuring material outgassing/deposition kinetics has applications to aerospace, electronics, and semiconductor industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, J. W.; Glassford, A. P. M.; Steakley, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials has published a new standard test method for characterizing time and temperature-dependence of material outgassing kinetics and the deposition kinetics of outgassed species on surfaces at various temperatures. This new ASTM standard, E 1559(1), uses the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) collection measurement approach. The test method was originally developed under a program sponsored by the United States Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) to create a standard test method for obtaining outgassing and deposition kinetics data for spacecraft materials. Standardization by ASTM recognizes that the method has applications beyond aerospace. In particular, the method will provide data of use to the electronics, semiconductor, and high vacuum industries. In ASTM E 1559 the material sample is held in vacuum in a temperature-controlled effusion cell, while its outgassing flux impinges on several QCM's which view the orifice of the effusion cell. Sample isothermal total mass loss (TML) is measured as a function of time from the mass collected on one of the QCM's which is cooled by liquid nitrogen, and the view factor from this QCM to the cell. The amount of outgassed volatile condensable material (VCM) on surfaces at higher temperatures is measured as a function of time during the isothermal outgassing test by controlling the temperatures of the remaining QCM's to selected values. The VCM on surfaces at temperatures in between those of the collector QCM's is determined at the end of the isothermal test by heating the QCM's at a controlled rate and measuring the mass loss from the end of the QCM's as a function of time and temperature. This reevaporation of the deposit collected on the QCM's is referred to as QCM thermogravimetric analysis. Isothermal outgassing and deposition rates can be determined by differentiating the isothermal TML and VCM data, respectively, while the evaporation rates of the species can be obtained as a

  2. System packager strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1995-03-01

    Advances in combined equipment technologies, the ability to supply fuel flexibility and new financial support structures are helping power systems packagers meet a diverse series of client and project needs. Systems packagers continue to capture orders for various size power plants around the globe. A competitive buyer`s market remains the order of the day. In cogeneration markets, clients continue to search for efficiency rather than specific output for inside-the-fence projects. Letter-perfect service remains a requisite as successful suppliers strive to meet customers` ever-changing needs for thermal and power applications.

  3. SPHINX experimenters information package

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, T.A.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  4. Optimizing surface quality of stainless alloys and using a modified ASTM G 48B procedure for acceptance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of high-temperature oxide scales and Cr-depleted zones on stainless alloys, such as 6% Mo superaustenitic steels, can significantly reduce their corrosion resistance. Effective methods to remove these layers and restore the surface to an optimized condition are detailed. Also, an acceptance test using a modified ASTM G 48B method at 35 C (95 F) for 72 h with a specimen having a crevice, and special corrosion criteria for failure, are described. Comparison of this test method with one using an uncreviced specimen at lower temperatures and for less time is discussed.

  5. Safety Analysis for Packaging Steel Banded Wooden Shipping Containers

    SciTech Connect

    FERRELL, P.C.

    2000-12-05

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the steel banded wooden shipping containers, which are certified as Type AF packagings. The authorized payload for these containers is unirradiated, slightly enriched, uranium ingots, billets, extrusions, and scrap materials. The amount of uranium in the containers will not exceed the LSA-II material requirements as defined in 49 CFR 173.403.

  6. Uptakes of Cs and Sr on San Joaquin soil measured following ASTM method C1733.

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Petri, E.T.

    2012-04-04

    Series of tests were conducted following ASTM Standard Procedure C1733 to evaluate the repeatability of the test and the effects of several test parameters, including the solution-to-soil mass ratio, test duration, pH, and the concentrations of contaminants in the solution. This standard procedure is recommended for measuring the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) of a contaminant in a specific soil/groundwater system. One objective of the current tests was to identify experimental conditions that can be used in future interlaboratory studies to determine the reproducibility of the test method. This includes the recommendation of a standard soil, the range of contaminant concentrations and solution matrix, and various test parameters. Quantifying the uncertainty in the distribution coefficient that can be attributed to the test procedure itself allows the differences in measured values to be associated with differences in the natural systems being studied. Tests were conducted to measure the uptake of Cs and Sr dissolved as CsCl and Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in a dilute NaHCO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} solution (representing contaminants in a silicate groundwater) by a NIST standard reference material of San Joaquin soil (SRM 2709a). Tests were run to measure the repeatability of the method and the sensitivity of the test response to the reaction time, the mass of soil used (at a constant soil-to-solution ratio), the solution pH, and the contaminant concentration. All tests were conducted in screw-top Teflon vessels at 30 C in an oven. All solutions were passed through a 0.45-{mu}m pore size cellulose acetate membrane filter and stabilized with nitric acid prior to analysis with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scoping tests with soil in demineralized water resulted in a solution pH of about 8.0 and the release of small amounts of Sr from the soil. Solutions were made with targeted concentrations of 1 x 10{sup -6} m, 1 x 10{sup -5} m, 2.5 x 10{sup -5} m, 5

  7. Printer Graphics Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  8. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  11. CH Packaging Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2002-01-02

    This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests.

  12. Project Information Packages Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

    Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

  13. Jpetra Kernel Package

    SciTech Connect

    Heroux, Michael A.

    2004-03-01

    A package of classes for constructing and using distributed sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, written in Java. Jpetra is intended to provide the foundation for basic matrix and vector operations for Java developers. Jpetra provides distributed memory operations via an abstract parallel machine interface. The most common implementation of this interface will be Java sockets.

  14. Waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  15. Automatic Differentiation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Sacado is an automatic differentiation package for C++ codes using operator overloading and C++ templating. Sacado provide forward, reverse, and Taylor polynomial automatic differentiation classes and utilities for incorporating these classes into C++ codes. Users can compute derivatives of computations arising in engineering and scientific applications, including nonlinear equation solving, time integration, sensitivity analysis, stability analysis, optimization and uncertainity quantification.

  16. Package for fragile objects

    DOEpatents

    Burgeson, Duane A.

    1977-01-01

    A package for fragile objects such as radioactive fusion pellets of micron size shipped in mounted condition or unmounted condition with a frangible inner container which is supported in a second inner container which in turn is supported in a final outer container, the second inner container having recesses for supporting alternate design inner containers.

  17. Metric Education Evaluation Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansky, Bob; And Others

    This document was developed out of a need for a complete, carefully designed set of evaluation instruments and procedures that might be applied in metric inservice programs across the nation. Components of this package were prepared in such a way as to permit local adaptation to the evaluation of a broad spectrum of metric education activities.…

  18. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    SciTech Connect

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  19. Energy Savings Measure Packages. Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Sean; Booten, Chuck

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the United States. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home; this typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) SERF cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1997-10-24

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) documents the ability of the Special Environmental Radiometallurgy Facility (SERF) Cask to meet the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B quantities (up to highway route controlled quantities) of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This document shall be used to ensure that loading, tie down, transport, and unloading of the SERF Cask are performed in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

  1. Investigation of package sealing using organic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study was performed to evaluate the suitability of adhesives for sealing hybrid packages. Selected adhesives were screened on the basis of their ability to seal gold-plated Kovar butterfly-type packages that retain their seal integrity after individual exposures to increasingly severe temperature-humidity environments. Tests were also run using thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock and temperature aging. The four best adhesives were determined and further tested in a 60 C/98% RH environment and continuously monitored in regard to moisture content. Results are given, however, none of the tested adhesives passed all the tests.

  2. Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Booten, C.

    2011-11-01

    This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

  3. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500 C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550 C. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500 C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500 C are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  4. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  5. Binding of CCAAT displacement protein CDP to adenovirus packaging sequences.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Ece; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Wells, Susanne I; Yang, Jihong; Gregg, Keqin; Nepveu, Alain; Dudley, Jaquelin P; Hearing, Patrick

    2003-06-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) type 5 DNA packaging is initiated in a polar fashion from the left end of the genome. The packaging process is dependent upon the cis-acting packaging domain located between nucleotides 194 and 380. Seven A/T-rich repeats have been identified within this domain that direct packaging. A1, A2, A5, and A6 are the most important repeats functionally and share a bipartite sequence motif. Several lines of evidence suggest that there is a limiting trans-acting factor(s) that plays a role in packaging. Two cellular activities that bind to minimal packaging domains in vitro have been previously identified. These binding activities are P complex, an uncharacterized protein(s), and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF). In this work, we report that a third cellular protein, octamer-1 protein (Oct-1), binds to minimal packaging domains. In vitro binding analyses and in vivo packaging assays were used to examine the relevance of these DNA binding activities to Ad DNA packaging. The results of these experiments reveal that COUP-TF and Oct-1 binding does not play a functional role in Ad packaging, whereas P-complex binding directly correlates with packaging function. We demonstrate that P complex contains the cellular protein CCAAT displacement protein (CDP) and that full-length CDP is found in purified virus particles. In addition to cellular factors, previous evidence indicates that viral factors play a role in the initiation of viral DNA packaging. We propose that CDP, in conjunction with one or more viral proteins, binds to the packaging sequences of Ad to initiate the encapsidation process. PMID:12743282

  6. Development of ASTM Standard for SiC-SiC Joint Testing Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, George; Back, Christina

    2015-10-30

    As the nuclear industry moves to advanced ceramic based materials for cladding and core structural materials for a variety of advanced reactors, new standards and test methods are required for material development and licensing purposes. For example, General Atomics (GA) is actively developing silicon carbide (SiC) based composite cladding (SiC-SiC) for its Energy Multiplier Module (EM2), a high efficiency gas cooled fast reactor. Through DOE funding via the advanced reactor concept program, GA developed a new test method for the nominal joint strength of an endplug sealed to advanced ceramic tubes, Fig. 1-1, at ambient and elevated temperatures called the endplug pushout (EPPO) test. This test utilizes widely available universal mechanical testers coupled with clam shell heaters, and specimen size is relatively small, making it a viable post irradiation test method. The culmination of this effort was a draft of an ASTM test standard that will be submitted for approval to the ASTM C28 ceramic committee. Once the standard has been vetted by the ceramics test community, an industry wide standard methodology to test joined tubular ceramic components will be available for the entire nuclear materials community.

  7. Moessbauer spectroscopy study on the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 stainless steel in chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, S.D. de; Olzon-Dionysio, M.; Basso, R.L.O.; Souza, S. de

    2010-10-15

    Plasma nitriding of ASTM F138 stainless steel samples has been carried out using dc glow discharge under 80% H{sub 2}-20% N{sub 2} gas mixture, at 673 K, and 2, 4, and 7 h time intervals, in order to investigate the influence of treatment time on the microstructure and the corrosion resistance properties. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, besides electrochemical tests in NaCl aerated solution. A modified layer of about 6 {mu}m was observed for all the nitrided samples, independent of nitriding time. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows broad {gamma}{sub N} phase peaks, signifying a great degree of nitrogen supersaturation. Besides {gamma}{sub N,} the Moessbauer spectroscopy results indicated the occurrence of {gamma}' and {epsilon} phases, as well as some other less important phases. Corrosion measurements demonstrate that the plasma nitriding time affects the corrosion resistance and the best performance is reached at 4 h treatment. It seems that the {epsilon}/{gamma}' fraction ratio plays an important role on the resistance corrosion. Additionally, the Moessbauer spectroscopy was decisive in this study, since it was able to identify and quantify the iron phases that influence the corrosion resistance of plasma nitrided ASTM F138 samples.

  8. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  9. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  10. Symmetric Rock Fall on Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sreten Mastilovic

    2001-08-09

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the Naval SNF (spent nuclear fuel) Waste Package (WP) and the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to the rock fall DBE (design basis event) dynamic loads. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities and residual stresses in the WP, and stress intensities and maximum permanent downward displacements of the EP-lifting surface. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP and EP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for those designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

  11. [Graphic images on cigarette packages not effective].

    PubMed

    Kok, Gerjo; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Government intends to make graphic images on cigarette packages mandatory. However, contrary to other policy measures to reduce smoking, health warnings do not work. There is no acceptable evidence in favour of graphic images and behaviour change theories suggest methods of change that improve skills, self-efficacy and social support. Thus, theory- and evidence-based policy should focus on prohibiting the tobacco industry from glamourizing packaging and make health communications on packages mandatory. As to the type of communications to be used, theory and evidence suggest that warning of the negative consequences of smoking is not an effective approach. Rather, targeting the most important determinants of the initiation of smoking and its successful cessation - such as skills, self-efficacy and subjective norm - along with the most effective behaviour change methods appears to be the most expedient strategy. PMID:23548194

  12. Software package SIMPRE--revisited.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Mirosław; Rudowicz, Czesław

    2014-10-01

    This article elucidates the pitfalls identified in the software package SIMPRE recently developed by Baldoví et al. (J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 1961) for modeling the spectroscopic and magnetic properties of single ion magnets as well as single-molecule magnets. Analysis of the methodology used therein reveals that the crystal field parameters (CFPs), expressed nominally in the Stevens formalism, exhibit features characteristic for the CFPs expressed in the Wybourne notation. The resemblance of the two types of CFPs introduces a serious confusion that may lead to wrong comparisons of the CFPs taken from various sources. To clarify this confusion, the properties of the CFPs Bkq ( Akq, Ckq) associated with the Stevens operators Okq(X = S, J, or L), which belong to the class of the tesseral-tensor operators, are contrasted with those of the CFPs Bkq associated with the Wybourne operators Cq(k), which belong to the class of the spherical-tensor operators. Importantly, the confused properties of Stevens and Wybourne operators may bear on reliability of SIMPRE calculations. To consider this question independent calculations are carried out using the complete approach and compared with those of the restricted approach utilized earlier. It appears that the numerical results of the package SIMPRE are formally acceptable, however, the meaning of the CFPs must be properly reformulated. Several other conceptual problems arising from misinterpretations of the crucial notions and the CFP notations identified therein are also discussed and clarified. PMID:25082729

  13. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  14. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  15. SAT Packages--An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Betsy

    1985-01-01

    Describes software packages used to help prepare for the Scholastic Aptitude Test, considering features that the packages have in common as well as unique features that each package has. Also lists and ranks the products and their features in a chart (indicating system requirements and current cost). (JN)

  16. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchir Y; Prajapati, Prajesh N; Agrawal, Y K

    2010-10-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  17. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

  18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word

  19. The Ettention software package.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  20. KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

    KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

  1. J/sub Ic/ fracture toughness of ferritic DCI (ductile cast iron) alloys: A comparison of two versions of ASTM E 813

    SciTech Connect

    Salzbrenner, R.

    1989-05-01

    The fracture toughness of several ductile cast iron (DCI) alloys has been calculated according to two versions of the ASTM Standard covering the determination of J/sub Ic/. The original version (ASTM E 813-81) had previously been used to establish the relationship between ferritic DCI alloys and the graphite nodule spacing. The J/sub Ic/ values were recalculated by the methods of the revised version of the ASTM Standard (ASME 813-87), and were found to be 5 to 8% higher than those determined by the original standard. A linear regression analysis was used to reaffirm that the fracture toughness is directly related to the graphite nodule size or spacing. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  3. Software packager user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  4. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2005-07-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis

  5. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J.K. Knudson

    2003-10-02

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis

  6. Navy packaging standardization thrusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-11-01

    Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

  7. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof.... 1337, on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC of Longview, Texas. An amended complaint was filed... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof...

  8. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... filed on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC on February 20, 2013. The complaint...

  9. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  10. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  11. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  12. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  13. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  14. Effect of Vacuum Packaging on Growth of Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus in Cured Meats1

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Lee N.; Foster, E. M.

    1965-01-01

    Incrimination of vacuum-packaged smoked fish in outbreaks of botulism has raised questions about the safety of this process in comparison with other methods of packaging foods. It has been suggested, for example, that Clostridium botulinum may grow better in a vacuum-packaged product than in one that is packaged without vacuum. To evaluate this possibility, sliced bologna was inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type A, packaged in transparent plastic film with and without vacuum, and stored at temperatures within the growth range of the organism. There was no detectable difference in the rate of toxin development in the two types of packages. In contrast, vacuum packaging markedly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on sliced ham. The results indicate that vacuum packaging has little if any effect on the ability of C. botulinum to grow in cured meats, but it may reduce the likelihood of staphylococcal food poisoning. PMID:5325416

  15. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOEpatents

    Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Meservey, Richard H.; Landon, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  16. The history and development of FETAX (ASTM standard guide, E-1439 on conducting the frog embryo teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumont, J.N.; Bantle, J.A.; Linder, G.

    2003-01-01

    The energy crisis of the 1970's and 1980's prompted the search for alternative sources of fuel. With development of alternate sources of energy, concerns for biological resources potentially adversely impacted by these alternative technologies also heightened. For example, few biological tests were available at the time to study toxic effects of effluents on surface waters likely to serve as receiving streams for energy-production facilities; hence, we began to use Xenopus laevis embryos as test organisms to examine potential toxic effects associated with these effluents upon entering aquatic systems. As studies focused on potential adverse effects on aquatic systems continued, a test procedure was developed that led to the initial standardization of FETAX. Other .than a limited number of aquatic toxicity tests that used fathead minnows and cold-water fishes such as rainbow trout, X. laevis represented the only other aquatic vertebrate test system readily available to evaluate complex effluents. With numerous laboratories collaborating, the test with X. laevis was refined, improved, and developed as ASTM E-1439, Standard Guide for the Conducting Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Collabrative work in the 1990s yielded procedural enhancements, for example, development of standard test solutions and exposure methods to handle volatile organics and hydrophobic compounds. As part of the ASTM process, a collaborative interlaboratory study was performed to determine the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Parallel to these efforts, methods were also developed to test sediments and soils, and in situ test methods were developed to address "lab-to-field extrapolation errors" that could influence the method's use in ecological risk assessments. Additionally, a metabolic activation system composed of rat liver microsomes was developed which made FETAX more relevant to mammalian studies.

  17. The Kull IMC package

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, N A; Keen,N; Rathkopf, J

    1998-10-01

    We describe the Kull IMC package, and Implicit Monte Carlo Program written for use in A and X division radiation hydro codes. The Kull IMC has been extensively tested. Written in C++ and using genericity via the template feature to allow easy integration into different codes, the Kull IMC currently runs coupled radiation hydrodynamic problems in 2 different 3D codes. A stand-alone version also exists, which has been parallelized with mesh replication. This version has been run on up to 384 processors on ASCI Blue Pacific.

  18. Aristos Optimization Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-03-01

    Aristos is a Trilinos package for nonlinear continuous optimization, based on full-space sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods. Aristos is specifically designed for the solution of large-scale constrained optimization problems in which the linearized constraint equations require iterative (i.e. inexact) linear solver techniques. Aristos' unique feature is an efficient handling of inexactness in linear system solves. Aristos currently supports the solution of equality-constrained convex and nonconvex optimization problems. It has been used successfully in the areamore » of PDE-constrained optimization, for the solution of nonlinear optimal control, optimal design, and inverse problems.« less

  19. Isolation and identification of bacteria from paperboard food packaging

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi Mohammadzadeh-Vazifeh, Mojtaba; Khajeh-Nasiri, Shamsolmoluk; Hashemi, Shabnam; Fakhari, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Paper and paperboard packaging play an important role in safety and quality of food products. Common bacteria of paper and paperboard food packaging could grow due to specific conditions included humidity, temperature and major nutrition to contaminate the food. The purpose of this research was to investigate numbers and the types of bacteria in the food packaging paperboard. Materials and Methods: The surface and the depth of the each paperboard sample were examined by the dimension of one cm2 and one gram. The paperboard samples were randomly collected from popular confectionaries and fast food restaurants in Tehran, Iran. Results: The results indicated the range of 0.2×103 to >1.0×105 cfu/1g bacterial contamination in paperboard food packaging. Also, most detected bacteria were from spore forming and family Bacillaceae. Conclusion: The bioburden paperboard used for food packaging showed high contamination rate more than standard acceptance level. PMID:26719786

  20. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  1. Effects of mixed waste simulants on transportation packaging plastic components

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to, enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified. The design requirements for both hazardous and radioactive materials packaging specify packaging compatibility, i.e., that the materials of the packaging and any contents be chemically compatible with each other. Furthermore, Type A and Type B packaging design requirements stipulate that there be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction between the materials and contents of the package. Based on these requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program, supported by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Transportation Management Division, EM-261 provides the means to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, we describe the general elements of the testing program and the experimental results of the screening tests. The implications of the results of this testing are discussed in the general context of packaging development. Additionally, we present the results of the first phase of this experimental program. This phase involved the screening of five candidate liner and six seal materials against four simulant mixed wastes.

  2. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  3. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  4. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  5. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-02-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  6. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  7. Solar breeze power package and saucer ship

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, S. E.

    1985-11-12

    A solar breeze power package having versatile sail and windmast options useful both on land and sea and especially useful in the saucer ship type design. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) of the several Darrieus designs in conjunction with roll-up or permanently mounted solar cells combine in a hybrid or are used separately to provide power to a battery bank or other storage device.

  8. WILL THE MOUSE BIOASSAY FOR ESTIMATING SENSORY IRRITANCY OF AIRBORNE CHEMICALS (ASTM E 981-84) BE USEFUL FOR EVALUATION OF INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many toxic inhalants, sensory irritation is the first detectable response. tandardized bioassay, ASTM E 981-84, that quantitates irritancy as a reduction in breathing rate of the mouse during inhalation exposure, has been developed. he validation of this screen for detecting ...

  9. An Experimental Copyright Moratorium: Study of a Proposed Solution to the Copyright Photocopying Problem. Final Report to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The Committee to Investigate Copyright Problems (CICP), a non-profit organization dedicated to resolving the conflict known as the "copyright photocopying problem" was joined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), a large national publisher of technical and scientific standards, in a plan to simulate a long-proposed solution to…

  10. Standard specification for castings of iron-chromium-nickel-molybdenum corrosion-resistant, duplex (austenitic/ferritic) for general application. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.18 on Castings. Current edition approved Nov. 10, 1997 and published August 1998. Originally published as A 890-88. Last previous edition was A 890/A 890M-94a.

  11. Standard specification for hot-rolled and cold-finished zirconium and zirconium alloy bars, rod, and wire for nuclear application. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-10 on Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B10.02 on Zirconium and Hafnium. Current edition approved Oct. 10, 1997. Published February 1998. Originally published as B 351-60T. Last previous edition B 351-92.

  12. Standard specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steel, quenched-and-tempered, chromium-molybdenum, and chromium-molybdenum-vanadium. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the responsibility of Subcommittee A01.11 on Steel Plates for Boiler and Pressure Vessels. Current edition approved Jun. 15, 1995. Published August 1995. Originally published as A 542-65. Last previous edition A 542/A 542M-93.

  13. Standard specification for common requirements for steel fasteners or fastener materials, or both, intended for use at any temperature from cryogenic to the creep range. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel, and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.22 on Steel Forgings and Wrought Fittings for Piping Applications and Bolting Materials for Piping and Special Purpose Applications. Current edition approved Jul. 10, 1998 and published October 1998.

  14. Standard test method for evaluating the influence of thermal insulations on external stress corrosion cracking tendency of austenitic stainless steel. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C-16 on Thermal Insulation and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.31 on Chemical and Physical Properties. Current edition approved Nov. 10, 1997 and published June 1998. Originally published as C 692-71. Last previous edition was C 692-95a.

  15. Standard specification for UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 plate, sheet, and strip. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee B-2 on Nonferrous Metals and Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee B02.07 on Refined Nickel and Cobalt and Their Alloys. Current edition approved Apr. 10, 1997 and published February 1998. Originally published as B 435-66T. Last previous edition was B 435-94.

  16. Standard specification for steel, sheet and strip, high-strength, low-alloy, columbium or vanadium, or both, hot-rolled and cold-rolled. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    DoD adopted. This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A-1 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A05.19 on Steel Sheet and Strip. Current edition approved Jun. 10, 1998 and published September 1998. Originally published as A 607-70. Last previous edition was A 607-96.

  17. Evaluating thin film fluid lubricants in a drain and dry mode using a pin and vee block test machine. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-2 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D02.L0.05 on Solid Lubricants. The current edition was approved Oct. 15, 1994 and published December 1994.

  18. Spontaneous ignition in afterburner segment tests at an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, D. F.; Branstetter, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A brief testing program was undertaken to determine if spontaneous ignition and stable combustion could be obtained in a jet engine afterburning operating with an inlet temperature of 1240 K and a pressure of 1 atmosphere with ASTM Jet-A fuel. Spontaneous ignition with 100-percent combustion efficiency and stable burning was obtained using water-cooled fuel spraybars as flameholders.

  19. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated ASTM Jet-A fuel to determine the effect of increased fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperature ranged from ambient to 700 K. The NOx emission index increased at a rate of 6 percent per 100 K increase in fuel temperature.

  20. Pesticide glove permeation analysis: comparison of the ASTM F739 test method with an automated flow-through reverse-phase liquid chromatography procedure.

    PubMed

    Moody, R P; Ritter, L

    1990-02-01

    The results of two methods of analysis for measuring glove permeability to pesticides are reported. The standard ASTM F739-85 testing procedure was used to determine breakthrough times and permeation rates for four protective glove materials for two commercially available pesticide formulations. The same glove materials and pesticides then were tested using an in-house developed automated in-vitro diffusion analysis (AIDA) procedure. The ASTM and AIDA procedures both demonstrated no detectable breakthrough of Sevin 50W or 2,4-D Amine 96% for nitrile butyl rubber and polyvinyl chloride gloves. Although no breakthrough of Sevin 50W or 2,4-D Amine 96 was detected for natural rubber or neoprene gloves following the ASTM procedure, permeation was observed in 2 of 3 replicate tests for both rubber and neoprene gloves when using the AIDA method. The observed discrepancy may have been caused by a longer sampling duration for the AIDA method (16 hr) than the ASTM procedure (8 hr). Advantages of the AIDA procedure are discussed. PMID:2106251