Sample records for packaging

  1. Food Packaging

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

  2. Packaging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frear, Darrel

    This chapter is a high-level overview of the materials used in an electronic package including: metals used as conductors in the package, ceramics and glasses used as dielectrics or insulators and polymers used as insulators and, in a composite form, as conductors. There is a need for new materials to meet the ever-changing requirements for high-speed digital and radio-frequency (RF) applications. There are different requirements for digital and RF packages that translate into the need for unique materials for each application. The interconnect and dielectric (insulating) requirements are presented for each application and the relevant materials properties and characteristics are discussed. The fundamental materials characteristics are: dielectric constant, dielectric loss, thermal and electric conductivity, resistivity, moisture absorption, glass-transition temperature, strength, time-dependent deformation (creep), and fracture toughness. The materials characteristics and properties are dependant on how they are processed to form the electronic package so the fundamentals of electronic packaging processes are discussed including wirebonding, solder interconnects, flip-chip interconnects, underfill for flip chip and overmolding. The relevant materials properties are given along with requirements (including environmentally friendly Pb-free packages) that require new materials to be developed to meet future electronics needs for both digital and RF applications.

  3. ARCHITECTURAL Portfolio package

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES Portfolio package Carleton University requires a portfolio package as part of your application to the Bachelor of Architectural Studies program. The portfolio package. This brochure should help eliminate any anxiety about the portfolio package by providing explanations, answering

  4. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  5. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  6. Package Those Foods!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Student groups are challenged to create food packages for specific foods. They focus on three components in the design of their food packages; the packages must keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and present the food appealingly. They design their packaging to meet these requirements.

  7. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  8. Packaging of MEMS microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiertag, Gregor; Winter, Matthias; Leidl, Anton

    2009-05-01

    To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the ceramic substrate. In this paper the packaging technology is explained in detail and results of electro-acoustic characterization and reliability testing are presented. We will also explain the way which has led us from the packaging of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) components to the packaging of MEMS microphones.

  9. Package Shift in Plastic-Packaged Bandgap References

    E-print Network

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    packages add manufacturing cost and time to IC. · Package shift needs to be compensated at circuitPackage Shift in Plastic- Packaged Bandgap References Vishal Gupta Prof. Gabriel A. Rincón-Mora #12;Abstract What is package shift? Offset in voltage of packaged bandgap reference from its unpackaged value

  10. Extended precision software packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    A description of three extended precision packages is presented along with three small conversion subroutines which can be used in conjunction with the extended precision packages. These extended packages represent software packages written in FORTRAN 4. They contain normalized or unnormalized floating point arithmetic with symmetric rounding and arbitrary mantissa lengths, and normalized floating point interval arithmetic with appropriate rounding. The purpose of an extended precision package is to enable the user to use and manipulate numbers with large decimal places as well as those with small decimal places where precision beyond double precision is required.

  11. Why packages? The Windows tools

    E-print Network

    Murdoch, Duncan

    Why packages? The Windows tools A sample package Going further Package Development in Windows from August 13, 2008; updated November 23, 2012 1 of 45 #12;Why packages? The Windows tools A sample of packages 2 The Windows tools The main tools Missing pieces Installing the tools 3 A sample package Getting

  12. Smart packaging for photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W. [ed.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  13. Active food packaging technologies.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited. PMID:15239372

  14. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. 178.602 Section 178.602 Transportation...REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. (a) Except as otherwise...

  15. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. 178.602 Section 178.602 Transportation...CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. (a) Except as otherwise...

  16. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. 178.602 Section 178.602 Transportation...CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. (a) Except as otherwise...

  17. 49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. 178.602 Section 178.602 Transportation...CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages...Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. (a) Except as otherwise...

  18. Interconnection and Packaging Issues of

    Microsoft Academic Search

    COTS MEMS; Rajeshuni Ramesham

    Integrated circuit packaging and their testing is well advanced because of the maturity of the IC industry, their wide applications, and availability of industrial infrastructure.(1,2) This is not true for MEMS with respect to packaging and testing. It is more difficult to adopt standardized MEMS device packaging for wide applications although MEMS use many similar technologies to IC packaging. Packaging

  19. Reliability assessment of BGA packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geok-Leong Tan; Chuan-Yau Hoo; Gerard Chew; Jim-Hee Low; Nam-Beng Tay; K. K. Chakravorty; Thiam-Beng Lim

    1996-01-01

    As interest in BGA packaging continues to surge in the industry, many companies are evaluating the package for immediate and future use. Evaluation and acceptance of new packages take time. Furthermore, standards are required to benchmark new packages. This paper presents the results of a reliability assessment exercise on five types of BGA packages. This assessment includes JEDEC moisture sensitivity,

  20. Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Benjamin F.; Buchholz, Margery M.

    This document describes a learning activity package (LAP) as an approach to individualized instruction. Prepared by teachers, the learning activity package allows the student to progress toward stated objectives at his own pace, selecting from among learning activities those suitable to his own learning style. Included in this report are a…

  1. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  2. Thermomechanical reliability analysis of package-on-package assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailong Liu; Shaohua Yang

    2011-01-01

    Package on Package (PoP) is a packaging technology that one package is placed on top of another package to integrate different functionalities while still maintain same foot print size. The advantages of PoP are evident, but there are also some challenges with respect to packaging and Surface Mounting Technology (SMT). Due to the complex architecture of PoP, some reliability issues

  3. New Finsler package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Nabil L.; Elgendi, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    The book “Handbook of Finsler geometry” has been included with a CD containing an elegant Maple package, FINSLER, for calculations in Finsler geometry. Using this package, an example concerning a Finsler generalization of Einstein’s vacuum field equations was treated. In this example, the calculation of the components of the hv-curvature of Cartan connection leads to wrong expressions. On the other hand, the FINSLER package works only in dimension four. We introduce a new Finsler package in which we fix the two problems and solve them. Moreover, we extend this package to compute not only the geometric objects associated with Cartan connection but also those associated with Berwald, Chern and Hashiguchi connections in any dimension. These improvements have been illustrated by a concrete example. Furthermore, the problem of simplifying tensor expressions is treated. This paper is intended to make calculations in Finsler geometry more easier and simpler.

  4. Plastic packages survive where hermetic packages fail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nihal Sinnadurai

    1996-01-01

    Plastic encapsulation is now a highly reliable method of packaging microelectronics and can be significantly more reliable than military specified “hermetic components” in field deployments of electronics in humid tropical climates. MIL883 hermeticity is an inadequate safeguard against penetration by high levels of moisture in the atmosphere. In this new work, tropical climates are analysed and shown to be significantly

  5. The syntax* package Mark Wooding

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    document which needs the package: o A system of abbreviated forms for typesetting syntactic The syntax* package Mark Wooding . . . . . . 43 ___________________________* The syntax package is currently at version 1.07, dated 17 May

  6. Optoelectronic packaging: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

  7. Microsystem packaging: lessons from conventional low cost IC packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kelly; J. Alderman; C. Lyden; J. Barrett

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes some of the issues associated with the packaging of microsystems and how packaging can influence their reliability and performance. The importance of early consideration in the design cycle of packaging, and the environment in which the microsystem will be placed, is stressed. It illustrates how the IC packaging industry has striven to overcome the problems of residual

  8. FORTRAN read package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diekelman, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Flexible input schemes for digital programs are described. No card format or special order of cards is required. Read package is controlled by small set of parameters which can be changed to account for differences in computers and digital programs.

  9. The ENSDF Java Package

    SciTech Connect

    Sonzogni, A.A. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2005-05-24

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

  10. From Wafer to Package

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation of finished wafer to packaged integrated Circuits. Objective: Describe the wafer to packaged device process steps. This simulation is from Module 075 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You will find the animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-04-30

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  12. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  13. Packaging: past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rao R. Tummala

    2005-01-01

    In the past, microsystems packaging played two roles: 1) It provided I\\/O connections to and from devices, referred to as IC or wafer level packaging, and 2) It interconnected both active and passive components on system level boards, referred to as systems packaging. Both were accomplished by interconnections or multilayer wiring at the package or board level. More recently, the

  14. Thermal enhancement of IC packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darvin Edwards; Ming Hwang; B. Stearns

    1994-01-01

    Plastic package thermal enhancement techniques that improve the heat dissipating capabilities of the packages are available to IC package design engineers. Evaluations of these techniques have been performed using test structure measurements and thermal FEA modeling. The techniques studied include the use of additional metal traces on the PCB to spread the heat away from the package, the use of

  15. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  16. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC); Cadieux, James R. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  17. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  18. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  20. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

  1. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-02-28

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  3. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted.

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted.

  5. MMIC packaging with Waffleline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. W.; Ellis, T. T.; Schineller, E. R.

    1990-06-01

    The design principle of Waffleline, a patented MMIC packaging technology, is discussed, and several recent applications are described and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and photographs. Standard Waffleline is a foil-covered waffle-iron-like grid with dielectric-coated signal and power wires running in the channels and foil-removed holes for mounting prepackaged chips or chip carriers. With spacing of 50 mils between center conductors, this material is applicable at frequencies up to 40 GHz; EHF devices require Waffleline with 25-mil spacing. Applications characterized include a subassembly for a man-transportable SHF satellite-communication terminal, a transmitter driver for a high-power TWT, and a 60-GHz receiver front end (including an integrated monolithic microstrip antenna, a low-noise amplifier, a mixer, and an IF amplifier in a 0.25-inch-thick 1.6-inch-diameter package). The high package density and relatively low cost of Waffleline are emphasized.

  6. AN ADA NAMELIST PACKAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Ada Namelist Package, developed for the Ada programming language, enables a calling program to read and write FORTRAN-style namelist files. A namelist file consists of any number of assignment statements in any order. Features of the Ada Namelist Package are: the handling of any combination of user-defined types; the ability to read vectors, matrices, and slices of vectors and matrices; the handling of mismatches between variables in the namelist file and those in the programmed list of namelist variables; and the ability to avoid searching the entire input file for each variable. The principle user benefits of this software are the following: the ability to write namelist-readable files, the ability to detect most file errors in the initialization phase, a package organization that reduces the number of instantiated units to a few packages rather than to many subprograms, a reduced number of restrictions, and an increased execution speed. The Ada Namelist reads data from an input file into variables declared within a user program. It then writes data from the user program to an output file, printer, or display. The input file contains a sequence of assignment statements in arbitrary order. The output is in namelist-readable form. There is a one-to-one correspondence between namelist I/O statements executed in the user program and variables read or written. Nevertheless, in the input file, mismatches are allowed between assignment statements in the file and the namelist read procedure statements in the user program. The Ada Namelist Package itself is non-generic. However, it has a group of nested generic packages following the nongeneric opening portion. The opening portion declares a variety of useraccessible constants, variables and subprograms. The subprograms are procedures for initializing namelists for reading, reading and writing strings. The subprograms are also functions for analyzing the content of the current dataset and diagnosing errors. Two nested generic packages follow the opening portion. The first generic package contains procedures that read and write objects of scalar type. The second contains subprograms that read and write one and two-dimensional arrays whose components are of scalar type and whose indices are of either of the two discrete types (integer or enumeration). Subprograms in the second package also read and write vector and matrix slices. The Ada Namelist ASCII text files are available on a 360k 5.25" floppy disk written on an IBM PC/AT running under the PC DOS operating system. The largest subprogram in the package requires 150k of memory. The package was developed using VAX Ada v. 1.5 under DEC VMS v. 4.5. It should be portable to any validated Ada compiler. The software was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  7. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Boden; F. W. Stoss

    1993-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric COâ and CHâ concentrations, historic and present oceanic COâ concentrations, historic weather and climate around the

  8. Packaging design criteria for the Hanford Ecorok Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-01-19

    The Hanford Ecorok Packaging (HEP) will be used to ship contaminated water purification filters from K Basins to the Central Waste Complex. This packaging design criteria documents the design of the HEP, its intended use, and the transportation safety criteria it is required to meet. This information will serve as a basis for the safety analysis report for packaging.

  9. Packages of Subroutines

    E-print Network

    Dongarra, Jack

    ;74-2 Handbook of Linear Algebra two-dimensional array in the one-dimensional order: A(1,1), A(2,1), A(1,2), A(2Packages of Subroutines for Linear Algebra 74 Blas Jack Dongarra, Victor Eijkhout and Julien Langou the Computational Modes · MATLAB's EIQS 77 Summary of Software for Linear Algebra Freely Available on the Web Jack

  10. Microelectronics packaging automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, R. J.

    1992-11-01

    Microelectronic packaging evaluations were completed that established process capabilities for wire bond testing data analysis, eutectic die attach, and hermetic sealing. These processes are used for chip and wire hybrid microcircuits (HMC's), leadless chip carriers (LCC's), and large-scale integrated circuits (LSI's) manufactured at the Kansas City Division.

  11. Moisture in electronic packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dermarderosian

    1980-01-01

    Problems of moisture-related corrosion in integrated circuits and moisture entrapment in hybrid devices are reviewed. Test devices, failure modes, and failure mechanisms are described. Some experimental results are evaluated, and moisture measurement techniques are discussed which use mass spectrometers, electrolytic hygrometers, aluminum oxide transducers, or surface conductivity sensors. The problem of package hermeticity is briefly considered. It is shown that

  12. Packaged air conditioner

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a package terminal air conditioning unit that is formed of an interior unit disposed within a building, a separate exterior unit disposed outside the building, and connecting duct means connecting the interior unit to the exterior unit, in which the interior unit comprises a cabinet, an indoor heat exchanger coil, and a cylindrical fan which includes a

  13. Printer Graphics Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  14. Radioactive waste disposal package

    DOEpatents

    Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  15. Web Technology (elective package)

    E-print Network

    Franssen, Michael

    Web Technology (elective package) Offered by: Department of Mathematics and Computer Science? Computer Science-based approaches and enabling technologies for the web. Course descriptions Human and efficient. Web Technology The web has become the major source of information retrieval and is playing

  16. It's all In the Package

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this activity, students explore the concept of "reducing" solid waste and how it relates to product packaging and engineering advancements in packaging materials. Students read about and evaluate the highly publicized packaging decisions of two major U.S. corporations. They will evaluate different ways to package items in order to minimize the environmental impact, while considering issues such as cost, availability, product attractiveness, etc. Students will explore "hydrapulping" and consider its use as a recycling process.

  17. Packaging Systems and Design Fall/Spring Semester Packaging Systems and Design Introductory Courses

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Packaging Systems and Design Fall/Spring Semester Packaging Systems and Design Introductory of Packaging (SBIO 2104) Packaging systems, materials, and forms and their relationship and design of shipping and distribution systems. The relation between packaging

  18. Handling difficult materials: Aseptic packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lieb

    1994-01-01

    Since aseptic packages, or drink boxes, were introduced in the US in the early 1980s, they have been praised for their convenience and berated for their lack of recyclability. As a result, aseptic packaging collection has been linked with that of milk cartons to increase the volume. The intervening years since the introduction of aseptic packaging have seen the drink

  19. The xr package* David Carlisley

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    carlisle@cs.man.ac.uk 1994/05/28 This package implements a system for e The xr package* David CarlisleyXternal References. If one document needs to refer to sections of another, say aaa.tex, then this package may

  20. The doc and shortvrb Packages* Frank Mittelbachy

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    of package files. The package was developed in Mainz in cooperation with the Royal Military College The doc and shortvrb Packages* Frank Mittelbachy Abstract This package contains the definitions that are necessary to format the documentation

  1. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  2. KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

    KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

  3. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word-for-word steps in th is document, in sequence, including Notes and cautions. Site specific information may be included as necessary. The document, and revisions, must then be submitted to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval. A copy of the approval letter from CBFO shall be available for audit purposes. Users may develop site-specific procedures addressing preoperational activities, quality assurance (QA), hoisting and rigging, and radiation health physics to be used with the instructions contained in this document. Users may recommend changes to this document by submitting their recommendations (in writing) to the WIPP M&O Contractor RH Packaging Maintenance Engineer for evaluation. If approved, the change(s) will be incorporated into this document for use by ALL users. Before first use and every 12 months after, user sites will be audited to this document to ensure compliance. They will also be audited within one year from the effective date of revisions to this document.

  4. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  5. Aquaculture information package

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  6. FreeBSD Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dru Lavigne

    \\u000a Chapter 8 introduced you to the PBI system of installing and managing software. While this is the preferred way to handle\\u000a software on your PC-BSD system, it is not the only method available to you. This chapter will introduce you to FreeBSD packages,\\u000a the second easiest way to manage software on your PCBSD system. Chapter 9 will introduce you to

  7. Reworking POP Package on Package in Lead-Free Array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Wood

    2008-01-01

    In 2008 Lead Free Package POP (Package on Package) will be a major new device to hit the streets and will challenge many to re-evaluate their soldering and rework products\\/processes. The implementation of lead-free in the commercial world and is well on the way in assembly plants worldwide and particularly in Asia. This represents a major logistics risk to commercial

  8. Reliability of MEMS packaging: vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hoon Choa

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the dominant reliability issues of MEMS packaging that include vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress, are discussed, and design considerations to improve the reliability are presented. The MEMS vibratory gyroscope sensor is fabricated with anodically bonded wafer level vacuum packaging followed by die-bonding and wire-bonding processes. The epoxy-molding compound (EMC) is applied to encapsulate the gyroscope sensor.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    SciTech Connect

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  10. KAPPA: Kernel Applications Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David S.

    2014-03-01

    KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

  11. Space station power semiconductor package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

    1987-01-01

    A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

  12. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neelkanth G. Dhere

    2008-01-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet\\/encapsulant\\/PV cells\\/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant

  13. Wafer Level Chip Scale Packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Töpper

    \\u000a Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) based on redistribution is the key technology which is evolving to System in Package (SiP) and\\u000a Heterogeneous Integration (HI) by 3-D packaging using Through Silicon Vias (TSV). Materials and process technologies are key\\u000a for a reliable WLP. It is not only the choice for the right polymer or metal but the interfaces could be even more

  14. High-Pressure Transducer Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wamstad, D.; Glenn, M.

    1987-01-01

    Enclosure for silicon device ensures accurate measurements of cryogenic liquids. Package holds silicon sensor in uniform compression around periphery and helps ensure accurate, stable, and repeatable pressure measurements. Mounting assembly housed in package of stainless steel. Materials selected for equality of thermal expansion and for pressure-sealing properties. Besides its high-pressure, low-temperature characteristics, package withstands vibrations as severe as 400 times standard gravitational acceleration at 0 to 2,000 Hz.

  15. Tamper indicating packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

    1994-08-01

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

  16. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2009-05-27

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  17. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-09-11

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing "Short" 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing "Tall" 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  18. Signal processor packaging design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

    1993-10-01

    The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

  19. Package size and epoxy mass effects on package hermeticity requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Bjorndahl

    1997-01-01

    Hermetic packages are required to protect sensitive electronic components from atmospheric constituents. The primary constituent of concern is water. Hermeticity requirements for large sealed assemblies are somewhat difficult to address because for normal leak rates, long bomb times are required in order to get enough helium into the package so that during leak rate measurement, a detectable concentration of helium

  20. Package Up Your Troubles--An Introduction to Package Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Colin

    1978-01-01

    Discusses a "package deal" library--a prefabricated building including interior furnishing--in terms of costs, fitness for purpose, and interior design, i.e., shelving, flooring, heating, lighting, and humidity. Advantages and disadvantages of the package library are also considered. (Author/MBR)

  1. Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart; And Others

    This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

  2. Biopolymer-Based Antimicrobial Packaging: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONG SU CHA; MANJEET S. CHINNAN

    2004-01-01

    The term antimicrobial packaging encompasses any packaging technique(s) used to control microbial growth in a food product. These include packaging materials and edible films and coatings that contain antimicrobial agents and also techniques that modify the atmosphere within the package. In recent years, antimicrobial packaging has attracted much attention from the food industry because of the increase in consumer demand

  3. Building an R package Division of Biostatistics

    E-print Network

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    Building an R package Yen-Yi Ho Division of Biostatistics School of Public Health, University of Minnesota Yen-Yi Ho Building an R package #12;Steps Prepare your functions, example data sets Build package in man subdirectory) Write a package vignette Build and install the R package (R CMD build) Check the R

  4. Romanian experience on packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, G. [IAEA Technical Expert, Head, Reliability and Testing Lab., Institute for Nuclear Research (Romania)

    2007-07-01

    With more than twenty years ago, the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), through its Reliability and Testing Laboratory, was licensed by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body- CNCAN and to carry out qualification tests [1] for packages intended to be used for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities [2] are packaged in accordance with national [3] and the IAEA's Regulations [1,6] for a safe transport to the disposal center. Subjecting these packages to the normal and simulating test conditions accomplish the evaluation and certification in order to prove the package technical performances. The paper describes the qualification tests for type A and B packages used for transport and storage of radioactive materials, during a period of 20 years of experience. Testing is used to substantiate assumption in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. The Romanian test facilities [1,3,6] are used to simulate the required qualification tests and have been developed at INR Pitesti, the main supplier of type A packages used for transport and storage of low radioactive wastes in Romania. The testing programme will continue to be a strong option to support future package development, to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on radioactive material packages or component sections, such as packages used for transport of radioactive sources to be used for industrial or medical purposes [2,8]. The paper describes and contain illustrations showing some of the various tests packages which have been performed during certain periods and how they relate to normal conditions and minor mishaps during transport. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design there are also presented and commented. (authors)

  5. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40 Section 173...Transportation § 173.40 General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. When this section...

  6. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  7. Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

  8. Writing Objectives for Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Guenther, John E.

    The guide is intended for preservice and inservice teachers on all levels as they prepare and implement behavioral objectives and learning packages. Behavioral objectives are statements which describe what students will be able to do after completing a prescribed unit of instruction. Learning activity packages are self-instructional and self-paced…

  9. LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

  10. Thermally induced IC package cracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID SUHL

    1990-01-01

    The presence of plastic package cracks due to the thermal stress of assembly procedures in low-cost plastic packages represents a severe long-term reliability hazard. It has been shown previously that the dominant cracking mechanism is moisture expansion due to thermal processing acting on concentrations of water vapor at the back surface of the die paddle and at the front surface

  11. Status of PERST-5 package

    SciTech Connect

    Gomin, E. A.; Gurevich, M. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V., E-mail: prianik@adis.vver.kiae.ru; Sidorenko, V. D. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Druzhinin, V. E. [Scientific and Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plant Operation (VNIIAES) (Russian Federation); Zhirnov, A. P.; Rozhdestvenskiy, I. M. [Scientific Research and Design Institute of Electrical Engineering (NIKIET) (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    The methods and algorithms used in the PERST-5 package are described. This package is part of the MCU-5 code and is intended for neutron-physical calculation of the cells and parts of nuclear reactors using a generalized method of first collision probabilities.

  12. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  13. Package-interface thermal switch

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, N.L.

    1995-05-24

    The package-interface thermal switch (PITS) is an active temperature control device for modulating the flow of thermal energy from satellite equipment, such as electronic modules or batteries, to the satellite mounting deck which serves as a heat sink. PITS comprises a mounting bolt made of a shaped memory alloy (SMA) actuating bolt and a non-metallic rod with a helical spring surrounding it forming a mounting bolt for a satellite equipment package. At least four mounting bolts are used for installing the equipment package and are preloaded to a predetermined stress representing the desired thermal conductance between the heat sink and the package. The SMA actuating bolt is in thermal contact with the component or package and expands or contracts as the result of changing package temperature and the helical return spring forces against the SMA actuating bolt portion of the PITS, increasing (hot-on`1 condition) or decreasing (cold-off condition) the pressure of the package against the mounting deck. As the PITS changes its total length, the thermal conductance between the two objects is increased or decreased. Thus thermal conductance changes as a direct function of package temperature, resulting in active temperature control. The simple design of the PITS reduces the cost and weight of the thermal control subsystem in satellites and its high reliability eliminates the requirement for thermal design verification testing.

  14. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  15. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  16. The dcolumn package* David Carlisle

    E-print Network

    This package defines a system for defining columns of entries in an arr* *ay or tabular which are to be aligned on a `decimal point'. This package defines D to be a column specifier with three arguments. D>should be the maximum number of decimal places in the column. If this is negative, any number of decimal places can

  17. The dcolumn package* David Carlisle

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    2001/05/28 Abstract This package defines a system for defining columns of entries in an array or tabular which are to be aligned on a `decimal point'. This package defines D to be a column specifier with three arguments. D{}{}{decimal places

  18. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  19. The LISA Technology Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

  20. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  1. Flip Chip Package-in-Package (fcPiP): A New 3D Packaging Solution for Mobile Platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pendse; B. S. Choi; Baker Kim; K. M. Kim; Y. C. Kim; K. Lee; D. W. Yang; Lily Zhao; T. Gregorich; P. Holmes; E. Reyes

    2007-01-01

    A new chip scale package is developed for use in high end cellular handsets and mobile products. The package houses a Baseband device, a pre-packaged Memory device and an Analog device in a 3-high stacked Package-in-Package (PiP) configuration wherein the base band die is attached to a 4-layer 1-2-1 Build-up laminate substrate using flip chip interconnection and the Memory package

  2. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

    2002-06-01

    Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

  3. Electronic packaging materials science III

    SciTech Connect

    Jaccodine, R. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA)); Jackson, K.A. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (USA)); Sundahl, R.C. (Allied Signal, Des Plaines, IL (US))

    1988-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the symposia on electronic packaging materials science. The symposium included overviews as well as papers which addressed levels of packaging. The packaging and interconnection technologies for electronic systems are becoming an increasingly important part of these systems in terms of their cost, functionality, and complexity. This trend is being driven by system trends toward higher density, higher speed, and higher thermal dissipation. The nature of these trends, and their impact on the demands placed on the materials are covered. New processes for depositing, etching and promoting interfacial adhesion are described. Particular materials issues associated with interconnection on the IC, from the IC to its package and between ICs are covered. The authors have dealt with issues particular to the packaging of Ga As and optoelectronic circuits.

  4. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each...

  5. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each...

  6. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each...

  7. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each...

  8. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each...

  9. 40 CFR 262.30 - Packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Pre-Transport...Requirements § 262.30 Packaging. Before transporting hazardous waste or offering hazardous...generator must package the waste in accordance with...Transportation regulations on packaging under 49 CFR...

  10. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of...

  11. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of...

  12. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of...

  13. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of...

  14. 7 CFR 33.6 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of...

  15. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  17. Evaluating Packaged Steam Generator Designs 

    E-print Network

    Ganapathy, V.

    1997-01-01

    Packaged Steam generators are the workhorses of process and cogeneration plants. An understanding of their design and performance aspects helps plant engineers, consultants and potential buyers evaluate various options from different vendors more...

  18. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope and requirements of reviews; and (5) Provide the above information to DOE organizations, contractors, other government agencies, and interested members of the general public. This PRG was originally published in September 1987. Revision 1, issued in October 1988, added new review sections on quality assurance and penetrations through the containment boundary, along with a few other items. Revision 2 was published October 1999. Revision 3 of this PRG is a complete update, and supersedes Revision 2 in its entirety.

  19. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  20. Large area LED package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 ?m edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  1. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Kelly

    1995-01-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging

  2. A new low profile coldweld package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Wickard; W. P. Hanson; G. P. Bal

    1997-01-01

    During the past 10 years market pressures have pushed the industry to smaller packaging for precision SC-cut resonators. Meanwhile, improvements in the aging performance and electrical characteristics are demanded. In order to meet this demand, Piezo developed a new low profile quartz crystal resonator package. The package is the next step in the evolution of a surface mount package which

  3. Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivek Gnanasekharan; John D. Floros; Jack R. Glacin

    1997-01-01

    Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food\\/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focusses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion

  4. The pict2e package Hubert Galein

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    The pict2e package Hubert G¨aßlein and Rolf Niepraschk 2004/08/06 Abstract This package was described in the 2nd edition of "LATEX: A Document Preparation System", but the LATEX project team declined to produce the package. For a long time, LATEX has included a "pict2e package" that merely produced

  5. Research on Green Packaging of Circular Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Guirong; Li Dehua; Wang Zhiping; Ma Chenglin

    2010-01-01

    The circular economy is the resource recycling economy, is the economy of harmonious development between economy and environment, also a kind of ecological economy. Circular economy demands that enterprises' logistics activities be green logistics packaging. The green packaging aims at improving the packing materials reuse, reducing resource consumption and lowering packaging waste pollution to the environment. Implementing green logistics packaging,

  6. The Ultra CSPTM wafer scale package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Elenius

    1998-01-01

    There has been a significant amount of work over the past 5 years on chip scale packaging. The majority of this work has been an extension of conventional IC packaging technology utilizing either wire bonders and\\/or TAB type packaging technology. Handling discrete devices during the IC packaging for these type of CSPs has resulted in a relatively high cost for

  7. Thermal enhancement of plastic IC packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darvin R. Edwards; Ming Hwang; B. Stearns

    1995-01-01

    Plastic package thermal enhancement techniques that improve the heat dissipating capabilities of the packages are available to IC package design engineers. Evaluations of these techniques have been performed using test structure measurements and thermal FEA modeling. The techniques studied include the use of additional metal traces on the PCB to spread the heat away from the package, the use of

  8. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  9. Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

    2013-03-13

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

  10. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Kelleher; R. L. Shipp; J. D. Mason

    2010-01-01

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information

  11. Package Fingerprints: a visual summary of package interface usage Hani Abdeena

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    packages. Maintainers of large systems need to understand how packages relate to each other, but this task the package under analysis is used by the system and how it uses the system. Results: We applied these views identify the role of and the way a package is used within the system (e.g., the package under analysis

  12. Reference waste package environment report

    SciTech Connect

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

  13. Package inspection using inverse diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAulay, Alastair D.

    2008-08-01

    More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.

  14. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOEpatents

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (26 Aspen Rd., Placitas, NM 87043); Hadley, G. Ronald (6012 Annapolis NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Warren, Mial E. (3825 Mary Ellen NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Carson, Richard F. (1036 Jewel Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (1023 Oro Real NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1998-01-01

    A structure and method for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package.

  15. MEMS Packaging and Thermal Issues in Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lin, Liwei

    The potential of MEMS/NEMS technologies has been viewed as a comparable or even bigger revolution than that of microelectronics. These scientific and engineering advancements in MEMS/NEMS could bring applications to reality previously unthinkable, from space systems, environmental instruments, to daily life appliances. As presented in previous chapters, the development of core MEMS/NEMS processes has already demonstrated a lot of commercial applications as well as future potentials with elaborated functionalities. However, a low cost and reliable package for the protection of these MEMS/NEMS products is still a very difficult task. Without addressing the packaging and reliability issues, no commercial products can be sold on the market. Packaging design and modeling, packaging material selection, packaging process integration, and packaging cost are main issues to be considered when developing a new MEMS packaging process. In this chapter, we will present the fundamentals of MEMS/NEMS packaging technology, including packaging processes, hermetic and vacuum encapsulations, thermal issues, packaging reliability, and future packaging trends. The future development of MEMS packaging will rely on the success of the implementation of several unique techniques, such as packaging design kits for system and circuit designer, low cost and high yield wafer level, chip-scale packaging techniques, effective testing techniques at the wafer-level to reduce overall testing costs; and reliable fabrication of an interposer [37.1] with vertical through-interconnects for device integrations.

  16. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  17. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  18. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  19. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  20. 49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  1. EPRI reactor analysis support package

    SciTech Connect

    Agee, L.J.; Rose, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute's Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP) project was initiated to provide utilities with computer programs and analysis guidelines for describing nuclear power plant behavior and performance. The objective of the RASP project is to produce an integrated, interlinked, and validated code package (including analysis guidelines) that can be used by utilities for both fuel reload and plant safety analysis. This paper briefly describes the RASP project and its status for developing an analysis methodology that utilities can use to support their own integrated reactor analysis capabilities.

  2. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  3. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include military preservation, packaging, or packing specifications...

  4. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include military preservation, packaging, or packing specifications...

  5. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include military preservation, packaging, or packing specifications...

  6. IECL Energy Conservation Material Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Interstate Energy Conservation Leadership.

    This publication presents information on how schools and school districts can save energy. The energy conservation materials contained in this package are organized into two sections. The section titles are: (1) Towards a State Education Energy Policy; and (2) Materials for Distribution to School Districts. Topics presented in the first section…

  7. DATACUBE: A datacube manipulation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Alasdair; Currie, Malcolm J.

    2014-05-01

    DATACUBE is a command-line package for manipulating and visualizing data cubes. It was designed for integral field spectroscopy but has been extended to be a generic data cube tool, used in particular for sub-millimeter data cubes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  8. Will the package contain pathogens

    E-print Network

    Will the package contain pathogens OR dry ice ? Is the material considered hazardous by the DOT? Do ? NO NO YES YES Pack and ship. If you have identified any hazardous pathogenic substances, ensure you take EHS to a location outside of the US, and: - The materials are pathogens listed on Stanford's Dual Use Pathogen List

  9. The onlyamsmath package* Harald Harders

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    .sty: equation, align, gather, flalign, multiline, alignat, and split. All environments except split havePackage{amsmath} 2.1 Options All options set a boolean variable which is named simular to the option name; Set the default options: 15\\ExecuteOptions{error} Process

  10. ULFEM time series analysis package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappler, Karl N.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Glen, Jonathan M.; Klemperer, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    This manual describes how to use the Ultra-Low-Frequency ElectroMagnetic (ULFEM) software package. Casual users can read the quick-start guide and will probably not need any more information than this. For users who may wish to modify the code, we provide further description of the routines.

  11. Silver Package Snacks (Choose 2)

    E-print Network

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    Silver Package Snacks (Choose 2): ___Tortilla Chips & Salsa ___Assorted Snack Mix-House ___Popcorn-House ___Popcorn ___Chips & Dip ___Fruit Tray ___Veggie Tray ___Mixed Nuts ___Tex-Mex Chips & Dip Entree (Choose 2 Snacks (Choose 2): ___Tex-Mex Chips & Dip ___Assorted Snack Mix-House ___Popcorn ___Chips & Dip ___Fruit

  12. Audio/ Videoconferencing Packages: High Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, Sonia; Rizzuto, Mary; Sawyers, Urel

    2005-01-01

    This report compares two integrated course delivery packages: "Centra 6" and "WebEx". Both applications feature asynchronous and synchronous audio communications for online education and training. They are relatively costly products, and provide useful comparisons with the two less expensive products to be evaluated in the following report #53.…

  13. Sponsorship Package International Conference on

    E-print Network

    Tucci, Sara

    Sponsorship Package International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems Rome, Italy, July 2nd-4th, 2008 http://debs08.dis.uniroma1.it/ DEBS20082nd International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems 1 #12;DEBS20082nd International Conference on Distributed Event-Based Systems Conference Overview

  14. The euler package Frank Jensen*

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    entering the manuscript, since the package will cause, e.g., math numerals to come from the Euler Roman fonts; these numerals are easily distinguished from the normal text numerals. This implies that sloppy Euler Roman letters and digits. Another way to get bold symbols is to use the \\boldsymbol command

  15. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  16. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  17. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means...

  18. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means...

  19. 7 CFR 65.130 - Consumer package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.130 Consumer package. Consumer package means...

  20. 7 CFR 35.5 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.5 Package. Package means any container of any variety of vinifera species table grapes. [41 FR 32877, Aug. 6,...

  1. 7 CFR 35.5 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.5 Package. Package means any container of any variety of vinifera species table grapes. [41 FR 32877, Aug. 6,...

  2. 7 CFR 35.5 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.5 Package. Package means any container of any variety of vinifera species table grapes. [41 FR 32877, Aug. 6,...

  3. 49 CFR 176.156 - Defective packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Defective packages. 176.156 Section 176.156 Transportation Other Regulations...Loading and Unloading § 176.156 Defective packages...The master of the vessel must report each incident involving...

  4. 49 CFR 176.156 - Defective packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Defective packages. 176.156 Section 176.156 Transportation Other Regulations...Loading and Unloading § 176.156 Defective packages...The master of the vessel must report each incident involving...

  5. Yield learning model for integrated circuit package 

    E-print Network

    Balasubramaniam, Gaurishankar

    1996-01-01

    In a semiconductor industry, packaging of integrated circuit chips, product quality control and rapid problem diagnosis are very critical to economic success. The integrated circuit package makes up a large fraction of the total production cost...

  6. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

  7. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

  8. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

  9. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

  10. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

  11. Investigating packaging effects on bandgap references

    E-print Network

    Palakodety, Ravi (Ravi Kiran)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates packaging effects on precision bandgap voltage references used in LTC switching regulators. Packaging stress causes a mean offset and room temperature distribution widening of the bandgap reference ...

  12. A figure of merit for IC packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Keyes

    1978-01-01

    Powering integrated circuits is a compromise between increasing power to increase circuit speed and maintaining high packaging density while satisfying cooling constraints. The optimization of this compromise provides the basis for a packaging figure of merit.

  13. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  14. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  15. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  18. OPIUM: Optimal Package Install\\/Uninstall Manager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Tucker; David Shuffelton; Ranjit Jhala; Sorin Lerner

    2007-01-01

    Common Linux distributions often include package man- agement tools such asapt-get in Debian oryum in Red- Hat. Using information about package dependencies and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies) on a system of already in- stalled packages. Using off-the-shelf SAT solvers, pseudo- boolean solvers, and Integer Linear Programming solvers, we have developed

  19. The advent of 3-D package age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wu; Yu-Po Wang; S. C. Kee; B. Wallace; C. S. Hsiao; C. K. Yeh; T. D. Her; R. Lo

    2000-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) package is one type of multi-die package (MDP). Unlike most MDPs, the dice inside 3D packages are stacked vertically. Although it is not a new concept, 3D packaging has not been widely implemented in mass production until recent years (Sidharth et al. 2000; Gannamani et al. 1999; Kada, 1999). Advanced portable products that require high spatial density

  20. Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

    2007-01-01

    The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

  1. Fundamental requirements on MEMS packaging and reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Persson; K. Boustedt

    2002-01-01

    Packaging of MEMS has been identified as one of the most significant areas of research for enabling MEMS usage in product applications by among others USA's NSF. In order to make MEMS a real-life opportunity, it is vital to explore and develop an understanding of the possibilities and limitations of MEMS packaging and reliability. Today's MEMS packaging can be divided

  2. Hermetic packaging for power multichip modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schulz-Harder; A. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Hermetic packaging is a requirement for all applications where electronic components must be protected from corrosive environments to ensure acceptable service life. Extremely high reliability is required for space and military electronics, often utilizing hermetic packages. Metal packages with glass to metal seals are the common solution for low to medium power levels. For high power applications, high current has

  3. Common Lisp Instrumentation Package: User Manual

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Common Lisp Instrumentation Package: User Manual David L. Westbrook, Scott D. Anderson, David M;#12;Common Lisp Instrumentation Package: User Manual Experimental Knowledge Systems Laboratory Computer for the Common Lisp Instrumentation Package (Clip), a tool for automating experimentation and data collection

  4. 16 CFR 500.27 - Multiunit packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Multiunit packages. 500.27 Section 500.27 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.27 Multiunit packages. (a) A...

  5. 16 CFR 500.29 - Combination packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combination packages. 500.29 Section 500.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.29 Combination packages. (a) A...

  6. 16 CFR 500.28 - Variety packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Variety packages. 500.28 Section 500.28 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.28 Variety packages. (a) A variety...

  7. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-08-26

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  8. YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

    2005-01-01

    The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

  9. MPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate

    E-print Network

    Zacchiroli, Stefano - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

    on a target system. So-called package managers are used to per- form installation, upgrade and removalMPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate abate@pps.jussieu.fr Roberto Di Cosmo roberto-called package managers for the installation and removal of pack- ages on target machines. State

  10. The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL

    E-print Network

    McLeod, Ian

    system. The MHTS package component programs are provided for running under Windows NT and 2000i The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL c 2002, A.I. McLeod & K.W. Hipel Reference Manual Version: 1.6 #12;1 INTRODUCTION #12;2 Introduction Prologue The McLeod-Hipel Time Series (MTS) Package provides

  11. PACKAGING, FILMS AND COATINGS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increasing demand for biodegradable and compostable packaging by both industry and consumers. With the growing concern over the state of the environment and a desire to decrease the use of petroleum-based packaging, packaging from renewable resources that is produced using environmental...

  12. Multichip SMT power package for automotive market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Paulasto; H. Wieser; T. Hauck; C. Trigas

    2000-01-01

    To meet new intelligent power application requirements in the automotive electronics, a multichip power package platform has been developed at Motorola's Interconnect Systems Laboratory Europe (ISL-E) in Munich, Germany. The developed package platform offers two customer interfaces, a leaded standard SMT multichip power package and a mechatronic solution. This communication presents the concept and performance of the leaded, molded multichip

  13. The I.C. Plastic Package a Simple Method for Predicting Package Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion C. Halleck

    1972-01-01

    Frequent changes in materials and construction of the integrated circuit plastic packages have forced the consumer to continuous evaluation of their packages. Resistance to moisture is shown on recent plastic and ceramic dual-in-line integrated circuit packages from seven leading manufacturers. Results indicate that package material, barriers over the chip, passivation and backfill, added protection to the chip surface. Under equivalent

  14. Thoro Recognized for Creating Award-Winning Packaging Paperboard Packaging Council honors Thoro with special award

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    quality, printed folding cartons. Established in 1967, Thoro Packaging is proud to celebrate its, guaranteeing the best printed folding carton packaging. For more information on Thoro and their sustainabilityThoro Recognized for Creating Award-Winning Packaging Paperboard Packaging Council honors Thoro

  15. 10 CFR 63.134 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...The waste package monitoring program must include laboratory experiments that focus on the internal condition of the waste packages...package monitoring program must be duplicated in the laboratory experiments. (d) The waste package monitoring program must...

  16. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided...The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect...performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests...

  17. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided...The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect...performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests...

  18. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided...The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect...performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests...

  19. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided...The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect...performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests...

  20. 10 CFR 71.19 - Previously approved package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided...The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect...performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests...

  1. 7 CFR 58.413 - Cutting and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Cutting and packaging rooms. 58.413 Section...Compartments § 58.413 Cutting and packaging rooms. When small packages...unfiltered air into the cutting and packaging room. The waste materials and waste cheese...

  2. Development of a novel cost-effective Package-on-Package (PoP) solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sun; V. C. K. LEUNG; D. Yang; D. X. Q. SHI

    2009-01-01

    Package-on-package (PoP) is one of the major 3D packaging approaches. It vertically combines discrete memory and logic ball grid array (BGA) packages, where one package rests on the top of another. Recently, PoP technologies have attracted more interests, especially for portable electronics related products and applications. For the existing PoP solutions, they have the following disadvantages: (i) As the next-generation

  3. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O'Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

    1999-03-26

    The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a gross lack of understanding between the package materials, induced stress, and the device performance. The material properties of these packaging materials are not well defined or understood. Modeling of these materials and processes is far from maturity. Current post-package yields are too low for commercial feasibility, and consumer operating environment reliability and compatibility are often difficult to simulate. With further understanding of the materials properties and behavior of the packaging materials, MEMS applications can be fully realized and integrated into countless commercial and military applications.

  4. ARPREC: An arbitrary precision computation package

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Yozo, Hida; Li, Xiaoye S.; Thompson, Brandon

    2002-09-01

    This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE floating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. This package is written in C++ code for high performance and broad portability and includes both C++ and Fortran-90 translation modules, so that conventional C++ and Fortran-90 programs can utilize the package with only very minor changes. This paper includes a survey of some of the interesting applications of this package and its predecessors.

  5. Accelerated reliability evaluation for high density packaging integrated circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Yao; Ping Lai

    2011-01-01

    The demand for miniaturization, increased functionality, better performance and lower cost has forced the electronics industry to shift from traditional packaging techniques to advanced high density packaging technologies. As the packaging density increases, the packaging reliability becomes more essential. In this paper, an accelerated reliability test method to evaluate the packaging reliability of high density packaging integrated circuits (ICs) is

  6. Microwave thawing package and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.

    2004-03-16

    A package for containing frozen liquids during an electromagnetic thawing process includes: a first section adapted for containing a frozen material and exposing the frozen material to electromagnetic energy; a second section adapted for receiving thawed liquid material and shielding the thawed liquid material from further exposure to electromagnetic energy; and a fluid communication means for allowing fluid flow between the first section and the second section.

  7. Elastomer Clay Nanocomposites for Packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mittal

    \\u000a Packaging application of the materials require strong barrier as well as mechanical properties. Majority of the reports in\\u000a the literature have studied the mechanical properties while neglecting the barrier properties and it is generally assumed\\u000a that the improvement in mechanical properties leads to automatic enhancement of barrier performance. However, it may not be\\u000a true in all the cases as the

  8. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  9. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  10. MMIC Package for Millimeter Wave Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bharj, Sarjit Singh; Yuan, Steve

    1997-01-01

    Princeton Microwave Technology has successfully demonstrated the transfer of technology for the MMIC package. During this contract the package design was licensed from Hughes Aircraft Company for manufacture within the U.S. A major effort was directed towards characterization of the ceramic material for its dielectric constant and loss tangent properties. After selection of a ceramic tape, the high temperature co-fired ceramic package was manufactured in the U.S. by Microcircuit Packaging of America, Inc. Microwave measurements of the MMIC package were conducted by an intercontinental microwave test fixture. The package demonstrated a typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB per transition up to 32 Ghz and a return loss of better than 15 db. The performance of the package has been demonstrated from 2 to 30 Ghz by assembling three different MMIC amplifiers. Two of the MMIC amplifiers were designed for the 26 Ghz to 30 Ghz operation while the third MMIC was a distributed amplifier from 2 to 26.5 Ghz. The measured gain of the amplifier is consistent with the device data. The package costs are substantially lower than comparable packages available commercially. Typically the price difference is greater than a factor of three. The package cost is well under $5.00 for a quantity of 10,000 pieces.

  11. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O'NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  12. Biopolymer-based antimicrobial packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong Su; Chinnan, Manjeet S

    2004-01-01

    The term antimicrobialpackaging encompasses any packaging technique(s) used to control microbial growth in a food product. These include packaging materials and edible films and coatings that contain antimicrobial agents and also techniques that modify the atmosphere within the package. In recent years, antimicrobial packaging has attracted much attention from the food industry because of the increase in consumer demand for minimally processed, preservative-free products. Reflecting this demand, the preservative agents must be applied to packaging in such away that only low levels of preservatives come into contact with the food. The film or coating technique is considered to be more effective, although more complicated to apply. New antimicrobial packaging materials are continually being developed. Many of them exploit natural agents to control common food-borne microorganisms. Current trends suggest that, in due course, packaging will generally incorporate antimicrobial agents, and the sealing systems will continue to improve. The focus of packaging in the past has been on the appearance, size, and integrity of the package. A greater emphasis on safety features associated with the addition of antimicrobial agents is perhaps the next area for development in packaging technology. PMID:15462127

  13. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

  14. PIV Data Validation Software Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

  15. Tantalum equation of state package

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D A; Orlikowski, D

    2008-12-04

    We provide here the tantalum equation of state (EOS) over broad ranges of temperature and pressure (up to 49,900 K and 9.6 Mbar). This EOS was developed by the quotidian equation of state methodology, which is a robust EOS model providing EOS tables for high pressure hydrodynamic simulations. The included tables span densities 5-33.4 g/cc with 51 entries and temperatures 116-49,900 K with 50 entries. There are 16 quantities as a function of that density-temperature grid, which are provided in this EOS package and are listed in the Appendix (Table I).

  16. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes.

  17. Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1995-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding.

  18. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  19. Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel K. (Albuquerque, NM); Zamora, David Lee (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2003-04-15

    A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

  20. Plastic Packaging Consortium-first year results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Nguyen; R. W. Giberti

    1996-01-01

    The Plastic Packaging Consortium is a funded Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) awarded in the FY94 competition on low-cost electronic packaging. The ten companies $20M+ cost-shared effort, led by National Semiconductor Corp., will establish the on-shore infrastructure to manufacture low-cost, high density, high performance “ruggedized” plastic packages. This initiative comes from the increasing need to improve complexity, performance, and reliability of

  1. LSI Packaging that Passes PIND Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dal Porto; D. Loescher; H. Olson; P. Plunkett

    1981-01-01

    A packaged large-scale integrated (LSI) chip or hybrid destined for military or space applications must pass the gambit of screens listed in Method 5004 of MIL-STD-883B. These screens include the particle impact noise detection (PIND) test in which a sensitive acoustic transducer listens for loose particles inside a package while the package is vibrated and shocked. Prior to instituting new

  2. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  3. Photofission tomography of nuclear waste packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehdi Gmar; Fabien Jeanneau; Frédéric Lainé; Bénédicte Poumarède

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying the mass of actinides in large concrete waste packages using non-destructive methods is a major challenge for the management and the storage of packages in appropriate facilities. Since the beginning of 1990s, our team in CEA has been working on the development of a method based on interrogation with high-energy photons to assay actinides in large concrete waste package.

  4. High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

  5. Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; Decision and Information Sciences; SRL; DOE

    2007-01-01

    The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing upon current US Department of Energy (DOE) storage standards and examples from interim storage of Pu bearing materials in model 9975 transportation packagings. Key issues highlighted during long term storage of Pu bearing materials included gas generation and stability of PuO{sub 2+x}; other operation safety issues highlighted for interim storage of model 9975 transportation packagings included the need to consider a facility design basis fire event and the long term behaviour of packaging components such as Celotex and elastomeric O-ring seals. The principles of aging management are described, and the key attributes and examples of effective aging management programmes are provided based on the guidance documents for license renewal of nuclear power plants. The Packaging Certification Program of DOE Environmental Management, Office of Safety Management and Operations, plans to expand its mission into packaging certification for storage and aging management, as well as application of advanced technology, such as radiofrequency identification, for life cycle management of radioactive materials packagings.

  6. Quality of vacuum packaged lamb retail cuts 

    E-print Network

    Wanstedt, Kristen Gae

    1982-01-01

    of previously vacuum packaged (PVP) cuts when packaged in HOB film but 1ncreased when packaged in PVC f1lm. The use of PVP cuts did not affect the overall appearance of rib or loin chops but HOB f1lm-pack- aged leg chops from PVP cuts had lower overall... appearance scores than did steaks from fresh (F) cuts. PVC film-wrapped chops and steaks from PVP cuts had much lower overall appearance scores than did chops and steaks from F cuts. Prior storage in vacuum packages had no effect on weight loss...

  7. Quality of vacuum packaged lamb retail cuts

    E-print Network

    Wanstedt, Kristen Gae

    1982-01-01

    of previously vacuum packaged (PVP) cuts when packaged in HOB film but 1ncreased when packaged in PVC f1lm. The use of PVP cuts did not affect the overall appearance of rib or loin chops but HOB f1lm-pack- aged leg chops from PVP cuts had lower overall... appearance scores than did steaks from fresh (F) cuts. PVC film-wrapped chops and steaks from PVP cuts had much lower overall appearance scores than did chops and steaks from F cuts. Prior storage in vacuum packages had no effect on weight loss...

  8. Wedding Package One Pre-Dinner Canaps

    E-print Network

    Tobar, Michael

    Chicken with Caramelised Pineapple, Cashew and Watercress Rosemary Roasted Scallop with Pork Belly Nemesis Macaron with White Rum Pineapple and Raspberry Crème Beverages (six hour package) Sparkling Wine

  9. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  10. Microbial control by packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2002-03-01

    Since early man first used a variety of natural containers to store and eat foods, significant developments in food packaging materials have provided the means to suppress microbial growth as well as protect foods from external microbial contamination. Throughout this progression, packaging materials have been developed specifically to prevent the deterioration of foods resulting from exposure to air, moisture, or pH changes associated with the food or the surrounding atmosphere. Both flexible and rigid packaging materials, alone or in combination with other preservation methods, have been developed to offer the necessary barrier, inactivation, and containment properties required for successful food packaging. Examples of flexible packaging used to inactivate microorganisms associated with foods include controlled atmosphere, vacuum, modified atmosphere, active, and edible packaging. Additionally, the combination of rigid packaging materials made from metal, glass, or plastic with heat provides the most effective and widely used method for inactivating microorganisms. As with all food products, it is necessary to integrate a HACCP-based program to assure quality throughout the packaging operation. In addition to packaging improvements, other novel technologies include the development of detectors for oxygen levels, bacterial toxins, and microbial growth, or the integration of time-temperature indicators for detection of improper handling or storage. PMID:11934131

  11. Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.

  12. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

    2006-04-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  13. Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

    2005-10-01

    The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

  14. Packaging and transportation occurrence reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Needels, T.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Transportation

    1996-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1 calls for the maintenance of a database for all unclassified occurrence reports (ORs). ORS provide DOE with notice of incidents and accidents that endanger the public, workers, or DOE facility operations. To fulfill this policy, the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) was established to require DOE facilities to report and process information concerning such events. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides DOE with data and analysis of occurrence related to packaging and transportation (P and T) safety. This program produces annual reports, lessons learned bulletins, and information for the packaging and transportation home page on the Internet. The analysis and reports provided can be used as a tool for oversight and a means for DOE sites to be proactive and anticipate problems through shared knowledge and lessons learned. To illustrate, some observable trends based on 3 years of the program are given. In summary, this program shows potential problem areas that need correcting, and possible breakdowns of safety.

  15. Thin type packaging: an effective way to improve the popcorn resistance of plastic-packaged ICs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Van Doorselaer; Arno Hente; A. Saboui; J.-P. Moscicki

    1993-01-01

    The popcorn resistance of a variety of thin quad flat packages (TQFPs) was studied. Both the package thickness and the die size were varied in order to understand the risks involved in this type of high-density packaging. Because of the typical moisture absorption behavior of TQFPs, a realistic preconditioning method was defined. The evaluation of the popcorn resistance made use

  16. Study of package EMI reduction for GHz microprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiangqi He; Dong Zhong; Steven Yun Ji; Gang Ji; Yuan-Liang Li

    2002-01-01

    As the operating frequency of the processor approaches 1 GHz and beyond, the package dimensions are no longer small when compared to the wavelength. In order to reduce the emissions from the package, it is necessary to include certain package design features. Three different package designs are investigated to study their relative efficiency in suppressing the emissions. The first package

  17. Challenges in interconnection and packaging of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeshuni Ramesham; R. Ghaffarian

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit packaging and their testing is well advanced because of the maturity of the IC industry, their wide applications, and availability of industrial infrastructure. This is not true for MEMS with respect to packaging and testing. It is more difficult to adopt standardized MEMS device packaging for wide applications although MEMS use many similar technologies to IC packaging. Packaging

  18. Colour Design for Carton-Packed Fruit Juice Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuo-Ting Wei; M. Ronnier Luo

    2008-01-01

    The present research studies the relationships between observers' expectations for 7 fruit juice packages and the colour design of the package. To do this, a two-stage experiment was conducted. At the first stage, we studied perceived colours for the fruit images shown on each package. At the second stage, fruit juice packages with 20 package colours were rated using 5

  19. Supplement: Java Packages For Introduction to Java Programming

    E-print Network

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    ;2 Package Directories Java expects one-to-one mapping of the package name and the file system directory 1 The package com.prenhall.mypackage is mapped to a directory structure in the file system. The comSupplement: Java Packages For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang Packages are used

  20. Effectiveness of some recent antimicrobial packaging concepts.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, L; Devlieghere, F; Debevere, J

    2002-01-01

    A new type of active packaging is the combination of food-packaging materials with antimicrobial substances to control microbial surface contamination of foods. For both migrating and non-migrating antimicrobial materials, intensive contact between the food product and packaging material is required and therefore potential food applications include especially vacuum or skin-packaged products, e.g. vacuum-packaged meat, fish, poultry or cheese. Several antimicrobial compounds have been combined with different types of carriers (plastic and rubber articles, paper-based materials, textile fibrils and food-packaging materials). Until now, however, few antimicrobial concepts have found applications as a food-packaging material. Antimicrobial packaging materials cannot legally be used in the EU at the moment. The potential use would require amendments of several different legal texts involving areas such as food additives, food packaging, hygiene, etc. The main objective of this paper is to provide a state of the art about the different types of antimicrobial concepts, their experimental development and commercialization, and to present a case study summarizing the results of investigations on the feasibility of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-film containing triclosan to inhibit microbial growth on food surfaces and consequently prolong shelf-life or improve microbial food safety. In contrast with the strong antimicrobial effect in in-vitro simulated vacuum-packaged conditions against the psychrotrophic food pathogen L. monocytogenes, the 1000 mg kg(-1) containing triclosan film did not effectively reduce spoilage bacteria and growth of L. monocytogenes on refrigerated vacuum-packaged chicken breasts stored at 7 degrees C. PMID:11962704

  1. Packaging development programs recommended for the U.S.Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1996-05-21

    U.S. Department of Energy facilities were visited to determine their specific packaging needs. Those individual site needs were analyzed to determine widespread packaging needs. Those packaging needs are: replacements for aging Type B packagings, plutonium packaging, overpacks for large containers, heavily shielded Type B packaging, large radioactive liquid packaging, standardized waste packaging, and packaging for explosives.

  2. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2009-09-28

    This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

  3. A process model for packaged software development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Carmel; Shirley Becker

    1995-01-01

    As software development migrates from its roots as a process for building a custom product to a process for building packaged products, there is a greater need for an appropriate product development process model that is market-oriented. Field data suggests that process models are not widely used in the package industry. An overview of normative process models in the software

  4. Browndye: A Software Package for Brownian Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A new software package, Browndye, is presented for simulating the diffusional encounter of two large biological molecules. It can be used to estimate second-order rate constants and encounter probabilities, and to explore reaction trajectories. Browndye builds upon previous knowledge and algorithms from software packages such as UHBD, SDA, and Macrodox, while implementing algorithms that scale to larger systems. PMID:21132109

  5. A Package for GAP Leonard H. Soicher

    E-print Network

    Soicher, Leonard H.

    GRAPE A Package for GAP by Leonard H. Soicher School of Mathematical Sciences Queen Mary University of London #12;Contents 1 Grape 5 1.1 Installing the GRAPE Package . . . 5 1.2 Loading GRAPE . . . . . . . . 6 1.3 The structure of a graph in GRAPE . 7 1.4 Examples of the use of GRAPE . . . 7 2 Functions

  6. The pagesel package "Selecting shipout output pages"

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    The pagesel package "Selecting shipout output pages" 1999/04/13, v1.1 Heiko Oberdiek1 Abstract With this package single pages or page areas can be selected for output. Contents 1 Usage 1 1.1 Page selecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 Options for selecting pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.2 Examples

  7. "From Immigrant to Ethnic": A Curriculum Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Katherine

    1977-01-01

    This article describes a curriculum package in ethnic studies designed for high school use by the Ethnic Heritage Studies Project, Rhode Island College. This multi-ethnic curriculum examines the experiences common to all immigrant groups which came to the United States. The package consists of three self-contained units: "The Immigrant…

  8. Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

  9. Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

  10. Trends in nondestructive imaging of IC packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. M.; Hartfield, C. D.

    1998-11-01

    Since the industry-wide conversion to surface mount packages in the mid-1980's, nondestructive imaging of moisture induced delaminations and cracks in plastic packaged ICs by scanning acoustic microscopy has been a critically important capability. Subsurface imaging and phase analysis of echoes has allowed scanning acoustic microscopy to become the primary nondestructive technique for component level inspection of packaged ICs and is sensitive to defects that are undetectable by real time x-ray inspection. It has become the preferred method for evaluating moisture sensitivity, and for many package processes, provides more reliable detection of wire bond degradation than physical cross sectioning or conventional electrical testing. However, the introduction of new technologies such as ball grid array (BGA) and flip chip packages demands improvements in acoustic inspection techniques. Echoes from the laminated substrates in BGA packages produce interference problems. Phase inversion detection is an important advantage of pulse-echo imaging of molded surface mount packages. However, phase inversion is not always helpful for delamination detection in these new packages, due to the properties of the materials involved. The requirement to nondestructively inspect flip chip interconnect bumps has arisen. Alternative approaches such as through-transmission screening of BGAs and high frequency (>200 MHz) pulse-echo inspection of flip chip bumps are addressing these new issues. As the acoustic frequency approaches the limits dictated by attenuation, new methods of frequency-domain signal analysis will become important for routine inspection and may give acoustic microscopy a predictive capability.

  11. 16 CFR 500.29 - Combination packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for identical packages or units shall be combined. Examples (1) Lighter fluid and flints: “2 cans—each 8 fl. ozs. (236 mL); 1 package—8 flints.” (2) Sponges & Cleaner: “2 sponges each 4 in. × 6 in. × 1 in. (10.1 ×...

  12. 16 CFR 500.29 - Combination packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...for identical packages or units shall be combined. Examples (1) Lighter fluid and flints: “2 cans—each 8 fl. ozs. (236 mL); 1 package—8 flints.” (2) Sponges & Cleaner: “2 sponges each 4 in. × 6 in. × 1 in. (10.1 ×...

  13. System on Chip or System on Package?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rao R. Tummala; Vijay K. Madisetti

    1999-01-01

    The authors propose a new system design paradigm, the system on package, which uses electronic product reengineering to meet time-to-market and performance requirements. The system on package promises a higher return on investment than the system on chip

  14. The fix2col package* David Carlisley

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    The fix2col package* David Carlisley 1998/08/17 1 Introduction This package makes two independent changes to LATEX's two column output rou- tine to fix the following two longstanding `features'. o If the TEX mark system is used

  15. Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, S. Manjit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the development of technology-assisted problem solving (TAPS) packages at University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). The project is the further work of the development of interactive multimedia based packages targeted for students having problems in understanding the subject of engineering mechanics dynamics.…

  16. Employee Benefit Packages in the Swine Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrance M. Hurley; Peter F. Orazem; James B. Kliebenstein; Dale Miller

    1996-01-01

    Benefit packages and working conditions are important to employees in the swine industry, just as is the salary level. Employees indicated that there are trade-offs between salary levels and the benefit packages and working conditions. For example, they indicated that incentive plans, on average, were equivalent to about $3,873 in salary to employees (Table 1). They also indicated that the

  17. Advanced decoupling in high performance IC packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepa Mannath; Leonard W. Schaper; Richard K. Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the implementation of the Stealth™ decoupling capacitor in high performance IC packaging applications. The Stealth is an integrable or surface-mountable capacitor with superior electrical performance characteristics compared with conventional surface mount devices. Simulations showing the effectiveness of the capacitor in reducing power distribution noise in IC packages are presented and a current application is discussed.

  18. Advanced IC packaging for the future applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ichiro Anjoh; Asao Nishimura; Shuji Eguchi

    1998-01-01

    The performance of electronic equipment is improving rapidly. Portable electronic equipment requires smaller and thinner packaging systems for saving space and miniaturization. In addition, highly integrated, high-speed applications demand improved electrical performance to minimize noise effects. As a result of these considerations, the role of IC packaging has expanded from its traditional role of protecting the integrity and performance of

  19. Thermal Chip Evaluation of IC Packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. McLaughlin; N. Fitzroy

    1972-01-01

    In order to experimentally evaluate the thermal effects of changes in integrated circuit (lC) packaging, a thermal chip was designed and tested. The thermal chip replaces a working chip in an lC package. It provides a method for measurement of temperatures on a chip where the heat input simulates that of a working chip. Temperature distribution can be obtained by

  20. Food packaging based on polymer nanomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Silvestre; Donatella Duraccio; Sossio Cimmino

    2011-01-01

    Since its starting in the 19th century, modern food packaging has made great advances as results of global trends and consumer preferences. These advances are oriented to obtain improved food quality and safety. Moreover, with the move toward globalization, food packaging requires also longer shelf life, along with the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards. Nanotechnology can

  1. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) STABILIZATION & PACKAGING PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2004-01-01

    Fluor Hanford is pleased to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Packaging Project (SPP) for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2004. The SPP thermally stabilized and\\/or packaged nearly 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium and plutonium-bearing materials left in PFP facilities from 40 years of nuclear weapons production and experimentation. The

  2. Stork: Package Management for Distributed VM Environments

    E-print Network

    Hartman, John H.

    Stork: Package Management for Distributed VM Environments Justin Cappos, Scott Baker, Jeremy management overhead as each is essentially a separate system. Stork is a package management tool for virtual machine environments that is designed to alleviate these problems. Stork securely and efficiently

  3. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of...equipped with automatic filling and packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk...

  4. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of...equipped with automatic filling and packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk...

  5. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of...equipped with automatic filling and packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk...

  6. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of...equipped with automatic filling and packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk...

  7. 7 CFR 58.340 - Printing and packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Procedures § 58.340 Printing and packaging. Printing and packaging of consumer size containers of...equipped with automatic filling and packaging equipment should be provided. The outside cartons should be removed from bulk...

  8. Working with Design: A Package for Sheet Metal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiebich, Paul D.

    1974-01-01

    The author describes a design approach used to study sheet metal layout in junior high and high school mechanical drafting courses. Students observe packaging in stores, study package construction, and design and produce their own packages. (EA)

  9. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

  10. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

  11. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

  12. 48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

  13. 10 CFR 60.143 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...waste package monitoring program shall include laboratory experiments which focus on the internal condition of the waste packages...monitoring program shall be duplicated in the laboratory experiments. (d) The waste package monitoring program shall...

  14. 10 CFR 60.143 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...waste package monitoring program shall include laboratory experiments which focus on the internal condition of the waste packages...monitoring program shall be duplicated in the laboratory experiments. (d) The waste package monitoring program shall...

  15. 10 CFR 60.143 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...waste package monitoring program shall include laboratory experiments which focus on the internal condition of the waste packages...monitoring program shall be duplicated in the laboratory experiments. (d) The waste package monitoring program shall...

  16. 49 CFR 373.105 - Low value packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Low value packages. 373.105 Section 373... § 373.105 Low value packages. The carrier and shipper...recordkeeping or documentation system for distribution of “low value” packages. This includes the...

  17. A PACKAGE FOR CHECKING SOME KINDS OF TESTABILITY

    E-print Network

    Trakhtman, Avraham

    =C++ package (TESTAS). System demonstration Locally testable and piecewise testable languages A PACKAGE FOR CHECKING SOME KINDS OF TESTABILITY]. The situation for transition semigroup of an automaton is more favorable. We* * implement in our package

  18. Cost Modeling and Design Techniques for Integrated Package Distribution Systems

    E-print Network

    Smilowitz, Karen

    Cost Modeling and Design Techniques for Integrated Package Distribution Systems Karen R. Smilowitz and Carlos F. Daganzo December 23, 2005 Abstract Complex package distribution systems are designed using of integrated package distribution systems. Qualitative conclusions suggest that benefits of integration

  19. 49 CFR 373.105 - Low value packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Low value packages. 373.105 Section 373... § 373.105 Low value packages. The carrier and shipper...recordkeeping or documentation system for distribution of “low value” packages. This includes the...

  20. International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications

    E-print Network

    Li, Jun

    International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications Elisabeth Weisz Administration) Earth Observing System (EOS)-Aqua satellite represents the most advanced sounding system in space MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) software package

  1. 49 CFR 373.105 - Low value packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Low value packages. 373.105 Section 373... § 373.105 Low value packages. The carrier and shipper...recordkeeping or documentation system for distribution of “low value” packages. This includes the...

  2. 49 CFR 373.105 - Low value packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Low value packages. 373.105 Section 373... § 373.105 Low value packages. The carrier and shipper...recordkeeping or documentation system for distribution of “low value” packages. This includes the...

  3. 49 CFR 373.105 - Low value packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Low value packages. 373.105 Section 373... § 373.105 Low value packages. The carrier and shipper...recordkeeping or documentation system for distribution of “low value” packages. This includes the...

  4. 49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Packagings for certain flammable solids. 173.223 Section 173.223 Transportation Other...and Class 7 § 173.223 Packagings for certain flammable solids. (a) Packagings for “Musk xylene,”...

  5. 49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Packagings for certain flammable solids. 173.223 Section 173.223 Transportation Other...and Class 7 § 173.223 Packagings for certain flammable solids. (a) Packagings for “Musk xylene,”...

  6. The bracket-hack package Christopher Roman Nerz

    E-print Network

    Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

    The bracket-hack package Christopher Roman Nerz June 5, 2014 Abstract This small LATEX-package1 := and =: to be \\coloneqq (..=) and \\eqqcolon (=..), respectively. brackethack@phoenixes.de 1This package is a `dirty-hack

  7. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  8. 16 CFR 1700.5 - Noncomplying package requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.5 Noncomplying package requirements. To...

  9. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  10. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  11. 16 CFR 1700.5 - Noncomplying package requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.5 Noncomplying package requirements. To...

  12. 16 CFR 1700.5 - Noncomplying package requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.5 Noncomplying package requirements. To...

  13. 16 CFR 1700.5 - Noncomplying package requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.5 Noncomplying package requirements. To...

  14. 16 CFR 1700.5 - Noncomplying package requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1700.5 Section 1700.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.5 Noncomplying package requirements. To...

  15. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poison prevention packaging standards. 1700...Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15...

  16. Challenging packaging limits and infectivity of phage ?

    E-print Network

    Elmar Nurmemmedov; Martin Castelnovo; Elizabeth Medina; Carlos Enrique Catalano; Alex Evilevitch

    2011-11-09

    The terminase motors of bacteriophages have been shown to be among the strongest active machines in the biomolecular world, being able to package several tens of kilobase pairs of viral genome into a capsid within minutes. Yet these motors are hindered at the end of the packaging process by the progressive build-up of a force resisting packaging associated with already packaged DNA. In this experimental work, we raise the issue of what sets the upper limit on the length of the genome that can be packaged by the terminase motor of phage {\\lambda} and still yield infectious virions, and the conditions under which this can be efficiently performed. Using a packaging strategy developed in our laboratory of building phage {\\lambda} from scratch, together with plaque assay monitoring, we have been able to show that the terminase motor of phage {\\lambda} is able to produce infectious particles with up to 110% of the wild-type (WT) {\\lambda}-DNA length. However, the phage production rate, and thus the infectivity, decreased exponentially with increasing DNA length, and was a factor of 103 lower for the 110% {\\lambda}-DNA phage. Interestingly, our in vitro strategy was still efficient in fully packaging phages with DNA lengths as high as 114% of the WT length, but these viruses were unable to infect bacterial cells efficiently. Further, we demonstrated that the phage production rate is modulated by the presence of multivalent ionic species. The biological consequences of these finding are discussed.

  17. Development of a new Package-on-Package (PoP) structure for next-generation portable electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Sun; Vincent Leung; Debbie Yang; Robin Lou; Daniel Shi; Tom Chung

    2010-01-01

    Package-on-Package (PoP) is one of the major 3D packaging approaches. It vertically combines discrete memory and logic Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages, where one package rests on the top of the other. Recently, PoP technologies have attracted more interests, especially for portable electronics related products and applications. ASTRI has developed a new PoP structure, which employs a new bottom package

  18. In-Package Source Term Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    R. Reeves

    2000-06-09

    The purpose of this conceptual model analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PA) in modeling the volume of in-package water available for contact with the wasteform. The conceptual model developed in this analysis model report (AMR) represents an enhancement of the in-package water volume model that was abstracted into TSPA-VA performance assessment modeling. This enhanced conceptual model will allow PA to provide a more detailed and complete representation of the volume of in-package water available for contact with the wasteform as a function of time. The conceptual model is presented as a methodology appropriate for use in the total system performance model.

  19. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  20. ISAP: ISO Spectral Analysis Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Bauer, Otto; Brauher, Jim; Buckley, Mark; Harwood, Andrew; Hur, Min; Khan, Iffat; Li, Jing; Lord, Steve; Lutz, Dieter; Mazzarella, Joe; Molinari, Sergio; Morris, Pat; Narron, Bob; Seidenschwang, Karla; Sidher, Sunil; Sturm, Eckhard; Swinyard, Bruce; Unger, Sarah; Verstraete, Laurent; Vivares, Florence; Wieprecht, Ecki

    2014-03-01

    ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.

  1. Statistical packages for the Macintosh.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R; Molay, F; Locke, S

    1992-01-01

    These programs represent the entry of the Mac into major statistical computing. We believe that for the physician researcher who is not a statistician, they make the Mac the platform for data analysis. We found that statistics, research design, and data analysis seemed different and much less intimidating to us and our trainees when approached through the Mac. We have reviewed the versions of these programs available at the time of this writing, in May 1992; potential buyers should contact the software publisher for information about more recent upgrades. At this point, our recommendations would be as follows: If you are wedded to SPSS or Minitab, try the Mac versions, and you will be impressed. Otherwise, the choice is between SYSTAT, which has been around long enough to demonstrate its richness and capacity to build on its strengths, and JMP, a brash newcomer, which demonstrates that you can teach an old dog (SAS) new tricks. StatView and SuperANOVA, while endowed with intuitive, easy-to-use interfaces, lack online help--a feature we consider important in a statistics package. We anticipate that the future will lead to simplification of the SYSTAT interface and the addition of more analytic capacities to JMP--and who knows what the next generation of competitors will bring? PMID:1522794

  2. Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.

  3. Digital Resource Package for Teaching Evolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Moin

    This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Biology subject of evolution. Topics include Reference Materials, Misconceptions and How to Address Them, Lesson Plans, and Human Evolution.

  4. 7 CFR 29.3537 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3537 Package. A hogshead, tierce,...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3537 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3537 Package. A hogshead, tierce,...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3537 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3537 Package. A hogshead, tierce,...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3537 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3537 Package. A hogshead, tierce,...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3537 - Package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3537 Package. A hogshead, tierce,...

  9. FITSH: Software Package for Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, András

    2011-11-01

    FITSH provides a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package provides utilities both for the full pipeline of subsequent related data processing steps (including image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations, etc.) and for aiding the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. The utilities in the package are built on the top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package), therefore both frequently used and well-documented tools for such environments can be exploited and managing massive amount of data is rather convenient.

  10. Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company] [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL] [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.] [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

  11. mediation: R package for causal mediation analysis

    E-print Network

    Tingley, Dustin

    In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a ...

  12. 7 CFR 3402.10 - Application package.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE...http://www.grants.gov and through the NIFA Web site. An application package will be made...

  13. Prototype solar-heating system design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Design package for complete residential solar-heating system is given. Includes documents and drawings describing performance design, verification standards, and analysis of system with sufficient information to assemble working system.

  14. ebalance: A Stata Package for Entropy Balancing

    E-print Network

    Hainmueller, Jens

    The Stata package ebalance implements entropy balancing, a multivariate reweighting method described in Hainmueller (2012 ) that allows users to reweight a dataset such that the covariate distributions in the reweighted ...

  15. Modular assembly of chimeric phi29 packaging RNAs that support DNA packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Fang; Dan Shu; Feng Xiao; Peixuan Guo; Peter Z. Qin

    2008-01-01

    The bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor is a protein\\/RNA complex that can produce strong force to condense the linear-double-stranded DNA genome into a pre-formed protein capsid. The RNA component, called the packaging RNA (pRNA), utilizes magnesium-dependent inter-molecular base-pairing interactions to form ring-shaped complexes. The pRNA is a class of non-coding RNA, interacting with phi29 motor proteins to enable DNA packaging.

  16. Optical clock signal distribution and packaging optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linghui Wu

    2002-01-01

    Polymer-based waveguides for optoelectronic interconnects and packagings were fabricated by a fabrication process that is compatible with the Si CMOS packaging process. An optoelectronic interconnection layer (OIL) for the high-speed massive clock signal distribution for the Cray T-90 supercomputer board employing optical multimode channel waveguides in conjunction with surface-normal waveguide grating couplers and a 1-to-2 3 dB splitter was constructed.

  17. Electronics packaging\\/interconnect: the next crisis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. E. Kurtz

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effect of changes in electronics packaging\\/interconnect (P\\/I) technology on military electronics is reported. The study was initiated after observing that the performance potential represented by advances in semiconductors has not been realized on the system level due to limitations imposed by P\\/I technology. It was also noted that packaging\\/interconnect is the primary source of reliability problems

  18. Inkjet-Deposited Interconnections for Electronic Packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Mäntysalo

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet technology provides an interesting approach for electronic manufacturing. Small volumes of functional material e.g., conductive ink are dispensed on top of the substrate. Electrical circuits are formed by suitable printing sequence and sintering processes. In this paper, we present a concept of inkjet deposited System-in-Package (SiP). The package contains bare ICs and discrete passive components that are encapsulated with

  19. Packaging for microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Lee; Babak Amir Parviz; J. Albert Chiou; Shaochen Chen

    2003-01-01

    Packaging is a core technology for the advancement of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). We discuss MEMS packaging challenges in the context of functional interfaces, reliability, modeling and integration. These challenges are application-dependent; therefore, two case studies on accelerometers and BioMEMS are presented for an in-depth illustration. Presently, most NEMS are in the exploratory stage and hence a

  20. Designing and packaging technology of Renesas SIP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriaki Sakamoto; Norihiko Sugita; Takafumi Kikuchi; Hideki Tanaka; Takashi Akazawa

    2005-01-01

    Renesas Technology Corp. started an SIP (solution integrated product) Project in April 1999, aiming at the promotion of the SiP (system in package) business. SiP can achieve 1\\/10-1\\/6 design TAT (turn around time) in comparison with SoC (system on chip). SiP, which packs a few chips in a single package, has also advantages of EMI noise reduction and customer's substrate

  1. Robotica: a Mathematica package for robot analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Nethery; M. W. Spong

    1994-01-01

    Robotica is a computer aided design package for robotic manipulators developed in the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It encapsulates over 30 functions into a Mathematica package allowing efficient symbolic and numeric calculation of kinematic and dynamic equations for multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators. An X-Windows front end that utilizes the interprocess communication features of Mathematica 2.1 has

  2. Scope on Safety: Avoid surprise packages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ken Roy

    2008-04-01

    The Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR), parts 171--180 explain what is required of a shipper to transport hazardous materials safely. The regulations cover classification, packaging, incident reporting, and handling of hazardous materials. Hazardous material packaging is the first line of defense in helping to prevent the material from being released during transportation. School personnel who deal with hazardous shipments should review the suggestions outlined in this month's column.

  3. Crush testing of small Type B packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Diggs, J.M.; Pope, R.B.; Trujillo, A.A.; Uncapher, W.L.

    1985-11-01

    This report details the results of a test series which investigated the sensitivity of small light-weight packages to the crush environment. Deformations resulting from dynamic crush environments, from a static crush environment, and from a drop impact environment were investigated. These external deformations are compared for each of eight types of packagings tested. Additionally, the current test results are compared to those previously obtained in a simulated accident test. 6 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. An instrumentation package for monitoring tractor performance 

    E-print Network

    Green, Malcolm Kirk

    1983-01-01

    AN INSTRUMENTATION PACKAGE FOR MONITORING TRACTOR PERFORMANCE A Thesis by MALCOLM KIRK GREEN Submitted to the Graduate College of TexaS A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deg. ee of MASTER OF SCIENCE December...) D . Stephen W. Searcy (Member) Dr. Thomas R. Lalk (Member) Dr. Edward A. Hiler (Head of Department) Decembe" 1983 ABSTRACT An Instrumentation Package por Monitoring Tractor Performance (December 1983) MALCOLM KIRK GREEN, B. S. A. E. , Texas...

  5. INJECTION MOLDED & MICRO FABRICATION ELECTRONIC PACKAGING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Gilleo; RI Dennis Jones

    Thermoset epoxies, discovered nearly 80 years ago, remain the workhorse plastic for electronic packaging and printed circuit boards, but this could change with increasing technical, economic and regulatory demands. Modern halogen-free thermoplastics now boast superior properties and highly automated high-efficiency high-volume processes. Injection molding can readily produce intricate 3D structures suitable for electronic component packaging and 3D molded circuits. Although

  6. Contradictions and the Appropriation of ERP Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben Light; Anastasia Papazafeiropoulou

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software typically takes the form of a package that is licensed for use to those in a client\\u000a organisation and is sold as being able to automate a wide range of processes within organisations. ERP packages have become\\u000a an important feature of information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructures in organisations. However, a number\\u000a of highly publicised

  7. MEMS packaging for micro mirror switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long-Sun Huang; Shi-Sheng Lee; Ed Motamedi; Ming C. Wu; C.-J. Kim

    1998-01-01

    A new packaging architecture is developed for the hybrid integration of free-space MOEMS (micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems) chip with a silicon micromachined submount. The submount is designed to accommodate various free-space MOEMS chips with minimal active optical alignment, thus reducing the packaging cost. The silicon submount has a central recess to place the MOEMS chip in, four V-grooves for optical fibers, and

  8. Evaluation of a tri-wall corrugated fibreboard package for packaging and transporting LSA nonretrievable waste

    SciTech Connect

    Saiki, D.M.; Aguilar, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted to determine if an economical Tri-Wall Corrugated Fiberboard (TWCF) Package could be used for transporting LSA nonretrievable wastes (< 10 nCi/g radioactive contamination). A complete description of the packaging configuration was given. The evaluation included Vibration Tests to determine if the TWCF Package would comply with the present DOT regulation for packaging LSA waste (i.e. the package must be a strong-tight package that will not leak material under conditions normally incident to transport). Presently, no specific tests are required to determine compliance. Additional tests were conducted to determine performance of the package under selected adverse and hypothetical accidental conditions. No significant damage or loss of waste material occurred during the Vibration Tests thus indicating compliance with the present DOT regulation. The other performance tests indicated that some loss of waste material would occur under certain accidental conditions, however, the loss would be minimal. As a result of these performance tests, certain operating limitations and precautions regarding the handling and use of the package were given. Since the TWCF Package appears to meet DOT regulations and performed favorably under certain selected adverse and hypothetical accidential conditions, it was recommended for use in transporting certain types and forms of LSA nonretrievable wastes.

  9. Antimicrobial food packaging: potential and pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Bhanu; Keshwani, Anu; Kharkwal, Harsha

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays food preservation, quality maintenance, and safety are major growing concerns of the food industry. It is evident that over time consumers’ demand for natural and safe food products with stringent regulations to prevent food-borne infectious diseases. Antimicrobial packaging which is thought to be a subset of active packaging and controlled release packaging is one such promising technology which effectively impregnates the antimicrobial into the food packaging film material and subsequently delivers it over the stipulated period of time to kill the pathogenic microorganisms affecting food products thereby increasing the shelf life to severe folds. This paper presents a picture of the recent research on antimicrobial agents that are aimed at enhancing and improving food quality and safety by reduction of pathogen growth and extension of shelf life, in a form of a comprehensive review. Examination of the available antimicrobial packaging technologies is also presented along with their significant impact on food safety. This article entails various antimicrobial agents for commercial applications, as well as the difference between the use of antimicrobials under laboratory scale and real time applications. Development of resistance amongst microorganisms is considered as a future implication of antimicrobials with an aim to come up with actual efficacies in extension of shelf life as well as reduction in bacterial growth through the upcoming and promising use of antimicrobials in food packaging for the forthcoming research down the line. PMID:26136740

  10. Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, K

    2005-10-01

    Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use of such packaging materials is not meant to be a substitute for good sanitation practices, but it should enhance the safety of food as an additional hurdle for the growth of pathogenic and/or spoilage microorganisms. Studies have focused on establishing methods for coating low-density polyethylene film or barrier films with methyl cellulose as a carrier for nisin. These films have significantly reduced the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in solutions and in vacuum packaged hot dogs. Other research has focused on the use of chitosan to inhibit L. monocytogenes and chlorine dioxide sachets for the reduction of Salmonella on modified atmosphere-packaged fresh chicken breasts. Overall, antimicrobial packaging shows promise as an effective method for the inhibition of certain bacteria in foods, but barriers to their commercial implementation continue to exist. PMID:16227182

  11. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  12. New packaging technologies for the 21st century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Eilert

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the major influencers that will drive change in meat packaging. A review of the current state of fresh-meat packaging in the US has shown a continued evolution to case ready packaging, with 60% of the packages audited being in the case ready format, versus 49% just two years earlier. Additionally, the market is moving to a higher

  13. Analysis and modelling of wicking through carton liquid packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long Lin; Helio R. Jorge

    2005-01-01

    One of the more important issues in carton liquid packaging systems is the wicking of liquid content through the carton (usually coated with polymeric films) packaging. A suitable carton packaging for liquid content should have slow rate of wicking to provide satisfactorily long shelf life of the packaged product. In this study, the phenomenon of wicking of various liquid products,

  14. Active and Intelligent Packaging for the Food Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Pereira de Abreu; J. M. Cruz; P. Paseiro Losada

    2012-01-01

    In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and\\/or the surrounding environment. Active packaging systems are successfully used to

  15. Active and Intelligent Packaging for the Food Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Pereira de Abreu; J. M. Cruz; P. Paseiro Losada

    2011-01-01

    In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and\\/or the surrounding environment. Active packaging systems are successfully used to

  16. Compact Nonlinear Thermal Modeling of Packaged Integrated Systems

    E-print Network

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Compact Nonlinear Thermal Modeling of Packaged Integrated Systems Zao Liu , Sheldon X.-D. Tan technique for packaged integrated systems. Thermal behavior of complicated systems like packaged electronic a low order linear model to approximate the thermal behav- ior of the packaged integrated systems

  17. OPIUM: Optimal Package Install/Uninstall Manager Chris Tucker

    E-print Network

    Lerner, Sorin

    and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies) on a system to install a new package along with all its dependencies on a system of already installed packages. HoweverOPIUM: Optimal Package Install/Uninstall Manager Chris Tucker UC San Diego cjtucker

  18. USERS GUIDE FOR SNADIOPT: A PACKAGE ADDING AUTOMATIC

    E-print Network

    Gill, Philip E.

    ADIFOR with the optimization package Snopt. Snopt is a general-purpose system for solving optimizationUSERS GUIDE FOR SNADIOPT: A PACKAGE ADDING AUTOMATIC DIFFERENTIATION TO SNOPT E. Michael GERTZ-0112 January 2001 Abstract SnadiOpt is a package that supports the use of the automatic differentiation package

  19. OPIUM: Optimal Package Install/Uninstall Manager Chris Tucker

    E-print Network

    Jhala, Ranjit

    and conflicts, such tools can determine how to install a new package (and its dependencies) on a system to install a new package, along with all its dependencies, on a system of already installed packages. HoweverOPIUM: Optimal Package Install/Uninstall Manager Chris Tucker UC San Diego cjtucker

  20. Supplement V.F: Packages For Introduction to Java Programming

    E-print Network

    Liang, Y. Daniel

    of the package name and the file system directory structure. For the package named com.prenhall.mypackage, you to be the root directory. In order for Java to know where your package is in the file system, you must modifySupplement V.F: Packages For Introduction to Java Programming By Y. Daniel Liang 1 Introduction

  1. TYPE B RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE FAILURE MODES AND CONTENTS COMPLIANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Allen Smith, A

    2007-02-21

    Type B radioactive material package failures can occur due to any one of the following: inadequate design, manufacture, and maintenance of packages, load conditions beyond those anticipated in the regulations, and improper package loading and operation. The rigorous package design evaluations performed in the certification process, robust package manufacture quality assurance programs, and demanding load conditions prescribed in the regulations are all well established. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of Type B package loading with respect to an overbatch which may cause a package failure.

  2. Analysis of MEMS and Embedded Components in Multilayer Packages using FDTD/MRTD for System-on-Package Applications

    E-print Network

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Analysis of MEMS and Embedded Components in Multilayer Packages using FDTD/MRTD for System-on-Package (3G Cellular Systems, 802.11 WLAN's) has spawned a great deal of research in electronic packaging and embedded passives (inductors, antennas, wideband transitions and transmission lines) for multilayer system-on-package

  3. 608 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 23, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2000 MEMS Post-Packaging by Localized Heating and

    E-print Network

    Lin, Liwei

    . In the conventional integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, packaging contributes about one third of the manufacturing the well-developed IC packaging technology to save research and development efforts. In addition, some MEMS608 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 23, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2000 MEMS Post-Packaging

  4. The effect of internal package delaminations on the thermal performance of PQFP, thermally enhanced PQFP, LOC, and BGA packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darvin Edwards; Bill Stearns; Mary Helmick

    1995-01-01

    Plastic IC packages rely on a contiguous structure for efficient heat conduction from the chip to the surrounding environment. Any discontinuity within the package, such as an interfacial separation or delamination, degrades the thermal efficiency of the package. Four package types have been studied with respect to the thermal impact of interfacial delaminations; a 240 pin plastic Quad-Flat-Pack (PQFP), a

  5. Carbon Footprint of Beverage Packaging in the United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruna Gujba; Adisa Azapagic

    \\u000a The food and drinks sector is the major user of packaging in the UK, accounting for 70% of the total. With the consumption\\u000a of packaging in the UK estimated at over ten million tonnes, the life cycle environmental impacts of packaging could be significant.\\u000a This work focuses on drinks packaging and estimates the carbon footprint of packaging used for five

  6. Design for Improvement of Drop Impact Performance of IC Packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-en Luan; Kim-yong Goh

    2006-01-01

    Solder joint reliability of IC packages under drop impact becomes a great concern for portable telecommunication devices such as mobile phones and PDAs. It is known that drop impact reliability of lead-free BGA solder joints is a critical challenge. With the development of advanced packaging applications such as system-in-package (SiP), package on package (PoP), embedded die, stacked die BGA, etc,

  7. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  8. Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyke, James L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

  9. Spad implementation; total plastic package crack solution for non-moisture sensitive package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norito Umehara; Shigeji Inomata; Yoshikatsu Umeda; M. Naeshiru; Kunio Sakamoto

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates capability of following technologies; mold compound, die attach adhesive, textured die pad, and buffer coat, in resolving or improving the package crack performance of plastic package during reflow soldering process. We have finally succeeded in resolving this problem by making a die pad smaller than chip size and analyzed the stress, thermal and electrical characterization by using

  10. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bennion; G. Moreno

    2010-01-01

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the

  11. BioMEMS DeviceBioMEMS Device Integration, PackagingIntegration, Packaging

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    (MEMS) to biology. Current bioMEMS devices are either semiconductor-based or polymer-based, mostly PDMS) BioMEMS Polymer-based (PDMS) · Soft lithography · Cheap and disposable · Lack of electricBioMEMS DeviceBioMEMS Device Integration, PackagingIntegration, Packaging and Control forand

  12. Packaging Ethics: Perceptual Differences among Packaging Professionals, Brand Managers and Ethically-interested Consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Fitzgerald Bone; Robert John Corey

    2000-01-01

    In this article, we explore ethical perceptions of three product packaging issues as viewed by packaging professionals, brand managers, and ethically-interested consumers. We examine, differences between business practitioners and consumers with respect to ethical sensitivity, perceived consequences of business practices, and perceived industry norms. Additionally, we explore the prevalence of two types of values, pragmatic and moral, to determine if

  13. Next generation of electronic packaging education at Georgia Tech Packaging Research Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tummala

    1997-01-01

    The Packaging Research Center (PRC), funded by NSF as one of its engineering centers in the US, views research and education being equally important in addressing the competitiveness need in electronic packaging in the next decade. The strategy to achieve this competitiveness goal involves two critical items: (1) development of next generation of technologies; and (2) development of human resources,

  14. FITSH- a software package for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, András.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we describe the main features of the software package named FITSH, intended to provide a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package both provides utilities for the full pipeline of subsequent related data-processing steps (including image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple-image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations) and aids the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. The set of utilities found in this package is built on top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package); therefore, both frequently used and well-documented tools for such environments can be exploited and managing a massive amount of data is rather convenient.

  15. Analytical screening studies on irradiated food packaging.

    PubMed

    Driffield, M; Bradley, E L; Leon, I; Lister, L; Speck, D R; Castle, L; Potter, E L J

    2014-01-01

    Foods may be irradiated in their final packaging and this process may affect the composition of the packaging and in turn affect the migration of substances into food. Headspace and liquid injection GC-MS and HPLC with time-of-flight MS have been used to identify and estimate levels of radiolytic products in irradiated finished plastic packaging materials. Fifteen retail packaging materials were studied. Investigations were carried out into the effect of different irradiation types (gamma and electron beam), irradiation doses (1, 3, 7 and 10 kGy) and dose rates (5 kGy s(-1) for electron beam and 0.4 and 1.85 kGy h(-1) for gamma) on the radiolytic products. Any differences seen in comparing the two ionising radiation types were attributed largely to the very different dose rates; for electron beam a 10 kGy dose was delivered in just 2 s whereas using gamma it took 5.4 h. Differences were also seen when comparing the same samples irradiated at different doses. Some substances were not affected by irradiation, others decreased in concentration and others were formed upon increasing doses of irradiation. These results confirm that irradiation-induced changes do occur in substances with the potential to migrate and that the safety of the finished packaging material following irradiation should be assessed. PMID:24215551

  16. Novel Techniques for Millimeter-Wave Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Kolawa, Elzbieta A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Tulintseff, Ann N.

    1995-01-01

    A new millimeter-wave package architecture with supporting electrical, mechanical and material science experiment and analysis is presented. This package is well suited for discrete devices, monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) and multichip module (MCM) applications. It has low-loss wide-band RF transitions which are necessary to overcome manufacturing tolerances leading to lower per unit cost Potential applications of this new packaging architecture which go beyond the standard requirements of device protection include integration of antennas, compatibility to photonic networks and direct transitions to waveguide systems. Techniques for electromagnetic analysis, thermal control and hermetic sealing were explored. Three dimensional electromagnetic analysis was performed using a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm and experimentally verified for millimeter-wave package input and output transitions. New multi-material system concepts (AlN, Cu, and diamond thin films) which allow excellent surface finishes to be achieved with enhanced thermal management have been investigated. A new approach utilizing block copolymer coatings was employed to hermetically seal packages which met MIL STD-883.

  17. Metal-matrix composites for electronic packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, C. (General Electric Astro Space Div., King of Prussia, PA (US))

    1992-07-01

    Materials used in electronic packaging are undergoing a revolution because of a number of key factors: increasing packaging density; increasing reliability requirements; increasing use of large solid-state, phased-array antennas; more severe environments; stringent weight restrictions for airborne and other systems; and cost constraints. To meet the needs arising from these issues, packaging materials must have several attributes: low, tailorable coefficient of thermal expansion; high thermal conductivity; low cost; and low density, for weight-critical systems. This paper reports that conventional packaging materials do not meet all of these requirements. One approach to meet these needs is to create new, composite materials with properties tailored specifically for electronic packaging. Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) are particularly attractive. Development of low-cost processes is a critical corollary issue. It is not widely appreciated, but a number of MMCs have been around for a long time. Perhaps cermets (ceramic/metals) are the most widely used. These material consist of ceramic particles used. These materials consists of ceramic particles in a metal matrix. For example, a widely used type of cermet is cemented carbides, in which tungsten carbide or other particles are bound together by a high-temperature metal, such as cobalt or nickel. The materials are widely used in such applications as cutting tolls and dies.

  18. Weighing polyelectrolytes packaged in viruslike particles.

    PubMed

    Tresset, Guillaume; Tatou, Mouna; Le Cœur, Clémence; Zeghal, Mehdi; Bailleux, Virginie; Lecchi, Amélie; Brach, Katarzyna; Klekotko, Magdalena; Porcar, Lionel

    2014-09-19

    This Letter reports on the remarkable selectivity of capsid proteins for packaging synthetic polyelectrolytes in viruslike particles. By applying the contrast variation method in small-angle neutron scattering, we accurately estimated the mean mass of packaged polyelectrolytes ?Mp? and that of the surrounding capsid ?Mcap?. Remarkably, the mass ratio ?Mp?/?Mcap? was invariant for polyelectrolyte molecular weights spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude. To do so, capsids either packaged several chains simultaneously or selectively retained the shortest chains that could fit the capsid interior. Our data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions based on free energy minimization and emphasize the importance of protein self-energy. These findings may give new insights into the nonspecific origin of genome selectivity for a number of viral systems. PMID:25279650

  19. MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

    2000-01-19

    The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE H1700 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Loftin, B.; Mann, P.

    2009-06-05

    The H1700 Package is based on the DOE-EM Certified 9977 Packaging. The H1700 will be certified by the Packaging Certification Division of the National Nuclear Security Administration for the shipment of plutonium by air by the United Stated Military both within the United States and internationally. The H1700 is designed to ship radioactive contents in assemblies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) or arrangements of nested food-pack cans. The RTG containers are designed and tested to remain leaktight during transport, handling, and storage; however, their ability to remain leaktight during transport in the H1700 is not credited. This paper discusses the design and special operation of the H1700.

  1. Optical fiber packaging for MEMS interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Jose, Jr.; Garcia, Miguel A.; Ambrosio, Roberto C.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Calleja, Wilfrido; Reyes, Claudia

    2009-02-01

    An investigation study concerning positioning, alignment, bonding and packaging of optical fibers for interfacing with optical MEMS devices is being reviewed in this paper. The study includes a review of techniques and critical issues for optical fiber positioning, alignment, bonding, optical improvements, and coupling and interfacing through micro-lenses and waveguides. Also, we present a packaging design structure for hermetic sealing of optical MEMS devices requiring interfacing through optical fibers which considers aspects such as processes, assemble schemes and bonding techniques for Optical Fibers, which are briefly reviewed in this work. This packaging design considers the following conditions: hermeticity of the MEMS devices, optical fiber and MEMS die alignment and positioning, assembly process, and Simachined fixturing design for final assembly and positioning.

  2. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  3. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  4. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  5. Investigation of package sealing using organic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study was performed to evaluate the suitability of adhesives for sealing hybrid packages. Selected adhesives were screened on the basis of their ability to seal gold-plated Kovar butterfly-type packages that retain their seal integrity after individual exposures to increasingly severe temperature-humidity environments. Tests were also run using thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock and temperature aging. The four best adhesives were determined and further tested in a 60 C/98% RH environment and continuously monitored in regard to moisture content. Results are given, however, none of the tested adhesives passed all the tests.

  6. Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.

    1996-09-11

    Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design,fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

  7. Package-level integrated antennas based on LTCC technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Hyuk Wi; Yong-Bin Sun; In-Sang Song; Sung-Hoon Choa; I.-S. Koh; Yong-Shik Lee; Jong-Gwan Yook

    2006-01-01

    We propose a novel package topology integrating multilayer miniaturized antennas. Such a functional package is suitable for the design of a system-on-chip device, or of system-on-package applications. A stacked patch antenna is designed and integrated in a package using a low temperature co-fired ceramic process. The overall size of the package is 10.3times10.3times1.3 mm3, and this package contains an 8.3times8.3times0.7

  8. Spoilage and safety characteristics of ground beef packaged in traditional and modified atmosphere packages.

    PubMed

    Brooks, J C; Alvarado, M; Stephens, T P; Kellermeier, J D; Tittor, A W; Miller, M F; Brashears, M M

    2008-02-01

    Two separate studies, one with pathogen-inoculated product and one with noninoculated product, were conducted to determine the safety and spoilage characteristics of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and traditional packaging of ground beef patties. Ground beef patties were allotted to five packaging treatments (i) control (foam tray with film overwrap; traditional), (ii) high-oxygen MAP (80% 02, 20% CO2), (iii) high-oxygen MAP with added rosemary extract, (iv) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP (0.4% CO, 30% CO2, 69.6% N2), and (v) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP with added rosemary extract. Beef patties were evaluated for changes over time (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days) during lighted display. Results indicated low-oxygen carbon monoxide gas flush had a stabilizing effect on meat color after the formation of carboxymyoglobin and was effective for preventing the development of surface discoloration. Consumers indicated that beef patties packaged in atmospheres containing carbon monoxide were more likely to smell fresh at 7, 14, and 21 days of display, but the majority would probably not consume these products after 14 days of display because of their odor. MAP suppressed the growth of psychrophilic aerobic bacteria when compared with control packages. Generally, control packages had significantly higher total aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus counts than did modified atmosphere packages. In the inoculated ground beef (approximately 10(5) CFU/g) in MAP, Escherichia coli O157 populations ranged from 4.51 to 4.73 log CFU/g with no differences among the various packages, but the total E. coli O157:H7 in the ground beef in the control packages was significantly higher at 5.61 log CFU/g after 21 days of storage. On days 14 and 21, the total Salmonella in the ground beef in control packages was at 5.29 and 5.27 log CFU/g, respectively, which was significantly higher than counts in the modified atmosphere packages (3.99 to 4.31 log CFU/g on day 14 and 3.76 to 4.02 log CFU/g on day 21). Data from these studies indicate that MAP suppresses pathogen growth compared with controls and that spoilage characteristics developed in MAP packages. PMID:18326178

  9. 77 FR 18871 - Administrative Guide for Verifying Compliance With Packaging Requirements for Shipment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ...Compliance With Packaging Requirements...Receipt of Radioactive Material AGENCY...Compliance with Packaging Requirements...Receipt of Radioactive Material.'' This...71, ``Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''...

  10. Comparing Package Programs for Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Earlier comparisons of packaged programs for factor analysis are updated because of recent revision in some programs. The top status of SPSS is no longer so apparent as formerly. BMD and SAS now have expanded options. SAS has flexibility and convenience. (Author)

  11. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  12. Aircraft sensor analysis package system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the capabilities of the Aircraft Sensor Analysis Package (ASAP) is presented. The approach is non-technical, and several output products are illustrated. The major features of the system are described in more detail than is found in the User's Guide to a potential user, or to a user looking for a specific capability to be incorporated in another system.

  13. Software package for equipment management learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro García-Sánchez; Miguel Ortega-Mier; Juan Ramón Figuera-Figuera

    2005-01-01

    Among other subjects, equipment management is to be included within a degree in industrial engineering. In particular, industrial engineering practitioners usually have to deal to some extent with decisions related to maintenance and renewal policies: how to devise, select and assess them. For this particular purpose, some mathematical models had been previously developed. A software package has been designed to

  14. Getters: micromolecular scavengers for packaging [MEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Previti; K. Gilleo

    2001-01-01

    MEMS has become a very high profile technology during the past year, but there are a host of issues that require economical technical solutions. Getters will play a key role in MEMS and MOEMS packaging. Dual-purpose moisture-particle getters appear ideal and are already used in some optical MEMS commercial products. More work must be done in this area, especially for

  15. Use of Biopolymers in Antimicrobial Food Packaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness and food recalls continue to push for innovative ways to inhibit microbial growth in foods. As an additional hurdle to food processes, antimicrobial food packaging can play an important role in reducing the risk of pathogen contamination of processed foods. In...

  16. An R Package Conculsions/Future

    E-print Network

    Diggle, Peter J.

    Processes #12;Motivation Methods An R Package Examples Conculsions/Future Primary Biliary Cirrhosis in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne Primary Biliary Cirrhosis in Newcastle-Upon-Tyne (Aggregated) Gastrointestinal Disease Surveillance Bovine Tuberculosis in Cornwall Spatial Point Process Data · Primary biliary cirrhosis

  17. Implementation of an efficient parallel BDD package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Stornetta; Forrest Brewer

    1996-01-01

    Large BDD applications push computing resources to their limits. One solution to overcoming resource limitations is to dis- tribute the BDD data structure across multiple networked worksta- tions. This paper presents an efficient parallel BDD package for a distributed environment such as a network of workstations (NOW) or a distributed memory parallel computer. The implementation exploits a number of different

  18. Implementation of an efficient parallel BDD package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Stornetta; Forrest Brewer

    1996-01-01

    Large BDD applications push completing resources to their limits. One solution to overcoming resource limitations is to distribute the BDD data structure across multiple networked workstations. This paper presents an efficient parallel BDD package for a distributed environment such as a network of workstations (NOW) or a distributed memory parallel computer. The implementation exploits a number of different forms of

  19. Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

  20. SOI, Interconnect, Package, and Mainboard Thermal Characterization

    E-print Network

    Renau, Jose

    variation, Silicon-On-Insulator technology, the chip package, or the system main-board can effect Due to dramatic refinements in fabrication and process technolo- gies, the transistor density of chips- frastructure that takes into account interconnect density variation, silicon-on-insulator technology (SOI

  1. Pop Rocks Experiment 25 Pop rock packages

    E-print Network

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    Pop Rocks Experiment Materials · 25 Pop rock packages · Four 9 inch balloons · Four 16 oz sodas at ingredients) · What other things explode or pop that you can think of? (balloons, tires, etc) · What makes the popping noise that you think of? (air escaping from the closed space) · Why do you think they pop

  2. EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-2130

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Murphy, J.

    2010-07-12

    Shipping package 9975-02130 was examined in K-Area following the identification of a nonconforming condition; the axial gap between the drum flange and upper fiberboard assembly exceeded the maximum allowed value of 1 inch. The average measured axial gap was 1.1 inches. The fiberboard assembly in this package contained moisture levels of {approx}14-24% wood moisture equivalent ({approx}12-19 wt%) This is moderately higher than typically seen in conforming packages, but not as high as seen on most packages which have exceeded the allowed axial gap. Small patches of mold were growing on portions of the lower fiber assembly, but the fiberboard appeared intact and with little apparent change in its integrity. The lead shield had a heavy layer of corrosion product, some of which flaked off easily. The thickness of several flakes was measured, and varied from 0.0016 to 0.0031 inch. However, additional corrosion product remained on the shield under the flaked regions, so the total thickness of corrosion product exceeds 0.0031 inch.

  3. August 18, 2011 GRANT SOLICITATION APPLICATION PACKAGE

    E-print Network

    of incentives and funding being designated to the dealer(s)/distributor(s) in each letter. If it does not Addendum 5 August 18, 2011 PON-10-604 GRANT SOLICITATION APPLICATION PACKAGE Buy Down Incentives or distributor used by an applicant OEM to be located in California, (2) define "school bus", (3) no longer

  4. A mixed HDL\\/PLI test package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nastaran Nemati; Majid Namaki-Shoushtari; Zainalabedin Navabi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a set of functions which are added to Verilog through its PLI interface that facilitates test and application of test programs to designs at the RT level. Using this package, not only enables a designer to apply test programs to RTL designs, but also takes advantage of RTL simulation of abstract HDL descriptions for speeding up test

  5. Low stress packaging of a micromachined accelerometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Li; Ampere A. Tseng

    2001-01-01

    A packaging study of an acceleration microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensor is presented. The sensor consists of two silicon chips: a surface micromachined capacitive transducer (g-cell), which converts acceleration into signals of capacitance variation, and a microprocessor control unit (MCU) for signal conditioning. The two chips are die-bonded into a single piece of leadframe, connected via wire bonding, and finally molded

  6. Vocational Training: Maximizing Individualization with Instructional Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Instructional packages (PAKs) are effective in promoting vocational learning as they provide an organized procedure for delivering self-paced instruction to individual trainees on a personalized basis. Some of the advantages of PAKs are that they free an instructor from the role of full-time transmitter of skills and knowledge, reduce equipment…

  7. Autonomous RF Radiation Package for Various Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Carey; A. J. Wiebe; D. D. Schwindt; L. L. Altgilbers; M. Giesselmann; B. McHale; K. Heinemann

    2005-01-01

    The development of an autonomous RF radiation package for various applications is presented. This work is a coordinated effort to develop a tightly integrated unit, including the batteries, power supply, Marx generator, and plug and play antennas for various applications. ARC technology has designed the Marx generator and its associated high voltage antennas for this effort. Previous work by ARC

  8. Focussing on Generic Skills in Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan

    A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of generic skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…

  9. Decomposition analysis of Dutch beverage packaging waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryse M. H. Chappin; Marko P. Hekkert; Robbert van Duin

    2005-01-01

    Decreasing the amount of waste that can be allocated to packaging has been prominent on the political agenda in the Netherlands for two decades. In this period, both policy and innovations have influenced the way products are packed and how the resulting waste is managed. The aim of this study is to gain more insight in how individual material management

  10. Influence of packaging design on littering behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wever

    2006-01-01

    Litter is an environmental and social problem that is closely related to packaging. Many attempts have been made to reduce litter. So far these attempts have mainly focused on influencing littering behavior either through general campaigns or through manipulating the environment. The latter might be done through strategic placement of prompts and litter bins and through cleaning up any previous

  11. A packaging robot for complex cartons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venketesh N. Dubey; Jian S. Dai

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To demonstrate the feasibility of designing a versatile packaging machine for folding cartons of complex geometry and shapes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research conducts study of cartons of different geometry and shapes classifying them in suitable types and operations that a machine can understand, conceptualizing a machine that can handle such cartons, modeling and simulation of the machine, and

  12. Promising Practices: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Developed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational educational programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package profiles four vocational education programs at California community colleges that show promise in serving special population students. First, the Applied Mathematics for Electronics…

  13. LAND BURIAL OF SOLID PACKAGED RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Jr. Morgan; J. C. Geyer; D. C. Costello

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of practices involved in land burial of solid packaged ; radioactive wastes in the United States. National, regional, and local burial ; grounds are discussed, as are source and character of wastes. Handling ; techniques, containers, transportation practices, and regulations are mentioned. ; Waste shippers and waste quantities are indicated and an estimate is made of

  14. MT: A Mathematica package to compute convolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Pak, Alexey; Steinhauser, Matthias; Ueda, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    We introduce the Mathematica package MT which can be used to compute, both analytically and numerically, convolutions involving harmonic polylogarithms, polynomials or generalized functions. As applications contributions to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order Higgs boson production and the Drell-Yan process are discussed.

  15. PROPULSION INSTRUMENT ELECTRONICS AND SENSOR PACKAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul B. Adkison; Michael J. Dulligan; Greg Spanjers; Daron Bromaghim; Rick Harrison; Dale McGehee; Dave White; David Conroy; Lee Johnson

    Spacecraft operators and designers need to understand the interaction between thrusters and spacecraft, and the limitations of ground test facilities make it important to validate models with data obtained from on-orbit conditions. Toward this end, a sensor package will be manifested aboard an upcoming spacecraft flight for the purpose of developing a predictive capability for how electric propulsion thrusters interact

  16. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Knoop, Rutger J I; Kappen, Frans H J; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2015-02-13

    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory and non-depleting protection agents for application in films, coatings and packaging. In food packaging, antimicrobial effects add up to the barrier properties of the materials, to increase the shelf life and product quality. Chitosan is a natural bioactive polysaccharide with intrinsic antimicrobial activity and, due to its exceptional physicochemical properties imparted by the polysaccharide backbone, has been recognized as a natural alternative to chemically synthesized antimicrobial polymers. This, associated with the increasing preference for biofunctional materials from renewable resources, resulted in a significant interest on the potential for application of chitosan in packaging materials. In this review we describe the latest developments of chitosan films and blends as packaging material. PMID:25458295

  17. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PACKAGE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to collect reliable onsite information on the quality of treated water produced by package plants. Six plants in operation year around were selected to be representative of those serving small populations and were monitored to assess their performance. P...

  18. REBURNING APPLICATION TO FIRETUBE PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale experimental research that examined the physical and chemical phenomena associated with the NOx control technology of reburning applied to gas- and liquid-fired firetube package boilers. Reburning (staged fuel combustion) diverts some of th...

  19. The crush package Jesse A. Tov

    E-print Network

    Tobin-Hochstadt, Sam

    The crush package Jesse A. Tov tov@ccs.neu.edu This document corresponds to crush v0.2, dated 2011/07/29. Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Command Reference 2 3 Implementation 3 3.1 Crushing Boxes ] { width } { text } This command is for crushing vertical-mode text. It sets text in a box of width width

  20. Pupil-Perceived Needs Assessment Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLorme, Hsuan L.; And Others

    The Pupil-Perceived Needs Assessment (PPNA) is designed to assist school personnel in collecting information on pupil attitudes, reactions, and feelings towards new and existing curricular and extracurricular programs or towards education in general, and to assess pupils' needs from the pupils' perspective. The package is not meant to be used as…

  1. Rotational Molding Process Technician. Instructional Program Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Paso Community Coll., TX.

    This curriculum package contains materials developed through a partnership of the Association of Rotational Molders, El Paso Community College (Texas), and the College of DuPage (Illinois). The materials, which were developed during a 2-day DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process, are based on national skill standards and designed for…

  2. Digital Resource Package for Teaching Mathematics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Moin

    This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons for mathematics. Topics include The History of the Browsing NSDL Resources by Standards or School Level, Bilingual Math Resources, and Resources for Advanced Learners.

  3. Digital Resource Package for Teaching Atomic Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laura Moin

    This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Chemistry subject of atomic structures. Topics include The History of the Atom, Reference Material, Tutorials, Simulations, Questions and Activities, Periodic Tables, and resources for more advanced learners.

  4. Educational Software for Teaching Physics: Commercial Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjertsen, Margaret; Risley, John S.

    1987-01-01

    This document was developed to help teachers locate computer software to enhance the teaching of traditional physics at all educational levels. It contains a table listing approximately 900 packages. The table is organized by type of computer (Apple II, Atari, Commodore, IBM PC, Macintosh, and TRS-80) and is alphabetized first by publisher and…

  5. How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Andrew

    The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

  6. Training Package Implementation: Innovative and Flexible Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Dave; Blom, Kaaren

    The implementation of training packages (TPs) in Australian workplaces was examined through case studies of the use of TPs in nontraditional trade areas by six innovative registered training organizations (RTOs) across Australia. The study focused on the extent to which new and flexible approaches to learning, training delivery, and assessment…

  7. The dcolumn package \\Lambda David Carlisle

    E-print Network

    defines a system for defining columns of entries in an array or tabular which are to be aligned on a `decimal point'. This package defines D to be a column specifier with three arguments. D--hsep.tex i number of decimal places in the column. If this is negative, any number of decimal places can be used

  8. Release of additives from packaging plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. Helmroth

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : migration, diffusion, additives, polymer, low density polyethylene, polymer swelling, Fick, stochastic modellingThe diffusion of small molecules from polymers into food is studied. A better understanding of this process is important for the development of mathematical models to predict migration from packaging plastics into food. To study the effect of food absorption by the plastic on diffusion, the simultaneous

  9. KINETICS MODEL AND OZONE ISOPLETH PLOTTING PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kinetics Model and Ozone Isopleth Plotting Package (OZIPP) computer program can be used to simulate ozone formation in urban atmospheres. OZIPP calculates maximum one-hour average ozone concentrations given a set of input assumptions about initial precursor concentrations, li...

  10. Astronaut Thomas Jones opens food package on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's middeck Astronaut Thomas D. Jones, mission specialist, cuts open a package of food as he prepares for mealtime. Notice the other packages of space food floating in front of the middeck lockers.

  11. 9 CFR 592.340 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging. 592.340...and Marking Products § 592.340 Supervision of marking and packaging. ...inspection program employee or under the supervision of an inspection program...

  12. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts...satisfactory air circulation and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. The rooms shall be constructed in the same manner...

  13. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts...satisfactory air circulation and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. The rooms shall be constructed in the same manner...

  14. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts...satisfactory air circulation and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. The rooms shall be constructed in the same manner...

  15. 7 CFR 58.620 - Freezing and packaging rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Compartments § 58.620 Freezing and packaging rooms. The rooms used for freezing and packaging frozen desserts...satisfactory air circulation and maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. The rooms shall be constructed in the same manner...

  16. 7 CFR 58.151 - Packaging and repackaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading...Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all...

  17. 16 CFR 303.28 - Products contained in packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...Products contained in packages. When textile products are marketed and delivered...delivery to the utlimate consumer, each textile product in the package, except...

  18. Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners

    E-print Network

    Bridging the Efficiency Gap: Commercial Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioners John Shugars, Consultant ofcommercialpackaged air conditioners, explore the reasons behindthis efficiency gap, and assess opportunities of floorspace. The largest contribution to commercial cooling is from packaged rooftop air conditioning units

  19. Shielding analysis of the long length contaminated equipment transportation package

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.V., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    A shielding analysis of a potential long length contaminated equipment transportation package was completed. The analysis was performed to support the design of the transportation package and external shielding.

  20. Bi-level microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Watson, Robert D.

    2004-01-06

    A package with an integral window for housing a microelectronic device. The integral window is bonded directly to the package without having a separate layer of adhesive material disposed in-between the window and the package. The device can be a semiconductor chip, CCD chip, CMOS chip, VCSEL chip, laser diode, MEMS device, or IMEMS device. The multilayered package can be formed of a LTCC or HTCC cofired ceramic material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined to the package during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The package has at least two levels of circuits for making electrical interconnections to a pair of microelectronic devices. The result is a compact, low-profile package having an integral window that is hermetically sealed to the package prior to mounting and interconnecting the microelectronic device(s).

  1. 78 FR 76548 - New Standards To Enhance Package Visibility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...requirement. The Postal Service is signaling its intention to require eVS for...Package Service, Package Services, Standard Post and...without also having to purchase insurance for more than $200 to obtain this service. The Postal...

  2. Plain Packaging Laws Might Spur Smokers to Quit

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151566.html Plain Packaging Laws Might Spur Smokers to Quit Legislation would also ... 2012 and 2013. During that time, an Australian law was implemented requiring that all tobacco packaging be ...

  3. 21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling...and correctness before packaging operations, and documentation of such examination in the batch production...

  4. 21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling...and correctness before packaging operations, and documentation of such examination in the batch production...

  5. 21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling...and correctness before packaging operations, and documentation of such examination in the batch production...

  6. 21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling...and correctness before packaging operations, and documentation of such examination in the batch production...

  7. 21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling...and correctness before packaging operations, and documentation of such examination in the batch production...

  8. Interface utilisateur du package pst-uml Maurice Diamantini

    E-print Network

    Mintmire, John W.

    Interface utilisateur du package pst-uml Maurice Diamantini (email : diam@ensta.fr) modif package 2 Les macros de création d'objet 2 2.1 \\umlClass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2 \\uml

  9. Measurement and field simulation based characterization of plastic IC packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mernyei; Austria Mikro

    1997-01-01

    A method to obtain electrical models for IC packages is introduced. We used measured S-parameters to extract equivalent circuits for the package and surrounding components. The resulted equivalent circuit was verified with 3D field simulation

  10. 9 CFR 112.10 - Special packaging and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.10 Special packaging and labeling. A biological product, which requires special...

  11. 9 CFR 112.10 - Special packaging and labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.10 Special packaging and labeling. A biological product, which requires special...

  12. 9 CFR 112.6 - Packaging biological products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.6 Packaging biological products. (a) Each multiple-dose final...

  13. 10 CFR 71.43 - General standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction among the packaging components, among...package contents, including possible reaction resulting from inleakage of water...significant increase in external surface radiation levels, and no substantial...

  14. 10 CFR 71.43 - General standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction among the packaging components, among...package contents, including possible reaction resulting from inleakage of water...significant increase in external surface radiation levels, and no substantial...

  15. 10 CFR 71.43 - General standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction among the packaging components, among...package contents, including possible reaction resulting from inleakage of water...significant increase in external surface radiation levels, and no substantial...

  16. 10 CFR 71.43 - General standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction among the packaging components, among...package contents, including possible reaction resulting from inleakage of water...significant increase in external surface radiation levels, and no substantial...

  17. 10 CFR 71.43 - General standards for all packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction among the packaging components, among...package contents, including possible reaction resulting from inleakage of water...significant increase in external surface radiation levels, and no substantial...

  18. 49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (a) Each Large Packaging must be resistant to, or protected from, deterioration due to exposure to the external environment. Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant....

  19. 19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in...

  20. 19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging materials and containers in...

  1. 16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...as “special packaging” within the meaning of section 2(4) of the act. Specific...requirement may be satisfied by appropriate scientific evaluation of the compatibility... Special packaging, tested by the method described in § 1700.20, shall...

  2. 16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 1702.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  3. 16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Section 1702.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  4. 16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 1702.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  5. 16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Section 1702.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  6. 16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 1702.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

  7. Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

  8. Package-X: A Mathematica package for the analytic calculation of one-loop integrals

    E-print Network

    Hiren H. Patel

    2015-03-04

    Package-X, a Mathematica package for the analytic computation of one-loop integrals dimensionally regulated near 4 spacetime dimensions is described. Package-X computes arbitrarily high rank tensor integrals with up to three propagators, and gives compact expressions of UV divergent, IR divergent, and finite parts for any kinematic configuration involving real-valued external invariants and internal masses. Output expressions can be readily evaluated numerically and manipulated symbolically with built-in Mathematica functions. Emphasis is on evaluation speed, on readability of results, and especially on user-friendliness. Also included is a routine to compute traces of products of Dirac matrices, and a collection of projectors to facilitate the computation of fermion form factors at one-loop. The package is intended to be used both as a research tool and as an educational tool.

  9. Package-X: A Mathematica package for the analytic calculation of one-loop integrals

    E-print Network

    Patel, Hiren H

    2015-01-01

    Package-X, a Mathematica package for the analytic computation of one-loop integrals dimensionally regulated near 4 spacetime dimensions is described. Package-X computes arbitrarily high rank tensor integrals with up to three propagators, and gives compact expressions of UV divergent, IR divergent, and finite parts for any kinematic configuration involving real-valued external invariants and internal masses. Output expressions can be readily evaluated numerically and manipulated symbolically with built-in Mathematica functions. Emphasis is on evaluation speed, on readability of results, and especially on user-friendliness. Also included is a routine to compute traces of products of Dirac matrices, and a collection of projectors to facilitate the computation of fermion form factors at one-loop. The package is intended to be used both as a research tool and as an educational tool.

  10. Package-on-Package (PoP) for Advanced PCB Manufacturing Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Lee; Jinyong Ahn; JeGwang Yoo; Joonsung Kim; Hwa-Sun Park; Shuichi Okabe

    2006-01-01

    In the 1990's, both BGA (ball grid array) and CSP (chip size package) are entering their end in the front-end packaging materials and process technology. Both BGA and CSP like SMD (surface mount device) from the 1980's and THD (through-hole mount device) from the 1970's are reaching its own impasse in terms of maximizing its electrical, mechanical, and thermal performances,

  11. The C-Cat Wordnet Package: An Open Source Package for modifying andapplying Wordnet

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, K; Huang, T; Buttler, D

    2011-09-16

    We present the C-Cat Wordnet package, an open source library for using and modifying Wordnet. The package includes four key features: an API for modifying Synsets; implementations of standard similarity metrics, implementations of well known Word Sense Disambiguation algorithms, and an implementation of the Castanet algorithm. The library is easily extendible and usable in many runtime environments. We demonstrate it's use on two standard Word Sense Disambiguation tasks and apply the Castanet algorithm to a corpus.

  12. Package design and materials selection optimization for overmolded flip chip packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaomin Lin; Frank G. Shi

    2006-01-01

    In overmolded flip chip (OM-FC) packaging, interface delamination-particularly at the die\\/underfill interface-is often expected to be a main type of failure mode. In this paper, a systematic stress analysis is performed by means of numerical simulations for the optimal design of package geometries and materials combinations. The behavior of the interfacial stresses at the die\\/underfill and die\\/mold-compound (MC) during the

  13. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  14. Reliability assessment of high-leadcount TAB package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamin Ling; Hongbee Teoh; David Sorrells; Jack Jones

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the reliability assessment of a high lead count TAB (tape automated bonding) package using advanced packaging technology. The package was developed to replace existing leaded chip carriers for high I\\/O and high performance applications. The package technology uses Au bumps and Au plated, single-metal, two-layer 70-mm Cu tape with a polyimide support ring. Two test vehicles, with

  15. Accurate assessment of packaging stress effects on MEMS devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Zhang; S. B. Park; R. Navarro; M. W. Judy

    2006-01-01

    In this work, packaging-induced stress effects are assessed for MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) sensors in several plastic packages. A packaged MEMS sensor may experience functionality offset shifts due to the thermo-mechanical stresses induced by plastic packaging and the subsequent assembly processes. Modeling and simulation to minimize the stress-induced shifts is essential for high-precision accelerometers and gyroscopes. Improvement of modeling accuracy by

  16. Popcorn phenomena in a ball grid array package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Ho Ahn; Young-Shin Kwon; Kwang-Jae Shin

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of studying popcorn phenomena, plastic ball grid array packages with 119 I\\/O's were tested under the pre-conditioning test conditions. Observations using scanning acoustic tomography and optical microscopy were carried out to investigate the existence of delaminations and cracks in the package, and the cracking patterns after IR reflow. Package deformations and thermo-mechanical stress distributions in the package

  17. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  18. Test Structure Methodology of IC Package Material Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Edwards; G. Heinen; G. Bednarz; W. Schroen

    1983-01-01

    A methodology in assembly\\/packaging technology of semiconductor integrated circuits (IC's) is described Which serves a threefold purpose: it aims at characterizing and selecting electronic assembly\\/Packaging materials; it directs optimization and control of assembly\\/packaging processes; and it identifies failure mechanisms which determine product reliability. Case example applications of the methodology are reported including application to package molding compound characterization arid chip

  19. JAVA SWING-BASED PLOTTING PACKAGE RESIDING WITHIN XAL

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A data plotting package residing in the XAL tools set is presented. This package is based on Java SWING, and therefore it has the same portability as Java itself. The data types for charts, bar-charts, and color-surface plots are described. The algorithms, performance, interactive capabilities, limitations, and the best usage practices of this plotting package are discussed.

  20. Polylactides—Chemistry, Properties and Green Packaging Technology: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasim Ahmed; Sunil K. Varshney

    2011-01-01

    Polylactide (PLA), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, has been studied extensively for its wide applications in various fields from food packaging to interior materials for automobiles. One of PLA's advantages is that the raw material, lactic acid can be derived from renewable resources, which makes PLA very attractive for the packaging and considered as green packaging. Although, the cost of PLA

  1. Thermal analysis of IC package burn-in subrack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navas Khan; D. Pinjala; M. K. Iyer; Liu Baomin; R. Mandal; Y. C. Mui

    2002-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) package manufacturing involves number of intricate process steps and is prone to defects, which will shorten product life. Hence early deduction of the defects is important for high production yield. One of the package screening tests is the burn-in test. As the IC package power drastically increased over the last decade, the design requirements of a burn-in

  2. Gas exchange dynamics in modified atmosphere packaging of soft cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocio Rodriguez-Aguilera; Jorge C. Oliveira; Julio C. Montanez; Pramod V. Mahajan

    2009-01-01

    Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) is a shelf-life extension technique that has been widely applied to horticultural, meat and dairy products. It relies on the interaction between product, packaging material and environment, which determines the gas composition inside the package at steady state. Therefore, MAP design needs to take into consideration O2 consumption and CO2 production rates of the product and

  3. The Case for Polylactic Acid as a Commodity Packaging Plastic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Sinclair

    1996-01-01

    Polylactide, sometimes called polylactic acid (PLA), meets many requirements as a packaging thermoplastic and is suggested as a commodity resin for general packaging applications. Its general physical properties and melt processing ease are similar to conventional packaging resins. PLA slowly degrades by hydrolysis in even a slightly moist environment over a period of several months to a year to environmentally-friendly

  4. Shock performance study of solder joints in wafer level packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amarinder Singh Ranouta; Xuejun Fan; Qiang Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated testing, finite element modeling and failure analysis approach for drop test reliability of wafer level packages is developed to examine the shock performance of large array wafer level packages. For standard JEDEC drop test, it has been found that corner component group (group A) failed first for 12 times 12 array packages. This is different

  5. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  6. A Road Map to ARPA Involvement in Electronic Packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lance A. Glasser

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect (EP\\/I) technology by US Department of Defense's Advance Research Projects Agency are discussed. The EP\\/I domain includes packages, multichip modules (MCMs), connectors, printed circuit boards (PCBs), boxes, backplanes, and cages. The EP\\/I physical technologies, including diamond substrates, superconductors, and metal matrix packages, are discussed, and information technologies are described

  7. The development of finite element method package in CEMTool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choon Ki Ahn; Soo Hee Han; Wook Hyun Kwon

    2004-01-01

    CEMTool is a command style design and analyzing package for scientific and technological algorithm and a matrix based computation language. In this paper, we present new FEM (finite element method) package in CEMTool environment. In contrast to the existing MATLAB PDE Toolbox, our proposed FEM package can deal with the combination of the reserved words. Also, we can control the

  8. Investigation of thermal performance of various power-device packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuejun Fan

    2008-01-01

    Continuing trends of miniaturization, rising switching frequencies and increasing packaging densities require increased current handling capability of packaged devices in applications related to power conversion. Traditionally, these ever-increasing demands are met by improvements in silicon efficiency. Nevertheless, with silicon efficiency pushed to the limit, major semiconductor power-device manufacturers are now looking for innovative packaging options for power devices to achieve

  9. Dynamic simulation of robot manipulators using graphical programming packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-S. Sun; Q.-H. M. Meng

    1995-01-01

    There are software packages to simulate robot dynamics. We discuss dynamic simulation of robot manipulators using graphical programming packages, namely Labview and Simulink. Labview is a graphical programming package capable of data acquisition, data analysis, data presentation and real-time control. Simulink is a general graphical simulation environment for dynamic systems. Techniques using Labview to simulate robot dynamics are discussed and

  10. Low ball BGA: a new concept in thermoplastic packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Gilleo; Joe Belmonte; Gerald Pham-Van-Diep

    2004-01-01

    Area array packaging has advanced to become a vital and enabling technology. It has replaced perimeter-restrictive designs where space efficiency and high performance are important. But this type of package has brought a cost penalty. The package substrate has the highest cost component of the ball grid array (BGA). The problem is how to reduce the cost of the substrate?

  11. On the mode II popcorn effect in thin packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Alpern; Rainer Dudek; Roland Schmidt; Viktor Wicher; Rainer Tilgner

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out using P-TQFP-176 packages to study the mode II popcorn effect in thin packages. The doming of the package backside was measured as a function of time and temperature. The measurements were performed using a line projection method. An \\

  12. Popcorn phenomena in a ball grid array package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung-Ho Ahn; Young-Shin Kwon

    1995-01-01

    Plastic ball grid array packages can be an alternative to the fine-pitch plastic quad flat package with many I\\/O's, due to its advantages, such as small footprint and high density interconnect, improved module assembly yield, superior thermal and electrical performances to plastic quad flat packages, etc. In spite of these many advantages, there are several concerns which hinder the plastic

  13. 30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power package checklist. 7.108 Section...TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of...Electric Equipment is Required § 7.108 Power package checklist. Each diesel...

  14. 30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power package checklist. 7.108 Section...TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of...Electric Equipment is Required § 7.108 Power package checklist. Each diesel...

  15. 30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Power package checklist. 7.108 Section...TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of...Electric Equipment is Required § 7.108 Power package checklist. Each diesel...

  16. ONE AND TWO WAY PACKAGING IN THE DAIRY SECTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bloemhof-Ruwaard; J. A. E. E. van Nunen; J. Vroom; A. van der Linden

    2001-01-01

    Choosing packaging material for dairy products and soft drinks is an interesting issue at the moment. Discussions arise on the costs impacts and environmental impacts of both one way packaging and reusable packaging. The aim of this article is to develop an evaluation tool providing costs and environmental impacts of the PC-bottle and the GT-packs in the dairy sector, considering

  17. Migration of Substances from Food Packaging Materials to Foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IOANNIS S. ARVANITOYANNIS; LOULOUDA BOSNEA

    2004-01-01

    The employment of novel food packaging materials has increased the number of occurring hazards due to the migration from packaging material to the packaged food. Although polymers have mainly monopolized the interest of migration testing and experimentation, recent studies have revealed that migration also occurs from “traditional” materials generally considered to be safe, such as paper, carton, wood, ceramic, and

  18. One and Two Way Packaging in the Dairy Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Bloemhof-Ruwaard; J. Vroom; A. van der Linden

    2001-01-01

    Choosing packaging material for dairy products and soft drinks is an interesting issue at the moment. Discussions arise on the costs impacts and environmental impacts of both one way packaging and reusable packaging. The aim of this article is to develop an evaluation tool providing costs and environmental impacts of the PC-bottle and the GT-packs in the dairy sector, considering

  19. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is effective in maintaining quality through its effects on modification of the gas composition in the package headspace. The degree of atmosphere modification within a modified atmosphere package is a consequence of the respiratory O2 uptake and CO2 evolution of ...

  20. Laser applications in integrated circuits and photonics packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Feng Lu; L. P. Li; K. Mendu; J. Shi

    2004-01-01

    Laser processing has large potential in the packaging of integrated circuits (IC). It can be used in many applications such as laser cleaning of IC mold tools, laser deflash to remove mold flash from heat sinks and lead wires of IC packages, laser singulation of BGA (ball grid array) and CSP (chip scale packages), laser reflow of solder ball on

  1. Media Packages for Classrooms: Easy as 1, 2, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Janis L.

    1996-01-01

    Media Services at the University of California at Santa Cruz has developed standard media packages defining the audiovisual and presentation support available in a classroom. Describes the process of developing classroom equipment standards, three classroom packages, and a movable cart used to enhance the smaller packages. Lists the equipment for…

  2. FIRST INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 LIFE EXTENSION PACKAGE TESTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Daugherty; T. Stefek

    2009-01-01

    Three 9975 packages have been instrumented and exposed to bounding storage conditions to help identify the extent to which laboratory test results for fiberboard, O-rings and other components apply within a full-scale package. To date, changes observed in the fiberboard overpack and Oring seals are generally consistent with the behavior of laboratory samples. The lead shield within each package has

  3. 49 CFR 173.415 - Authorized Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...of a Specification 7A package must maintain on file...A description of the package showing materials of...item of the containment system, shielding and packing...item of the containment system resulting from the tests...contents being shipped, the package meets the pertinent...

  4. Applying Module System Research to Package Management David B. Tucker

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Applying Module System Research to Package Management David B. Tucker Brown University Box 1910@cs.brown.edu ABSTRACT Package managers found in popular operating systems are similar to module systems in many the software. Managing software packages is thus a critical problem in real systems. Distributions of open

  5. Designing Clustered Multiprocessor Systems under Packaging and Technological Advancements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debashis Basak; Dhabaleswar K. Panda

    1996-01-01

    Packaging technologies impose various physical constraints on bisection bandwidth, pinout,and channel width of a system whereas processor and interconnect technologies lead to certain demandedthroughput on network bisection. Earlier studies in literature have proposed hierarchicaland clustered interconnections by considering the effect of limited packaging constraints. Pinouttechnologies and capacity of packaging modules have been ignored, often leading to configurationswhich are not...

  6. A Trimless, Package-Shift Compensated, High PSR, Low

    E-print Network

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    coefficient of expansion of package and silicon causes a strain on die as system cools from moldingA Trimless, Package-Shift Compensated, High PSR, Low Dropout CMOS Regulated Reference Vishal Gupta, package-shift compensated, high PSR, low dropout, CMOS regulated reference is presented. · High accuracy

  7. Carbon dioxide sensors for intelligent food packaging applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep Puligundla; Junho Jung; Sanghoon Ko

    Recently, the demand for safe and high quality foods, as well as changes in consumer preferences have led to the development of innovative and novel approaches in food packaging technology. One such development is the smart or intelligent food packaging technology. Intelligent packaging has enabled to monitor and communicate information about food quality. This technology also helps to trace a

  8. Mechanism for Coordinated RNA Packaging and Genome Replication

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    Structure Article Mechanism for Coordinated RNA Packaging and Genome Replication by Rotavirus *Correspondence: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu DOI 10.1016/j.str.2008.09.006 SUMMARY Rotavirus RNA-dependent RNA rotavirus RNA for packaging and that VP2 activates the autoinhibited VP1/RNA complex to coordinate packaging

  9. Effectiveness of IC shielded packages against space radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Spratt; B. C. Passenheim; R. E. Leadon; S. Clark; D. J. Strobel

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses research undertaken to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of shielded packages for protecting commercial microelectronics against ionizing dose from electrons and protons in space. The IC shielded package design data base was extended to include all important shield parameters (thickness, atomic number (Z), and edge effects). The shielding effectiveness of these packages was calculated using both forward

  10. Broadband Impedance Matching for Inductive Interconnect in VLSI Packages

    E-print Network

    LaMeres, Brock J.

    of IC cores far exceeds that of current packaging technology. The risetimes of IC signals require compensator places pre-defined capacitances on the package and on the IC to surround the wire bond inductance such as flip-chip bumping can reduce the inductance present in the Level 1 (IC to Package) interconnect [1

  11. Comparison of IC and MEMS packaging reliability approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of IC and MEMS packaging technology with emphasis on reliability, compares the norm for IC packaging reliability evaluation and identifies challenges for development of reliability methodologies for MEMS, and finally, proposes the use of COTS MEMS in order to start generating statistically meaningful reliability data as a vehicle for future standardization of reliability test methodology for MEMS packaging.

  12. Glass waveguides on silicon for hybrid optical packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Henry; G. E. Blonder; R. F. Kazarinov

    1989-01-01

    Work on deposited glass waveguides on silicon to form waveguides and filters is reviewed. The choice of these particular waveguides makes sense only as part of a consistent approach to optoelectronic packaging. Hybrid optical packaging on silicon (HOPS) is described and briefly compared with other techniques. For these packages, two waveguides were developed: a tight mode waveguide with a silicon

  13. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  14. Low-cost molded packaging for optical data links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven D. Robinson; M. Sabri Acarlar; Yang C. Chen; Louis T. Manzione; George J. Shevchuk; Dennis Stefanik

    1995-01-01

    In order to lower the cost of optical data link packaging, a new technology has been developed which integrates optical and electrical components in a single, sealed, transfer molded package. This technology utilizes leadframes for low cost and mass handling. Overmolding is used for package sealing and optical port alignment. A unique process, two-step transfer molding, allows for internal shielding,

  15. Low cost molded packaging for optical data links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Robinson; M. S. Acarlar; Y. C. Chen; L. T. Manzione; G. J. Shevchuk; D. Stefanik

    1994-01-01

    In order to lower the cost of optical data link packaging, a new technology has been developed which integrates optical and electrical components in a single, sealed, transfer molded package. This technology utilizes leadframes for low cost and mass handling. Overmolding is used for package sealing and optical port alignment. A unique process, two step transfer molding, allows for internal

  16. Overmold technology applied to cavity down ultrafine pitch PBGA package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Ouimet; Marie-Claude Paquet

    1998-01-01

    The transfer molding technology is normally used for leadframe type packages and chip-up PBGA (Plastic Ball Grid Array) packages. This technology has been applied to cavity down PBGA packages where, normally, a liquid epoxy is dispensed by a needle in the cavity in order to cover the device and gold wires without exceeding the solder ball height plane. The new

  17. Overmold technology applied to cavity down ultrafine pitch PBGA package

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Ouimet; Marie-Claude Paquet

    1999-01-01

    The transfer molding technology is normally used for leadframe type packages and chip-up plastic ball grid array (PBGA) packages. This technology has been applied to cavity down PBGA packages where, normally, a liquid epoxy is dispensed by a needle in the cavity in order to cover the device and gold wires without exceeding the solder ball height plane. The new

  18. Packaging and reliability research on automobiles micro-pressure sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Guan

    2009-01-01

    A new type pressure sensor based on MEMS technology and the full oil cavity structure is developed in this paper, and the reliability of packaging process for sensor is researched, and its characteristics are measured. The experimental results demonstrate that the packaging materials and packaging process have all effect on reliability of the pressure sensor. By to coat a passivating

  19. 30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power package checklist. 7.108 Section...TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of...Electric Equipment is Required § 7.108 Power package checklist. Each diesel...

  20. 30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Power package checklist. 7.108 Section...TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of...Electric Equipment is Required § 7.108 Power package checklist. Each diesel...