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1

Food Packaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how food packages are designed and made, including the three main functions. The packaging design and materials must keep food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in food, and identify a food appealingly. Then, in the associated activity, students act as if they are packaging engineers by designing and creating their own food packages for particular food types.

Engineering K-Phd Program

2

Ceremony Theming Packages Package One  

E-print Network

: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Weddings at The University of Western Australia #12;Ceremony Theming Packages Payment Details CREDIT CARD I: __________________________________________________________________________________________ Credit Card Type: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Card Number

Tobar, Michael

3

Wigner Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wigner package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the time evolution and visualization of energy eigenstates and their superpositions in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on the Wigner quasi-probability distribution for position and momentum. The Wigner package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_wigner.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

4

Spins Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spins package is a self-contained file for the teaching of measurement and time evolution of spin-1/2 systems in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on single and multiple measurements of different ensembles of identically prepared spin-1/2 particles. The Spins package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_spins.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. The original program, Spins, was written for the Macintosh by Daniel Schroeder and Thomas Moore and was then ported to Java by David McIntyre. We have made extensive modifications to the Java version of the SPINS program. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

5

Science packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

1997-01-01

6

Package Those Foods!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student groups are challenged to create food packages for specific foods. They focus on three components in the design of their food packages; the packages must keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and present the food appealingly. They design their packaging to meet these requirements.

Engineering K-Phd Program

7

CH Packaging Operations Manual  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-06-13

8

Trends in Food Packaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

Ott, Dana B.

1988-01-01

9

QM Measurement Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Measurement Launcher package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the measurement (E, x, and p) of energy eigenstates and their superpositions in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a curricular materials. One can choose from several pre-set states to perform measurements on: energy eigenstates, two-state superpositions, and wave packets. The QM Measurement package includes two supplemental documents (see below) that contain curricular worksheets in support of the package. The QM Measurement package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_superposition.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2010-01-23

10

Smart packaging for photonics  

SciTech Connect

Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W. [ed.

1997-09-01

11

Molded hybrid IC packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT&T's new system products will incorporate hybrid ICs with significantly more I\\/O connections than current designs, predominantly in surface-mount package formats. A family of plastic molded packages that conform to JEDEC standards is being developed for these hybrid IC applications. The packages are identical in both appearance and performance to those of discrete ICs, simplifying system design because standard CAD

R. Biswas; P. A. Deane; T. F. Marinis

1989-01-01

12

The ZOOM minimization package  

SciTech Connect

A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

13

Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

Lee, Carolyn

14

WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

1998-09-23

15

RH Packaging Operations Manual  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2003-09-17

16

Position Carpet Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Position Carpet package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the time evolution and visualization of energy eigenstates and their superpositions via quantum spacetime diagrams or quantum carpets. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on the wave function and the quantum carpet in position space. The Position Carpet package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_carpet.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

17

QM Superposition Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Superposition Launcher package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the time evolution and visualization of energy eigenstates and their superpositions in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a curricular materials. One can choose from several real-time visualizations, such as the position and momentum expectation values and the Wigner quasi-probability distribution for position and momentum. The QM Superposition package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_superposition.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-29

18

Modular electronics packaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

19

Phase Matters Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phase Matters package is a self-contained file for the teaching of phase and time evolution in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on when and how, for arbitrary quantum-mechanical states, the phase of the wave function matters. The Phase Matters package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_phase_matters.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

20

Momentum Space Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Momentum Space package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the time evolution and visualization of energy eigenstates and their superpositions via momentum space in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on the wave function in both position and momentum space. The Momentum Space package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_p_space.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

21

Packaging for Posterity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

Sias, Jim

1990-01-01

22

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine  

E-print Network

BAR PACKAGES Standard Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine 1-2 hours $21/ person Sobieski Vodka MGD 3 Select Wine Cutty Sark Scotch Cruzan Rum Premium Bar Package Price Liquor Beer/Wine 1-2 hours $24/person Brothers Brewing Co* Dewars Scotch Field Museum Select Wine Bacardi Rum Super Premium Package Price Liquor

Westneat, Mark W.

23

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2002-03-04

24

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2003-04-30

25

Electronic Packaging Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A characteristic of aerospace system design is that equipment size and weight must always be kept to a minimum, even in small components such as electronic packages. The dictates of spacecraft design have spawned a number of high-density packaging techniques, among them methods of connecting circuits in printed wiring boards by processes called stitchbond welding and parallel gap welding. These processes help designers compress more components into less space; they also afford weight savings and lower production costs.

1979-01-01

26

Battery packaging - Technology review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

Maiser, Eric

2014-06-01

27

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2006-11-07

28

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-01-12

29

Food packages for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

1978-01-01

30

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-02-28

31

Food Packaging Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

1978-01-01

32

General Relativity (GR) Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The General Relativity (GR) Package is a self-contained file for the teaching of general relativity. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. You can choose from a variety of simulations ranging from comparisons between Newtonian mechanics and general relativity to orbits around and into black holes. This application is an Open Source Physics curricular package. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_gr.jar file will run the application if Java is installed. Other resources are also available and can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics or OSP.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2008-06-03

33

Learning Activity Package, Algebra.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

Evans, Diane

34

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

35

Electro-Microfluidic Packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

2002-06-01

36

Metal package photomultiplier tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Metal Package PMT R5600U series, a size of 15 mm diameter and 10 mm height, has been developed. Its appearance is the same as TO-8 type solid state device and it has as high sensitivity and speed as a conventional PMT. There are two important key components for the development of this tube. They are the metal envelope same

H. Kyushima; Y. Hasegama; A. Atsumi; Y. Yokota; H. Matsuura; Y. Watase; M. Ito; J. Takeuchi; K. Oba

1994-01-01

37

Web Technology (elective package)  

E-print Network

Web Technology (elective package) Offered by: Department of Mathematics and Computer Science? Computer Science-based approaches and enabling technologies for the web. Course descriptions Human and efficient. Web Technology The web has become the major source of information retrieval and is playing

Franssen, Michael

38

APP: AGENT PLANNING PACKAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

C† Abstract. Nowadays, a large number of planning systems exist. The majority of them are either applicable only to specific domains (domain dependent) or support only plan generation, but not plan execution and supervision. This paper presents Agent Planning Package (APP), a new domain independent planner which facilitates the creation of intelligent agents. Through the use of APP, agents can

S RADOVANOVI ´ C

39

APP: Agent Planning Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Nowadays, a large number of planning systems exist. The majority of them are either applicable only to specific domains (domain dependent) or support only plan gener- ation, but not plan execution and supervision. This paper presents Agent Planning Package (APP), a new domain independent planner which facilitates the creation of intelligent agents. Through the use of APP, agents can

Sasa Tosi; Milos Radovanovi; Mirjana Ivanovic

40

April 2008 BEE CULTURE 43 Package timePackage time  

E-print Network

April 2008 BEE CULTURE 43 Package timePackage time Jennifer Berry It of March. This month bees are being shook by the millions into packages (weather dependent of course then you should be first in line for your bees. If you haven't placed an order you may have a hard time

Delaplane, Keith S.

41

Sustainable Library Development Training Package  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

Peace Corps, 2012

2012-01-01

42

Graphics packages for teaching graphics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and implementation of graphics packages has been widely studied and discussed. The special needs of the teaching environment change the requirements of a package in some interesting ways because the details usually hidden from the user are of interest to the students. Here the design of such a package is considered. In order to identify the needs of

John E. Rager

1986-01-01

43

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word-for-word steps in th is document, in sequence, including Notes and cautions. Site specific information may be included as necessary. The document, and revisions, must then be submitted to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval. A copy of the approval letter from CBFO shall be available for audit purposes. Users may develop site-specific procedures addressing preoperational activities, quality assurance (QA), hoisting and rigging, and radiation health physics to be used with the instructions contained in this document. Users may recommend changes to this document by submitting their recommendations (in writing) to the WIPP M&O Contractor RH Packaging Maintenance Engineer for evaluation. If approved, the change(s) will be incorporated into this document for use by ALL users. Before first use and every 12 months after, user sites will be audited to this document to ensure compliance. They will also be audited within one year from the effective date of revisions to this document.

Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

2003-08-25

44

Financial Market Stabilization Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Korean Ministry of Finance and Economy site contains details of The Financial Market Stabilization Package aimed at solving the financial crisis announced on November 19, 1997. The beginning of the financial crisis in South Korea can be traced to the collapse of Hanbo Steel Corp., the first in a string of large corporate failures in South Korea. This was followed by the decline in the value of the Korean won against the dollar in October 1997, which persisted until November when the Central Bank of Korea stopped intervening to support the won. The continued decline in won forced the Korean government to seek financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). On December 3, the IMF announced a $55 billion aid package for South Korea.

1997-01-01

45

KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

46

Aquaculture information package  

SciTech Connect

This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

1998-08-01

47

APP: Agent Planning Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Nowadays, a large number of planning systems exist. The majority of them are either applicable only to specific domains (domain\\u000a dependent) or support only plan generation, but not plan execution and supervision. This paper presents Agent Planning Package\\u000a (APP), a new domain independent planner which facilitates the creation of intelligent agents. Through the use of APP, agents\\u000a can generate plans

Saša Toši?; Miloš Radovanovi?; Mirjana Ivanovi?

48

Computational Neuroscience Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Neuroscience Launcher Package contains read-to-run computer models that describe the biophysics of the action potential. Contained within the launcher are nine models in four sections; each of the sections illustrates a different aspect of neural dynamics. Section one has models with variables corresponding to specific biological properties, section two models have analytically-determinable firing rates based on input, section three emphasizes phase-plane analysis, and section four shows the dynamics of neural networks. Each model represents just one approach to the still-developing field of neuroscience. The Computational Neuroscience Launcher Package was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify the simulations in this package if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within a running stimulation and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Thomson, Colin F.

2012-12-27

49

21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.  

...Package size limitation. Due to the toxicity associated with fluoride active ingredients, the following package size limitations...container packaging. To minimize moisture contamination, all fluoride powdered dentifrices shall be packaged in a tight...

2014-04-01

50

New package for CMOS sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

2004-02-01

51

Refraction of Light Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Refraction of Light Package explores light traveling through media of difference indices of refraction. The user can change the beginning and end points of the light ray as well as the location of the light at the interface and note what light path minimizes light travel time and thereby develop Snell's Law. The Refraction and Least Time Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Refraction_Snell.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

52

KAPPA: Kernel Applications Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David S.

2014-03-01

53

Space station power semiconductor package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

1987-01-01

54

Asset Exchange Model Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EjsS Asset Exchange Model Package contains JavaScript models to investigate the the transfer of wealth in a simple economic model consisting of N buyers and sellers, known as agents, who spend their time buying and selling goods at a yard sale. In this economic model, two agents A and B are chosen at random and goods are exchanged. If the price of the item is correct, neither agent gains or looses wealth but this is uninteresting and unrealistic. In a realistic transaction an agent can either pay too much or get a bargain so that one agent becomes slightly richer while the other agent becomes poorer. What happens to the wealth of agent wA if this process is repeated many times and if we assume that the agent receiving the bargain is chosen at random so that sometimes agent A gains and sometimes agent A looses in the transaction. In other words, neither agent is always shrewd or always gullible so that all agents have an equal chance of getting rich. Does this model produce an equitable distribution of wealth? The EjsS Asset Exchange Model Package was developed using the Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations (EjsS) version 5 authoring tool. Although EjsS is a Java program, it can create stand alone JavaScript programs that run in almost any PC or tablet.

Christian, Wolfgang; Tobochnik, Jan; Gould, Harvey

2014-08-28

55

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-01-01

56

Tamper indicating packaging  

SciTech Connect

Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL.

Baumann, M.J.; Bartberger, J.C.; Welch, T.D.

1994-08-01

57

Fitting Cosmological Data Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package includes several cosmological fitting simulations for five different observations of the expansion, all of which support a cosmic acceleration. The launcher allows users to choose which simulation to use to compare and fit theoretical models of cosmology with recent supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, the Hubble Parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the CMB data sets to confirm the accelerated expansion of the universe. This modeling allows the user to vary cosmological parameters within a particular class of dark energy cosmological models to fit a particular cosmological data set. The user can plot several theoretical curves with the data to compare different models. The values of these parameters, for a particular model, determine the physical description and evolution of the universe. The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package was created using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_CosmoEJS.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS by right-clicking within the plot and selecting Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu item.

Moldenhauer, Jacob; Stone, Keenan; Shuler, Zeke; Engelhardt, Larry

2012-09-10

58

New package for CMOS sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low

Jean-Luc Diot; Kum Weng Loo; Jean-Pierre Moscicki; Hun Shen Ng; Tong Yan Tee; Jerome Teysseyre; Daniel Yap

2004-01-01

59

IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION  

SciTech Connect

This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

E. Thomas

2005-07-14

60

High-Pressure Transducer Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enclosure for silicon device ensures accurate measurements of cryogenic liquids. Package holds silicon sensor in uniform compression around periphery and helps ensure accurate, stable, and repeatable pressure measurements. Mounting assembly housed in package of stainless steel. Materials selected for equality of thermal expansion and for pressure-sealing properties. Besides its high-pressure, low-temperature characteristics, package withstands vibrations as severe as 400 times standard gravitational acceleration at 0 to 2,000 Hz.

Wamstad, D.; Glenn, M.

1987-01-01

61

About the ZOOM minimization package  

SciTech Connect

A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

62

Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

BOEHNKE, W.M.

2000-10-19

63

Tritium waste package  

DOEpatents

A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

Rossmassler, Rich (Cranbury, NJ); Ciebiera, Lloyd (Titusville, NJ); Tulipano, Francis J. (Teaneck, NJ); Vinson, Sylvester (Ewing, NJ); Walters, R. Thomas (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1995-01-01

64

Balloon gondola diagnostics package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

Cantor, K. M.

1986-01-01

65

The LISA Technology Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LISA Technology Package (LTP) is the payload of the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder was instigated to test, in a flight environment, the critical technologies required by LISA; namely, the inertial sensing subsystem and associated control laws and micro-Newton thrusters required to place a macroscopic test mass in pure free-fall. The UP is in the late stages of development -- all subsystems are currently either in the final stages of manufacture or in test. Available flight units are being integrated into the real-time testbeds for system verification tests. This poster will describe the UP and its subsystems, give the current status of the hardware and test campaign, and outline the future milestones leading to the UP delivery.

Livas, Jeff

2009-01-01

66

Tritium waste package  

DOEpatents

A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

1995-11-07

67

Electro-Microfluidic Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Electro-microfluidics is experiencing explosive growth in new product developments. There are many commercial applications for electro-microfluidic devices such as chemical sensors, biological sensors, and drop ejectors for both printing and chemical analysis. The number of silicon surface micromachined electro-microfluidic products is likely to increase. Manufacturing efficiency and integration of microfluidics with electronics will become important. Surface micromachined microfluidic devices are manufactured with the same tools as IC's (integrated circuits) and their fabrication can be incorporated into the IC fabrication process. In order to realize applications for devices must be developed. An Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package (EMDIP{trademark}) was developed surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices, a practical method for getting fluid into these to be a standard solution that allows for both the electrical and the fluidic connections needed to operate a great variety of electro-microfluidic devices. The EMDIP{trademark} includes a fan-out manifold that, on one side, mates directly with the 200 micron diameter Bosch etched holes found on the device, and, on the other side, mates to lager 1 mm diameter holes. To minimize cost the EMDIP{trademark} can be injection molded in a great variety of thermoplastics which also serve to optimize fluid compatibility. The EMDIP{trademark} plugs directly into a fluidic printed wiring board using a standard dual in-line package pattern for the electrical connections and having a grid of multiple 1 mm diameter fluidic connections to mate to the underside of the EMDIP{trademark}.

BENAVIDES, GILBERT L.; GALAMBOS, PAUL C.

2002-06-01

68

Chip packaging technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

69

Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. METHODS: A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by

JR DiFranza; DM Clark; RW Pollay

2003-01-01

70

Solar water heater design package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

1981-01-01

71

Microelectronics/electronic packaging potential  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trend toward smaller and lighter electronic packages was examined. It is suggested that electronic packaging engineers and microelectronic designers closely associate and give full attention to optimization of both disciplines on all product lines. Extensive research and development work underway to explore innovative ideas and make new inroads into the technology base, is expected to satisfy the demands of the 1980's.

Sandeau, R. F.

1977-01-01

72

Status of PERST-5 package  

SciTech Connect

The methods and algorithms used in the PERST-5 package are described. This package is part of the MCU-5 code and is intended for neutron-physical calculation of the cells and parts of nuclear reactors using a generalized method of first collision probabilities.

Gomin, E. A.; Gurevich, M. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V., E-mail: prianik@adis.vver.kiae.ru; Sidorenko, V. D. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Druzhinin, V. E. [Scientific and Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plant Operation (VNIIAES) (Russian Federation); Zhirnov, A. P.; Rozhdestvenskiy, I. M. [Scientific Research and Design Institute of Electrical Engineering (NIKIET) (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15

73

The Macro - TIPS Course Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The TIPS (Teaching Information Processing System) Course Package was designed to be used with the Macro-Games Course Package (SO 011 930) in order to train college students to apply the tools of economic analysis to current problems. TIPS is used to provide feedback and individualized assignments to students, as well as information about the…

Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

74

Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

1982-01-01

75

Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

76

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

Hime, Kirsten

77

Common Lisp Analytical Statistics Package  

E-print Network

for the Common Lisp Instrumentation Package (Clip), a tool for automating data collection and experimen- tationCommon Lisp Analytical Statistics Package: User Manual Scott D. Anderson, Adam Carlson, David L of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003-4610 * Replaces TR-90-85 This work was supported by a University Research

78

LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY  

E-print Network

ATM 1046 LSP EXPLOSIVE PACKAGES FRAGMENTATION STUDY Prepared by: ,11. 15. :n-~ G. B. Min Approved considerations the probability of fragments from an LSP explosive package striking the ALSEP Central Station Experiment requires that Explosive Charges be detonated on the luoar surface early in the ALSEP lunar mission

Rathbun, Julie A.

79

Handwashing Technique. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on handwashing is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a glossary, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are covered:…

Stark, Pamela

80

49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40 Section 173...Transportation § 173.40 General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. When this section...

2010-10-01

81

A study of material properties for package flatness in 3D package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mold compound, substrate core, solder resist, underfill and die attach materials have been used for semiconductor packages for a long time. Recently, 3D packages (such as package-on-packages, stacked-die-packages) were introduced in the electronics industry. Moreover, pursing ultimate performance requires package body downsizing more and more. 3D packages are achieved by stacking laminate substrate packages in vertical direction and interconnecting them

Y. Suzuki; M. Amagai

2008-01-01

82

9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...409 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...FFDCA). (b) Packaging materials entering...guaranties for all food contact packaging materials in the...FFDCA and applicable food additive regulations...approval to use a packaging material is...

2010-01-01

83

NFR TRIGA package design review report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawi...

M. D. Clements

1994-01-01

84

In-Package Chemistry Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been breached but the drip shield remains intact, so all of the seepage flow is diverted from the waste package. The chemistry from the vapor influx case is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion, and to determine the degradation rates for the waste forms. TSPA-LA uses the water influx case for the seismic scenario, where the waste package has been breached and the drip shield has been damaged such that seepage flow is actually directed into the waste package. The chemistry from the water influx case that is a function of the flow rate is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion and advection, and to determine the degradation rates for the CSNF and HLW glass. TSPA-LA does not use this model for the igneous scenario. Outputs from the in-package chemistry model implemented inside TSPA-LA include pH, ionic strength, and total carbonate concentration. These inputs to TSPA-LA will be linked to the following principle factors: dissolution rates of the CSNF and HLWG, dissolved concentrations of radionuclides, and colloid generation.

E. Thomas

2004-11-09

85

Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

2000-01-01

86

Advanced soldering paste suitable for Package-on-Package process  

Microsoft Academic Search

PoP technology is emerging as an alternative solution to SiP since it has advantage of easier testing and sourcing Flux-dipping PoP has risk of cold open joints due to package reflow warpage. Controlling warpage is challenging especially when top\\/bottom package come from different suppliers. New SMT paste STAMP was developed to enlarge process window of PoP stacking. The paste consists

T. Maeda; T. Sakai; S. Sakemi; K. Ishibashi

2006-01-01

87

Will the package contain pathogens  

E-print Network

Will the package contain pathogens OR dry ice ? Is the material considered hazardous by the DOT? Do: Shipping Biological Goods or Dry Ice" before packing and shipping this material. EH&S April 09, 2008

88

Challenges of Packaging Photonic Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presently used photonic packaging methods are labor intensive and often unreliable. Studies have shown laser welding to be the superior fastening technology but it must be used in combination with a compatible positioning technology. The right combination...

G. Lutes, M. Tu

2000-01-01

89

High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

1994-01-01

90

Meteorological data-processing package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

METPAK, meteorological data-processing package of satellite data used to develop cloud-tracking maps, is given. Data can develop and enhance numerical prediction models for mesoscale phenomena and improve ability to detect and predict storms.

Billingsly, J. B.; Braken, P. A.

1979-01-01

91

Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

2010-02-01

92

Evaluating Packaged Steam Generator Designs  

E-print Network

Packaged Steam generators are the workhorses of process and cogeneration plants. An understanding of their design and performance aspects helps plant engineers, consultants and potential buyers evaluate various options from different vendors more...

Ganapathy, V.

93

Tropical Synoptic Meteorology Curriculum Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tropical Synoptic Meteorology Curriculum Package is a university-level, online meteorology course package. It is freely available to interested institutions that are expanding their course offerings, particularly their online offerings. The course fulfills the synoptic and mesoscale meteorology requirements for the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Basic Instruction Package for Meteorology (BIP-M), but with an emphasis on the tropics to provide focus for those working or planning to work in tropical regions. The course utilizes existing and newly developed resources, including the online textbook, Introduction to Tropical Meteorology (http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/). The course package includes an instructorâs guide and model syllabus with learning objectives, free online instructional resources, introductory slides for faculty use, case examples, questions for review or discussion, student assignments, quizzes, learning activities, and guidance for online course delivery. All materials are made available in Google Docs format for downloading and customizing.

Comet

2013-08-06

94

Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings  

SciTech Connect

This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope and requirements of reviews; and (5) Provide the above information to DOE organizations, contractors, other government agencies, and interested members of the general public. This PRG was originally published in September 1987. Revision 1, issued in October 1988, added new review sections on quality assurance and penetrations through the containment boundary, along with a few other items. Revision 2 was published October 1999. Revision 3 of this PRG is a complete update, and supersedes Revision 2 in its entirety.

DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

2007-04-12

95

Plastics packaging and coastal pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of isolated stretches of shore line have indicated that pollution due to plastic packaging is a result of the deposition of sea?borne waste. The waste is primarily a by?product of international commerce and not, as is commonly assumed, due to the irresponsibility of the casual visitor.Indications are that the common packaging plastics vary markedly in their resistance to environmental

G. Scott

1972-01-01

96

Future challenges in electronics packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging solutions for the future are much more complex than our current technologies and still must meet the 5% cost\\/pin reduction per year. The scaleable area array chip-to-package interconnect provides the required I\\/O count for the small chip size needed by hand-held products. It also provides the large I\\/O count needed by cost-performance and high-performance products at an acceptable chip

Chi Shih Chang; A. Oscilowski; R. C. Bracken

1998-01-01

97

Designing a Package that Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams act as engineers and brainstorm, design, create and test their ideas for packaging to protect a raw egg shipped in a 9 x 12-in envelope. They follow the steps of the engineering design process and aim for a successful solution with no breakage, low weight, minimal materials and recyled/reused materials. Students come to understand the multi-faceted engineering considerations associated with the packaging of items to preserve, market and safely transport goods.

Making the Connection, Women in Engineering Programs and Advocates Network (WEPAN) ,

98

Adjustable Support For Instrument Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strong, lightweight structure designed to support instrument package. Provides choice of attachment locations to accommodate variety of sizes and shapes. Composed of seven webbed metal parts. Honeycomb panels cover vertical sides of structure. Instrumentation package, such as telescope or infrared sensor, bolted to top of structure. Accompanying electronics boxes mounted on inside surfaces of panels. Weight of instrumentation carried in direct paths through webbed members to base plate. Structure used for submillimeter-wave astronomy satellite.

Sneiderman, Gary

1991-01-01

99

Tool for Magnetic Analysis Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FIT-MART Launcher package is a self-contained file for simulating systems of interacting quantum magnetic moments (âspinsâ). The interactions are modeled using the Heisenberg model, calculations are carried out by numerically diagonalizing the matrix representation of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian, and several types of plots are generated to describe various aspects of the model. The FIT-MART package is a âFully Integrated Tool for Magnetic Analysis in Research & Teachingâ (hence the acronym) which provides a very simple interface for defining complex quantum spin models, carrying out complex calculations, and visualizing the results using several graphical representations. These representations include plots of the energy spectrum as well as plots of the magnetization and magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The FIT-MART package is an Open Source Physics package written to help students as well as researchers who are studying magnetism. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking osp_fit_mart.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. In future versions of this package, curricular materials will be included to help students to learn about magnetism, and automated fitting routines will be included to help researchers quickly and easily model experimental data.

Engelhardt, Larry; Rainey, Cameron

2010-05-19

100

Rapid Active Sampling Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni/Cad rechargeable battery. Power usage was less than 1 Wh/ cm3 even when sampling strong basalts, so many samples could be taken on a single battery charge.

Peters, Gregory

2010-01-01

101

Packages and Mitsubishi — International Joint Venture Negotiations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case covers the negotiations between Packages Limited, Pakistan (Packages) and Mitsubishi Corporation, Japan (Mitsubishi) for the formation of a joint venture to produce Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) film in Pakistan. Packages was established in Pakistan in 1957 as a joint venture between the Wazir Ali Group and AB Auckerland and Rausing of Sweden. Packages manufactured paper and board and

Humaira Arif; Arif Nazir Butt

2006-01-01

102

Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.  

PubMed

Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Mariësse A E

2013-03-13

103

Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

104

The reduction of packaging waste  

SciTech Connect

Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

1994-04-01

105

Flexible packaging for PV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

Dhere, Neelkanth G.

2008-08-01

106

Modified atmosphere packaging of seafood.  

PubMed

The shelf life of seafood under current icing and refrigerated storage conditions ranges from 2 to 14 d, depending on species, harvest location, and season. Elevated carbon dioxide levels in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been shown to inhibit the normal spoilage flora of seafood and double or triple shelf life. The threat of botulism, due to the presence of nonproteolytic psychyrotrophic Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F, has been reason for caution in expanding this technology. This article examines the safety of MAP seafood through analysis and comparison of raw materials, research methodologies, quality indices, treatment, and packaging options. PMID:2124127

Stammen, K; Gerdes, D; Caporaso, F

1990-01-01

107

Packaging of granular bead chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We find that a freely moving granular chain can be pushed, against the entropic force, into a confined cell if the passage to the cell is a channel of truncated-cone shape. In this setting, the granular chain, the cell and the channel can be considered as a mechanical analog of a DNA molecular, a bacteriophage and a portal motor, respectively. The force generated by the scaled-up analog of the mechanical motor and the packaging speed are found to be consistent with the real bacteriophage ?29 portal motor. Pauses and slips found in single-molecule experiments of DNA packaging of the bacteriophage are also observed in the analog system.

Jeng, Pei-Ren; Chen, KuanHua; Hwang, Gwo-jen; Tien, Chen-Man; Lien, Chenhsin; To, Kiwing; Chou, Y. C.

2011-11-01

108

Truss Performance and Packaging Metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present paper a set of performance metrics are derived from first principals to assess the efficiency of competing space truss structural concepts in terms of mass, stiffness, and strength, for designs that are constrained by packaging. The use of these performance metrics provides unique insight into the primary drivers for lowering structural mass and packaging volume as well as enabling quantitative concept performance evaluation and comparison. To demonstrate the use of these performance metrics, data for existing structural concepts are plotted and discussed. Structural performance data is presented for various mechanical deployable concepts, for erectable structures, and for rigidizable structures.

Mikulas, Martin M.; Collins, Timothy J.; Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Watson, Judith

2006-01-01

109

Package for integrated optic circuit and method  

DOEpatents

A structure and method for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package.

Kravitz, Stanley H. (26 Aspen Rd., Placitas, NM 87043); Hadley, G. Ronald (6012 Annapolis NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Warren, Mial E. (3825 Mary Ellen NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Carson, Richard F. (1036 Jewel Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (1023 Oro Real NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1998-01-01

110

Package for integrated optic circuit and method  

DOEpatents

A structure and method are disclosed for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package. 6 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.; Carson, R.F.; Armendariz, M.G.

1998-08-04

111

Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

McCarthy, T.L.

1995-12-01

112

Transportation and packaging resource guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on

J. W. Arendt; R. M. Gove; M. J. Welch

1994-01-01

113

Silver Package Snacks (Choose 2)  

E-print Network

Silver Package Snacks (Choose 2): ___Tortilla Chips & Salsa ___Assorted Snack Mix-House ___Popcorn-House ___Popcorn ___Chips & Dip ___Fruit Tray ___Veggie Tray ___Mixed Nuts ___Tex-Mex Chips & Dip Entree (Choose 2 Snacks (Choose 2): ___Tex-Mex Chips & Dip ___Assorted Snack Mix-House ___Popcorn ___Chips & Dip ___Fruit

Karonis, Nicholas T.

114

Electronic Spreadsheet Packages for Microcomputers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes capabilities and advantages of spreadsheet software, including its ability to perform "what-if" analysis quickly and easily. Also noted are additional advantages; applications, including use in the library environment; history and development; new-generation spreadsheets; and enhanced packaging in the near future. A spreadsheet software…

Gibson, Larry M.

1984-01-01

115

ADAM -- Organization of Application Packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document explains the standard way in which SG/4 applications packages are set up to run on Starlink machines. It covers the systems permitting use of the applications direct from the shell and from the Interactive Command Language (ICL) on Unix. This document is relevant to applications programmers, the Starlink Software Librarian and Site Managers.

Chipperfield, A. J.

116

The Evolution of LED Packaging  

E-print Network

. #12;NEW KINDS OF CHIPS RAPID EVOLUTION · Soraa GaN on GaNTM small, triangular chiThe Evolution of LED Packaging Robert Karlicek Director, Smart Lighting Engineering Research reserved. #12;THE TRADITIONAL LED SUPPLY CHAIN Materials Processes Devices Materials & Subsystems

Linhardt, Robert J.

117

The Macro - Games Course Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of an Economic Education Series, the course package is designed to teach basic concepts and fundamental principles of macroeconomics and how they can be applied to various world problems. For use with college students, learning is gained through lectures, discussion, simulation games, programmed learning, and text. Time allotment is a 15-week…

Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (Scotland). Esmee Fairbairn Economics Research Centre.

118

49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

2012-10-01

119

49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

2013-10-01

120

49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

2011-10-01

121

49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OIL TRANSPORTATION OIL SPILL PREVENTION AND RESPONSE PLANS § 130.21 Packaging...requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must be designed,...

2010-10-01

122

7 CFR 35.5 - Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.5 Package. Package means any container of any variety of vinifera species table grapes. [41 FR 32877, Aug. 6,...

2011-01-01

123

7 CFR 35.5 - Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.5 Package. Package means any container of any variety of vinifera species table grapes. [41 FR 32877, Aug. 6,...

2010-01-01

124

16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

2010-01-01

125

Investigating packaging effects on bandgap references  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates packaging effects on precision bandgap voltage references used in LTC switching regulators. Packaging stress causes a mean offset and room temperature distribution widening of the bandgap reference ...

Palakodety, Ravi (Ravi Kiran)

2007-01-01

126

3-D Stacked Package Technology and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to integrate more device technology in a given board space for handheld applications such as mobile phones has driven the adoption of innovative packages which stack such devices in the vertical or third dimension (3D). Stacking of device chips in small and thin fine-pitch ball grid array packages has evolved into the stacking of packages themselves to achieve

Flynn P. Carson; Young Cheol Kim; In Sang Yoon

2009-01-01

127

MPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate  

E-print Network

order, abort- ing the operation if problems are encountered. Until recently, package managers in FOSSMPM : a modular package manager Pietro Abate abate@pps.jussieu.fr Roberto Di Cosmo roberto-called package managers for the installation and removal of pack- ages on target machines. State

Zacchiroli, Stefano - Laboratoire Preuves, Programmes et Systèmes, Université Paris 7

128

The next generation advanced MEMS& sensor packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ambient intelligence and miniaturization of electronics require extensive integration of semiconductor components such as MEMS and sensor. A MEMS\\/sensor package needs access to environment via open windows, which is a challenge for MEMS or sensor packaging\\/encapsulation. An exposed window is needed to access to the environment for encapsulated MEMS package like gas and liquid sensors. Generally, the

Lingen Wang; Arnold Bos; Ton van Weelden; Frank Boschman

2010-01-01

129

Pentium 4 processor package design and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intel Pentium 4 ushered a new IA-32 architecture with a jump in performance from the previous generation microprocessors. Higher core frequency, higher bus speed and new architecture features needed very competitive package designs. The demand on packaging tu match such product performance necessitated development of new technologies. This paper describes development and implementation of package technologies for two generations of

Altaf Hasan; Ajit Sathe; Dustin Wood; Ram Viswanath

2003-01-01

130

9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or...

2010-01-01

131

Introduction Examples Packages The Joys of LATEX  

E-print Network

.pdf ED BC@A pdf viewer/printer GF // #12;Introduction Examples Packages TeXnicCenter #12;Introduction Examples Packages Simplified Usage vadim.tex BC EDGF text editor @A // LATEX compiler #12;#12; vadim.pdf ED BC@A pdf viewer/printer GF // #12;Introduction Examples Packages Less Simplified Usage vadim

Ponomarenko, Vadim

132

Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

2007-01-01

133

49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172...SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided...each person who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous...

2010-10-01

134

49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (c)-(e) [Reserved] (f) Detonators containing no more than 1 g explosive...173.62: (1) No more than 50 detonators in one inner packaging; (2) IME...packaging; (3) No more than 1000 detonators in one outer packaging; and...

2010-10-01

135

Thermal characterization of multi-die packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal measurement and modeling of multi-die packages became a hot topic recently in different fields like RAM chip packaging or LEDs and LED assemblies. In our present study, besides the overview of usual multi die packages, we present results for a more complex structure: an opto-coupler device with 4 chips in a combined lateral and vertical arrangement. The paper gives

András Poppe; Yan Zhang; Gábor Farkas; Hon Wong; John Wilson; Péter Szabó

2006-01-01

136

Ejs Intro Mechanics Lab Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Introductory Physics Lab package contains Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) models used in Introductory Physics Laboratories which ask students to develop a series of models for simple mechanical systems. Ejs, a part of the Open Source Physics Project, is designed to make it easier to access, modify and generate computer models. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the ejs_intro_lab.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. In order to modify the simulations (and see how they are designed), if you have Ejs installed, you can right-click within the simulation window and select Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu. Information about Ejs (Easy Java Simulations) is available at: http://www.um.es/fem/Ejs/. Additional models (including independent copies of each of the exercises contained in this package) can be found by searching ComPADRE for Ejs.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-06-03

137

Transportation and packaging resource guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

1994-12-01

138

Specify packaged steam generators properly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packages steam generators firing natural gas and fuel oils are widely used in chemical process industries (CPI) plants, petroleum refineries, and cogeneration systems to generate steam for process use or for power. These units are generally shop-assembled and can generate saturated or superheated steam at capacities up to 200,000 lb\\/h, pressures ranging from 100 to 1,200 psig, and steam temperatures

Ganapathy

1993-01-01

139

“Green” nanocomposites for electronic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of nanocomposites in the area of ldquogreenrdquo technology. A variety of green materials for advanced organic packaging have been developed. These include capacitors and resistors as embedded passives, resin coated Cu (RCC) as buildup layers, highly conducting nano-micro media for Z-interconnects, lead free assembly paste, ZnO based additives and magnetic materials. Nanocomposites can provide high

Rabindra N. Das; Konstantinos I. Papathomas; Mark D. Poliks; Voya R. Markovich

2009-01-01

140

Package warehouse upgrades and regulations  

SciTech Connect

Many regulations have been written by states and the EPA about bulk chemical storage since its introduction in the late 1970`s. However, until this year the National Fire Protection Association, through their NFPA guidelines, and the Uniform Fire Code have been the only significant work written concerning package ag chemical storage. These codes have been adopted by many states and are enforced at the local (city) level on both US coasts and larger cities around the midwest and south. Several catastrophic fires at package locations during the last few years have resulted in discussions by regulators and industry to provide not only insurance and guidance but also regulations to retailers and distributors in order to upgrade facilities to reduce the risk of large spills and fires. The Midwest Ag Chemical Association began the task of providing guidance regarding package warehouses three years ago and after twelve months of input from EPA, suppliers and retail dealers, has published the Fundamental Principles of Agricultural Chemical Storage in August of 1993.

Hester, J.F.

1994-12-31

141

General Purpose Math Visualizer Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The General Purpose Math Visualizer Package performs mathematical tasks that are commonly encountered in physics: plotting, animating, numerically differentiating and integrating, and solving systems of coupled algebraic equations. For examples of how this package can be used to explore various physics problems, see the chapter "Using the Computer as a Black Box" at http://www.compadre.org/osp/items/detail.cfm?ID=11330. A significantly revised and expanded version of this packageâs function plotting program is also available at http://www.compadre.org/osp/items/detail.cfm?ID=11593. The General Purpose Math Visualizer Package was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool.   It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_GeneralPurposeMath.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. An alternate version (ejs_GeneralPurposeMath_lowres.jar) is also included below that should fit on the screen more nicely when using a display set to a low resolution.

Engelhardt, Larry

2011-06-18

142

30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.  

... TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas...108 Power package checklist. Each diesel power package bearing an MSHA approval...to determine if a previously approved diesel power package is in approved...

2014-07-01

143

49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Large Packaging identification codes. Large packaging code designations consist...paragraph (b) of this section. (a) Large packaging code number designations are as follows: 50 for rigid Large Packagings; or 51 for flexible...

2010-10-01

144

ARPREC: An arbitrary precision computation package  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE floating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. This package is written in C++ code for high performance and broad portability and includes both C++ and Fortran-90 translation modules, so that conventional C++ and Fortran-90 programs can utilize the package with only very minor changes. This paper includes a survey of some of the interesting applications of this package and its predecessors.

Bailey, David H.; Yozo, Hida; Li, Xiaoye S.; Thompson, Brandon

2002-09-01

145

Development of a novel cost-effective Package-on-Package (PoP) solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Package-on-package (PoP) is one of the major 3D packaging approaches. It vertically combines discrete memory and logic ball grid array (BGA) packages, where one package rests on the top of another. Recently, PoP technologies have attracted more interests, especially for portable electronics related products and applications. For the existing PoP solutions, they have the following disadvantages: (i) As the next-generation

P. Sun; V. C. K. LEUNG; D. Yang; D. X. Q. SHI

2009-01-01

146

Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1?m resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical identification of other ejecta in the vicinity of the Lander. • Atomic (Magnetic) Force Microscope - providing nano-scale measurement of the fine particles and presence of nanophase Fe which is potentially toxic to humans • Lenseless Microscope, a novel, low mass technology based on combining diffraction patterns derived from a laser illumination of the sample to give high resolution 3D images of the regolith presented. In this paper we cover the high level science requirements and explain how this has driven the overall package design as well as the specific payload features. The complex sample handling system which allows the co-located payloads to share rego-lith samples and be able to make physical measure-ment in the sub micron scale. The use of micro-machining and MEMS technology is covered. The paper also discusses the harsh environmental conditions at the Lunar South Pole and the impact this has on the operation and survivability of an externally mounted package. The expected performance of the whole package, including the use of LIBS under lunar vacuum conditions is also presented.

Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

2012-09-01

147

19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

2013-04-01

148

19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

2011-04-01

149

19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...  

...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

2014-04-01

150

19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

2012-04-01

151

19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11...Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

2010-04-01

152

Packaging  

E-print Network

of engagement through social media rather than the campaignfield strategy and social media strategy. They also play asocial groups in determining people’s beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. On this view, the media

Galloway, Catherine Suzanne

2012-01-01

153

MMIC Package for Millimeter Wave Frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Princeton Microwave Technology has successfully demonstrated the transfer of technology for the MMIC package. During this contract the package design was licensed from Hughes Aircraft Company for manufacture within the U.S. A major effort was directed towards characterization of the ceramic material for its dielectric constant and loss tangent properties. After selection of a ceramic tape, the high temperature co-fired ceramic package was manufactured in the U.S. by Microcircuit Packaging of America, Inc. Microwave measurements of the MMIC package were conducted by an intercontinental microwave test fixture. The package demonstrated a typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB per transition up to 32 Ghz and a return loss of better than 15 db. The performance of the package has been demonstrated from 2 to 30 Ghz by assembling three different MMIC amplifiers. Two of the MMIC amplifiers were designed for the 26 Ghz to 30 Ghz operation while the third MMIC was a distributed amplifier from 2 to 26.5 Ghz. The measured gain of the amplifier is consistent with the device data. The package costs are substantially lower than comparable packages available commercially. Typically the price difference is greater than a factor of three. The package cost is well under $5.00 for a quantity of 10,000 pieces.

Bharj, Sarjit Singh; Yuan, Steve

1997-01-01

154

Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

2014-05-01

155

PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)  

SciTech Connect

The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

2003-07-01

156

PIV Data Validation Software Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

Blackshire, James L.

1997-01-01

157

Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family  

SciTech Connect

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding.

Edwards, W.S.

1995-11-01

158

Software package SIMPRE-Revisited.  

PubMed

This article elucidates the pitfalls identified in the software package SIMPRE recently developed by Baldoví et al. (J. Comput. Chem. 2013, 34, 1961) for modeling the spectroscopic and magnetic properties of single ion magnets as well as single-molecule magnets. Analysis of the methodology used therein reveals that the crystal field parameters (CFPs), expressed nominally in the Stevens formalism, exhibit features characteristic for the CFPs expressed in the Wybourne notation. The resemblance of the two types of CFPs introduces a serious confusion that may lead to wrong comparisons of the CFPs taken from various sources. To clarify this confusion, the properties of the CFPs Bkq ( Akq, Ckq) associated with the Stevens operators Okq(X?=?S, J, or L), which belong to the class of the tesseral-tensor operators, are contrasted with those of the CFPs Bkq associated with the Wybourne operators Cq(k), which belong to the class of the spherical-tensor operators. Importantly, the confused properties of Stevens and Wybourne operators may bear on reliability of SIMPRE calculations. To consider this question independent calculations are carried out using the complete approach and compared with those of the restricted approach utilized earlier. It appears that the numerical results of the package SIMPRE are formally acceptable, however, the meaning of the CFPs must be properly reformulated. Several other conceptual problems arising from misinterpretations of the crucial notions and the CFP notations identified therein are also discussed and clarified. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25082729

Karbowiak, Miros?aw; Rudowicz, Czes?aw

2014-10-01

159

High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective  

SciTech Connect

The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

1997-10-01

160

NFR TRIGA package design review report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

Clements, M.D.

1994-08-26

161

Materials in electronic packaging at APL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of modern electronic packaging materials is examined with reference to general classes of materials, such as epoxies, silicones, metals, alloys, and ceramics. Specific examples are presented to illustrate how the proper choice of materials has enhanced circuit performance and long-term reliability. Applications discussed include single-chip and multichip packaging, board and substrate structures, die (substrate) attachment and electrical interconnection, circuit and board passivation, and encapsulation or package sealing.

Charles, Harry K., Jr.

1993-03-01

162

Type B Packaging and Transportation Planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analyses performed to determine whether or not the eleven major Department of Energy sites had adequate planning and resources available to implement their shipping baselines. The study covers only Environmental Management off-site shipments using Type B and Type A-Fissile packaging. The time frame evaluated is from 2001-2010. The results indicate issues with respect to having certified packaging for planned shipments, the packaging inventory available to support schedules, and the material sufficiently characterized to enable package selection.

Beebe, C. L.; Anderson, T. J.; Hintze, W. D.

2003-02-27

163

NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NEPP program objectives are to: (1) Access the reliability of newly available electronic parts and packaging technologies for usage on NASA projects through validations, assessments, and characterizations, and the development of test methods/tools; (2)Expedite infusion paths for advanced (emerging) electronic parts and packaging technologies by evaluations of readiness for manufacturability and project usage consideration; (3) Provide NASA projects with technology selection, application, and validation guidelines for electronic parts and packaging hardware and processes; nd (4) Retain and disseminate electronic parts and packaging quality assurance, reliability validations, tools, and availability information to the NASA community.

Kayali, Sammy

2000-01-01

164

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

2005-10-01

165

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

2006-04-01

166

Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.

Hollar, D.L.

1996-10-01

167

Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

Sampson, Michael J.

2010-01-01

168

PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1  

SciTech Connect

Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

2010-08-31

169

Evaluation of a tri-wall corrugated fibreboard package for packaging and transporting LSA nonretrievable waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation was conducted to determine if an economical Tri-Wall Corrugated Fiberboard (TWCF) Package could be used for transporting LSA nonretrievable wastes (< 10 nCi\\/g radioactive contamination). A complete description of the packaging configuration was given. The evaluation included Vibration Tests to determine if the TWCF Package would comply with the present DOT regulation for packaging LSA waste (i.e. the

D. M. Saiki; P. G. Aguilar

1981-01-01

170

Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D. [and others

1997-07-01

171

Thin type packaging: an effective way to improve the popcorn resistance of plastic-packaged ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popcorn resistance of a variety of thin quad flat packages (TQFPs) was studied. Both the package thickness and the die size were varied in order to understand the risks involved in this type of high-density packaging. Because of the typical moisture absorption behavior of TQFPs, a realistic preconditioning method was defined. The evaluation of the popcorn resistance made use

Karel Van Doorselaer; Arno Hente; A. Saboui; J.-P. Moscicki

1993-01-01

172

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the basic concept of the statistical interpretation of entropy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials describe a simple hands-on coin flip experiment that can help student become familiar with the basic statistical ideas involved in the approach to equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The materials also describe how the EJS programs can be used to extend this simple experiment and explore these concepts at a deeper level. The EJS programs include simulations of the coin flip experiment, the expansion of an ideal gas in a box, the mixing of hot and cold ideal gases, and the action of Maxwell's Demon. The materials in this resource are described in an article titled "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" to be published in The Physics Teacher.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-07-03

173

Stellar Parallax and Aberration Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stellar Parallax and Aberration Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the concepts of parallax and aberration of light as they apply to astronomy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials consist of two activities for students. The first activity guides the student through an investigation of two forms of astronomical parallax (diurnal and annual) and Robert Hooke's early attempt to measure the annual parallax of stars. The second activity allows the student to examine James Bradley's failure to replicate Hooke's measurement, and how this failure led Bradley to the idea of the aberration of light. The activity helps students understand the effects of stellar aberration and how it masked stellar parallax.

Timberlake, Todd

2012-06-02

174

Optical simulation analysis of high power LED package structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single LED package structure determines the light intensity distribution and the well-designed package structure will be conductive to light emitting and improve its external quantum efficiency. This paper based on the optical package structure of high power LED, in order to analyze the influence of the structure of LED package on optical performance and the feasibility of the packaging

Yinong Liu; Yiping Wu; Bing An

2011-01-01

175

Ceramic packaging for MEMS-based microsystems.  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic packaging is crucial to the development of MEMS-based microsystems. It is an enabling technology, giving the ability to build complex packages that combine MEMS, electronics, optics, and sensors in a compact volume. In addition, ceramic hermetic packaging has a long history of providing protection to the enclosed devices, even under harsh conditions. These capabilities are being used at Sandia to package complex, MEMS-based microsystems. Looking ahead, ceramic packaging is developing new capabilities important to microsystems, such as the addition of fluidic channels. These developments will make ceramic packaging a viable option for a wide variety of compact, highly integrated microsystems. However, MEMS, particularly surface micromachines, have new reliability concerns that ceramic packaging needs to address. One example is stiction, where small amounts of water can generate surface forces large enough to cause parts to stick together. This demonstrates the need to measure and control the internal environment with greater precision than has been required in the past. Despite these challenges, it is clear that ceramic packaging will be a key technology for complex microsystems in the future.

Custer, Jonathan Sloane

2003-02-01

176

Comparison of TAPS Packages for Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to present the development of technology-assisted problem solving (TAPS) packages at University Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN). The project is the further work of the development of interactive multimedia based packages targeted for students having problems in understanding the subject of engineering mechanics dynamics.…

Sidhu, S. Manjit

2008-01-01

177

Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use

K. Cooksey

2005-01-01

178

Development of high power QFN package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leadframe CSP package had been well known to be a superior choice for high-speed application where high thermal performance is desired. With the advancement in technology trend, there is more increasing demand for higher thermal performance in miniature package to dissipate heat and improve the device performances. This paper describes the cost-effective development and material characterisation of high power quad

Francis Poh KS; Tan Hien Boon; Krishnamoorthi Sivalingam; Lim Beng Kuan; A. Y. S. Sun; Rahamat Bidin

2004-01-01

179

Electrical and thermal modelling of QFN packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quad flat no lead or QFN package, a near CSP leadframe, is a promising choice for portable wireless applications such as Bluetooth TM and home RF. Attractive attributes of this advanced package include miniaturised footprint, good electrical performance and excellent thermal characteristics. The paper describes electrical and thermal modelling techniques as part of an integrated performance validation methodology for

A. C. W. Lu; D. J. Xie; Z. F. Shi; W. Ryu

2000-01-01

180

Browndye: A Software Package for Brownian Dynamics  

PubMed Central

A new software package, Browndye, is presented for simulating the diffusional encounter of two large biological molecules. It can be used to estimate second-order rate constants and encounter probabilities, and to explore reaction trajectories. Browndye builds upon previous knowledge and algorithms from software packages such as UHBD, SDA, and Macrodox, while implementing algorithms that scale to larger systems. PMID:21132109

McCammon, J. Andrew

2010-01-01

181

SARSIM: A spaceborne SAR simulation package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SARSIM software package was developed to generate simulated spaceborne SAR imagery. It enables users of radar data to evaluate the impact of radar parameter changes on data utility and to allow design engineers to simulate design trade-offs at the image level. The package is accessible for general users without extensive computer expertise.

G. J. Wessels; M. E. Kirby

1986-01-01

182

Appendix F Software F.1 Software packages  

E-print Network

Appendix F Software F.1 Software packages The following table contains the list of software used in the Griffin experiment. The primary use of the software, the software manufacturer and version number of the software used are specified. A comparison of software calculation quality for two primary packages employed

183

"From Immigrant to Ethnic": A Curriculum Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a curriculum package in ethnic studies designed for high school use by the Ethnic Heritage Studies Project, Rhode Island College. This multi-ethnic curriculum examines the experiences common to all immigrant groups which came to the United States. The package consists of three self-contained units: "The Immigrant…

Murray, Katherine

1977-01-01

184

Packaging communication: attentional effects of product imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a theoretical framework for understanding the communicative effects of product imagery on attention to the brand, specifically, the attentional effects of incorporating a picture or illustration of the product on the packaging of the product. Empirical results from a virtual reality simulation show that package pictures increase shoppers’ attention to the brand. However this effect is contingent,

Robert L. Underwood; Noreen M. Klein; Raymond R. Burke

2001-01-01

185

Work Package 3 Migrants and Borders -Synthesis  

E-print Network

Work Package 3 Migrants and Borders - Synthesis From deliverable 3.4 March 2011 Migrants and borders Catherine QUIMINAL (UP7, France) & Jean-Yves BLUM LE COAT (UP7, France) halshs-00638245,version1 and borders Work Package teams that conducted the present study takes a relatively novel approach that fo

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

The movie15 Package Alexander Grahn  

E-print Network

The movie15 Package Alexander Grahn 7th July 2009 Abstract A LATEX package for inclusion of movies, sounds and 3D objects into PDF documents with PDF-1.5/1.6 compatibility. Keywords: embed, movie, La-start guide 16 B Media formats 19 1 Introduction The way multimedia content, i. e. movies and sounds

Foguel, Tuval

187

Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

188

High Performance Molding FCBGA Packaging Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, new molding underfill structure is proposed. It shows many advantages, including a) good package coplanarity b) lower bump stress c) lower 2nd level ball stress d) provide no limitation component design. Mold compound can hold big die and substrate together to keep good package coplanarity and give a uniform interface condition within big die area. Droping in

Ho-Yi Tsai; J. Huang; S. Chiu; C. S. Hsiao

2007-01-01

189

Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

2003-01-01

190

Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

2003-01-01

191

The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL  

E-print Network

i The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL c 2002, A.I. McLeod & K.W. Hipel Reference Manual Version: 1.6 #12;1 INTRODUCTION #12;2 Introduction Prologue The McLeod-Hipel Time Series (MTS) Package provides series modelling and anal- ysis. Many of the methods discussed in the textbook by Hipel and McLeod (1994

McLeod, Ian

192

Package Sizes, Tariffs, Quantity Discount and Premium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze nonlinear pricing problem under monopoly using two hidden types of agents with linear demands and fully characterize all possible optimal solutions for both ordered and non-ordered demands. We show that both optimal packages can either contain Pareto-efficient quantities or one package can be undersized or oversized. All these effects are non- degenerate and are expected to hold for

Babu Nahata; Serguei Kokovin; Evgeny Zhelobodko

2003-01-01

193

PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

2009-09-28

194

Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

2007-08-01

195

Nonreturnable packaging: The environmental debate. (Latest citations from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental and economic impacts of nonreturnable versus returnable food packaging containers. Topics include the burdens on the environment due to nonreturnable beverage containers, economic considerations for the packaging industry, and government regulations imposed to reduce waste disposal. Various packaging containers are examined, including glass, aluminum, tin-plate, cardboard, and plastics. Government legislation in the soft drink and beverage industries, dairy packaged products, and paperboard packaging are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

196

Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.  

PubMed

Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost. Although recycling could be energetically more favorable than composting for these materials, it may not be practical because of excessive sorting and cleaning requirements. Therefore, the main focus is to dispose them by composting. So far, there is no formal agreement between companies, governments and consumers as to how this packaging composting will take place; therefore, the main drivers for their use have been green marketing and pseudo-environmental consciousness related to high fuel prices. Packaging compostability could be an alternative for the disposal of biobased materials as long as society as a whole is willing to formally address the challenge to clearly understand the cradle-to-grave life of a compostable package, and to include these new compostable polymers in food, manure, or yard waste composting facilities. PMID:17370278

Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

2007-03-01

197

The bracket-hack package Christopher Roman Nerz  

E-print Network

The bracket-hack package Christopher Roman Nerz June 5, 2014 Abstract This small LATEX-package1 := and =: to be \\coloneqq (..=) and \\eqqcolon (=..), respectively. brackethack@phoenixes.de 1This package is a `dirty-hack

Ould Ahmedou, Mohameden

198

9 CFR 592.340 - Supervision of marking and packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Supervision of marking and packaging. 592.340 Section 592...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of...official identification or packaging material bearing such...

2010-01-01

199

9 CFR 590.418 - Supervision of marking and packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Supervision of marking and packaging. 590.418 Section 590...Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label...official identification or packaging material bearing such...

2010-01-01

200

49 CFR 173.415 - Authorized Type A packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Any foreign-made packaging that meets the standards in “IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material...country of origin (as indicated by the packaging marking) and the IAEA regulations applicable to Type A packagings. [Amdt....

2010-10-01

201

48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

2012-10-01

202

48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

2013-10-01

203

48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

2010-10-01

204

48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

2011-10-01

205

Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open the packages.

1965-01-01

206

49 CFR 178.910 - Marking of Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manufacturer must: (1) Mark every Large Packaging in a durable and...503(e)(1)(i). For metal Large Packagings on which the marking is...the symbol; (ii) The code number designating the Large Packaging design type...

2010-10-01

207

7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Print and bulk packaging rooms. 58.313 Section 58...and Compartments § 58.313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related products...

2010-01-01

208

49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General packaging requirements for explosives. 173.60 Section 173.60 Transportation... General packaging requirements for explosives. (a) Unless otherwise provided...a), packaging used for Class 1 (explosives) materials must meet Packing...

2010-10-01

209

49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... General packaging requirements for explosives. 173.60 Section 173.60 Transportation... General packaging requirements for explosives. (a) Unless otherwise provided...a), packaging used for Class 1 (explosives) materials must meet Packing...

2013-10-01

210

49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... General packaging requirements for explosives. 173.60 Section 173.60 Transportation... General packaging requirements for explosives. (a) Unless otherwise provided...a), packaging used for Class 1 (explosives) materials must meet Packing...

2011-10-01

211

49 CFR 173.62 - Specific packaging requirements for explosives.  

... Specific packaging requirements for explosives. 173.62 Section 173.62 Transportation... Specific packaging requirements for explosives. (a) Except as provided in § 173...172.101 Table specifies that an explosive must be packaged in accordance...

2014-10-01

212

49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.  

... General packaging requirements for explosives. 173.60 Section 173.60 Transportation... General packaging requirements for explosives. (a) Unless otherwise provided...a), packaging used for Class 1 (explosives) materials must meet Packing...

2014-10-01

213

49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... General packaging requirements for explosives. 173.60 Section 173.60 Transportation... General packaging requirements for explosives. (a) Unless otherwise provided...a), packaging used for Class 1 (explosives) materials must meet Packing...

2012-10-01

214

7 CFR 58.444 - Packaging and repackaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...atmosphere of the packaging rooms, the equipment and the packaging material shall be...with official grade labels or other official...a supervisor of packaging shall be required...manufactured and the product is officially...

2010-01-01

215

The Fireball integrated code package  

SciTech Connect

Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

1997-07-01

216

ISAP: ISO Spectral Analysis Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.

Ali, Babar; Bauer, Otto; Brauher, Jim; Buckley, Mark; Harwood, Andrew; Hur, Min; Khan, Iffat; Li, Jing; Lord, Steve; Lutz, Dieter; Mazzarella, Joe; Molinari, Sergio; Morris, Pat; Narron, Bob; Seidenschwang, Karla; Sidher, Sunil; Sturm, Eckhard; Swinyard, Bruce; Unger, Sarah; Verstraete, Laurent; Vivares, Florence; Wieprecht, Ecki

2014-03-01

217

The CONTOUR Package on VAX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A FORTRAN contouring package is now available on the VAX. There are two user level routines (HIGR_CNTR2A, HIGR_CNTR2B) for the production of contour maps of a surface, for which the heights are given at the points of a mesh. HIGR_CNTR2A is used for contouring over a (possibly skewed) regular rectangular mesh, and HIGR_CNTR2B for an irregular (but still rectangular) one. Within each routine a number of options concerning the drawing are available. These allow for a choice of two methods contouring over the grid, user specified or touine calculated heights, specification of the angle between the axes and the grid, and various options concerning the layout of the map, labelling of the contours and distinctions between the contours. However as these are available via a common block the user need only specify those options he or she requires (if any) which are different from the default set. Only those items of data which are necessary for a contour map are supplied as arguments to the routines. This documentation is based on the ATLAS GRAPHICS USER NOTE 1; issued 2 April 1976.

218

PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)  

SciTech Connect

The Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) has been designed to record and monitor the acoustic signal in natural gas transmission lines. In particular the three acoustic signals associated with a line leak. The system is portable ({approx}30 lbs) and is designed for line pressures up to 1000 psi. It has become apparent that cataloging of the various background acoustic signals in natural gas transmission line is very important if a system to identify leak signals is to be developed. The low-pressure (0-200 psig) laboratory test phase has been completed and a number of field trials have been conducted. Before the cataloging phase could begin, a few problems identified in field trials identified had to be corrected such as: (1) Decreased microphone sensitivity at line pressures above 250 psig. (2) The inability to deal with large data sets collected when cataloging the variety of signals in a transmission line. (3) The lack of an available online acoustic calibration system. These problems have been solved and the WVU PAMP is now fully functional over the entire pressure range found in the Natural Gas transmission lines in this region. Field portability and reliability have been greatly improved. Data collection and storage have also improved to the point were the full acoustic spectrum of acoustic signals can be accurately cataloged, recorded and described.

John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Patrick Browning

2004-07-20

219

16 CFR 503.6 - Packagers' duty to withhold availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price representations. 503.6...availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price representations. To clarify...labeler will not make packages marked with retail sale price representations...

2010-01-01

220

Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

Taylor, J.M.

1993-06-01

221

Package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe the package testing capabilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In the past all of the package testing that was performed at PNL was done on prototype or mocked up radioactive material packaging. Presently, we are developing the capability to perform testing on non-radioactive material packaging. The testing on the non-radioactive material packaging will be done to satisfy the new performance oriented packaging requirements (DOT Docket HM-181, 1991). This paper describes the equipment used to perform the performance oriented packaging tests and also describes some testing capability for testing radioactive material packaging.

Taylor, J.M.

1993-01-01

222

Acoustic imaging internal microstructure of a packaging material.  

E-print Network

??Microstructure of a paper-based packaging material was studied by acoustic microscopy method. The laminate structure of the packaging material contains paperboard, polymer and aluminium, which… (more)

Kao-Walter, Sharon; Levin, M.L.; Petronyuk, J.S.

2008-01-01

223

Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

Angele, W.

1972-01-01

224

Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

1986-01-01

225

Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-01-01

226

Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP) Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP) Package contains read-to-run computer models and curricular materials for the teaching of statistical and thermal physics. You can choose from many different simulations and calculations ranging from probability distributions to Ising models. The STP Package is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java program. Double clicking the osp_stp.jar file will run the application if Java is installed. The source code for all programs in this package can be found by searching ComPADRE for the STP Eclipse workspace.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan

2008-05-31

227

Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package  

SciTech Connect

A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

2012-06-17

228

The 200 watt SHF transmitter experiment package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 200 watt SHF transmitter experiment package is discussed that incorporates a traveling wave tube utilizing a multistage depressed collector for efficiency enhancement. This experiment is being developed for flight testing on the CTS (Communications Technology Satellite).

Alexovich, R.

1972-01-01

229

Complementary Heating of Densely Packaged Microcircuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some microcircuits dissipate as much as equivalent circuits using discrete transistors and resistors. Dense packaging and the resultant complementary heating therefore create reliability problems similar to those experienced with discrete components. (Aut...

H. F. Dean

1967-01-01

230

Yield learning model for integrated circuit package  

E-print Network

assemblies has been developed and implemented. Sensitivity analysis was performed to isolate the factors that affected yield learning the most. The yield model was developed after performing case studies on the Tape Carrier Package at Intel Corporation...

Balasubramaniam, Gaurishankar

2012-06-07

231

7 CFR 29.1047 - Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1047 Package. A hogshead, tierce,...

2010-01-01

232

76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 178 Specifications...the packaging design type (e.g. dimensions, materials, closures, thickness, etc.), including methods of...

2011-05-26

233

mediation: R package for causal mediation analysis  

E-print Network

In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a ...

Tingley, Dustin

234

Low-cost wafer level packaging process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, semiconductors are being connected to other components of the system through three main interconnect technologies - Wirebond, TAB and Solder bump. Of the three technologies, use of solder bump provides the lowest impedance electrical path and a high er I/O density as compared to wirebond and TAB. Wafer bumping is often accompanied by a need for redistribution of the current carrying pads on the silicon in order to reduce the substrate cost and better manufacturing yields, Besides, there is a need to deposit a metallic layer underneath the bump for good reliability of the packaged system. The two widely used processes used for depositing a thin metal film, either for redistribution or UBM are Physical Vapor Deposition and evaporation. These processes are significant contributors to the cost of the bumped wafer. In the packaging industry, there is also a drive for going towards wafers level packaging solutions in order to minimize the packaging cost and giving high production rates.

Kapoor, Rahul; Khim, Swee Y.; Hwa, Goh H.

2000-10-01

235

Radiation Level Changes at RAM Package Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explore design considerations required to meet the regulations that limit radiation level variations at external surfaces of radioactive material (RAM) packages. The radiation level requirements at package surfaces (e.g. TS-R-1 paragraphs 531 and 646) invoke not only maximum radiation levels, but also strict limits on the allowable increase in the radiation level during transport. This paper will explore the regulatory requirements by quantifying the amount of near surface movement and/or payload shifting that results in a 20% increase in the radiation level at the package surface. Typical IP-2, IP-3, Type A and Type B packaging and source geometries will be illustrated. Variations in surface radiation levels are typically the result of changes in the geometry of the surface due to an impact, puncture or crush event, or shifting and settling of radioactive contents.

Opperman, Erich [Washington Savannah River Company] [Washington Savannah River Company; Hawk, Mark B [ORNL] [ORNL; Kapoor, Ashok [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Packaging and Transportation; Natali, Ronald [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.] [R. B. Natali Consulting, Inc.

2010-01-01

236

FITSH: Software Package for Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FITSH provides a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package provides utilities both for the full pipeline of subsequent related data processing steps (including image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations, etc.) and for aiding the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. The utilities in the package are built on the top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package), therefore both frequently used and well-documented tools for such environments can be exploited and managing massive amount of data is rather convenient.

Pál, András

2011-11-01

237

9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging ...representation thereof may be filled in whole or in part except with edible products which were inspected and certified and are, at...

2013-01-01

238

9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging ...representation thereof may be filled in whole or in part except with edible products which were inspected and certified and are, at...

2011-01-01

239

9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging ...representation thereof may be filled in whole or in part except with edible products which were inspected and certified and are, at...

2012-01-01

240

9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.  

...INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging ...representation thereof may be filled in whole or in part except with edible products which were inspected and certified and are, at...

2014-01-01

241

7 CFR 3402.10 - Application package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE...available at http://www.grants.gov and through the CSREES Web site. An application package will be made available to any...

2010-01-01

242

7 CFR 3402.10 - Application package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL NEEDS GRADUATE...http://www.grants.gov and through the CSREES Web site. An application package will be made...

2011-01-01

243

Processing and packaging automation systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global food processing and packaging business has reached to multi trillion dollars as the consumers have started using processed\\u000a food more than the staples. This paper reviews aspects of systems, standards and interfaces for the modern food industry.\\u000a It presents processing and packaging principles, methods, techniques, standards, interfaces, and state-of-the-art technology.\\u000a The primary purpose of this paper is to update

Nitaigour P. Mahalik

2009-01-01

244

White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent\\/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die

Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

2008-01-01

245

Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

Bates, John B. (116 Baltimore Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Dudney, Nancy J. (11634 S. Monticello Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922); Weatherspoon, Kim A. (223 Wadsworth Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1996-01-01

246

Formal Definition of UML's Package Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

: UML is the first OO modeling language with a useful modularizationand information hiding concept. It supports nesting, import, and refinement ofso-called packages. This paper translates UML's informal package definition intopredicate logic formulas and solves some open problems concerning the visibilityof exported and imported modeling elements.Furthermore, the formulas will be transformed into a specification based on PROgrammedGraph REwriting Systems. We

A. Schurr; Rwth Aachen

1998-01-01

247

Robotica: a Mathematica package for robot analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotica is a computer aided design package for robotic manipulators developed in the Coordinated Science Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. It encapsulates over 30 functions into a Mathematica package allowing efficient symbolic and numeric calculation of kinematic and dynamic equations for multi-degree-of-freedom manipulators. An X-Windows front end that utilizes the interprocess communication features of Mathematica 2.1 has

J. F. Nethery; M. W. Spong

1994-01-01

248

HOPSPACK: Hybrid Optimization Parallel Search Package.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe the technical details of HOPSPACK (Hybrid Optimization Parallel SearchPackage), a new software platform which facilitates combining multiple optimization routines into asingle, tightly-coupled, hybrid algorithm that supports parallel function evaluations. The frameworkis designed such that existing optimization source code can be easily incorporated with minimalcode modification. By maintaining the integrity of each individual solver, the strengths and codesophistication of the original optimization package are retained and exploited.4

Gray, Genetha A.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Griffin, Joshua; Taddy, Matt; Martinez-Canales, Monica

2008-12-01

249

Electrical packaging requirements of CMOS ULSI devices, and fundamental electrical performance limits of single chip packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to low cost manufacturing and a well established infrastructure for large volume off-shore assembly, Single Chip Packages (SCPs) continue to be the work-horse packages for a wide range of present and future CMOS ULSI devices. To understand the overall collective chip-package electrical limits, one should first understand in detail the electrical requirements of the device that is going to

Yenting Wen; Ramesh Senthinathan; Wendy Valentine; Mali Mahalingam

1995-01-01

250

Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success. PMID:11715825

Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

2001-11-01

251

Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package is a collection of models for electrostatics with errors intentionally built into each model. Users can move charges around and see the force, observe the electric field generated by charge configurations, and observe the motion of test particles in electric fields to try to identify the errors in the simulation. Users can inspect, modify and correct any simulation in the package by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The package also includes a brief overview of programming basics needed to correct the models. The Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_electric_wiw.jar file will launch the package if Java is installed. Navigate within the package and click on a green triangle to run a particular simulation. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available on ComPADRE.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2010-04-16

252

Evaluation of a tri-wall corrugated fibreboard package for packaging and transporting LSA nonretrievable waste  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation was conducted to determine if an economical Tri-Wall Corrugated Fiberboard (TWCF) Package could be used for transporting LSA nonretrievable wastes (< 10 nCi/g radioactive contamination). A complete description of the packaging configuration was given. The evaluation included Vibration Tests to determine if the TWCF Package would comply with the present DOT regulation for packaging LSA waste (i.e. the package must be a strong-tight package that will not leak material under conditions normally incident to transport). Presently, no specific tests are required to determine compliance. Additional tests were conducted to determine performance of the package under selected adverse and hypothetical accidental conditions. No significant damage or loss of waste material occurred during the Vibration Tests thus indicating compliance with the present DOT regulation. The other performance tests indicated that some loss of waste material would occur under certain accidental conditions, however, the loss would be minimal. As a result of these performance tests, certain operating limitations and precautions regarding the handling and use of the package were given. Since the TWCF Package appears to meet DOT regulations and performed favorably under certain selected adverse and hypothetical accidential conditions, it was recommended for use in transporting certain types and forms of LSA nonretrievable wastes.

Saiki, D.M.; Aguilar, P.G.

1981-01-01

253

Active and Intelligent Packaging for the Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and\\/or the surrounding environment. Active packaging systems are successfully used to

D. A. Pereira de Abreu; J. M. Cruz; P. Paseiro Losada

2012-01-01

254

Active and Intelligent Packaging for the Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and\\/or the surrounding environment. Active packaging systems are successfully used to

D. A. Pereira de Abreu; J. M. Cruz; P. Paseiro Losada

2011-01-01

255

Healthy Food Products for Children: : Packaging and Mothers? Purchase Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores the relationship between mothers? purchase of perceived healthy foods, packaging characteristics, and the childrens “pester power” in obtaining attractive or appealing packaging. The results suggest mothers will not buy perceived healthy foods if the packaging is not acceptable. Discusses packaging and marketing strategies.

Roseline Gelperowic; Brian Beharrell

1994-01-01

256

Thermal Characteristics of Plastic Small Outline Transistor (SOT) Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface mount plastic packages, including small outline transistor (SOT), small outline integrated circuit (SOIC), and plastic leaded chip carrier (PLCC), are projected to be the next generation replacement for plastic dual in-line packages (DIP's). Relative to DIP's, surface mount packages are small in size and allow higher package density on a hoard, leading to higher electrical speed for system applications.

MOHAMED MUNAF ALLI; MALI MAHALINGAM; JAMES A. ANDREWS

1986-01-01

257

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices...PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...special packaging. In the case of unit packaging, child-resistant...be an aerosol. In such cases, the staff will reply...84 Stat. 1670-72; 15 U.S.C....

2011-01-01

258

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices...PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...special packaging. In the case of unit packaging, child-resistant...be an aerosol. In such cases, the staff will reply...84 Stat. 1670-72; 15 U.S.C....

2010-01-01

259

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

...1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices...PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...special packaging. In the case of unit packaging, child-resistant...be an aerosol. In such cases, the staff will reply...84 Stat. 1670-72; 15 U.S.C....

2014-01-01

260

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1700.15 Section 1700.15 Commercial Practices...PREVENTION PACKAGING § 1700.15 Poison prevention packaging...special packaging. In the case of unit packaging, child-resistant...be an aerosol. In such cases, the staff will reply...84 Stat. 1670-72; 15 U.S.C....

2013-01-01

261

Silicon-based Packaging Platform for Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate a silicon-based packaging platform for a package component of light emitting diode (LED) by silicon bulk micromachining technologies and using a silicon substrate with embedded solder interconnections to dissipate heat and match thermal expansion coefficient (CTE). The objective is to develop an LED package that can overcome LED life, high operating voltage, package degradation and

C. Tsou; Y. S. Huang; G. W. Lin

2005-01-01

262

TYPE B RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGE FAILURE MODES AND CONTENTS COMPLIANCE  

SciTech Connect

Type B radioactive material package failures can occur due to any one of the following: inadequate design, manufacture, and maintenance of packages, load conditions beyond those anticipated in the regulations, and improper package loading and operation. The rigorous package design evaluations performed in the certification process, robust package manufacture quality assurance programs, and demanding load conditions prescribed in the regulations are all well established. This paper focuses on the operational aspects of Type B package loading with respect to an overbatch which may cause a package failure.

Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Allen Smith, A

2007-02-21

263

Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

Lyke, James L.

1995-01-01

264

Thermal analysis of QFN packages using finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The QFN (quad flat non-leaded) package is a new type of chip scale package. In this study, both the FEM solid model and CFD model of QFN package were generated to predict the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance of the package under natural and forced convection. The solid model uses flat plate surface convection correlations to simulate the package and board cooling.

Chia-Lung Chang; Yow-Yi Hsieh

2004-01-01

265

Variations in package radiation due to changes in on-die and on-package capacitance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increase in microprocessor clock speed coupled with lower operating voltage levels has lead to increasing demands on the microprocessor power delivery network. One significant portion of this network is the physical package. In addition to providing mechanical support and protection for the silicon die, the package also provides for heat removal and for the delivery of fast risetime

Michael J. Hill; Jiangqi He; P. Parmar

2003-01-01

266

The CCat Wordnet Package: An Open Source Package for modifying andapplying Wordnet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the C-Cat Wordnet package, an open source library for using and modifying Wordnet. The package includes four key features: an API for modifying Synsets; implementations of standard similarity metrics, implementations of well known Word Sense Disambiguation algorithms, and an implementation of the Castanet algorithm. The library is easily extendible and usable in many runtime environments. We demonstrate it's

K Stevens; T Huang; D Buttler

2011-01-01

267

Self-assembly for microscale and nanoscale packaging: steps toward self-packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The packaging of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoscale devices constitutes an important area of research and development that is vital to the commercialization of such devices. Packaging needs of these devices include interfaces to nonelectronic domains; integration of structures, devices, and subsystems made with incompatible fabrication processes into a single platform; and the ability to handle a very large numbers

Christopher J. Morris; Sean A. Stauth; Babak A. Parviz

2005-01-01

268

FITSH- a software package for image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we describe the main features of the software package named FITSH, intended to provide a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package both provides utilities for the full pipeline of subsequent related data-processing steps (including image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple-image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations) and aids the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. The set of utilities found in this package is built on top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package); therefore, both frequently used and well-documented tools for such environments can be exploited and managing a massive amount of data is rather convenient.

Pál, András.

2012-04-01

269

EjsS Periodic Motion Illustration Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EjsS Periodic Motion Illustration Package contains JavaScript adaptations of Physlet Illustrations from Physlet Physics Chapter 16. This multimodel simulation package demonstrates a type of periodic or oscillatory motion called wave motion. Students need to interact with the Physlet, but the answers to the wave questions posed in the Illustration are given or are easily determined from interacting with it. Some Illustrations provide examples of physics applications while others are designed to introduce a particular wave function concept. Typical uses of Illustrations would include reading assignments prior to class and classroom demonstrations. The EjsS Periodic Motion Illustrations Package was developed using the Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations (EjsS) version 5. Although EjsS is a Java program, it can create stand alone JavaScript programs that run in almost any PC or tablet. EjsS can also create ePub documents containing multiple simulations.

Glasmann, Andreu; Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2014-06-12

270

Symmetric Rock Fall on Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the Naval SNF (spent nuclear fuel) Waste Package (WP) and the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to the rock fall DBE (design basis event) dynamic loads. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities and residual stresses in the WP, and stress intensities and maximum permanent downward displacements of the EP-lifting surface. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP and EP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for those designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

Sreten Mastilovic

2001-08-09

271

Weighing polyelectrolytes packaged in viruslike particles.  

PubMed

This Letter reports on the remarkable selectivity of capsid proteins for packaging synthetic polyelectrolytes in viruslike particles. By applying the contrast variation method in small-angle neutron scattering, we accurately estimated the mean mass of packaged polyelectrolytes ?M_{p}? and that of the surrounding capsid ?M_{cap}?. Remarkably, the mass ratio ?M_{p}?/?M_{cap}? was invariant for polyelectrolyte molecular weights spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude. To do so, capsids either packaged several chains simultaneously or selectively retained the shortest chains that could fit the capsid interior. Our data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions based on free energy minimization and emphasize the importance of protein self-energy. These findings may give new insights into the nonspecific origin of genome selectivity for a number of viral systems. PMID:25279650

Tresset, Guillaume; Tatou, Mouna; Le Cœur, Clémence; Zeghal, Mehdi; Bailleux, Virginie; Lecchi, Amélie; Brach, Katarzyna; Klekotko, Magdalena; Porcar, Lionel

2014-09-19

272

DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

Blanton, P.

2013-10-10

273

Big Things Come in Little Packages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners investigate three packages which are all the same size and shape, but have different contents. One is filled with foam, one is filled with wood, and one is filled with metal. Learners are introduced to the concept of density, that objects with the same volume but different masses have different densities. Learners can extend their learning using one of the extensions provided: twenty questions to determine contents, determine the volume of the packages, determine mass and densities of the packages. Part of the 21-activity guide published by OMSI, No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow. All activities in this guide use household materials and all lesson plans include preparation directions, demonstrations, procedure sheets, cross-curricular connections, and scientific explanation of content.

Industry, Oregon M.

2007-01-01

274

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE  

SciTech Connect

Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

2011-03-24

275

Weighing Polyelectrolytes Packaged in Viruslike Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Letter reports on the remarkable selectivity of capsid proteins for packaging synthetic polyelectrolytes in viruslike particles. By applying the contrast variation method in small-angle neutron scattering, we accurately estimated the mean mass of packaged polyelectrolytes ?Mp? and that of the surrounding capsid ?Mcap?. Remarkably, the mass ratio ?Mp?/?Mcap? was invariant for polyelectrolyte molecular weights spanning more than 2 orders of magnitude. To do so, capsids either packaged several chains simultaneously or selectively retained the shortest chains that could fit the capsid interior. Our data are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions based on free energy minimization and emphasize the importance of protein self-energy. These findings may give new insights into the nonspecific origin of genome selectivity for a number of viral systems.

Tresset, Guillaume; Tatou, Mouna; Le CÅ`ur, Clémence; Zeghal, Mehdi; Bailleux, Virginie; Lecchi, Amélie; Brach, Katarzyna; Klekotko, Magdalena; Porcar, Lionel

2014-09-01

276

MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

2000-01-19

277

Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

S. Arthur

2004-10-08

278

Engineered waste-package-system design specification  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

Not Available

1983-05-01

279

SCALE criticality safety verification and validation package  

SciTech Connect

Verification and validation (V and V) are essential elements of software quality assurance (QA) for computer codes that are used for performing scientific calculations. V and V provides a means to ensure the reliability and accuracy of such software. As part of the SCALE QA and V and V plans, a general V and V package for the SCALE criticality safety codes has been assembled, tested and documented. The SCALE criticality safety V and V package is being made available to SCALE users through the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) to assist them in performing adequate V and V for their SCALE applications.

Bowman, S.M.; Emmett, M.B.; Jordan, W.C.

1998-01-01

280

Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

Casey, S.; Booten, C.

2011-11-01

281

Industrial heat pipe energy recovery package unit  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates in general to an industrial heat exchanger package unit for transferring heat energy between cool intake air flowing into an industrial process, and hot exhaust air flowing out of an industrial process. Each package units specifically include integral finned heat pipe heat exchangers, face and bypass damper assemblies, tilted base frames, bypass ducts, supply inlet filter assemblies, and supply inlet louver assemblies which are arranged in such a manner as to provide a percentage of total volume control over the amount of supply or exhaust air introduced into the heat exchange chambers.

Bagno, A.C.

1981-11-10

282

Packaged digester for treating animal wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new range of packaged digesters to process animal or organic wastes has been developed by Bovis Civil Engineering. The unit, known as the Polygester is suitable for use on factory farms, isolated communities and manufacturing industries. The unit consists of an anaerobic digester together with associated pumps, heat exchangers and pipework ready-assembled on a rigid common chassis and separate gas holder as a packaged system. Based on an undiluted solids input of 11% pig slurry, performance figures show up to 85% reduction of COD, 95% reduction of BOD and 18 m3 of biogas per day (equivalent to about 10 litres fuel oil).

Not Available

1981-11-03

283

MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

Custer, Jonathan Sloane

2003-02-01

284

Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 6M - special form package  

SciTech Connect

The ORNL DOT Specification 6M - Special Form Package was fabricated at the Oak Ridge Nation al Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of Type B solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed by the Dow Chemical Company, Rocky Flats Division, on the DOT-6M container and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel capsules at ORNL by Operations Division personnel. The results of these evaluations demonstrate that the package is in compliance with the applicable regulations for the transport of Type B quantities in special form of non-fissile radioactive materials.

Schaich, R.W.

1982-07-01

285

Spoilage and safety characteristics of ground beef packaged in traditional and modified atmosphere packages.  

PubMed

Two separate studies, one with pathogen-inoculated product and one with noninoculated product, were conducted to determine the safety and spoilage characteristics of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and traditional packaging of ground beef patties. Ground beef patties were allotted to five packaging treatments (i) control (foam tray with film overwrap; traditional), (ii) high-oxygen MAP (80% 02, 20% CO2), (iii) high-oxygen MAP with added rosemary extract, (iv) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP (0.4% CO, 30% CO2, 69.6% N2), and (v) low-oxygen carbon monoxide MAP with added rosemary extract. Beef patties were evaluated for changes over time (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days) during lighted display. Results indicated low-oxygen carbon monoxide gas flush had a stabilizing effect on meat color after the formation of carboxymyoglobin and was effective for preventing the development of surface discoloration. Consumers indicated that beef patties packaged in atmospheres containing carbon monoxide were more likely to smell fresh at 7, 14, and 21 days of display, but the majority would probably not consume these products after 14 days of display because of their odor. MAP suppressed the growth of psychrophilic aerobic bacteria when compared with control packages. Generally, control packages had significantly higher total aerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus counts than did modified atmosphere packages. In the inoculated ground beef (approximately 10(5) CFU/g) in MAP, Escherichia coli O157 populations ranged from 4.51 to 4.73 log CFU/g with no differences among the various packages, but the total E. coli O157:H7 in the ground beef in the control packages was significantly higher at 5.61 log CFU/g after 21 days of storage. On days 14 and 21, the total Salmonella in the ground beef in control packages was at 5.29 and 5.27 log CFU/g, respectively, which was significantly higher than counts in the modified atmosphere packages (3.99 to 4.31 log CFU/g on day 14 and 3.76 to 4.02 log CFU/g on day 21). Data from these studies indicate that MAP suppresses pathogen growth compared with controls and that spoilage characteristics developed in MAP packages. PMID:18326178

Brooks, J C; Alvarado, M; Stephens, T P; Kellermeier, J D; Tittor, A W; Miller, M F; Brashears, M M

2008-02-01

286

The 200 watt SHF transmitter experiment package.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of a 200 watt superhigh-frequency transmitter experiment package that incorporates a traveling wave tube utilizing a multistage depressed collector for efficiency enhancement. The experiment is being developed for flight testing on the CTS satellite. The ultimate purpose is the development of communication technology for future high power communication satellite applications.

Alexovich, R.

1972-01-01

287

Pop Rocks Experiment 25 Pop rock packages  

E-print Network

Pop Rocks Experiment Materials · 25 Pop rock packages · Four 9 inch balloons · Four 16 oz sodas of it, tell them that many people believe that eating pop rocks and drinking soda at the same time will make your stomach explode. Grand Finale: Pop rocks & soda 1. Ask the kids what they think will happen

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

288

Work Package 3 Migrants and Borders -India  

E-print Network

Work Package 3 Migrants and Borders - India From deliverable 3.4 March 2011 A View of Europe: Perspectives from Indian Immigrants Meenakshi THAPAN (Univ. of New Dehli, India) & Maitrayee DEKA (Univ. of New Dehli, India) halshs-00638263,version1-4Nov2011 #12;Abstract This EuroBroadMap working paper explores

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

L.R. Eisler

1995-02-02

290

Performance evaluation of RF MEMS packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RF switch made using MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) technology shows attractive electrical characteristics that are critically needed in the next generation low power consumption, high data rate RF wireless systems. In order to provide environmental protection and at the same time preserve electrical performance of the MEMS switch, an RF package must be carefully designed. For example, it is

Lih-Tyng Hwang; Li Li; Jim Drye; Shun-Meen Kuo

2002-01-01

291

IC chip stress during plastic package molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 95% of the world's integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metallization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study we developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over

D. W. Palmer; D. A. Benson; D. W. Peterson; J. N. Sweet

1998-01-01

292

Solar Water-Heater Design Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

1982-01-01

293

Occupational Information System (OIS) Handbook Training Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training package, consisting of information concerning the content, use, and applications of the Occupational Information System (OIS), is designed for use in a training presentation conducted for administrators, trainers, counselors, job placement specialists, and economic development staff who will be working with the OIS. Included in the…

National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (DOL/ETA), Washington, DC.

294

ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

295

Development of integrated passives QFN package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of passives or discrete components is advantageous for end-customers in the simplification of their board design, board space-saving and overall cost reduction. The paper will discuss the development of integrating passives within a QFN package for an integrated power management solution. It is quickly found that placing together multiple components of varied dimensions and properties, pose challenges to manufacturability

Edwin Lim Jin Keong

2011-01-01

296

Package Outline Dimension Table Millimeters Symbol  

E-print Network

? All dimensions and tolerances conform to ASME Y14.5M – 1994. ? Controlling dimension is in millimeters. ? Pin 1 may be indicated by an ID dot, or a special feature, in its proximity on package surface. Note: This QFN is designed for use in thin PCB Only (32 mils). It is not recommended for PCB above 32 mils thick.

Pb-free Niau; Min Nom Max

297

New numeric data packages from CDIAC  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the following numerical data packages from CDIAC: Climatological data for clouds over the globe from surface observations, the total cloud edition; carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V meteor cruise 11/5 in the south atlantic and northern Weddell Sea areas (WOCE sections A-12 and A-21).

Hahn, C.J. [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Studies, Boulder, CO (United States); Warren, S.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); London, J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-12-31

298

Influence of packaging design on littering behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litter is an environmental and social problem that is closely related to packaging. Many attempts have been made to reduce litter. So far these attempts have mainly focused on influencing littering behavior either through general campaigns or through manipulating the environment. The latter might be done through strategic placement of prompts and litter bins and through cleaning up any previous

R. Wever

2006-01-01

299

SCALE criticality safety verification and validation package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verification and validation (V and V) are essential elements of software quality assurance (QA) for computer codes that are used for performing scientific calculations. V and V provides a means to ensure the reliability and accuracy of such software. As part of the SCALE QA and V and V plans, a general V and V package for the SCALE criticality

S. M. Bowman; M. B. Emmett; W. C. Jordan

1998-01-01

300

Darlington Centre and Forum Restaurant CONFERENCE PACKAGES  

E-print Network

GF gluten free Lunch On-the-Go $19 pp · A range of sandwiches (3 pieces pp), with chef's selection.restaurant@sydney.edu.au 5 ALL DAY CATERING V vegetarian DF dairy free GF gluten free Light Package $50 pp Arrival

Viglas, Anastasios

301

Developing an Artificial Life Simulation Package  

SciTech Connect

Recent publications suggest existence of a gap between computer science curricula and industry needs. We show how a software engineering project for developing an Artificial Life Simulation Package can help bridge this gap. The results of experiments investigating the influence of the artificial life parameters: initial population, food, movement, survival, and birth are presented and briefly discussed.

Bailey, D.; Cheek, A.; Paprzycki, M. [Univ. of Texas of the Permian Basin, Odessa, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

302

Energy implications of recycling packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the

L. L. Gaines; F. Stodolsky

1994-01-01

303

EDExpress Packaging Training, 2000-2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual is intended for use by higher education institutions that use the electronic student financial aid packaging process in a Windows environment. Each unit in the manual is organized into several lessons; each lesson presents the material and then provides practical application materials. The first unit is an overview of the…

Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

304

Multivariable geostatistics in S: the gstat package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses advantages and shortcomings of the S environment for multivariable geostatistics, in particular when extended with the gstat package, an extension package for the S environments (R, S-Plus). The gstat S package provides multivariable geostatistical modelling, prediction and simulation, as well as several visualisation functions. In particular, it makes the calculation, simultaneous fitting, and visualisation of a large number of direct and cross (residual) variograms very easy. Gstat was started 10 years ago and was released under the GPL in 1996; gstat.org was started in 1998. Gstat was not initially written for teaching purposes, but for research purposes, emphasising flexibility, scalability and portability. It can deal with a large number of practical issues in geostatistics, including change of support (block kriging), simple/ordinary/universal (co)kriging, fast local neighbourhood selection, flexible trend modelling, variables with different sampling configurations, and efficient simulation of large spatially correlated random fields, indicator kriging and simulation, and (directional) variogram and cross variogram modelling. The formula/models interface of the S language is used to define multivariable geostatistical models. This paper introduces the gstat S package, and discusses a number of design and implementation issues. It also draws attention to a number of papers on integration of spatial statistics software, GIS and the S environment that were presented on the spatial statistics workshop and sessions during the conference Distributed Statistical Computing 2003.

Pebesma, Edzer J.

2004-08-01

305

49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...portable tanks, may be used as Industrial package Types 2 or 3 (Type IP-2) or (Type IP-3) for transporting LSA-I and LSA-II liquids and gases as prescribed in Table 6, provided that they conform to standards at least equivalent to...

2010-10-01

306

Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

2005-09-01

307

Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

Hime, Kirsten

308

9. More Bioconductor packages Thomas Lumley  

E-print Network

Seattle, July 2014 #12;GWAS analysis Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are currently popular.1 #12;GWAS analysis snpStats is a Bioconductor package for GWAS analysis � maintained by David Clayton on HapMap � three objects; snp.support, subject.support and snps.10 9.2 #12;GWAS analysis > summary

Rice, Ken

309

9. More Bioconductor packages Thomas Lumley  

E-print Network

~ao Paulo, January 2014 #12;GWAS analysis Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are currently popular.1 #12;GWAS analysis snpStats is a Bioconductor package for GWAS analysis ­ maintained by David Clayton on HapMap ­ three objects; snp.support, subject.support and snps.10 9.2 #12;GWAS analysis > summary

Rice, Ken

310

9. More Bioconductor packages Thomas Lumley  

E-print Network

Seattle, July 2013 #12;GWAS analysis Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are currently popular.1 #12;GWAS analysis snpStats is a Bioconductor package for GWAS analysis ­ maintained by David Clayton on HapMap ­ three objects; snp.support, subject.support and snps.10 9.2 #12;GWAS analysis > summary

Rice, Ken

311

9. More Bioconductor packages Thomas Lumley  

E-print Network

Lausanne, September 2014 #12;GWAS analysis Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are currently popular.1 #12;GWAS analysis snpStats is a Bioconductor package for GWAS analysis � maintained by David Clayton on HapMap � three objects; snp.support, subject.support and snps.10 9.2 #12;GWAS analysis > summary

Rice, Ken

312

How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

Boorman, Andrew

313

Promising Practices: Vocational Education Resource Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational educational programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package profiles four vocational education programs at California community colleges that show promise in serving special population students. First, the Applied Mathematics for Electronics…

Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

314

MT: A Mathematica package to compute convolutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the Mathematica package MT which can be used to compute, both analytically and numerically, convolutions involving harmonic polylogarithms, polynomials or generalized functions. As applications contributions to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order Higgs boson production and the Drell-Yan process are discussed.

Höschele, Maik; Hoff, Jens; Pak, Alexey; Steinhauser, Matthias; Ueda, Takahiro

2014-02-01

315

EAT: EXPERIMENTAL AUTOMATA TOOLKIT | A MATHEMATICA PACKAGE  

E-print Network

EAT: EXPERIMENTAL AUTOMATA TOOLKIT | A MATHEMATICA PACKAGE MICHEL RIGO Abstract. EAT (Experimental Automata Toolkit) is a Mathematica pack- age dealing with regular languages, #12;nite automata and other of them can be used or inter- faced easily with the symbolic computation program Mathematica 1 . Moreover

Liège, Université de

316

REBURNING APPLICATION TO FIRETUBE PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale experimental research that examined the physical and chemical phenomena associated with the NOx control technology of reburning applied to gas- and liquid-fired firetube package boilers. Reburning (staged fuel combustion) diverts some of th...

317

MT: a Mathematica package to compute convolutions  

E-print Network

We introduce the \\prog{Mathematica} package \\prog{MT} which can be used to compute, both analytically and numerically, convolutions involving harmonic polylogarithms, polynomials or generalized functions. As applications contributions to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order Higgs boson production and the Drell-Yan process are discussed.

Maik Hoeschele; Jens Hoff; Alexey Pak; Matthias Steinhauser; Takahiro Ueda

2013-07-26

318

Wafer level packaging of silicon pressure sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new pre-packaging technique for silicon pressure sensors on the wafer level is presented. It is based on the use of UV photopatternable silicone which is deposited over the whole wafer by means of a novel device suitable for low-viscosity material coating and mask alignment. The process consists of the exposure of the deposited layer to UV

H Krassow; F Campabadal; E Lora-Tamayo

2000-01-01

319

The SPIRE Photometer Interactive Analysis Package SPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Herschel Common Science System (HCSS) (Ott et al. 2006) (Ott & Science Ground Segment Consortium 2010) is a substantial Java software package, accompanying the development of the Herschel Mission (Pilbratt et al. 2010), supporting all of its phases. In particular the reduction of data from the scientific instruments for instrument checkout, calibration, and astronomical analysis is one of its

Bernhard Schulz

2011-01-01

320

Packaging test facilities at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many unique facilities exist at Sandia National Laboratories which can be used for completing a range of performance tests on radioactive material packagings or component sections. Both regulatory and extra-regulatory test environments can be simulated. Key factors in the successful utilization of these facilities are the analysis, instrumentation, and support services available and the experience base that has been established

G. C. Allen; D. C. Bickel; F. H. Mathews; N. R. Keltner

1983-01-01

321

MASSACHUSETTS BAYS PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW PACKAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Massachusetts Implementation Review Package contains annual work plans for fiscal years 2003 and 2004. Also included is a table of Leveraged Resources, the Tracking System report, the Environmental Indicators Report, NEP Achievements Report and a fact sheet for the Massachuse...

322

The power of color on packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of color on packaging as a medium to attract customers' purchase decision is an issue that should be explore seriously. Color can be use as a weapon to attract consumers' attention and induce purchase decision. The rationale of this study is to examine the power of colors to influence the customers' purchase decision. The strategic management of colors

Mohd Ikhmal Fadzil; Maznah Wan Omar; Mohd Hafifi Murad

2011-01-01

323

Syncope. What Is It? Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity packaage on syncope (fainting) is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a glossary, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

Stark, Pam

324

Career Education Learning Packages for Prospective Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a dissertation on a career education competency-based instructional model, the eight learning packages included in this guide are a result of three terms of field-testing principles and practices of career education in a teacher education program. They are designed to enrich an already established teacher education program.…

Kramer, Gary L.

325

Compressor diagnostic software package guides cost control  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a new compressor performance software program which helps minimizing operating costs by detecting malfunctions, optimizing component functions, monitoring performance, and guiding sizing and application decisions. Field tests have evaluated the package's abilities for leak detection, clearance error detection, throughput determination, on-line monitoring, and various engineering applications. This paper reviews the test results for each area of the software modules.

Smalley, A.J.; Berry, A.R. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)); Kothari, K.M. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1993-08-01

326

Handwashing Technique. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on handwashing. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to…

Stark, Pamela

327

27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in combination with other (non-alcoholic) items for sale to consumers does not constitute a means to induce within the meaning of section 105(b)(3) of the Act. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423,...

2010-04-01

328

44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

J.M. Scaglione

2004-08-25

329

Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

NONE

1998-03-01

330

77 FR 18871 - Administrative Guide for Verifying Compliance With Packaging Requirements for Shipment and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Compliance With Packaging Requirements...Receipt of Radioactive Material AGENCY...Compliance with Packaging Requirements...Receipt of Radioactive Material.'' This...71, ``Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''...

2012-03-28

331

Smart Packaging Technologies and Their Application in Conventional Meat Packaging Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservative packaging of meat and meat products should maintain acceptable appearance, odour and flavour and should delay\\u000a the onset of microbial spoilage. Typically fresh red meats are placed on trays and over-wrapped with an oxygen permeable film\\u000a or alternatively, meats are stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide\\u000a (80% O2:20% CO2) (Georgala &

Michael N. O’Grady; Joseph P. Kerry

332

Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14.

Carlstrom, R.F.

1994-10-05

333

Package characterization and development of a flip chip QFN package: fcMLF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the performance of a low cost molded package using flip chip interconnections on a copper lead frame substrate. Two flip chip interconnect metallurgies were evaluated: High Pb bumps attached to the lead frame using eutectic Sn37Pb solder paste; Au bumps attached to the leadframe using eutectic Sn3.5Ag solder paste. This package format is identified as the flip chip MicroLeadframe

David R. McCann; SunHo Ha

2002-01-01

334

The C-Cat Wordnet Package: An Open Source Package for modifying andapplying Wordnet  

SciTech Connect

We present the C-Cat Wordnet package, an open source library for using and modifying Wordnet. The package includes four key features: an API for modifying Synsets; implementations of standard similarity metrics, implementations of well known Word Sense Disambiguation algorithms, and an implementation of the Castanet algorithm. The library is easily extendible and usable in many runtime environments. We demonstrate it's use on two standard Word Sense Disambiguation tasks and apply the Castanet algorithm to a corpus.

Stevens, K; Huang, T; Buttler, D

2011-09-16

335

10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Package design control. 71.107 Section 71.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION...design control measures to the following: (1) Criticality physics, radiation shielding, stress, thermal, hydraulic,...

2012-01-01

336

10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Package design control. 71.107 Section 71.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION...design control measures to the following: (1) Criticality physics, radiation shielding, stress, thermal, hydraulic,...

2011-01-01

337

10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.  

...Package design control. 71.107 Section 71.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION...design control measures to the following: (1) Criticality physics, radiation shielding, stress, thermal, hydraulic,...

2014-01-01

338

10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Package design control. 71.107 Section 71.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION...design control measures to the following: (1) Criticality physics, radiation shielding, stress, thermal, hydraulic,...

2010-01-01

339

10 CFR 71.107 - Package design control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Package design control. 71.107 Section 71.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION...design control measures to the following: (1) Criticality physics, radiation shielding, stress, thermal, hydraulic,...

2013-01-01

340

21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling Control § 211.130 Packaging and labeling operations. There shall be...

2013-04-01

341

Massively Parallel Post-Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has achieved many accomplishments toward 'Massively Parallel Post-Packaging for MEMS.' These achievements can be summarized as follows: (1) innovative bonding processes; (2) post-fabrication packaging demonstrations and characterizations on v...

L. Lin, K. Wise

2003-01-01

342

21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Packaging and labeling operations... Section 211.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling Control...

2010-04-01

343

16 CFR 1700.15 - Poison prevention packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...packaging standards. To protect children from serious personal injury or serious illness resulting...following specifications: (1) Child-resistant effectiveness of...the case of unit packaging, child-resistant effectiveness...

2012-01-01

344

An assessment of the value of retail ready packaging  

E-print Network

Use of retail-ready packaging reduces the costs of replenishing store shelves by eliminating the labor of removing packaging materials and stocking individual items on shelves. While reducing costs for retailers, retail-ready ...

Jackson, Kathleen Anne

2008-01-01

345

10 CFR 63.134 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Monitoring and testing waste packages. 63.134 Section 63.134 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY... Monitoring and testing waste packages. (a) A...

2010-01-01

346

10 CFR 60.143 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Monitoring and testing waste packages. 60.143 Section 60.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES... Monitoring and testing waste packages. (a) A...

2011-01-01

347

10 CFR 60.143 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Monitoring and testing waste packages. 60.143 Section 60.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES... Monitoring and testing waste packages. (a) A...

2010-01-01

348

10 CFR 63.134 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Monitoring and testing waste packages. 63.134 Section 63.134 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY... Monitoring and testing waste packages. (a) A...

2011-01-01

349

7 CFR 58.151 - Packaging and repackaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading...Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all...

2011-01-01

350

7 CFR 58.151 - Packaging and repackaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading...Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all...

2012-01-01

351

7 CFR 58.151 - Packaging and repackaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading...Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all...

2013-01-01

352

7 CFR 58.151 - Packaging and repackaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading...Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all...

2010-01-01

353

7 CFR 58.151 - Packaging and repackaging.  

...FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading...Packaging and repackaging. (a) Packaging dairy products or cutting and repackaging all...

2014-01-01

354

16 CFR 303.28 - Products contained in packages.  

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...Products contained in packages. When textile products are marketed and delivered...delivery to the utlimate consumer, each textile product in the package, except...

2014-01-01

355

16 CFR 303.28 - Products contained in packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...Products contained in packages. When textile products are marketed and delivered...delivery to the utlimate consumer, each textile product in the package, except...

2013-01-01

356

16 CFR 303.28 - Products contained in packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...Products contained in packages. When textile products are marketed and delivered...delivery to the utlimate consumer, each textile product in the package, except...

2011-01-01

357

16 CFR 303.28 - Products contained in packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...Products contained in packages. When textile products are marketed and delivered...delivery to the utlimate consumer, each textile product in the package, except...

2012-01-01

358

16 CFR 303.28 - Products contained in packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...Products contained in packages. When textile products are marketed and delivered...delivery to the utlimate consumer, each textile product in the package, except...

2010-01-01

359

16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 1702.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS...

2010-01-01

360

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82...

2012-01-01

361

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82...

2013-01-01

362

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82...

2010-01-01

363

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82...

2011-01-01

364

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

...2014-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431...CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82...

2014-01-01

365

42 CFR 110.46 - Amending a Request Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Package. 110.46 Section 110.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 110.46 Amending a Request...

2011-10-01

366

7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.  

...Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related products should, in addition to proper construction and sanitation, provide an atmosphere relatively free...

2014-01-01

367

7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related products should, in addition to proper construction and sanitation, provide an atmosphere relatively free...

2011-01-01

368

75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the USPS Intelligent Mail strategy. Packages that...not always include a routing code (a barcode that...accurately encoded Intelligent Mail container placard. The Intelligent Mail package barcode will: Require a routing code to aid in...

2010-09-17

369

49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.  

... 51H) are only authorized for use with flexible inner packagings. (3) Friction. The nature and thickness of the outer packaging must be such that friction during transportation is not likely to generate an amount of heat...

2014-10-01

370

Packaging criteria for transportation and handling shock and vibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information compiled on the shock and vibration environment encountered by items and equipment during shipment shows the distribution of drop heights for particular packages, distribution systems, and handling operations. Applications of the data to typical package design problems are discussed.

1968-01-01

371

49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Packagings. (b) Large Packagings code letter designations are as follows: (1) “A” means steel (all types and surface treatments). (2) “B” means aluminum. (3) “C” means natural wood. (4) “D” means plywood. (5)...

2013-10-01

372

49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Packagings. (b) Large Packagings code letter designations are as follows: (1) “A” means steel (all types and surface treatments). (2) “B” means aluminum. (3) “C” means natural wood. (4) “D” means plywood. (5)...

2012-10-01

373

49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Packagings. (b) Large Packagings code letter designations are as follows: (1) “A” means steel (all types and surface treatments). (2) “B” means aluminum. (3) “C” means natural wood. (4) “D” means plywood. (5)...

2011-10-01

374

49 CFR 178.930 - Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Large Packagings. (1) Fiberboard Large Packagings must be...solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall...undue bending. The fluting or corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to...

2010-10-01

375

49 CFR 178.930 - Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Large Packagings. (1) Fiberboard Large Packagings must be...solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall...undue bending. The fluting or corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to...

2012-10-01

376

49 CFR 178.930 - Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Large Packagings. (1) Fiberboard Large Packagings must be...solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall...undue bending. The fluting or corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to...

2013-10-01

377

49 CFR 178.930 - Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Large Packagings. (1) Fiberboard Large Packagings must be...solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall...undue bending. The fluting or corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to...

2011-10-01

378

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50-1/2 inches high by 24-1/2 inches in outside diameter. With contents the gross weight of the BTSP is 650 lbs. The BTSP is designed for the safe shipment of 150 grams of tritium in a solid or gaseous state. To comply with the federal regulations that govern Type B shipping packages, the BTSP is designed so that it will not lose tritium at a rate greater than the limits stated in 10CFR 71.51 of 10{sup -6} A2 per hour for the 'Normal Conditions of Transport' (NCT) and an A2 in 1 week under 'Hypothetical Accident Conditions' (HAC). Additionally, since the BTSP design incorporates a valve as part of the tritium containment boundary, secondary containment features are incorporated in the CV Lid to protect against gas leakage past the valve as required by 10CFR71.43(e). This secondary containment boundary is designed to provide the same level of containment as the primary containment boundary when subjected to the HAC and NCT criteria.

Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

2008-09-14

379

EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive

2010-01-01

380

Multi-scale modeling of moisture transfer in electronic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfacial delamination is one of the primary concerns in electronic package design. Pop-corning in plastic-encapsulated IC packages is a defect frequently occurring during the solder reflow due to moisture penetration into the packages. Moisture absorption has a detrimental effect on the EMC\\/Cu interfacial adhesion and drastically reduces the reliability of the encapsulated package. To obtain good reliability and to prevent

H. B. Fan; M. M. F. Yuen

2010-01-01

381

Popcorn phenomena in a ball grid array package  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of studying popcorn phenomena, plastic ball grid array packages with 119 I\\/O's were tested under the pre-conditioning test conditions. Observations using scanning acoustic tomography and optical microscopy were carried out to investigate the existence of delaminations and cracks in the package, and the cracking patterns after IR reflow. Package deformations and thermo-mechanical stress distributions in the package

Seung-Ho Ahn; Young-Shin Kwon; Kwang-Jae Shin

1994-01-01

382

A novel MEMS package with three-dimensional stacked modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3D stacked modular packaging technology was developed so as to meet the general requirements of MEMS and wireless communication on packaging. The general requirements include high-density, low-cost and high-yield etc. According to the requirements of modular package, a kind of accelerator (MEMS) and its modem circuits (IC) were incorporated by three stacked modules and a 3D stacked modular package

Gaowei Xu; Qiuping Huang; Wenguo Ning; Zugang Ruan; Le Luo

2009-01-01

383

Hybrid packaging of a monolithic multi-sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to satisfy the different packaging requirement of individual sensors in the monolithic multi-sensor chip, a hybrid packaging method is presented in the paper. The packaging method of multi-sensor makes use of high-resolution stereolithography system of photopatternable resin constructing the main packaging structure in the way of batch production, low cost and good resolution. A monolithic multi-sensor which consists

Jingbo Xu; Yulong Zhao; Zhuangde Jiang; Weixuan Jing

2007-01-01

384

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

SciTech Connect

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

Not Available

1993-09-01

385

WASTE PACKAGE REMEDIATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Package Remediation System remediates waste packages (WPs) and disposal containers (DCs) in one of two ways: preparation of rejected DC closure welds for repair or opening of the DC/WP. DCs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for preparation of rejected closure welds if testing of the closure weld by the Disposal Container Handling System indicates an unacceptable, but repairable, welding flaw. DC preparation of rejected closure welds will require removal of the weld in such a way that the Disposal Container Handling System may resume and complete the closure welding process. DCs/WPs are brought to the Waste Package Remediation System for opening if the Disposal Container Handling System testing of the DC closure weld indicates an unrepairable welding flaw, or if a WP is recovered from the subsurface repository because suspected damage to the WP or failure of the WP has occurred. DC/WP opening will require cutting of the DC/WP such that a temporary seal may be installed and the waste inside the DC/WP removed by another system. The system operates in a Waste Package Remediation System hot cell located in the Waste Handling Building that has direct access to the Disposal Container Handling System. One DC/WP at a time can be handled in the hot cell. The DC/WP arrives on a transfer cart, is positioned within the cell for system operations, and exits the cell without being removed from the cart. The system includes a wide variety of remotely operated components including a manipulator with hoist and/or jib crane, viewing systems, machine tools for opening WPs, and equipment used to perform pressure and gas composition sampling. Remotely operated equipment is designed to facilitate DC/WP decontamination and hot cell equipment maintenance, and interchangeable components are provided where appropriate. The Waste Package Remediation System interfaces with the Disposal Container Handling System for the receipt and transport of WPs and DCs. The Waste Handling Building System houses the system, and provides the facility, safety, and auxiliary systems required to support operations. The system receives power from the Waste Handling Building Electrical System. The system also interfaces with the various DC systems.

N.D. Sudan

2000-06-22

386

DropTests of 325 Pound 6M Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many factors which affect the performance of a drum closure during drop tests. Important test conditions are: weight of package, height of drop, and angle of impact. Structural characteristics of the package determine its ability to withstand the test conditions imposed. These characteristics include: package diameter, shell material and thickness, strength of internal fill material (e.g., fiberboard), and

2004-01-01

387

Thermal characterization of a thermally enhanced QFN package  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the development of thermally enhanced (advanced) Quad Flat No lead or QFN package. The QFN package is a promising choice for portable wireless applications such as Bluetooth and Home RF. This package offers attractive attributes in terms of a near CSP footprint, good electrical and thermal characteristics. Thermal characterization of a new thermally enhanced QFN type of

S. Krishnamoorthi; K. Y. Goh; D. Y. R. Chong; R. Kapoor; A. Y. S. Sun

2003-01-01

388

On the mode II popcorn effect in thin packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out using P-TQFP-176 packages to study the mode II popcorn effect in thin packages. The doming of the package backside was measured as a function of time and temperature. The measurements were performed using a line projection method. An \\

Peter Alpern; Rainer Dudek; Roland Schmidt; Viktor Wicher; Rainer Tilgner

2002-01-01

389

Popcorn phenomena in a ball grid array package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic ball grid array packages can be an alternative to the fine-pitch plastic quad flat package with many I\\/O's, due to its advantages, such as small footprint and high density interconnect, improved module assembly yield, superior thermal and electrical performances to plastic quad flat packages, etc. In spite of these many advantages, there are several concerns which hinder the plastic

Seung-Ho Ahn; Young-Shin Kwon

1995-01-01

390

The Case for Polylactic Acid as a Commodity Packaging Plastic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polylactide, sometimes called polylactic acid (PLA), meets many requirements as a packaging thermoplastic and is suggested as a commodity resin for general packaging applications. Its general physical properties and melt processing ease are similar to conventional packaging resins. PLA slowly degrades by hydrolysis in even a slightly moist environment over a period of several months to a year to environmentally-friendly

R. G. Sinclair

1996-01-01

391

19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers...Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.601 Retail packaging materials and containers...containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with the...

2010-04-01

392

19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers...Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers...containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with...

2010-04-01

393

19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers...Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.539 Retail packaging materials and containers...containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale, if classified with...

2010-04-01

394

JAVA SWING-BASED PLOTTING PACKAGE RESIDING WITHIN XAL  

SciTech Connect

A data plotting package residing in the XAL tools set is presented. This package is based on Java SWING, and therefore it has the same portability as Java itself. The data types for charts, bar-charts, and color-surface plots are described. The algorithms, performance, interactive capabilities, limitations, and the best usage practices of this plotting package are discussed.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL

2007-01-01

395

75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...integral base must be designed to avoid protrusion that may cause damage to the Large Packaging...used, its top surface must be free from protrusions that might damage the Large Packaging...permitted in Large Packaging for articles of Class 1 which permit the spillage of...

2010-02-02

396

MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE AND VACUUM PACKAGING OF MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extension of the shelf-life of meat and poultry products is one of the technology needs to meet the demands of consumers. In this respect, increasing attention is put on packaging techniques. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging (VP) are recent innovations that have been gaining importance as preservation techniques to improve the shelf-life of meat and poultry. MAP provides

D. Narasimha Rao; N. M. Sachindra

2002-01-01

397

Design Competition for Development of a General Purpose Fissile Package  

SciTech Connect

Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification packages have been used extensively for transportation of radioactive materials since the 1960s. The objective of the Savannah River Site (SRS) design competition was to advance the development of a new performance-based and compliance-certifiable package as a candidate for replacement of the obsolescent DOT 6M/6L specification package.

Houghtaling, T.K.

2003-04-22

398

The application package DeCA for calculating cyclic accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application package DeCA (Design Cyclic Accelerator) is offered to solve a set of problems which arise on designing electron storage rings. The package is based on the block principle. This makes it extremely flexible in designing storage rings and investigating beam dynamics in them. The package is intended for a user not familiar with programming languages, it is arranged

P. I. Gladkikh; A. Yu. Zeliasky; M. A. Strelkov

1993-01-01

399

30 CFR 7.108 - Power package checklist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power package checklist. 7.108 Section...TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Diesel Power Packages Intended for Use in Areas of...Electric Equipment is Required § 7.108 Power package checklist. Each diesel...

2010-07-01

400

Biochemical Characterization of Bacteriophage Lambda Genome Packaging in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophage ? has been extensively studied, and the abundance of genetic and biochemical information available makes this an ideal model system to study virus DNA packaging at the molecular level. Limited in vitro packaging efficiency has hampered progress toward this end, however. It has been suggested that limited packaging efficiency is related to poor activity of purified procapsids. We describe

Qin Yang; Carlos Enrique Catalano

2003-01-01

401

Practical issues and applications for vacuum and hermetic microsystems packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsystems packaging involves physically placing and electrically interconnecting a microelectronic device in a package that protects it from and interfaces it with the outside world. When the device requires a hermetic or controlled microenvironment, it is typically sealed within a cavity in the package. Sealing involves placing and attaching a lid, typically by welding, brazing, or soldering. Materials selection (e.g.,

Lu Fang; Dahwey Chu; Kevin Gregory Ewsuk

2010-01-01

402

Package Deformation And Cracking Mechanism Due To Reflow Soldering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic package cracking during reflow sol- dering is an important problem for the reliability of plas- tic encapsulated semiconductor devices. This paper describes a simplified method of package cracking esti- mation obtained by introducing a material property for resin A which is the coefficient between the relative humidity of storage and the saturated moisture content. The consequent process of package

K. Sawada; Noriyasu KAWAMURA; Toshio SUDO; Komukai Toshiba-cho

1993-01-01

403

A Road Map to ARPA Involvement in Electronic Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect (EP\\/I) technology by US Department of Defense's Advance Research Projects Agency are discussed. The EP\\/I domain includes packages, multichip modules (MCMs), connectors, printed circuit boards (PCBs), boxes, backplanes, and cages. The EP\\/I physical technologies, including diamond substrates, superconductors, and metal matrix packages, are discussed, and information technologies are described

Lance A. Glasser

1993-01-01

404

Calculations in Group Algebras using the GAP Share Package  

E-print Network

Calculations in Group Algebras using the GAP Share Package LAG 3.0 by Victor Bovdi, Alexander.0, share package for GAP 4 trans­ lated by R. Rossmanith (1999) . LAG 3.0, share package for GAP 4 (2002) #12; Main features of LAG 3.0 . Focusing on modular group algebras of fi­ nite p­groups . Calculation

Konovalov, Alexander

405

Micro package of short term wireless implantable microfabricated systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Package is a critical part in biomedical implantable systems. Many factors affecting the host body and the life time of implantable systems need to be considered. Package becomes more critical for microfabricated systems with wireless charging and communication. This paper presents the first phase study on micro package techniques for short term (30 to 90 days) implantable systems. A MEMS

Leping Bu; Peng Cong; Hung-I Kuo; Xuesong Ye; Wen Ko

2009-01-01

406

EjsS Wave Illustration Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EjsS Wave Illustration Package contains JavaScript adaptations of Physlet Illustrations from Physlet Physics Chapter 17. Students need to interact with the Physlet, but the answers to the wave questions posed in the Illustration are given or are easily determined from interacting with it. Some Illustrations provide examples of physics applications while others are designed to introduce a particular wave function concept. Typical uses of Illustrations would include reading assignments prior to class and classroom demonstrations. The EjsS Wave Illustration Package was developed using the Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations (EjsS) version 5. Although EjsS is a Java program, it can create stand alone JavaScript programs that run in almost any PC or tablet. EjsS can also create ePub documents containing multiple simulations.

Glasmann, Andreu; Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2014-06-10

407

(abstract) Electronic Packaging for Microspacecraft Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of this presentation is to give a brief look into the future of electronic packaging for microspacecraft applications. Advancements in electronic packaging technology areas have developed to the point where a system engineer's visions, concepts, and requirements for a microspacecraft can now be a reality. These new developments are ideal candidates for microspacecraft applications. These technologies are capable of bringing about major changes in how we design future spacecraft while taking advantage of the benefits due to size, weight, power, performance, reliability , and cost. This presentation will also cover some advantages and limitations of surface mount technology (SMT), multichip modules (MCM), and wafer scale integration (WSI), and what is needed to implement these technologies into microspacecraft.

Wasler, David

1993-01-01

408

Sustainable (food) packaging--an overview.  

PubMed

Packaging has an increasingly essential role to play in preserving the value invested in products by ensuring that they can deliver their designed service with minimum wastage. Food contact materials that deliver more units of service with increasingly fewer inputs of energy and materials, and increasingly fewer negative social, economic and environmental impacts, e.g., from emission of wastes, will be more sustainable both in the food processing machines of the industrial system and as packaging for food. Buzz words, whether bio-, nano-, degradable, or whatever comes next, must be critically examined per unit of service delivered to determine if, over the whole life cycle of the products to which they are applied, energy and resource use are minimised, pollution is reduced (not relocated), ecological benefits are created, and social and economic well-being are increased. Only when this caution is applied can a new solution be described as more sustainable. PMID:24392707

Russell, David A M

2014-01-01

409

Installation package for air flat plate collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar 2 dimensions are four feet by eight feet by two and one half inches. The collector weighs 130 pounds and has an effective solar collection area of over 29.5 square feet. This area represents 95 percent of the total surface of the collector. The installation, operation and maintenance manual, safety hazard analysis, special handling instructions, materials list, installation concept drawings, warranty and certification statement are included in the installation package.

1977-01-01

410

44 BWR Waste Package Loading Curve Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of average initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of fuel into a potential 44 BWR waste package (WP). The potential WP design is illustrated in Attachment I. The scope of this calculation covers a range of initial enrichments from 1.5 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 50 GWd/mtU.

J.M. Scaglione

2001-11-05

411

Solder jet technology for advanced packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowering optical packaging costs requires developments in new technologies. In this paper, solder ink-jet process is presented for flip-chip component assembly on planar, 3D, flex and stacked submounts and substrates. Applications for this technology are presented and include linear array in-vivo dosimeters, integrated GaN LED displays, telecomm submounts and wearable ambient systems. An important aspect of developing this technology is

C. Gallagher; P. J. Hughes; P. Tassie; K. Rodgers; J. Barton; J. Justice; D. P. Casey

2005-01-01

412

Nonspherical LED packaging lens for uniformity improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light emitting diode (LED) has more advantages compared with a traditional incandescent light bulb and a fluorescent lamp,\\u000a such as small size, low quantity of heat, long life, low power consumption, fast response, plain packaging and ease of develop\\u000a ment of a frivolous short product. A methodology is proposed to improve the uniformity of the LED illumination system. As\\u000a a

Yu-Cheng Chang; Chung-Jen Ou; Yu-Sheng Tsai; Fuh-Shyang Juang

2009-01-01

413

Effect of packaging on oil product quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

To maximize shelf life, entrained and headspace oxygen are to be minimized. Light exposure must also be kept to a minimum.\\u000a Knowledge of the required residence time in the market and cost information on package alternatives must be available and\\u000a assessed. Escalating prices for metal cans and for energy to produce glass continue to drive up the price of the

D. A. Leo

1983-01-01

414

Sintered conductive adhesives for high temperature packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing need for high-conductivity and high-temperature stable conductive adhesives in a variety of electronic packaging applications. Void-free bondlines combined with low mechanical stiffness make conductive adhesives an attractive alternative to solders. The majority of conventional silver-filled conductive adhesives, however, have interfacial resistance characteristics that limit their utility in many applications. We report on the development of transient

Matt Wrosch; Arsenia Soriano

2010-01-01

415

Converting Center Pivot Sprinkler Packages: System Considerations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, presents an overview of points to consider when selecting a sprinkler package. Some points that are explained are soil texture, infiltration rates, and tillage practices. The site contains cost considerations, a procedural summary and even cost calculations. Overall, the site is a solid introduction to a certain method of irrigation and provides links to references if more information is required.

Irmak, Suat; Kranz, William L.; Martin, Derrel L.

2008-10-21

416

International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1994, the United States merged its two polar-orbiting operational environmental satellite programs operated by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense respectively into a single system which is called the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS is a tri-agency program comprised of the Department of Defense, the Department of Commerce and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NPOESS is managed by the Integrated Program Office (IPO) that is staffed by personnel from the three sponsoring agencies. The IPO is working with prime contractor Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) and its subcontractors to develop, launch, and operate NPOESS. The first NPOESS satellite which is planned for 2013 will be preceded by a risk reduction mission named the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) that is planned for launch in 2010. The International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) is a software package that will enable the Direct Readout user community to smoothly transition from the Earth Observing System (EOS) to the NPOESS. IPOPP will host US Government sanctioned algorithms that will enable the Direct Broadcast (DB) community to process, visualize, and evaluate Polar Orbiter Sensor and Environmental Data Records (starting with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the NPP missions). The IPOPP development approach is to start with a framework that uses a Science Processing Algorithm (SPA) wrapping technique that allows a modular implementation to envelop sensor unique algorithms thus making IPOPP a multi-mission processing package. As a multi-platform processing package, IPOPP will meet the high expectations of the Direct Broadcast community for mission continuity from EOS to NPOESS, enable a global feedback loop for NPP Cal/Val campaigns, and initiate the role of the research to operations provider for the Direct Readout Mission.

Overton, J.; Fesenger, G.; Reed, B.; Thomas, W.

2009-12-01

417

Package `FitARMA' July 5, 2007  

E-print Network

Package `FitARMA' July 5, 2007 Title ARMA fitting Version 1.0 Date 2007-01-05 Author A.I. McLeod Maintainer A.I. McLeod Depends R (>= 2.0.0), FitAR Description Implements fast maximum(p,d,q) model using the algorithm given in McLeod and Zhang (2007). Usage FitARMA(z, order = c(0, 0, 0), demean

McLeod, Ian

418

VLED for Si wafer-level packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduced the advantages of Vertical Light emitting diode (VLED) on copper alloy with Si-wafer level packaging technologies. The silicon-based packaging substrate starts with a <100> dou-ble-side polished p-type silicon wafer, then anisotropic wet etching technology is done to construct the re-flector depression and micro through-holes on the silicon substrate. The operating voltage, at a typical cur-rent of 350 milli-ampere (mA), is 3.2V. The operation voltage is less than 3.7V under higher current driving conditions of 1A. The VLED chip on Si package has excellent heat dissipation and can be operated at high currents up to 1A without efficiency degradation. The typical spatial radiation pattern emits a uniform light lambertian distribution from -65° to 65° which can be easily fit for secondary optics. The correlated color temperature (CCT) has only 5% variation for daylight and less than 2% variation for warm white, when the junction temperature is increased from 25°C to 110°C, suggesting a stable CCT during operation for general lighting application. Coupled with aspheric lens and micro lens array in a wafer level process, it has almost the same light distribution intensity for special secondary optics lighting applications. In addition, the ul-tra-violet (UV) VLED, featuring a silicon substrate and hard glass cover, manufactured by wafer level pack-aging emits high power UV wavelengths appropriate for curing, currency, document verification, tanning, medical, and sterilization applications.

Chu, Chen-Fu; Chen, Chiming; Yen, Jui-Kang; Chen, Yung-Wei; Tsou, Chingfu; Chang, Chunming; Doan, Trung; Tran, Chuong Anh

2012-03-01

419

Reactor Pressure Vessel Head Packaging & Disposal  

SciTech Connect

Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Head replacements have come to the forefront due to erosion/corrosion and wastage problems resulting from the susceptibility of the RPV Head alloy steel material to water/boric acid corrosion from reactor coolant leakage through the various RPV Head penetrations. A case in point is the recent Davis-Besse RPV Head project, where detailed inspections in early 2002 revealed significant wastage of head material adjacent to one of the Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) nozzles. In lieu of making ASME weld repairs to the damaged head, Davis-Besse made the decision to replace the RPV Head. The decision was made on the basis that the required weld repair would be too extensive and almost impractical. This paper presents the packaging, transport, and disposal considerations for the damaged Davis-Besse RPV Head. It addresses the requirements necessary to meet Davis Besse needs, as well as the regulatory criteria, for shipping and burial of the head. It focuses on the radiological characterization, shipping/disposal package design, site preparation and packaging, and the transportation and emergency response plans that were developed for the Davis-Besse RPV Head project.

Wheeler, D. M.; Posivak, E.; Freitag, A.; Geddes, B.

2003-02-26

420

The GITEWS ocean bottom sensor packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) aims at reducing the risks posed by events such as the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. To minimize the lead time for tsunami alerts, to avoid false alarms, and to accurately predict tsunami wave heights, real-time observations of ocean bottom pressure from the deep ocean are required. As part of the GITEWS infrastructure, the parallel development of two ocean bottom sensor packages, PACT (Pressure based Acoustically Coupled Tsunameter) and OBU (Ocean Bottom Unit), was initiated. The sensor package requirements included bidirectional acoustic links between the bottom sensor packages and the hosting surface buoys, which are moored nearby. Furthermore, compatibility between these sensor systems and the overall GITEWS data-flow structure and command hierarchy was mandatory. While PACT aims at providing highly reliable, long term bottom pressure data only, OBU is based on ocean bottom seismometers to concurrently record sea-floor motion, necessitating highest data rates. This paper presents the technical design of PACT, OBU and the HydroAcoustic Modem (HAM.node) which is used by both systems, along with first results from instrument deployments off Indonesia.

Boebel, O.; Busack, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Gouretski, V.; Rohr, H.; Macrander, A.; Krabbenhoeft, A.; Motz, M.; Radtke, T.

2010-08-01

421

A silicon microbench concept for optoelectronic packaging  

SciTech Connect

Optoelectronics (o/e) is currently too expensive for widespread application. We believe that the packaging (or fiber pigtailing) process must be automated to realize a significant reduction in the cost of o.e packages. We are addressing issues of automating the fiber pigtailing process on silicon waferboards or microbenches. This paper focuses on reflowing solders for the attachment of o/e components. We have recently developed miniature polysilicon heaters which are integrated on silicon microbenches. These miniature heaters avoid the problem of raising the entire microbench to the solder melting point to attach components. Most importantly, these miniature heaters are completely compatible with automating the attachment process. Designing silicon microbenches with on-board heaters requires some care. The thermal properties of the microbench itself along with all coatings and any heatsinking materials must be understood. The heaters must operate in a current and voltage regime compatible with the overall characteristics of the o.e package. Inadvertently reflowing solder in unanticipated locations may occur unless the thermal behavior of the microbench thoroughly known. This paper describes the design and fabrication of our microbenches and an experimental and theoretical study on these silicon microbenches which gives a complete picture of their thermal behavior.

Pocha, M.D.; Strand, O.T.; Kerns, J.A.

1996-06-24

422

iCosmo: an Interactive Cosmology Package  

E-print Network

Aims: The interactive software package iCosmo, designed to perform cosmological calculations is described. Methods: iCosmo is a software package to perform interactive cosmological calculations for the low redshift universe. Computing distance measures, the matter power spectrum, and the growth factor is supported for any values of the cosmological parameters. It also computes derived observed quantities for several cosmological probes such as cosmic shear, baryon acoustic oscillations and type Ia supernovae. The associated errors for these observables can be derived for customised surveys, or for pre-set values corresponding to current or planned instruments. The code also allows for the calculation of cosmological forecasts with Fisher matrices which can be manipulated to combine different surveys and cosmological probes. The code is written in the IDL language and thus benefits from the convenient interactive features and scientific library available in this language. iCosmo can also be used as an engine to perform cosmological calculations in batch mode, and forms a convenient adaptive platform for the development of further cosmological modules. With its extensive documentation, it may also serve as a useful resource for teaching and for newcomers in the field of cosmology. Results: The iCosmo package is described with various examples and command sequences. The code is freely available with documentation at http://www.icosmo.org, along with an interactive web interface and is part of the Initiative for Cosmology, a common archive for cosmological resources.

Alexandre Refregier; Adam Amara; Thomas Kitching; Anais Rassat

2008-10-08

423

49 CFR 178.523 - Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identification codes for composite packagings with inner...plastic packaging. (b) Construction requirements for composite packagings with inner...packaging. (ii) Any part of a closure likely...with § 178.504(b) of this...

2010-10-01

424

49 CFR 172.302 - General marking requirements for bulk packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false General marking requirements for bulk packagings. 172.302 Section 172...302 General marking requirements for bulk packagings. (a) Identification numbers...transportation or transport a hazardous material in a bulk packaging unless the packaging is...

2010-10-01

425

Radiant heat test of Perforated Metal Air Transportable Package (PMATP).  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual design for a plutonium air transport package capable of surviving a 'worst case' airplane crash has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). A full-scale prototype, designated as the Perforated Metal Air Transport Package (PMATP) was thermally tested in the SNL Radiant Heat Test Facility. This testing, conducted on an undamaged package, simulated a regulation one-hour aviation fuel pool fire test. Finite element thermal predictions compared well with the test results. The package performed as designed, with peak containment package temperatures less than 80 C after exposure to a one-hour test in a 1000 C environment.

Gronewald, Patrick James; Oneto, Robert (Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Los Altos, CA); Mould, John (Weidlinger Associates, Inc., Los Altos, CA); Pierce, Jim Dwight

2003-08-01

426

EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages  

SciTech Connect

The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.

S. LeStrange

1999-11-15

427

Color masterbatch resin composition for packaging material for photographic photosensitive material and packaging material  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A color masterbach resin composition for a packaging material for a photographic photosensitive material which does not adversely affect photographic properties of the photographic photosensitive material, comprising a light-shielding material in a concentration thrice as much as or more that of the packaging material for a photographic photosensitive material, and a thermoplastic resin of which 50 wt. % or more is the same type as a thermoplastic resin occupying 50 wt. % or more of the total thermoplastic resin composing the packaging material for a photographic photosensitive material, production thereof, a packaging material for a photographic photosensitive material formed of a color masterbatch resin composition, and production thereof. In the color masterbatch resin composition and the packaging material for a photographic photosensitive material of the invention, light-shielding material is dispersed uniformly by employing a special resin composition, and thereby, adverse affects upon photographic hpotosensitive materials are prevented, and favorable appearance can be ensured. Moreover, fog with time, abnormal sensitivity, abrasion, pressure marks, etc. can be prevented.

1998-09-29

428

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION  

SciTech Connect

Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

Gupta, N.

2010-03-04

429

Y-12 defense programs: Nuclear Packaging Systems testing capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Packaging Systems (NPS) Department can manage/accomplish any packaging task. The NPS organization is responsible for managing the design, testing, certification, procurement, operation, refurbishment, maintenance, and disposal of packaging used to transport radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, and general cargoes on public roads and within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Additionally, the NPS Department has developed a Quality Assurance plan for all packaging, design and procurement of nonweapon shipping containers for radioactive materials, and design and procurement of performance-oriented packaging for hazardous materials. Further, the NPS Department is responsible for preparation and submittal of Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARP). The NPS Department coordinates shipping container procurement and safety certification activities that have lead-times of up to two years. A Packaging Testing Capabilities Table at the Oak Ridge complex is included as a table.

NONE

1995-06-01

430

Reinforcement of the Packaging Technology Development Centre in Ho Chi Minh City, The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Technical Report: Support to the Packaging Technology Development Centre in Flexible Packaging Technology and Structural Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project's objective is to establish a Packaging Technology Development Center at the Saigon Packaging Export company in Ho Chi Minh City to cover the country's packaging industry's development needs mainly in the field of flexible (plastic-based) pack...

G. Tracy

1992-01-01

431

Fresh meat packaging: consumer acceptance of modified atmosphere packaging including carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide (CO-MAP), achieves significant color stabilization. The objective of this study was to assess whether consumers would accept specific packaging technologies and what value consumers place on ground beef packaged under various atmospheres when their choices involved the attributes of color and shelf life. The study used nonhypothetical consumer choice experiments to determine the premiums that consumers are willing to pay for extended shelf life resulting from MAP and for the "cherry red" color in meat resulting from CO-MAP. The experimental design allowed determination of whether consumers would discount foods with MAP or CO-MAP when (i) they are given more detailed information about the technologies and (ii) they have different levels of individual knowledge and media exposure. The empirical analysis was conducted using multinomial logit models. Results indicate that consumers prefer an extension of shelf life as long as the applied technology is known and understood. Consumers had clear preferences for brighter (aerobic and CO) red color and were willing to pay $0.16/lb ($0.35/kg) for each level of change to the preferred color. More information on MAP for extending the shelf life and on CO-MAP for stabilizing color decreased consumers' willingness to pay. An increase in personal knowledge and media exposure influenced acceptance of CO-MAP negatively. The results provide quantitative measures of how packaging affects consumers' acceptance and willingness to pay for products. Such information can benefit food producers and retailers who make decisions about investing in new packaging methods. PMID:23317863

Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H; Roosen, Jutta; Sebranek, Joseph G

2013-01-01

432

PACKAGING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS  

SciTech Connect

The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials, under both normal and accident conditions, to perform the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within the specified limits. By placing the contents in a helium leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large dose rate outside the package. Quantifying the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings provides bounding shielding calculations that define mass limits compliant with 10 CFR 71.47 for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. The approach is based on energy superposition with dose response calculated for a set of spectral groups for a baseline physical packaging configuration. The methodology includes using the MCNP radiation transport code to evaluate a family of neutron and photon spectral groups using the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers as the base case. This results in a set of multipliers for 'dose per particle' for each spectral group. For a given isotope, the source spectrum is folded with the response for each group. The summed contribution from all isotopes determines the total dose from the RAM in the container.

Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.

2012-05-09

433

THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

2012-03-26

434

Essential interventions: implementation strategies and proposed packages of care  

PubMed Central

In an effort to accelerate progress towards achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 and 5, provision of essential reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions is being considered. Not only should a state-of-the-art approach be taken for services delivered to the mother, neonate and to the child, but services must also be deployed across the household to hospital continuum of care approach and in the form of packages. The paper proposed several packages for improved maternal, newborn and child health that can be delivered across RMNCH continuum of care. These packages include: supportive care package for women to promote awareness related to healthy pre-pregnancy and pregnancy interventions; nutritional support package for mother to improve supplementation of essential nutrients and micronutrients; antenatal care package to detect, treat and manage infectious and noninfectious diseases and promote immunization; high risk care package to manage preeclampsia and eclampsia in pregnancy; childbirth package to promote support during labor and importance of skilled birth attendance during labor; essential newborn care package to support healthy newborn care practices; and child health care package to prevent and manage infections. This paper further discussed the implementation strategies for employing these interventions at scale. PMID:25178110

2014-01-01

435

BALLISTICS TESTING OF THE 9977 SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive materials are stored in a variety of locations throughout the DOE complex. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), materials are stored within dedicated facilities. Each of those facilities has a documented safety analysis (DSA) that describes accidents that the facility and the materials within it may encounter. Facilities at the SRS are planning on utilizing the certified Model 9977 Shipping Package as a long term storage package and one of these facilities required ballistics testing. Specifically, in order to meet the facility DSA, the radioactive materials (RAM) must be contained within the storage package after impact by a .223 caliber round. In order to qualify the Model 9977 Shipping Package for storage in this location, the package had to be tested under these conditions. Over the past two years, the Model 9977 Shipping Package has been subjected to a series of ballistics tests. The purpose of the testing was to determine if the 9977 would be suitable for use as a storage package at a Savannah River Site facility. The facility requirements are that the package must not release any of its contents following the impact in its most vulnerable location by a .223 caliber round. A package, assembled to meet all of the design requirements for a certified 9977 shipping configuration and using simulated contents, was tested at the Savannah River Site in March of 2011. The testing was completed and the package was examined. The results of the testing and examination are presented in this paper.

Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Koenig, R.

2012-06-06

436

DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-03431  

SciTech Connect

Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-03431. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. All observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. Except for modest corrosion of the lead shield (which is typical of these packages following several years service), no evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the KArea Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-03431 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1.

Daugherty, W.

2012-05-30

437

FIRST INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 LIFE EXTENSION PACKAGE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Three 9975 packages have been instrumented and exposed to bounding storage conditions to help identify the extent to which laboratory test results for fiberboard, O-rings and other components apply within a full-scale package. To date, changes observed in the fiberboard overpack and Oring seals are generally consistent with the behavior of laboratory samples. The lead shield within each package has developed a corrosion layer of lead carbonate, consistent with other 9975 packages. However, the morphology of the corrosion layer is different within these packages, possibly as a result of the severity of the conditioning environments beyond normal service conditions. Conditioning of the second package, LE2, has been discontinued due to the degree of degradation of the fiberboard, and its components have received a final examination. Additional testing will be performed on samples removed from the fiberboard assembly to verify its final condition. The other two packages will continue in test. This is an interim status report for experiments carried out per Task Technical Plan WSRC-TR-2005-00014 [1], which is part of the comprehensive 9975 package surveillance program [2]. The primary goal of this task is to validate aging models currently under development based on lab scale testing of the fiberboard overpack and containment vessel O-rings. A secondary goal is to examine the behavior of the lead shielding under bounding conditions. This task provides an integrated assessment of the package response to environmental extremes, and demonstrates the extent to which data from small samples scale up to a full package. Three 9975 packages have been modified to provide instrumentation for monitoring package response and performance to environmental aging. Each package has a different environmental exposure history.

Daugherty, W.; Stefek, T.

2009-12-29

438

FIRST INTERIM STATUS REPORT MODEL 9975 LIFE EXTENSION PACKAGE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Three 9975 packages have been instrumented and exposed to bounding storage conditions to help identify the extent to which laboratory test results for fiberboard, O-rings and other components apply within a full-scale package. To date, changes observed in the fiberboard overpack and O-ring seals are generally consistent with the behavior of laboratory samples. The lead shield within each package has developed a corrosion layer of lead carbonate, consistent with other 9975 packages. However, the morphology of the corrosion layer is different within these packages, possibly as a result of the severity of the conditioning environments beyond normal service conditions. Conditioning of the second package, LE2, has been discontinued due to the degree of degradation of the fiberboard, and its components have received a final examination. Additional testing will be performed on samples removed from the fiberboard assembly to verify its final condition. The other two packages will continue in test. This is an interim status report for experiments carried out per Task Technical Plan WSRC-TR-2005-00014 [1], which is part of the comprehensive 9975 package surveillance program [2]. The primary goal of this task is to validate aging models currently under development based on lab scale testing of the fiberboard overpack and containment vessel O-rings. A secondary goal is to examine the behavior of the lead shielding under bounding conditions. This task provides an integrated assessment of the package response to environmental extremes, and demonstrates the extent to which data from small samples scale up to a full package. Three 9975 packages have been modified to provide instrumentation for monitoring package response and performance to environmental aging. Each package has a different environmental exposure history.

Daugherty, W.; Stefek, T.

2010-01-27

439

PHOTCAL: The IRAF photometric calibration package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IRAF photmetric calibration package PHOTCAL is discussed. PHOTCAL is a set of tasks designed to derive the transformation from the instrumental photometric system to the standard photometric system, and apply the transformation to the observations. The PHOTCAL package contains tasks for: (1) creating and/or editing standard star catalogs and observations catalogs, (2) creating, checking and editing the configuration file which specifies the format of the standard star and observations catalogs and the form of the transformation equations, (3) solving the transformation equations interactively or non-iteractively using non-linear least squares fitting routines, and (4) applying the transformation to the observations. PHOTCAL standard star and observations catalogs are simple text files, whose columns are delimited by whitespace, and whose first column contains the star names. This format makes it relatively easy to interface the output of non-IRAF photometry programs as well as the output of the IRAF APPHOT and DAOPHOT photometry packages to PHOTCAL. PHOTCAL maintains a standard star catalog directory for the convenience of the user, but users can easily create their own standard star catalogs and/or define their own standard star catalog directory. Separate observations files produced by APPHOT, DAOPHOT or a user program containing data for stellar fields taken through different filters, can be combined into observations catalogs using one of the PHOTCAL preprocessor tasks. The input configuration file required by PHOTCAL is a text file, consisting of a series of instructions written by the user in a mini-language understood by the PHOTCAL parser. These instructions: (1) assign names to the input data columns in the standard star and observations catalogs, (2) assign names and initial values to the parameters to be fit, (3) define and describe how to solve the transformation equations. The mini-language approach permits great flexibility in the format of the input catalogs and the form of the transformation equations.

Davis, L. E.; Gigoux, P.

1992-01-01

440

Initial waste package interaction tests: status report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of some initial investigations of the effects of rock media on the release of simulated fission products from a sngle waste form, PNL reference glass 76-68. All tests assemblies contained a minicanister prepared by pouring molten, U-doped 76-68 glass into a 2-cm-dia stanless steel tube closed at one end. The tubes were cut to 2.5 to 7.5 cm in length to expose a flat glass surface rimmed by the canister wall. A cylindrical, whole rock pellet, cut from one of the rock materials used, was placed on the glass surface then both the canister and rock pellet were packed in the same type of rock media ground to about 75 ..mu..m to complete the package. Rock materials used were a quartz monzonite basalt and bedded salt. These packages were run from 4 to 6 weeks in either 125 ml digestion bombs or 850 ml autoclaves capable of direct solution sampling, at either 250 or 150/sup 0/C. Digestion bomb pressures were the vapor pressure of water, 600 psig at 250/sup 0/C, and the autoclaves were pressurized at 2000 psig with an argon overpressure. In general, the solution chemistry of these initial package tests suggests that the rock media is the dominant controlling factor and that rock-water interaction may be similar to that observed in some geothermal areas. In no case was uranium observed in solution above 15 ppB. The observed leach rates of U glass not in contact with potential sinks (rock surfaces and alteration products) have been observed to be considerably higher. Thus the use of leach rates and U concentrations observed from binary leach experiments (waste-form water only) to ascertain long-term environmental consequences appear to be quite conservative compared to actual U release in the waste package experiments. Further evaluation, however, of fission product transport behavior and the role of alteration phases as fission product sinks is required.

Shade, J.W.; Bradley, D.J.

1980-12-01

441

A data base processor semantics specification package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Semantics Specification Package (DBPSSP) for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. DBPSSP serves as a collection of cross assembly tools that allow the analyst to assemble request blocks on the host computer for passage to the DBP. The assembly tools discussed in this report may be effectively used in conjunction with a DBP compatible data communications protocol to form a query processor, precompiler, or file management system for the database processor. The source modules representing the components of DBPSSP are fully commented and included.

Fishwick, P. A.

1983-01-01

442

Integrated software package STAMP for minor planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integrated software package STAMP allowed for rapid and exact reproduction of the tables of the year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets.' Additionally, STAMP solved the typical problems connected with the use of the year-book. STAMP is described. The year-book 'Ephemerides of Minor Planets' (EMP) is a publication used in many astronomical institutions around the world. It contains all the necessary information on the orbits of the numbered minor planets. Also, the astronomical coordinates are provided for each planet during its suitable observation period.

Kochetova, O. M.; Shor, Viktor A.

1992-01-01

443

An underwater work systems package. [remote handling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular unit which is adaptable to several existing deep sea submersibles was developed to extend their working abilities and acquire knowledge of components and techniques for working in the deep sea environment. This work systems package is composed of an aluminum pipe structure on which are mounted two six-function grabber arms, a seven function manipulator, tool suit, 1,000/lb. capacity winch, electrohydraulic power supply, electronics housing, lights, and television. The unit is designed to be operated by itself either remotely or with divers, attached to manned submersibles, or mounted on unmanned cable-controlled submersibles.

Estabrook, N. B.

1975-01-01

444

Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data and interpreted information that supports the groundwater module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) used in Hanford Assessments. The objective of the groundwater module is to predict movement of radioactive and chemical contaminants through the aquifer to the Columbia River or other potential discharge locations. This data package is being revised as part of the deliverables under the Characterization of Systems Project (#49139) aimed at providing documentation for assessments being conducted under the Hanford Assessments Project (#47042). Both of these projects are components of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessments Projects, managed by the Management and Integration Project (#47043).

Thorne, Paul D.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Williams, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky L.

2006-01-31

445

Safety analysis report for packaging upgrade plan  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Upgrade Plan reflects a revised SARP upgrade schedule based on the most current program needs. A Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Performance Expectation exists to update, revise, and/or cancel seven onsite SARPS during FY 1999. It is the U.S. Department of Energy's desire that 100% of the SARPs (which existed at the beginning of the PHMC Contract) be upgraded, revised, and/or canceled by the end of the five year contract. This plan is a ''living'' document and is used as a management tool.

KELLY, D.L.

1998-11-18

446

An improved linear ion trap physics package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes an improvement in the architecture of the physics package used in the Linear Ion Trap (LIT)-based frequency standard recently developed at JPL. This new design is based on the observation that ions can be moved along the axis of an LIT by applied dc voltages. The state selection and interrogation region can be separated from the more critical microwave resonance region where the multiplied local oscillator signal is compared with the stable atomic transition. This separation relaxes many of the design constraints of the present units. Improvements include increased frequency stability and a substantial reduction in size, mass, and cost of the final frequency standard.

Prestage, J. D.

1993-01-01

447

PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. This shipping campaign involved the addition of neptunium oxide to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) as a new content and subsequently a Letter of Amendment to the SARP content table. This paper will address the proper steps which should be taken to add a new content table to a SARP. It will also address the importance of product sampling and understanding the material shipping requirements of a SARP.

Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Jeffrey Jordan, J

2009-03-03

448

Naval Waste Package Drop With Emplacement Pallet  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural responses of the Emplacement Pallet and Naval Long Waste Package (WP) to drops from their highest possible lift heights. The scope of this document was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. The Naval Long WP is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref 12, page 7, Table 1). The Emplacement Pallet is classified as Quality Level 2 (Ref. 19, page 7, Table 1). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 11). AP-3.12Q, Calculations, was used to perform the calculation and develop the document (Ref. 3).

D.G. McLenzie

2005-08-04

449

Software Package For Real-Time Graphics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software package for master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) at Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of NASA Ames Research Center provides general-purpose graphical display system for real-time and post-real-time analysis of data. Written in C language and intended for use on workstation of interactive raster imaging system (IRIS) equipped with level-V Unix operating system. Enables flight researchers to create their own displays on basis of individual requirements. Applicable to monitoring of complicated processes in chemical industry.

Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.

1991-01-01

450

MATLAB package for astronomy and astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MATLAB package for astronomy and astrophysics is a collection of software tools and modular functions for astronomy and astrophysics, written in the MATLAB environment. It includes over 700 MATLAB functions and a few tens of data files and astronomical catalogs. The scripts cover a wide range of subjects including: astronomical image processing, ds9 control, astronomical spectra, optics and diffraction phenomena, catalog retrieval and searches, celestial maps and projections, Solar System ephemerides, planar and spherical geometry, time and coordinates conversion and manipulation, cosmology, gravitational lensing, function fitting, general utilities, plotting utilities, statistics, and time series analysis.

Ofek, Eran O.

2014-07-01

451

DOT-7A packaging test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This test procedure documents the steps involved with performance testing of Department of Transportation Specification 7A (DOT-7A) Type A packages. It includes description of the performance tests, the personnel involved, appropriate safety considerations, and the procedures to be followed while performing the tests. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is conducting the evaluation and testing discussed herein for the Department of Energy-Headquarters, Division of Quality Verification and Transportation Safety (EH-321). Please note that this report is not in WHC format. This report is being submitted through the Engineering Documentation System so that it may be used for reference and information purposes.

Kelly, D.L.

1995-01-23

452

Introduction to Human Services, Chapter III. Video Script Package, Text, and Audio Script Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video, textual, and audio components of the third module of a multi-media, introductory course on Human Services are presented. The module packages, developed at Miami-Dade Community College, deal with technology, social change, and problem dependencies. A video cassette script is first provided that explores the "traditional,""inner," and "other…

Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

453

49 CFR 173.24a - Additional general requirements for non-bulk packagings and packages.  

...packaging (i.e., the vapor pressure of the liquid plus the partial pressure of air or other inert gases, less...two-thirds of the marked test pressure; (ii) The vapor pressure...For transportation by aircraft, the total net...

2014-10-01

454

ADAPTING A CERTIFIED SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

For years shipping packages have been used to store radioactive materials at many DOE sites. Recently, the K-Area Material Storage facility at the Savannah River Site became interested in and approved the Model 9977 Shipping Package for use as a storage package. In order to allow the 9977 to be stored in the facility, there were a number of evaluations and modifications that were required. There were additional suggested modifications to improve the performance of the package as a storage container that were discussed but not incorporated in the design that is currently in use. This paper will discuss the design being utilized for shipping and storage, suggested modifications that have improved the storage configuration but were not used, as well as modifications that have merit for future adaptations for both the 9977 and for other shipping packages to be used as storage packages.

Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.

2012-06-05

455

Nanocellulose-based composites and bioactive agents for food packaging.  

PubMed

Global environmental concern, regarding the use of petroleum-based packaging materials, is encouraging researchers and industries in the search for packaging materials from natural biopolymers. Bioactive packaging is gaining more and more interest not only due to its environment friendly nature but also due to its potential to improve food quality and safety during packaging. Some of the shortcomings of biopolymers, such as weak mechanical and barrier properties can be significantly enhanced by the use of nanomaterials such as nanocellulose (NC). The use of NC can extend the food shelf life and can also improve the food quality as they can serve as carriers of some active substances, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials. The NC fiber-based composites have great potential in the preparation of cheap, lightweight, and very strong nanocomposites for food packaging. This review highlights the potential use and application of NC fiber-based nanocomposites and also the incorporation of bioactive agents in food packaging. PMID:24188266

Khan, Avik; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Ruhul A; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique

2014-01-01

456

Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology.  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future. PMID:23833515

Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

2013-04-01

457

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOEpatents

A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

458

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOEpatents

A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1998-11-03

459

TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

2013-10-11

460

Practical issues and applications for vacuum and hermetic microsystems packaging.  

SciTech Connect

Microsystems packaging involves physically placing and electrically interconnecting a microelectronic device in a package that protects it from and interfaces it with the outside world. When the device requires a hermetic or controlled microenvironment, it is typically sealed within a cavity in the package. Sealing involves placing and attaching a lid, typically by welding, brazing, or soldering. Materials selection (e.g., the epoxy die attach), and process control (e.g., the epoxy curing temperature and time) are critical for reproducible and reliable microsystems packaging. This paper will review some hermetic and controlled microenvironment packaging at Sandia Labs, and will discuss materials, processes, and equipment used to package environmentally sensitive microelectronics (e.g., MEMS and sensors).

Fang, Lu; Chu, Dahwey; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory

2010-10-01

461

Practical issues and applications for vacuum and hermetic microsystems packaging.  

SciTech Connect

Microsystems packaging involves physically placing and electrically interconnecting a microelectronic device in a package that protects it from and interfaces it with the outside world. When the device requires a hermetic or controlled microenvironment, it is typically sealed within a cavity in the package. Sealing involves placing and attaching a lid, typically by welding, brazing, or soldering. Materials selection (e.g., the epoxy die attach), and process control (e.g., the epoxy curing temperature and time) are critical for reproducible and reliable microsystems packaging. This paper will review some hermetic and controlled microenvironment packaging at Sandia Labs, and will discuss materials, processes, and equipment used to package environmentally sensitive microelectronics (e.g., MEMS and sensors).

Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory

2010-11-01

462

Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals.

Nigrey, P.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01

463

Using the scalable nonlinear equations solvers package  

SciTech Connect

SNES (Scalable Nonlinear Equations Solvers) is a software package for the numerical solution of large-scale systems of nonlinear equations on both uniprocessors and parallel architectures. SNES also contains a component for the solution of unconstrained minimization problems, called SUMS (Scalable Unconstrained Minimization Solvers). Newton-like methods, which are known for their efficiency and robustness, constitute the core of the package. As part of the multilevel PETSc library, SNES incorporates many features and options from other parts of PETSc. In keeping with the spirit of the PETSc library, the nonlinear solution routines are data-structure-neutral, making them flexible and easily extensible. This users guide contains a detailed description of uniprocessor usage of SNES, with some added comments regarding multiprocessor usage. At this time the parallel version is undergoing refinement and extension, as we work toward a common interface for the uniprocessor and parallel cases. Thus, forthcoming versions of the software will contain additional features, and changes to parallel interface may result at any time. The new parallel version will employ the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard for interprocessor communication. Since most of these details will be hidden, users will need to perform only minimal message-passing programming.

Gropp, W.D.; McInnes, L.C.; Smith, B.F.

1995-02-01

464

High-power LED package requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard

2004-01-01

465

ViennaRNA Package 2.0  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary structure forms an important intermediate level of description of nucleic acids that encapsulates the dominating part of the folding energy, is often well conserved in evolution, and is routinely used as a basis to explain experimental findings. Based on carefully measured thermodynamic parameters, exact dynamic programming algorithms can be used to compute ground states, base pairing probabilities, as well as thermodynamic properties. Results The ViennaRNA Package has been a widely used compilation of RNA secondary structure related computer programs for nearly two decades. Major changes in the structure of the standard energy model, the Turner 2004 parameters, the pervasive use of multi-core CPUs, and an increasing number of algorithmic variants prompted a major technical overhaul of both the underlying RNAlib and the interactive user programs. New features include an expanded repertoire of tools to assess RNA-RNA interactions and restricted ensembles of structures, additional output information such as centroid structures and maximum expected accuracy structures derived from base pairing probabilities, or z-scores for locally stable secondary structures, and support for input in fasta format. Updates were implemented without compromising the computational efficiency of the core algorithms and ensuring compatibility with earlier versions. Conclusions The ViennaRNA Package 2.0, supporting concurrent computations via OpenMP, can be downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/RNA. PMID:22115189

2011-01-01

466

Two Different Processes to Obtain Antimicrobial Packaging Containing Natural Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, antimicrobial packaging materials were developed by incorporating known concentrations (w\\/w) of essentials oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) into low-density polyethylene (LDPE), suitable for use as food packaging, via two different methods: ionizing treatment\\u000a and directly by extrusion. The mechanical, barrier, and antimicrobial properties of the packaging were evaluated against the\\u000a following foodborne pathogens:

Andrea Carolina Valderrama Solano; Cecilia de Rojas Gante

467

Design of an 8MJ integrated launch package  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of an 8-MJ base-pushed launch package for railgun launch. Extensive interior ballistics and flight dynamic analyses were performed. The launch package was designed to withstand a peak acceleration of 57 k-gees, and a substantial amount of lateral load. The lateral load was of prime importance for this launch package to ensure survivability of subprojectile joints

S. S. Satapathy; I. R. McNab; M. E. Erengil; W. S. Lawhorn

2004-01-01

468

Design of an 8MJ integrated launch package  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of an 8-MJ base-pushed launch package for railgun launch. Extensive interior ballistics and flight dynamic analyses were performed. The launch package was designed to withstand a peak acceleration of 57 k-gees, and a substantial amount of lateral load. The lateral load was of prime importance for this launch package to ensure survivability of subprojectile joints

S. Satapathy; I. R. McNab; M. Erengil; W. S. Lawhorn

2005-01-01

469

QFN-based Millimeter Wave Packaging to 80GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a low-cost plastic QFN package capable of addressing increasing frequency needs. This package has low-loss, high-bandwidth and is based around MicroCoax interconnect technology. Since this package structure is broadband, it will easily allow for a variety of chipsets to be assembled using the same process sequence and I\\/O configuration, thereby eliminating costly overhead. With less than 0.5

Eric A. Sanjuan; S. S. Cahill

2009-01-01

470

FEA study on electrical interconnects for a power QFN package  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a analysis on the electrical interconnect options of a Power QFN (PQFN) package, to explore and compare the RDS(oN) performance at DC condition. The modeling involves the PQFN 5mm x 6mm package which initially uses Aluminum wire bonds for interconnection. Competition in the market in terms of better electrical performance packages challenge semiconductor companies

Erwin Ian V. Almagro; Benjie B. Hornales; Marvin R. Gestole

2011-01-01

471

Ribbon Bonding - A Scalable Interconnect for Power QFN Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous improvements in Silicon technology enable an ongoing reduction in Silicon-intrinsic on-state resistance, especially for low voltage MOSFETs, or shrinking the die size for a given on-state resistance. At the same time, new features and functionality create a need for power packages that more efficiently use the available space in many end applications. Smaller packages and multi-chip packages save system

Christoph Luechinger

2007-01-01

472

A microelectronics approach for the ROSETTA surface science package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In relation to the Rosetta surface science package, the benefits of the application of advanced microelectronics packaging technologies and other output from the Mars environmental survey (MESUR) integrated microelectronics study are reported on. The surface science package will be designed to operate for tens of hours. Its limited mass and power consumption make necessary a highly integrated design with all the instruments and subunits operated from a centralized control and information management subsystem.

Sandau, Rainer (editor); Alkalaj, Leon

1996-01-01

473

Environmental innovation in industrial packaging: a supply chain approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community concerns about the environmental impacts of packaging have prompted governments to introduce policies and regulations which impose eco-taxes or deposit-return systems, require companies to take-back and recover their packaging, or promote voluntary product stewardship programmes. Until recently these programmes have focused almost exclusively on consumer (retail) packaging, but increasingly companies are starting to address the environmental impacts of industrial

K. Verghese; H. Lewis

2007-01-01

474

ELAS: A powerful, general purpose image processing package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ELAS is a software package which has been utilized as an image processing tool for more than a decade. It has been the source of several commercial packages. Now available on UNIX workstations it is a very powerful, flexible set of software. Applications at Stennis Space Center have included a very wide range of areas including medicine, forestry, geology, ecological modeling, and sonar imagery. It remains one of the most powerful image processing packages available, either commercially or in the public domain.

Walters, David; Rickman, Douglas

1991-01-01

475

CVD diamond thin film technology for MEMS packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its extreme hardness, chemical and mechanical stability, large band gap and highest thermal conductivity, poly-crystalline diamond (poly-C) is expected to be an excellent packaging material for biomedical and environmental MEMS devices. A poly-C thin film packaging technology has been developed to explore the application of this novel material on post-MEMS encapsulation packaging process. To study the poly-C thin

Xiangwei Zhu; Dean M. Aslam

2006-01-01

476

Flip-Chip Packaging Technology for Enabling 45nm Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intel's packaging team has been working on developing completely Pb-free packages that can be utilized in a variety of products and market segments including the newly emerging mobile Internet devices. These technologies have been introduced into high-volume manufacturing to enable packaging of 45nm silicon devices in 2007. In order to hit this milestone, a significant number of engineering challenges had

Neha M. Patel; Vijay Wakharkar; Ravindra Tanikella

477

Disposable Polydimethylsioxane Package for 'Bio~Microfluidic System'  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disposable polydimethylsioxane package is developed for ‘Bio-Microfluidic System’. Disposable Bio-Microfluidic system avoids the contamination of the system after each use and this requires the use of low cost materials. Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) is an attractive low cost material for making substrates of the micro-fluidic package. The disposable PDMS Package consists of PDMS substrates, which are fabricated by soft-lithography. The PDMS

Ser Choong Chong; Ling Xie; Levent Yobas; Hong Miao Ji; Jing Li; Yu Chen; Pinjala Damaruganath; Wing Cheong Hui; Mahadevan K Iyer

2005-01-01

478

A packaged silicon MEMS vibratory gyroscope for microspacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present recent work on the design, fabrication, and packaging of a silicon Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) microgyroscope designed for space applications. A hermetically sealed package that houses the microgyroscope and most of its control electronics has been built and tested. The entire microgyroscope package is approximately 1×1×0.7 inches in dimensions. The rest of the control electronics which

Tony K. Tang; Roman C. Gutierrez; Christopher B. Stell; Vatche Vorperian; Genji A. Arakaki; John T. Rice; Wen J. Li; Indrani Chakraborty; Kirill Shcheglov; Jaroslava Z. Wilcox; William J. Kaiser

1997-01-01

479

The role of flexible packaging in the life cycle of coffee and butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  The evaluation of packaging’s environmental performance usually concentrates on a comparison of different packaging materials\\u000a or designs. Another important aspect in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on packaging is the recycling or treatment of\\u000a packaging wastes. LCA studies of packed food include the packaging with specific focus on the contribution of the packaging\\u000a to the total results.

Sybille Büsser; Niels Jungbluth

2009-01-01

480

Wastepaper recycling in the packaging industry. (Latest citations from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and re-use of waste paper in the packaging industry. Uses of recycled papers include containers, paper manufacture, paperboard products, and other packaging applications. Economics, environmental impacts, legislation, and feasibility studies are included. Problems associated with recycling paper products, and comparisons with plastic products are also considered. Biodegradation of packaging materials is considered in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01

481

Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying, procuring, and using. Procurement and use of packaging using HM-181 regulations  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses procurement of nonbulk packaging used for nonradioactive, hazardous materials that are transported by highway. The basic procedure is the same when making shipments by other modes. However, other sections of the regulations may affect the packaging requirements when shipping by other modes. The variation in requirements is extensive when air transportation is selected. A packaging engineer or transportation specialist should be contacted for guidance wen transport is by a mode other than highway.

Not Available

1994-09-01

482

Advances in the REDCAT software package  

PubMed Central

Background Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs) have emerged in the past two decades as an informative source of experimental restraints for the study of structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules and complexes. The REDCAT software package was previously introduced for the analysis of molecular structures using RDC data. Here we report additional features that have been included in this software package in order to expand the scope of its analyses. We first discuss the features that enhance REDCATs user-friendly nature, such as the integration of a number of analyses into one single operation and enabling convenient examination of a structural ensemble in order to identify the most suitable structure. We then describe the new features which expand the scope of RDC analyses, performing exercises that utilize both synthetic and experimental data to illustrate and evaluate different features with regard to structure refinement and structure validation. Results We establish the seamless interaction that takes place between REDCAT, VMD, and Xplor-NIH in demonstrations that utilize our newly developed REDCAT-VMD and XplorGUI interfaces. These modules enable visualization of RDC analysis results on the molecular structure displayed in VMD and refinement of structures with Xplor-NIH, respectively. We also highlight REDCAT’s Error-Analysis feature in reporting the localized fitness of a structure to RDC data, which provides a more effective means of recognizing local structural anomalies. This allows for structurally sound regions of a molecule to be identified, and for any refinement efforts to be focused solely on locally distorted regions. Conclusions The newly engineered REDCAT software package, which is available for download via the WWW from http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu, has been developed in the Object Oriented C++ environment. Our most recent enhancements to REDCAT serve to provide a more complete RDC analysis suite, while also accommodating a more user-friendly experience, and will be of great interest to the community of researchers and developers since it hides the complications of software development. PMID:24098943

2013-01-01

483

CRRES microelectronics package flight data analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed in-depth analysis was performed on the data from some of the CRRES MEP (Microelectronics Package) devices. These space flight measurements covered a period of about fourteen months of mission lifetime. Several types of invalid data were identified and corrections were made. Other problems were noted and adjustments applied, as necessary. Particularly important and surprising were observations of abnormal device behavior in many parts that could neither be explained nor correlated to causative events. Also, contrary to prevailing theory, proton effects appeared to be far more significant and numerous than cosmic ray effects. Another unexpected result was the realization that only nine out of thirty-two p-MOS dosimeters on the MEP indicated a valid operation. Comments, conclusions, and recommendations are given.

Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Brucker, G. J.; Stauffer, C. A.

1993-01-01

484

Laser Energy Deposition Package for CRASH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A package has been implemented into the Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) code to self-consistently model laser energy transport and deposition. This allows one to use CRASH to simulate a complete radiative shock wave experiment in which all forms of energy present in the calculations are computed and evolved in time using a single, multi-physics model -- the CRASH model. The laser energy transport is simulated via the implementation of an efficient parallel ray-tracing algorithm based on the geometric optics approximation, whereas, the laser energy deposition is calculated via the inverse bremsstrahlung mechanism along the ray's path. Results will be presented for tests in which laser energy is transported and deposited in a gas with a linear density profile, along with convergence tests of intense laser initiated shock waves. Initial test simulations of a complete radiative shock wave experiment will also be presented.

Torralva, B. R.; Sokolov, I. V.; van der Holst, B.; Toth, G.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Powel, K. G.; Drake, R. P.

2011-11-01

485

Packaged low-level waste verification system  

SciTech Connect

Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

Tuite, K.T. [Waste Management Group, Peekskill, NY (United States); Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

1996-08-01

486

AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package  

SciTech Connect

The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

2012-10-01

487

Die singulation method and package formed thereby  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

Anderson, Robert C. (Tucson, AZ); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Clews, Peggy J. (Tijeras, NM); Baker, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM); De Boer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-08-07

488

Waste handling and packaging plant project description  

SciTech Connect

ORNL currently has about 300 m{sup 3} of remote handled transuranic (RHTRU) solid waste retrievably stored in trenches and a bunker. This material will be processed through the Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHDP) for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Details of siting, construction, and conceptual flow of RHTRU waste through the plant are provided. ORNL also has liquid waste and sludge stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The sludge also contains TRU waste, and the WHPP will process an expected volume of 500,000 gallons of a suernatant/sludge slurry for shipment to the WIPP. Specific systems which require more development include the cask transfer system, the linear accelerator-based nondestructive assay and nondestructive evaluation equipment. (MHB)

Turner, D.W.; Moore, J.W.; Conatser, D.A.

1991-01-01

489

Nimbus 4/IRLS Balloon Interrogation Package (BIP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The balloon interrogation package (BIP), an integral part of the overall interrogation, recording, and location subsystems (IRLS) for the Nimbus 4 program, is described. The BIP is a self-contained, integrated transponder designed to be carried aloft by a constant altitude, superpressure balloon to an altitude of 67,000 or 78,000 feet. After launch the BIP senses high-altitude balloon overpressure and temperature, and upon receipt of an interrogated command from the IRLS aboard the Nimbus 4 satellite, the BIP enodes the data on a real-time basis into a pulse-code modulation (PCM) format and transmits this data to the satellite. A summary of the program activity to produce 30 BIP systems and to support balloon launches from Ascension Island is presented.

1971-01-01

490

Exposure Assessment of Chemicals from Packaging Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of chemicals may enter our food supply, by means of intentional or unintentional addition, at different stages of the food chain. These chemicals include food additives, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants, mycotox-ins, flavoring substances, and micronutrients. Packaging systems and other food-contact materials are also a source of chemicals contaminating food products and beverages. Monitoring exposure to these chemicals has become an integral part of ensuring the safety of the food supply. Within the context of the risk analysis approach and more specifically as an integral part of risk assessment procedures, the exercise known as exposure assessment is crucial in providing data to allow sound judgments concerning risks to human health. The exercise of obtaining this data is part of the process of revealing sources of contamination and assessing the effectiveness of strategies for minimizing the risk from chemical contamination in the food supply (Lambe, 2002).

Poças, Maria De Fátima; Hogg, Timothy

491

AMPX-77 Phase 1 certification package  

SciTech Connect

The AMPX-77 Phase 1 modules have been certified. AMPX-77 is a modular code system for generating coupled multigroup neutron-gamma cross section libraries from Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B). All basic cross-section data are input from the formats used by the ENDF/B, and output can be obtained from a variety of formats, included in its own internal and very general formats, along with a variety of other useful formats used by major transport, diffusion theory, and Monte Carlo codes. Processing is provided for both neutron and gamma-ray data. The AMPX-77 code system will be used at SRS to perform critical calculations related to nuclear criticality safety. The AMPX-77 modular codes system contains forty-seven separate modules. For the certification process, the 47 modules have been divided into three groups or phases. This Certification Package is for the Phase 1 modules: BONAMI, LAPHNGAS, MALOCS, NITAWL, ROLAIDS, SMUG, and XSDRNPM.

Niemer, K.A.

1994-03-01

492

Powerful scriptable ray tracing package xrt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an open source python based ray tracing tool that offers several useful features in graphical presentation, material properties, advanced calculations of synchrotron sources, implementation of diffractive and refractive elements, complex (also closed) surfaces and multiprocessing. The package has many usage examples which are supplied together with the code and visualized on its web page. We exemplify the present version by modeling (i) a curved crystal analyzer, (ii) a quarter wave plate, (iii) Bragg-Fresnel optics and (iv) multiple reflective and non-sequential optics (polycapillary). The present version implements the use of OpenCL framework that executes calculations on both CPUs and GPUs. Currently, the calculations of an undulator source on a GPU show a gain of about two orders of magnitude in computing time. The development version is successful in modelling the wavefront propagation. Two examples of diffraction on a plane mirror and a plane blazed grating are given for a beam with a finite energy band.

Klementiev, Konstantin; Chernikov, Roman

2014-09-01

493

Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

Pain, Bedabrata

2009-01-01

494

MIBPB: A software package for electrostatic analysis  

PubMed Central

The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is an established model for the electrostatic analysis of biomolecules. The development of advanced computational techniques for the solution of the PBE has been an important topic in the past two decades. This paper presents a matched interface and boundary (MIB) based PBE software package, the MIBPB solver, for electrostatic analysis. The MIBPB has a unique feature that it is the first interface technique based PBE solver that rigorously enforces the solution and flux continuity conditions at the dielectric interface between the biomolecule and the solvent. For protein molecular surfaces which may possess troublesome geometrical singularities, the MIB scheme makes the MIBPB by far the only existing PBE solver that is able to deliver the second order convergence, i.e., the accuracy increases four times when the mesh size is halved. The MIBPB method is also equipped with a Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping (DNM) technique, that builds a Green's function approach to analytically resolve the singular charge distribution in biomolecules in order to obtain reliable solutions at meshes as coarse as 1Å — while it usually takes other traditional PB solvers 0.25Å to reach similar level of reliability. The present work further accelerates the rate of convergence of linear equation systems resulting from the MIBPB by utilizing the Krylov subspace (KS) techniques. Condition numbers of the MIBPB matrices are significantly reduced by using appropriate Krylov subspace solver and preconditioner combinations. Both linear and nonlinear PBE solvers in the MIBPB package are tested by protein-solvent solvation energy calculations and analysis of salt effects on protein-protein binding energies, respectively. PMID:20845420

Chen, Duan; Chen, Zhan; Chen, Changjun; Geng, Weihua; Wei, Guo-Wei

2010-01-01

495

Energy implications of recycling packaging materials  

SciTech Connect

In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

496

Reduced-size plutonium sample processing and packaging for the PAT-2 package  

SciTech Connect

A light-water container for the air transport of plutonium safeguards samples, the PAT-2 package, has been developed in the USA and is now licensed by the US NRC (Certificate of Compliance) and the US DOT (IAEA Certificate of Competent Authority). The very limited available space in this package for plutonium-bearing samples required the design of small-size canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards. The suitability of a new small canister and vial for powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister and quartz vial can be used successfully for containing small size PuO/sub 2/ powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliguands of plutonium nitrate solutions.

Kuhn, E.; Deron, S.; Aigner, H.; Andersen, J.A.

1982-01-01

497

Study on Board Level Drop Reliability of Wafer Level Chip Scale Package with Leadfree Solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) is a promising packaging technology to accommodate the demand for small, portable handheld electronic. This bare-die bumped package is able to offer significant area savings, improve package electrical parasitics and power dissipation performance over substrate-based BGA packages. However, its board level reliability especially mechanical performance under shock impact is a great concern for handheld

Zhang Xueren; Zhu Wenhui; P. Edith; Tan Hien Boon

2008-01-01

498

Tractor Mechanics: Learning Activity Packages 1-19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning activity packages are presented for teaching tractor mechanics. The first of two sections deals with miscellaneous tasks and contains learning activity packages on cleaning the tractor and receiving new tractor parts. Section 2 is concerned with maintaining and servicing the electrical system, and it includes the following learning…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

499

Pre-curable adhesive for Image Sensor Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of the CMOS and CCD sensor packages for the cellular phone has been increasing rapidly. The CMOS and CCD sensor packages are composed with the holder, glass, lens, substrate, sensor and so on. The adhesive to seal up a holder and substrate is necessary. Heat curing adhesive is usually used, and it must have curability at low temperature

Y. Abe; K. Iwaya

2007-01-01

500

A new power module packaging technology for enhanced thermal performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to packaging high performance power devices, Chip on Flex Power Overlay (POL) was presented. It was shown that the GE's cost effective POL power packaging technology is ideally suited for high heat flux and high performance applications. This is primarily due to the elimination of bond wires and the planar geometry which offers cooling of power devices

B. Ozmat; C. S. Korman; P. McConnelee; M. Kheraluwala; E. Delgado; R. Fillion

2000-01-01