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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Demo Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demo package is a self-contained file for the teaching of orbits, electromagnetic radiation from charged particles and quantum mechanical bound states. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. One can choose from several preset examples from each of the three areas of physics contained in the package. The Demo package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of advanced physics topics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_demo.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other curricular packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, Orbits, Radiation, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

2

Javaoptics Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Javaoptics Launcher package contains teaching resources for Physical Optics at university level as part of physics or optics and optometry studies. Some of the resources can also be used by high school teachers or students to illustrate and broaden knowledge on some aspects of physics at this teaching level. The resources may be used either in an ordinary course as support material or as the main working tool in an on-line Internet course. Visit the Javaoptics website for additional information about this package.

Barcelona, Gid Ã.

2010-01-26

3

Seafood Packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center worked with a New Orleans seafood packaging company to develop a container to improve the shipping longevity of seafood, primarily frozen and fresh fish, while preserving the taste. A NASA engineer developed metalized heat resistant polybags with thermal foam liners using an enhanced version of the metalized mylar commonly known as 'space blanket material,' which was produced during the Apollo era.

1996-01-01

4

Molecular Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This package contains a number of Physlets that are based on a simple hard-disk molecular model. As shown in the examples on the CD, each disk can be set to have a unique size, mass, and color. In addition, each disk can act as a data source that delivers position and velocity information. Finally, the entire ensemble can act as a data source that delivers ensemble averages and histogram data to data listeners.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-09

5

Reflective Packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

1994-01-01

6

Package-On-Package Mechanical Reliability Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

POP (package-on-package) integration is achieved by stacking laminate substrate packages in vertical direction and interconnecting them with solder balls. Some mechanical reliability issues were addressed through POP development. In particular, package warpage and Si delamination were dominate issue. Package warpage was characterized with FEM-modeling, Shadow Moire and viscoelastic property measurement. Substrate and mold compound optimization techniques are explained in this

Masazumi Amagai; Yutaka Suzuki; Kenji Abe; Kim YoungBae; H. Sano

2007-01-01

7

Packaging - Energy recovery from used packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The European working group on 'Energy Recovery' of the 'Packaging and the Environment' sub-committee of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) 'Technical Committee on Packaging' (TC261) has reviewed existing knowledge and experience of technolog...

1994-01-01

8

Science packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

1997-01-01

9

Modular avionics packaging standardization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Avionics Packaging (MAP) Program for packaging future military avionics systems with the objective of improving reliability, maintainability, and supportability, and reducing equipment life cycle costs is addressed. The basic MAP packaging concepts called the Standard Avionics Module, the Standard Enclosure, and the Integrated Rack are summarized, and the benefits of modular avionics packaging, including low risk design, technology

M. Austin; J. K. McNichols

1984-01-01

10

The rotfloat package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The float package (1) provides commands to define new floats of various styles (plain, boxed, ruled, and userdefined ones); the rotating package (2) provides new environments (sidewaysfigure and sidewaystable) which are rotated by 90 or 270 . But what about new rotated floats, e.g. a rotated ruled one? This package makes this possible; it builds a bridge between both packages

Axel Sommerfeldt

2004-01-01

11

Wrapping up packaging technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging is an integral part of our modern way of life and contributes significantly to our comparatively high standard of living in New Zealand. This paper will look at the history of packaging and the way modern packaging systems have evolved in response to social, political and economic pressure. Packaging is often criticised as a waste of resources and thus

J. A. Gawith; T. R. Robertson

12

Packaging for logistical support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

13

Packaging for food service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

Stilwell, E. J.

1985-01-01

14

ASIC packaging directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past and predicted future trends in ASIC packaging are examined. Specific issues addressed include ASIC packaging complexity; pin count; surface mount technology; pin grid arrays; quad flat packs; land grid arrays; tape automated bonding; and multichip modules

F. R. Ramsay

1992-01-01

15

Comparative Packaging Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

2008-01-01

16

CH Packaging Operations Manual  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides instructions for assembling the CH Packaging Drum payload assembly, Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly, Abnormal Operations and ICV and OCV Preshipment Leakage Rate Tests on the packaging seals, using a nondestructive Helium (He) Leak Test.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-06-13

17

Trends in Food Packaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

Ott, Dana B.

1988-01-01

18

MMIC packaging technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Packaging technology for microwave and millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC's) was developed. Two packaging approaches were investigated for RF performance and mechanical integrity. One is a packaging approach using quartz (fused silica) material and a glass sealing process. The other is a packaging approach using ceramic (92 percent Alumina) material and a co-firing process. Test results indicate both packaging approaches provide wide frequency band and low insertion loss. The quartz package-breadboard components exhibited operating frequency up to 35 GHz, with insertion loss less than 1.30 dB at 35 GHz. Quartz packages were designed and fabricated to investigate reproducibility. Findings from sample fabrication indicate that metallization and glass sealing process for quartz packages requires substantial improvement before reproducibility can be established. Ceramic packages were designed and fabricated for proof-of-concept in support of MMIC packaging technology development. The ceramic packages exhibited operating frequency up to 36 GHz, with insertion loss less than 1.7 dB at 36 GHz. These proof-of-concept MMIC packages not only show low insertion loss and wide frequency band but also demonstrated the hermetic-seal capability and the mechanical strength for many MMIC applications. Current co-fired ceramic process permits cost effectiveness and timely insertion of MMIC's technology.

Li, K.; Yuan, S.

1993-03-01

19

Smart packaging for photonics  

SciTech Connect

Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W. [ed.

1997-09-01

20

Interconnection and Packaging Issues of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated circuit packaging and their testing is well advanced because of the maturity of the IC industry, their wide applications, and availability of industrial infrastructure.(1,2) This is not true for MEMS with respect to packaging and testing. It is more difficult to adopt standardized MEMS device packaging for wide applications although MEMS use many similar technologies to IC packaging. Packaging

COTS MEMS; Rajeshuni Ramesham

21

Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes a learning activity package (LAP) as an approach to individualized instruction. Prepared by teachers, the learning activity package allows the student to progress toward stated objectives at his own pace, selecting from among learning activities those suitable to his own learning style. Included in this report are a…

Walker, Benjamin F.; Buchholz, Margery M.

22

NRF TRIGA packaging  

SciTech Connect

Training Reactor Isotopes, General Atomics (TRIGA{reg_sign}) Reactors are in use at four US Department of Energy (DOE) complex facilities and at least 23 university, commercial, or government facilities. The development of the Neutron Radiography Facility (NRF) TRIGA packaging system began in October 1993. The Hanford Site NRF is being shut down and requires an operationally user-friendly transportation and storage packaging system for removal of the TRIGA fuel elements. The NRF TRIGA packaging system is designed to remotely remove the fuel from the reactor and transport the fuel to interim storage (up to 50 years) on the Hanford Site. The packaging system consists of a cask and an overpack. The overpack is used only for transport and is not necessary for storage. Based upon the cask`s small size and light weight, small TRIGA reactors will find it versatile for numerous refueling and fuel storage needs. The NRF TRIGA packaging design also provides the basis for developing a certifiable and economical packaging system for other TRIGA reactor facilities. The small size of the NRF TRIGA cask also accommodates placing the cask into a larger certified packaging for offsite transport. The Westinghouse Hanford Company NRF TRIGA packaging, as described herein can serve other DOE sites for their onsite use, and the design can be adapted to serve university reactor facilities, handling a variety of fuel payloads.

Clements, M.D.

1995-11-01

23

Costa Rica: Country Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Costa Rica Country Package contains information on the economic and commercial climate of Costa Rica. The package includes the following reports: Costa Rica Business Fact Sheet, Top 35 Exports and Imports between the U.S. and Costa Rica, Contact list ...

1991-01-01

24

Grooming. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

Stark, Pamela

25

Modular electronics packaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular electronics packaging system includes multiple packaging slices that are mounted horizontally to a base structure. The slices interlock to provide added structural support. Each packaging slice includes a rigid and thermally conductive housing having four side walls that together form a cavity to house an electronic circuit. The chamber is enclosed on one end by an end wall, or web, that isolates the electronic circuit from a circuit in an adjacent packaging slice. The web also provides a thermal path between the electronic circuit and the base structure. Each slice also includes a mounting bracket that connects the packaging slice to the base structure. Four guide pins protrude from the slice into four corresponding receptacles in an adjacent slice. A locking element, such as a set screw, protrudes into each receptacle and interlocks with the corresponding guide pin. A conduit is formed in the slice to allow electrical connection to the electronic circuit.

Hunter, Don J. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

26

RH Packaging Operations Manual  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2003-09-17

27

Packaging Concerns/Techniques for Large Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews packaging challenges and options for electronic parts. The presentation includes information about non-hermetic packages, space challenges for packaging and complex package variations.

Sampson, Michael J.

2009-01-01

28

Optoelectronic packaging: A review  

SciTech Connect

Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

Carson, R.F.

1993-09-01

29

A FITS Library Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) Library Package for Linux, and Mac OS X consists of a collection of high and low level routines to carry out various useful functions associated with FITS image files. Besides the source code for the library, a demonstration program, "testfits", which illustrates the library's capabilities and shows how to code the subroutines into your own customized applications, is included. Source code of subroutines from the MIIPS Plot Package and subroutines to display images on Enhanced SAOimage are included as well. The source code and executables can be downloaded from www.chara.gsu.edu/ gudehus/fits_library_package.html.

Gudehus, Donald H.

2009-12-01

30

Geriatric Curriculum Resource Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The materials included in the Geriatric Curriculum Resource Package (CRP) were written and selected to assist Physician Assistant faculty members to develop and implement geriatric curricula. The contract for the GEPAF project specified that the topics co...

G. Yeo D. Tully V. Fowkes M. Goldstein

1985-01-01

31

Packaging the MAMA Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MAMA (Mixed Arithmetic, Multiprocessing Array) module is being developed to evaluate new packaging technologies and processing paradigms for advanced military processing systems. The architecture supports a tight mix of signal, data,and I/O processing...

J. D. Seals

1994-01-01

32

Packaging for Posterity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

Sias, Jim

1990-01-01

33

Packaging for SNAP CCDs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission proposes to use 36 charged coupled devices (CCDs) for the optical imaging. Each device is now envisioned to have 3512 x 3512 pixels 10.5 microns square each, with each CCD being approximately 40mm x 40mm x 200 um in size. The CCDs will have to be packaged to be suitable for mounting on the SNAP Silicon Carbide focal plane. The packages will have to be four side buttable and be stable over a temperature range of +50 degrees C to -150 degrees C, maintaining a flatness and thickness tolerance of 10 microns or less over this temperature range. The packages will be mounted on silicon carbide pedestals to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the pedestals to both the silicon CCDs and the silicon carbide focal plane. The current design and progress on prototype packages will be described.

Baltay, Charles; Bauer, A.; Emmet, W.; Hurteau, T.; Rabinowitz, D.; Szymkowiak, A.; Bebek, C.; Dawson, K.; Emes, J.; Groom, D.; Holland, S.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, B.; Roe, N.; Diehl, T.; Demarteau, M.; Derwent, P.; Bigelow, B.

2006-12-01

34

Fire Station Location Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using the PTI Fire Station Package, local administrators and fire officials evaluate adequacy of station locations - present and planned - on response time rather than arbitrary distance requirements to get the most protection for the least investment. A ...

1975-01-01

35

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2003-04-30

36

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2002-03-04

37

Battery packaging - Technology review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows "lessons learned" in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

Maiser, Eric

2014-06-01

38

Mechanical reliability modeling and characterization for Package-on-Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

POP (package-on-package) integration is achieved by stacking laminate substrate packages in vertical direction and interconnecting them with solder balls. Some mechanical reliability issues were addressed through POP development. In particular, package warpage and Si delamination were dominate issue. Package warpage was characterized with FEM-modeling, Shadow Moire and viscoelastic property measurement. Substrate and mold compound optimization techniques are explained in this

Masazumi Amagai; Yutaka Suzuki; Kenji Abe; Young Bae Kim; Hitoyuki Sano

2008-01-01

39

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2006-11-07

40

Hermetic Package for Optical MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the design and fabrication of a hermetic LTCC package for an optical MEMS chip designed for space applications. The package must ensure electrical and optical connections, mechanical positioning, atmosphere control, and finally low thermally induced stress on the MEMS during final packaging operation. The package consists of a 10-layer LTCC case with a recessed cavity for the

F. Seigneur; Y. Fournier; T. Maeder; P. Ryser; J. Jacot

41

Packaging: past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, microsystems packaging played two roles: 1) It provided I\\/O connections to and from devices, referred to as IC or wafer level packaging, and 2) It interconnected both active and passive components on system level boards, referred to as systems packaging. Both were accomplished by interconnections or multilayer wiring at the package or board level. More recently, the

Rao R. Tummala

2005-01-01

42

Food packages for Space Shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

1978-01-01

43

49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...packaging tests, and record retention applicable to Industrial Packaging Type 1 (IP-1), Industrial Packaging Type 2 (IP-2), and Industrial Packaging Type 3 (IP-3). (b) Industrial packaging certification and tests . (1) Each...

2009-10-01

44

49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...packaging tests, and record retention applicable to Industrial Packaging Type 1 (IP-1), Industrial Packaging Type 2 (IP-2), and Industrial Packaging Type 3 (IP-3). (b) Industrial packaging certification and tests . (1) Each...

2010-10-01

45

Food Packaging Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

1978-01-01

46

SPHINX experimenters information package  

SciTech Connect

This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.] [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

1996-08-01

47

User Data Package (UDP) for Packaged Cogeneration Systems (PCS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The User Data Package (UDP) for the Packaged Cogeneration System (PCS) has been developed to facilitate the transition of small decentralized cogeneration technology into the Naval shore establishment. The purpose of this UDP is to assist in the planning,...

T. Y. Lee

1990-01-01

48

Surface laminar circuit packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the SLC (surface laminar circuit), a component carrier technology which satisfies various requirements for packaging of small computers through its surface laminar structure, which is similar to semiconductor wiring. By utilizing photo via holes instead of plated through holes for signal line connection, SLC has a high wiring density which allows it to carry bare chips directly attached on

Yutaka Tsukada; Syuhei Tsuchida; Yohko Mashimoto

1992-01-01

49

Automated tourism package  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the customer wants to configure a tourism package, they can use numerous specialized web pages that are available. Web pages can be of lesser or greater complexity but most of them configure an offer from a series of picking lists from which a customer should pick an option. This can often be rather time-consuming and annoying especially when the

I. Fuerstner; Z. Anisic; E. Zuban; K. Kovacs

2011-01-01

50

Uruguay Country Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package of materials contains the following marketing and trade information on the country of Uruguay. (1) Uruguay Country Fact Sheet (4/92); (2) Uruguay Commercial Activities Report (3/92); (3) Uruguay-U.S. Trade Statistics - Imports and Exports, 198...

1992-01-01

51

Project Information Packages Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,…

RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

52

YWCA Vocational Readiness Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines, in detail, the Vocational Readiness Package for young girls, which is a week-long program utilizing simulation games and role-playing, while employing peer group counseling techniques to dramatize the realities concerning women in marriage and careers today. After three years of using this program, the authors have compiled…

Scott, Jeanne

53

Nutrition Learning Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

54

Electromagnetic Effects of Advanced Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advanced packaged technology devices are providing improved performance characteristics in airborne, spaceborne, and land-based tactical military operations. Modern packaging technologies are also contributing to improved commercial systems performance. W...

G. Erickson S. Badger

1999-01-01

55

PLT: A Multipurpose Plotting Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PLT is a device independent plotting package developed under the ARIES project in Department 1530. It is built on top of the Sandia Virtual Device Interface (VDI) and therefore supports many different devices. The capabilities of the package include basic...

C. B. Selleck M. P. Sears

1983-01-01

56

New directions in aerospace packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The packaging of electronic devices for aerospace applications is discussed. Consideration is given to the problems encountered in dual-in-line packaging; surface mounting; and pin-grid-arrays. Some limitations of Leadless Chip Carrier (LLC) packages are discussed with respect to reliability; standardization; and handling and testing.

Kanz, J. W.

57

Sustainable Library Development Training Package  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

Peace Corps, 2012

2012-01-01

58

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word-for-word steps in th is document, in sequence, including Notes and cautions. Site specific information may be included as necessary. The document, and revisions, must then be submitted to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval. A copy of the approval letter from CBFO shall be available for audit purposes. Users may develop site-specific procedures addressing preoperational activities, quality assurance (QA), hoisting and rigging, and radiation health physics to be used with the instructions contained in this document. Users may recommend changes to this document by submitting their recommendations (in writing) to the WIPP M&O Contractor RH Packaging Maintenance Engineer for evaluation. If approved, the change(s) will be incorporated into this document for use by ALL users. Before first use and every 12 months after, user sites will be audited to this document to ensure compliance. They will also be audited within one year from the effective date of revisions to this document.

Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

2003-08-25

59

Freon pump package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary design study of a freon pump package (FPP) was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a very silent pump package and to get the main technical characteristics and features of this FPP. A layout, a mass breakdown, a system block diagram, together with the design objectives and the design philosophy to achieve a very low level of noise are shown. The flow rate regulation modes which are incorporated in the FPP design are detailed. The tradeoffs performed to select the main components of the pump unit are presented. The electric motor, bearing, and pump candidates are reviewed and the final choice is given. A preliminary design of the pump unit is given, with the estimated performance. A development plan for the FPP and the pump unit is proposed, with a test plan based on the preliminary technical specifications.

Duwelz, A.

1986-04-01

60

Anticounterfeit packaging technologies  

PubMed Central

Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

Shah, Ruchir Y.; Prajapati, Prajesh N.; Agrawal, Y. K.

2010-01-01

61

Software packager user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

Callahan, John R.

1995-01-01

62

Trends in Food Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The urbanization of society has had a considerable impact on the structure of the economy in light of the substantial packaging\\u000a niche that has consequently evolved. High labor costs have also affected the development of retail businesses, with neighborhood\\u000a stores being replaced by supermarkets, and the subsequent decline in shop assistants who are knowledgeable about their products’\\u000a characteristics. Although the

Cecilia Rojas de Gante

63

Developing experiment instrument packages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground-Support Equipment (GSE) system supports development, calibration, and testing of experiment packages. It is also used for "quick look" processing and in-progress data analysis. User interacts with incoming telemetry data, performs computations, and controls execution of procedures using versatile Experiment Command Interactive Language (ECIL). Program is implemented many ways with minimal modification. It is written in MARCO II and FORTRAN for DEC PDP-11/34 using the RSX-11M operating system.

Herreid, R.

1981-01-01

64

Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost, high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging require...

T. Schimert R. Howe M. Schmidt S. Montague

2002-01-01

65

Computational Neuroscience Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Neuroscience Launcher Package contains read-to-run computer models that describe the biophysics of the action potential. Contained within the launcher are nine models in four sections; each of the sections illustrates a different aspect of neural dynamics. Section one has models with variables corresponding to specific biological properties, section two models have analytically-determinable firing rates based on input, section three emphasizes phase-plane analysis, and section four shows the dynamics of neural networks. Each model represents just one approach to the still-developing field of neuroscience. The Computational Neuroscience Launcher Package was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify the simulations in this package if you have EJS installed by right-clicking within a running stimulation and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item.

Thomson, Colin F.

2012-12-27

66

Plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

NONE

1996-05-01

67

Packaging - Materials review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device, valve, etc.), chemical inertness, cost issues, and others. Finally, proper cell design has to be considered for effective thermal management (i.e. cooling and heating) of battery packs.

Herrmann, Matthias

2014-06-01

68

Refraction of Light Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Refraction of Light Package explores light traveling through media of difference indices of refraction. The user can change the beginning and end points of the light ray as well as the location of the light at the interface and note what light path minimizes light travel time and thereby develop Snell's Law. The Refraction and Least Time Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Refraction_Snell.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

69

Attitude sensor package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design, construction, testing, and successful flight of the Attitude Sensor Package. The payload was assembled on a standard HITCHHIKER experiment mounting plate, and made extensive use of the carrier's power and data handling capabilities. The side mounted HITCHHIKER version was chosen, since this configuration provided the best viewing conditions for the instruments. The combustion was successfully flown on board Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-52), in October 1992. The payload was one of the 14 experiments of the In-Orbit Technology Demonstration Program (Phase 1) of the European Space Agency.

Aceti, R.; Trischberger, M.; Underwood, P. J.; Pomilia, A.; Cosi, M.; Boldrini, F.

1993-01-01

70

KAPPA: Kernel Applications Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David S.

2014-03-01

71

Space station power semiconductor package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A package of high-power switching semiconductors for the space station have been designed and fabricated. The package includes a high-voltage (600 volts) high current (50 amps) NPN Fast Switching Power Transistor and a high-voltage (1200 volts), high-current (50 amps) Fast Recovery Diode. The package features an isolated collector for the transistors and an isolated anode for the diode. Beryllia is used as the isolation material resulting in a thermal resistance for both devices of .2 degrees per watt. Additional features include a hermetical seal for long life -- greater than 10 years in a space environment. Also, the package design resulted in a low electrical energy loss with the reduction of eddy currents, stray inductances, circuit inductance, and capacitance. The required package design and device parameters have been achieved. Test results for the transistor and diode utilizing the space station package is given.

Balodis, Vilnis; Berman, Albert; Devance, Darrell; Ludlow, Gerry; Wagner, Lee

1987-01-01

72

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-02-01

73

Signal processor packaging design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

1993-10-01

74

Packaging supplier inspection guide  

SciTech Connect

This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1991-05-01

75

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-01-01

76

IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION  

SciTech Connect

This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

E. Thomas

2005-07-14

77

High-performance tape package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pincount, high-power TAB (tape automated bonding) to board VLSI chip package is described. The package consists of a protective ceramic clamshell enclosing a TAB chip with 332 leads at 125 ?m ILB (inner lead bond) pitch extending uninterrupted through the ceramic enclosure to the 0.3-mm pitch OLB (outer lead bond) zone configured for reflow soldering. The package body is

L. Fox; C. Davidson; S. Hansen; K. Brown; A. Oscilowski

1992-01-01

78

About the ZOOM minimization package  

SciTech Connect

A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

79

Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

BOEHNKE, W.M.

2000-10-19

80

Anhydrous Ammonia Training Module. Trainer's Package. Participant's Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a trainer's and a participant's package for teaching employees on site safe handling procedures for working with anhydrous ammonia, especially on farms. The trainer's package includes the following: a description of the module; a competency; objectives; suggested instructional aids; a training outline (or lesson plan) for…

Beaudin, Bart; And Others

81

Romanian experience on packaging testing  

SciTech Connect

With more than twenty years ago, the Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR), through its Reliability and Testing Laboratory, was licensed by the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body- CNCAN and to carry out qualification tests [1] for packages intended to be used for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials, generated by Romanian nuclear facilities [2] are packaged in accordance with national [3] and the IAEA's Regulations [1,6] for a safe transport to the disposal center. Subjecting these packages to the normal and simulating test conditions accomplish the evaluation and certification in order to prove the package technical performances. The paper describes the qualification tests for type A and B packages used for transport and storage of radioactive materials, during a period of 20 years of experience. Testing is used to substantiate assumption in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural response. The Romanian test facilities [1,3,6] are used to simulate the required qualification tests and have been developed at INR Pitesti, the main supplier of type A packages used for transport and storage of low radioactive wastes in Romania. The testing programme will continue to be a strong option to support future package development, to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on radioactive material packages or component sections, such as packages used for transport of radioactive sources to be used for industrial or medical purposes [2,8]. The paper describes and contain illustrations showing some of the various tests packages which have been performed during certain periods and how they relate to normal conditions and minor mishaps during transport. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design there are also presented and commented. (authors)

Vieru, G. [IAEA Technical Expert, Head, Reliability and Testing Lab., Institute for Nuclear Research (Romania)

2007-07-01

82

Tritium waste package  

DOEpatents

A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

1995-11-07

83

Tritium waste package  

DOEpatents

A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

Rossmassler, Rich (Cranbury, NJ); Ciebiera, Lloyd (Titusville, NJ); Tulipano, Francis J. (Teaneck, NJ); Vinson, Sylvester (Ewing, NJ); Walters, R. Thomas (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1995-01-01

84

Radioxenon packaging contamination  

SciTech Connect

Xenon-133 in multiple unit-dose vials is a commonly employed radionuclide in nuclear medicine. Because it is an inert gas, shipments of radioxenon for nuclear medicine departments are not required to be checked for contamination. An evaluation of 30 shipments containing /sup 133/Xe vials revealed consistent contamination of the inner plastic packaging jackets. Surveys were performed using a Geiger-Muller survey meter, a dose calibrator, and a scintillation camera. Study of the xenon removal from the jackets indicated storage in a fume hood until the following day reduced the contaminated materials to background levels. The dose calibrator was found to be a quick and sensitive survey instrument for determining contamination in these plastic jackets.

Lieto, R.P.; Morrison, N.

1985-12-01

85

ROBOVOLC: The Geochemical Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ROBOVOLC is a special designed robot equipped with different scientific packages to collect solid, liquid and gas samples and make several measurements. This project was developed to reduce the risks to researchers working in volcanic areas (Muscato G. et al., 2003). In particular, the geochemical package allows to collect some different typology of gas samples (dray gases, NaOH flask, acid condense) and perform some direct measurements (gas temperature, mass and energy release, dry gas/steam ratio). The gases from fumaroles are collected by a 1.2m heated probe in order to keep the robot away from the fumaroles. The gas temperature is measured by several thermocouples located in different part of the probe (on the top to measure the fumarolic temperature) and along the gas canalization in order to check the temperature decreasing. The first step in the sampling procedure consists of the thermal stabilization of the equipment. In this phase, the fumarolic gases flow inside the system for a variable period of time depending on the temperature and flux of the fumaroles. Dray gases and acid condense (Capasso et al., 1992) are collected after the fumarolic gas is cooled by a pyrex glass steam condenser. This stage allows to measure the volumes of both liquid and gas phase and, therefore, to calculate the gas/steam ratio. NaOH flask (Giggenbach, 1975) can be collected excluding the condensed by some electro valves. The gas flux inside the flask can be regulated by a motorized system and a video camera. All the gas canalization is made in pyrex glass and PTFE.

Gurrieri, S.; Giudice, G.; Giammanco, S.; Coltelli, M.; Muscato, G.

2004-12-01

86

Chip packaging technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hermetically sealed package for at least one semiconductor chip is provided which is formed of a substrate having electrical interconnects thereon to which the semiconductor chips are selectively bonded, and a lid which preferably functions as a heat sink, with a hermetic seal being formed around the chips between the substrate and the heat sink. The substrate is either formed of or includes a layer of a thermoplastic material having low moisture permeability which material is preferably a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) and is a multiaxially oriented LCP material for preferred embodiments. Where the lid is a heat sink, the heat sink is formed of a material having high thermal conductivity and preferably a coefficient of thermal expansion which substantially matches that of the chip. A hermetic bond is formed between the side of each chip opposite that connected to the substrate and the heat sink. The thermal bond between the substrate and the lid/heat sink may be a pinched seal or may be provided, for example by an LCP frame which is hermetically bonded or sealed on one side to the substrate and on the other side to the lid/heat sink. The chips may operate in the RF or microwave bands with suitable interconnects on the substrate and the chips may also include optical components with optical fibers being sealed into the substrate and aligned with corresponding optical components to transmit light in at least one direction. A plurality of packages may be physically and electrically connected together in a stack to form a 3D array.

Jayaraj, Kumaraswamy (Inventor); Noll, Thomas E. (Inventor); Lockwood, Harry F. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

87

Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. METHODS: A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by

JR DiFranza; DM Clark; RW Pollay

2003-01-01

88

Dual die Pentium D package technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the technology development for packaging two identical CPU die on one package. Historically, processors involved packaging one die on a package, but with higher performance demands, multiple die products have become necessary. With existing single core die designs, packaging two die in one unit provides a novel way of producing a dual core CPU without designing new

Mat Manusharow; Altaf Hasan; Tong Wa Chao; Matt Guzy

2006-01-01

89

Design and Reliability in Wafer Level Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) has the highest potential for future single chip packages because the WLP is intrinsically a chip size package. The package is completed directly on the wafer then singulated by dicing for the assembly. All packaging and testing operations of the dice are replaced by whole wafer fabrication and wafer level testing. Therefore, it becomes more cost-effective

Xuejun Fan; Qiang Han

2008-01-01

90

Writing Objectives for Learning Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The guide is intended for preservice and inservice teachers on all levels as they prepare and implement behavioral objectives and learning packages. Behavioral objectives are statements which describe what students will be able to do after completing a prescribed unit of instruction. Learning activity packages are self-instructional and self-paced…

Hansen, Patricia A.; Guenther, John E.

91

Individualized Learning Package about Etching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

Sauer, Michael J.

92

Wafer level packaging of MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer level packaging methods of MEMS are described. These play important roles to reduce cost and to improve reliability. MEMS structures on silicon chips are encapsulated with bonded caps or with shells fabricated by surface micromachining, and electrical interconnections are made from the cavity. Vacuum packaging methods are also described.

M. Esashi

2009-01-01

93

Floriculture. Selected Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of learning activity packages is based on a catalog of performance objectives, criterion-referenced measures, and performance guides for gardening/groundskeeping developed by the Vocational Education Consortium of States (V-TECS). Learning activity packages are presented in four areas: (1) preparation of soils and planting media, (2)…

Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

94

Packaging Software Assets for Reuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

2010-12-01

95

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

Hime, Kirsten

96

Solar water heater design package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

1981-01-01

97

SAME Standard Package Installation Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document outlines the procedures for installing the SQL Ada Module Extensions (SAME) standard packages. It assumes that the source of these packages has been off-loaded from the distribution medium to a machine with the desired Ada compiler. (A descr...

M. H. Graham

1989-01-01

98

Fair Packaging and Labeling Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When the FPLA was signed into law on November 3, 1966, it culminated a 5 year effort in Congress to enact so called 'truth in packaging' legislation. The express desire of Congress in passing this law was that packages and labels should bear sufficient in...

1978-01-01

99

Status of PERST-5 package  

SciTech Connect

The methods and algorithms used in the PERST-5 package are described. This package is part of the MCU-5 code and is intended for neutron-physical calculation of the cells and parts of nuclear reactors using a generalized method of first collision probabilities.

Gomin, E. A.; Gurevich, M. I.; Kalugin, M. A.; Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V., E-mail: prianik@adis.vver.kiae.ru; Sidorenko, V. D. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Druzhinin, V. E. [Scientific and Research Institute of Nuclear Power Plant Operation (VNIIAES) (Russian Federation); Zhirnov, A. P.; Rozhdestvenskiy, I. M. [Scientific Research and Design Institute of Electrical Engineering (NIKIET) (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15

100

Nanocomposite Sensors for Food Packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.

Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia

101

21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ingredients, the following package size limitations are required for anticaries drug products: (1) Dentifrices. Dentifrice (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per package. (2)...

2010-04-01

102

21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ingredients, the following package size limitations are required for anticaries drug products: (1) Dentifrices. Dentifrice (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per package. (2)...

2009-04-01

103

49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29...REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except...

2013-10-01

104

49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...partitions or metal clips must be packed in securely-closed strong outside packagings; (iv) Maximum gross weight is limited...and 22 caliber rim-fire cartridges may be packaged loose in strong outside packagings. (c)-(e) [Reserved]...

2013-10-01

105

In-Package Chemistry Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been breached but the drip shield remains intact, so all of the seepage flow is diverted from the waste package. The chemistry from the vapor influx case is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion, and to determine the degradation rates for the waste forms. TSPA-LA uses the water influx case for the seismic scenario, where the waste package has been breached and the drip shield has been damaged such that seepage flow is actually directed into the waste package. The chemistry from the water influx case that is a function of the flow rate is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion and advection, and to determine the degradation rates for the CSNF and HLW glass. TSPA-LA does not use this model for the igneous scenario. Outputs from the in-package chemistry model implemented inside TSPA-LA include pH, ionic strength, and total carbonate concentration. These inputs to TSPA-LA will be linked to the following principle factors: dissolution rates of the CSNF and HLWG, dissolved concentrations of radionuclides, and colloid generation.

E. Thomas

2004-11-09

106

Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

2000-01-01

107

Packaging Considerations for Biopreservation  

PubMed Central

Summary The packaging system chosen for biopreservation is critical for many reasons. An ideal biopreservation container system must provide for closure integrity, sample stability and ready access to the preserved material. This means the system needs to be hermetically sealed to ensure integrity of the specimen is maintained throughout processing, storage and distribution; the system must remain stable over long periods of time as many biobanked samples may be stored indefinitely; and functionally closed access systems must be used to avoid contamination upon sample withdraw. This study reviews the suitability of a new commercially available vial configuration container utilizing blood bag style closure and access systems that can be hermetically sealed and remain stable through cryopreservation and biobanking procedures. This vial based systems allow for current good manufacturing/tissue practice (cGTP) requirements during processing of samples and may provide the benefit of ease of delivery by a care giver. In this study, the CellSeal® closed system cryovial was evaluated and compared to standard screw cap vials. The CellSeal system was evaluated for durability, closure integrity through transportation and maintenance of functional viability of a cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cell model. The results of this initial proof-of-concept study indicated that the CellSeal vials are highly suitable for biopreservation and biobanking, and provide a suitable container system for clinical and commercial cell therapy products frozen in small volumes.

Woods, Erik J.; Thirumala, Sreedhar

2011-01-01

108

Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

Galbraith, L.

2003-01-01

109

Diamond films for electronic packaging  

SciTech Connect

Diamond has the potential for greatly enhancing the thermal performance of electronic packaging by virtue of its extreme thermal conductivity. This is usually envisaged in electronic packaging as relatively thick plates to serve as a heat spreader. Diamond may also be used in electronic packaging as thin (dielectric) layers to a copper heat sink. This and other thin film applications require that there be adequate adhesion between diamond and the metal substrate; an issue greatly complicated by the large thermal expansion differences between diamond and metals. Recent efforts to deposit diamond on metals will be discussed with an emphasis on achieving an adherent coating. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Drory, M.D. [Crystallume, 3506 Bassett Street, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States)

1996-03-01

110

Packages for Radiactive Waste Disposal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The p...

R. Oliveira

1983-01-01

111

Superfund Overview Fact Sheet Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package consists of a series of one-page, concise, public-oriented discussions of the various Superfund issues. They are: The Challenge of Superfund, History of Superfund, The Superfund Cleanup Process, Superfund: Fact vs. Fiction, Progress in Cleanup...

1990-01-01

112

Detail Specification Technical Data Packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This specification prescribes the requirements for preparing a technical data package (TDP) which is composed of one or more TDP elements and related TDP data management products. This specification does not apply to financial, management, or contract adm...

1997-01-01

113

Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings  

SciTech Connect

This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope and requirements of reviews; and (5) Provide the above information to DOE organizations, contractors, other government agencies, and interested members of the general public. This PRG was originally published in September 1987. Revision 1, issued in October 1988, added new review sections on quality assurance and penetrations through the containment boundary, along with a few other items. Revision 2 was published October 1999. Revision 3 of this PRG is a complete update, and supersedes Revision 2 in its entirety.

DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

2007-04-12

114

CompHEP/SUSY package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CompHEP software package allows evaluation of cross-section and decays of elementary particles with a high level of automation. Arbitrary tree level processes can be calculated starting from the set of vertices prescribed by a given physical model. This article describes implementation of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model in the CompHEP package. Several CompHEP/SUSY models can be found on the WWW page http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~semenov/mssm.html.

Semenov, A.

2003-04-01

115

Nanocomposites for food packaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most materials currently used for food packaging are non-degradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for eco-friendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix–filler interactions, which

Henriette M. C. de Azeredo

2009-01-01

116

Designing a Package that Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams act as engineers and brainstorm, design, build and test their ideas for packaging to protect a raw egg shipped in a 9 x 12-in envelope. They follow the steps of the engineering design process and aim for a successful solution with no breakage, low weight and recyled/reuse materials. Students come to understand the basics of engineering associated with the packaging of items to preserve, market and safely transport goods.

K-12 Outreach Office,

117

Research on Green Packaging of Circular Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The circular economy is the resource recycling economy, is the economy of harmonious development between economy and environment, also a kind of ecological economy. Circular economy demands that enterprises' logistics activities be green logistics packaging. The green packaging aims at improving the packing materials reuse, reducing resource consumption and lowering packaging waste pollution to the environment. Implementing green logistics packaging,

Zhang Guirong; Li Dehua; Wang Zhiping; Ma Chenglin

2010-01-01

118

Development of a high performance TQFP package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A TQFP (Thin Quad Flat Pack) package has been developed that has very superior electrical and thermal performance when compared to a plastic molded TQFP package. The high performance TQFP is based on Olin's MQUAD technology; a packaging scheme where the plastic mold compound is replaced by an anodized aluminum base and lid adhesively sealed to the leadframe. The package

P. Hoffman; D. Liang; D. Mahulikar; A. Parthasarathi

1994-01-01

119

Composite Type pin Grid Array package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite pin grid array (PGA) package was developed. This package is composed of the base, the polyimide film with the wiring paths of copper, and the cap. An attractive feature of this package is its electrical performance. Moreover, this package is suitable both for customization and for mass production at relatively low cost with reduced lead time from design

KAZUJ-IITO TSUTSUMI; MASANOBU KOHARA; YOSHIYUKI SHINOYA; TETSUO TADA; KAZUHIRO SAKASHITA; HJROSHI SHIBATA; HIDEFUMI NAKATA

1986-01-01

120

Reliability of plastic ball grid array package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package is studied for different materials. The reliability of the PBGA packages using conventional Bismaleimide-Triazine type PWB and our original product PWB that is made of high Tg epoxy resin is evaluated. The PBGA package using our original PWB has a feature of lower warpage for the package, and has similar performance

Yuko Sawada; Akihiko Yamaguchi; Seiji Oka; Hirofumi Fujioka

2002-01-01

121

Potential of biobased materials for food packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, joint efforts by the packaging and the food industries have reduced the amount of food packaging materials. Nonetheless, used packaging materials are still very visible to the consumer in the context of disposal. Environmental issues are becoming increasingly important to the European consumer. Consequently, consumer pressure may trigger the use of biobased packaging materials as an

Karina Petersen; Per Væggemose Nielsen; Grete Bertelsen; Mark Lawther; Mette B. Olsen; Nils H. Nilsson; Grith Mortensen

1999-01-01

122

Reliability modeling of chip scale packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chip-scale package (CSP) is an increasingly popular small size, high performance package. The advantages of such a package are that it offers considerable space savings over full-sized BGA or peripherally leaded devices while maintaining the convenience and die protection of a packaged device. In this paper, a finite element based approach for estimating CSP thermal cycling reliability is presented.

James M. Pitarresi; Sundar Sethuraman; Balachandar Nandagopal; Anthony Primavera

2000-01-01

123

49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containers may be used as Industrial packages Types 2 or 3 (Type...containers may also be used as Industrial package Type 2 or 3 (Type...packagings, each offeror of an industrial package must maintain on...documentation of tests and an engineering evaluation or...

2013-10-01

124

Axial diagnostic package for Z  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed and fielded an axial diagnostic package for the 20 MA, 100 ns, z-pinch driver Z. The package is used to diagnose dynamic hohlraum experiments which require an axial line of sight. The heart of the package is a reentrant cone originally used to diagnose ion-beam-driven hohlraums on PBFA-H. It has one diagnostic line of sight at 0 degrees, 4 at 6 degrees, and 4 at 9 degrees. In addition it has a number of viewing, alignment, and vacuum feedthrough ports. The front of the package sits approximately 5 feet from the pinch. This allows much closer proximity to the pinch, with inherently better resolution and signal, than is presently possible in viewing the pinch from the side. Debris that is preferentially directed along the axis is mitigated by two apertures for each line of sight, and by fast valves and imaging pinholes or cross slits for each diagnostic. In the initial run with this package they fielded a time resolved pinhole camera, a five-channel pinhole-apertured x-ray diode array, a bolometer, a spatially resolved time-integrated crystal spectrometer, and a spatially and temporally resolved crystal spectrometer. They present data obtained from these diagnostics in the dynamic hohlraum research conducted on Z.

Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G. [and others

1998-06-01

125

Axial diagnostic package for Z  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and fielded an axial diagnostic package for the 20 MA, 100 ns, {ital z}-pinch driver Z. The package is used to diagnose dynamic hohlraum experiments which require an axial line of sight. The heart of the package is a reentrant cone originally used to diagnose ion-beam-driven hohlraums on PBFA-II. It has one diagnostic line of sight at 0{degree}, two at 4{degree}, four at 6{degree}, and four at 9{degree}. In addition it has a number of viewing, alignment, and vacuum feedthrough ports. The front of the package sits approximately 1.5 m from the pinch. This allows much closer proximity to the pinch, with inherently better resolution and signal, than is presently possible in viewing the pinch from the side. Debris that is preferentially directed along the axis is mitigated by two apertures for each line of sight, and by fast valves and imaging pinholes or cross slits for each diagnostic. In the initial run with this package we fielded a time-resolved pinhole camera, a five-channel pinhole-apertured x-ray diode array, a bolometer, a spatially resolved time-integrated crystal spectrometer, and a spatially and temporally resolved crystal spectrometer. We will present data obtained from these diagnostics in the dynamic hohlraum research conducted on Z. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.A.; Fehl, D.; Leeper, R.; Hurst, M.; Jobe, D.; Torres, J.; Seaman, J.; Lazier, S.; Gilliland, T.; McGurn, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States)

1999-01-01

126

Reference waste package environment report  

SciTech Connect

One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

Glassley, W.E.

1986-10-01

127

Package inspection using inverse diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.

McAulay, Alastair D.

2008-08-01

128

Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.  

PubMed

The development of nanocomposites is a new strategy to improve physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. The most promising nanoscale size fillers are montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. Graphite nanoplates are currently under study. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Decreasing water vapor permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nanoscale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties. Several examples are cited. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoplates. Nanocomposites may advance the utilization of biopolymers in food packaging. PMID:20492194

Arora, Amit; Padua, G W

2010-01-01

129

Flexible packaging for PV modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

Dhere, Neelkanth G.

2008-08-01

130

GNS-12 Packaging design criteria  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-24

131

Truss Performance and Packaging Metrics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present paper a set of performance metrics are derived from first principals to assess the efficiency of competing space truss structural concepts in terms of mass, stiffness, and strength, for designs that are constrained by packaging. The use of these performance metrics provides unique insight into the primary drivers for lowering structural mass and packaging volume as well as enabling quantitative concept performance evaluation and comparison. To demonstrate the use of these performance metrics, data for existing structural concepts are plotted and discussed. Structural performance data is presented for various mechanical deployable concepts, for erectable structures, and for rigidizable structures.

Mikulas, Martin M.; Collins, Timothy J.; Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Watson, Judith

2006-01-01

132

Tracker Video Analysis Demo Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tracker Sampler Package contains several video analysis and modeling experiments from mechanics to spectroscopy. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive containing Tracker (video analysis and modeling tool), movies, and some initial analysis. Double clicking the tracker_sampler.jar file will run the program if Java is installed on your computer. Tracker Sampler Package is one of several Tracker experiments for use in introductory physics. Tracker, a video analysis and dynamical modeling program, is an Open Source Physics tool. Additional experiments and programs can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics or Tracker.

Brown, Douglas

2008-06-05

133

Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

134

Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

McCarthy, T.L.

1995-12-01

135

Multichip packaging-a tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of the multichip module technology, including its functions, leverages, applications, and markets, are reviewed. All the packaging technologies used in multichip, such as sealing and encapsulation, heat removal, chip level connections, thin film, ceramic, and printed wiring, are discussed. The module corrections and electrical testing used in forming a high-performance or portable system are also discussed

R. R. Tummala

1992-01-01

136

IECL Energy Conservation Material Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents information on how schools and school districts can save energy. The energy conservation materials contained in this package are organized into two sections. The section titles are: (1) Towards a State Education Energy Policy; and (2) Materials for Distribution to School Districts. Topics presented in the first section…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Interstate Energy Conservation Leadership.

137

DATACUBE: A datacube manipulation package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DATACUBE is a command-line package for manipulating and visualizing data cubes. It was designed for integral field spectroscopy but has been extended to be a generic data cube tool, used in particular for sub-millimeter data cubes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

Allan, Alasdair; Currie, Malcolm J.

2014-05-01

138

Review of antimicrobial food packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of antimicrobial materials for food applications such as packaging and other food contact surfaces is expected to grow in the next decade with the advent of new polymer materials and antimicrobials. This article reviews the different types of antimicrobial polymers developed for food contact, commercial applications, testing methods, regulations and future trends. Special emphasis will be on

Paola Appendini; Joseph H. Hotchkiss

2002-01-01

139

39 CFR 121.4 - Package Services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.4 Package Services. ...Facility (SCF) turnaround Package Services mail accepted at the origin SCF before the...

2013-07-01

140

Intelligent Computer-to-Computer Transmission Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intelligent Computer-to-Computer transmission package was designed and implemented using the PROCOMM PLUS communications program to transfer data from one computer to another. The package permits a noncomputer literate person to accomplish communicatio...

M. Hajjar P. Frasca

1990-01-01

141

Overview of the DOE packaging certification process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and we...

Y. Y. Liu R. D. Carlson R. W. Carlson A. Kapoor

1995-01-01

142

7 CFR 3402.10 - Application package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preparation of an Application § 3402.10 Application package. Applications will be available at http://www.grants.gov and through the CSREES Web site. An application package will be made available to any...

2010-01-01

143

7 CFR 3402.10 - Application package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Preparation of an Application § 3402.10 Application package. Applications will be available at http://www.grants.gov and through the CSREES Web site. An application package will be made available to any...

2009-01-01

144

ASIC (Application Specific ICs) Packaging Technology,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the field of ASIC (appliction specific ICs), packaging technology plays an important role, together with automated design and fabrication technologies. The paper outlines the current status and trends at Toshiba concerning AISC packaging technology, an...

J. Ohno Y. Kimura T. Sakurai T. Fujitsu

1987-01-01

145

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives in hermetically sealed containers and heat sterilized under pressure, otherwise known as canned ripe olives and including the three distinct types, ripe, green...

2010-01-01

146

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives in hermetically sealed containers and heat sterilized under pressure, otherwise known as canned ripe olives and including the three distinct types, ripe, green...

2009-01-01

147

16 CFR 500.29 - Combination packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(b) When the individual units in a combination package are either packaged or labeled and are intended for retail sale as individual units, each unit shall be in compliance with the applicable regulations under this part...

2010-01-01

148

Evaluation Methodology Guidance for Stack Packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides evaluation methodology guidance based on previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) reports and literature surveys for 3D stack packages and assemblies. Two aspects of technology are covered: package itself (guidanc...

D. Gerke R. Ghaffarian

2009-01-01

149

Statistical Software Packages for the Microcomputer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nine microcomputer statistical software packages that are described comprise the statistical software collection at the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL). The packages are compatible with AEL's Apple II microcomputer, though many are also availa...

S. Finley

1982-01-01

150

40 CFR 262.30 - Packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Packaging. 262.30 Section 262.30 Protection...Pre-Transport Requirements § 262.30 Packaging. Before transporting hazardous...Department of Transportation regulations on packaging under 49 CFR parts 173, 178, and...

2013-07-01

151

49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172.514 ...PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous...

2013-10-01

152

Developments in the active packaging of foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active packaging is one of the innovative food packaging concepts that has been introduced as a response to the continuous changes in current consumer demands and market trends. Major active packaging techniques are concerned with substances that absorb oxygen, ethylene, moisture, carbon dioxide, flavours\\/odours and those which release carbon dioxide, antimicrobial agents, antioxidants and flavours. The main objectives of this

L. Vermeiren; F. Devlieghere; M. van Beest; N. de Kruijf; J. Debevere

1999-01-01

153

Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

2007-01-01

154

MEMS packaging IP and market status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early MEMS devices employed packages developed for conventional semiconductor microelectronics. Today, MEMS packages reflect the unique environment, mechanical, chemical and thermal requirements of MEMS devices themselves. A casual search of on-line databases reveals nearly 40,000 patents worldwide containing the words ¿MEMS¿ and ¿package.¿ While not all relevant, the number of IP documents easily overwhelms researchers, investors and IP practitioners. Similarly,

C. E. Bauer; R. A. Fillion; H. J. Neuhaus; Marc Papageorge

2009-01-01

155

Ejs Intro Mechanics Lab Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Introductory Physics Lab package contains Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) models used in Introductory Physics Laboratories which ask students to develop a series of models for simple mechanical systems. Ejs, a part of the Open Source Physics Project, is designed to make it easier to access, modify and generate computer models. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double-clicking the ejs_intro_lab.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. In order to modify the simulations (and see how they are designed), if you have Ejs installed, you can right-click within the simulation window and select Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu. Information about Ejs (Easy Java Simulations) is available at: http://www.um.es/fem/Ejs/. Additional models (including independent copies of each of the exercises contained in this package) can be found by searching ComPADRE for Ejs.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-06-03

156

Specify packaged steam generators properly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packages steam generators firing natural gas and fuel oils are widely used in chemical process industries (CPI) plants, petroleum refineries, and cogeneration systems to generate steam for process use or for power. These units are generally shop-assembled and can generate saturated or superheated steam at capacities up to 200,000 lb\\/h, pressures ranging from 100 to 1,200 psig, and steam temperatures

Ganapathy

1993-01-01

157

Trends in packaged steam generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb\\/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early

Ganapathy

1996-01-01

158

Backside solutions [PV modules packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backside packaging of photovoltaic (PV) modules typically consists of a multi-layer adhesive laminate that is bonded to the cell structure with a thick EVA sheet. Each component of the laminate serves a specific purpose. However, this multi-layer laminate makes for a cumbersome and expensive system, which also introduces the potential for delamination problems. The solution: DuPont Teijin Films has developed

S. R. Cosentino; S. B. Levy; R. T. Tucker

2002-01-01

159

21 CFR 226.80 - Packaging and labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging and labeling. 226.80 Section 226.80...MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR TYPE A MEDICATED ARTICLES Packaging and Labeling § 226.80 Packaging and labeling. (a) Packaging and...

2013-04-01

160

49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905 Section 178...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging...

2013-10-01

161

49 CFR 178.930 - Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings...PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.930 Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings...per square foot)âsee ISO 535 (E) (IBR, see...

2013-10-01

162

Radioactive material package seal tests  

SciTech Connect

General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} std cm{sup 3}/s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

1990-01-01

163

A look at packaged boilers  

SciTech Connect

The transfer of energy in the form of steam or hot water is an integral part of many operations requiring heat energy. Most of this steam and hot water is generated in boilers. Often the terms steam generator and hot water generator are used to differentiate between units that make steam from those that provide hot water. There are a number of boiler types and a wide range of capacities. At the small end of the spectrum are small packaged, low-pressure, wall-hung hydronic models of only a few thousand Btu.h input. At the other end are giant field-erected, utility company steam generators that produce superheated steam at rates of millions of pounds per hour at pressures that can exceed 3,200 psig with steam temperatures of 1,000 F or more. This article will deal with packaged boilers generally used for space heating and industrial process applications because the majority of commercial, institutional, and industrial thermal needs can be met with packaged boilers. The basic boiler types and fuel options will also be presented along with guidelines for selection and installation.

Slattery, L.T. [Sargent and Lundy Engineers, Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

164

Package security recorder of vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new kind of electronic product — Package Security Recorder of Vibration. It utilizes STC89C54RD+ LQFP-44 MCU as its main controller. At the same time, it also utilizes Freescale MMA845A 3-Axis 8-bit/12-bit Digital Accelerometer and Maxim DS1302 Trickle Charge Timekeeping Chip. It utilizes the MCU to read the value of the accelerometer and the value of the timekeeping chip, and records the data into the inner E2PROM of MCU. The whole device achieves measuring, reading and recording the time of the vibration and the intensity of the vibration. When we need the data, we can read them out. The data can be used in analyzing the condition of the cargo when it transported. The device can be applied to monitor the security of package. It solves the problem of responsibility affirming, when the valuable cargo are damaged while it transported. It offers powerful safeguard for the package. It's very value for application.

Wang, Xiao-na; Hu, Jin-liang; Song, Shi-de

2013-08-01

165

Waste Package Design Methodology Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

D.A. Brownson

2001-09-28

166

Auxiliary propulsion system flight package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hughes Aircraft Company developed qualified and integrated flight, a flight test Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS), on an Air Force technology satellite. The IAPS Flight Package consists of two identical Thruster Subsystems and a Diagnostic Subsystem. Each thruster subsystem (TSS) is comprised of an 8-cm ion Thruster-Gimbal-Beam Shield Unit (TGBSU); Power Electronics Unit; Digital Controller and Interface Unit (DCIU); and Propellant Tank, Valve and Feed Unit (PTVFU) plus the requisite cables. The Diagnostic Subsystem (DSS) includes four types of sensors for measuring the effect of the ion thrusters on the spacecraft and the surrounding plasma. Flight qualifications of IAPS, prior to installation on the spacecraft, consisted of performance, vibration and thermal-vacuum testing at the unit level, and thermal-vacuum testing at the subsystem level. Mutual compatibility between IAPS and the host spacecraft was demonstrated during a series of performance and environmental tests after the IAPS Flight Package was installed on the spacecraft. After a spacecraft acoustic test, performance of the ion thrusters was reverified by removing the TGBSUs for a thorough performance test at Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL). The TGBSUs were then reinstalled on the spacecraft. The IAPS Flight Package is ready for flight testing when Shuttle flights are resumed.

Collett, C. R.

1987-01-01

167

ARPREC: An arbitrary precision computation package  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE floating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. This package is written in C++ code for high performance and broad portability and includes both C++ and Fortran-90 translation modules, so that conventional C++ and Fortran-90 programs can utilize the package with only very minor changes. This paper includes a survey of some of the interesting applications of this package and its predecessors.

Bailey, David H.; Yozo, Hida; Li, Xiaoye S.; Thompson, Brandon

2002-09-01

168

XAPiir: A recursive digital filtering package  

SciTech Connect

XAPiir is a basic recursive digital filtering package, containing both design and implementation subroutines. XAPiir was developed for the experimental array processor (XAP) software package, and is written in FORTRAN. However, it is intended to be incorporated into any general- or special-purpose signal analysis program. It replaces the older package RECFIL, offering several enhancements. RECFIL is used in several large analysis programs developed at LLNL, including the seismic analysis package SAC, several expert systems (NORSEA and NETSEA), and two general purpose signal analysis packages (SIG and VIEW). This report is divided into two sections: the first describes the use of the subroutine package, and the second, its internal organization. In the first section, the filter design problem is briefly reviewed, along with the definitions of the filter design parameters and their relationship to the subroutine input parameters. In the second section, the internal organization is documented to simplify maintenance and extensions to the package. 5 refs., 9 figs.

Harris, D.

1990-09-21

169

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

170

Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS  

SciTech Connect

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O'NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

1999-09-24

171

MMIC Package for Millimeter Wave Frequency  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Princeton Microwave Technology has successfully demonstrated the transfer of technology for the MMIC package. During this contract the package design was licensed from Hughes Aircraft Company for manufacture within the U.S. A major effort was directed towards characterization of the ceramic material for its dielectric constant and loss tangent properties. After selection of a ceramic tape, the high temperature co-fired ceramic package was manufactured in the U.S. by Microcircuit Packaging of America, Inc. Microwave measurements of the MMIC package were conducted by an intercontinental microwave test fixture. The package demonstrated a typical insertion loss of 0.5 dB per transition up to 32 Ghz and a return loss of better than 15 db. The performance of the package has been demonstrated from 2 to 30 Ghz by assembling three different MMIC amplifiers. Two of the MMIC amplifiers were designed for the 26 Ghz to 30 Ghz operation while the third MMIC was a distributed amplifier from 2 to 26.5 Ghz. The measured gain of the amplifier is consistent with the device data. The package costs are substantially lower than comparable packages available commercially. Typically the price difference is greater than a factor of three. The package cost is well under $5.00 for a quantity of 10,000 pieces.

Bharj, Sarjit Singh; Yuan, Steve

1997-01-01

172

Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

2014-05-01

173

PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)  

SciTech Connect

The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

2003-07-01

174

Imagecube: an astropy affiliated package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astropy is a community python library for astronomy. Imagecube has been developed as an astropy affiliated package for processing multiwavelength (spectro)-imaging. This module automates tedious steps of image processing and analysis and delivers a science-ready image datacube. The included steps involve converting to common flux units, image registration to a common WCS, and convolution to a common resolution. Individual steps can be performed separately. We test the module using the dwarf galaxy NGC1569 by producing its observed spectral energy distribution on a pixel-by-pixel basis.

Lianou, S.; Barmby, P.; Taylor, J.

2013-09-01

175

PIV Data Validation Software Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A PIV data validation and post-processing software package was developed to provide semi-automated data validation and data reduction capabilities for Particle Image Velocimetry data sets. The software provides three primary capabilities including (1) removal of spurious vector data, (2) filtering, smoothing, and interpolating of PIV data, and (3) calculations of out-of-plane vorticity, ensemble statistics, and turbulence statistics information. The software runs on an IBM PC/AT host computer working either under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or Windows 95 operating systems.

Blackshire, James L.

1997-01-01

176

CCDPACK: CCD Data Reduction Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCDPACK contains programs to debias, remove dark current, flatfield, register, resample and normalize data from single- or multiple-CCD instruments. The basic reduction stages can be set up using an X based GUI that controls an automated reduction system so one can to start working without any detailed knowledge of the package (or indeed of CCD reduction). Registration is performed using graphical, script based or automated techniques that keep the amount of work to a minimum. CCDPACK uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

Warren-Smith, Rodney F.; Draper, Peter W.; Taylor, Mark; Allan, Alasdair

2014-03-01

177

Shipboard Medicine on Package Cruises  

PubMed Central

Cheap package cruises have become very popular in Great Britain, but the ships used for these cruises are often not suitable for elderly, handicapped, and mentally unfit people. The cruises run to very tight schedules with many strenuous shore excursions, and do not necessarily constitute restful holidays at sea. Many passengers who embark on these cruises are suffering from pre-existing diseases, which may become exacerbated during the voyage. Such patients should be forewarned and should be equipped by their doctors with a covering letter giving full details of their medical condition and its treatment.

Carter, John W.

1972-01-01

178

An improved environmental TLD field package  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the design of an environmental TAD field package which can have a significant impact on the accuracy and reliability of an environmental monitoring program. Ideally, a field package should protect its TAD(s) from light and moisture, but it should not expose the TAD(s) to elevated temperatures that could increase fading and invalidate calibration factors. Furthermore, a field package must be relatively strong and tamper-proof, while at the same time maintaining an open, unshielded configuration to minimize attenuation of incident radiation. These conflicting goals - protection without interference - can be satisfied with the improved field package design described her. This package has been tested with considerable success at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, and a U.S. Patent Application has been filed in preparation for marketing the package as a commercial product.

Graham, B.D. (Southern California Edison Co., San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, San Clemente, CA (US))

1986-01-01

179

Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices  

DOEpatents

A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel K. (Albuquerque, NM); Zamora, David Lee (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2003-04-15

180

Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices  

DOEpatents

A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01

181

(Packaging regulations for chemical explosives)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the trip was to visit Nobel Chemicals in Sweden and to confer with the Department of Transportation personnel in Sweden and in England on the technical and regulatory problems in the bulk shipping of the high explosives RDX and HMX. It is customary in the United States (US) to add isopropyl alcohol to the bulk shipment of water-wet high explosives RDX and HMX. The explosives are packed in cloth bags which are placed in plastic-lined fiber drums. The addition of alcohol presumably prevents mildewing of cloth bags and freezing of the wet explosives in cold weather. In Europe, however, these explosives are shipped in polyethylene-lined fiber drums with not less than 15% water only, even in cold weather. Water-wet frozen explosives have not proved to be any more sensitive than its unfrozen counterpart and no mildew problem has been encountered. It looks promising that the US Department of Transportation regulations can be changed to permit the bulk shipment of these explosives in water only without the addition of isopropyl alcohol. This is expected to cut down the packaging cost considerably. In addition, the packaging procedure in the US can be modernized by introducing more mechanical and efficient handling as seen at Nobel Chemicals. 2 figs.

Pal, B.C.

1988-02-17

182

High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective  

SciTech Connect

The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

1997-10-01

183

Mechanical properties of paper-pulp packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promoting the application of environmentally friendly packaging such as those made out of paper-pulp requires a basic understanding of the mechanical behaviour of paper-pulp (material) as well as that of packaging (product). In this paper, results from the investigation to determine the mechanical properties of paper-pulp packaging are presented. This includes the determination of tensile and compressive strength of paper-pulp

S. P Gurav; A Bereznitski; A Heidweiller; P. V Kandachar

2003-01-01

184

Thermoplastic Electronic Packaging: Low Cost - High Versatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastics have started to gain acceptance in some of the more challenging areas of advanced packaging, including MEMS, where lower cost, cavity style packages are required. Thermoplastics, like LCP, PPS and PEEK, can withstand exposure to over 300oC thus assuring lead-free solder capability. Many polymers offer superior moisture resistance, can be formed into micro-precision packages in just seconds, and are

Ken Gilleo; RI Rita Mohanty; Gerald Pham-Van-Diep; Dennis Jones

185

NFR TRIGA package design review report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

Clements, M.D.

1994-08-26

186

Design considerations for automated packaging operations  

SciTech Connect

The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

1993-12-31

187

Work plan for integrated sludge packaging demonstration  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the tasks which will be performed to support the hot demonstration of the integrated sludge packaging system to package the sludge that has accumulated in the KE Basin. This activity will be performed in three phases: Phase 1 will consist of testing component and sub-system performance using a surrogate sludge, Phase 2 will consist of cold testing the integrated sludge packaging system using a surrogate sludge, and Phase 3 will consist of the hot demonstration of the integrated sludge packaging system.

Brisbin, S.A.

1994-11-07

188

Microelectronic device package with an integral window  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01

189

Preservation, Packaging and Packing for Space Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document establishes the general requirements for preparation for delivery including cleaning, preservation, packaging, packing, and marking for shipment and storage of deliverable material items for space systems.

1966-01-01

190

Design of Chant: A Talking Threads Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lightweight threads are becoming increasingly useful in supporting parallelism and asynchronous control structures in applications and language implementations. However, lightweight thread packages traditionally support only shared memory synchronization ...

M. Haines D. Cronk P. Mehrotra

1994-01-01

191

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

2005-10-01

192

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

2006-04-01

193

Type B Packaging and Transportation Planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analyses performed to determine whether or not the eleven major Department of Energy sites had adequate planning and resources available to implement their shipping baselines. The study covers only Environmental Management off-site shipments using Type B and Type A-Fissile packaging. The time frame evaluated is from 2001-2010. The results indicate issues with respect to having certified packaging for planned shipments, the packaging inventory available to support schedules, and the material sufficiently characterized to enable package selection.

Beebe, C. L.; Anderson, T. J.; Hintze, W. D.

2003-02-27

194

Hermetic Packages For Millimeter-Wave Circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced hermetic packages developed to house electronic circuits operating at frequencies from 1 to 100 gigahertz and beyond. Signals coupled into and out of packages electromagnetically. Provides circuit packages small, lightweight, rugged, and inexpensive in mass production. Packages embedded in planar microstrip and coplanar waveguide circuits, in waveguide-to-planar and planar-to-waveguide circuitry, in waveguide-to-waveguide circuitry, between radiating (antenna) elements, and between planar transmission lines and radiating elements. Other applications in automotive, communication, radar, remote sensing, and biomedical electronic systems foreseen.

Herman, Martin I.; Lee, Karen A.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Carpenter, Alain; Wamhof, Paul

1994-01-01

195

Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

Sampson, Michael J.

2010-01-01

196

Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy Launcher package is a self-contained file for teaching the basic concept of the statistical interpretation of entropy. The file contains ready-to-run Easy Java Simulations (EJS) programs and curricular materials. The curricular materials describe a simple hands-on coin flip experiment that can help student become familiar with the basic statistical ideas involved in the approach to equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. The materials also describe how the EJS programs can be used to extend this simple experiment and explore these concepts at a deeper level. The EJS programs include simulations of the coin flip experiment, the expansion of an ideal gas in a box, the mixing of hot and cold ideal gases, and the action of Maxwell's Demon. The materials in this resource are described in an article titled "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" to be published in The Physics Teacher.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-07-03

197

Challenges in interconnection and packaging of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated circuit packaging and their testing is well advanced because of the maturity of the IC industry, their wide applications, and availability of industrial infrastructure. This is not true for MEMS with respect to packaging and testing. It is more difficult to adopt standardized MEMS device packaging for wide applications although MEMS use many similar technologies to IC packaging. Packaging

Rajeshuni Ramesham; R. Ghaffarian

2000-01-01

198

Developing Oral Language. Learning Package No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on developing oral language is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…

Hong, Zhang; Smith, Carl, Comp.

199

Observation and Feedback. Learning Package No. 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on observation and feedback is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…

Aiex, Nola Kortner; Smith, Carl, Comp.

200

Using Folk Literature. Learning Package No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on using folk literature is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…

Smith, Carl, Comp.

201

Extending the Basal. Learning Package No. 13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on extending the basal is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…

Collins, Norma; Smith, Carl, Comp.

202

Biopreservation in modified atmosphere packaged vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in food preservation are the use of mild preservation techniques, such as modified atmosphere (MA) packaging and refrigeration, to prolong the shelflife of foods without affecting the fresh character of the product. This has resulted in the development of a new generation of chill stored, minimally processed foods, such as vegetables that are packaged under reduced oxygen (0

M. H. J. Bennik

1997-01-01

203

A complete package for introducing computer science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with the challenge of teaching large numbers of students without sacrificing quality, we have developed a complete “package” for teaching introductory computer science. This package consists of textbooks, notes, problem sets, lab-tutorial arrangements, instructional software, and visual aids for lectures, all developed at the University of Waterloo. The textbooks are “FORTRAN IV WITH WATFOR AND WATFIV” and “AN INTRODUCTION

P. C. Brillinger; D. D. Cowan

1970-01-01

204

Compliant Wafer Level Package for Enhanced Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer level package (WLP) volumes are steadily increasing due to their small package size and low manufacturing cost. However, applications to date have been mostly limited to die smaller than 5mm x 5mm. Solder joint fatigue due to stresses generated by the CTE mismatch between the die and the printed circuit board (PCB) limits adoption of WLP for large dies.

Guilian Gao; Bel Haba; Vage Oganesian; Ken Honer; David Ovrutsky; Charles Rosenstein; Ekaterina Axelrod; Felix Hazanovich; Yulia Aksenton

2007-01-01

205

Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the evaluation of the packages and makes recommendations for…

Leach, James A.

1987-01-01

206

Planar pin grid array (PGA) ceramic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planar ceramic packaging is described. Both thick- and thin-film pin-grid arrays are considered. The properties of ceramic materials that are necessary for electronic applications are presented and the requirements for the substrates used for these packages are described. Future trends for these planar ceramic designs are examined

1988-01-01

207

Waste package performance in unsaturated rock  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated rock and near-atmospheric pressure of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain present new problems of predicting waste package performance. In this paper we present some illustrations of predictions of waste package performance and discuss important data needs. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.-L.

1989-03-01

208

Laser Solder Jetting in Advanced Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The packaging of optoelectroni cs and MEMS devices is placing challenging requirements for the interconnection and soldering technology. These requirements can no longer be met with standard flux-based processes which use a long temperature reflow profile and are implementing a lot of mechanical handling steps and processes. Basically, the packaging of these new devices is requiring fluxless soldering, no thermal

E. Zakel; T. Teutsch; G. Frieb; G. Azdasht; J. Kurz

209

Gary M. Klingler Algebra Teacher Assistance Packages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several packages designed by Elizabeth Marquez for mathematics teachers of grades 6-12, officially entitled the Teacher Assistance Package in Support of Better Algebra Assessment, is a series of resources developed to accompany ET's End-of-Course Algebra Assessment. It is designed to enhance teachers classroom assessment by providing examples of…

Klingler, Gary

2005-01-01

210

A multidisciplinary sophomore course in electronics packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics packaging has become recognized as a critical technology for the continued growth of the nation's electronics industry. The field is inherently multidisciplinary in nature, which makes it difficult for industry to find engineers with the appropriate design skills. The particular technical challenge of the electronics packaging field is not unique; industrial and academic leaders have long advocated exposure of

James E. Morris; F. Patrick McCluske

1998-01-01

211

Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

212

Trends in nondestructive imaging of IC packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the industry-wide conversion to surface mount packages in the mid-1980's, nondestructive imaging of moisture induced delaminations and cracks in plastic packaged ICs by scanning acoustic microscopy has been a critically important capability. Subsurface imaging and phase analysis of echoes has allowed scanning acoustic microscopy to become the primary nondestructive technique for component level inspection of packaged ICs and is sensitive to defects that are undetectable by real time x-ray inspection. It has become the preferred method for evaluating moisture sensitivity, and for many package processes, provides more reliable detection of wire bond degradation than physical cross sectioning or conventional electrical testing. However, the introduction of new technologies such as ball grid array (BGA) and flip chip packages demands improvements in acoustic inspection techniques. Echoes from the laminated substrates in BGA packages produce interference problems. Phase inversion detection is an important advantage of pulse-echo imaging of molded surface mount packages. However, phase inversion is not always helpful for delamination detection in these new packages, due to the properties of the materials involved. The requirement to nondestructively inspect flip chip interconnect bumps has arisen. Alternative approaches such as through-transmission screening of BGAs and high frequency (>200 MHz) pulse-echo inspection of flip chip bumps are addressing these new issues. As the acoustic frequency approaches the limits dictated by attenuation, new methods of frequency-domain signal analysis will become important for routine inspection and may give acoustic microscopy a predictive capability.

Moore, T. M.; Hartfield, C. D.

1998-11-01

213

System on Chip or System on Package?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new system design paradigm, the system on package, which uses electronic product reengineering to meet time-to-market and performance requirements. The system on package promises a higher return on investment than the system on chip

Rao R. Tummala; Vijay K. Madisetti

1999-01-01

214

Low Water Activity Packaged White Bread.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a shelf-stable packaged white pan bread for military use. Shelf life of bread may be extended to several months by proper control of water activity, pH, packaging conditions, and by addition of antimicrobial compou...

C. W. Nagel D. Hsu G. G. Rubenthaler H. K. Leung N. Larson-Powers

1985-01-01

215

Plastic-Sealed Hybrid Power Circuit Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed design for hybrid high-voltage power-circuit package uses molded plastic for hermetic sealing instead of glass-to-metal seal. New package used to house high-voltage regulators and solid-state switches for applications in aircraft, electric automobiles, industrial equipment, satellites, solarcell arrays, and other equipment in extreme environments.

Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

1983-01-01

216

The Design of Reform Packages under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a model of large-scale economic reforms, modeled on the transition process in Eastern Europe, with aggregate and individual uncertainty concerning the outcome of reforms. The government is assumed to choose the speed and sequencing of reforms. The authors compare big-bang strategies with gradualist reform packages. They show that gradualist reform packages may be easier to get started,

Mathias Dewatripont

1995-01-01

217

Improved IC reliability with TAB packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronas test chip MAS 7812 has been used to assess the reliability of a number of different packages, associated materials, and chip passivations as well as some assembly housings. The test device was earlier found to give sufficient coverage of the most important failure mechanisms in plastic-encapsulated and wire-bonded ICs. The reliability of Finlux TAB package was evaluated in environmental

T. Pitkanen; T. Salo; H. Sundquist; S. Lalu; P. Collander

1989-01-01

218

Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

2003-01-01

219

Developing a Package Training System for Industry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hotel and catering industry is one of Great Britain's largest. A packaged training system has been developed to satisfy the needs of this industry, an ever-growing occupational field with multiple categories. The material provided in each package outlines short pieces of instruction and helps the trainer create appropriate training. (DS)

Battersby, D. L. N.

1974-01-01

220

Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

2007-08-01

221

Nonreturnable packaging: The environmental debate. (Latest citations from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental and economic impacts of nonreturnable versus returnable food packaging containers. Topics include the burdens on the environment due to nonreturnable beverage containers, economic considerations for the packaging industry, and government regulations imposed to reduce waste disposal. Various packaging containers are examined, including glass, aluminum, tin-plate, cardboard, and plastics. Government legislation in the soft drink and beverage industries, dairy packaged products, and paperboard packaging are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

222

Packaging development programs recommended for the U.S.Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energy facilities were visited to determine their specific packaging needs. Those individual site needs were analyzed to determine widespread packaging needs. Those packaging needs are: replacements for aging Type B packagings, plutonium packaging, overpacks for large containers, heavily shielded Type B packaging, large radioactive liquid packaging, standardized waste packaging, and packaging for explosives.

Edwards, W.S.

1996-05-21

223

Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open the packages.

1965-01-01

224

49 CFR 178.940 - Standards for flexible Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Standards for flexible Large Packagings. 178.940 Section 178.940 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.940 Standards for...

2013-10-01

225

49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packagings for certain flammable solids. 173.223 ...SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1...

2013-10-01

226

49 CFR 173.465 - Type A packaging tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type A packaging tests. 173.465 Section 173...SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.465 Type A packaging tests. (a) The...

2013-10-01

227

49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Identification codes for packagings. 178.502 Section 178.502 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.502...

2013-10-01

228

49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section 178.915 ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large...

2013-10-01

229

48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Packaging, handling, and transportation. 1852...Provisions and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. ...404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation...

2013-10-01

230

49 CFR 178.935 - Standards for wooden Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Standards for wooden Large Packagings. 178.935 Section 178.935 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.935 Standards for...

2013-10-01

231

49 CFR 178.920 - Standards for metal Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Standards for metal Large Packagings. 178.920 Section 178.920 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.920 Standards for...

2013-10-01

232

49 CFR 173.25 - Authorized packagings and overpacks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Authorized packagings and overpacks. 173.25 Section...SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...Transportation § 173.25 Authorized packagings and overpacks. (a)...

2013-10-01

233

21 CFR 211.130 - Packaging and labeling operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging and labeling operations. 211.130 ...MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Packaging and Labeling Control § 211.130 Packaging and labeling operations. There...

2013-04-01

234

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal...Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

2013-10-01

235

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75 Section 552.211-75...211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b...clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise...

2013-10-01

236

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in...

2010-10-01

237

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB...

2010-10-01

238

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use...211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in...

2009-10-01

239

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB...

2009-10-01

240

48 CFR 908.7109 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Fuels and packaged petroleum products. 908.7109 Section 908...Items 908.7109 Fuels and packaged petroleum products. Acquisitions of fuel and packaged petroleum products by DOE offices shall be in...

2013-10-01

241

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431.82 Energy...INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions...

2009-01-01

242

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431.82 Energy...INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions...

2010-01-01

243

Computer-Based Optimization of Concepts for Military Ration Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Packaging is a critical factor impacting the behavioral response to foods. Food packaging must be informative, visually appealing, and functional. Traditional approaches to package design rely on experts to create concepts and executions that are subseque...

H. R. Moskowitz G. Graves A. Cardello L. Lesher

1995-01-01

244

49 CFR 178.910 - Marking of Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identification code on a Large Packaging when the Large Packaging differs...and is approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance...registered with the Associate Administrator. ...kilograms (kg). For Large Packagings not...

2010-10-01

245

Impact of external influences on food packaging.  

PubMed

Since the food supply is dependent upon an effective packaging system, threats to packaging represent implied threats to food processing and distribution. Enacted and potential legislation and regulation are retarding technological and commercial progress in food packaging and have already restricted some food packaging/processins systems. The results of these external influences is not simply the sum of the individual acts, but is a cascading self-imposed arresting of food packaging/processing advancement. The technological bases for the enacted and proposed legislation and regulation are presented in the enumeration of the external influences on food packaging. Economic and sociological arguments and facts surrounding the issues are also presented. Among the external influences on food packaging detailed are indirect additives, nutritional labeling, benefit:risk, solid waste and litter, environmental pollution, universal product code, and food industry productivity. The magnitude of the total impact of these external influences upon the food supply is so large that assertive action must be taken to channel these influences into more productive awareness. An objective and comprehensive public communications program supported by the technological community appears mandatory. PMID:411629

Brody, A L

1977-09-01

246

The Fireball integrated code package  

SciTech Connect

Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

1997-07-01

247

ISAP: ISO Spectral Analysis Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.

Ali, Babar; Bauer, Otto; Brauher, Jim; Buckley, Mark; Harwood, Andrew; Hur, Min; Khan, Iffat; Li, Jing; Lord, Steve; Lutz, Dieter; Mazzarella, Joe; Molinari, Sergio; Morris, Pat; Narron, Bob; Seidenschwang, Karla; Sidher, Sunil; Sturm, Eckhard; Swinyard, Bruce; Unger, Sarah; Verstraete, Laurent; Vivares, Florence; Wieprecht, Ecki

2014-03-01

248

Thermal management in semiconductor device packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical, design and hardware techniques available for thermal management of microelectronic devices are reviewed. The key parameters being included in analytical models are the power consumption, the ambient and junction temperatures and the thermal resistance. Finite difference models are employed in numerical analysis during the design process, with comparisons to data, particularly temperature and coolant flow rates, gathered with prototype devices. Plastic in-line packages (DIP), ceramic chip carriers (CCC) and pin-grid array (PGA) packages have been devised to obtain thermal management through appropriate microelectronic packaging design. Future VLSI devices will rely on techniques such as microchannel cooling to achieve maximum thermal removal density for handling the expected thermal loads.

Mahalingam, M.

1985-09-01

249

Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

Angele, W.

1972-01-01

250

In-Package Source Term Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this conceptual model analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PA) in modeling the volume of in-package water available for contact with the wasteform. The conceptual model developed in this analysis model report (AMR) represents an enhancement of the in-package water volume model that was abstracted into TSPA-VA performance assessment modeling. This enhanced conceptual model will allow PA to provide a more detailed and complete representation of the volume of in-package water available for contact with the wasteform as a function of time. The conceptual model is presented as a methodology appropriate for use in the total system performance model.

R. Reeves

2000-06-09

251

Void-Free Lid for Food Packaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible cover eliminates air pockets in sealed container. Universal food-package lid formed from flexible plastic. Partially folded, lid unfolded by depressing center portion. Height of flat portion of lid above flange thereby reduced. Pressure of food against central oval depression pops it out, forming dome that provides finger grip for mixing contents with water or opening lid. Therefore food stays fresh, allows compact stacking of partially filled containers, and resists crushing. Originally developed for packaging dehydrated food for use in human consumption on Space Shuttle missions. Other uses include home canning and commercial food packaging.

Watson, C. D.; Farris, W. P.

1986-01-01

252

[The activity package of the dental assistant].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the package of activities that is actually carried out by the chairside assistant, and the activities that should be dropped or added to the package, according to both assistants and dentists. A representative sample of 1034 dentists and their assistants received a questionnaire. Results showed large differences between assistants in kind and number of activities actually carried out. Part of the group of assistants as well as part of the group of dentists expressed their wish to extend the package of activities. PMID:11915774

Verrips, G H; van Susante, J M; Kalsbeek, H; Frencken, J E

1992-08-01

253

Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP) Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Statistical and Thermal Physics (STP) Package contains read-to-run computer models and curricular materials for the teaching of statistical and thermal physics. You can choose from many different simulations and calculations ranging from probability distributions to Ising models. The STP Package is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java program. Double clicking the osp_stp.jar file will run the application if Java is installed. The source code for all programs in this package can be found by searching ComPADRE for the STP Eclipse workspace.

Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan

2008-05-31

254

Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package  

SciTech Connect

A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

2012-06-17

255

Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

Shappert, L.B.

1998-02-01

256

Packaging in dsRNA viruses.  

PubMed

Several families of viruses have segmented genomes with 3-12 chromosomes. They are capable of packaging these segments in a precise manner so that each virus particle contains one each of the genomic segments. The Cystoviridae are a family of bacteriophages that contain three genomic segments of dsRNA. During infection, the virus produces empty dodecahedral core particles that have the ability to specifically package plus strand transcripts of the genomic segments. The program of packaging makes use of the conformational changes in the surface of the particle as each transcript is packaged. The particles have complexes of a hexameric NTPase that serve as motors to bring the transcripts into the particle, and they have polymerase molecules in the interior that synthesize minus and plus strand copies of the genomic segments. PMID:22297532

Mindich, Leonard

2012-01-01

257

Installation package for concentrating solar collector panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concentrating solar collector panels comprise a complete package array consisting of collector panels using modified Fresnel prismatic lenses for a 10 to 1 concentrating ratio, supporting framework, fluid manifolding and tracking drive system, and unassembled components for field erection.

1978-01-01

258

Circuit board package with wedge shaped covers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A circuit board packaging and mounting technique that protects the wiring board from vibrations and contamination is described. The technique also augments chassis rigidity and damping and conducts component generated heat to the chassis.

Pesek, C. T. (inventor)

1973-01-01

259

Motivating Reluctant Learners: Innovative Contingency Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contingency packages can be incorporated into classroom management techniques for reluctant learners (who may have already experienced failure in education) to encourage enthusiasm and motivation for learning. Suggestions are provided for implementing programs using a robot or football concepts. (CB)

Raschke, Donna; And Others

1987-01-01

260

Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

VIANCO, PAUL T.

1999-09-23

261

An Optical Crystallography Instructional Package on Videocassettes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a self-teaching instructional package on color videocassettes, supplemented with audio descriptions, prepared from original super-8mm cinephotomicrographs for use in optical crystallography courses. Production techniques are also reviewed. (Author/JN)

Birnie, Richard W.

1980-01-01

262

Paper and Wood Packaging in Solid Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report briefly summarizes the involvement of paper and wood packaging in solid waste and presents recommendations for alleviating their impact. The topics covered include a brief history, recycling waste paper, exporting waste paper, wooden containers...

1972-01-01

263

Complementary Heating of Densely Packaged Microcircuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some microcircuits dissipate as much as equivalent circuits using discrete transistors and resistors. Dense packaging and the resultant complementary heating therefore create reliability problems similar to those experienced with discrete components. (Aut...

H. F. Dean

1967-01-01

264

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Geology subject of water quality. Topics include Field Trips and Labs, Simulations and Media, Case Studies, Lesson Plans, and Reference Material.

Moin, Laura

265

Design of miniaturized RF SAW duplexer package.  

PubMed

This paper provides a comprehensive methodology for accurate analysis and design of miniaturized radio frequency (RF) surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexer package. Full-wave analysis based on the three dimensional (3-D) finite element method (FEM) is applied to get the package model. The die model is obtained by combining the parasitics and acoustics models. The modeling of bonding wire is also discussed. The models of package, die, and bonding wires are assembled together to get the total response. Based on this methodology, several novel ideas are proposed to significantly improve the isolation. Simulation and measurement results are compared, and excellent agreement is found. The technique developed in this paper reduces the design cycle time greatly and can be applied to various RF SAW device packages. PMID:15301004

Dong, Hao; Wu, Thomas X; Cheema, Kamran S; Abbott, Benjamin P; Finch, Craig A; Foo, Hanna

2004-07-01

266

Improving Police/Community Relations - Prescriptive Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook is one of a series of prescriptive packages intended to provide criminal justice administrators with both background information and operational guidelines in selected program areas. The report represents an effort to identify various police ...

R. Wasserman M. Gardner A. S. Cohen

1973-01-01

267

Reburning Application to Firetube Package Boilers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives results of pilot-scale experimental research that examined the physical and chemical phenomena associated with the NOx control technology of reburning applied to gas- and liquid-fired firetube package boilers. Reburning (staged fuel combu...

J. A. Mulholland E. E. Stephenson C. Pendergraph J. V. Ryan

1987-01-01

268

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Biology subject of evolution. Topics include Reference Materials, Misconceptions and How to Address Them, Lesson Plans, and Human Evolution.

Moin, Laura

269

Microsystem packaging of an RF SAW correlator.  

SciTech Connect

An electrically programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator was recently completed from design through small scale production in support of low power space-based communications for NASA. Three different versions of this RF microsystem were built to satisfy design requirements and overcome packaging and system reliability related issues. Flip-chip packaging and conventional thick film hybrid assembly techniques are compared in the fabrication of this microsystem.

Palmer, David A.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Studor, George F.

2005-01-01

270

Fine pitch package mounting with TAB tape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the basic concepts, development, assembly, and qualification testing of a ceramic leaded package for high-pin-count VLSI (>200 I\\/Os). The design has been aimed at achieving high-speed logic, testability, and reliability for a small pitch (<25 mil) package. To improve the electrical performance, ground and voltage distributions are separated from the logic circuitry connected by the surface mounting

G. Dehaine; J. Joly

1989-01-01

271

Waffleline packaging techniques for millimeterwave integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-density packaging and interconnect technique called EHF Waffleline has been developed for millimeter-wave IC subsystems. This technology solves many of the size weight, and cost problems associated with present millimeter-wave packaging schemes. EHF Waffleline has been demonstrated and characterized up to 60 GHz, displaying excellent RF performance. In addition to the excellent electrical performance, EHF Waffleline offers very good

G. C. Rieder; D. E. Heckaman; J. A. Frisco; R. H. Vought; R. H. Higman; G. R. Perkins

1988-01-01

272

Reliability of industrial packaging for microsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging concepts for silicon-based micromachined sensors exposed to harsh environments are explored. By exposing the sensors directly to the media and applying protection at the wafer level the packaging and assembly will be simplified as compared to conventional methods of fabrication.Protective coatings of amorphous silicon carbide and tantalum oxide are suitable candidates with etch rates below 0.1 Å\\/h in aqueous

P. Gravesen; C. Christensen; S. Weichel; S. Bouwstra; J. Janting; G. F. Eriksen; K. Dyrbye; T. R. Brown; J. P. Krog; O. S. Jensen

1998-01-01

273

The IRAF radial velocity analysis package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IRAF Radial Velocity Analysis package is described and future plans are presented. A discussion of the current strengths and weaknesses of the package is given along with an analysis of the accuracies that can be expected for a given data set. An overview of the cross-correlation task is presented along with atypical examples of it's use. Future plans for new tasks and algorithms are also described.

Fitzpatrick, M.

1992-01-01

274

WIP -- an Interactive Graphics Software Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

\\htmllink{WIP}{http://bima.astro.umd.edu/bima/wip/wip.html} is an interactive package with a simple to use interface designed to produce high quality graphical output. WIP was developed as part of the \\htmllink{Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association}{http://bima.astro.umd.edu/bima/home.html} (BIMA) project and is available via anonymous ftp. Details are presented about the WIP package along with a few examples.

Morgan, J. A.

275

On Wire Failures in Microelectronic Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, over 95% of the manufactured packages are still being wire-bonded. Due to the ongoing trend of miniaturization, material changes, and cost reduction, wire-bond-related failures are becoming increasingly important. Different finite-element (FE) techniques are explored for their ability to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the wire embedded in the electronic package. The developed nonlinear and parametric FE models are

Willem D. van Driel; Richard B. R. van Silfhout; G. Q. Zhang

2009-01-01

276

HOPSPACK: Hybrid Optimization Parallel Search Package.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe the technical details of HOPSPACK (Hybrid Optimization Parallel SearchPackage), a new software platform which facilitates combining multiple optimization routines into asingle, tightly-coupled, hybrid algorithm that supports parallel function evaluations. The frameworkis designed such that existing optimization source code can be easily incorporated with minimalcode modification. By maintaining the integrity of each individual solver, the strengths and codesophistication of the original optimization package are retained and exploited.4

Gray, Genetha A.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Griffin, Joshua; Taddy, Matt; Martinez-Canales, Monica

2008-12-01

277

INJECTION MOLDED & MICRO FABRICATION ELECTRONIC PACKAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoset epoxies, discovered nearly 80 years ago, remain the workhorse plastic for electronic packaging and printed circuit boards, but this could change with increasing technical, economic and regulatory demands. Modern halogen-free thermoplastics now boast superior properties and highly automated high-efficiency high-volume processes. Injection molding can readily produce intricate 3D structures suitable for electronic component packaging and 3D molded circuits. Although

Ken Gilleo; RI Dennis Jones

278

A parameter-estimation subroutine package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimation subroutine package comprises fast, efficient, and simple least-squares data-processing algorithms for use in orbit determination and related analyses. Very reliable and general algorithms have been documented. Package contains collection of streamlined subroutines that can be used to solve large variety of parameter-estimation and filtering problems. Special routines are included for problems with colored process noise and covariance (factor) mapping.

Bierman, G.; Nead, M. W.

1979-01-01

279

Scope on Safety: Avoid surprise packages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR), parts 171--180 explain what is required of a shipper to transport hazardous materials safely. The regulations cover classification, packaging, incident reporting, and handling of hazardous materials. Hazardous material packaging is the first line of defense in helping to prevent the material from being released during transportation. School personnel who deal with hazardous shipments should review the suggestions outlined in this month's column.

Roy, Ken

2008-04-01

280

Multichip module packaging for cryogenic computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed multichip module for cryogenic data processing systems has been developed using new packaging and cooling techniques. The cryogenic multichip module achieves a cycle time of 1.5 ns by using high-speed high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) ICs, low-stress cryo-multichip module (MCM) packaging, and a stable cryocooling system. The HEMT multichip module consists of 20 3 K-gate HEMT ICs on a high-density, 115-mm2

H. Yamamoto

1991-01-01

281

Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package is a collection of models for electrostatics with errors intentionally built into each model. Users can move charges around and see the force, observe the electric field generated by charge configurations, and observe the motion of test particles in electric fields to try to identify the errors in the simulation. Users can inspect, modify and correct any simulation in the package by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The package also includes a brief overview of programming basics needed to correct the models. The Electric Field: What is Wrong? Package was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_em_electric_wiw.jar file will launch the package if Java is installed. Navigate within the package and click on a green triangle to run a particular simulation. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available on ComPADRE.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2010-04-16

282

Protection of microelectronic devices during packaging  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Conley, William R. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01

283

Safety analysis report for packages: packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The 9965, 9966, 9967, and 9968 packages are designed for surface shipment of fissile and other radioactive materials where a high degree of containment (either single or double) is required. Provisions are made to add shielding material to the packaging as required. The package was physically tested to demonstrate that it meets the criteria specified in USDOE Order No. 5480.1, chapter III, dated 5/1/81, which invokes Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71), Packing and Transportation of Radioactive Material, and Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 100-179, Transportation. By restricting the maximum normal operating pressure of the packages to less than 7 kg/cm/sup 2/ (gauge) (99 to 54 psig), the packages will comply with Type B(U) regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, Safety Series No. 6, 1973 Revised Edition, and may be used for export and import shipments. These packages have been assessed for transport of up to 14.5 kilograms of uranium, excluding uranium-233, or 4.4 kilograms of plutonium metal, oxides, or scrap having a maximum radioactive decay energy of 30 watts. Specific maximum package contents are given. This quantity and the configuration of uranium or plutonium metal cannot be made critical by any combination of hydrogeneous reflection and moderation regardless of the condition of the package. For a uranium-233 shipment, a separate criticality evaluation for the specific package is required.

Chalfant, G.G. (comp.)

1984-01-01

284

Software Package Supporting Ship Stability by using Catastrophe Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on using the results of Catastrophe Theory and its applications on ship stability in a form of software package. The package has guiding and warning aspects. A software package has been designed and programmed using the Turbo Pascal Ver. (7) on an IBM-PC. The package deals with ship stability through a practical method in terms of loading,

SEBAH A. Ali; Jabar H. Yousif; Khaldoun M. Batiha

2002-01-01

285

Advanced packaging for Integrated Micro-Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The relationship between packaging, microelectronics, and micro-electrical-mechanical systems (MEMS) is an important one, particularly when the edges of performance boundaries are pressed, as in the case of miniaturized systems. Packaging is a sort of physical backbone that enables the maximum performance of these systems to be realized, and the penalties imposed by conventional packing approaches is particularly limiting for MEMS devices. As such, advanced packaging approaches, such as multi-chip modules (MCM's) have been touted as a true means of electronic 'enablement' for a variety of application domains. Realizing an optimum system of packaging, however, in not as simple as replacing a set of single chip packages with a substrate of interconnections. Research at Phillips Laboratory has turned up a number of integrating options in the two- and three-dimensional rending of miniature systems with physical interconnection structures with intrinsically high performance. Not only do these structures motivate the redesign of integrated circuits (IC's) for lower power, but they possess interesting features that provide a framework for the direct integration of MEMS devices. Cost remains a barrier to the application of MEMS devices, even in space systems. Several innovations are suggested that will result in lower cost and more rapid cycle time. First, the novelty of a 'constant floor plan' MCM which encapsulates a variety of commonly used components into a stockable, easily customized assembly is discussed. Next, the use of low-cost substrates is examined. The anticipated advent of ultra-high density interconnect (UHDI) is suggested as the limit argument of advanced packaging. Finally, the concept of a heterogeneous 3-D MCM system is outlined that allows for the combination of different compatible packaging approaches into a uniformly dense structure that could also include MEMS-based sensors.

Lyke, James L.

1995-01-01

286

Packaging of Endogenous Retroviral Sequences in Retroviral Vectors Produced by Murine and Human Packaging Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction of retrovirus vectors and endogenous retroviruses present in packaging cell lines and target cells may result in unwanted events, such as the formation of recombinant viruses and the mobilization of therapeu- tic vectors. Using sensitive reverse transcriptase PCR assays, we investigated human and murine gene therapy packaging cell lines for incorporation of endogenous retrovirus transcripts into murine leukemia virus

CLIVE PATIENCE; YASUHIRO TAKEUCHI; FRANCOIS-LOIC COSSET; ROBIN A. WEISS

1998-01-01

287

Spooled packaging of shape memory alloy actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast cross-section of transportation, manufacturing, consumer product, and medical technologies rely heavily on actuation. Accordingly, progress in these industries is often strongly coupled to the advancement of actuation technologies. As the field of actuation continues to evolve, smart materials show significant promise for satisfying the growing needs of industry. In particular, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators present an opportunity for low-cost, high performance actuation, but until now, they have been limited or restricted from use in many otherwise suitable applications by the difficulty in packaging the SMA wires within tight or unusually shaped form constraints. To address this packaging problem, SMA wires can be spool-packaged by wrapping around mandrels to make the actuator more compact or by redirecting around multiple mandrels to customize SMA wire pathways to unusual form factors. The goal of this dissertation is to develop the scientific knowledge base for spooled packaging of low-cost SMA wire actuators that enables high, predictable performance within compact, customizable form factors. In developing the scientific knowledge base, this dissertation defines a systematic general representation of single and multiple mandrel spool-packaged SMA actuators and provides tools for their analysis, understanding, and synthesis. A quasi-static analytical model distills the underlying mechanics down to the three effects of friction, bending, and binding, which enables prediction of the behavior of generic spool-packaged SMA actuators with specifiable geometric, loading, frictional, and SMA material parameters. An extensive experimental and simulation-based parameter study establishes the necessary understanding of how primary design tradeoffs between performance, packaging, and cost are governed by the underlying mechanics of spooled actuators. A design methodology outlines a systematic approach to synthesizing high performance SMA wire actuators with mitigated material, power, and packaging costs and compact, customizable form factors. By examining the multi-faceted connections between performance, packaging, and cost, this dissertation builds a knowledge base that goes beyond implementing SMA actuators for particular applications. Rather, it provides a well-developed strategy for realizing the advantages of SMA actuation for a broadened range of applications, thereby enabling opportunities for new functionality and capabilities in industry.

Redmond, John A.

288

Thermal management of LEDs: package to system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light emitting diodes, LEDs, historically have been used for indicators and produced low amounts of heat. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors have led to a movement towards general illumination. The increased electrical currents used to drive the LEDs have focused more attention on the thermal paths in the developments of LED power packaging. The luminous efficiency of LEDs is soon expected to reach over 80 lumens/W, this is approximately 6 times the efficiency of a conventional incandescent tungsten bulb. Thermal management for the solid-state lighting applications is a key design parameter for both package and system level. Package and system level thermal management is discussed in separate sections. Effect of chip packages on junction to board thermal resistance was compared for both SiC and Sapphire chips. The higher thermal conductivity of the SiC chip provided about 2 times better thermal performance than the latter, while the under-filled Sapphire chip package can only catch the SiC chip performance. Later, system level thermal management was studied based on established numerical models for a conceptual solid-state lighting system. A conceptual LED illumination system was chosen and CFD models were created to determine the availability and limitations of passive air-cooling.

Arik, Mehmet; Becker, Charles A.; Weaver, Stanton E.; Petroski, James

2004-01-01

289

Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Package is a collection of models for electrostatics. Users can move charges around and see the force, observe the electric field generated by charge configurations, and observe the motion of test particles in electric fields. Also included are student worksheets in pdf format to supplement each simulation. Users can inspect and modify any simulation in the package by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. The Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Package was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_electric_sampler.jar file will launch the package if Java is installed. Navigate within the package and click on a green triangle to run a particular simulation. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Cox, Anne; Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2009-12-07

290

The VLSI package - An analytical review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current very large-scale integrated (VLSI) chip packaging options, with a special emphasis on the various size and chip I/O complexity issues are reviewed, quantitatively. The two basic packaging options reviewed are the hermetic chip carrier (HCC) and the pin grid array (PGA). The impact that chip input/output (I/O) has on the 'size' growth of packages as single chip enclosures, as well as that of the chips themselves, is considered. It is shown that the HCC is inherently more area-efficient for almost any high I/O configured VLSI chip, especially if the chip size growth that must be anticipated is considered as I/O's of 400 are entertained. After quantitative considerations of discrete packaging options are exhausted, it is finally recommended that a multichip VLSI module should be seriously considered as a more efficient packaging concept. This, however, requires some innovation directed toward the development of adequate prepackaged chip testing. This could be facilitated through the incorporation of physically testable I/O ports on the 'passivated' VLSI chip; e.g., flip chip 'bumps', tape-automated bonding (TAB), or beam lead chip interconnects.

Lewis, E. T.

1984-06-01

291

SPHOTOM - Package for an Automatic Multicolour Photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present basic information about package SPHOTOM for an automatic multicolour photometry. This package is in development for the creation of a photometric pipe-line, which we plan to use in the near future with our new instruments. It could operate in two independent modes, (i) GUI mode, in which the user can select images and control functions of package through interface and (ii) command line mode, in which all processes are controlled using a main parameter file. SPHOTOM is developed as a universal package for Linux based systems with easy implementation for different observatories. The photometric part of the package is based on the Sextractor code, which allows us to detect all objects on the images and perform their photometry with different apertures. We can also perform astrometric solutions for all images for a correct cross-identification of the stars on the images. The result is a catalogue of all objects with their instrumental photometric measurements which are consequently used for a differential magnitudes calculations with one or more comparison stars, transformations to an international system, and determinations of colour indices.

Parimucha, Š.; Va?ko, M.; Mikloš, P.

2012-04-01

292

Analytical screening studies on irradiated food packaging.  

PubMed

Foods may be irradiated in their final packaging and this process may affect the composition of the packaging and in turn affect the migration of substances into food. Headspace and liquid injection GC-MS and HPLC with time-of-flight MS have been used to identify and estimate levels of radiolytic products in irradiated finished plastic packaging materials. Fifteen retail packaging materials were studied. Investigations were carried out into the effect of different irradiation types (gamma and electron beam), irradiation doses (1, 3, 7 and 10 kGy) and dose rates (5 kGy s(-1) for electron beam and 0.4 and 1.85 kGy h(-1) for gamma) on the radiolytic products. Any differences seen in comparing the two ionising radiation types were attributed largely to the very different dose rates; for electron beam a 10 kGy dose was delivered in just 2 s whereas using gamma it took 5.4 h. Differences were also seen when comparing the same samples irradiated at different doses. Some substances were not affected by irradiation, others decreased in concentration and others were formed upon increasing doses of irradiation. These results confirm that irradiation-induced changes do occur in substances with the potential to migrate and that the safety of the finished packaging material following irradiation should be assessed. PMID:24215551

Driffield, M; Bradley, E L; Leon, I; Lister, L; Speck, D R; Castle, L; Potter, E L J

2014-01-01

293

Integrated microsystems packaging approach with LCP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the government communication market there is an increasing push to further miniaturize systems with the use of chip-scale packages, flip-chip bonding, and other advances over traditional packaging techniques. Harris' approach to miniaturization includes these traditional packaging advances, but goes beyond this level of miniaturization by combining the functional and structural elements of a system, thus creating a Multi-Functional Structural Circuit (MFSC). An emerging high-frequency, near hermetic, thermoplastic electronic substrate material, Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP), is the material that will enable the combination of the electronic circuit and the physical structure of the system. The first embodiment of this vision for Harris is the development of a battlefield acoustic sensor module. This paper will introduce LCP and its advantages for MFSC, present an example of the work that Harris has performed, and speak to LCP MFSCs' potential benefits to miniature communications modules and sensor platforms.

Jaynes, Paul; Shacklette, Lawrence W.

2006-06-01

294

DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

Blanton, P.

2013-10-10

295

Big Things Come in Little Packages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners investigate three packages which are all the same size and shape, but have different contents. One is filled with foam, one is filled with wood, and one is filled with metal. Learners are introduced to the concept of density, that objects with the same volume but different masses have different densities. Learners can extend their learning using one of the extensions provided: twenty questions to determine contents, determine the volume of the packages, determine mass and densities of the packages. Part of the 21-activity guide published by OMSI, No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow. All activities in this guide use household materials and all lesson plans include preparation directions, demonstrations, procedure sheets, cross-curricular connections, and scientific explanation of content.

Industry, Oregon M.

2007-01-01

296

MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

2000-01-19

297

MEMS performance challenges: packaging and shock tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent advances in the MEMS performance challenges with emphases on packaging and shock tests. In the packaging area, metal to metal bonding processes have been developed to overcome limitations of the glass frit bonding by means of two specific methods: (1) pre-reflow of solder for enhanced bonding adhesion, and (2) the insertion of thin metal layer between parent metal bonding materials. In the shock test area, multiscale analysis for a MEMS package system has been developed with experimental verifications to investigate dynamic responses under drop-shock tests. Structural deformation and stress distribution data are extracted and predicted for device fracture and in-operation stiction analyses for micro mechanical components in various MEMS sensors, including accelerometers and gyroscopes.

Chang, Jiyoung; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Liwei

2011-05-01

298

Conceptual exploration package for data fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a software package designed to explore data fusion area applied to different contexts. This tool, called CEPfuse (Conceptual Exploration Package for Data Fusion) provides a good support to become familiar with all concepts and vocabulary linked to data fusion. Developed with Matlab 5.2, it's also a good tool to test, compare and analyze algorithms. Although the core of this package is evidential reasoning and identity information fusion, it has been conceived to develop all the interesting part of the Multi-Sensor Data Fusion system. Actually, because we concentrate our research work on identity information fusion, the principal included algorithms are Dempster- Shafer rules of combination, Shafer-Logan algorithms for hierarchical structures, and several decision rules.

Jousselme, Anne-Laure; Grenier, Dominic; Bosse, Eloi

2000-04-01

299

[Graphic images on cigarette packages not effective].  

PubMed

The Dutch Government intends to make graphic images on cigarette packages mandatory. However, contrary to other policy measures to reduce smoking, health warnings do not work. There is no acceptable evidence in favour of graphic images and behaviour change theories suggest methods of change that improve skills, self-efficacy and social support. Thus, theory- and evidence-based policy should focus on prohibiting the tobacco industry from glamourizing packaging and make health communications on packages mandatory. As to the type of communications to be used, theory and evidence suggest that warning of the negative consequences of smoking is not an effective approach. Rather, targeting the most important determinants of the initiation of smoking and its successful cessation - such as skills, self-efficacy and subjective norm - along with the most effective behaviour change methods appears to be the most expedient strategy. PMID:23548194

Kok, Gerjo; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Ruiter, Robert A C

2013-01-01

300

DEVELOPMENT OF THE H1700 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The H1700 Package is based on the DOE-EM Certified 9977 Packaging. The H1700 will be certified by the Packaging Certification Division of the National Nuclear Security Administration for the shipment of plutonium by air by the United Stated Military both within the United States and internationally. The H1700 is designed to ship radioactive contents in assemblies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) or arrangements of nested food-pack cans. The RTG containers are designed and tested to remain leaktight during transport, handling, and storage; however, their ability to remain leaktight during transport in the H1700 is not credited. This paper discusses the design and special operation of the H1700.

Abramczyk, G.; Loftin, B.; Mann, P.

2009-06-05

301

Hypertext-based computer vision teaching packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The World Wide Web Initiative has provided a means for providing hypertext and multimedia based information across the whole INTERNET. Many applications have been developed on such http servers. At Cardiff we have developed a http hypertext based multimedia server, the Cardiff Information Server, using the widely available Mosaic system. The server provides a variety of information ranging from the provision of teaching modules, on- line documentation, timetables for departmental activities to more light hearted hobby interests. One important and novel development to the server has been the development of courseware facilities. This ranges from the provision of on-line lecture notes, exercises and their solutions to more interactive teaching packages. A variety of disciplines have benefitted notably Computer Vision, and Image Processing but also C programming, X Windows, Computer Graphics and Parallel Computing. This paper will address the issues of the implementation of the Computer Vision and Image Processing packages, the advantages gained from using a hypertext based system and also will relate practical experiences of using the packages in a class environment. The paper addresses issues of how best to provide information in such a hypertext based system and how interactive image processing packages can be developed and integrated into courseware. The suite of tools developed facilitates a flexible and powerful courseware package that has proved popular in the classroom and over the Internet. The paper will also detail many future developments we see possible. One of the key points raised in the paper is that Mosaic's hypertext language (html) is extremely powerful and yet relatively straightforward to use. It is also possible to link in Unix calls so that programs and shells can be executed. This provides a powerful suite of utilities that can be exploited to develop many packages.

Marshall, A. David

1994-10-01

302

Packaging technology enabling flexible optical interconnections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the latest trends and results on the integration of optical and opto-electronic devices and interconnections inside flexible carrier materials. Electrical circuits on flexible substrates are a very fast growing segment in electronics, but opto-electronics and optics should be able to follow these upcoming trends. This paper presents the back-thinning and packaging of single opto-electronic devices resulting in highly flexible and reliable packages. Optical waveguides and optical out-of-plane coupling structures are integrated inside the same layer stack, resulting in complete VCSEL-to-PD links with low total optical losses and high resistance to heat cycling and moisture exposure.

Bosman, Erwin; van Steenberge, Geert; Missinne, Jeroen; van Hoe, Bram; Kalathimekkad, Sandeep; van Daele, Peter

2011-02-01

303

Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

Edwards, W.S.

1997-01-30

304

Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

Clements, M.D.

1996-01-01

305

Investigation of package sealing using organic adhesives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A systematic study was performed to evaluate the suitability of adhesives for sealing hybrid packages. Selected adhesives were screened on the basis of their ability to seal gold-plated Kovar butterfly-type packages that retain their seal integrity after individual exposures to increasingly severe temperature-humidity environments. Tests were also run using thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock and temperature aging. The four best adhesives were determined and further tested in a 60 C/98% RH environment and continuously monitored in regard to moisture content. Results are given, however, none of the tested adhesives passed all the tests.

Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

1977-01-01

306

Neural Network Prototyping Package Within IRAF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this contract was to develop a neural network package within the IRAF environment to allow users to easily understand and use different neural network algorithms the analysis of astronomical data. The package was developed for use within IRAF to allow portability to different computing environments and to provide a familiar and easy to use interface with the routines. In addition to developing the software and supporting documentation, we planned to use the system for the analysis of several sample problems to prove its viability and usefulness.

Bazell, David

1997-01-01

307

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) SERF cask  

SciTech Connect

This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) documents the ability of the Special Environmental Radiometallurgy Facility (SERF) Cask to meet the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B quantities (up to highway route controlled quantities) of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This document shall be used to ensure that loading, tie down, transport, and unloading of the SERF Cask are performed in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

Edwards, W.S.

1997-10-24

308

Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design,fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

Edwards, W.S.

1996-09-11

309

Package-level integrated antennas based on LTCC technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel package topology integrating multilayer miniaturized antennas. Such a functional package is suitable for the design of a system-on-chip device, or of system-on-package applications. A stacked patch antenna is designed and integrated in a package using a low temperature co-fired ceramic process. The overall size of the package is 10.3times10.3times1.3 mm3, and this package contains an 8.3times8.3times0.7

Sang-Hyuk Wi; Yong-Bin Sun; In-Sang Song; Sung-Hoon Choa; I.-S. Koh; Yong-Shik Lee; Jong-Gwan Yook

2006-01-01

310

Focussing on Generic Skills in Training Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed whether training packages gave sufficient focus to attainment of generic skills and examined approaches that can be used to enhance the delivery of these skills so students are better prepared for the new demands of the workplace. A literature review and consultations with stakeholders provided information on development of the…

Dawe, Susan

311

Relaxed-tolerance optoelectronic device packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an approach to single-mode fiber coupling which results in relaxed alignment tolerances during the package assembly process. The authors use a ball lens to couple from the optical device either directly to single-mode fiber (SMF), or indirectly to SMF through a fiber lens. The ball lens is aligned and mounted in the first assembly stage. The lens

Leslie A. Reith; James W. Mann; Gail R. Lalk; Robert R. Krchnavek; Nicholas C. Andreadakis; Chung-en Zah

1991-01-01

312

Occupational Information System (OIS) Handbook Training Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training package, consisting of information concerning the content, use, and applications of the Occupational Information System (OIS), is designed for use in a training presentation conducted for administrators, trainers, counselors, job placement specialists, and economic development staff who will be working with the OIS. Included in the…

National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (DOL/ETA), Washington, DC.

313

The electromagnetic simulation software package MAFIA 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAFIA 4 is a general purpose electromagnetic simulation software package, which has found wide application in various research and industrial institutions. The program is based on the finite integration theory and covers all main aspects of this grid-based discrete electromagnetic field theory. New developments for MAFIA 4 are the TL3 code module for simulation of transient magnetoquasistatic fields including effects

M. Clemens; S. Drobny; H. Krugert; P. Pinder; O. Podebrad; B. Schillinger; B. Trapp; T. Weiland; M. Wilke; M. Bartsch; U. Becker; M. Zhang

1999-01-01

314

Package structural integrity analysis considering moisture  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three types of failures when an electronic package is exposed to a humidity environment: the popcorn failure at soldering reflow, the delamination and cracking at HAST without electrical bias, and the corrosion under biased HAST. Despite the difference in failure mechanisms, the common and most contributory factor to moisture induced failures is the degradation of adhesion strength in

Xuejun Fan; Jiang Zhou; Abhijit Chandra

2008-01-01

315

River Data Package for Hanford Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and hydraulic parameters and input values that will be used in river modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed

Cynthia L. Rakowski; Gregory R. Guensch; Gregory W. Patton

2006-01-01

316

27 CFR 41.71 - Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...removal subject to internal revenue tax, be put up in packages...indication that United States tax has been paid. No person may...possess (except for personal consumption), offer for sale, or...

2010-04-01

317

An Adapted DRAIN Package for SEEPAGE Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of the location of actual and potential groundwater discharge areas is a key aspect in the protection and (re)development of groundwater dependent wetlands. Groundwater discharge areas can be simulated in MODFLOW by using the DRAIN Package. In possible groundwater discharge areas the drain level will be set to the topography, while the conductance will be set to an

O. Batelaan; F. De Smedt

318

Packaging Effect on MEMS Pressure Sensor Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of epoxy based molding compound packaging on a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) pressure sensor performance is investigated. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the MEMS sensor over temperature and pressure changes by measuring output voltage signals. The sensor was modeled by a finite element method to investigate the stress developments. The molding compound was

Rudolf H. Krondorfer; Yeong K. Kim

2007-01-01

319

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Atomic Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Chemistry subject of atomic structures. Topics include The History of the Atom, Reference Material, Tutorials, Simulations, Questions and Activities, Periodic Tables, and resources for more advanced learners.

Moin, Laura

320

LPI--An Interactive Linear Programming Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LPI is an interactive linear programming (L.P.) package designed primarily for instructional usage with the Cambridge Monitor System on the IBM/360 Computer. LPI removes the computational burden from the student without depriving him of the decision-makin...

R. H. Shudde

1974-01-01

321

Interactive Computer Package For Surface Water Hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactive computer package comprises a number of very common hydrological analyses: computation of infiltration, computation of unit hydrographs, and flood routing through reservoirs and river channels. All these procedures are coming from the literature and had been used and proven for many years. In order to make the computer code efficient and appealing, it was developed in the Visual

Jadir Solis-Montero; Jose A. Raynal-Villasenor

2004-01-01

322

Qualification guidelines for automotive packaging devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continued demand for miniaturization, with the advent of new materials and processes, and with increased demand for better performance and lower cost, reliability of microelectronic devices continues to be a major concern. As microelectronic packages are used in a wide range of applications from automotive to aerospace to telecommunications to biomedical devices, there is a need for developing

Rajiv Raghunathan; Suresh K. Sitaraman

2000-01-01

323

Training Package Implementation: Innovative and Flexible Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of training packages (TPs) in Australian workplaces was examined through case studies of the use of TPs in nontraditional trade areas by six innovative registered training organizations (RTOs) across Australia. The study focused on the extent to which new and flexible approaches to learning, training delivery, and assessment…

Meyers, Dave; Blom, Kaaren

324

How Institutions Respond to Training Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the transition to training packages (TPs) on institutionally based training in Australia was examined. Information was gathered from 14 case studies of registered trade organizations (RTOs) delivering qualifications to institutionally based students in TPs in the following areas: administration, beauty therapy, community services,…

Boorman, Andrew

325

Technology Assessment Software Package: Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the Technology Assessment Software Package (TASP) Project, which produced developmentally appropriate technology assessment software for children from 18 months through 8 years of age who have moderate to severe disabilities that interfere with their interaction with people, objects, tasks, and events in their…

Hutinger, Patricia L.

326

Personalizing the Appearance of Content Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personalized delivery of content is a way of making online content portals more attrac- tive to end users, and consequently, nowadays many online portals provide varying ways of personalizing their service. In order to facili- tate the creation of such personalized services, the IMAGEN toolset came into existence. IMAGEN aims at creating personalized con- tent packages, where documents are

Alexander Kröner; Hideo Sato

2004-01-01

327

Ceramic technology for integrated packaging for wireless  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic increase in the application of microwave technologies due to the growth in wireless communications has created many challenges for interconnect and packaging technologies. The majority of wireless equipment has used conventional printed circuit board technologies, with some extension in their capabilities to handle the frequencies required. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that such technologies do not address

Dan Amey; Peter Barnwell; Ray Brown; Frank Gaughan; Sam Horowitz; Andy London; Rodd Novak; Don Slutz; Dave Wilcox

1999-01-01

328

Second Generation Waste Package Design Study  

SciTech Connect

The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 “Second Generation Waste Package Design Study” under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion testenvironments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity.

Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

2007-06-28

329

Rotational Molding Process Technician. Instructional Program Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum package contains materials developed through a partnership of the Association of Rotational Molders, El Paso Community College (Texas), and the College of DuPage (Illinois). The materials, which were developed during a 2-day DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process, are based on national skill standards and designed for…

El Paso Community Coll., TX.

330

Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

Hime, Kirsten

331

Rural Programs: Vocational Education Resource Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package on rural college programs contains information about successful program strategies and ideas currently in use in vocational education programs at rural schools within the California Community Colleges…

Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

332

Wafer-level package interconnect options  

Microsoft Academic Search

As integrated circuit technology enters the nanometer era, global interconnects are becoming a bottleneck for overall chip performance. In this paper, we show that wafer-level package interconnects are an effective alternative to conventional on-chip global wires. These interconnects behave as LC transmission lines and can be exploited for their near speed of light transmission and low attenuation characteristics. We compare

Jayaprakash Balachandran; Steven Brebels; Geert Carchon; Maarten Kuijk; Walter De Raedt; Bart K. J. C. Nauwelaers; Eric Beyne

2006-01-01

333

KINETICS MODEL AND OZONE ISOPLETH PLOTTING PACKAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Kinetics Model and Ozone Isopleth Plotting Package (OZIPP) computer program can be used to simulate ozone formation in urban atmospheres. OZIPP calculates maximum one-hour average ozone concentrations given a set of input assumptions about initial precursor concentrations, li...

334

School-Age Child Care Training Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for school-age child care staff training, this package of materials aims to (1) increase understanding of the developmental needs of school-age children between 5 and 12 years of age; (2) provide information on developing safe, supportive, and enriching programs for children during the hours they are not in school; and (3) involve staff…

Rowland, Bobbie H.; And Others

335

Organophosphorous poisoning at a chemical packaging company  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Six men packaging demeton-S-methyl concentrate developed organophosphorous poisoning. An account of the circumstances of the occurrence is given, together with the results of an investigation into the incidents. The clinical cases are described in outline and individual response to absorption of the pesticide considered. Some relevant issues on the use of protective clothing when working with organophosphorous compounds are discussed.

Jones, R D

1982-01-01

336

Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

1996-01-01

337

Piecewise Cubic Hermite Interpolation Package. Final specifications  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the specifications for PCHIP, a new Fortran package for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and visually pleasing interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contains both steep and flat sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application.

Fritsch, F N

1982-08-01

338

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons for mathematics. Topics include The History of the Browsing NSDL Resources by Standards or School Level, Bilingual Math Resources, and Resources for Advanced Learners.

Moin, Laura

339

Grant Writing: Vocational Education Resource Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in obtaining direct funding grants to enhance vocational education programs and services, this Vocational Education Resource Package (VERP) provides guidelines for writing grant proposals. The VERP is tailored for programs requesting funds from the California Community Colleges or…

Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

340

Pupil-Perceived Needs Assessment Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pupil-Perceived Needs Assessment (PPNA) is designed to assist school personnel in collecting information on pupil attitudes, reactions, and feelings towards new and existing curricular and extracurricular programs or towards education in general, and to assess pupils' needs from the pupils' perspective. The package is not meant to be used as…

DeLorme, Hsuan L.; And Others

341

Noise and Cooling in Electronics Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noise produced by cooling air passing through electronics packages arises from two sources. One source is the noise of the air-moving fan of either an axial or centrifugal type. This noise may have both tonal and random components and is strongly dependent on the way that the fan is placed in the unit and on where its operation is

Richard H. Lyon; Arthur E. Bergles

2006-01-01

342

Solar Water-Heater Design Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

1982-01-01

343

Youth Environmental Service (YES): Technical Assistance Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is designed to help youth service agencies and Federal land managers learn more about the YES initiative in order to plan YES programs suited to their own circumstances. The package describes the steps for becoming a YES site and explains ho...

S. Bilchik

1996-01-01

344

Double-Sided Solar Cell Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solar cell array for terrestrial use is described. The solar cell package consists of a double sided photovoltaic cell having a metallized P contact and N contact provided on opposite faces of the cell; a transparent tubular body forming a transparent e...

B. Shelpuk

1978-01-01

345

Multivariable geostatistics in S: the gstat package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses advantages and shortcomings of the S environment for multivariable geostatistics, in particular when extended with the gstat package, an extension package for the S environments (R, S-Plus). The gstat S package provides multivariable geostatistical modelling, prediction and simulation, as well as several visualisation functions. In particular, it makes the calculation, simultaneous fitting, and visualisation of a large number of direct and cross (residual) variograms very easy. Gstat was started 10 years ago and was released under the GPL in 1996; gstat.org was started in 1998. Gstat was not initially written for teaching purposes, but for research purposes, emphasising flexibility, scalability and portability. It can deal with a large number of practical issues in geostatistics, including change of support (block kriging), simple/ordinary/universal (co)kriging, fast local neighbourhood selection, flexible trend modelling, variables with different sampling configurations, and efficient simulation of large spatially correlated random fields, indicator kriging and simulation, and (directional) variogram and cross variogram modelling. The formula/models interface of the S language is used to define multivariable geostatistical models. This paper introduces the gstat S package, and discusses a number of design and implementation issues. It also draws attention to a number of papers on integration of spatial statistics software, GIS and the S environment that were presented on the spatial statistics workshop and sessions during the conference Distributed Statistical Computing 2003.

Pebesma, Edzer J.

2004-08-01

346

REBURNING APPLICATION TO FIRETUBE PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale experimental research that examined the physical and chemical phenomena associated with the NOx control technology of reburning applied to gas- and liquid-fired firetube package boilers. Reburning (staged fuel combustion) diverts some of th...

347

Recent advances in photonics packaging materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are now over a dozen low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities between that of copper (400 w/m-K) and over 4X copper (1700 W/m-K). Most have low densities. For comparison, traditional low-CTE packaging materials like copper/tungsten have thermal conductivities that are little or no better than that of aluminum (200 W/m-K) and high densities. There are also low-density thermal insulators with low CTEs. Some advanced materials are low cost. Most do not outgas. They have a wide range of electrical properties that can be used to minimize electromagnetic emissions or provide EMI shielding. Several are now in commercial and aerospace applications, including laser diode packages; light-emitting diode (LED) packages; thermoelectric cooler bases, plasma displays; power modules; servers; laptops; heat sinks; thermally conductive, low-CTE printed circuit boards; and printed circuit board cold plates. Advanced material payoffs include: improved thermal performance, reliability, alignment and manufacturing yield; reduced thermal stresses and heating power requirements; simplified thermal design; enablement of hard solder direct attach; weight savings up to 85%; size reductions up to 65%; and lower cost. This paper discusses the large and increasing number of advanced packaging materials, including properties, development status, applications, increasing manufacturing yield, cost, lessons learned and future directions, including nanocomposites.

Zweben, Carl

2006-03-01

348

7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From...import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...shipment, i.e. , âLive Bees,â âBee Germ Plasm,â or âLive Bee Brood,â...

2009-01-01

349

7 CFR 322.9 - Mailed packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From...import a package of honeybees, honeybee germ plasm, or bees other than honeybees...shipment, i.e. , âLive Bees,â âBee Germ Plasm,â or âLive Bee Brood,â...

2010-01-01

350

Educational Software for Teaching Physics: Commercial Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was developed to help teachers locate computer software to enhance the teaching of traditional physics at all educational levels. It contains a table listing approximately 900 packages. The table is organized by type of computer (Apple II, Atari, Commodore, IBM PC, Macintosh, and TRS-80) and is alphabetized first by publisher and…

Gjertsen, Margaret; Risley, John S.

1987-01-01

351

Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an…

Stark, Pamela

352

MASSACHUSETTS BAYS PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW PACKAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Massachusetts Implementation Review Package contains annual work plans for fiscal years 2003 and 2004. Also included is a table of Leveraged Resources, the Tracking System report, the Environmental Indicators Report, NEP Achievements Report and a fact sheet for the Massachuse...

353

MOLCAS: a program package for computational chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program system MOLCAS is a package for calculations of electronic and structural properties of molecular systems in gas, liquid, or solid phase. It contains a number of modern quantum chemical methods for studies of the electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states. A macromolecular environment can be modeled by a combination of quantum chemistry and molecular mechanics. It

Gunnar Karlström; Roland Lindh; Per-Åke Malmqvist; Björn O Roos; Ulf Ryde; Valera Veryazov; Per-Olof Widmark; Maurizio Cossi; Bernd Schimmelpfennig; Pavel Neogrady; Luis Seijo

2003-01-01

354

A vacuum packaged surface micromachined resonant accelerometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the operation of a vacuum packaged resonant accelerometer subjected to static and dynamic acceleration testing. The device response is in broad agreement with a new analytical model of its behavior under an applied time-varying acceleration. Measurements include tests of the scale factor of the sensor and the dependence of the output sideband power and the noise floor

Ashwin A. Seshia; Moorthi Palaniapan; Trey A. Roessig; Roger T. Howe; Roland W. Gooch; Thomas R. Schimert; Stephen Montague

2002-01-01

355

NWTS waste package design and materials testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The package materials test program has progressed naturally from materials screening activities during the conceptual design phase to detailed testing of selected materials during the preliminary design phase. The screening activities have been largely completed and recently reviewed. The program is currently moving into the detailed testing phase. Consistent with current conceptual designs, emphasis in waste form studies is on

J. F. Kircher; D. J. Bradley

1983-01-01

356

44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

J.M. Scaglione

2004-08-25

357

78 FR 13006 - New Intelligent Mail Package Barcode Standards To Enhance Package Visibility; Opportunity for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...package barcodes (IMpb) or unique tracking Intelligent Mail barcodes (IMb TM...assure their ability to apply unique tracking barcodes to all commercial parcels...provide scanning data of IMpb and other tracking barcodes through the use of...

2013-02-26

358

Processing and warpage evaluation of Package-on-Packages with various epoxy molding compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We fabricated the top packages of Package-on-Packages (PoPs) with various epoxy molding compounds (EMCs) and measured their warpage using the shadow moiré method. The warpage was positive (crying shape) at room temperature due to the smaller coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of the EMCs relative to that of the substrate at temperatures below the glass transition temperature T g . With increasing heating cycle temperature, the warpage decreased and became negative (smiling shape) at approximately 100°C, then increased toward positive (crying shape) with further increasing temperature, and finally reached its peak value at the solder reflow temperature of 260°C. Such warpage variation behavior is closely related to the CTEs of the EMCs being larger than that of the substrate above T g . Among the packages, the one molded with the EMCs exhibiting the lowest T g and the largest CTE at temperatures above T g exhibited the largest warpage at the solder reflow temperature of 260°C.

Jung, Dong-Myung; Kim, Min-Young; Oh, Tae-Sung

2014-03-01

359

Safety Evaluation for Packaging 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump package  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides analysis and considered necessary to approve a one-time transfer of the 101-SY Hydrogen Mitigation Mixer Pump (HMMP). This SEP will demonstrate that the transfer of the HMMP in a new shipping container will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by packages meeting US Department of Transportation (DOT)/US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. This fulfills onsite, transportation requirements implemented by WHC-CM-2-14.

Carlstrom, R.F.

1994-10-05

360

75 FR 56922 - Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Part 111 Implementation of the Intelligent Mail Package Barcode AGENCY: Postal Service...United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) for the optional use of Intelligent Mail[supreg] package barcodes...

2010-09-17

361

Shielding analysis of the long length contaminated equipment transportation package  

SciTech Connect

A shielding analysis of a potential long length contaminated equipment transportation package was completed. The analysis was performed to support the design of the transportation package and external shielding.

Nelson, J.V., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-10

362

Massively Parallel Post-Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has achieved many accomplishments toward 'Massively Parallel Post-Packaging for MEMS.' These achievements can be summarized as follows: (1) innovative bonding processes; (2) post-fabrication packaging demonstrations and characterizations on v...

L. Lin K. Wise

2003-01-01

363

Packaging MK 45 MOD 0 Demolition Shaped Charge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for packaging the MK 45 MOD 0 Demolition Shaped Charge is discussed herein. The recommended packaging system is comprised of an inner plastic screw-top container and an outer metal container. (Author)

F. A. Niehaus

1967-01-01

364

42 CFR 110.46 - Amending a Request Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Package. 110.46 Section 110.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 110.46 Amending a Request...

2013-10-01

365

Thermal considerations for overpack designs in drum packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the overpacks in drum packages, both in terms of thickness and materials of construction, greatly impact the ability of the package to accommodate heat source contents. The optimum overpack thermal protection needed is that which results in ...

S. Hensel R. J. Gromada

1997-01-01

366

Practical fundamentals of glass, rubber, and plastic sterile packaging systems.  

PubMed

Sterile product packaging systems consist of glass, rubber, and plastic materials that are in intimate contact with the formulation. These materials can significantly affect the stability of the formulation. The interaction between the packaging materials and the formulation can also affect the appropriate delivery of the product. Therefore, a parenteral formulation actually consists of the packaging system as well as the product that it contains. However, the majority of formulation development time only considers the product that is contained in the packaging system. Little time is spent studying the interaction of the packaging materials with the contents. Interaction between the packaging and the contents only becomes a concern when problems are encountered. For this reason, there are few scientific publications that describe the available packaging materials, their advantages and disadvantages, and their important product attributes. This article was created as a reference for product development and describes some of the packaging materials and systems that are available for parenteral products. PMID:20088708

Sacha, Gregory A; Saffell-Clemmer, Wendy; Abram, Karen; Akers, Michael J

2010-01-01

367

Database Packages for Microcomputers Reviewed: Computers in Manpower Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review of some of the database and file management software packages available on microcomputers was commissioned by the Co-operative Research Programme (CRP) of the Institute of Manpower Studies. The packages reviewed are general purpose systems whi...

M. Bryant-Mole W. Hirsh

1983-01-01

368

Astronaut Thomas Jones opens food package on middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's middeck Astronaut Thomas D. Jones, mission specialist, cuts open a package of food as he prepares for mealtime. Notice the other packages of space food floating in front of the middeck lockers.

1994-01-01

369

Advanced Interconnection and Packaging Techniques for Integrated Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of Phase I of this program was to design, develop, fabricate, and test advanced interconnection and packaging techniques for complex hybrid microassemblies. The vehicle for accomplishing this objective was a package which accommodates a 1 x 1 ...

R. W. Ilgenfritz J. S. Keohane D. W. Walter

1972-01-01

370

DEVELOPMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGING  

SciTech Connect

A new radioactive shipping packaging for transporting bulk quantities of tritium, the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP), has been designed for the Department of Energy (DOE) as a replacement for a package designed in the early 1970s. This paper summarizes significant design features and describes how the design satisfies the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials. This paper also discusses the results from testing of the BTSP to 10 CFR 71 Normal Conditions of Transport and Hypothetical Accident Condition events. The programmatic need of the Department of Energy (DOE) to ship bulk quantities of tritium has been satisfied since the late 1970s by the UC-609 shipping package. The current Certificate of Conformance for the UC-609, USA/9932/B(U) (DOE), will expire in late 2011. Since the UC-609 was not designed to meet current regulatory requirements, it will not be recertified and thereby necessitates a replacement Type B shipping package for continued DOE tritium shipments in the future. A replacement tritium packaging called the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) is currently being designed and tested by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The BTSP consists of two primary assemblies, an outer Drum Assembly and an inner Containment Vessel Assembly (CV), both designed to mitigate damage and to protect the tritium contents from leaking during the regulatory Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) events and during Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT). During transport, the CV rests on a silicone pad within the Drum Liner and is covered with a thermal insulating disk within the insulated Drum Assembly. The BTSP packaging weighs approximately 500 lbs without contents and is 50-1/2 inches high by 24-1/2 inches in outside diameter. With contents the gross weight of the BTSP is 650 lbs. The BTSP is designed for the safe shipment of 150 grams of tritium in a solid or gaseous state. To comply with the federal regulations that govern Type B shipping packages, the BTSP is designed so that it will not lose tritium at a rate greater than the limits stated in 10CFR 71.51 of 10{sup -6} A2 per hour for the 'Normal Conditions of Transport' (NCT) and an A2 in 1 week under 'Hypothetical Accident Conditions' (HAC). Additionally, since the BTSP design incorporates a valve as part of the tritium containment boundary, secondary containment features are incorporated in the CV Lid to protect against gas leakage past the valve as required by 10CFR71.43(e). This secondary containment boundary is designed to provide the same level of containment as the primary containment boundary when subjected to the HAC and NCT criteria.

Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

2008-09-14

371

Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

McCormick, W.A.

1998-09-29

372

Design, Process, and Reliability of Wafer Level Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wafer level packaging (WLP) has been growing continuously in electronics packaging due to its low cost in batch manufacturing\\u000a and the potential of enabling wafer test and burn-in. A variety of wafer level packages have been devised, among which four\\u000a important categories are identified including thin film redistribution and bumping, encapsulated package, compliant interconnect,\\u000a and wafer level underfill. This chapter

Zhuqing Zhang; C. Wong

373

Low Cost to Packages for High Speed\\/Microwave Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of low cost, microwave quality packages has been developed for use with both monolithic and hybrid integrated circuits. The packages are modeled after the common TO-style packages, thus allowing the use of an established, cost effective manufacturing base. They are plug-in packages, with pins on 0.100 inch spacings for easy insertion at higher levels . Test results of

Dawn A. Larson; Douglas E. Heckaman; Jeffrey A. Frisco; David A. Haskins

1986-01-01

374

LBNL four-side buttable CCD package development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a precision, 4-side buttable CCD package for 2kx2k and 2kx4k format devices with minimal mechanical stress on the CCD, excellent thermal properties, reliable electrical connectivity, and shim-free mounting. We report on the package design, assembly and quality assurance procedures, measurements of packaged device flatness and flatness excursions when cooled from room temperature to 140 K, package performance and plans for future development.

Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Bercovitz, John H.; Karcher, Armin; Hernikl, Christopher D.; Miller, Tom; Uslenghi, Michela; Roe, Natalie; Bebek, Chris; Holland, Stephen E.; Levi, Michael E.

2004-06-01

375

LBNL four-side buttable CCD package development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a precision, 4-side buttable CCD package for 2kx2k and 2kx4k format devices with minimal mechanical stress on the CCD, excellent thermal properties, reliable electrical connectivity, and shim-free mounting. We report on the package design, assembly and quality assurance procedures, measurements of packaged device flatness and flatness excursions when cooled from room temperature to 140 K, package performance

Hakeem M. Oluseyi; John H. Bercovitz; Armin Karcher; Christopher D. Hernikl; Tom Miller; Michela Uslenghi; Natalie Roe; Chris Bebek; Stephen E. Holland; Michael E. Levi

2004-01-01

376

Single-mode fiber packaging for semiconductor optical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is described that increases package assembly alignment tolerances substantially while demonstrating coupling efficiencies as high as 40% on the bench and 25% in the package. Since working distances inside the package of 2-4 mm allow for the insertion of some microoptics, a spherical lens was used to couple from the device into single-mode fiber. The ball lens is

LESLIE A. REITH; JAMES W. MANN; N. C. Andredakis; G. R. Lalk; C.-E. Zah

1990-01-01

377

Advanced packaging concepts for low-cost optoelectronic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiplication of fibre optic networks during the years 1980 to 2000 has led to the development of specific packaging designs for laser modules, e.g. butterfly or TO-can coaxial packages. Since the beginning of years 2000, it has become necessary for packaging designers to deal with new requirements in term of module size, cost, thermal and electrical performances, particularly concerning

Stéphane Bernabé

2006-01-01

378

A Road Map to ARPA Involvement in Electronic Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of advanced electronic packaging and interconnect (EP\\/I) technology by US Department of Defense's Advance Research Projects Agency are discussed. The EP\\/I domain includes packages, multichip modules (MCMs), connectors, printed circuit boards (PCBs), boxes, backplanes, and cages. The EP\\/I physical technologies, including diamond substrates, superconductors, and metal matrix packages, are discussed, and information technologies are described

Lance A. Glasser

1993-01-01

379

Reliability of ceramic microwave packages for space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging of microwave components and systems for space use is very challenging since high frequency, thermal and hermeticity aspects need to be considered. Furthermore, these packages have to be reliable under various environmental work conditions. Ball Grid Array (BGA) or Land Grid Array (LGA) packages are typically used for microwave applications. BGAs are better investigated in terms of reliability than

M. Mach; J. Muller; K.-H. Drue; G. Prinz

2008-01-01

380

Substrate Design & Process Optimization of LGA (BT-based) Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the trends moving towards smaller packaging technologies, land grid array (LGA) is rapidly becoming the package of choice. BT (bismaleimide triazine) substrate is being used due to its excellent electrical insulation, low CTE and high Tg. Optimized substrate design is essential in ensuring reliable package performance at field. Finite element analysis was performed on two different substrate designs in

Carrie CHEW; Chip King Tan

2006-01-01

381

A high performance HDI based pin grid array package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Density Interconnection (HDI) multichip packaging technology was used to fabricate a prototype high performance single chip package designed to be pin compatible with package used for the Alpha AXP 21064 microprocessor chip. The HDI technology was used to create a planar land grid array with chip connections dispersed to lands at the appropriate grid points. A silicon based

T. Michalka; P. Frank

1994-01-01

382

Evaluation of biohazards in dehydrated biofilms on foodstuff packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic materials used for food packaging are clean but not sterile when the food is just packaged. Accidental wet contamination may occur at every moment between packaging and opening by the consumer: on polyethylene (PET), bacteria may adhere strongly and constitute a biofilm in less than 24 h. By rolling on themselves, PET sheets may contaminate food. We tried to

Elisabeth Le Magrex-Debar; Jérôme Lemoine; Marie-Paule Gellé; Louis-Frédéric Jacquelin; Claude Choisy

2000-01-01

383

Methodology for the thermal characterization of the MQUAD microelectronic package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and mathematical modeling techniques which were developed to characterize the thermal performance of MQUAD packages are described. The situation characterized is one of natural convection, with the package attached to a test board. The techniques described take advantage of the unique construction of the MQUAD package in order to achieve relative simplicity in their execution. Due to its low

Bruce M. Guenin; Deepak Mahulikar

1993-01-01

384

Trends in lead frame technology for plastic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead frames make up the largest portion of the materials costs in plastic packages; especially Quad Flat Packages (QFP's). For stamping lead frames the costs can be up to 60% of total while for etched lead frames it can run up to 75% of total. Additionally, from performance perspectives lead-frames are a critical component of the packaging system. Lead frames

Deepak Mahulikar; Olin Metals

1997-01-01

385

48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Alternate packaging and packing. 852.214-73 Section 852.214-73...852.214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814.201-6...provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The bidder's...

2013-10-01

386

Test of the summer house package from Aidt Miljoe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes tests carried out on the ''Summer House Package'', produced by the Danish solar collector manufacturer Aidt Miljoe, in order to determine the efficiency of the package. The Summer House Package consists of a small 1.28 m(sup 2) (trans...

S. Oestergaard Jensen

1994-01-01

387

Low ball BGA: a new concept in thermoplastic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Area array packaging has advanced to become a vital and enabling technology. It has replaced perimeter-restrictive designs where space efficiency and high performance are important. But this type of package has brought a cost penalty. The package substrate has the highest cost component of the ball grid array (BGA). The problem is how to reduce the cost of the substrate?

Ken Gilleo; Joe Belmonte; Gerald Pham-Van-Diep

2004-01-01

388

Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

1995-09-01

389

Package Deformation And Cracking Mechanism Due To Reflow Soldering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic package cracking during reflow sol- dering is an important problem for the reliability of plas- tic encapsulated semiconductor devices. This paper describes a simplified method of package cracking esti- mation obtained by introducing a material property for resin A which is the coefficient between the relative humidity of storage and the saturated moisture content. The consequent process of package

K. Sawada; Noriyasu KAWAMURA; Toshio SUDO; Komukai Toshiba-cho

1993-01-01

390

Low Warpage Molding Compound Development for Array Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Warpage after molding is a critical issue for array packages due to singulation and soldering requirement in subsequent assembly. Warpage is greatly affected by package geometries, such as dimensions of matrix block, pad, die, and passive components, as well as molding compound properties. One set of molding compound properties may generate very low warpage in one array package, but generate

K. I. Y. Chien; J. Zhang; L. Rector; M. Todd

2006-01-01

391

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form,...

B. D. Flanagan

1996-01-01

392

ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials

P. Blanton; K. Eberl

2010-01-01

393

Coupled Thermal-Moisture-Stress Analysis for Electronic Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture sensitivity of packages is an area of great concern for the electronics industry. The differential swelling of materials in a non-hermetic package during manufacture, handling, storage, assembly, and then also during its lifetime can cause stresses large enough to damage the package. Of particular concern is the reflow process, during which the stresses due to moisture can be of

D. Cadge; H. J. J. Wang; Junlong Bie; Xuewei Sun; Rui Bai; Ping Gong

2006-01-01

394

Computerized waste-accountability shipping and packaging system. [WASP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Waste Accountability, Shipping and Packaging System (WASP) is a real-time computerized system designed and implemented by Mound Facility to meet the stringent packaging and reporting requirements of radioactive waste being shipped to burial sites. The system stores packaging data and inspection results for each unit and prepares all necessary documents at the time of shipment. Shipping data specific for

J. A. Jackson; M. Jr. Baston; E. A. DeVer

1981-01-01

395

IDAS: a Windows based software package for cluster analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text, comprising the main article and one appendix, is accompanied by two installation diskettes with the software package and data files. The main article discusses the chemometric aspects of the package and explains its purpose.The IDAS software package

Igor Bondarenko; Boris Treiger; René Van Grieken; Pierre Van Espen

1996-01-01

396

An Interactive Computer Aided Electrical Engineering Education Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes an educational package to help the learning process. A case study is presented of an energy distribution course in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES). The advantages of the developed package are shown by comparing it with the traditional academic book. This package presents…

Cavati, Cicero Romao

397

Development of planar antennas in multi-layer packages for RF-system-on-a-package applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of an antenna with an RF module is an attractive solution for realizing a small size and low cost wireless transceiver. Multi-layer planar antennas for system-on-a-package (SOP) application are presented. Two different types of antennas for the low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) package and the multi-layer organic (MLO) package are developed. For the LTCC package, the cavity-backed patch

Kyutae Limy; Ade Obatoyinbo; Mekita Davis; Joy Laskar; Rao Tummala

2001-01-01

398

Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including possibly 700 additional elements from PUREX, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). The basin water, particularly in the K East Basin, contains significant quantities of dissolved nuclear isotopes and radioactive fuel corrosion particles. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East area. In order to initiate K Basin cleanup on schedule, the two-year fuel-shipping campaign must begin by December 1997. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

Edwards, W.S.

1996-04-29

399

High-activity liquid packaging design criteria  

SciTech Connect

In recent studies, it has been acknowledged that there is an emerging need for packaging to transport high-activity liquid off the Hanford Site to support characterization and process development activities of liquid waste stored in underground tanks. These studies have dealt with specimen testing needs primarily at the Hanford Site; however, similar needs appear to be developing at other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The need to ship single and multiple specimens to offsite laboratories is anticipated because it is predicted that onsite laboratories will be overwhelmed by an increasing number and size (volume) of samples. Potentially, the specimen size could range from 250 mL to greater than 50 L. Presently, no certified Type-B packagings are available for transport of high-activity liquid radioactive specimens in sizes to support Site missions.

Not Available

1994-05-01

400

Packaging Design Criteria for the MCO Cask  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated, nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins (including approximately 700 additional elements from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, N Reactor, and 327 Laboratory). To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the 100 K Area to a Canister Storage Building (CSB) in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multi-canister Overpacks. Concurrent with the K Basin cleanup, 72 Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 fuel assemblies will be transported from T Plant to the CSB to provide space at T Plant for K Basin sludge canisters.

FLANAGAN, B.D.

2000-08-01

401

Package for Interactive Analysis of Line Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PINTofALE is an IDL based package to analyze high-resolution grating spectra. The first version was made available to the public on 3 February 2001. Since then we have carried out numerous changes and subsidiary releases. The current release is version 2.0 (released 6 Apr 2004), and we are preparing to release v2.1 within the next month. The changes include bug fixes, upgrades to handle higher versions of IDL and the CHIANTI database, enhancements in user-friendliness, handling of instrument response matrices, and the release of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based DEM fitting routines. A detailed description of the package, together with fairly detailed documentation, example walk-throughs, and downloadable tar files, are available on-line from http://hea.harvard.edu/PINTofALE/ The website also lists papers that have used PINTofALE in their analysis.

Kashyap, Vinay; Hunter, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

402

matplotlib -- A Portable Python Plotting Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

matplotlib is a portable 2D plotting and imaging package aimed primarily at visualization of scientific, engineering, and financial data. matplotlib can be used interactively from the Python shell, called from python scripts, or embedded in a GUI application (GTK, Wx, Tk, Windows). Many popular hardcopy outputs are supported including JPEG, PNG, PostScript and SVG. Features include the creation of multiple axes and figures per page, interactive navigation, many predefined line styles and symbols, images, antialiasing, alpha blending, date and financial plots, W3C compliant font management and FreeType2 support, legends and tables, pseudocolor plots, mathematical text and more. It works with both numarray and Numeric. The goals of the package, basic architecture, current features (illustrated with examples), and planned enhancements will be described.

Barrett, P.; Hunter, J.; Miller, J. T.; Hsu, J.-C.; Greenfield, P.

2005-12-01

403

TOPICAL REVIEW: Wafer level packaging of MEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wafer level packaging plays many important roles for MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), including cost, yield and reliability. MEMS structures on silicon chips are encapsulated between bonded wafers or by surface micromachining, and electrical interconnections are made from the cavity. Bonding at the interface, such as glass-Si anodic bonding and metal-to-metal bonding, requires electrical interconnection through the lid vias in many cases. On the other hand, lateral electrical interconnections on the surface of the chip are used for bonding with intermediate melting materials, such as low melting point glass and solder. The cavity formed by surface micromachining is made using sacrificial etching, and the openings needed for the sacrificial etching are plugged using deposition sealing methods. Vacuum packaging methods and the structures for electrical feedthrough for the interconnection are discussed in this review.

Esashi, Masayoshi

2008-07-01

404

Miniaturization of dielectric liquid microlens in package  

PubMed Central

This study presents packaged microscale liquid lenses actuated with liquid droplets of 300–700 ?m in diameter using the dielectric force manipulation. The liquid microlens demonstrated function focal length tunability in a plastic package. The focal length of the liquid lens with a lens droplet of 500 ?m in diameter is shortened from 4.4 to 2.2 mm when voltages applied change from 0 to 79 Vrms. Dynamic responses that are analyzed using 2000 frames?s high speed motion cameras show that the advancing and receding times are measured to be 90 and 60 ms, respectively. The size effect of dielectric liquid microlens is characterized for a lens droplet of 300–700 ?m in diameter in an aspect of focal length.

Yang, Chih-Cheng; Tsai, C. Gary; Yeh, J. Andrew

2010-01-01

405

(abstract) Electronic Packaging for Microspacecraft Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent of this presentation is to give a brief look into the future of electronic packaging for microspacecraft applications. Advancements in electronic packaging technology areas have developed to the point where a system engineer's visions, concepts, and requirements for a microspacecraft can now be a reality. These new developments are ideal candidates for microspacecraft applications. These technologies are capable of bringing about major changes in how we design future spacecraft while taking advantage of the benefits due to size, weight, power, performance, reliability , and cost. This presentation will also cover some advantages and limitations of surface mount technology (SMT), multichip modules (MCM), and wafer scale integration (WSI), and what is needed to implement these technologies into microspacecraft.

Wasler, David

1993-01-01

406

Understand the basics of packaged steam generators  

SciTech Connect

Oil- and gas-fired packaged steam generators are widely used in chemical plants, refineries and cogeneration systems. They form an important part of the total steam system in any plant and are available in capacities up to 250,000 lb/h at pressures ranging from 150 to 1,500 psig and temperatures from saturated steam to 1,000 F. They are expected to last about 25 years, and, therefore, cost-effectively generate steam. However, when making purchasing decisions, plant engineers, consultants and engineering firms spend little time on important aspects such as long-term performance and operating costs and often recommend standard, off-the-shelf designs that have several limitations. Here are important design and performance aspects of packaged steam generators and recent trends in their design that engineers should be familiar with.

Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

407

EjsS Sound Illustrations Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EjsS Sound Illustrations Package contains JavaScript adaptations of Illustrations from Physlet Physics Chapter 18. Students need to interact with the Physlet, but the answers to the 2D wave and sound questions posed in the Illustration are given or are easily determined from interacting with it. Some Illustrations provide examples of physics applications while others are designed to introduce a particular wave function concept. Typical uses of Illustrations would include reading assignments prior to class and classroom demonstrations. The EjsS Sound Illustrations Package was developed using the Easy Java/JavaScript Simulations (EjsS) version 5. Although EjsS is a Java program, it can create stand alone JavaScript programs that run in almost any PC or tablet. EjsS can also create ePub documents containing multiple simulations.

Glasmann, Andreu; Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2014-06-28

408

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOEpatents

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

409

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOEpatents

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01

410

MSTI-3 sensor package optical design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MSTI-3 sensor package is a three band imaging telescope for military and dual use sensing missions. The MSTI-3 mission is one of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory's Pegasus launched space missions, a third in the series of state-of-the-art lightweight sensors on low cost satellites. The satellite is planned for launch into a 425 Km orbit in late 1995. The

Richard F. Horton; William G. Baker; Michael Griggs; Van Nguyen; H. Vernon Baker

1995-01-01

411

A review of 3-D packaging technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in three-dimensional (3-D) packaging technology for very large scale integration (VLSI). A number of bare dice and multichip module (MCM) stacking technologies are emerging to meet the ever increasing demands for low power consumption, low weight and compact portable systems. Vertical interconnect techniques are reviewed in detail. Technical issues such as silicon efficiency, complexity, thermal

Said F. Al-sarawi; Derek Abbott; Paul D. Franzon

1998-01-01

412

Packaged terminal heat pump assessment study  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art assessment of packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs) is presented. Commercial heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) market trends are reviewed as is the position of PTHPs in the commercial market. The features and operating characteristics of PTHPs are examined. A need for improving the low temperature heating performance of PTHPs is identified and concepts are presented for improvements in that area. Finally, research recommendations for enhancing PTHP performance are outlined. 15 refs., 10 figs., 14 tabs.

Pietsch, J.A. (Pietsch (Joseph A.), Dallas, TX (USA))

1990-03-01

413

Packaged terminal heat pump assessment study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state-of-the-art assessment of packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs) is presented. Commercial heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) market trends are reviewed as is the position of PTHPs in the commercial market. The features and operating characteristics of PTHPs are examined. A need for improving the low temperature heating performance of PTHPs is identified and concepts are presented for improvements in

Pietsch

1990-01-01

414

Roadside Restaurants and Place-Product-Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

With roots in the cafe, diner and tea room, various kinds of roadside restaurants evolved after 1920: roadside stands, highway coffee shops, drive-ins, outdoor walk-ups and indoor walk-ups. Together they came to represent a distinctive kind of place along the American roadside. Large corporations came to dominate highway-oriented restaurants after 1960 through “place-product-packaging”: the coordination of building design, decor, menu,

John A. Jakle

1982-01-01

415

Installation package for air flat plate collector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Solar 2 dimensions are four feet by eight feet by two and one half inches. The collector weighs 130 pounds and has an effective solar collection area of over 29.5 square feet. This area represents 95 percent of the total surface of the collector. The installation, operation and maintenance manual, safety hazard analysis, special handling instructions, materials list, installation concept drawings, warranty and certification statement are included in the installation package.

1977-01-01

416

Advanced polymers for advanced RF packaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents advanced polymers for RF packaging applications including filters and antennas. First, micro-scaled LCP technology for front-end modules is presented. Next, nano-scaled ultra-thin RXP technology is introduced with its integration capability and embedded passive performances. Simulated results of bandpass filter, and antennas for 60 GHz are also presented in this paper. RXP technology provides low cost and promising

Madhavan Swaminathan; Nevin Altunyurt; Seunghyun Hwang

2010-01-01

417

Flip-chip packaging for smart MEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cointegration of IC microsensors, actuators and readout circuit leads to smart Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) which are superior in many aspects to their conventional discrete counterparts. However, the packaging of such device is still a challenge and a major factor of the overall production cost. On one hand MEMS need protection against mechanical contact and media. On the other hand, the encapsulation of the transducer must be partially permeable to the environment. We developed a packaging method which successfully addresses these challenges. Thereby the number of steps needed to electrically contact and partially seal the MEMS are reduced by combining them using flip-chip technology. An opening in the substrate is aligned with the transducer, and enables the interaction with external media. Concurrently with the electrical connections, a frame plated onto the microsystem is soldered to a corresponding structure on the substrate. This frame seals the rest of the chip from the medium interacting with the transducer. Using passive test chips we evaluate the performance of the new packaging method. Various underbump metal and solder deposition techniques were investigated. Both ceramic and flexible organic substrate materials were used. The combination Ni/Au bumps/InPb40 solder/ceramic substrate showed the following mechanical and electrical parameters: For 98% of the tested chips, the helium leakage rate of the sealing frame surrounding the sensor is below the threshold of the used mass spectrometer (5 X 10-7 Pa l s-1). For flip-chip pads ranging from 200 to 300 mm square, the bump resistances are smaller than 2 m(Omega) . The approach, is illustrated with three successfully packaged MEMS for the measurement of humidity, gas flow, and volatile organic compounds, respectively. They all contain integrated readout circuitry providing digital output.

Mayer, Felix; Ofner, Gerald; Koll, Andreas; Paul, Oliver; Baltes, Henry

1998-07-01

418

VLED for Si wafer-level packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we introduced the advantages of Vertical Light emitting diode (VLED) on copper alloy with Si-wafer level packaging technologies. The silicon-based packaging substrate starts with a <100> dou-ble-side polished p-type silicon wafer, then anisotropic wet etching technology is done to construct the re-flector depression and micro through-holes on the silicon substrate. The operating voltage, at a typical cur-rent of 350 milli-ampere (mA), is 3.2V. The operation voltage is less than 3.7V under higher current driving conditions of 1A. The VLED chip on Si package has excellent heat dissipation and can be operated at high currents up to 1A without efficiency degradation. The typical spatial radiation pattern emits a uniform light lambertian distribution from -65° to 65° which can be easily fit for secondary optics. The correlated color temperature (CCT) has only 5% variation for daylight and less than 2% variation for warm white, when the junction temperature is increased from 25°C to 110°C, suggesting a stable CCT during operation for general lighting application. Coupled with aspheric lens and micro lens array in a wafer level process, it has almost the same light distribution intensity for special secondary optics lighting applications. In addition, the ul-tra-violet (UV) VLED, featuring a silicon substrate and hard glass cover, manufactured by wafer level pack-aging emits high power UV wavelengths appropriate for curing, currency, document verification, tanning, medical, and sterilization applications.

Chu, Chen-Fu; Chen, Chiming; Yen, Jui-Kang; Chen, Yung-Wei; Tsou, Chingfu; Chang, Chunming; Doan, Trung; Tran, Chuong Anh

2012-02-01

419

Nonspherical LED packaging lens for uniformity improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light emitting diode (LED) has more advantages compared with a traditional incandescent light bulb and a fluorescent lamp,\\u000a such as small size, low quantity of heat, long life, low power consumption, fast response, plain packaging and ease of develop\\u000a ment of a frivolous short product. A methodology is proposed to improve the uniformity of the LED illumination system. As\\u000a a

Yu-Cheng Chang; Chung-Jen Ou; Yu-Sheng Tsai; Fuh-Shyang Juang

2009-01-01

420

ECONOMICS OF CENTRAL RETAIL PACKAGED BEEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general objective of this study was to evaluate the economics of alternative technologies, systems and methods of fabricating and marketing retail packaged beef. A national beef distribution model (VAL-ADD) was developed and used to compare the economics of various case-ready systems with the conventional system of fabricating beef in the back room of the retail store. The VAL-ADD model

Donald E. Farris; Raymond A. Dietrich; J. B. Ward

1992-01-01

421

TOPICAL REVIEW: Wafer level packaging of MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer level packaging plays many important roles for MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), including cost, yield and reliability. MEMS structures on silicon chips are encapsulated between bonded wafers or by surface micromachining, and electrical interconnections are made from the cavity. Bonding at the interface, such as glass-Si anodic bonding and metal-to-metal bonding, requires electrical interconnection through the lid vias in

Masayoshi Esashi

2008-01-01

422

Converting Center Pivot Sprinkler Packages: System Considerations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, presents an overview of points to consider when selecting a sprinkler package. Some points that are explained are soil texture, infiltration rates, and tillage practices. The site contains cost considerations, a procedural summary and even cost calculations. Overall, the site is a solid introduction to a certain method of irrigation and provides links to references if more information is required.

Irmak, Suat; Kranz, William L.; Martin, Derrel L.

2008-10-21

423

Encapsulation challenges for wafer level packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest of user for WLP has been raised because of benefits such as reduced package thickness, fan-out capability, high I\\/O, substrate-less process, integration of passives into structure, good thermal and electrical performance. The objective of this paper is to delineate technical challenges and issues that potential adopter of wafer level molding will face, technological solution availability and the broad

E. K. Th; J. Y. Hao; J. P. Ding; Q. F. Li; W. L. Chan; S. C. Ho; H. M. Huang; Y. J. Jiang

2009-01-01

424

High density packaging in 2010 and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

As microsystems continue to move towards higher speed and microminiaturization, the demands for interconnection density both on the IC and the package increases tremendously. With the shift towards nano ICs by 2003 with 100 nm features, pitch of area array I\\/Os of the nano ICs will move towards 20-100 micron. Increasing system functionality and system-on-a-chip will place demands on the

R. R. Tummala; Venky Sundaram; Fuhan Liu; George White; S. Hattacharya; Raj M. Pulugurtha; M. Swaminathan; S. Dalmia; J. Laskar; N. M. Jokerst; Sang Yeon Chow

2002-01-01

425

44 BWR Waste Package Loading Curve Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of average initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of fuel into a potential 44 BWR waste package (WP). The potential WP design is illustrated in Attachment I. The scope of this calculation covers a range of initial enrichments from 1.5 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 50 GWd/mtU.

J.M. Scaglione

2001-11-05

426

Open Ended Microwave Oven for Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel open waveguide cavity resonator is presented for the combined variable frequency microwave curing of bumps, underfills and encapsulants, as well as the alignment of devices for fast flip-chip assembly, direct chip attach (DCA) or wafer-scale level packaging (WSLP). This technology achieves radio frequency (RF) curing of adhesives used in microelectronics, optoelectronics and medical devices with potential simultaneous micron-scale

K. I. Sinclair; T. Tilford; Marc Y. P. Desmulliez; G. Goussetis; C. Bailey; K. Parrott; A. J. Sangster

2008-01-01

427

Performance Experiments for the Filaments Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten representative benchmarks were run on two shared-memory multiprocessors usingan efficient, fine-grain threads package called Filaments. This paper describes the implementationand performance of the applications and compares them to both coarse-grainand sequential counterparts. It also analyzes the results and explains why the fine-grainprograms were faster or slower than the coarse-grain ones.September 2, 1993Department of Computer ScienceThe University of ArizonaTucson, AZ

David K. Lowenthal; Dawson R. Engler

1993-01-01

428

49 CFR 172.302 - General marking requirements for bulk packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General marking requirements for bulk packagings. 172.302 Section 172.302 ...General marking requirements for bulk packagings. (a) Identification numbers...transport a hazardous material in a bulk packaging unless the packaging is marked as...

2013-10-01

429

The Integrated Sensor System Data Enhancement Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Integrated Sensor System (ISS) Data Enhancement Package (DEP) is to improve the accuracies of the data obtained from the inflight tests performed on aircraft. The DEP is a microprocessor-based, flight-qualified electronics package that assimilates data from a Ring Laser Gyro (RGL) system, a standard NASA air data package, and other inputs. The DEP then processes these inputs in real-time to obtain optimal estimates of the aircraft velocity, attitude, and altitude. These estimates can be passed to the flight crew, downlinked, and/or stored on a mass storage medium. The DEP is now being built for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Completion is anticipated in early 1984. A primary use of the ISS/DEP will be for the collection of quality data for the estimation of aircraft aerodynamic coefficients, including stability derivatives, using system identification methods. Initial anticipated applications will be on the AV-8B, F-14, and X-29 test aircraft.

Trankle, T. L.; Reed, W. B.; Rabin, U.; Vincent, J.

1983-01-01

430

The graphics and data acquisition software package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software package was developed for use with micro and minicomputers, particularly the LSI-11/DPD-11 series. The package has a number of Fortran-callable subroutines which perform a variety of frequently needed tasks for biomedical applications. All routines are well documented, flexible, easy to use and modify, and require minimal programmer knowledge of peripheral hardware. The package is also economical of memory and CPU time. A single subroutine call can perform any one of the following functions: (1) plot an array of integer values from sampled A/D data, (2) plot an array of Y values versus an array of X values; (3) draw horizontal and/or vertical grid lines of selectable type; (4) annotate grid lines with user units; (5) get coordinates of user controlled crosshairs from the terminal for interactive graphics; (6) sample any analog channel with program selectable gain; (7) wait a specified time interval, and (8) perform random access I/O of one or more blocks of a sequential disk file. Several miscellaneous functions are also provided.

Crosier, W. G.

1981-01-01

431

Advanced packaging of 40 GHz photoreceiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent developments in the packaging of 40GHz receivers for radio over fiber applications. First, we present a hybrid 40GHz photoreceiver module. It integrates 40GHz waveguide photodiode technology and narrow band MMIC amplifier. We give key elements for the design and the realisation of such photoreceiver. With an input optical power of 0dBm, an RF ouptut power of -3dBm is obtained in the 38-44GHz frequency range with a flatness of +/-0.5dBm. The maximal input optical power is +6dBm. Secondly, a small footprint 40GHz photoreceiver scheme is presented. It includes high optical coupling tolerances 40GHz tapered waveguide photodiodes and the same type of MMIC amplifier than used in the hybrid package. The interconnect of the several elements (MMIC, capacitors, photodiode biasing network) uses Microwave High Density Integration (MHDI) technology on a Si substrate. The photodiode is flip-chip mounted on the same substrate. This technology is very promising for packaging of optoelectronic devices, since it combines compactness and reproducibility thanks to wire bonding suppression.

Marceaux, Alexandre; Galière, Julien; Lopez, Jérôme; Valard, Jean Luc; Enard, Alain; Boula-Picard, Reynald; Ghesquiers, Jean Pierre; Dernazaretian, Corrine; Lehoux, Jacqueline; Parillaud, Olivier; Estèbe, Eric; Vodjdani, Nakita

2004-11-01

432

DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

M. Salem

1995-06-23

433

A silicon microbench concept for optoelectronic packaging  

SciTech Connect

Optoelectronics (o/e) is currently too expensive for widespread application. We believe that the packaging (or fiber pigtailing) process must be automated to realize a significant reduction in the cost of o.e packages. We are addressing issues of automating the fiber pigtailing process on silicon waferboards or microbenches. This paper focuses on reflowing solders for the attachment of o/e components. We have recently developed miniature polysilicon heaters which are integrated on silicon microbenches. These miniature heaters avoid the problem of raising the entire microbench to the solder melting point to attach components. Most importantly, these miniature heaters are completely compatible with automating the attachment process. Designing silicon microbenches with on-board heaters requires some care. The thermal properties of the microbench itself along with all coatings and any heatsinking materials must be understood. The heaters must operate in a current and voltage regime compatible with the overall characteristics of the o.e package. Inadvertently reflowing solder in unanticipated locations may occur unless the thermal behavior of the microbench thoroughly known. This paper describes the design and fabrication of our microbenches and an experimental and theoretical study on these silicon microbenches which gives a complete picture of their thermal behavior.

Pocha, M.D.; Strand, O.T.; Kerns, J.A.

1996-06-24

434

The SPIRE Photometer Interactive Analysis Package SPIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel Common Science System (HCSS) is a substantial Java software package, accompanying the development of the Herschel Mission, supporting all of its phases. In particular, the reduction of data from the scientific instruments for instrument checkout, calibration, and astronomical analysis is one of its major applications. The data reduction software is split up into modules, called "tasks". Agreed-upon sequences of tasks form pipelines that deliver well defined standard products for storage in a web-accessible Herschel Science Archive (HSA). However, as astronomers and instrument scientists continue to characterize instrumental effects, astronomers already need to publish scientific results and may not have the time to acquire a sufficiently deep understanding of the system to apply necessary fixes. There is a need for intermediate level analysis tools that offer more flexibility than rigid pipelines. The task framework within the HCSS and the highly versatile Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE), together with the rich set of libraries provide the necessary tools to develop GUI-based interactive analysis packages for the Herschel instruments. The SPIRE Photometer Interactive Analysis (SPIA) package, described in this paper, proves the validity of the concept for the SPIRE instrument, breaking up the pipeline reduction into logical components, making all relevant processing parameters available in GUIs, and providing a more controlled and user-friendly access to the complexities of the system.

Schulz, B.

2011-07-01

435

Packaging of structural health monitoring components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technologies have the potential to realize economic benefits in a broad range of commercial and defense markets. Previous research conducted by Metis Design and MIT has demonstrated the ability of Lamb waves methods to provide reliable information regarding the presence, location and type of damage in composite specimens. The present NSF funded program was aimed to study manufacturing, packaging and interface concepts for critical SHM components. The intention is to be able to cheaply manufacture robust actuating/sensing devices, and isolate them from harsh operating environments including natural, mechanical, or electrical extremes. Currently the issues related to SHM system durability have remained undressed. During the course of this research several sets of test devices were fabricated and packaged to protect the piezoelectric component assemblies for robust operation. These assemblies were then tested in hot and wet conditions, as well as in electrically noisy environments. Future work will aim to package the other supporting components such as the battery and wireless chip, as well as integrating all of these components together for operation. SHM technology will enable the reduction or complete elimination of scheduled inspections, and will allow condition-based maintenance for increased reliability and reduced overall life-cycle costs.

Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Shi, Yong; Dunn, Christopher T.

2004-07-01

436

EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation of Navy Waste Packages  

SciTech Connect

The Monitored Geologic Repository Waste Package Operations of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Navy (Refs. 1 and 2). The Navy SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. For some waste packages, the containment may breach (Ref. 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the waste package may moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the waste package. The water may gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the waste package. In addition, the accumulation of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in the waste package over time may further affect the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of waste packages containing the Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) II inner shell, Navy canister, and basket components. The calculations do not include the Navy SNF in the waste package. The specific study objectives were to determine the chemical composition of the water and the quantity of silicon (Si) and other solid corrosion products in the waste package during the first million years after the waste package is breached. The results of this calculation will be used to ensure that the type and amount of criticality control material used in the waste package design will prevent criticality.

S. LeStrange

1999-11-15

437

European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.  

PubMed

Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits. PMID:21543160

Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

2011-09-01

438

Packaging films for electronic and space-related hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexible packaging films are used to bag and/or wrap precision cleaned electronic or space hardware to protect them from environmental degradation during shipping and storage. Selection of packaging films depends on a knowledge of product requirements and packaging film characteristics. The literature presently available on protective packaging films has been updated to include new materials and to amplify space-related applications. Presently available packaging film materials are compared for their various characteristics: electrostatic discharge (ESD) control, flame retardancy, water vapor transmission rate, particulate shedding, molecular contamination, and transparency. The tradeoff between product requirements and the characteristics of the packaging films available are discussed. Selection considerations are given for the application of specific materials of space hardware-related applications. Applications for intimate, environmental, and electrostatic protective packaging are discussed.

Shon, E. M.; Hamberg, O.

1985-08-01

439

Reinforcement of the Packaging Technology Development Centre in Ho Chi Minh City, The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Technical Report: Support to the Packaging Technology Development Centre in Flexible Packaging Technology and Structural Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project's objective is to establish a Packaging Technology Development Center at the Saigon Packaging Export company in Ho Chi Minh City to cover the country's packaging industry's development needs mainly in the field of flexible (plastic-based) pack...

G. Tracy

1992-01-01

440

Energy and packaging from energy materials: requirements of beverage containers and packaging systems  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive summary of the energy and materials requirements of the beverage container and packaging industry is presented. Information available to the industry for the first time is given and a quantitative picture of many significant industrial sectors is provided. Contains original reports presented to the UK Government's Waste Advisory Council, that analyze, in detail, the energy and materials required to produce and use glass bottles, plastic bottles, and metal cans for the packaging of beers, cider, and carbonated soft drinks. An extensive collection of tables of energy requirements broken down by fuel type is also presented.

Boustead, I.; Hancock, G.F.

1981-01-01

441

Lesotho's Minimum PMTCT Package: lessons learned for combating vertical HIV transmission using co-packaged medicines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mother-to-child transmission of HIV can be reduced to<5% with appropriate antiretroviral medications. Such reductions depend on multiple health system encounters during antenatal care (ANC), delivery and breastfeeding; in countries with limited access to care, transmission remains high. In Lesotho, where 28% of women attending ANC are HIV positive but where geographic and other factors limit access to ANC and facility deliveries, a Minimum PMTCT Package was launched in 2007 as an alternative to the existing facility-based approach. Distributed at the first ANC visit, it packaged together all necessary pregnancy, delivery and early postnatal antiretroviral medications for mother and infant. Methods To examine the availability, feasibility, acceptability and possible negative consequences of the Minimum PMTCT Package, data from a 2009 qualitative and quantitative study and a 2010 facility assessment were used. To examine the effects on ANC and facility-based delivery rates, a difference-in-differences analytic approach was applied to 2009 Demographic and Health Survey data for HIV-tested women who gave birth before and after Minimum PMTCT Package implementation. Results The Minimum PMTCT Package was feasible and acceptable to providers and clients. Problems with test kit and medicine stock-outs occurred, and 46% of women did not receive the Minimum PMTCT Package until at least their second ANC visit. Providing adequate instruction on the use of multiple medications represented a challenge. The proportion of HIV-positive women delivering in facilities declined after Minimum PMTCT Package implementation, although it increased among HIV-negative women (difference-in-differences=14.5%, p=0.05). The mean number of ANC visits declined more among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women after implementation, though the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.09). Changes in the percentage of women receiving?4 ANC visits did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions If supply issues can be resolved and adequate client educational materials provided, take-away co-packages have the potential to increase access to PMTCT commodities in countries where women have limited access to health services. However, efforts must be made to carefully monitor potential changes in ANC visits and facility deliveries, and further evaluation of adherence, safety and effectiveness are needed.

McDougal, Lotus; Moteetee, Mpolai M; Mohai, Florence; Mphale, Malisebo; Mahanty, Binod; Motaung, Blandinah; Ankrah, Victor; Reynolds, Makaria; Legins, Kenneth; Tiam, Appolinaire; Luo, Chewe; McClure, Craig; Binkin, Nancy

2012-01-01

442

The Maple package NPTOOLS; a symbolic algebra package for tetrad formalisms in general relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present and discuss the NPTOOLS package written for the computer algebra system Maple. The package contains the main routines "nulltran", "inv", "nullor", "ornull" and "pptype". The routine "nulltran" is an implementation of the 6-parameter Lorentz group in the Newman-Penrose (null tetrad) formalism, and "inv" checks for invariance of equations under subgroups of the Lorentz group. The routines "nullor" and "ornull" provide a translation between the Newman-Penrose quantities associated with the null tetrad and the orthonormal tetrad quantities associated with the Ellis-MacCallum formalism. Finally, "pptype" determines the Petrov-Pleba?ski type of the Ricci tensor.

Cyganowski, Sasha; Carminati, John

1998-12-01

443

MEMS packaging: state of the art and future trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now that the technology for Integrated sensor and MEMS devices has become sufficiently mature to allow mass production, it is expected that the prices of bare chips will drop dramatically. This means that the package prices will become a limiting factor in market penetration, unless low cost packaging solutions become available. This paper will discuss the developments in packaging technology. Both single-chip and multi-chip packaging solutions will be addressed. It first starts with a discussion on the different requirements that have to be met; both from a device point of view (open access paths to the environment, vacuum cavities, etc.) and from the application point of view (e.g. environmental hostility). Subsequently current technologies are judged on their applicability for MEMS and sensor packaging and a forecast is given for future trends. It is expected that the large majority of sensing devices will be applied in relative friendly environments for which plastic packages would suffice. Therefore, on the short term an important role is foreseen for recently developed plastic packaging techniques such as precision molding and precision dispensing. Just like in standard electronic packaging, complete wafer level packaging methods for sensing devices still have a long way to go before they can compete with the highly optimized and automated plastic packaging processes.

Bossche, Andre; Cotofana, Carmen V.; Mollinger, J. R.

1998-07-01

444

THERMAL UPGRADING OF 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL (RAM) TYPE B PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The 9977 package is a radioactive material package that was originally certified to ship Heat Sources and RTG contents up to 19 watts and it is now being reviewed to significantly expand its contents in support of additional DOE missions. Thermal upgrading will be accomplished by employing stacked 3013 containers, a 3013 aluminum spacer and an external aluminum sleeve for enhanced heat transfer. The 7th Addendum to the original 9977 package Safety Basis Report describing these modifications is under review for the DOE certification. The analyses described in this paper show that this well-designed and conservatively analyzed package can be upgraded to carry contents with decay heat up to 38 watts with some simple design modifications. The Model 9977 package has been designed as a replacement for the Department of Transportation (DOT) Fissile Specification 6M package. The 9977 package is a very versatile Type B package which is certified to transport and store a wide spectrum of radioactive materials. The package was analyzed quite conservatively to increase its usefulness and store different payload configurations. Its versatility is evident from several daughter packages such as the 9978 and H1700, and several addendums where the payloads have been modified to suit the Shipper's needs without additional testing.

Gupta, N.; Abramczyk, G.

2012-03-26

445

BALLISTICS TESTING OF THE 9977 SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive materials are stored in a variety of locations throughout the DOE complex. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), materials are stored within dedicated facilities. Each of those facilities has a documented safety analysis (DSA) that describes accidents that the facility and the materials within it may encounter. Facilities at the SRS are planning on utilizing the certified Model 9977 Shipping Package as a long term storage package and one of these facilities required ballistics testing. Specifically, in order to meet the facility DSA, the radioactive materials (RAM) must be contained within the storage package after impact by a .223 caliber round. In order to qualify the Model 9977 Shipping Package for storage in this location, the package had to be tested under these conditions. Over the past two years, the Model 9977 Shipping Package has been subjected to a series of ballistics tests. The purpose of the testing was to determine if the 9977 would be suitable for use as a storage package at a Savannah River Site facility. The facility requirements are that the package must not release any of its contents following the impact in its most vulnerable location by a .223 caliber round. A package, assembled to meet all of the design requirements for a certified 9977 shipping configuration and using simulated contents, was tested at the Savannah River Site in March of 2011. The testing was completed and the package was examined. The results of the testing and examination are presented in this paper.

Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Koenig, R.

2012-06-06

446

Multilayered microelectronic device package with an integral window  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices is disclosed, wherein the package includes an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can comprise, for example, a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package has an internal stepped structure made of a plurality of plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package, according to some embodiments. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination. The integral window can further include a lens for optically transforming light passing through the window. The package can include an array of binary optic lenslets made integral with the window. The package can include an electrically-switched optical modulator, such as a lithium niobate window attached to the package, for providing a very fast electrically-operated shutter.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2003-01-01

447

Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500 C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550 C. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500 C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500 C are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

2013-01-01

448

Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

2013-01-01

449

FIRST INTERIM STATUS REPORT MODEL 9975 LIFE EXTENSION PACKAGE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Three 9975 packages have been instrumented and exposed to bounding storage conditions to help identify the extent to which laboratory test results for fiberboard, O-rings and other components apply within a full-scale package. To date, changes observed in the fiberboard overpack and O-ring seals are generally consistent with the behavior of laboratory samples. The lead shield within each package has developed a corrosion layer of lead carbonate, consistent with other 9975 packages. However, the morphology of the corrosion layer is different within these packages, possibly as a result of the severity of the conditioning environments beyond normal service conditions. Conditioning of the second package, LE2, has been discontinued due to the degree of degradation of the fiberboard, and its components have received a final examination. Additional testing will be performed on samples removed from the fiberboard assembly to verify its final condition. The other two packages will continue in test. This is an interim status report for experiments carried out per Task Technical Plan WSRC-TR-2005-00014 [1], which is part of the comprehensive 9975 package surveillance program [2]. The primary goal of this task is to validate aging models currently under development based on lab scale testing of the fiberboard overpack and containment vessel O-rings. A secondary goal is to examine the behavior of the lead shielding under bounding conditions. This task provides an integrated assessment of the package response to environmental extremes, and demonstrates the extent to which data from small samples scale up to a full package. Three 9975 packages have been modified to provide instrumentation for monitoring package response and performance to environmental aging. Each package has a different environmental exposure history.

Daugherty, W.; Stefek, T.

2010-01-27

450

FIRST INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 LIFE EXTENSION PACKAGE TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Three 9975 packages have been instrumented and exposed to bounding storage conditions to help identify the extent to which laboratory test results for fiberboard, O-rings and other components apply within a full-scale package. To date, changes observed in the fiberboard overpack and Oring seals are generally consistent with the behavior of laboratory samples. The lead shield within each package has developed a corrosion layer of lead carbonate, consistent with other 9975 packages. However, the morphology of the corrosion layer is different within these packages, possibly as a result of the severity of the conditioning environments beyond normal service conditions. Conditioning of the second package, LE2, has been discontinued due to the degree of degradation of the fiberboard, and its components have received a final examination. Additional testing will be performed on samples removed from the fiberboard assembly to verify its final condition. The other two packages will continue in test. This is an interim status report for experiments carried out per Task Technical Plan WSRC-TR-2005-00014 [1], which is part of the comprehensive 9975 package surveillance program [2]. The primary goal of this task is to validate aging models currently under development based on lab scale testing of the fiberboard overpack and containment vessel O-rings. A secondary goal is to examine the behavior of the lead shielding under bounding conditions. This task provides an integrated assessment of the package response to environmental extremes, and demonstrates the extent to which data from small samples scale up to a full package. Three 9975 packages have been modified to provide instrumentation for monitoring package response and performance to environmental aging. Each package has a different environmental exposure history.

Daugherty, W.; Stefek, T.

2009-12-29

451

Hydrogen Diffusion through Multiple Packaging Layers  

SciTech Connect

For this scenario, hydrogen is generated in a container that is eventually stored within a drum or some type of long range storage container. When preparing for long-term storage, the hydrogen container (HC) is placed in a plastic bag (PB1). The PB1 is then placed inside an inner drum (ID). The ID is placed inside a plastic bag (PB2) which is then placed within an outer drum (OD). One or more ODs are then storage is a large container (LC). Filtered vents or vent holes are located on all the container barriers to prevent pressurization and allow gases to flow in and out of the HC. The LC is vented to the atmosphere with four vent paths for this example. The source of hydrogen generation for this study is not important. Any source that generates hydrogen in elemental form (i.e., H{sub 2}) is a candidate for the purposes of this generic evaluation. The released hydrogen accumulates inside the waste packaging. Depending on the permeability of the packaging layers, some of the accumulated hydrogen may diffuse out of the packaging layers and into the space surrounding the drums. Since the drums are confined in the LC, the hydrogen accumulates in the LC as it did inside the drums if venting of the LC does not occur. If accumulation in the LC is allowed without venting, the confinement is eventually breached or the hydrogen is consumed by reaction with other chemical species. One possible reaction is combustion with oxygen. Such a reaction can be explosive, and from this possibility arises the safety concern.

McAllister, J.; Mohiuddin, A.

2010-05-05

452

Advances in the REDCAT software package  

PubMed Central

Background Residual Dipolar Couplings (RDCs) have emerged in the past two decades as an informative source of experimental restraints for the study of structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules and complexes. The REDCAT software package was previously introduced for the analysis of molecular structures using RDC data. Here we report additional features that have been included in this software package in order to expand the scope of its analyses. We first discuss the features that enhance REDCATs user-friendly nature, such as the integration of a number of analyses into one single operation and enabling convenient examination of a structural ensemble in order to identify the most suitable structure. We then describe the new features which expand the scope of RDC analyses, performing exercises that utilize both synthetic and experimental data to illustrate and evaluate different features with regard to structure refinement and structure validation. Results We establish the seamless interaction that takes place between REDCAT, VMD, and Xplor-NIH in demonstrations that utilize our newly developed REDCAT-VMD and XplorGUI interfaces. These modules enable visualization of RDC analysis results on the molecular structure displayed in VMD and refinement of structures with Xplor-NIH, respectively. We also highlight REDCAT’s Error-Analysis feature in reporting the localized fitness of a structure to RDC data, which provides a more effective means of recognizing local structural anomalies. This allows for structurally sound regions of a molecule to be identified, and for any refinement efforts to be focused solely on locally distorted regions. Conclusions The newly engineered REDCAT software package, which is available for download via the WWW from http://ifestos.cse.sc.edu, has been developed in the Object Oriented C++ environment. Our most recent enhancements to REDCAT serve to provide a more complete RDC analysis suite, while also accommodating a more user-friendly experience, and will be of great interest to the community of researchers and developers since it hides the complications of software development.

2013-01-01

453

NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program. The NEPP mission is to provide guidance to NASA for the selection and and application of microelectronics technologies, to improve understanding of the risks related to the use of these technologies in the space environment and to ensure that appropriate research is performed to meet NASA mission needs. The NEPP Program focuses on the reliability aspects of electronic devices. Three principal aspects to this reliability: (1) lifetime, (2) effects of space radiation and the space environment, and (3) creation and maintenance of the assurance support infrastructure required for success.

LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

2008-01-01

454

An improved linear ion trap physics package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes an improvement in the architecture of the physics package used in the Linear Ion Trap (LIT)-based frequency standard recently developed at JPL. This new design is based on the observation that ions can be moved along the axis of an LIT by applied dc voltages. The state selection and interrogation region can be separated from the more critical microwave resonance region where the multiplied local oscillator signal is compared with the stable atomic transition. This separation relaxes many of the design constraints of the present units. Improvements include increased frequency stability and a substantial reduction in size, mass, and cost of the final frequency standard.

Prestage, J. D.

1993-01-01

455

Naval Waste Package Drop With Emplacement Pallet  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation was to determine the structural responses of the Emplacement Pallet and Naval Long Waste Package (WP) to drops from their highest possible lift heights. The scope of this document was limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. The Naval Long WP is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref 12, page 7, Table 1). The Emplacement Pallet is classified as Quality Level 2 (Ref. 19, page 7, Table 1). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 11). AP-3.12Q, Calculations, was used to perform the calculation and develop the document (Ref. 3).

D.G. McLenzie

2005-08-04

456

Low-cost, flexible battery packaging materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable cost savings can be realized if the metal container used for lithium-based batteries is replaced with a flexible multi-laminate containment commonly used in the food packaging industry. This laminate structure must have air, moisture, and electrolyte barrier capabilities, be resistant to hydrogen-fluoride attack, and be heat-sealable. After extensive screening of commercial films, the polyethylene and polypropylene classes of polymers were found to have an adequate combination of mechanical, permeation, and seal-strength properties. The search for a better film and adhesive is ongoing.

Jansen, Andrew N.; Amine, Khalil; Newman, Aron E.; Vissers, Donald R.; Henriksen, Gary L.

2002-03-01

457

Groundwater Data Package for Hanford Assessments  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data and interpreted information that supports the groundwater module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) used in Hanford Assessments. The objective of the groundwater module is to predict movement of radioactive and chemical contaminants through the aquifer to the Columbia River or other potential discharge locations. This data package is being revised as part of the deliverables under the Characterization of Systems Project (#49139) aimed at providing documentation for assessments being conducted under the Hanford Assessments Project (#47042). Both of these projects are components of the Groundwater Remediation and Closure Assessments Projects, managed by the Management and Integration Project (#47043).

Thorne, Paul D.; Bergeron, Marcel P.; Williams, Mark D.; Freedman, Vicky L.

2006-01-31

458

PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. This shipping campaign involved the addition of neptunium oxide to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) as a new content and subsequently a Letter of Amendment to the SARP content table. This paper will address the proper steps which should be taken to add a new content table to a SARP. It will also address the importance of product sampling and understanding the material shipping requirements of a SARP.

Watkins, R; Steve Hensel, S; Jeffrey Jordan, J

2009-03-03

459

SWIFT: A solar system integration software package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SWIFT follows the long-term dynamical evolution of a swarm of test particles in the solar system. The code efficiently and accurately handles close approaches between test particles and planets while retaining the powerful features of recently developed mixed variable symplectic integrators. Four integration techniques are included: Wisdom-Holman Mapping; Regularized Mixed Variable Symplectic (RMVS) method; fourth order T+U Symplectic (TU4) method; and Bulirsch-Stoer method. The package is designed so that the calls to each of these look identical so that it is trivial to replace one with another. Complex data manipulations and results can be analyzed with the graphics packace SwiftVis.

Levison, Harold F.; Duncan, Martin J.

2013-03-01

460

Initial waste package interaction tests: status report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of some initial investigations of the effects of rock media on the release of simulated fission products from a sngle waste form, PNL reference glass 76-68. All tests assemblies contained a minicanister prepared by pouring molten, U-doped 76-68 glass into a 2-cm-dia stanless steel tube closed at one end. The tubes were cut to 2.5 to 7.5 cm in length to expose a flat glass surface rimmed by the canister wall. A cylindrical, whole rock pellet, cut from one of the rock materials used, was placed on the glass surface then both the canister and rock pellet were packed in the same type of rock media ground to about 75 ..mu..m to complete the package. Rock materials used were a quartz monzonite basalt and bedded salt. These packages were run from 4 to 6 weeks in either 125 ml digestion bombs or 850 ml autoclaves capable of direct solution sampling, at either 250 or 150/sup 0/C. Digestion bomb pressures were the vapor pressure of water, 600 psig at 250/sup 0/C, and the autoclaves were pressurized at 2000 psig with an argon overpressure. In general, the solution chemistry of these initial package tests suggests that the rock media is the dominant controlling factor and that rock-water interaction may be similar to that observed in some geothermal areas. In no case was uranium observed in solution above 15 ppB. The observed leach rates of U glass not in contact with potential sinks (rock surfaces and alteration products) have been observed to be considerably higher. Thus the use of leach rates and U concentrations observed from binary leach experiments (waste-form water only) to ascertain long-term environmental consequences appear to be quite conservative compared to actual U release in the waste package experiments. Further evaluation, however, of fission product transport behavior and the role of alteration phases as fission product sinks is required.

Shade, J.W.; Bradley, D.J.

1980-12-01

461

Verification of the Radiation Package in ALEGRA  

SciTech Connect

The ALEGRA radiation transport package implements diffusion, flux-limited diffusion, and SPn radiation transport for both gray and multigroup photon spectra. Comparisons of ALEGRA calculations with known solutions for a selection of benchmark problems for these transport theories are presented. ALEGRA returns accurate solutions in each case. This verifies that each transport theory has been implemented correctly, though it does not prove that the transport theories are valid for problems of interest at Sandia. A validation study will be presented in a future report.

Budge, K.G.

1999-04-01

462

Molecfit: A Package for Telluric Absorption Correction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correcting for the sky signature usually requires supplementary data which are very expensive in terms of telescope time. In addition, the scheduling flexibility is restricted as these data have to be taken usually directly before/after the science observations due to the high variability of the telluric absorption which depends on the state and the chemical composition of the atmosphere at the time of observations. Therefore, a tool for sky correction, which does not require this supplementary calibration data, saves a significant amount of valuable telescope time and increases its efficiency. We developed a software package aimed at performing telluric feature corrections on the basis of synthetic absorption spectra.

Kausch, W.; Noll, S.; Smette, A.; Kimeswenger, S.; Horst, H.; Sana, H.; Jones, A. M.; Barden, M.; Szyszka, C.; Vinther, J.

2014-05-01

463

KROME: Chemistry package for astrophysical simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KROME, given a chemical network (in CSV format), automatically generates all the routines needed to solve the kinetics of the system modeled as a system of coupled Ordinary Differential Equations. It provides a large set of physical processes connected to chemistry, including photochemistry, cooling, heating, dust treatment, and reverse kinetics. KROME is flexible and can be used for a wide range of astrophysical simulations. The package contains a network for primordial chemistry, a small metal network appropriate for the modeling of low metallicities environments, a detailed network for the modeling of molecular clouds, and a network for planetary atmospheres as well as a framework for the modelling of the dust grain population.

Grassi, Tommaso; Bovino, Stefano; Prieto, Joaquín; Seifried, Daniel; Simoncini, Eugenio; Gianturco, Francesco; Schleicher, Dominik

2014-02-01

464

An underwater work systems package. [remote handling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modular unit which is adaptable to several existing deep sea submersibles was developed to extend their working abilities and acquire knowledge of components and techniques for working in the deep sea environment. This work systems package is composed of an aluminum pipe structure on which are mounted two six-function grabber arms, a seven function manipulator, tool suit, 1,000/lb. capacity winch, electrohydraulic power supply, electronics housing, lights, and television. The unit is designed to be operated by itself either remotely or with divers, attached to manned submersibles, or mounted on unmanned cable-controlled submersibles.

Estabrook, N. B.

1975-01-01

465

A novel approach for LTCC packaging using a PBG structure for shielding and package mode suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A packaging solution for multifunctional modules up to an operating frequency of 50 GHz based on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC) is presented in this paper. A Ball Grid Array (BGA) as well as a Land Grid Array (LGA) transition from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) into a surface mounted module are proposed. They use a Photonic Bandgap (PBG) structure to

Andreas Ziroff; Martin Nalezinski; W. Menzel

2003-01-01

466

A Novel Approach for LTCC Packaging Using a PBG Structure for Shielding and Package Mode Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A packaging solution for multifunctional modules up to an operating frequency of 50 GHz based on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC) is presented in this paper. A Ball Grid Array (BGA) as well as a Land Grid Array (LGA) transition from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) into a surface mounted module are proposed. They use a Photonic Bandgap (PBG) structure to

Andreas Ziroff; Martin Nalezinski; Wolfgang Menzel

2003-01-01

467

Introduction to Human Services, Chapter III. Video Script Package, Text, and Audio Script Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video, textual, and audio components of the third module of a multi-media, introductory course on Human Services are presented. The module packages, developed at Miami-Dade Community College, deal with technology, social change, and problem dependencies. A video cassette script is first provided that explores the "traditional,""inner," and "other…

Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

468

Reduced-Size Plutonium Sample Processing and Packaging for the PAT-2 Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A light-water container for the air transport of plutonium safeguards samples, the PAT-2 package, has been developed in the USA and is now licensed by the US NRC (Certificate of Compliance) and the US DOT (IAEA Certificate of Competent Authority). The ver...

E. Kuhn S. Deron H. Aigner J. A. Andersen

1982-01-01

469

Learning Packages in International Relations. Learning Package Four: Comparative Foreign Policy Analysis Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this learning package are designed for upper division college students or beginning graduate students introducing them to the comparative study of foreign policy. Emphasis is upon analysis of internal and external "causes" of the foreign policy behavior of contemporary states. Using the data provided, students should be able to…

McGowan, Patrick J.; O'Leary, Michael K.

470

Fielding of the on-axis diagnostic package at Z  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a comprehensive diagnostic package for observing z-pinch radiation along the pinch axis on the Z accelerator. The instrumentation, which was fielded on the axial package, are x-ray diagnostics requiring direct lines of sight to the target. The diagnostics require vacuum access to the center of the accelerator. The environment is a hostile one, where one must deal with an intense, energetic photon flux (>100 keV), EMP, debris (e.g. bullets or shrapnel), and mechanical shock in order for the diagnostics to survive. In addition, practical constraints require the package be refurbished and utilized on a once a day shot schedule. In spite of this harsh environment, the authors have successfully fielded the diagnostic package with a high survivability of the data and the instruments. In this paper, they describe the environment and issues related to the re-entrant diagnostic package`s implementation and maintenance.

Hurst, M.J.; Nash, T.J.; Derzon, M.; Kellogg, J.W.; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Seaman, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jobe, D.; Lazier, S.E. [K-tech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

471

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOEpatents

A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1998-11-03

472

Environmental assessment of packaging: The consumer point of view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When marketing environmentally responsible packaged products, the producer is confronted with consumer beliefs concerning the environmental friendliness of packaging materials. When making environmentally conscious packaging decisions, these consumer beliefs should be taken into account alongside the technical guidelines. Dutch consumer perceptions of the environmental friendliness of packaged products are reported and compared with the results of a life-cycle analysis assessment. It is shown that consumers judge environmental friendliness mainly from material and returnability. Furthermore, the consumer perception of the environmental friendliness of packaging material is based on the postconsumption waste, whereas the environmental effects of production are ignored. From the consumer beliefs concerning environmental friendliness implications are deduced for packaging policy and for environmental policy.

van Dam, Ynte K.

1996-09-01

473

Recent trends and future of pharmaceutical packaging technology  

PubMed Central

The pharmaceutical packaging market is constantly advancing and has experienced annual growth of at least five percent per annum in the past few years. The market is now reckoned to be worth over $20 billion a year. As with most other packaged goods, pharmaceuticals need reliable and speedy packaging solutions that deliver a combination of product protection, quality, tamper evidence, patient comfort and security needs. Constant innovations in the pharmaceuticals themselves such as, blow fill seal (BFS) vials, anti-counterfeit measures, plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition (PICVD) coating technology, snap off ampoules, unit dose vials, two-in-one prefilled vial design, prefilled syringes and child-resistant packs have a direct impact on the packaging. The review details several of the recent pharmaceutical packaging trends that are impacting packaging industry, and offers some predictions for the future.

Zadbuke, Nityanand; Shahi, Sadhana; Gulecha, Bhushan; Padalkar, Abhay; Thube, Mahesh

2013-01-01

474

PACKAGE IMPACT MODELS AS A PRECURSOR TO CLADDING ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of spent nuclear fuel storage casks and transportation packages under impact loading is an important safety topic that is reviewed as part of cask and package certification by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Explicit dynamic finite element models of full systems are increasingly common in industry for determining structural integrity during hypothetical drop accidents. Full cask and package model results are also used as the loading basis for single fuel pin impact models, which evaluate the response of fuel cladding under drop conditions. In this paper, a simplified package system is evaluated to illustrate several important structural dynamic phenomena, including the effect of gaps between components, the difference in local response at various points on a package during impact, and the effect of modeling various simplified representations of the basket and fuel assemblies. This paper focuses on the package impact analysis, and how loading conditions for a subsequent fuel assembly or fuel cladding analysis can be extracted.

Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Bajwa, Christopher S.; Piotter, Jason

2013-02-01

475

ADAPTING A CERTIFIED SHIPPING PACKAGE FOR STORAGE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

For years shipping packages have been used to store radioactive materials at many DOE sites. Recently, the K-Area Material Storage facility at the Savannah River Site became interested in and approved the Model 9977 Shipping Package for use as a storage package. In order to allow the 9977 to be stored in the facility, there were a number of evaluations and modifications that were required. There were additional suggested modifications to improve the performance of the package as a storage container that were discussed but not incorporated in the design that is currently in use. This paper will discuss the design being utilized for shipping and storage, suggested modifications that have improved the storage configuration but were not used, as well as modifications that have merit for future adaptations for both the 9977 and for other shipping packages to be used as storage packages.

Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.

2012-06-05

476

TYPE A FISSILE PACKAGING FOR AIR TRANSPORT PROJECT OVERVIEW  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the project status of the Model 9980, a new Type A fissile packaging for use in air transport. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed this new packaging to be a light weight (<150-lb), drum-style package and prepared a Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) for submission to the DOE/EM. The package design incorporates unique features and engineered materials specifically designed to minimize packaging weight and to be in compliance with 10CFR71 requirements. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate the design when subjected to Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). An overview of the design details, results of the regulatory testing, and lessons learned from the prototype fabrication for the 9980 will be presented.

Eberl, K.; Blanton, P.

2013-10-11

477

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOEpatents

A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01

478

Method Of Packaging And Assembling Electro-Microfluidic Devices  

DOEpatents

A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel K. (Albuquerque, NM); Zamora, David Lee (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2004-11-23

479

Mixed Oxide Fresh Fuel Package Auxiliary Equipment  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is overseeing the construction the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) on the Savannah River Site. The new facility, being constructed by NNSA's contractor Shaw AREVA MOX Services, will fabricate fuel assemblies utilizing surplus plutonium as feedstock. The fuel will be used in designated commercial nuclear reactors. The MOX Fresh Fuel Package (MFFP), which has recently been licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a type B package (USA/9295/B(U)F-96), will be utilized to transport the fabricated fuel assemblies from the MFFF to the nuclear reactors. It was necessary to develop auxiliary equipment that would be able to efficiently handle the high precision fuel assemblies. Also, the physical constraints of the MFFF and the nuclear power plants require that the equipment be capable of loading and unloading the fuel assemblies both vertically and horizontally. The ability to reconfigure the load/unload evolution builds in a large degree of flexibility for the MFFP for the handling of many types of both fuel and non fuel payloads. The design and analysis met various technical specifications including dynamic and static seismic criteria. The fabrication was completed by three major fabrication facilities within the United States. The testing was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The unique design specifications and successful testing sequences will be discussed. (authors)

Yapuncich, F.; Ross, A. [AREVA Federal Services (AFS), Tacoma WA (United States); Clark, R.H. [Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Ammerman, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2008-07-01

480

Mercury: A software package for orbital dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is a new general-purpose software package for carrying out orbital integrations for problems in solar-system dynamics. Suitable applications include studying the long-term stability of the planetary system, investigating the orbital evolution of comets, asteroids or meteoroids, and simulating planetary accretion. Mercury is designed to be versatile and easy to use, accepting initial conditions in either Cartesian coordinates or Keplerian elements in "cometary" or "asteroidal" format, with different epochs of osculation for different objects. Output from an integration consists of either osculating or averaged ("proper") elements, written in a machine-independent compressed format, which allows the results of a calculation performed on one platform to be transferred (e.g. via FTP) and decoded on another. During an integration, Mercury monitors and records details of close encounters, sungrazing events, ejections and collisions between objects. The effects of non-gravitational forces on comets can also be modeled. The package supports integrations using a mixed-variable symplectic routine, the Bulirsch-Stoer method, and a hybrid code for planetary accretion calculations.

Chambers, John E.

2012-01-01

481

Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

1995-01-01

482

Stresses in solder joints of electronic packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic chip packages are comprised of several components with different material properties and geometries. One of the most basic electronic packages is the tri-assembly system consisting of a chip attached to a board by a solder connection. During the fabrication of this simple unit, the soldering process subjects the device to a thermal field. Since the three components of the device have different material properties, in particular their Young's modulii, Poissons ratios, and thermal coefficients of expansion, the mismatch in these properties results in thermoelastic stresses. In addition to the thermal field arising from fabrication, thermal fields and hence thermoelastic stresses, result from the operation of the device itself. An investigation of stresses was undertaken. Two types of solder joints, a leaded device and an unleaded device, were compared for effectiveness. Procedures are shown for the analyses of these two types of solder joints. The analyses showed that the thermoelastic stresses for the stiff unleaded connection are significantly greater, by a factor of 20 for the particular arrangement studied in this report, than the stresses in the more flexible leaded connection.

Salinas, David; Shin, Philip Y.

1991-12-01

483

Packaging issues related to network access modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WDM networks offer potentially increased bandwidth and functionality when compared to single wavelength ones, with applications ranging from straightforward capacity enhancement through to switched virtual dark fiber carrying disparate traffic to the customers' premises. However, to be implemented in the ground, these optical networks have to offer cost effective solutions to the users. This means that WDM equipment must be built small, rugged with low power consumption and high functional density. The NAM (network access module) developed by the ONTC, makes extensive use of array electronics, optoelectronics and optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) and illustrates such system integration. But high level integration and high functional density bring new challenges in packaging together with the difficulty of managing crosstalk. In this paper we describe the network access module, detail some of the key packaging technologies and discuss alternative integration approaches which are explored as part of another collaboration project called Rozinante. To conclude, some applications using the NAM are proposed which show the key role of this network element in building reconfigurable optical networks.

Dreze, Cecile

1997-01-01

484

High-power LED package requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power LEDs have evolved from simple indicators into illumination devices. For general lighting applications, where the objective is to light up an area, white LED arrays have been utilized to serve that function. Cost constraints will soon drive the industry to provide a discrete lighting solution. Early on, that will mean increasing the power densities while quantum efficiencies are addressed. For applications such as automotive headlamps & projection, where light needs to be tightly collimated, or controlled, arrays of die or LEDs will not be able to satisfy the requirements & limitations defined by etendue. Ultimately, whether a luminaire requires a small source with high luminance, or light spread over a general area, economics will force the evolution of the illumination LED into a compact discrete high power package. How the customer interfaces with this new package should be an important element considered early on in the design cycle. If an LED footprint of adequate size is not provided, it may prove impossible for the customer, or end user, to get rid of the heat in a manner sufficient to prevent premature LED light output degradation. Therefore it is critical, for maintaining expected LED lifetime & light output, that thermal performance parameters be defined, by design, at the system level, which includes heat sinking methods & interface materials or methdology.

Wall, Frank; Martin, Paul S.; Harbers, Gerard

2004-01-01

485

ViennaRNA Package 2.0  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary structure forms an important intermediate level of description of nucleic acids that encapsulates the dominating part of the folding energy, is often well conserved in evolution, and is routinely used as a basis to explain experimental findings. Based on carefully measured thermodynamic parameters, exact dynamic programming algorithms can be used to compute ground states, base pairing probabilities, as well as thermodynamic properties. Results The ViennaRNA Package has been a widely used compilation of RNA secondary structure related computer programs for nearly two decades. Major changes in the structure of the standard energy model, the Turner 2004 parameters, the pervasive use of multi-core CPUs, and an increasing number of algorithmic variants prompted a major technical overhaul of both the underlying RNAlib and the interactive user programs. New features include an expanded repertoire of tools to assess RNA-RNA interactions and restricted ensembles of structures, additional output information such as centroid structures and maximum expected accuracy structures derived from base pairing probabilities, or z-scores for locally stable secondary structures, and support for input in fasta format. Updates were implemented without compromising the computational efficiency of the core algorithms and ensuring compatibility with earlier versions. Conclusions The ViennaRNA Package 2.0, supporting concurrent computations via OpenMP, can be downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/RNA.

2011-01-01

486

Development of an automated pit packaging system for Pantex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories is developing a system that uses robots to package pits at Pantex in the AT-400A pit storage and transportation container. This report will give an overview of the AT-400A packaging process, and the parts of the overall AT-400A packaging operation that will be performed robotically. The process employed to move from development in the laboratory at Sandia

Jill C. Fahrenholtz

1997-01-01

487

A microelectronics approach for the ROSETTA surface science package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In relation to the Rosetta surface science package, the benefits of the application of advanced microelectronics packaging technologies and other output from the Mars environmental survey (MESUR) integrated microelectronics study are reported on. The surface science package will be designed to operate for tens of hours. Its limited mass and power consumption make necessary a highly integrated design with all the instruments and subunits operated from a centralized control and information management subsystem.

Sandau, Rainer (editor); Alkalaj, Leon

1996-01-01

488

Thermal stress analysis of a multichip package design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a thermal analysis of a thin-film multichip package design, with emphasis on thermally induced stress in the critical package components. The package uses flip-chip solder bonding and thin-film interconnections between chips. Indium was chosen as the die attachment medium between each chip and the water-cooled heat sink. A methodology is given to estimate the stresses in the

R. Darveaux; I. Turlik; L.-T. Hwang; A. Reisman

1989-01-01

489

A Comparative Study of Inspection Techniques for Array Packages  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the inspection techniques for Column Grid Array (CGA) packages. The CGA is a method of chip scale packaging using high temperature solder columns to attach part to board. It is becoming more popular over other techniques (i.e. quad flat pack (QFP) or ball grid array (BGA)). However there are environmental stresses and workmanship challenges that require good inspection techniques for these packages.

Mohammed, Jelila; Green, Christopher

2008-01-01

490

Profiling of metal ions leached from pharmaceutical packaging materials.  

PubMed

Metal leachables from packaging components can affect the safety and efficacy of a pharmaceutical formulation. As liquid formulations continue to contain surfactants, salts, and chelating agents coupled with lower drug levels, the interaction between the formulation and the packaging material becomes more important. This study examines the interaction of commonly used packaging materials with extraction solvents representative of liquid formulations found in the pharmaceutical industry stressed under conditions encountered during accelerated stability studies. PMID:17260898

Fliszar, Kyle A; Walker, David; Allain, Leonardo

2006-01-01

491

Natural Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposite Films for Packaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns on environmental waste problems caused by non-biodegradable petrochemical-based plastic packaging materials as well as the consumer's demand for high quality food products has caused an increasing interest in developing biodegradable packaging materials using annually renewable natural biopolymers such as polysaccharides and proteins. Inherent shortcomings of natural polymer-based packaging materials such as low mechanical properties and low water resistance can

Jong-Whan Rhim; Perry K. W. Ng

2007-01-01

492

Environmental innovation in industrial packaging: a supply chain approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community concerns about the environmental impacts of packaging have prompted governments to introduce policies and regulations which impose eco-taxes or deposit-return systems, require companies to take-back and recover their packaging, or promote voluntary product stewardship programmes. Until recently these programmes have focused almost exclusively on consumer (retail) packaging, but increasingly companies are starting to address the environmental impacts of industrial

K. Verghese; H. Lewis

2007-01-01

493

Two Different Processes to Obtain Antimicrobial Packaging Containing Natural Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, antimicrobial packaging materials were developed by incorporating known concentrations (w\\/w) of essentials oils of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) into low-density polyethylene (LDPE), suitable for use as food packaging, via two different methods: ionizing treatment\\u000a and directly by extrusion. The mechanical, barrier, and antimicrobial properties of the packaging were evaluated against the\\u000a following foodborne pathogens:

Andrea Carolina Valderrama Solano; Cecilia de Rojas Gante

494

Analysis of package cracking during reflow soldering process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Package cracking that occurs in surface-mount devices that have absorbed moisture has been studied by means of a moisture-diffusion analysis of the plastic, deformation and stress analysis of the package, and measurement of some high-temperature properties of the plastic. The validity of the analysis has been confirmed by a measurement of the deformation of packages heated by infrared radiation. Several

Makoto Kitano; Asao Nishimura; Sueo Kawai; Kunihiko Nishi

1988-01-01

495

ELAS: A powerful, general purpose image processing package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ELAS is a software package which has been utilized as an image processing tool for more than a decade. It has been the source of several commercial packages. Now available on UNIX workstations it is a very powerful, flexible set of software. Applications at Stennis Space Center have included a very wide range of areas including medicine, forestry, geology, ecological modeling, and sonar imagery. It remains one of the most powerful image processing packages available, either commercially or in the public domain.

Walters, David; Rickman, Douglas

1991-01-01

496

Disposable Polydimethylsioxane Package for 'Bio~Microfluidic System'  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disposable polydimethylsioxane package is developed for ‘Bio-Microfluidic System’. Disposable Bio-Microfluidic system avoids the contamination of the system after each use and this requires the use of low cost materials. Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) is an attractive low cost material for making substrates of the micro-fluidic package. The disposable PDMS Package consists of PDMS substrates, which are fabricated by soft-lithography. The PDMS

Ser Choong Chong; Ling Xie; Levent Yobas; Hong Miao Ji; Jing Li; Yu Chen; Pinjala Damaruganath; Wing Cheong Hui; Mahadevan K Iyer

2005-01-01

497

DHLW Glass Waste Package Criticality Analysis (SCPB:N/A)  

SciTech Connect

This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to determine the viability of the Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW) Glass waste package concept with respect to criticality regulatory requirements in compliance with the goals of the Waste Package Implementation Plan (Ref. 5.1) for conceptual design. These design calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide a comprehensive comparison base with other design alternatives. The objective of this evaluation is to show to what extent the concept meets the regulatory requirements or indicate additional measures that are required for the intact waste package.

J.W. Davis

1996-03-29

498

Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia`s facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns.

Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

1995-12-31

499

Si-photonics based passive device packaging and module performance.  

PubMed

We report a fully packaged silicon passive waveguide device designed for a tunable filter based on a ring-resonator. Polarization diversity circuits prevent polarization dependant issues in the silicon ring-resonator. For the device packaging, the YAG laser welding technique has been used for pigtailing both of the input and output fibers. Post welding misalignment was compensated by mechanical fine tuning using the seesaw effect via power monitoring. Packaging loss less than 1.5 dB with respect to chip measurement has been achieved using 10 µm-curvature radius lensed fibers. In addition, the packaging process and the module performance are presented. PMID:21935167

Song, Jeong Hwan; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Chao; Lo, Guo Qiang

2011-09-12

500

The role of flexible packaging in the life cycle of coffee and butter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  The evaluation of packaging’s environmental performance usually concentrates on a comparison of different packaging materials\\u000a or designs. Another important aspect in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies on packaging is the recycling or treatment of\\u000a packaging wastes. LCA studies of packed food include the packaging with specific focus on the contribution of the packaging\\u000a to the total results.

Sybille Büsser; Niels Jungbluth

2009-01-01