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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Demo Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demo package is a self-contained file for the teaching of orbits, electromagnetic radiation from charged particles and quantum mechanical bound states. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. One can choose from several preset examples from each of the three areas of physics contained in the package. The Demo package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of advanced physics topics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_demo.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other curricular packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, Orbits, Radiation, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

2

Wigner Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wigner package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the time evolution and visualization of energy eigenstates and their superpositions in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on the Wigner quasi-probability distribution for position and momentum. The Wigner package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_wigner.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

3

Briefing Package  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. BRIEFING PACKAGE Division of Anti-Infective Products Office of Antimicrobial Products Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

4

Spins Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Spins package is a self-contained file for the teaching of measurement and time evolution of spin-1/2 systems in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on single and multiple measurements of different ensembles of identically prepared spin-1/2 particles. The Spins package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_spins.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. The original program, Spins, was written for the Macintosh by Daniel Schroeder and Thomas Moore and was then ported to Java by David McIntyre. We have made extensive modifications to the Java version of the SPINS program. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

5

Simulation Packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not every electrochemist wishes to write his or her own simulation programs, and there are a number of ready-made programs that can be obtained through the Internet or otherwise, some commercial, some free, and some that are online programs. These can be convenient but all have some limitations of various kinds. There have been several reviews describing these packages [104, 114, 523].

Britz, Dieter

6

Plastic chip carrier package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic QFP, SOIC packages have been dominant surface mount packages for several years for many of their attractive features like compactness and small form factor. The recent needs are for higher I\\/O packages, with small form factor has led to many novel packaging schemes like the chip scale package. Currently, the cost of a chip scale package is very high.

R. Joshi; B. J. Shanker

1996-01-01

7

MMIC packaging technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging technology for microwave and millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC's) was developed. Two packaging approaches were investigated for RF performance and mechanical integrity. One is a packaging approach using quartz (fused silica) material and a glass sealing process. The other is a packaging approach using ceramic (92 percent Alumina) material and a co-firing process. Test results indicate both packaging approaches

K. Li; S. Yuan

1993-01-01

8

High density packaging technology ultra thin package & new tab package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As electronic devices become more highly integrated, the demand for small, high pin count packages has been increasing. We have developed two new types of IC packages in response to this demand. One is an ultra thin small outline package (TSOP) which has been reduced in size from the standard SOP and the other, which uses Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) technology, is a super thin, high pin count TAB in cap (T.I.C.) package. In this paper, we present these packages and their features along with the technologies used to improve package reliability and TAB. Thin packages are vulnerable to high humidity exposure, especially after heat shock.1 The following items were therefore investigated in order to improve humidity resistance: (1) The molding compound thermal stress, (2) Water absorption into the molding compound and its effect on package cracking during solder dipping, (3) Chip attach pad area and its affect on package cracking, (4) Adhesion between molding resin and chip attach pad and its affect on humidity resistance. With the improvements made as a result of these investigations, the reliability of the new thin packages is similar to that of the standard thicker plastic packages.

Nakagawa, Osamu; Shimamoto, Haruo; Ueda, Tetsuya; Shimomura, Kou; Hata, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Toru; Fukushima, Jiro; Banjo, Toshinobu; Yamamoto, Isamu

1989-09-01

9

Science packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

1997-01-01

10

Plastic Packaging Consortium Plastic Package Thermal Dissipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Plastic Packaging Consortium (PPC), a Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP) funded by DARF'A under SOL 94-27 addresses the needs to build up and strengthen an on-shore infrastructure for thermally enhanced, ruggedized, and high density packages. The intention of the program is to identify the cost-of-ownership for the various combinations of package enhancements with respect to the performance level achieved so

Daniel Tracy; Luu Nguyen; R. Glberti; Anthony Gallo; C. Bischo; C. J. Jonczrrk; J. Wohlin

1997-01-01

11

Packaging of MEMS microphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the ceramic substrate. In this paper the packaging technology is explained in detail and results of electro-acoustic characterization and reliability testing are presented. We will also explain the way which has led us from the packaging of Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) components to the packaging of MEMS microphones.

Feiertag, Gregor; Winter, Matthias; Leidl, Anton

2009-05-01

12

Waste Package Lifting Calculation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

H. Marr

2000-05-11

13

Creative Thinking Package  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A look at the latest package from a British managment training organization, which explains and demonstrates creative thinking techniques, including brainstorming. The package, designed for groups of twelve or more, consists of tapes, visuals, and associated exercises. (Editor/JB)

Jones, Clive

1972-01-01

14

Packaging of MEMS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines issues in the packaging of silicon-micromachined devices. Standard microelectonics packaging seeks to physically isolate the integrated circuits from harmful elements in the environment, to provide mechanical strength for the die, to facilitate thermal dissipation, and to sustain electrical communication with outside circuits. However, due to the many novel applications of MEMS devices, new sets of packaging requirements

Albert K. Hu; Evan D. Green

1995-01-01

15

The Hydra Magnetohydrodynamics Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Magnetohydrodynamics package of the ALE radiation-hydrodynamics code Hydra is being extended to model the magnetic field and its effect on temperature for ICF targets. The current package capabilities include a fully three-dimensional resistive MHD package in the small Hall limit. An operator split method is used to couple the MHD to the hydrodynamics and is fully implicit in time

J. M. Koning; G. D. Kerbel; M. M. Marinak

2009-01-01

16

Packaging of MEMS microphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

To miniaturize MEMS microphones we have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding. In this new packaging technology MEMS and ASIC are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate. The package is sealed by a laminated polymer foil and by a metal layer. The sound port is on the bottom side in the

Gregor Feiertag; Matthias Winter; Anton Leidl

2009-01-01

17

Trends in Food Packaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of

Ott, Dana B.

1988-01-01

18

Reliability in MEMS Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost effective packaging and robust reliability are two critical factors for successful commercialization of MEMS and microsystems. While packaging contributes to the effective production cost of MEMS devices, reliability addresses consumer's confidence in and expectation on sustainable performance of the products. There are a number of factors that contribute to the reliability of MEMS; packaging, in particular, in bonding and

Tai-Ran Hsu

2006-01-01

19

Packaging of Implantable Microsystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenges and technologies for long-term stable packaging of implantable devices and microsystems are reviewed. Packaging of implantable microsystems is especially difficult because of the many limitations in terms of size, material properties, mechanical structure and rigidity, biocompatibility, required lifetime, and maximum allowable temperature. Our group has demonstrated their long-term reliability in salt water and biological environments. Glass packages anodically bonded

Khalil Najafi

2007-01-01

20

MMIC packaging technology development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Packaging technology for microwave and millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuits (MMIC's) was developed. Two packaging approaches were investigated for RF performance and mechanical integrity. One is a packaging approach using quartz (fused silica) material and a glass sealing process. The other is a packaging approach using ceramic (92 percent Alumina) material and a co-firing process. Test results indicate both packaging approaches provide wide frequency band and low insertion loss. The quartz package-breadboard components exhibited operating frequency up to 35 GHz, with insertion loss less than 1.30 dB at 35 GHz. Quartz packages were designed and fabricated to investigate reproducibility. Findings from sample fabrication indicate that metallization and glass sealing process for quartz packages requires substantial improvement before reproducibility can be established. Ceramic packages were designed and fabricated for proof-of-concept in support of MMIC packaging technology development. The ceramic packages exhibited operating frequency up to 36 GHz, with insertion loss less than 1.7 dB at 36 GHz. These proof-of-concept MMIC packages not only show low insertion loss and wide frequency band but also demonstrated the hermetic-seal capability and the mechanical strength for many MMIC applications. Current co-fired ceramic process permits cost effectiveness and timely insertion of MMIC's technology.

Li, K.; Yuan, S.

1993-03-01

21

Smart packaging for photonics  

SciTech Connect

Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W. [ed.

1997-09-01

22

Molded hybrid IC packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

AT&T's new system products will incorporate hybrid ICs with significantly more I\\/O connections than current designs, predominantly in surface-mount package formats. A family of plastic molded packages that conform to JEDEC standards is being developed for these hybrid IC applications. The packages are identical in both appearance and performance to those of discrete ICs, simplifying system design because standard CAD

R. Biswas; P. A. Deane; T. F. Marinis

1989-01-01

23

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2005-01-01

24

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

2006-01-01

25

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2007-01-01

26

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2009-01-01

27

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2008-01-01

28

The ZOOM minimization package  

SciTech Connect

A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

29

Interconnection and Packaging Issues of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated circuit packaging and their testing is well advanced because of the maturity of the IC industry, their wide applications, and availability of industrial infrastructure.(1,2) This is not true for MEMS with respect to packaging and testing. It is more difficult to adopt standardized MEMS device packaging for wide applications although MEMS use many similar technologies to IC packaging. Packaging

COTS MEMS; Rajeshuni Ramesham

30

Tamper indicating packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance

M. J. Baumann; J. C. Bartberger; T. D. Welch

1994-01-01

31

Reduction of packaging waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, app...

E. A. Raney J. J. Hogan M. L. McCollom R. J. Meyer

1994-01-01

32

Molded hybrid IC packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of plastic molded packages that conform to JEDEC standards for hybrid IC applications is being developed by providing a number of benefits. System design is simplified because standard CAD (computer-aided design) libraries can be utilized to determine part location, routing, solder pad dimensions, and electrical characteristics of the package. Manufacturability is improved because industry standard equipment can be

RANJIT BISWAS; PHILIP A. DEANE; THOMAS F. MARINIS

1989-01-01

33

Costa Rica: Country Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Costa Rica Country Package contains information on the economic and commercial climate of Costa Rica. The package includes the following reports: Costa Rica Business Fact Sheet, Top 35 Exports and Imports between the U.S. and Costa Rica, Contact list ...

1991-01-01

34

Grooming. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are

Stark, Pamela

35

The GRIDView Visualization Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large three-dimensional data cubes, catalogs, and spectral line archives are increasingly important elements of the data discovery process in astronomy. Visualization of large data volumes is of vital importance for the success of large spectral line surveys. Examples of data reduction utilizing the GRIDView software package are shown. The package allows users to manipulate data cubes, extract spectral profiles, and

B. R. Kent

2011-01-01

36

Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are

Lee, Carolyn

37

WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

1998-09-23

38

TRNSYS for windows packages  

SciTech Connect

TRNSYS 14.1 was released in 1994. This package represents a significant step forward in usability due to several graphical utility programs for DOS. These programs include TRNSHELL, which encapsulates TRNSYS functions, PRESIM, which allows the graphical creation of a simulation system, and TRNSED, which allows the easy sharing of simulations. The increase in usability leads to a decrease in the time necessary to prepare the simulation. Most TRNSYS users operate on PC computers with the Windows operating system. Therefore, the next logical step in increased usability was to port the current TRNSYS package to the Windows operating system. Several organizations worked on this conversion that has resulted in two distinct Windows packages. One package closely resembles the DOS version and includes TRNSHELL for Windows and PRESIM for Windows. The other package incorporates a general front-end, called IISIBat, that is a general simulation tool front-end. 8 figs.

Blair, N.J.; Beckman, W.A.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

1996-09-01

39

Momentum Space Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Momentum Space package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the time evolution and visualization of energy eigenstates and their superpositions via momentum space in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on the wave function in both position and momentum space. The Momentum Space package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_p_space.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-30

40

Phase Matters Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Phase Matters package is a self-contained file for the teaching of phase and time evolution in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. The material focuses on when and how, for arbitrary quantum-mechanical states, the phase of the wave function matters. The Phase Matters package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_phase_matters.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

41

RH Packaging Operations Manual  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2003-09-17

42

QM Superposition Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The QM Superposition Launcher package is a self-contained file for the teaching of the time evolution and visualization of energy eigenstates and their superpositions in quantum mechanics. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a curricular materials. One can choose from several real-time visualizations, such as the position and momentum expectation values and the Wigner quasi-probability distribution for position and momentum. The QM Superposition package is an Open Source Physics curricular package written for the teaching of quantum mechanics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_superposition.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. Other quantum mechanics packages are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Quantum Mechanics.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-29

43

Alternative Astronomical Software Packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a time when the United Nations, in collaboration with Wolfram Research, has selected the Mathematica software package to inform developing countries about available scientific tools, it is important to review other choices of software being used by active scientists around the world. For observational astronomers with large volumes of digital data to be analyzed, the main challenges are data reductions, image handling, model comparisons, interactive fits, data simulations and visualizations, etc. There are several good alternative software packages such as: AIPS, IRAF, MIDAS and IDL The first three packages can be obtained free of charge by contacting the sponsoring institutions. Information can be obtained, via the World Wide Web, from the URLs indicated in the footnotes. IDL is a commercial package that can be used in all kinds of computer platforms and is extensively used in space astronomy (e.g., main language of software reduction packages of missions like IUE, HST, ROSAT, SOHO, etc). All of these packages are able to handle some of the most common commercial and scientific data formats (FITS, CDF and HDF). These software packages provide general tools for image processing and data reduction with emphasis on, but not limited to, astronomical applications. All of these packages have good active customer support strategies, the most useful ones being periodic newsletters, related meetings (e.g., annual meeting on Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems), software user groups, bulletin board discussions, FAQs, etc. The purpose of this paper is to present the relative usefulness, available platforms, associated libraries, related resources, of these software packages and the many already existing and potential astronomical applications.

Prez, M. R.

1997-05-01

44

Optoelectronic packaging: A review  

SciTech Connect

Optoelectronics and photonics hold great potential for high data-rate communication and computing. Wide using in computing applications was limited first by device technologies and now suffers due to the need for high-precision, mass-produced packaging. The use of phontons as a medium of communication and control implies a unique set of packaging constraints that was not present in traditional telecommunications applications. The state-of-the-art in optoelectronic packaging is now driven by microelectric techniques that have potential for low cost and high volume manufacturing.

Carson, R.F.

1993-09-01

45

Tamper indicating packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to cont...

M. J. Baumann J. C. Bartberger T. D. Welch

1994-01-01

46

Packaging for Posterity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)|

Sias, Jim

1990-01-01

47

Packaging for Posterity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project in which students designed environmentally responsible food packaging is described. The problem definition; research on topics such as waste paper, plastic, metal, glass, incineration, recycling, and consumer preferences; and the presentation design are provided. (KR)

Sias, Jim

1990-01-01

48

ODE Solver Properties Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ODE Solver Properties Package explores the error when solving the simple harmonic oscillator differential equation using different numerical algorithms. The numerical and analytical solutions are compared and the global error are plotted and tabulated. The ODE Solver Properties Package was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the math_ode_SolverProperties.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-06-13

49

Waste Package Program  

SciTech Connect

This was a progress report on the research program of waste packages at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The report has the overviews of what the program has done from January 1991 to June 1991, such as task assignments for personnel, equipment acquisitions, and staff meetings and travels on behalf of the project. Also, included was an abstract on the structural analysis of the waste package container design. (MB)

Culbreth, W.; Ladkany, S.

1991-07-21

50

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2003-04-30

51

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2002-03-04

52

The ENSDF Java Package  

SciTech Connect

A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations.

Sonzogni, A.A. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

2005-05-24

53

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If

2003-01-01

54

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212.

2006-01-01

55

From Wafer to Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes an animation of finished wafer to packaged integrated Circuits. Objective: Describe the wafer to packaged device process steps. This simulation is from Module 075 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). You will find the animation under the heading "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey

2012-11-21

56

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2006-11-07

57

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are conducted. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions or equivalent approved instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations meet the requirements of the SARP.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2008-01-12

58

Detecting small holes in packages  

DOEpatents

A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC); Cadieux, James R. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01

59

Detecting small holes in packages  

DOEpatents

A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

1996-03-19

60

CH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

Washington TRU Solutions LLC

2005-02-28

61

Critical challenges in packaging MEMS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews several current MEMS based products and highlights the critical packaging challenges for these devices. Several package configurations are shown, and issues around processing, material selection, and particle control are discussed. The package configurations are divided into three main groups: cavity packages, plastic molded packages, and wafer level packages. Several alternate process flows for these package types are

Robert Darveaux; Lakshmi Munukutla

2005-01-01

62

General Relativity (GR) Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The General Relativity (GR) Package is a self-contained file for the teaching of general relativity. The file contains ready-to-run OSP programs and a set of curricular materials. You can choose from a variety of simulations ranging from comparisons between Newtonian mechanics and general relativity to orbits around and into black holes. This application is an Open Source Physics curricular package. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the osp_gr.jar file will run the application if Java is installed. Other resources are also available and can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics or OSP.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne

2008-06-03

63

Radioactive waste disposal package  

DOEpatents

A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

Lampe, Robert F. (Bethel Park, PA)

1986-01-01

64

Nutrition Learning Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

65

Huygens' Surface Science Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of the Surface Science Package (SSP) on the Huygens probe are discussed. This instrument consists of nine separate sensors that are designed to measure a wide range of physical properties of Titan's lower atmosphere, surface, and sub-surface. By measuring a number of physical properties of the surface it is expected that the SSP will be able

J. C. Zarnecki; M. R. Leese; J. R. C. Garry; N. Ghafoor; B. Hathi

2002-01-01

66

Packaging the conservative revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging the Conservative Revolution assesses the role of conservative think?tanks, particularly the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Heritage Foundation, in engineering conservative prominence in national affairs. While AEI and Heritage have been particularly effective in promoting conservatism to legislators and the public, serious problems emerge from their analyses. The anti?welfare state bias of AEI projects reflects the dominance of

David Stoesz

1988-01-01

67

Chile Country Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package of materials contains the following marketing and trade information on the country of Chile. (1) Chile Country Fact Sheet (4/92); (2) Trade Outlook 'Chile, Benchmark for an Open Economy' (4/92); (3) Chile Country Marketing Plan (Fiscal Year 19...

1992-01-01

68

An Interactive Statistics Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An interactive statistics package of programs designed for use by research personnel. For data sets of up to 15 variables and 250 observations, data editing and standard data transformations plus the following analyses may be performed: t-tests, chi-squar...

1979-01-01

69

Project Information Packages Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are an overview booklet, a project selection guide, and six Project Information Packages (PIPs) for six exemplary projects serving underachieving students in grades k through 9. The overview booklet outlines the PIP projects and includes a chart of major project features. A project selection guide reviews the PIP history, PIP contents,

RMC Research Corp., Mountain View, CA.

70

Upper marine riser package  

SciTech Connect

An upper marine riser package, operable from a relatively moveable structure, such as on a floating vessel which is subject to movement by wave action and the like, and adapted to be connected and lowered through a confined opening such as a rotary table in the vessel and supportable on a diverter housing on the vessel is described comprising: a diverter for diverting drilling fluid and gas from a subsea, well, a tilting means connected to the diverter to allow tilting movement between the diverter, diverter housing, vessel and the remainder of the package, a slip joint with riser tensioning means forming part thereof connected to the tilting means to compensate for vertical movement between the well and the vessel. The slip joint comprises an inner barrel and an outer barrel. The inner barrel being sized to telescope within the outer barrel and further including means supporting the inner barrel with respect to the diverter housing, and cylinder assemblies connected to the support means and to the outer barrel and subject to the fluid pressure within the cylinder assemblies to compensate for vertical motion of the vessel. A rotation bearing is connected to part of the slip joint to allow rotational movement between the well and the part. The package is connectable to a string of risers and lowered through the confined opening and the diverter housing and to a source of air and fluid under pressure for operating the package.

Lim, J.S.; Jones, D.L.

1987-12-15

71

Upper marine riser package  

Microsoft Academic Search

An upper marine riser package, operable from a relatively moveable structure, such as on a floating vessel which is subject to movement by wave action and the like, and adapted to be connected and lowered through a confined opening such as a rotary table in the vessel and supportable on a diverter housing on the vessel is described comprising: a

J. S. Lim; D. L. Jones

1987-01-01

72

Electro-Microfluidic Packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

2002-06-01

73

CH Packaging Maintenance Manual  

SciTech Connect

This procedure provides instructions for performing inner containment vessel (ICV) and outer containment vessel (OCV) maintenance and periodic leakage rate testing on the following packaging seals and corresponding seal surfaces using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test. In addition, this procedure provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV structural pressure tests.

Washington TRU Solutions

2002-01-02

74

Uruguay Country Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package of materials contains the following marketing and trade information on the country of Uruguay. (1) Uruguay Country Fact Sheet (4/92); (2) Uruguay Commercial Activities Report (3/92); (3) Uruguay-U.S. Trade Statistics - Imports and Exports, 198...

1992-01-01

75

Packaging Precision Quartz Crystal Resonators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The causes of aging and thermal hysteresis in quartz resonators are reviewed with emphasis on those aspects which can be influenced by the resonator's packaging. A microcircuit compatible ceramic package design is proposed which is aimed toward optimizing...

E. Hafner J. R. Vig

1973-01-01

76

Food packaging history and innovations.  

PubMed

Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed. PMID:19719135

Risch, Sara J

2009-09-23

77

Sustainable Library Development Training Package  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer

Peace Corps, 2012

2012-01-01

78

49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. 178.602 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation...

2012-10-01

79

49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false General requirements for packagings and packages. 173.24 Section...SHIPPERSGENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...173.24 General requirements for packagings and packages. (a)...

2009-10-01

80

49 CFR 178.602 - Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Preparation of packagings and packages for testing. 178.602 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages § 178.602 Preparation...

2011-10-01

81

49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General requirements for packagings and packages. 173.24 Section...SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...173.24 General requirements for packagings and packages. (a)...

2010-10-01

82

Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost, high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging require...

T. Schimert R. Howe M. Schmidt S. Montague

2002-01-01

83

Plutonium stabilization and packaging system  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

NONE

1996-05-01

84

Hasbun Classical Mechanics Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hasbun Classical Mechanics Package is a self-contained Java package of OSP programs in support of the textbook: Classical Mechanics with MATLAB Applications. Classical Mechanics with MATLAB Applications is a resource for the advanced undergraduate taking introduction to classical mechanics. Filled with comprehensive examples and thorough descriptions, this text guides students through the complex topics of rigid body motion, moving coordinate systems, Lagrange's equations, small vibrations, the Euler algorithm, and much more. Step-by-step illustrations, examples and computational physics tools further enhance learning and understanding by demonstrating accessible ways of obtaining mathematical solutions. In addition to the numerous examples throughout, each chapter contains a section of MATLAB code to introduce the topic of programming scripts and their modification for the reproduction of graphs and simulations.

Hasbun, Javier

2008-06-23

85

Anticounterfeit packaging technologies.  

PubMed

Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology. PMID:22247875

Shah, Ruchir Y; Prajapati, Prajesh N; Agrawal, Y K

2010-10-01

86

Financial Market Stabilization Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Korean Ministry of Finance and Economy site contains details of The Financial Market Stabilization Package aimed at solving the financial crisis announced on November 19, 1997. The beginning of the financial crisis in South Korea can be traced to the collapse of Hanbo Steel Corp., the first in a string of large corporate failures in South Korea. This was followed by the decline in the value of the Korean won against the dollar in October 1997, which persisted until November when the Central Bank of Korea stopped intervening to support the won. The continued decline in won forced the Korean government to seek financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF). On December 3, the IMF announced a $55 billion aid package for South Korea.

1997-01-01

87

RH Packaging Program Guidance  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current revision and change notices. Sites may prepare their own document using the word-for-word steps in th is document, in sequence, including Notes and cautions. Site specific information may be included as necessary. The document, and revisions, must then be submitted to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval. A copy of the approval letter from CBFO shall be available for audit purposes. Users may develop site-specific procedures addressing preoperational activities, quality assurance (QA), hoisting and rigging, and radiation health physics to be used with the instructions contained in this document. Users may recommend changes to this document by submitting their recommendations (in writing) to the WIPP M&O Contractor RH Packaging Maintenance Engineer for evaluation. If approved, the change(s) will be incorporated into this document for use by ALL users. Before first use and every 12 months after, user sites will be audited to this document to ensure compliance. They will also be audited within one year from the effective date of revisions to this document.

Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

2003-08-25

88

Freon pump package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A preliminary design study of a freon pump package (FPP) was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a very silent pump package and to get the main technical characteristics and features of this FPP. A layout, a mass breakdown, a system block diagram, together with the design objectives and the design philosophy to achieve a very low level of noise are shown. The flow rate regulation modes which are incorporated in the FPP design are detailed. The tradeoffs performed to select the main components of the pump unit are presented. The electric motor, bearing, and pump candidates are reviewed and the final choice is given. A preliminary design of the pump unit is given, with the estimated performance. A development plan for the FPP and the pump unit is proposed, with a test plan based on the preliminary technical specifications.

Duwelz, A.

1986-04-01

89

Huygens' Surface Science Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and performance of the Surface Science Package (SSP) on the Huygens probe are discussed. This instrument consists\\u000a of nine separate sensors that are designed to measure a wide range of physical properties of Titan's lower atmosphere, surface,\\u000a and sub-surface. By measuring a number of physical properties of the surface it is expected that the SSP will be able

J. C. Zarnecki; M. R. Leese; J. R. C. Garry; N. Ghafoor; B. Hathi

2002-01-01

90

Navy packaging standardization thrusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standardization is a concept that is basic to our world today. The idea of reducing costs through the economics of mass production is an easy one to grasp. Henry Ford started the process of large scale standardization in this country with the Detroit production lines for his automobiles. In the process additional benefits accrued, such as improved reliability through design maturity, off-the-shelf repair parts, faster repair time, and a resultant lower cost of ownership (lower life-cycle cost). The need to attain standardization benefits with military equipments exists now. Defense budgets, although recently increased, are not going to permit us to continue the tremendous investment required to maintain even the status quo and develop new hardware at the same time. Needed are more reliable, maintainable, testable hardware in the Fleet. It is imperative to recognize the obsolescence problems created by the use of high technology devices in our equipments, and find ways to combat these shortfalls. The Navy has two packaging standardization programs that will be addressed in this paper; the Standard Electronic Modules and the Modular Avionics Packaging programs. Following a brief overview of the salient features of each program, the packaging technology aspects of the program will be addressed, and developmental areas currently being investigated will be identified.

Kidwell, J. R.

1982-11-01

91

Optimal segmentation and packaging process  

DOEpatents

A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meservey, Richard H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Landon, Mark D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01

92

New package for CMOS sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost is the main drawback of existing packages for C-MOS sensors (mainly CLCC family). Alternative packages are thus developed world-wide. And in particular, S.T.Microelectronics has studied a low cost alternative packages based on QFN structure, still with a cavity. Intensive work was done to optimize the over-molding operation forming the cavity onto a metallic lead-frame (metallic lead-frame is a low cost substrate allowing very good mechanical definition of the final package). Material selection (thermo-set resin and glue for glass sealing) was done through standard reliability tests for cavity packages (Moisture Sensitivity Level 3 followed by temperature cycling, humidity storage and high temperature storage). As this package concept is new (without leads protruding the molded cavity), the effect of variation of package dimensions, as well as board lay-out design, are simulated on package life time (during temperature cycling, thermal mismatch between board and package leads to thermal fatigue of solder joints). These simulations are correlated with an experimental temperature cycling test with daisy-chain packages.

Diot, Jean-Luc; Loo, Kum Weng; Moscicki, Jean-Pierre; Ng, Hun Shen; Tee, Tong Yan; Teysseyre, Jerome; Yap, Daniel

2004-02-01

93

Reliability of MEMS packaging: vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the dominant reliability issues of MEMS packaging that include vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress, are discussed, and design considerations to improve the reliability are presented. The MEMS vibratory gyroscope sensor is fabricated with anodically bonded wafer level vacuum packaging followed by die-bonding and wire-bonding processes. The epoxy-molding compound (EMC) is applied to encapsulate the gyroscope sensor.

Sung-Hoon Choa

2005-01-01

94

Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package  

SciTech Connect

The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

BOEHNKE, W.M.

2000-07-13

95

The LEOS Interpolation Package  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the interpolation package in the Livermore Equation of State (LEOS) system. It is an updated and expanded version of report [1], which described the status of the package as of May 1998, and of [2], which described its status as of the August 2001 release of the LEOS access library, and of [3], which described its status as of library version 7.02, released April 2002. This corresponds to library version 7.11, released March 2003. The main change since [3] has been the addition of the monotone bicubic Hermite (bimond) interpolation method. Throughout this report we assume that data has been given for some function f({rho},T) on a rectangular mesh {rho} = {rho}{sub 0}, {rho}{sub 1}, ..., {rho}{sub nr-1}; T = T{sub 0}, T{sub 1}, ..., T{sub nt-1}. Subscripting is from zero to be consistent with the C code. (Although we use this notation throughout, there is nothing in the package that assumes that the independent variables are actually density and temperature.) The data values are f{sub ij} = f({rho}{sub j},T{sub i}). (This subscript order is historical and reflects the notation used in the program.) There are nr x nt data values, (nr-1) x (nt-1) mesh rectangles (boxes). In the C code, the data array is one-dimensional, with data [i*(nr-1)+j] = f({rho}{sub j},T{sub i}). In the case of the few univariate functions supported by LEOS, the T variable is omitted, as well as the associated index on the data array: data [j] = f({rho}{sub j}).

Fritsch, F N

2003-03-12

96

Refraction of Light Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Refraction of Light Package explores light traveling through media of difference indices of refraction. The user can change the beginning and end points of the light ray as well as the location of the light at the interface and note what light path minimizes light travel time and thereby develop Snell's Law. The Refraction and Least Time Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_bu_Refraction_Snell.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Duffy, Andrew

2010-04-25

97

The reduction of packaging waste  

SciTech Connect

Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one third of the waste being sent to our solid waste landfills. These wastes range from product and shipping containers made from plastic, glass, wood, and corrugated cardboard to packaging fillers and wraps made from a variety of plastic materials such as shrink wrap and polystyrene peanuts. The amount of packaging waste generated is becoming an important issue for manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Elimination of packaging not only conserves precious landfill space, it also reduces consumption of raw materials and energy, all of which result in important economic and environmental benefits. At the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office's (DOE-RL) Hanford Site as well as other DOE sites the generation of packaging waste has added importance. By reducing the amount of packaging waste, DOE also reduces the costs and liabilities associated with waste handling, treatment, storage, and disposal.

Raney, E.A.; McCollom, M.; Hogan, J.

1993-04-01

98

The reduction of packaging waste  

SciTech Connect

Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one third of the waste being sent to our solid waste landfills. These wastes range from product and shipping containers made from plastic, glass, wood, and corrugated cardboard to packaging fillers and wraps made from a variety of plastic materials such as shrink wrap and polystyrene peanuts. The amount of packaging waste generated is becoming an important issue for manufacturers, retailers, and consumers. Elimination of packaging not only conserves precious landfill space, it also reduces consumption of raw materials and energy, all of which result in important economic and environmental benefits. At the US Department of Energy-Richland Field Office`s (DOE-RL) Hanford Site as well as other DOE sites the generation of packaging waste has added importance. By reducing the amount of packaging waste, DOE also reduces the costs and liabilities associated with waste handling, treatment, storage, and disposal.

Raney, E.A.; McCollom, M.; Hogan, J.

1993-04-01

99

K east encapsulation packager modifications  

SciTech Connect

This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in{sup 3} will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a k{sub eff} of 0.98 will not be exceeded.

Jensen, M.A.

1994-10-01

100

IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION  

SciTech Connect

This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

E. Thomas

2005-07-14

101

The staden sequence analysis package  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe the current version of the sequence analysis package developed at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, which\\u000a has come to be known as the Staden Package. The package covers most of the standard sequence analysis tasks such as restriction\\u000a site searching, translation, pattern searching, comparison, gene finding, and secondary structure prediction, and provides\\u000a powerful tools for DNA sequence

Rodger Staden

1996-01-01

102

About the ZOOM minimization package  

SciTech Connect

A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

2004-11-01

103

Naval Waste Package Design Report  

SciTech Connect

A design methodology for the waste packages and ancillary components, viz., the emplacement pallets and drip shields, has been developed to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the Yucca Mountain Project. This methodology is described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' Mecham 2004 [DIRS 166168]. To demonstrate the practicability of this design methodology, four waste package design configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology. These four design configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor (PWR) Absorber Plate waste package, the 44-boiling water reactor (BWR) waste package, the 5-defense high-level waste (DHLW)/United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) Co-disposal Short waste package, and the Naval Canistered SNF Long waste package. Also included in this demonstration is the emplacement pallet and continuous drip shield. The purpose of this report is to document how that design methodology has been applied to the waste package design configurations intended to accommodate naval canistered SNF. This demonstrates that the design methodology can be applied successfully to this waste package design configuration and support the License Application for construction of the repository.

M.M. Lewis

2004-03-15

104

Fitting Cosmological Data Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package includes several cosmological fitting simulations for five different observations of the expansion, all of which support a cosmic acceleration. The launcher allows users to choose which simulation to use to compare and fit theoretical models of cosmology with recent supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, the Hubble Parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the CMB data sets to confirm the accelerated expansion of the universe. This modeling allows the user to vary cosmological parameters within a particular class of dark energy cosmological models to fit a particular cosmological data set. The user can plot several theoretical curves with the data to compare different models. The values of these parameters, for a particular model, determine the physical description and evolution of the universe. The EJS Fitting Cosmological Data Launcher package was created using Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_CosmoEJS.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. You can modify this simulation if you have EJS by right-clicking within the plot and selecting Open Ejs Model from the pop-up menu item.

Moldenhauer, Jacob; Stone, Keenan; Shuler, Zeke; Engelhardt, Larry

2012-09-10

105

Signal processor packaging design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Signal Processor Packaging Design (SPPD) program was a technology development effort to demonstrate that a miniaturized, high throughput programmable processor could be fabricated to meet the stringent environment imposed by high speed kinetic energy guided interceptor and missile applications. This successful program culminated with the delivery of two very small processors, each about the size of a large pin grid array package. Rockwell International's Tactical Systems Division in Anaheim, California developed one of the processors, and the other was developed by Texas Instruments' (TI) Defense Systems and Electronics Group (DSEG) of Dallas, Texas. The SPPD program was sponsored by the Guided Interceptor Technology Branch of the Air Force Wright Laboratory's Armament Directorate (WL/MNSI) at Eglin AFB, Florida and funded by SDIO's Interceptor Technology Directorate (SDIO/TNC). These prototype processors were subjected to rigorous tests of their image processing capabilities, and both successfully demonstrated the ability to process 128 X 128 infrared images at a frame rate of over 100 Hz.

McCarley, Paul L.; Phipps, Mickie A.

1993-10-01

106

Japan's electronic packaging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

1995-02-01

107

Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

BOEHNKE, W.M.

2000-10-19

108

Family of Packaged Water/Packaged Water System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of and a method to package potable water on the battlefield for use by the individual soldier or small groups of soldiers, in support of the airland battle concept. Water packaged in expendable ...

D. M. Wood

1994-01-01

109

Project Monitoring Package (PMP): A Package for Project Activity Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A package for preparing PERT/CPM network diagrams has been written for PDP-11/34. The program uses PLOT-10 library calls for device interfacing. The package is essentially non-interactive in nature, and reads input data in the form of activity description...

K. N. Vyas A. Kannan R. Susandhi S. Basu

1987-01-01

110

Hidden Aspects of Industrial Packaging The Driving Forces behind Packaging Selection Processes at Industrial Packaging Suppliers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The choice of industrial packaging has an impact on activities throughout the supply chain in terms of costs, handling efficiency,\\u000a transport efficiency and environmental considerations. The aim of this study is twofold: to gain insight into the processes\\u000a employed by industrial packaging suppliers in packaging selection; and to understand the effect interactions between customer\\u000a and supplier have on selection. In

Sandra Silgrd Casell

111

Biopolymer-Based Antimicrobial Packaging: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term antimicrobial packaging encompasses any packaging technique(s) used to control microbial growth in a food product. These include packaging materials and edible films and coatings that contain antimicrobial agents and also techniques that modify the atmosphere within the package. In recent years, antimicrobial packaging has attracted much attention from the food industry because of the increase in consumer demand

DONG SU CHA; MANJEET S. CHINNAN

2004-01-01

112

Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. METHODS: A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by

JR DiFranza; DM Clark; RW Pollay

2003-01-01

113

Challenges in the packaging of MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike IC packaging, MEMS dice must interface with the environment for sensing, interconnection, and\\/or actuation. MEMS packaging is application specific and the package provides the physical interface of the MEMS device to the environment. In the case of a fluid mass flow control sensor, the medium flows into and out of the package. This type of packaging is referred to

C. B. O'Neal; A. P. Malshe; S. B. Singh; W. D. Brown; W. P. Eaton; SUSHILA B. SINGH

1999-01-01

114

Dual die Pentium D package technology development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the technology development for packaging two identical CPU die on one package. Historically, processors involved packaging one die on a package, but with higher performance demands, multiple die products have become necessary. With existing single core die designs, packaging two die in one unit provides a novel way of producing a dual core CPU without designing new

Mat Manusharow; Altaf Hasan; Tong Wa Chao; Matt Guzy

2006-01-01

115

49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40 Section 173...Transportation § 173.40 General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. When this section...

2012-10-01

116

49 CFR 173.40 - General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. 173.40 Section 173...Transportation § 173.40 General packaging requirements for toxic materials packaged in cylinders. When this section...

2011-10-01

117

Progressive avionics packaging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author describes technologies that address the packaging, cooling, and interconnect concerns for avionics that are applicable to current aircraft and future weapon platforms, as well as retrofit systems. To meet added functional requirements, electronic devices must shrink to allow more devices on a module and to allow processing/interconnection speeds to increase. This however, produces a tremendous power density. This intensified heat load must be removed so that the components will remain reliable. The various device technologies are creating coefficient-of-thermal-expansion mismatch, thus creating failures. The number of interconnections at the chip and system level must also decrease to increase system reliability. Current and future device technologies are discussed.

Benning, Stephen L.

118

Package-interface thermal switch  

SciTech Connect

The package-interface thermal switch (PITS) is an active temperature control device for modulating the flow of thermal energy from satellite equipment, such as electronic modules or batteries, to the satellite mounting deck which serves as a heat sink. PITS comprises a mounting bolt made of a shaped memory alloy (SMA) actuating bolt and a non-metallic rod with a helical spring surrounding it forming a mounting bolt for a satellite equipment package. At least four mounting bolts are used for installing the equipment package and are preloaded to a predetermined stress representing the desired thermal conductance between the heat sink and the package. The SMA actuating bolt is in thermal contact with the component or package and expands or contracts as the result of changing package temperature and the helical return spring forces against the SMA actuating bolt portion of the PITS, increasing (hot-on`1 condition) or decreasing (cold-off condition) the pressure of the package against the mounting deck. As the PITS changes its total length, the thermal conductance between the two objects is increased or decreased. Thus thermal conductance changes as a direct function of package temperature, resulting in active temperature control. The simple design of the PITS reduces the cost and weight of the thermal control subsystem in satellites and its high reliability eliminates the requirement for thermal design verification testing.

Hyman, N.L.

1995-05-24

119

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics

Hime, Kirsten

120

Ascending Auctions with Package Bidding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of ascending package auction models is introduced in which bidders may determine their own packages on which to bid. In the proxy auction (revelation game) versions, the outcome is a point in the core of the exchange economy for the reported preferences. When payoffs are linear in money and goods are substitutes, sincere reporting constitutes a Nash equilibrium

Lawrence M. Ausubel; Paul R. Milgrom

2002-01-01

121

Negotiating a fair compensation package.  

PubMed

At the end of the day, compensation packages must be fair for both you and your employer. Employers should conduct an economic analysis to determine what they can afford to offer and calculate the economic return that they should rightfully receive. Understanding the employer's side of the equation is equally important in developing a win/win compensation package for yourself. PMID:16001883

Snyder, Thomas L

2005-01-01

122

49 CFR 176.156 - Defective packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Precautions During Loading...defective package containing Class 1 (explosive) materials, including packages...defective package containing Class 1 (explosive) materials must seek advice from...

2012-10-01

123

21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ingredients, the following package size limitations are required for anticaries drug products: (1) Dentifrices. Dentifrice (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per package. (2)...

2009-04-01

124

21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ingredients, the following package size limitations are required for anticaries drug products: (1) Dentifrices. Dentifrice (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per package. (2)...

2010-04-01

125

49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29...REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except...

2011-10-01

126

49 CFR 173.29 - Empty packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Empty packagings. 173.29 Section 173.29...REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials...Transportation § 173.29 Empty packagings. (a) General. Except...

2012-10-01

127

Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps\\/ceramic-packages and caps\\/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses

Takeshi Matsumura; Takayuki Tokuda; Akinobu Tsutinaga; Masafumi Kimata; Hideyuki Abe; Naotaka Tokashiki

2010-01-01

128

Consumer Info About Irradiated Food & Packaging  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Section Contents Menu. Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling. Irradiated ... Consumer Info About Irradiated Food & Packaging. FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/irradiatedfoodpackaging

129

In-Package Chemistry Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been breached but the drip shield remains intact, so all of the seepage flow is diverted from the waste package. The chemistry from the vapor influx case is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion, and to determine the degradation rates for the waste forms. TSPA-LA uses the water influx case for the seismic scenario, where the waste package has been breached and the drip shield has been damaged such that seepage flow is actually directed into the waste package. The chemistry from the water influx case that is a function of the flow rate is used to determine the stability of colloids and the solubility of radionuclides available for transport by diffusion and advection, and to determine the degradation rates for the CSNF and HLW glass. TSPA-LA does not use this model for the igneous scenario. Outputs from the in-package chemistry model implemented inside TSPA-LA include pH, ionic strength, and total carbonate concentration. These inputs to TSPA-LA will be linked to the following principle factors: dissolution rates of the CSNF and HLWG, dissolved concentrations of radionuclides, and colloid generation.

E. Thomas

2004-11-09

130

Naval Waste Package Design Sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to varying inner cavity dimensions when subjected to a comer drop and tip-over from elevated surface. This calculation will also determine the sensitivity of the structural response of the Naval waste packages to the upper bound of the naval canister masses. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of through-wall stress intensities in the outer corrosion barrier. This calculation is intended for use in support of the preliminary design activities for the license application design of the Naval waste package. It examines the effects of small changes between the naval canister and the inner vessel, and in these dimensions, the Naval Long waste package and Naval Short waste package are similar. Therefore, only the Naval Long waste package is used in this calculation and is based on the proposed potential designs presented by the drawings and sketches in References 2.1.10 to 2.1.17 and 2.1.20. All conclusions are valid for both the Naval Long and Naval Short waste packages.

T. Schmitt

2006-12-13

131

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

Romano, T.

1997-09-25

132

Packaging Considerations for Biopreservation.  

PubMed

SUMMARY: The packaging system chosen for biopreservation is critical for many reasons. An ideal biopreservation container system must provide for closure integrity, sample stability and ready access to the preserved material. This means the system needs to be hermetically sealed to ensure integrity of the specimen is maintained throughout processing, storage and distribution; the system must remain stable over long periods of time as many biobanked samples may be stored indefinitely; and functionally closed access systems must be used to avoid contamination upon sample withdraw. This study reviews the suitability of a new commercially available vial configuration container utilizing blood bag style closure and access systems that can be hermetically sealed and remain stable through cryopreservation and biobanking procedures. This vial based systems allow for current good manufacturing/tissue practice (cGTP) requirements during processing of samples and may provide the benefit of ease of delivery by a care giver. In this study, the CellSeal closed system cryovial was evaluated and compared to standard screw cap vials. The CellSeal system was evaluated for durability, closure integrity through transportation and maintenance of functional viability of a cryopreserved mesenchymal stem cell model. The results of this initial proof-of-concept study indicated that the CellSeal vials are highly suitable for biopreservation and biobanking, and provide a suitable container system for clinical and commercial cell therapy products frozen in small volumes. PMID:21566715

Woods, Erik J; Thirumala, Sreedhar

2011-03-16

133

Challenge of packaged cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

Owners of such commercial facilities as office buildings, health clubs, and fast-food restaurants face an increasingly complex decision when they try to lower energy costs. On the one hand, they are being offered small, standardized cogeneration systems that can supply much of a building's electric power while also providing thermal energy for hot water or space conditioning. On the other hand, new, high-efficiency electric equipment is available that can often reduce energy consumption with a much lower investment of capital. EPRI studies indicate that when packaged cogeneration systems are compared with high-efficiency electric alternative, a commercial facility will usually do better with the electric equipment, in terms of meeting its overall needs, says Arnold Fickett, department director for end use in the Energy Management and Utilization Division. But the economics of both types of equipment are highly application-specific. EPRI's aim is to provide utilities with the data and analytical tools they need to help their commercial customers make the comparisons for their own business situations. EPRI is also deeply involved in developing advanced end-use electric technology.

Douglas, J.

1988-09-01

134

CSDP: Communications Software Development Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CSDP (Communications Software Development Package) was designed to provide a uniform user interface and a set of tools for JOVIAL software development and to be as maintainable, extendible, and transportable as possible. The current tools that the CSD...

1983-01-01

135

Molded Plastic Electronic Module Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a low-cost package for electronic components achieved by using an integrally molded, lightweight plastic enclosure having a laminated construction with inner and outer shells fabricated of lightweight, high-impact resista...

C. L. Ward

1974-01-01

136

Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

2010-02-01

137

Chip Packaging Systems and Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automated process for performing MEMS packaging including automatically attaching a die to a chip carrier, resulting in a chip carrier assembly, automatically moving the chip carrier assembly into a vacuum chamber, wherein the vacuum chamber includes o...

H. L. Curtis J. B. DCamp L. A. Dunaway M. C. Glenn

2004-01-01

138

Comments on DAPTACEL Package Insert  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... The sponsor is seeking to revise the GBS statement in the warnings and precautions and post- marketing experience sections of the package insert ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

139

Symmetry Equation Package for Reduce.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The REDUCE package developed for computation of symmetries of partial differential equations using total derivative operators is described. The WEB source code of the implementations of this method for REDUCE is given. Directions of use and an example of ...

T. Vanbemmelen

1992-01-01

140

Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings  

SciTech Connect

This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope and requirements of reviews; and (5) Provide the above information to DOE organizations, contractors, other government agencies, and interested members of the general public. This PRG was originally published in September 1987. Revision 1, issued in October 1988, added new review sections on quality assurance and penetrations through the containment boundary, along with a few other items. Revision 2 was published October 1999. Revision 3 of this PRG is a complete update, and supersedes Revision 2 in its entirety.

DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

2007-04-12

141

PLT: a multipurpose plotting package  

SciTech Connect

PLT is a device independent plotting package developed under the ARIES project in Department 1530. It is built on top of the Sandia Virtual Device Interface (VDI) and therefore supports many different devices. The capabilities of the package include basic plotting primitives, clipping subroutines, color, element plotting routines, software and hardware text, two dimensional graph plotting, mapping subroutines and routines to set various PLT parameters. PLT is coded in RATFOR, a FORTRAN preprocessor and is currently supported on VAX/VMS.

Selleck, C.B.; Sears, M.P.

1983-08-01

142

Plastics packaging and coastal pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of isolated stretches of shore line have indicated that pollution due to plastic packaging is a result of the deposition of sea?borne waste. The waste is primarily a by?product of international commerce and not, as is commonly assumed, due to the irresponsibility of the casual visitor.Indications are that the common packaging plastics vary markedly in their resistance to environmental

G. Scott

1972-01-01

143

MEMS modular packaging and interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial branches other than automotive industry may benefit from MEMS technology. Most of them require custom-designed MEMS in mid-scale volumes, which are at present not available at acceptable costs. A modular MEMS packaging and interface concept may contribute to less costly solutions with faster time to market. A 3D stackable packaging concept, the Top-Bottom Ball Grid Array TB-BGA, which

Matthias Schuenemann; Kourosh Amiri Jam; Volker Grosser; Rudolf Leutenbauer; Gerd Bauer; Wolfgang Schaefer; Herbert Reichl

2000-01-01

144

Tool for Magnetic Analysis Package  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FIT-MART Launcher package is a self-contained file for simulating systems of interacting quantum magnetic moments (spins). The interactions are modeled using the Heisenberg model, calculations are carried out by numerically diagonalizing the matrix representation of the Heisenberg Hamiltonian, and several types of plots are generated to describe various aspects of the model. The FIT-MART package is a Fully Integrated Tool for Magnetic Analysis in Research & Teaching (hence the acronym) which provides a very simple interface for defining complex quantum spin models, carrying out complex calculations, and visualizing the results using several graphical representations. These representations include plots of the energy spectrum as well as plots of the magnetization and magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The FIT-MART package is an Open Source Physics package written to help students as well as researchers who are studying magnetism. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking osp_fit_mart.jar file will run the package if Java is installed. In future versions of this package, curricular materials will be included to help students to learn about magnetism, and automated fitting routines will be included to help researchers quickly and easily model experimental data.

Engelhardt, Larry; Rainey, Cameron

2010-05-19

145

10 CFR 71.43 - General standards for all packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...package. (d) A package must be made of materials and construction that assure that there will be no significant chemical, galvanic, or other reaction among the packaging components, among package contents, or between the packaging components and...

2013-01-01

146

PIQET A packaging decision support tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian food and beverage companies and government agencies are partnering with the Sustainable Packaging Alliance (SPA) to develop a prototype rapid packaging environmental impact assessment tool, PIQET - the Packaging Impact Quick Evaluation Tool. The prototype project establishes the methodology to convert complex life cycle assessments (LCA), environmental data and packaging waste management and recycling data into a decision making

Ralph Horne; Leanne Fitzpatrick

147

Development of a high performance TQFP package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A TQFP (Thin Quad Flat Pack) package has been developed that has very superior electrical and thermal performance when compared to a plastic molded TQFP package. The high performance TQFP is based on Olin's MQUAD technology; a packaging scheme where the plastic mold compound is replaced by an anodized aluminum base and lid adhesively sealed to the leadframe. The package

P. Hoffman; D. Liang; D. Mahulikar; A. Parthasarathi

1994-01-01

148

Reliability modeling of chip scale packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chip-scale package (CSP) is an increasingly popular small size, high performance package. The advantages of such a package are that it offers considerable space savings over full-sized BGA or peripherally leaded devices while maintaining the convenience and die protection of a packaged device. In this paper, a finite element based approach for estimating CSP thermal cycling reliability is presented.

James M. Pitarresi; Sundar Sethuraman; Balachandar Nandagopal; Anthony Primavera

2000-01-01

149

MEMS Vacuum Packaging Technology and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many MEMS (micro electro-mechanic systems) parts have to meet the requirements for vacuum packaging. In vacuum packaging, leakage and gas permeation, which affects the normal function of the components, are major problems. Hermetic sealing is one of the most important technologies for reliable vacuum packaging. In this paper, several hermetic sealing technologies for vacuum packaging was presented, including eutectic bonding,

Jin Yufeng; Zhang Jiaxun

2005-01-01

150

Material efficiency in Dutch packaging policy.  

PubMed

Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been implemented to reduce the environmental impact of packaging. The analysis shows that Dutch packaging policies helped to reduce the total packaging volume until 1999. After 2000, packaging consumption increased more rapidly than the baseline, suggesting that policy measures were not effective. Generally, we see limited attention to material efficiency to reduce packaging material use. For this purpose, we tried to gain more insight in recent activities on material efficiency, by building a database of packaging prevention initiatives. We identified 131 alterations to packaging implemented in the period 2005-2010, of which weight reduction was the predominant approach. More appropriate packaging policy is needed to increase the effectiveness of policies, with special attention to material efficiency. PMID:23359741

Worrell, Ernst; van Sluisveld, Marisse A E

2013-01-28

151

Thermal Solutions for Multichip Chip Scale Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the need for more functionality smaller form factor and lower cost products in electronic industry, various structures of chip scale packages (CSP) and multi-chip 3D packages have become more and popular. Compared to single die package, the multiple chips package can accommodate with multi-functional devices and increase the memory capacity within same footprint as a single die package. However,

M. W. Chen; E. Chen; J.-Y. Lai; Y.-P. Wang

2008-01-01

152

The reduction of packaging waste  

SciTech Connect

Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

1994-04-01

153

Operating and maintenance instructions for the Hedgehog sample package (A DOT 7A Type A Package).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Operating and Maintenance Instructions for the HEDGEHOG Sample Package describe the sequence of operations required to use this package as a US Department of Transportation (DOT) Requirements Specification 7A, Type A package for radioactive materials ...

W. S. Edwards

1995-01-01

154

What Will Your Time Series Analysis Computer Package Do: Computer Packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of existing time series analysis computer packages is presented. The primary emphasis is on packages relating to the ARIMA model building process and packages that are non-spectral. The survey is segmented into general purpose standard statistica...

D. J. Pack

1978-01-01

155

Package for integrated optic circuit and method  

DOEpatents

A structure and method are disclosed for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package. 6 figs.

Kravitz, S.H.; Hadley, G.R.; Warren, M.E.; Carson, R.F.; Armendariz, M.G.

1998-08-04

156

Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.  

PubMed

The development of nanocomposites is a new strategy to improve physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. The most promising nanoscale size fillers are montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. Graphite nanoplates are currently under study. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Decreasing water vapor permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nanoscale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties. Several examples are cited. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoplates. Nanocomposites may advance the utilization of biopolymers in food packaging. PMID:20492194

Arora, Amit; Padua, G W

157

Mechanism of RNA packaging motor.  

PubMed

P4 proteins are hexameric RNA packaging ATPases of dsRNA bacteriophages of the Cystoviridae family. P4 hexamers are integral part of the inner polymerase core and play several essential roles in the virus replication cycle. P4 proteins are structurally related to the hexameric helicases and translocases of superfamily 4 (SF4) and other RecA-like ATPases. Recombinant P4 proteins retain their 5' to 3' helicase and translocase activity in vitro and thus serve as a model system for studying the mechanism of action of hexameric ring helicases and RNA translocation. This review summarizes the different roles that P4 proteins play during virus assembly, genome packaging, and transcription. Structural and mechanistic details of P4 action are laid out to and subsequently compared with those of the related hexameric helicases and other packaging motors. PMID:22297533

Mancini, Erika J; Tuma, Roman

2012-01-01

158

Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

McCarthy, T.L.

1995-12-01

159

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its

Kursat B. Bekar

2008-01-01

160

On Material Selection in Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mechanics of the problem of packaging with cellular solids (foams) are analyzed. The results are expressed in terms of the material properties of the foam, and lead to simple expressions for the choice of the material and density for the foam.

W. A. Nixon L. J. Gibson M. F. Ashby

1981-01-01

161

PVC as pharmaceutical packaging material  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the state of the art with respect to PVC as pharmaceutical packaging material is described. A general introduction into the applications of PVC is followed by a description of its production process. The metabolic effects of the monomer of PVC, vinyl chloride and of the most commonly used plasticizer diethylhexylphthalate are mentioned. Special attention is given to

A. A. Van Dooren

1991-01-01

162

Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

163

Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

164

The AED free storage package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most fundamental underlying problem in sophisticated software systems involving elaborate, changing data structure is dynamic storage allocation for flexible problem modeling. The Free Storage Package of the AED-1 Compiler System allows blocks of available storage to be obtained and returned for reuse. The total available space is partitioned into a hierarchy of free storage zones, each of which has

Douglas T. Ross

1967-01-01

165

Comparison of different LED Packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Pttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

2007-09-01

166

SAFER PACKAGES FOR SHIPPING FUEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shipping and storage of fissionable material can be made safe by ; separating packages with a poison-moderatorpoison sandwich composed of cadmium ; foil and solid hydrogenous material (wood or polyethylene). Such sandwiches can ; be used to wrap flat or cylindrical samples and to contain fuel bottles and fuel ; elements (laminated polyethylene); illustrative drawings are given. Safety ; factors

W. B. Lewis; R. W. Goin

1960-01-01

167

ARPREC: An Arbitrary Precision Computation Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE .oating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. T...

D. H. Bailey Y. Hida X. S. Li B. Thompson

2002-01-01

168

History and Significance of Military Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work deals with the logistics doctrine of military packaging. Military packaging came about because military planners overlooked the need to protect materiel from the storage and transportation stresses first encountered during World War II. These ex...

J. C. Maloney

1996-01-01

169

Moisture control in sealed electronic packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of issues associated with controlling the internal moisture content of sealed packages are examined. The basic strategy for maintaining a dry internal environment is to incorporate desiccant into the package and it is shown that molecular sieves ...

M. R. Keenan

1990-01-01

170

General Purpose Electronic Interface Equipment Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to an electronic package having a wide degree of flexibility for interfacing a plurality of different and changeable modules in accordance with specific requirements for systems and equipments, old and new, that the package ...

R. H. Ebert

1974-01-01

171

7 CFR 33.6 - Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.6 Package. Package means any container of...

2013-01-01

172

Use of Plastic Materials in Pharmaceutical Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The role of plastics in packaging of pharmaceuticals; Types of plastic materials used in packaging of pharmaceuticals; Properties of plastics and their applications in the pharmaceutical industry; Factors having a bearing on the choice of correc...

S. Merli

1991-01-01

173

Guidelines for the Acquisition of Software Packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many decisions dealing with computer software systems involve the potential acquisition of packages for a specific or limited general purpose nature. Guidelines for acquisition are presented here which stress the implementation feasibility of such package...

B. P. Lientz

1974-01-01

174

MICROWAVE CURING OF ENCAPSULANTS FOR ELECTRONIC PACKAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flip chip technology, including second level assemblies such as chip scale packaging (CSP) and direct chip attach (DCA) packages, may all soon need to be underfilled in order to meet the higher reliability and performance requirements of more demanding field environments. A properly dispensed underfill alone may not provide the full improvement expected from encapsulated packages unless a well controlled

H. Quinones; Alec Babiarz; David L. Gibson

175

Advances in ceramic packaging for power amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power Amplifiers (PAs) for the past few years have been going through a drastic evolution in terms of packaging size and materials. Recent trends have seen the conversion from plastic molding packaging concepts of sizes from .5 to 1.0 CC to functional ceramic substrates incorporating matching circuits miniaturized to sizes of less than .02 CCs. In this paper PA packaging

R. E. Sigliano; F. J. Gaughan

1998-01-01

176

Multi-layer molded plastic package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a multilayer molded (MM) plastic package. Internal to the plastic body, the package contains a pair of power and ground planes for improved electrical and thermal performance. These planes are attached to the leadframes at the piece part level. The change in the leadframe does not change the conventional plastic package assembly process. The planes significantly reduce

D. Mallik; B. K. Bhattacharyya; S. Gordon; S. Uchida; Y. Takeda

1989-01-01

177

Chip Scale Vacuum Packaging for Uncooled IRFPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed chip scale vacuum packaging for an uncooled IRFPA and successfully obtained excellent IR images less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. A 160120 SOI diode uncooled IRFPA with a 25 mum pixel pitch is used as the device chip in this study. The size of the package

Munehisa Takeda; Hisatoshi Hata; Yoshiyuki Nakaki; Yasuhiro Kosasayama; Masafumi Kimata

2007-01-01

178

Reliability characterization in Ultra CSPTM package development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra CSPTM is a wafer-level chip scale package developed by Flip Chip Technologies. This package provides a low cost packaging solution for various applications such as integrated passive, flash memory, DRAM, and Direct RDRAMTM devices. This paper presents a brief update of the Ultra CSP development effort. Two design concepts were evolved in the development process and product implementation to

Hong Yang; Peter Elenius; Scott Barrett; Charles Schneider; James Leal; Richard Moraca; Robert Moody; Young-Do Kweon; Deok Hoon Kim; Deborah Patterson; Tom Goodman

2000-01-01

179

Mechanical cycling fatigue of PBGA package interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased packaging density in micro-electronic products has advantaged attach of BGA, micro-BGA, CSP, and DCA packages. These area array packages are assembled to circuit boards that are reduced in size and thickness, by necessity. These assemblies would include flexible thin laminate circuit boards with area array components attached by solder balls. In normal use, these assemblies would be subjected to

Larry Leicht; Andrew Skipor

2000-01-01

180

7 CFR 1944.73 - Package submission.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Package submission. 1944.73 Section 1944.73 ...Packaging Grants § 1944.73 Package submission. (a) When submitting its...a letter within 5 working days after submission of the incomplete...

2012-01-01

181

Fundamental requirements on MEMS packaging and reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging of MEMS has been identified as one of the most significant areas of research for enabling MEMS usage in product applications by among others USA's NSF. In order to make MEMS a real-life opportunity, it is vital to explore and develop an understanding of the possibilities and limitations of MEMS packaging and reliability. Today's MEMS packaging can be divided

Katrin Persson; K. Boustedt

2002-01-01

182

The planar package planner for system designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Planar Package Planner is a design aid aimed at helping to form a package layout plan, given only the information available during project initiation to digital system logic and package designers. A hierarchical approach is adopted, and a clustering program makes possible use of the layout scheme for bottom-up as well as top-down design. The layout plan for an

William R. Heller; G. Sorkin; Klim Maling

1982-01-01

183

76 FR 30551 - Specifications for Packagings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 49 CFR Part 178 Specifications for Packagings CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code...qualification test and each periodic retest on a packaging, a test report must be prepared. The...maintained at each location where the packaging is manufactured and each location...

2011-05-26

184

49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172.514 ...PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous...

2011-10-01

185

49 CFR 172.514 - Bulk packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172.514 ...PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous...

2012-10-01

186

YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The method selected for dealing with spent nuclear fuel in the US is to seal the fuel in waste packages and then to place them in an underground repository at the Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. This article describes the Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) currently being designed for sealing the waste packages.

G. Housley; C. Shelton-davis; K. Skinner

2005-08-26

187

How to Develop a Learning Package Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American History-Government program at Hillsboro High School, Hillsboro, Kansas consists of a learning package curriculum. Students must take six of eight nine-week learning packages--American, foreign policy, conflict, change, modern politics, decision making, Constitution, and civil rights. The rationale for this package organization is that

Foyle, Harvey

188

Analysis on the Effects of Packaging Materials on Structural Thermal Stress in Stacked Chip Scale Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

SCSP (stacked chip scale package) attracts more and more attentions in advanced packages application with light weight, thin and small size, high reliability, low power and high storage capability. However, more and more physical and electrical issues are reported being caused by package induced thermal stress in SCSP recently. After the SCSP packaging failure modes caused by structural stress due

Xiu-Lan Cheng; Feng Qian

2007-01-01

189

Chip-package electrical interaction in organic packages with embedded actives  

Microsoft Academic Search

System integration and miniaturization needs are the driving factors for embedding active and passive components within packages. But embedding components also results in unwanted interferences within the package. This paper demonstrates chip-package interaction in the form of electromagnetic interference between the embedded chip and its package. The electromagnetic coupling experienced by the bond-pads of the embedded chip, the effect of

Nithya Sankaran; Hunter Chan; Madhavan Swaminathan; Venky Sundaram; Rao Tummala; Telesphor Kamgaing; Vijay. K. Nair

2011-01-01

190

49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905 Section 178...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging...

2011-10-01

191

49 CFR 178.905 - Large Packaging identification codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Large Packaging identification codes. 178.905 Section 178...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.905 Large Packaging...

2012-10-01

192

ARPREC: An arbitrary precision computation package  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new software package for performing arithmetic with an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision. It is based on the earlier MPFUN package, enhanced with special IEEE floating-point numerical techniques and several new functions. This package is written in C++ code for high performance and broad portability and includes both C++ and Fortran-90 translation modules, so that conventional C++ and Fortran-90 programs can utilize the package with only very minor changes. This paper includes a survey of some of the interesting applications of this package and its predecessors.

Bailey, David H.; Yozo, Hida; Li, Xiaoye S.; Thompson, Brandon

2002-09-01

193

Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS  

SciTech Connect

The packaging of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a field of great importance to anyone using or manufacturing sensors, consumer products, or military applications. Currently much work has been done in the design and fabrication of MEMS devices but insufficient research and few publications have been completed on the packaging of these devices. This is despite the fact that packaging is a very large percentage of the total cost of MEMS devices. The main difference between IC packaging and MEMS packaging is that MEMS packaging is almost always application specific and greatly affected by its environment and packaging techniques such as die handling, die attach processes, and lid sealing. Many of these aspects are directly related to the materials used in the packaging processes. MEMS devices that are functional in wafer form can be rendered inoperable after packaging. MEMS dies must be handled only from the chip sides so features on the top surface are not damaged. This eliminates most current die pick-and-place fixtures. Die attach materials are key to MEMS packaging. Using hard die attach solders can create high stresses in the MEMS devices, which can affect their operation greatly. Low-stress epoxies can be high-outgassing, which can also affect device performance. Also, a low modulus die attach can allow the die to move during ultrasonic wirebonding resulting to low wirebond strength. Another source of residual stress is the lid sealing process. Most MEMS based sensors and devices require a hermetically sealed package. This can be done by parallel seam welding the package lid, but at the cost of further induced stress on the die. Another issue of MEMS packaging is the media compatibility of the packaged device. MEMS unlike ICS often interface with their environment, which could be high pressure or corrosive. The main conclusion we can draw about MEMS packaging is that the package affects the performance and reliability of the MEMS devices. There is a gross lack of understanding between the package materials, induced stress, and the device performance. The material properties of these packaging materials are not well defined or understood. Modeling of these materials and processes is far from maturity. Current post-package yields are too low for commercial feasibility, and consumer operating environment reliability and compatibility are often difficult to simulate. With further understanding of the materials properties and behavior of the packaging materials, MEMS applications can be fully realized and integrated into countless commercial and military applications.

Malshe, A.P.; Singh, S.B.; Eaton, W.P.; O'Neal, C.; Brown, W.D.; Miller, W.M.

1999-03-26

194

Packaging shRNA retroviruses.  

PubMed

To silence a mammalian gene by RNAi using an encoded trigger, a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) is integrated into the host cell genome as a stable transgene. Target cells are infected with viral plasmid containing shRNA inserted into the vector backbone. Before infection, the plasmid is transfected into a packaging cell line, which provides the trans-acting factors necessary for virus production. These include, minimally, capsid proteins and reverse transcriptase, but they can also include other regulatory factors (e.g., tat for some lentiviral vectors). It is critical to choose the correct packaging cell system for the viral backbone to be used. The packaging cell also defines the host range of the virus, depending on the envelope protein that it expresses. Ecotropic viruses are limited to rodent hosts, whereas amphotropic viruses have a broader host range that also includes humans. Often, investigators will express a nonretroviral envelope, such as vesicular stomatitus virus (VSV) glycoprotein, to enhance virus stability and host range and to enable viruses to be concentrated following production. Although viruses carrying shRNAs are packaged almost identically to viruses carrying protein-encoding genes, one twist is worth noting. shRNAs are efficiently cleaved by the host RNAi biogenesis machinery, which can reduce the level of viral genomic RNAs and consequently viral titers. Therefore, titers can be enhanced by cotransfecting the viral plasmid with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets DGCR-8/Pasha, which is a core microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis component. siRNAs against Drosha can also be used. PMID:23906912

Chang, Kenneth; Marran, Krista; Valentine, Amy; Hannon, Gregory J

2013-08-01

195

Transportation and packaging resource guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

1994-12-01

196

Overview of the DOE packaging certification process  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives an overview of the DOE packaging certification process, which is implemented by the Office of Facility Safety Analysis, under the Assistance Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, for packagings that are not used for weapons and weapons components, nor for naval nuclear propulsion. The overview will emphasize Type B packagings and the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) review that parallels the NRC packaging review. Other important elements in the DOE packaging certification program, such as training, methods development, data bases, and technical assistance, are also emphasized, because they have contributed significantly to the improvement of the certification process since DOE consolidated its packaging certification function in 1985. The paper finishes with a discussion of the roles and functions of the DOE Packaging Safety Review Steering Committee, which is chartered to address issues and concerns of interest to the DOE packaging and transportation safety community. Two articles related to DOE packaging certification were published earlier on the SARP review procedures and the DOE Packaging Review Guide. These articles may be consulted for additional information.

Liu, Y.Y.; Carlson, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carlson, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kapoor, A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

197

ISOcxx: The C++ portability package  

SciTech Connect

The level of C++ compliers' adherence to the ISO C++ standard varies considerably from compiler to compiler. This variability has significantly hindered users' attempts as standard-compliant C++ coding practices. ISOcxx is a software package that addresses such deficient aspects of users' C++ development environments. This portability package: (1) probes an environment to identify areas of non-compliance (defects) with the standard, and (2) supplies, where possible, compliance code so as to mitigate (cure) the ill effects of the detected defects. Each defect typically results from a feature that is required by the ISO C++ standard, but that a particular environment omits entirely, provides only incompletely, matches to an outdated draft of the standard, or otherwise incorrectly supports. A cure is applicable if test programs demonstrating the corresponding defect can be successfully compiled and run when the compliance code is incorporated. Where no compliance code is available, client code is nonetheless made aware of the defect and can thus avoid the offending construct. Thus, this package allows client code to be maximally compliant with the international C++ standard, yet still be acceptable to many otherwise-defective environments.

Brown, W.E.

2000-02-09

198

Waste Package Design Methodology Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

D.A. Brownson

2001-09-28

199

Package security recorder of vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new kind of electronic product Package Security Recorder of Vibration. It utilizes STC89C54RD+ LQFP-44 MCU as its main controller. At the same time, it also utilizes Freescale MMA845A 3-Axis 8-bit/12-bit Digital Accelerometer and Maxim DS1302 Trickle Charge Timekeeping Chip. It utilizes the MCU to read the value of the accelerometer and the value of the timekeeping chip, and records the data into the inner E2PROM of MCU. The whole device achieves measuring, reading and recording the time of the vibration and the intensity of the vibration. When we need the data, we can read them out. The data can be used in analyzing the condition of the cargo when it transported. The device can be applied to monitor the security of package. It solves the problem of responsibility affirming, when the valuable cargo are damaged while it transported. It offers powerful safeguard for the package. It's very value for application.

Wang, Xiao-na; Hu, Jin-liang; Song, Shi-de

2013-08-01

200

Overview and development trends in the field of MEMS packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is expensive and product and application specific. Single chip packages for IC's are only for some microsystems applicable. Cost efficient MEMS packaging focuses wafer level packaging (WLP). An identical trend is observed in IC packaging. Chip size packages (CSP) are fabricated by WLP. Future microelectronic system will be fabricated by wafer level assembly of

Herbert Reichl; Volker Grosser

2001-01-01

201

XAPiir: A recursive digital filtering package  

SciTech Connect

XAPiir is a basic recursive digital filtering package, containing both design and implementation subroutines. XAPiir was developed for the experimental array processor (XAP) software package, and is written in FORTRAN. However, it is intended to be incorporated into any general- or special-purpose signal analysis program. It replaces the older package RECFIL, offering several enhancements. RECFIL is used in several large analysis programs developed at LLNL, including the seismic analysis package SAC, several expert systems (NORSEA and NETSEA), and two general purpose signal analysis packages (SIG and VIEW). This report is divided into two sections: the first describes the use of the subroutine package, and the second, its internal organization. In the first section, the filter design problem is briefly reviewed, along with the definitions of the filter design parameters and their relationship to the subroutine input parameters. In the second section, the internal organization is documented to simplify maintenance and extensions to the package. 5 refs., 9 figs.

Harris, D.

1990-09-21

202

Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : Optical Microscope - with a 1?m resolution to provide context of the regolith samples Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical identification of other ejecta in the vicinity of the Lander. Atomic (Magnetic) Force Microscope - providing nano-scale measurement of the fine particles and presence of nanophase Fe which is potentially toxic to humans Lenseless Microscope, a novel, low mass technology based on combining diffraction patterns derived from a laser illumination of the sample to give high resolution 3D images of the regolith presented. In this paper we cover the high level science requirements and explain how this has driven the overall package design as well as the specific payload features. The complex sample handling system which allows the co-located payloads to share rego-lith samples and be able to make physical measure-ment in the sub micron scale. The use of micro-machining and MEMS technology is covered. The paper also discusses the harsh environmental conditions at the Lunar South Pole and the impact this has on the operation and survivability of an externally mounted package. The expected performance of the whole package, including the use of LIBS under lunar vacuum conditions is also presented.

Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

2012-09-01

203

Packaging of Identity and Identifiable Packages: A study of womencommodity negotiation through product packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the age of post-Fordist flexible production, a consumer realizes her\\/his identity in part through the act of consumption. The visual aspect of commodityconsumer negotiation acquires importance, as commodities must be visually differentiated to attract the gaze of a particular consuming group. The act of visual differentiation is achieved through symbolic packaging, which creates a cognitive link between commodity and

Ipsita Chatterjee

2007-01-01

204

Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS  

SciTech Connect

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O'NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

1999-09-24

205

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

206

PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)  

SciTech Connect

The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

2003-07-01

207

Tempo2: Pulsar Timing Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tempo2 is a pulsar timing package developed to be used both for general pulsar timing applications and also for pulsar timing array research in which data-sets from multiple pulsars need to be processed simultaneously. It was initially developed by George Hobbs and Russell Edwards as part of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project. Tempo2 is based on the original tempo code and can be used (from the command-line) in a similar fashion. It is very versatile and can be extended by plugins.

Hobbs, George; Edwards, Russell

2012-10-01

208

Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices  

SciTech Connect

A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel K. (Albuquerque, NM); Zamora, David Lee (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2003-04-15

209

Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing  

SciTech Connect

For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes.

O`Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

1995-11-01

210

Packaging of electro-microfluidic devices  

DOEpatents

A new architecture for packaging surface micromachined electro-microfluidic devices is presented. This architecture relies on two scales of packaging to bring fluid to the device scale (picoliters) from the macro-scale (microliters). The architecture emulates and utilizes electronics packaging technology. The larger package consists of a circuit board with embedded fluidic channels and standard fluidic connectors (e.g. Fluidic Printed Wiring Board). The embedded channels connect to the smaller package, an Electro-Microfluidic Dual-Inline-Package (EMDIP) that takes fluid to the microfluidic integrated circuit (MIC). The fluidic connection is made to the back of the MIC through Bosch-etched holes that take fluid to surface micromachined channels on the front of the MIC. Electrical connection is made to bond pads on the front of the MIC.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Giunta, Rachel K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01

211

Thermoplastic Electronic Packaging: Low Cost - High Versatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastics have started to gain acceptance in some of the more challenging areas of advanced packaging, including MEMS, where lower cost, cavity style packages are required. Thermoplastics, like LCP, PPS and PEEK, can withstand exposure to over 300oC thus assuring lead-free solder capability. Many polymers offer superior moisture resistance, can be formed into micro-precision packages in just seconds, and are

Ken Gilleo; RI Rita Mohanty; Gerald Pham-Van-Diep; Dennis Jones

212

Mechanical properties of paper-pulp packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Promoting the application of environmentally friendly packaging such as those made out of paper-pulp requires a basic understanding of the mechanical behaviour of paper-pulp (material) as well as that of packaging (product). In this paper, results from the investigation to determine the mechanical properties of paper-pulp packaging are presented. This includes the determination of tensile and compressive strength of paper-pulp

S. P Gurav; A Bereznitski; A Heidweiller; P. V Kandachar

2003-01-01

213

Leadless sensor packaging for high temperature applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a sensor packaging method suitable for high temperature applications. Its application for packaging a 6H-SiC pressure sensor is described. Electrical interconnects between the pressure sensor and the pins of the sensor header were made using a metal-glass frits mixture, without wirebonding. Packaged sensors were tested for pressures up to 1000 psi and at temperatures up to

Fawzia Masheeb; Sorin Stefanescu; Alexander A. Ned; Anthony D. Kurtz; Glenn Beheim

2002-01-01

214

Flip chip packaging for MEMS microphones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a microphone package using flip chip technology instead of chip and wire bonding to create smaller MEMS\\u000a microphones. With this new packaging technology the transducer chip and an ASIC chip are flip chip bonded on a ceramic substrate.\\u000a The package is sealed by a polymer foil laminated over the chips and by a metal layer. The sound

Gregor Feiertag; Matthias Winter; Anton Leidl

2010-01-01

215

Adapting multichip module foundries for MEMS packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of packaging micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) using advanced multichip module (MCM) foundry processes are described. MCM packaging provides an efficient solution for integration of MEMS with other microelectronic technologies. The MCM foundries investigated for MEMS packaging were the General Electric high density interconnect (HDI) and chip-on-flex (COF) processes, as well as the Micro Module Systems (MMS) MCM-D process. Bulk and

Jeffrey T. Butler; Victor M. Bright; Patrick B. Chu; Richard J. Saia

1998-01-01

216

High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective  

SciTech Connect

The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

1997-10-01

217

Design considerations for automated packaging operations  

SciTech Connect

The paper is based on work performed at Sandia National Laboratories to automate DOE packaging operations. It is a general summary of work from several projects which may be applicable to other packaging operations. Examples are provided of robotic operations which have been demonstrated as well as operations that are currently being developed. General design considerations for packages and for automated handling systems are described.

Fahrenholtz, J.; Jones, J.; Kincy, M.

1993-12-31

218

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

Herschel Smartt; Arthur Watkins; David Pace; Rodney Bitsoi; Eric Larsen; Timothy McJunkin; Charles Tolle

2006-04-01

219

Field Correction for Component Pack packaged with ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Field Correction for Component Pack packaged with Mononine (Coagulation Factor IX, Human)-CSL Behring. DATE NOTIFICATION INITIATED: ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/safetyavailability/recalls

220

Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.

Hollar, D.L.

1996-10-01

221

Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System  

SciTech Connect

The current disposal path for high-level waste is to place the material into secure waste packages that are inserted into a repository. The Idaho National Laboratory has been tasked with the development, design, and demonstration of the waste package closure system for the repository project. The closure system design includes welding three lids and a purge port cap, four methods of nondestructive examination, and evacuation and backfill of the waste package, all performed in a remote environment. A demonstration of the closure system will be performed with a full-scale waste package.

shelton-davis; Colleen Shelton-Davis; Greg Housley

2005-10-01

222

Microelectronic device package with an integral window  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01

223

(Packaging regulations for chemical explosives)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the trip was to visit Nobel Chemicals in Sweden and to confer with the Department of Transportation personnel in Sweden and in England on the technical and regulatory problems in the bulk shipping of the high explosives RDX and HMX. It is customary in the United States (US) to add isopropyl alcohol to the bulk shipment of water-wet high explosives RDX and HMX. The explosives are packed in cloth bags which are placed in plastic-lined fiber drums. The addition of alcohol presumably prevents mildewing of cloth bags and freezing of the wet explosives in cold weather. In Europe, however, these explosives are shipped in polyethylene-lined fiber drums with not less than 15% water only, even in cold weather. Water-wet frozen explosives have not proved to be any more sensitive than its unfrozen counterpart and no mildew problem has been encountered. It looks promising that the US Department of Transportation regulations can be changed to permit the bulk shipment of these explosives in water only without the addition of isopropyl alcohol. This is expected to cut down the packaging cost considerably. In addition, the packaging procedure in the US can be modernized by introducing more mechanical and efficient handling as seen at Nobel Chemicals. 2 figs.

Pal, B.C.

1988-02-17

224

78 FR 13006 - New Intelligent Mail Package Barcode Standards To Enhance Package Visibility; Opportunity for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards To Enhance Package Visibility; Opportunity for Comments...usps.gov, with a subject line of ``Package Visibility.'' Faxed comments are not...with access to piece-level visibility throughout the Postal...

2013-02-26

225

Experimental and theoretical analyses of package-on-package structure under three-point bending loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High density packaging is developing toward miniaturization and integration, which causes many difficulties in designing, manufacturing, and reliability testing. Package-on-Package (PoP) is a promising three-dimensional high-density packaging method that integrates a chip scale package (CSP) in the top package and a fine-pitch ball grid array (FBGA) in the bottom package. In this paper, in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation is carried out to detect the deformation and damage of the PoP structure under three-point bending loading. The results indicate that the cracks occur in the die of the top package, then cause the crack deflection and bridging in the die attaching layer. Furthermore, the mechanical principles are used to analyse the cracking process of the PoP structure based on the multi-layer laminating hypothesis and the theoretical analysis results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

Jia, Su; Wang, Xi-Shu; Ren, Huai-Hui

2012-12-01

226

The Impact of Hunting Package Attributes on Hunting Package Prices in Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential economic impacts of hunting activities suggested opportunities for non-industrial private landowners in Mississippi to capitalize on apparent market demand for fee-access hunting. Data were collected from outfitting individuals\\/firms operating within Mississippi to analyze the impact of hunting package attributes on package prices. Generally, package prices were directly related to the length of the package in days, with the increase

Virginia Buller; Darren Hudson; Gregory M. Parkhurst; Andrew Whittington

2006-01-01

227

Power electronics packaging and miniature using chip-scale packaged power devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a power electronics packaging technology utilizing chip-scale packaged (CSP) power devices to build three-dimensional integrated power electronics modules (IPEMs). The chip-scale packaging structure, termed Die Dimensional Ball Grid Array (D2BGA), eliminates wire bonds by using stacked solder bumps to interconnect power chips. It has the same lateral dimensions as the starting power chip, which makes high-density packaging

Xingsheng Liu; Guo-Quan Lu

2000-01-01

228

Thin type packaging: an effective way to improve the popcorn resistance of plastic-packaged ICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popcorn resistance of a variety of thin quad flat packages (TQFPs) was studied. Both the package thickness and the die size were varied in order to understand the risks involved in this type of high-density packaging. Because of the typical moisture absorption behavior of TQFPs, a realistic preconditioning method was defined. The evaluation of the popcorn resistance made use

Karel Van Doorselaer; Arno Hente; A. Saboui; J.-P. Moscicki

1993-01-01

229

Treated Lead-frame for Leaded Plastic Molded Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfacial adhesion thru surface roughening technique has become the focus subject in this new packaging era. Though it is a widely used technology in leadless packages, there are no works conducted on leaded packages. Our first attempt on chemical lead-frame treatment is on SOT package. To perform surface treatment on leaded packages by a simple chemical dip would not be

S. Krishnan; Y. S. Won; K. Y. Lau

2007-01-01

230

Development of ball grid array packages with improved thermal performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To provide electronics packages with sufficient cooling during applications to secure improved reliability and performance of the packages has been one of the challenging tasks for their manufacturers and end users. Since the introduction of the standard ball grid array (BGA) package, continued efforts by package developers have successively resulted in a family of thermally enhanced BGA packages. The extra

Y. Y. Ma; Desmond Y. R. Chong; C. K. Wang; Anthony Y. S. Sun

2005-01-01

231

Optical simulation analysis of high power LED package structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single LED package structure determines the light intensity distribution and the well-designed package structure will be conductive to light emitting and improve its external quantum efficiency. This paper based on the optical package structure of high power LED, in order to analyze the influence of the structure of LED package on optical performance and the feasibility of the packaging

Yinong Liu; Yiping Wu; Bing An

2011-01-01

232

Challenges in interconnection and packaging of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated circuit packaging and their testing is well advanced because of the maturity of the IC industry, their wide applications, and availability of industrial infrastructure. This is not true for MEMS with respect to packaging and testing. It is more difficult to adopt standardized MEMS device packaging for wide applications although MEMS use many similar technologies to IC packaging. Packaging

Rajeshuni Ramesham; R. Ghaffarian

2000-01-01

233

Green VFBGA Package Development for PoP Technology Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market trends for PoP (package on package) developments and merits over SiP (system in package) are presented. A green VFBGA package used as bottom PoP package has been developed by applying advanced wafer thinning and dicing saw technology, low loop wire bonding technology and top gate thin molding technology. A preliminary MSL study showed good delamination performance.

J. M. Liu; Yuan Yuan; Wei Gao; Y. Q. Su; R. Han; M. C. Han; Y. S. Lu

2006-01-01

234

Decision support system for material handling and packaging design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of the materials handling process involving automated stacking of packages on a pallet or automated sorting of packages in a distribution system depends mainly on the design of the package and the material used for the package. Many problems can be eliminated that result in a higher utilization of the system if the package is designed not only

Mats I. Johnsson; Abdel K. Mazouz; Chingping Han

1992-01-01

235

Packaging performance evaluation and performance oriented packaging standards for large packages for poison inhalation hazard materials  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Transportation Research & Special Programs Administration (DOT-RSPA) has sponsored a project at Sandia National Laboratories to evaluate the protection provided by current packagings used for truck and rail transport of materials that have been classified as Poison Inhalation Hazards (PIH) and to recommend performance standards for these PIH packagings. Hazardous materials span a wide range of toxicity and there are many parameters used to characterize toxicity; for any given hazardous material, data are not available for all of the possible toxicity parameters. Therefore, it was necessary to select a toxicity criterion to characterize all of the PIH compounds (a value of the criterion was derived from other parameters in many cases) and to calculate their dispersion in the event of a release resulting from a transportation accident. Methodologies which account for material toxicity and dispersal characteristics were developed as a major portion of this project and applied to 72 PIH materials. This report presents details of the PIH material toxicity comparisons, calculation of their dispersion, and their classification into five severity categories. 16 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Griego, N.R.; Mills, G.S.; McClure, J.D. [and others

1997-07-01

236

PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project, Information Package Specification Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

This document contains a specification for a standard XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information and the context required to understand and use that information in information management systems and other types of information archives. An information package consists of packaged information, a set of information metadata that describes the packaged information, and an XML signature that protects the packaged information. The information package described in this specification was designed to be used to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. Information package metadata can also include information search terms, package history, and notes. Packaged information can be text content, binary content, and the contents of files and other containers. A single information package can contain multiple types of information. All content not in a text form compatible with XML must be in a text encoding such as base64. Package information is protected by a digital XML signature that can be used to determine whether the information has changed since it was signed and to identify the source of the information. This specification has been tested but has not been used to create production information packages. The authors expect that gaps and unclear requirements in this specification will be identified as this specification is used to create information packages and as information stored in information packages is used. The authors expect to issue revised versions of this specification as needed to address these issues.

Kelleher, D.M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

2009-09-28

237

Electronic packaging materials science. 5  

SciTech Connect

The symposium included sessions on the mechanical and deformation properties of polymer interfaces (with emphasis on the effects of plastic behavior in polymeric thin films, and general attention to stress effects on reliability), protective coatings for IC's, polymers and polymer-processing for high density packaging (e.g., photoimageable polyimides, use of liquid crystals to control thermal expansion, effect of curing on stress in polyimides in multilayer structures), ceramics and glass-ceramics (emphasis on aluminum nitride bulk, and interface properties), metallization techniques (low temperature CVD of copper films, laser planarization, laser assisted deposition of catalysts for electroless and electrolytic plating of copper), solders and soldering (including fatigue life predictions for solder joints), and measurement of material properties of thin films.

Lillie, E.D. (Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corp., Austin, TX (US)); Ho, P.S. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Jaccodine, R. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)); Jackson, K. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States))

1991-01-01

238

Recycled plastics for food packaging  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong movement in this country to decrease the amount of waste produced and to use resources more efficiently. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is interested in helping to resolve the solid waste problem. The FDA supports recycling and the broader societal goal of diverting material from the solid waste stream, when it is consistent with the statutory responsibilities to protect the public health. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) mandates that the FDA review the impact of new food-packaging materials on the environment. Currently, no regulations have been issued for the use of recycled polymers in contact with food. Plastics are permeable, and the possibility that a contaminant such as a pesticide or motor oil might be absorbed by a plastic container and remain in the resin after recycling is very real. The paper discusses FDA policy and research to ensure that recycled plastics are safe for food-contact use.

Thorsheim, H.R.; Armstrong, D.J.

1993-08-01

239

10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General requirements for fissile material packages. 71.55 Section 71...AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards ...General requirements for fissile material packages. (a) A package...

2013-01-01

240

Improved Packaging of Water Purification Tablet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The new method of packaging the iodine tablets consists of sealing the individual tablets in a blister sheet and packaging two blister sheets in an overwrapper packet. The blister sheet measures 1 3/4 in x 2 1/8 in and contains 12 transparent blister unit...

J. L. Carney

1974-01-01

241

Statistical Software Packages for the Microcomputer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nine microcomputer statistical software packages that are described comprise the statistical software collection at the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL). The packages are compatible with AEL's Apple II microcomputer, though many are also available with other microcomputers. References to software reviews are included for some programs.

Finley, Sevilla, Comp.

242

Some Aspects of Export Packaging of Furniture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The packaging of furniture for export is one of the most difficult problems in packaging technology. Most of the damage to furniture during transport and storage occurs because of incompetent and rough handling. In most cases, the main reason for damage t...

J. Selin

1983-01-01

243

Training Package in Measurement for Machinists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training package consists of materials for use in training industrial arts students in the proper use and care of basic precision measuring instruments used in the machine trades. Outlined first are the basic objectives of the training program. The second part of the package includes task analyses for each of the measuring instruments. Two

Davis, Scott; and Others

244

Shock & Anaphylactic Shock. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning activity package on shock and anaphylactic shock is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are

Hime, Kirsten

245

Low Water Activity Packaged White Bread.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to develop a shelf-stable packaged white pan bread for military use. Shelf life of bread may be extended to several months by proper control of water activity, pH, packaging conditions, and by addition of antimicrobial compou...

C. W. Nagel D. Hsu G. G. Rubenthaler H. K. Leung N. Larson-Powers

1985-01-01

246

Reliability analysis for fine pitch BGA package  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a linear parametric finite element analysis for the solder joints of a fine pitch BGA package for a selection of key design parameters including the effects of substrate, die attach material, and die size. Results show that, when the package assembly is subjected to the temperature excursion, the solder joint stress decreases as the thickness of the

Sean X. Wu; Jason Chin; Tom Grigorich; Xiaohua Wu; Gary Mui; Chao-Pin Yeh

1998-01-01

247

Environmental effects in component packaging selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design for environment activities in electronics have been focused on issues of product life-cycle at the board design level and to facility-level process and material choices at the semiconductor fabrication level. An important bridge between these two domains has been the influence of component selection, particularly packaging selection, on environmental impacts. Component packaging influences waste generation in two respects. First,

Sudarshan Siddhaye; Paul Sheng; Chris Ooi

1999-01-01

248

Trends in nondestructive imaging of IC packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the industry-wide conversion to surface mount packages in the mid-1980's, nondestructive imaging of moisture induced delaminations and cracks in plastic packaged ICs by scanning acoustic microscopy has been a critically important capability. Subsurface imaging and phase analysis of echoes has allowed scanning acoustic microscopy to become the primary nondestructive technique for component level inspection of packaged ICs and is sensitive to defects that are undetectable by real time x-ray inspection. It has become the preferred method for evaluating moisture sensitivity, and for many package processes, provides more reliable detection of wire bond degradation than physical cross sectioning or conventional electrical testing. However, the introduction of new technologies such as ball grid array (BGA) and flip chip packages demands improvements in acoustic inspection techniques. Echoes from the laminated substrates in BGA packages produce interference problems. Phase inversion detection is an important advantage of pulse-echo imaging of molded surface mount packages. However, phase inversion is not always helpful for delamination detection in these new packages, due to the properties of the materials involved. The requirement to nondestructively inspect flip chip interconnect bumps has arisen. Alternative approaches such as through-transmission screening of BGAs and high frequency (>200 MHz) pulse-echo inspection of flip chip bumps are addressing these new issues. As the acoustic frequency approaches the limits dictated by attenuation, new methods of frequency-domain signal analysis will become important for routine inspection and may give acoustic microscopy a predictive capability.

Moore, T. M.; Hartfield, C. D.

1998-11-01

249

Employee Benefit Packages: How Understandable Are They?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the growth and scope of corporate benefits packages and their usefulness to the average worker. A sample of benefits packages from Fortune 500 cor porations was assessed, and results revealed that both the documents'readability and comprehensibility levels far exceed that of the average worker. The study builds on the recent and growing scholarly focus on \\

Jerry Haar; Sharon Kossack

1990-01-01

250

WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA.s) Food and Nutrition Service charged the Institute of Medicine's Committee to Review the WIC Food Packages to conduct a two-phase evaluation of the WIC food packages. In Phase I, the committee was tasked with re...

2005-01-01

251

A Maple Package for Symmetric Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the man features of a package of Maple programs for manipulating symmetric polynomials and related structures. Among the highlights of the package are (1) a collection of procedures for converting between polynomial expressions involving several fundamental bases, and (2) a general mechanism that allows the user to easily add new bases to the existing collection. The latter facilitates

John R. Stembridge

1995-01-01

252

Disposability Characteristics of Military Packaging Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine the best disposal methods to be used for individual military packaging materials. The results of the detailed paper analysis were described on an individual summary Fact Sheet for each of the 104 military packaging ma...

S. J. Yurasits K. Behari D. P. MacArthur

1974-01-01

253

Commercial Amphoras: The Earliest Consumer Packages?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial amphoras are large ceramic vessels that were used from 1500 B.C. to 500 A.D. to ship wine and other products throughout the Mediterranean, supplying the ancient Greek and Roman empires. Although their form is much different from our own packages, the shape and design were clearly the result of the same reasoning that we use to design successful packaging

Diana Twede

2002-01-01

254

40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157...must be distributed or sold in child-resistant packaging...

2013-07-01

255

40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157...must be distributed or sold in child-resistant packaging...

2011-07-01

256

Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning activity package on temperature, pulse, and respiration is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics

Runge, Lillian

257

Attaining Low Moisture Levels in Hermetic Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of occasional high moisture contents (>5000 ppmv) in hermetically sealed, side brazed multilayer ceramic packages, an investigation was carried out to elucidate this effect. The furnaces used for solder sealing of the metal lid on the package were found to have less than 20 ppmv moisture in the nitrogen used as the ambient, so the initial atmosphere in the

Malcolm L. White; Kurt M. Striny; Robert E. Sammons

1982-01-01

258

Statistical Software Packages for the Microcomputer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nine microcomputer statistical software packages that are described comprise the statistical software collection at the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL). The packages are compatible with AEL's Apple II microcomputer, though many are also available with other microcomputers. References to software reviews are included for some programs.

Finley, Sevilla, Comp.

259

Uncooled IRFPA with chip scale vacuum package  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an uncooled IRFPA with a chip scale vacuum package and succeeded in obtaining excellent IR images of less than 60 mK in NETD. This package consists of a device chip and a silicon lid. The chip in this study is a 160 x 120 SOI diode IRFPA with a 25 mum pixel pitch. The size of the

Hisatoshi Hata; Yoshiyuki Nakaki; Hiromoto Inoue; Yasuhiro Kosasayama; Yasuaki Ohta; Hiroshi Fukumoto; Toshiki Seto; Keisuke Kama; Munehisa Takeda; Masafumi Kimata

2006-01-01

260

Characterization of chip scale packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical stability of Chip Scale Packages (CSP) used in surface mount technology is of primary concern. The dominant issues are package warpage and solder fatigue in solder joints under cyclic loads. To address these issues, molding compound and die attach film were characterized with finite element method which employed a viscoelastic and viscoplastic constitutive model. The model was verified

Masazumi Amagai

1999-01-01

261

MEMS vacuum packaging technology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum packaging is essential for various kinds of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices for enhancing the performance and reliability. This paper presents our works on research on vacuum packaging of MEMS devices. A hermetical sealing technique has been developed, which involves the processes of anodic bonding for silicon and glass wafers with imperfect interface, adhesive bonding, glass frit bonding and silicon-to-gold

Y. Jin; Z. F. Wang; P. C. Lim; D. Y. Pan; J. Wei; C. K. Wong

2003-01-01

262

Ceramic packaging for MEMS-based microsystems.  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic packaging is crucial to the development of MEMS-based microsystems. It is an enabling technology, giving the ability to build complex packages that combine MEMS, electronics, optics, and sensors in a compact volume. In addition, ceramic hermetic packaging has a long history of providing protection to the enclosed devices, even under harsh conditions. These capabilities are being used at Sandia to package complex, MEMS-based microsystems. Looking ahead, ceramic packaging is developing new capabilities important to microsystems, such as the addition of fluidic channels. These developments will make ceramic packaging a viable option for a wide variety of compact, highly integrated microsystems. However, MEMS, particularly surface micromachines, have new reliability concerns that ceramic packaging needs to address. One example is stiction, where small amounts of water can generate surface forces large enough to cause parts to stick together. This demonstrates the need to measure and control the internal environment with greater precision than has been required in the past. Despite these challenges, it is clear that ceramic packaging will be a key technology for complex microsystems in the future.

Custer, Jonathan Sloane

2003-02-01

263

Development of packaging for MEMS inertial sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of MEMS inertial sensors and their packaging for high performance applications requires a balanced approach combining analyses with testing and measurements. There are too many unknown parameters, e.g., material properties, process conditions, and components\\/package interfaces, to rely solely on analyses during the development. Recent advances in optoelectronic laser interferometric microscope (OELIM) methodology offer a considerable promise for effective testing

Ryszard J. Pryputniewicz; Thomas F. Marinis; Joseph W. Soucy; Cosme Furlong

2004-01-01

264

Package Graphics and Consumer Product Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, marketers' tactics to increase product sales through health claims have been scrutinized by public policy makers. The culmination of this process was the passage of the National Labeling Education Act, which highly restricts the type, amount, and format of nutritional information conveyed on the package. In this investigation, we examine an under-explored aspect of the packageits colors

Paula Fitzgerald Bone; Karen Russo France

2001-01-01

265

Development of wafer level packaged scanning micromirrors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents design, simulation and fabrication of a wafer level packaged Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) scanning mirror. In particular we emphasize on the process development and materials characterization of In- Ag solder for a new wafer level hermetic\\/vacuum package using low temperature wafer bonding technology. The micromirror is actuated with an electrostatic comb actuator and operates in resonant torsional mode.

Aibin Yu; Chengkuo Lee; Li Ling Yan; Qing Xin Zhang; Seung Uk Yoon; John H. Lau

2008-01-01

266

Biopreservation in modified atmosphere packaged vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in food preservation are the use of mild preservation techniques, such as modified atmosphere (MA) packaging and refrigeration, to prolong the shelflife of foods without affecting the fresh character of the product. This has resulted in the development of a new generation of chill stored, minimally processed foods, such as vegetables that are packaged under reduced oxygen (0

M. H. J. Bennik

1997-01-01

267

Safety Test of Transport Packages for Radioisotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Division of Radioisotope Production, JAERI, has tested safety of type B(M), A and L packages according to the regulations of RI transportation. The type B(M) package weighing about 1800 kg. Used for transport of exp 192 Ir(6540 Ci) and exp 32 P(188 Ci...

S. Okane K. Tachikawa

1979-01-01

268

Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use

K. Cooksey

2005-01-01

269

Nonreturnable packaging: The environmental debate. (Latest citations from Packaging Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the environmental and economic impacts of nonreturnable versus returnable food packaging containers. Topics include the burdens on the environment due to nonreturnable beverage containers, economic considerations for the packaging industry, and government regulations imposed to reduce waste disposal. Various packaging containers are examined, including glass, aluminum, tin-plate, cardboard, and plastics. Government legislation in the soft drink and beverage industries, dairy packaged products, and paperboard packaging are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-05-01

270

Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.  

PubMed

A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data. PMID:15864957

Tsiliyannis, Christos A

2005-04-01

271

Update: microcomputer statistics packages. A personal view.  

PubMed

1. There have been a number of recent commercial developments and new versions of microcomputer statistical software packages since the last review in December 1995. 2. New versions for Windows have been released: SPSS 7.0 (Windows 95), SYSTAT 6.0 (Windows 3.11, 95, NT) and MINITAB 11.0 (Windows 3.11, 95, NT). 3. The minimum requirements of microcomputer hardware to run the statistical packages under Windows now include 486 or Pentium processors and 16 Mb of RAM. 4. It is now clear to the reviewer that no package that operates under Windows can be recommended unless it is possible to execute analyses by commands as well as by menus. 5. The Internet is an important medium for disseminating information about forthcoming new versions of statistical software packages and about flaws in recently released versions of such packages. PMID:9131301

Ludbrook, J

272

Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology.

Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

2007-08-01

273

Drug packaging in 2009: a few advances.  

PubMed

Once again, in 2009, most of the packaging that Prescrire analysed did not meet our quality criteria. Labelling information was too often ambiguous or clumsily expressed. The quality of dosing devices and the safety of multidose bottles were not guaranteed. Patient information leaflets were more legible on the whole, but once again rather uninformative. All of these shortcomings put patients at risk. European measures concerning drug labelling have finally been transposed into French law, and have led to some improvements: the international nonproprietary name (INN) is more frequently displayed on primary packaging. The use of Braille on boxes and access to Braille package leaflets are increasing. The improved legibility of the labelling of ampoules containing certain dangerous injectable drugs, as recommended by the French drug regulatory agency (Afssaps), has become more widespread. In practice, healthcare professionals need to take action on packaging issues: by choosing the best packaging, reporting potential sources of confusion and error and informing patients. PMID:20738049

2010-06-01

274

Documentation and analysis for packaging for the Hardigg cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This documentation and analysis for packaging documents that Hardigg cases meet the requirements for Industrial Packaging Type 1 containers for the packaging of low specific activity radioactive material or surface contaminated object quantities for trans...

B. D. Flanagan

1996-01-01

275

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431.82 Energy...INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions...

2010-01-01

276

10 CFR 431.82 - Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. 431.82 Section 431.82 Energy...INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Packaged Boilers § 431.82 Definitions concerning commercial packaged boilers. The following definitions...

2009-01-01

277

49 CFR 173.60 - General packaging requirements for explosives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from making contact with metal packagings. Articles containing explosive...partitioning in the inner or outer packaging, molded plastics or receptacles may be used for this purpose. (4) When the packaging includes water that...

2010-10-01

278

16 CFR 1702.13 - Labeling and packaging samples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Labeling and packaging samples. 1702.13 Section 1702...13 Labeling and packaging samples. Each petition for an...this part shall include a sample of the label and complete packaging for each size in which each form...

2013-01-01

279

49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section 178.915 ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large...

2011-10-01

280

49 CFR 178.503 - Marking of packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of packagings. 178.503 Section 178.503 Transportation...MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.503 Marking of...

2010-10-01

281

49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packagings for certain flammable solids. 173.223 ...SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1...

2012-10-01

282

7 CFR 1944.72 - Application packaging orientation and training.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application packaging orientation and training. 1944.72 ...CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Application Packaging Grants § 1944.72 Application packaging orientation and training....

2012-01-01

283

49 CFR 178.502 - Identification codes for packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Identification codes for packagings. 178.502 Section 178.502 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.502...

2012-10-01

284

48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Packaging, handling, and transportation. 1852...Provisions and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. ...404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation...

2011-10-01

285

49 CFR 173.223 - Packagings for certain flammable solids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Packagings for certain flammable solids. 173.223 ...SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1...

2011-10-01

286

48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Alternate packaging and packing. 852.214-73 Section...Clauses 852.214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814...the following provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The...

2011-10-01

287

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75 Section...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996)...

2011-10-01

288

49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section 173.23 Transportation...SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials... § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations...

2012-10-01

289

49 CFR 178.915 - General Large Packaging standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General Large Packaging standards. 178.915 Section 178.915 ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Large Packagings Standards § 178.915 General Large...

2012-10-01

290

48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section... 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations...

2012-10-01

291

48 CFR 852.214-73 - Alternate packaging and packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Alternate packaging and packing. 852.214-73 Section...Clauses 852.214-73 Alternate packaging and packing. As prescribed in 814...the following provision: Alternate Packaging and Packing (JAN 2008) The...

2012-10-01

292

48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Preservation, Packaging and Packing. 552.211-75 Section...Clauses 552.211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511...the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996)...

2012-10-01

293

49 CFR 178.503 - Marking of packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Marking of packagings. 178.503 Section 178.503 Transportation...MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.503 Marking of...

2009-10-01

294

48 CFR 1852.211-70 - Packaging, handling, and transportation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Packaging, handling, and transportation. 1852...Provisions and Clauses 1852.211-70 Packaging, handling, and transportation. ...404-70, insert the following clause: Packaging, Handling, and Transportation...

2012-10-01

295

Guide to Packaging and Labelling Requirements in Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the keys to a good marketing strategy for Canada is understanding Canadian labelling and packaging requirements. The first section of the publication outlines basic labelling and packaging requirements and exemptions for pre-packaged consumer goods...

K. A. Moody

1992-01-01

296

Materials for optoelectronic device packaging/manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of this work is to review the materials challenges and solutions for the packaging of high power LEDs, i.e., the light extraction efficiency, thermal and UV stability, and stress/delamination, which are all related to the reliability and lifetime of high power LEDs. The second part of this work is related to the development of transparent epoxy and silicone materials for the packaging of LEDs and the studies of light transmission stability under various treatments, including thermal, UV and combined treatments. It is found out that packaged high power blue LEDs encapsulated by epoxy materials have a very short lifetime due to the severe discoloration of epoxy at die-encapsulant interface caused by high flux radiation and junction temperature from LED chip. However, the reliability of formulated silicone outperforms epoxy materials, which can be explain by highly transparent in the UV-visible wavelength region and better thermal and UV resistance of silicone materials. The third part of this work is related to the study of optical properties of white LEDs, i.e., optical power, luminous efficiency, CCT, chromaticity coordinate and CRI as a function of phosphor wt% in silicone for the flat-top (FT) and flat-top-with lens (FTWL) packages. Due to the total internal reflection (TIR) at the encapsulant-air interface, the FT package shows a 1011% power (in mW) reduction compared with the FTWL package at the same phosphor concentration. However, it is demonstrated that the FT package provides a more efficient way of utilizing phosphor than the FTWL package based on the same targeted chromaticity coordinates due to the TIR effect inside, resulting in a reduced phosphor usage with a lumen output only about 3% lower than that of the FTWL package. Furthermore, the effects of fumed silica on optical properties are studied for these packages. In comparison to the package without fumed silica, the package with fumed silica has the advantages in anti-settling of phosphor particles, better color uniformity and reduced phosphor usage. A novel process to fabricate the dye-doped polymer particles with high conversion efficiency for white LEDs is also studied. The results are significant for the packaging of phosphor based high power white LEDs.

Lin, Yuan-Chang

297

16 CFR 503.6 - Packagers' duty to withhold availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price representations. 503...availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price representations. To...will not make packages marked with retail sale price representations...

2013-01-01

298

Computational modelling to predict waste package performance  

SciTech Connect

An important aspect of a safety case for any packaging is its performance under accident conditions. This paper addresses the challenge faced by designers and manufacturers to predict behaviour of waste packages under various transport and emplacement conditions. Previously, performance of waste packages has usually been demonstrated by test. Carrying out a full-scale drop test of a prototype package with the representative simulant wasteform is time consuming, costly, and can lead to variability in the results. Furthermore, these tests are unique for a particular design and cannot be easily applied to other designs. Therefore, predictive modelling based on computational techniques like the finite element analysis (FEA) can be of great benefit. This paper presents an example of how computational modeling can be used to assess free drop and transportation loads. The example presents FEA of a packaging designed to transport a 50 Te steel pot containing radioactive silicate slag to the UK's Low Level Waste Repository site (LLWR) at Drigg in Cumbria in accordance with the relevant UK legislation. The results from FEA are processed to obtain stress and strain levels to show that there is no likelihood of rupture/leakage. Strain energy distribution in the package is assessed to demonstrate that the impact is absorbed by the packaging. (authors)

Prinja, N.K.; Buckley, A. [AMEC NNC, Knutsford, Cheshire, WA (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

299

On DNA packaging into elastic nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, understanding the process of DNA packaging into elastic nanoparticles is of great interest to advancing practical applications in fields such as drug delivery, global ecology and bacterial pathogenicity. In this study, we adopt a unified continuum and statistical mechanics model by taking into account the effects of DNA bending, electrostatic repulsion between DNA-DNA strands and elastic deformation of the nanoparticles to quantitatively reveal the relation between packaging force, Young's modulus of the nanoparticles and DNA length packaged. We find that particle stiffness can significantly influence the ejection force when the particles are immersed in high electrostatic repulsion solution.

Li, Long; Wang, Jizeng

2013-10-01

300

Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-01-01

301

MEMS packaging and microassembly challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEMS devices have evolved in the last 10 years from an academic and laboratory curiosity to a viable technology with potential widespread application. Significant advancements are now being made to package and manufacture MEMS devices for the commercial and consumer marketplace. In MEMS devices that are silicon-based, integrated circuit fabrication techniques are used to reduce the size of mechanical features to the miniature dimensions of microelectronics. Integrating these mechanical features with electronic circuits on the same chip offers a wealth of new product opportunities not possible with conventional design and manufacturing approaches. Initially MEMS referred to silicon-based devices but today refers to a complete miniature device that may or may not be silicon based. Also MEMS devices have expanded beyond the integration of electronic and mechanical functions. Today devices can have mechanical, optical, fluidic, and thermal functions in some combination with each other and generally integrated with electronic functions. MEMS technology can be used to fabricate extremely sensitive sensor for a variety of applications including pressure, sound, mass, motion, acceleration, rotation, flow, chemicals, vibration, and temperature. The technology can also be used to fabricate field-emission tips and probes for use in high-brightness specialized displays, electron-beam sources, information storage applications and precision temperature sensing. Actuators can be fabricated for use in optical switching, flow control, micropositioning, adaptive optics, and displays. Finally, a variety of passive, 3D, micromechanical structures can be fabricated with applications in telecommunications, electronic components, and sensors.

Mehalso, Robert

1999-09-01

302

The Fireball integrated code package  

SciTech Connect

Many deep-space satellites contain a plutonium heat source. An explosion, during launch, of a rocket carrying such a satellite offers the potential for the release of some of the plutonium. The fireball following such an explosion exposes any released plutonium to a high-temperature chemically-reactive environment. Vaporization, condensation, and agglomeration processes can alter the distribution of plutonium-bearing particles. The Fireball code package simulates the integrated response of the physical and chemical processes occurring in a fireball and the effect these processes have on the plutonium-bearing particle distribution. This integrated treatment of multiple phenomena represents a significant improvement in the state of the art for fireball simulations. Preliminary simulations of launch-second scenarios indicate: (1) most plutonium vaporization occurs within the first second of the fireball; (2) large non-aerosol-sized particles contribute very little to plutonium vapor production; (3) vaporization and both homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation occur simultaneously; (4) homogeneous condensation transports plutonium down to the smallest-particle sizes; (5) heterogeneous condensation precludes homogeneous condensation if sufficient condensation sites are available; and (6) agglomeration produces larger-sized particles but slows rapidly as the fireball grows.

Dobranich, D.; Powers, D.A.; Harper, F.T.

1997-07-01

303

Air-depolyable geophysics package  

SciTech Connect

We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

1993-11-01

304

Package insert Influenza Vaccine STN BL 125254  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... 1 Grdcp2\\Cabinets\\RA Labeling\\Afluria\\USA\\Manuscripts\\Package Insert, Blank [fabe21]_ASU for 2013-2014 Influenza Season Version 36.0 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines

305

Preventing Medication Errors Through Good Packaging ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Jerry Phillips, R.Ph. President & CEO, Drug Safety Institute Page 3. 2 ... Chemical properties of the drug product can limit the package that the drug is ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

306

Parametric thermal evaluations of waste package emplacement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parametric thermal evaluations of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste packages (WPs) emplaced in the potential repository were performed to determine the impact of thermal loading, WP spacing, drift diameter, SNF aging, backfill, and relocation on the design o...

R. H. Bahney T. W. Doering

1996-01-01

307

FDA Regulates the Safety of Packaged Ice  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... And like other foods, packaged ice must be ... Protection Agency standards for drinking water), and; ... also does not inspect food service establishments ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

308

Reasoning Utility Package User's Manual. Version One.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RUP (Reasoning Utility Package) is a collection of procedures for performing various computations relevant to automated reasoning. RUP contains a truth maintenance system (TMS) which can be used to perform simple propositional deduction (unit clause resol...

D. A. McAllester

1982-01-01

309

Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.

NONE

1994-05-01

310

Commonwealth of the Bahamas: Country Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bahamas package contains: Trade figures for the top 35 exports and imports, Business Fact Sheet, Contact List of Government and Private Sector Officials in the United States and Bahamas, Commercial Activities Report for Bahamas for 1992, Foreign Econo...

1991-01-01

311

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-8 teachers create lessons on the Physics subject of energy. Topics include Tutorials and Instructional Resources, Media, and Reference Material.

Moin, Laura

312

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Geology subject of water quality. Topics include Field Trips and Labs, Simulations and Media, Case Studies, Lesson Plans, and Reference Material.

Moin, Laura

313

Flat Conductor Cable for Electrical Packaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electric...

W. Angele

1972-01-01

314

10 CFR 71.33 - Package description.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or fissile material packaging; (2) Gross weight; (3) Model number; (4) Identification of the containment system...nonfissile materials used as neutron absorbers or moderators, and the atomic ratio of moderator to fissile constituents; (5)...

2013-01-01

315

Draft Container and Package Labeling Review  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... of Health and Human Services Public Health Service Food and Drug ... Package: We recommend revising the statement "Preservative Free," on the ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

316

21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Due to the toxicity associated with fluoride active ingredients, the following...minimize moisture contamination, all fluoride powdered dentifrices shall be packaged...contents from contamination by extraneous liquids, solids, or vapors, from loss of...

2013-04-01

317

Safety evaluation for packaging two plywood boxes  

SciTech Connect

This safety evaluation for packaging evaluates and documents the ability of the plywood boxes listed below to meet the packaging requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of Type B radioactive material. Onsite transfer is the transport of hazardous materials on controlled routes confined to established limited areas and to portions of federally owned roadways to which public access is prohibited during transfer. The plywood boxes being used for this transport are PIN number PNLD-95-322 and PNLD-95-385. The contents being transported are wood, plastic, piping, rubber, and gloves. The source term was determined by nondestructive analysis and obtained from the solid waste storage/disposal record. Before the nondestructive analysis, the intention was to transport the boxes under WHC-SD-TP-SEP-020, Safety Evaluation for Packaging (Onsite) Plywood Box (WHC 1994), but Type B shipments are not included.

Flanagan, B.D.

1996-09-26

318

STAPP: A Statistical Analysis and Plotting Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Statistical Analysis and Plotting Package (STAPP) is a software system that integrates several oft-used statistical and plotting programs into one system. STAPP functions in either a batch or interactive environment on the Idaho National Engineering L...

S. D. Matthews N. C. Smith

1981-01-01

319

78 FR 44894 - Specifications for Packagings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 178 Specifications for Packagings CFR Correction 0 In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 178 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2012, in...

2013-07-25

320

Solder Mounting Technologies for Electronic Packaging  

SciTech Connect

Soldering provides a cost-effective means for attaching electronic packages to circuit boards using both small scale and large scale manufacturing processes. Soldering processes accommodate through-hole leaded components as well as surface mount packages, including the newer area array packages such as the Ball Grid Arrays (BGA), Chip Scale Packages (CSP), and Flip Chip Technology. The versatility of soldering is attributed to the variety of available solder alloy compositions, substrate material methodologies, and different manufacturing processes. For example, low melting temperature solders are used with temperature sensitive materials and components. On the other hand, higher melting temperature solders provide reliable interconnects for electronics used in high temperature service. Automated soldering techniques can support large-volume manufacturing processes, while providing high reliability electronic products at a reasonable cost.

VIANCO, PAUL T.

1999-09-23

321

Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report  

SciTech Connect

This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

D.C. Mecham

2004-07-12

322

Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials.

Shappert, L.B.

1998-02-01

323

Front-of-Package Labeling Initiative  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... for the industry regarding nutrition labeling on the front of food packages, and plans to work collaboratively with the food industry to design and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/labelingnutrition

324

Documentation and analysis for packaging for the 100 B\\/C Packagings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to certify that the packaging system currently in use for the 100 B and C Area large scale excavation and remediation campaign, meets the intent of U.S. Department of Transportation(DOT) requirements for bulk packaging (49 CFR 173.427) of radioactive materials, up to and including low specific activity (LSA) I

Westinghouse Hanford

1996-01-01

325

Aluminum Silicon Carbide (AlSiC) Thermal Management Packaging For High Density Packaging Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density microelectronics require packaging materials and systems that provide superior thermal management and highly functional interconnection schemes for component performance and reliability. Aluminum Silicon Carbide (AlSiC) metal matrix composite (MMC) packages have a unique set of material properties that are ideally suited to thermal management performance, and a functionality that supports high density interconnection microelectronic packaging applications. Furthermore, the AlSiC

Mark A. Occhionero; Robert A. Hay; Richard W. Adams; Kevin P. Fennessy

326

On Wire Failures in Microelectronic Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, over 95% of the manufactured packages are still being wire-bonded. Due to the ongoing trend of miniaturization, material changes, and cost reduction, wire-bond-related failures are becoming increasingly important. Different finite-element (FE) techniques are explored for their ability to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the wire embedded in the electronic package. The developed nonlinear and parametric FE models are

Willem D. van Driel; Richard B. R. van Silfhout; G. Q. Zhang

2009-01-01

327

ASCfit: Automatic Stellar Coordinate Fitting Package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modular software package for automatically fitting astrometric world coordinates (WCS) onto raw optical or infrared FITS images. Image stars are identified with stars in a reference catalog (USNO-A2 or 2MASS), and coordinates derived as a simple linear transformation from (X,Y) pixels to (RA,DEC) to the accuracy level of the reference catalog used. The package works with both optical and infrared images, at sidereal and non-sidereal tracking rates.

Pickles, Andrew

2012-04-01

328

Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries  

DOEpatents

A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

Bates, John B. (116 Baltimore Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Dudney, Nancy J. (11634 S. Monticello Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922); Weatherspoon, Kim A. (223 Wadsworth Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1996-01-01

329

ADIPLSthe Aarhus adiabatic oscillation package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of the Aarhus adiabatic pulsation code started around 1978. Although the main features have been stable for more than a decade, development of the code is continuing, concerning numerical properties and output. The code has been provided as a generally available package and has seen substantial use at a number of installations. Further development of the package, including bringing the documentation closer to being up to date, is planned as part of the HELAS Coordination Action.

Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jrgen

2008-08-01

330

Formal Definition of UML's Package Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

: UML is the first OO modeling language with a useful modularizationand information hiding concept. It supports nesting, import, and refinement ofso-called packages. This paper translates UML's informal package definition intopredicate logic formulas and solves some open problems concerning the visibilityof exported and imported modeling elements.Furthermore, the formulas will be transformed into a specification based on PROgrammedGraph REwriting Systems. We

A. Schurr; Rwth Aachen

1998-01-01

331

MEMS packaging for micro mirror switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new packaging architecture is developed for the hybrid integration of free-space MOEMS (micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems) chip with a silicon micromachined submount. The submount is designed to accommodate various free-space MOEMS chips with minimal active optical alignment, thus reducing the packaging cost. The silicon submount has a central recess to place the MOEMS chip in, four V-grooves for optical fibers, and

Long-Sun Huang; Shi-Sheng Lee; Ed Motamedi; Ming C. Wu; C.-J. Kim

1998-01-01

332

The Digital Packaging of Electronic Money  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I examine how money is digitally packaged (or not packaged) and its influence on the meaning of the gift and\\u000a remittance. Remittances received by developing nations in 2005 were an estimated $US167 billion. These, together with gifts\\u000a for ceremonial occasions demonstrate the importance of money as a medium of personal relationships. Gifts in particular have\\u000a been wrapped

Supriya Singh

2007-01-01

333

Microsystem packaging of an RF SAW correlator.  

SciTech Connect

An electrically programmable surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator was recently completed from design through small scale production in support of low power space-based communications for NASA. Three different versions of this RF microsystem were built to satisfy design requirements and overcome packaging and system reliability related issues. Flip-chip packaging and conventional thick film hybrid assembly techniques are compared in the fabrication of this microsystem.

Palmer, David A.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Studor, George F.

2005-01-01

334

Efficient Implementation of a BDD Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient manipulation of Boolean functions is an important component of many computer-aided design tasks. This paper describes a package for manipulating Boolean functions based on the reduced, ordered, binary decision diagram (ROBDD) representation. The package is based on an efficient implementation of the if-then-else (ITE) operator. A hash table is used to maintain a strong canonical form in the ROBDD,

Karl S. Brace; Richard L. Rudell; Randal E. Bryant

1990-01-01

335

INJECTION MOLDED & MICRO FABRICATION ELECTRONIC PACKAGING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoset epoxies, discovered nearly 80 years ago, remain the workhorse plastic for electronic packaging and printed circuit boards, but this could change with increasing technical, economic and regulatory demands. Modern halogen-free thermoplastics now boast superior properties and highly automated high-efficiency high-volume processes. Injection molding can readily produce intricate 3D structures suitable for electronic component packaging and 3D molded circuits. Although

Ken Gilleo; RI Dennis Jones

336

Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package  

SciTech Connect

A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

2012-06-17

337

Protection of microelectronic devices during packaging  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method of protecting a microelectronic device during device packaging, including the steps of applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to a sensitive area on the device; performing at least one packaging step; and then substantially removing the protective coating, preferably by dry plasma etching. The sensitive area can include a released MEMS element. The microelectronic device can be disposed on a wafer. The protective coating can be a vacuum vapor-deposited parylene polymer, silicon nitride, metal (e.g. aluminum or tungsten), a vapor deposited organic material, cynoacrylate, a carbon film, a self-assembled monolayered material, perfluoropolyether, hexamethyldisilazane, or perfluorodecanoic carboxylic acid, silicon dioxide, silicate glass, or combinations thereof. The present invention also relates to a method of packaging a microelectronic device, including: providing a microelectronic device having a sensitive area; applying a water-insoluble, protective coating to the sensitive area; providing a package; attaching the device to the package; electrically interconnecting the device to the package; and substantially removing the protective coating from the sensitive area.

Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Conley, William R. (Tijeras, NM)

2002-01-01

338

Effectiveness of antimicrobial food packaging materials.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial additives have been used successfully for many years as direct food additives. The literature provides evidence that some of these additives may be effective as indirect food additives incorporated into food packaging materials. Antimicrobial food packaging is directed toward the reduction of surface contamination of processed, prepared foods such as sliced meats and Frankfurter sausages (hot dogs). The use of such packaging materials is not meant to be a substitute for good sanitation practices, but it should enhance the safety of food as an additional hurdle for the growth of pathogenic and/or spoilage microorganisms. Studies have focused on establishing methods for coating low-density polyethylene film or barrier films with methyl cellulose as a carrier for nisin. These films have significantly reduced the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in solutions and in vacuum packaged hot dogs. Other research has focused on the use of chitosan to inhibit L. monocytogenes and chlorine dioxide sachets for the reduction of Salmonella on modified atmosphere-packaged fresh chicken breasts. Overall, antimicrobial packaging shows promise as an effective method for the inhibition of certain bacteria in foods, but barriers to their commercial implementation continue to exist. PMID:16227182

Cooksey, K

2005-10-01

339

19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...1) of this subpart, the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2010-04-01

340

19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...10.455(a)(1), the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2009-04-01

341

19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...1) of this subpart, the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2010-04-01

342

19 CFR 10.922 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...1) of this subpart, the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2013-04-01

343

19 CFR 10.3022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...3016(a)(1), the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2013-04-01

344

19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...10.455(a)(1), the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2010-04-01

345

19 CFR 10.539 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...1) of this subpart, the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2009-04-01

346

19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...1) of this subpart, the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2013-04-01

347

19 CFR 10.601 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of good C imports 100 non-originating blister packages to be used as retail packaging...1) of this subpart, the value of the blister packages is their adjusted value, which...applying this method, the non-originating blister packages are taken into account as...

2013-04-01

348

Active and Intelligent Packaging for the Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and\\/or the surrounding environment. Active packaging systems are successfully used to

D. A. Pereira de Abreu; J. M. Cruz; P. Paseiro Losada

2012-01-01

349

Active and Intelligent Packaging for the Food Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and\\/or the surrounding environment. Active packaging systems are successfully used to

D. A. Pereira de Abreu; J. M. Cruz; P. Paseiro Losada

2011-01-01

350

Power distribution modelling of high performance first level computer packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for obtaining a model of the power distribution of a computer package is presented. This model is suitable for determining the noise and aiding in the design of a computer package. The physical features of a typical first-level multi-layered computer package is shown. Semiconductor chips and decoupling capacitors are placed on the top surface of the package and

W. Becker; B. McCredie; G. Wilkins; A. Iqbal

1993-01-01

351

New packaging technologies for the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the major influencers that will drive change in meat packaging. A review of the current state of fresh-meat packaging in the US has shown a continued evolution to case ready packaging, with 60% of the packages audited being in the case ready format, versus 49% just two years earlier. Additionally, the market is moving to a higher

S. J. Eilert

2005-01-01

352

Silicon-based Packaging Platform for Light Emitting Diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we demonstrate a silicon-based packaging platform for a package component of light emitting diode (LED) by silicon bulk micromachining technologies and using a silicon substrate with embedded solder interconnections to dissipate heat and match thermal expansion coefficient (CTE). The objective is to develop an LED package that can overcome LED life, high operating voltage, package degradation and

C. Tsou; Y. S. Huang; G. W. Lin

2005-01-01

353

MEMS packaging technology using a cavity structure for mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower cost package for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been required, because the cost portion of the MEMS package is more than 30% of the cost of a MEMS product. For the reason, cost effective MEMS packaging platforms are proposed in this paper for high volume production. Two package platforms are developed using an epoxy molding compound (EMC) onto copper (Cu)

J. S. Lee; F. Faheem; J. T. Kim; J. D. Jung; J. Y. Kim; J. D. Kim; C. H. Lee

2007-01-01

354

Healthy Food Products for Children: : Packaging and Mothers? Purchase Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explores the relationship between mothers? purchase of perceived healthy foods, packaging characteristics, and the childrens pester power in obtaining attractive or appealing packaging. The results suggest mothers will not buy perceived healthy foods if the packaging is not acceptable. Discusses packaging and marketing strategies.

Roseline Gelperowic; Brian Beharrell

1994-01-01

355

Technology Requirements for Chip-On-Chip Packaging Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend towards smaller, lighter and thinner products requires a steady miniaturization which has brought-up the concept of Chip Scale Packaging (CSP). The next step to reduce packaging cost was the chip packaging directly on the wafer. Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) enables the FC assembly on PWB without interposers. New and improved microelectronic systems require significant more complex devices which

M. Topper; Th. Fritzsch; V. Glaw; R. Jordan; C. Lopper; J. Roder; L. Dietrich; M. Lutz; H. Oppermann; O. Ehrmann; H. Reichl

2005-01-01

356

DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-02168  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire

2010-01-01

357

White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

2008-09-30

358

Early analysis of chip scale package design trade-offs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chip scale packages (CSPs) present new challenges for both package designer and package user. It is possible to make package design trade-offs between package size, I\\/O pattern, thermal\\/electrical performance and cost for a given IC. An ideal set of CSP design trade-offs for one application may be a poor selection for another. Early analysis tools give technical information needed to

W. Blood; A. Lai

1998-01-01

359

Multifunctional integrated substrate technology for high density SOP packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced substrates or printed circuit boards (PCBs) are an essential part for building the advanced IC packages (BGA, CSP, flip chip and wafer-level package), MCMs, 3D package, system-in-package (SiP), system-on-package (SOP), and all high density microelectronic systems. As processors and memory move towards nanometer-size features and processor clock speeds increase 60% per year, development of next generation system level substrates

Fuhan Liu; R. R. Tummala; Venky Sundaram; Daniel Guidotti; Zhaoran Huang; Y.-J. Chang; I. R. Abothu; P. M. Raj; S. Bhattacharya; D. Balaraman; G. K. Chang

2004-01-01

360

Environmental assessment of packaging: Sense and sensibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functions of packaging are derived from product requirements, thus for insight into the environmental effects of packaging the actual combination of product and package has to be evaluated along the production and distribution system. This extension to all related environmental aspects adds realism to the environmental analysis and provides guidance for design while preventing a too detailed investigation of parts of the production system. This approach is contrary to current environmental studies where packaging is always treated as an independent object, neglecting the more important environmental effects of the product that are influenced by packaging. The general analysis and quantification stages for this approach are described, and the currently available methods for the assessment of environmental effects are reviewed. To limit the workload involved in an environmental assessment, a step-by-step analysis and the use of feedback is recommended. First the dominant environmental effects of a particular product and its production and distribution are estimated. Then, on the basis of these preliminary results, the appropriate system boundaries are chosen and the need for further or more detailed environmental analysis is determined. For typical food and drink applications, the effect of different system boundaries on the outcome of environmental assessments and the advantage of the step-by-step analysis of the food supply system is shown. It appears that, depending on the consumer group, different advice for reduction of environmental effects has to be given. Furthermore, because of interrelated environmental effects of the food supply system, the continuing quest for more detailed and accurate analysis of the package components is not necessary for improved management of the environmental effects of packaging.

Kooijman, Jan M.

1993-09-01

361

The development of a digital signal processing and plotting package to support testing of hazardous and radioactive material packages  

SciTech Connect

Federal regulations allow package designers to use analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing to support certification of packages used to transport hazardous or radioactive materials. In recent years, many certified packages were subjected to a combination of analysis and testing. A major part of evaluating structural or thermal package response is the collection, reduction and presentation of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, has developed a comprehensive analysis and plotting package (known as KAPP) that performs digital signal processing of both transient structural and thermal data integrated with a comprehensive plotting package designed to support radioactive material package testing.

Ludwigsen, J.S.; Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C.N.; Hankinson, M.; Cannone, D.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

362

Virtual qualification of moisture induced failures of advanced packages [IC packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a combined numerical and experimental methodology for predicting and preventing moisture induced failures in encapsulated packages. Prevention of such failures can enable efficient and optimal pre-selection of materials, their interfaces and geometric design with respect to the desired resistance to moisture. This virtual qualification methodology is illustrated for a specific BGA package which showed 50% failures (broken

M. A. J. van Gils; W. D. van Driel; G. Q. Zhang; H. J. L. Bressers; R. B. R. van Silfhout; X. J. Fan; J. H. J. Janssen

2004-01-01

363

Documentation and analysis for packaging for the 100 B/C Packagings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to certify that the packaging system currently in use for the 100 B and C Area large scale excavation and remediation campaign, meets the intent of U.S. Department of Transportation(DOT...

W. A. Mccormick

1996-01-01

364

Packaging Ethics: Perceptual Differences among Packaging Professionals, Brand Managers and Ethically-interested Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore ethical perceptions of three product packaging issues as viewed by packaging professionals, brand managers, and ethically-interested consumers. We examine, differences between business practitioners and consumers with respect to ethical sensitivity, perceived consequences of business practices, and perceived industry norms. Additionally, we explore the prevalence of two types of values, pragmatic and moral, to determine if

Paula Fitzgerald Bone; Robert John Corey

2000-01-01

365

Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - special form packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Package was fabricated for the transport of large quantities of solid nonfissile radioactive materials in special form. The package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico on an identical fire and impact shield and special form tests performed on a variety of stainless steel

Schaich

1982-01-01

366

Safety-analysis report for packaging: the ORNL DOT specification 20WC-5 - special form packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ORNL DOT Specification 20WC-5 - Special Form Packaging was fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the transport of large quantities of solid non-fissile radioactive materials in special form. the package was evaluated on the basis of tests performed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (formerly Sandia Corporation), on an identical fire and impact shield and

Schaich

1983-01-01

367

Spooled packaging of shape memory alloy actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast cross-section of transportation, manufacturing, consumer product, and medical technologies rely heavily on actuation. Accordingly, progress in these industries is often strongly coupled to the advancement of actuation technologies. As the field of actuation continues to evolve, smart materials show significant promise for satisfying the growing needs of industry. In particular, shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators present an opportunity for low-cost, high performance actuation, but until now, they have been limited or restricted from use in many otherwise suitable applications by the difficulty in packaging the SMA wires within tight or unusually shaped form constraints. To address this packaging problem, SMA wires can be spool-packaged by wrapping around mandrels to make the actuator more compact or by redirecting around multiple mandrels to customize SMA wire pathways to unusual form factors. The goal of this dissertation is to develop the scientific knowledge base for spooled packaging of low-cost SMA wire actuators that enables high, predictable performance within compact, customizable form factors. In developing the scientific knowledge base, this dissertation defines a systematic general representation of single and multiple mandrel spool-packaged SMA actuators and provides tools for their analysis, understanding, and synthesis. A quasi-static analytical model distills the underlying mechanics down to the three effects of friction, bending, and binding, which enables prediction of the behavior of generic spool-packaged SMA actuators with specifiable geometric, loading, frictional, and SMA material parameters. An extensive experimental and simulation-based parameter study establishes the necessary understanding of how primary design tradeoffs between performance, packaging, and cost are governed by the underlying mechanics of spooled actuators. A design methodology outlines a systematic approach to synthesizing high performance SMA wire actuators with mitigated material, power, and packaging costs and compact, customizable form factors. By examining the multi-faceted connections between performance, packaging, and cost, this dissertation builds a knowledge base that goes beyond implementing SMA actuators for particular applications. Rather, it provides a well-developed strategy for realizing the advantages of SMA actuation for a broadened range of applications, thereby enabling opportunities for new functionality and capabilities in industry.

Redmond, John A.

368

Flexible, Ultra-Thin, Embedded Die Packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As thin, flexible electronics solutions become more robust, their integration into everyday life becomes more likely. With possible applications in wearable electronics, biomedical sensors, or 'peel and stick' sensors, the reliability of these ultra-thin packages becomes paramount. Likewise, the density achievable with stacked packages benefits greatly from thinner die stacks. To this end, techniques previously developed have demonstrated packages with die thinned to approximately 20mum. Covered in this work are methods for thinning and packaging silicon die, as well as information on common materials used in these processes. The author's contribution is a fabrication process for embedding ultra-thin (approximately 10mum) silicon die in polyimide substrates. This method is fully illustrated in Chapter 3 and enumerated in the Appendix as a quick reference. Additionally, thermal cycle testing of passive daisy chain assemblies has shown promising reliability data. Packages were mounted in three alignments: flat, concave, and convex, and placed into thermal shock testing. Finally, the author discusses possible applications for this fabrication process, including the fabrication of multi-chip-modules.

McPherson, Ryan J.

369

Thermal management of LEDs: package to system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light emitting diodes, LEDs, historically have been used for indicators and produced low amounts of heat. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors have led to a movement towards general illumination. The increased electrical currents used to drive the LEDs have focused more attention on the thermal paths in the developments of LED power packaging. The luminous efficiency of LEDs is soon expected to reach over 80 lumens/W, this is approximately 6 times the efficiency of a conventional incandescent tungsten bulb. Thermal management for the solid-state lighting applications is a key design parameter for both package and system level. Package and system level thermal management is discussed in separate sections. Effect of chip packages on junction to board thermal resistance was compared for both SiC and Sapphire chips. The higher thermal conductivity of the SiC chip provided about 2 times better thermal performance than the latter, while the under-filled Sapphire chip package can only catch the SiC chip performance. Later, system level thermal management was studied based on established numerical models for a conceptual solid-state lighting system. A conceptual LED illumination system was chosen and CFD models were created to determine the availability and limitations of passive air-cooling.

Arik, Mehmet; Becker, Charles A.; Weaver, Stanton E.; Petroski, James

2004-01-01

370

STAPP: a statistical analysis and plotting package  

SciTech Connect

The Statistical Analysis and Plotting Package (STAPP) is a software system that integrates several oft-used statistical and plotting programs into one system. STAPP functions in either a batch or interactive environment on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) dual CDC Cyber 176 computer system. Many statistical routines are currently accessible within STAPP. They include: GEORGE (Generalized Linear Regression Analysis Program), STEPWISE (Stepwise Regression Program), MOCARS (A Monte Carlo Simulation Code), DATAPLOT (Data Plotting Package). Also, STAPP has the capability to access statistical and mathematical library routines, such as IMSL (International Mathematical and Statistical Library), DATAPAC (Data Analysis Package) or a user-supplied software module. Future additions to STAPP can be easily made, too. Finally, a general capability exists to enter NOS/BE or INTERCOM commands into the CDC system.

Matthews, S.D.; Smith, N.C.

1981-09-01

371

DEVELOPMENT OF THE H1700 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The H1700 Package is based on the DOE-EM Certified 9977 Packaging. The H1700 will be certified by the Packaging Certification Division of the National Nuclear Security Administration for the shipment of plutonium by air by the United Stated Military both within the United States and internationally. The H1700 is designed to ship radioactive contents in assemblies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) or arrangements of nested food-pack cans. The RTG containers are designed and tested to remain leaktight during transport, handling, and storage; however, their ability to remain leaktight during transport in the H1700 is not credited. This paper discusses the design and special operation of the H1700.

Abramczyk, G.; Loftin, B.; Mann, P.

2009-06-05

372

Big Things Come in Little Packages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a group, learners investigate three packages which are all the same size and shape, but have different contents. One is filled with foam, one is filled with wood, and one is filled with metal. Learners are introduced to the concept of density, that objects with the same volume but different masses have different densities. Learners can extend their learning using one of the extensions provided: twenty questions to determine contents, determine the volume of the packages, determine mass and densities of the packages. Part of the 21-activity guide published by OMSI, No Hassle Messy Science with a Wow. All activities in this guide use household materials and all lesson plans include preparation directions, demonstrations, procedure sheets, cross-curricular connections, and scientific explanation of content.

Industry, Oregon M.

2007-01-01

373

ADIPLS: Aarhus Adiabatic Oscillation Package (ADIPACK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the development of the Aarhus Adiabatic Oscillation Package was to have a simple and efficient tool for the computation of adiabatic oscillation frequencies and eigenfunctions for general stellar models, emphasizing also the accuracy of the results. The Fortran code offers considerable flexibility in the choice of integration method as well as ability to determine all frequencies of a given model, in a given range of degree and frequency. Development of the Aarhus adiabatic pulsation code started around 1978. Although the main features have been stable for more than a decade, development of the code is continuing, concerning numerical properties and output. The code has been provided as a generally available package and has seen substantial use at a number of installations. Further development of the package, including bringing the documentation closer to being up to date, is planned as part of the HELAS Coordination Action.

Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

2011-09-01

374

Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

A.K. Scheider

2007-01-31

375

RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING TORQUE REQUIREMENTS COMPLIANCE  

SciTech Connect

Shipping containers used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in commerce employ a variety of closure mechanisms. Often, these closure mechanisms require a specific amount of torque be applied to a bolt, nut or other threaded fastener. It is important that the required preload is achieved so that the package testing and analysis is not invalidated for the purpose of protecting the public. Torque compliance is a means of ensuring closure preload, is a major factor in accomplishing the package functions of confinement/containment, sub-criticality, and shielding. This paper will address the importance of applying proper torque to package closures, discuss torque value nomenclature, and present one methodology to ensure torque compliance is achieved.

Watkins, R.; Leduc, D.

2011-03-24

376

MEMS performance challenges: packaging and shock tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes recent advances in the MEMS performance challenges with emphases on packaging and shock tests. In the packaging area, metal to metal bonding processes have been developed to overcome limitations of the glass frit bonding by means of two specific methods: (1) pre-reflow of solder for enhanced bonding adhesion, and (2) the insertion of thin metal layer between parent metal bonding materials. In the shock test area, multiscale analysis for a MEMS package system has been developed with experimental verifications to investigate dynamic responses under drop-shock tests. Structural deformation and stress distribution data are extracted and predicted for device fracture and in-operation stiction analyses for micro mechanical components in various MEMS sensors, including accelerometers and gyroscopes.

Chang, Jiyoung; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Bin; Lin, Liwei

2011-05-01

377

MEMS Packaging - Current Issues and Approaches  

SciTech Connect

The assembly and packaging of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) devices raise a number of issues over and above those normally associated with the assembly of standard microelectronic circuits. MEMS components include a variety of sensors, microengines, optical components, and other devices. They often have exposed mechanical structures which during assembly require particulate control, space in the package, non-contact handling procedures, low-stress die attach, precision die placement, unique process schedules, hermetic sealing in controlled environments (including vacuum), and other special constraints. These constraints force changes in the techniques used to separate die on a wafer, in the types of packages which can be used in the assembly processes and materials, and in the sealing environment and process. This paper discusses a number of these issues and provides information on approaches being taken or proposed to address them.

DRESSENDORFER,PAUL V.; PETERSON,DAVID W.; REBER,CATHLEEN ANN

2000-01-19

378

Symmetric Rock Fall on Waste Package  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the Naval SNF (spent nuclear fuel) Waste Package (WP) and the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to the rock fall DBE (design basis event) dynamic loads. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities and residual stresses in the WP, and stress intensities and maximum permanent downward displacements of the EP-lifting surface. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP and EP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for those designs only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and is performed by the Waste Package Design Section in accordance with Reference 24. AP-3.124, ''Calculations'', is used to perform the calculation and develop the document.

Sreten Mastilovic

2001-08-09

379

[Graphic images on cigarette packages not effective].  

PubMed

The Dutch Government intends to make graphic images on cigarette packages mandatory. However, contrary to other policy measures to reduce smoking, health warnings do not work. There is no acceptable evidence in favour of graphic images and behaviour change theories suggest methods of change that improve skills, self-efficacy and social support. Thus, theory- and evidence-based policy should focus on prohibiting the tobacco industry from glamourizing packaging and make health communications on packages mandatory. As to the type of communications to be used, theory and evidence suggest that warning of the negative consequences of smoking is not an effective approach. Rather, targeting the most important determinants of the initiation of smoking and its successful cessation - such as skills, self-efficacy and subjective norm - along with the most effective behaviour change methods appears to be the most expedient strategy. PMID:23548194

Kok, Gerjo; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Ruiter, Robert A C

2013-01-01

380

Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal  

SciTech Connect

The M&O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed.

Benton, H.A.

1996-08-01

381

Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

S. Arthur

2004-10-08

382

Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system  

SciTech Connect

This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-11

383

Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

Clements, M.D.

1996-01-01

384

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) SERF cask  

SciTech Connect

This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) documents the ability of the Special Environmental Radiometallurgy Facility (SERF) Cask to meet the requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for transfer of Type B quantities (up to highway route controlled quantities) of radioactive material within the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. This document shall be used to ensure that loading, tie down, transport, and unloading of the SERF Cask are performed in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14. This SEP is valid until October 1, 1999. After this date, an update or upgrade to this document is required.

Edwards, W.S.

1997-10-24

385

Energy Savings Measure Packages: Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the most cost effective Energy Savings Measure Packages (ESMP) for existing mixed-fuel and all electric homes to achieve 15% and 30% savings for each BetterBuildings grantee location across the US. These packages are optimized for minimum cost to homeowners for given source energy savings given the local climate and prevalent building characteristics (i.e. foundation types). Maximum cost savings are typically found between 30% and 50% energy savings over the reference home. The dollar value of the maximum annual savings varies significantly by location but typically amounts to $300 - $700/year.

Casey, S.; Booten, C.

2011-11-01

386

Openability of soft drinks PET packagings.  

PubMed

Studies on packaging accessibility are still incipient in Brazil. Many of these packagings can represent a challenge to users, whether due to non-informative labels, tricky tabs or seals, or even those that need strength to open. This paper brings a simple test to determine the necessary torque force to open PET bottles, and to predict the amount of users that could not open it. The findings suggest that a considerable amount of users could not open it or would have some difficulties to exert the necessary force. PMID:22316905

Silva, Danilo Corra; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos; da Silva, Jos Carlos Plcido

2012-01-01

387

Packaging design criteria for the MCO cask  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 2,100 metric tons of unprocessed, irradiated nuclear fuel elements are presently stored in the K Basins. To permit cleanup of the K Basins and fuel conditioning, the fuel will be transported from the K Basins to a Canister Storage Building in the 200 East Area. The purpose of this packaging design criteria is to provide criteria for the design, fabrication, and use of a packaging system to transport the large quantities of irradiated nuclear fuel elements positioned within Multiple Canister Overpacks.

Edwards, W.S.

1997-01-30

388

MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

Custer, Jonathan Sloane

2003-02-01

389

Engineered waste-package-system design specification  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the waste package performance requirements and geologic and waste form data bases used in developing the conceptual designs for waste packages for salt, tuff, and basalt geologies. The data base reflects the latest geotechnical information on the geologic media of interest. The parameters or characteristics specified primarily cover spent fuel, defense high-level waste, and commercial high-level waste forms. The specification documents the direction taken during the conceptual design activity. A separate design specification will be developed prior to the start of the preliminary design activity.

Not Available

1983-05-01

390

Packaged digester for treating animal wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new range of packaged digesters to process animal or organic wastes has been developed by Bovis Civil Engineering. The unit, known as the Polygester is suitable for use on factory farms, isolated communities and manufacturing industries. The unit consists of an anaerobic digester together with associated pumps, heat exchangers and pipework ready-assembled on a rigid common chassis and separate gas holder as a packaged system. Based on an undiluted solids input of 11% pig slurry, performance figures show up to 85% reduction of COD, 95% reduction of BOD and 18 m3 of biogas per day (equivalent to about 10 litres fuel oil).

Not Available

1981-11-03

391

Wafer-level package interconnect options  

Microsoft Academic Search

As integrated circuit technology enters the nanometer era, global interconnects are becoming a bottleneck for overall chip performance. In this paper, we show that wafer-level package interconnects are an effective alternative to conventional on-chip global wires. These interconnects behave as LC transmission lines and can be exploited for their near speed of light transmission and low attenuation characteristics. We compare

Jayaprakash Balachandran; Steven Brebels; Geert Carchon; Maarten Kuijk; Walter De Raedt; Bart K. J. C. Nauwelaers; Eric Beyne

2006-01-01

392

Green wine packaging: targeting environmental consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to profile consumers who expressed an intention to pay more for environmentally friendly wine packaging and to elaborate marketing strategies that arise from this consumer profiling. Design\\/methodology\\/approach The population under study was the general adult population of the USA. The sample was randomly selected from a consumer database and provided a

Nelson Barber

2010-01-01

393

Packaging of optical Fibre Bragg Gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) are all-fibre optical filters with applications in sensing and telecommunication systems. The packaging of FBGs offers many challenges to the manufacturer as stringent tolerances for wavelength stability of the filter over widely varying environmental operating conditions are required for state of the art Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) telecommunication systems. This paper presents various processes and

D. C. Psaila; H. G. Inglis

2001-01-01

394

Vacuum underfill technology for advanced packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed vacuum assisted underfill technology for large die (>18 18 mm) with fine pitch area array bumps (< 150 ?m pitch) to solve a critical underfill void issue. Material development and process optimization are the keys to realize a stable process for such an advanced package. It was also confirmed that the newly developed underfill materials have good

A. Horibe; M.-C. Paquet; M. Gaynes; C. Feger; K. Sakuma; J. U. Knickerbocker; Y. Orii; M. Hoshiyama; M. Hasegawa; T. Sato; H. Yoshii; O. Suzuki; K. Kotaka; T. Nagasaka; K. Terada; K. Ishikawa; Y. Hirayama

2011-01-01

395

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Atomic Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons on the Chemistry subject of atomic structures. Topics include The History of the Atom, Reference Material, Tutorials, Simulations, Questions and Activities, Periodic Tables, and resources for more advanced learners.

Moin, Laura

396

Emitter resolved analysis of packaged laser bars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermo-mechanical stress occurring during the packaging process and during operation limits the reliability of high-power diode laser bars. The stress is caused by the mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficients between the heat sink and laser bar material. A soft solder layer can partially reduce the stress by relaxation. A convenient approach for reducing the stress is the matching of the thermal expansion of the heat sink to the laser bar material. The disadvantage of most expansion-matched heat sinks is a higher thermal resistance so that the device temperature increases and the lifetime decreases. For the development of thermal and strain optimized diode laser packages an analysis of both the thermal and strain distribution is reasonable. In this work the strain is analyzed by electroluminescence using the correlation between stress and the polarization properties of the laser bar radiation. This method allows a qualitative emitter resolved strain mapping along the slow-axis. Because of the correlation between temperature and wavelength a thermal analysis of mounted laser bars can be done by an emitter resolved spectral mapping. Irregularities in the thermal contact between laser bar and heat sink such as defects in the solder layer become visible by irregular emitter spectra. The work shows examples for the optimization of the package. The analysis of the thermal and strain distribution shows the advantages and disadvantages of the particular approaches, like variations of solder thickness or expansion matched packages.

Westphalen, Thomas; Leers, Michael; Scholz, Christian; Boucke, Konstantin

2008-03-01

397

The Value of Hunting Package Attributes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic impacts of hunting activities reveals opportunities for landowners to capitalize on apparent market demand for fee-access hunting. This paper discusses the marginal values of hunting package attributes. The results will provide landowners the information needed to make optimal management decision.

Virginia Buller; Darren Hudson; Gregory M. Parkhurst; Andrew Whittington

2005-01-01

398

ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of

San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

399

Telemetry package for Super Loki sounding rocket  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Given the special requirements of the payload area of the Super Loki sounding rocket the author examines two options for the telemetry package. The first option consists in relying totally on GPS (Global Positioning System) antenna and a translator attached to the vehicle. This translator will continuously download the navigation messages picked from GPS satellites to

S. Fateih

1992-01-01

400

16 CFR 500.27 - Multiunit packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...The total quantity of the multiunit package. Examples: Soap bars: 6 Bars, Net Wt. 3.4 ozs. (96.3 g) each, Total...5 Cakes, Total Net Wt. 1 lb. 4 ozs. (566 g); Soap Packets: 10 Packets, Net Wt. 2 ozs. (56.6 g)...

2013-01-01

401

IC chip stress during plastic package molding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 95% of the world's integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metalization patt...

D. W. Palmer D. A. Benson D. W. Peterson J. N. Sweet

1998-01-01

402

IC chip stress during plastic package molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 95% of the world's integrated chips are packaged using a hot, high pressure transfer molding process. The stress created by the flow of silica powder loaded epoxy can displace the fine bonding wires and can even distort the metallization patterns under the protective chip passivation layer. In this study we developed a technique to measure the mechanical stress over

D. W. Palmer; D. A. Benson; D. W. Peterson; J. N. Sweet

1998-01-01

403

Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes

1995-01-01

404

Research on the recycling packaging materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

For modern packing industry, making environmental packages is a tendency. Nowadays it has proved recycling materials to be the capital choice element on packing. Packing material is inseparable from design, and also it is the base of the design. Moreover, that is the last way which transforms the design from sense of sight to an entity and realizing environmental protection.

Wang Zhong

2010-01-01

405

Fun with the R Grid Package  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The increasing popularity of R is leading to an increase in its use in undergraduate courses at universities (R Development Core Team 2008). One of the strengths of R is the flexible graphics provided in its "base" package. However, students often run up against its limitations, or they find the amount of effort to create an interesting plot may

Zhou, Lutong; Braun, W. John

2010-01-01

406

CRRES Microelectronics Package Flight Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed in-depth analysis was performed on the data from some of the CRRES MEP (Microelectronics Package) devices. These space flight measurements covered a period of about fourteen months of mission lifetime. Several types of invalid data were identif...

E. G. Stassinopoulos G. J. Brucker C. A. Stauffer

1993-01-01

407

CRRES microelectronics package flight data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed in-depth analysis was performed on the data from some of the CRRES MEP (Microelectronics Package) devices. These space flight measurements covered a period of about fourteen months of mission lifetime. Several types of invalid data were identified and corrections were made. Other problems were noted and adjustments applied, as necessary. Particularly important and surprising were observations of abnormal

E. G. Stassinopoulos; G. J. Brucker; C. A. Stauffer

1993-01-01

408

Youth Environmental Service (YES): Technical Assistance Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is designed to help youth service agencies and Federal land managers learn more about the YES initiative in order to plan YES programs suited to their own circumstances. The package describes the steps for becoming a YES site and explains ho...

S. Bilchik

1996-01-01

409

Digital Resource Package for Teaching Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This digital resource package is a collection of online sources to help K-12 teachers create lessons for mathematics. Topics include The History of the Browsing NSDL Resources by Standards or School Level, Bilingual Math Resources, and Resources for Advanced Learners.

Moin, Laura

410

Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this

D. C. Mecham

2004-01-01

411

Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both

Hime, Kirsten

412

Grooming. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on grooming. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student completion cards to issue to students as an

Stark, Pamela

413

Improved integrated launch package ballistic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed experimental investigation of the launch and flight performance of a kinetic energy fin-stabilized penetrator has been performed. The integrated launch package (ILP) consists of the subprojectile and mid-riding armature. The armature front contact is electrically insulated from the rails. This configuration has shown potential for effectively managing the launch disturbances. To evaluate the transitional ballistics, aeroballistics, and jump

Alexander E. Zielinski; Paul Weinacht

1999-01-01

414

ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of

San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

415

REBURNING APPLICATION TO FIRETUBE PACKAGE BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of pilot-scale experimental research that examined the physical and chemical phenomena associated with the NOx control technology of reburning applied to gas- and liquid-fired firetube package boilers. Reburning (staged fuel combustion) diverts some of th...

416

A Fortran Multiple-Precision Arithmetic Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of ANSI Standard Fortran subroutines for performing multiple-precision floating- point arithmetic and evaluating elementary and special functions is described. The subroutines are machine independent and the precision is arbitrary, subject to storage limitations. The design of the package is discussed, some of the algorithms are described, and test results are given. Comments

Richard P. Brent

1978-01-01

417

Nano and Biotechniques in Electronic Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging is a part of technology that merges the functional components to systems and ensures the operation of these systems for all environmental conditions allowed. It comprises the geometric arrangement of the components within the system, energy supply, signal distribution, heat dissipation, and the implementation of protective functions. The Research Training Group (RTG) \\

Klaus-Juergen Wolter; Gerald Gerlach

2010-01-01

418

The Research Queueing Package Modeling Environment (resqme)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Research Queueing Package Modeling Environment (RESQME) provides a graphical environment for constructing, solving, and analyzing the results of extended queueing network models of resource contention systems. It has been used to improve the performance of existing and planned systems in such application areas as computer systems, communications networks, manufacturing processes, transportation systems, customer service facilities. RESQME provides the capability

Kow C. Chang; Robert F. Gordon; Paul G. Loewner; Edward A. MacNair

1993-01-01

419

The Research Queuing Package Modeling Environment (RESQME)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Research Queueing Package Modeling Environment (RESQME) provides a graphical environment for constructing, solving, and analyzing the results of extended queueing network models of resource contention systems. It has been used to improve the performance of existing and planned systems in such application areas as computer systems, communications networks, manufacturing processes, transportation systems, customer service facilities. RESQME provides the capability

Kow C. Chang; Robert F. Gordon; Paul G. Loewner; Edward A. MacNair

1993-01-01

420

Ceramic chip scale package solder joint reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a programme of characterisation of interconnection technologies for computer server products the present investigation was conducted to determine the attachment integrity and long-term reliability of resistor network ceramic Chip Scale Package (CSP) solder joints. Accelerated thermal cycling with electrical continuity monitoring of the solder joints was used to determine reliability. The thermal cycling was combined with metallographic

J. Seyyedi; J. Padgett

2001-01-01

421

MOLCAS: a program package for computational chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program system MOLCAS is a package for calculations of electronic and structural properties of molecular systems in gas, liquid, or solid phase. It contains a number of modern quantum chemical methods for studies of the electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states. A macromolecular environment can be modeled by a combination of quantum chemistry and molecular mechanics. It

Gunnar Karlstrm; Roland Lindh; Per-ke Malmqvist; Bjrn O Roos; Ulf Ryde; Valera Veryazov; Per-Olof Widmark; Maurizio Cossi; Bernd Schimmelpfennig; Pavel Neogrady; Luis Seijo

2003-01-01

422

Optimizing software packages for application management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application lifecycle management (ALM) provides a wholistic approach to software products, from product requirements through operations. The advent of software product lines (SPLs) such as Microsoftpsilas Visual Studio creates challenges for ALM since product codes are combined in various ways to produce different customer releases or SKUs. This paper proposes an approach to making packaging decisions for SPLs. We begin

Joseph L. Hellerstein

2008-01-01

423

River Data Package for Hanford Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and hydraulic parameters and input values that will be used in river modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed

Cynthia L. Rakowski; Gregory R. Guensch; Gregory W. Patton

2006-01-01

424

Towards a computational model of Acoustic Packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to learn and interact with humans, robots need understand actions and make use of language in social interactions. The use of language for the learning of actions has been emphasized by Hirsh-Pasek & Golinkoff introducing the idea of acoustic packaging. Accordingly, it has been suggested that acoustic information, typically in the form of narration, overlaps with action sequences

Lars Schillingmann; Britta Wrede; Katharina Rohlfing

2009-01-01

425

Piecewise Cubic Hermite Interpolation Package. Final specifications  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the specifications for PCHIP, a new Fortran package for piecewise cubic Hermite interpolation of data. It features software to produce a monotone and visually pleasing interpolant to monotone data. Such an interpolant may be more reasonable than a cubic spline if the data contains both steep and flat sections. Interpolation of cumulative probability distribution functions is another application.

Fritsch, F.N.

1982-08-01

426

Mechanical reliability challenges for MEMS packages: Capping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our effort to predict reliability problems for MEMS packages. MEMS devices are vulnerable to the external loads subjected to it. As such, MEMS devices need to be protected. Protections can be generated by capping the device: a piece of silicon is placed on top of it to create a cavity above it. Parametric finite element models are

Willem D. van Driel; D. G. Yang; Cadmus A. Yuan; M. van Kleef

2007-01-01

427

Performance evaluation of RF MEMS packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

An RF switch made using MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) technology shows attractive electrical characteristics that are critically needed in the next generation low power consumption, high data rate RF wireless systems. In order to provide environmental protection and at the same time preserve electrical performance of the MEMS switch, an RF package must be carefully designed. For example, it is

Lih-Tyng Hwang; Li Li; Jim Drye; Shun-Meen Kuo

2002-01-01

428

On finding most optimal rectangular package plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The layout problem requires a combination of space costs and communication costs to be minimized. The special problem of planar, rectangular spaces occurs, for example, in floor plans for electronic planar packages and for buildings. Here we describe a number of algorithms, embedded in an interactive system, that solve the layout problem efficiently when it is expressed in terms of

Klim Maling; Steven H. Mueller; William R. Heller

1982-01-01

429

The electromagnetic simulation software package MAFIA 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAFIA 4 is a general purpose electromagnetic simulation software package, which has found wide application in various research and industrial institutions. The program is based on the finite integration theory and covers all main aspects of this grid-based discrete electromagnetic field theory. New developments for MAFIA 4 are the TL3 code module for simulation of transient magnetoquasistatic fields including effects

M. Clemens; S. Drobny; H. Krugert; P. Pinder; O. Podebrad; B. Schillinger; B. Trapp; T. Weiland; M. Wilke; M. Bartsch; U. Becker; M. Zhang

1999-01-01

430

Aspects of short-range interconnect packaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In short-range interconnect applications, one question arises frequently: When should optical solutions be chosen over electrical wiring? The answer to this question of course depends on several factors like costs, performance, reliability, availability of testing equipment and knowledge about optical technologies, and last but not least, it strongly depends on the application itself. Networking in high performance computing (HPC) is one such example. With bit rates around 10 Gbit/s per channel and cable length above 2 m, the high attenuation of electrical cables leads to a clear preference of optical or active optical cables (AOC) for most planned HPC systems. For AOCs, the electro-optical conversion is realized inside the connector housing, while for purely optical cables, the conversion is done at the edge of the board. Proceeding to 25 Gbit/s and higher, attenuation and loss of signal quality become critical. Therefore, either significantly more effort has to be spent on the electrical side, or the package for conversion has to be integrated closer to the chip, thus requiring new packaging technologies. The paper provides a state of the art overview of packaging concepts for short range interconnects, it describes the main challenges of optical package integration and illustrates new concepts and trends in this research area.

Wohlfeld, Denis; Brenner, Karl-Heinz

2012-02-01

431

LSI Packaging That Passes PIND Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A packaged LSI chip or hybrid destined for military or space applications must pass the gambit of screens listed in Method 5004 of Mil-Standard-883B. These screens include the Particle Impact Noise Detection (PIND) test in which a sensitive acoustic trans...

J. Dal Porto D. Loescher H. Olson P. Plunkett

1981-01-01

432

Thermal management of LEDs: package to system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light emitting diodes, LEDs, historically have been used for indicators and produced low amounts of heat. The introduction of high brightness LEDs with white light and monochromatic colors have led to a movement towards general illumination. The increased electrical currents used to drive the LEDs have focused more attention on the thermal paths in the developments of LED power packaging.

Mehmet Arik; Charles A. Becker; Stanton E. Weaver; James Petroski

2004-01-01

433

Low cost options for next generation packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equal to the drive for miniaturization in consumer products is the pressure for lower prices and hence the demand for low-cost packaging. Portable communication products such as mobile phones are now designed in six to nine months, with new models introduced every six months. Prices decline with each new product introduction. For example, personal computer prices have fallen dramatically over

E. Jan Vardaman

2000-01-01

434

Pricing and Packaging: The Case of Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many markets, unit prices decline as the quantity purchased rises, a phenomenon that can be considered part of the economics of packaging. This article reviews the economic foundations of quantity discounts and proposes new ways of measuring and analyzing them. These ideas are implemented with the prices of marijuana, a product that is shown to be priced in a

2006-01-01

435

Pricing and Packaging: The Case of Marijuana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many markets unit prices decline as the quantity purchased rises, a phenomenon which can be considered to be part of the economics of packaging. For example, in Australia marijuana costs as much as 80 percent less if purchased in the form of ounces rather than grams. This paper reviews the economic foundations of quantity discounts and proposes new ways

Kenneth W. Clements

2004-01-01

436

Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

2005-09-01

437

44-BWR WASTE PACKAGE LOADING CURVE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial boiling water reactor (BWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 44 BWR waste package configuration as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an application of the methodology presented in ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent (wt%) U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 40 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing BWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results of 100 percent of the current BWR projected waste stream being able to be disposed of in the 44-BWR waste package with Ni-Gd Alloy absorber plates is contingent upon the referenced waste stream being sufficiently similar to the waste stream received for disposal. (3) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials.

J.M. Scaglione

2004-08-25

438

49 CFR 173.24 - General requirements for packagings and packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...packaging compatibility, etc. must be maintained for the minimum and maximum temperatures, changes in humidity and pressure, and shocks, loadings and vibrations, normally encountered during transportation; (3) There will be no mixture of gases or...

2012-10-01

439

Packaging and transportation manual. Chapter on the packaging and transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this chapter is to outline the requirements that Los Alamos National Laboratory employees and contractors must follow when they package and ship hazardous and radioactive waste. This chapter is applied to on-site, intra-Laboratory, and off-site transportation of hazardous and radioactive waste. The chapter contains sections on definitions, responsibilities, written procedures, authorized packaging, quality assurance, documentation for waste shipments, loading and tiedown of waste shipments, on-site routing, packaging and transportation assessment and oversight program, nonconformance reporting, training of personnel, emergency response information, and incident and occurrence reporting. Appendices provide additional detail, references, and guidance on packaging for hazardous and radioactive waste, and guidance for the on-site transport of these wastes.

NONE

1998-03-01

440

49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 51H) are only authorized for use with flexible inner packagings. (3) Friction. The nature and thickness of the outer packaging must be such that friction during transportation is not likely to generate an amount of heat...

2012-10-01

441

49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 51H) are only authorized for use with flexible inner packagings. (3) Friction. The nature and thickness of the outer packaging must be such that friction during transportation is not likely to generate an amount of heat...

2011-10-01

442

7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Compartments § 58.313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related...air-borne contamination and maintain a reasonable room temperature in accordance with good commercial practices....

2009-01-01

443

7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Compartments § 58.313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related...air-borne contamination and maintain a reasonable room temperature in accordance with good commercial practices....

2010-01-01

444

7 CFR 58.313 - Print and bulk packaging rooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Compartments § 58.313 Print and bulk packaging rooms. Rooms used for packaging print or bulk butter and related...air-borne contamination and maintain a reasonable room temperature in accordance with good commercial practices....

2013-01-01

445

7 CFR 58.229 - Filler and packaging equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...58.229 Filler and packaging equipment. All filling and packaging equipment shall be of sanitary construction...including valves and filler heads accessible for cleaning. New or replacement equipment should comply with the 3-A...

2013-01-01

446

10 CFR 63.134 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Monitoring and testing waste packages. 63.134 Section 63.134 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY... Monitoring and testing waste packages. (a) A...

2013-01-01

447

10 CFR 60.143 - Monitoring and testing waste packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Monitoring and testing waste packages. 60.143 Section 60.143 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES... Monitoring and testing waste packages. (a) A...

2013-01-01

448

49 CFR 173.413 - Requirements for Type B packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.413 Requirements for Type B packages. Except as provided in § 173.416, each Type B(U)...

2012-10-01

449

49 CFR 173.413 - Requirements for Type B packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.413 Requirements for Type B packages. Except as provided in § 173.416, each Type B(U)...

2011-10-01

450

Practical fundamentals of glass, rubber, and plastic sterile packaging systems.  

PubMed

Sterile product packaging systems consist of glass, rubber, and plastic materials that are in intimate contact with the formulation. These materials can significantly affect the stability of the formulation. The interaction between the packaging materials and the formulation can also affect the appropriate delivery of the product. Therefore, a parenteral formulation actually consists of the packaging system as well as the product that it contains. However, the majority of formulation development time only considers the product that is contained in the packaging system. Little time is spent studying the interaction of the packaging materials with the contents. Interaction between the packaging and the contents only becomes a concern when problems are encountered. For this reason, there are few scientific publications that describe the available packaging materials, their advantages and disadvantages, and their important product attributes. This article was created as a reference for product development and describes some of the packaging materials and systems that are available for parenteral products. PMID:20088708

Sacha, Gregory A; Saffell-Clemmer, Wendy; Abram, Karen; Akers, Michael J

451

19 CFR 10.461 - Retail packaging materials and containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.461 Retail packaging materials and containers. Packaging...

2013-04-01

452

Thermal considerations for overpack designs in drum packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of the overpacks in drum packages, both in terms of thickness and materials of construction, greatly impact the ability of the package to accommodate heat source contents. The optimum overpack thermal protection needed is that which results in ...

S. Hensel R. J. Gromada

1997-01-01

453

16 CFR 303.28 - Products contained in packages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT ...Products contained in packages. When textile products are marketed and delivered...delivery to the utlimate consumer, each textile product in the package, except...

2013-01-01

454

Thermal Resistances of Joint Army Navy (JAN) Certified Microcircuit Packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The actual thermal resistance value of Joint Army Navy (JAN) certified microcircuit packages was determined. The thermal resistance from the junction to the case (theta sub jc) was used to characterize the JAN packages. A thermal chip with uniform heating...

R. M. Mindock

1986-01-01

455

Package for environmental impact assessment of nuclear installations (NGLAR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main contents, designing strategies and properties of the microcomputer-based software package NGLAR are described for environmental impact assessment of nuclear installations. The package consists of the following components: NGAS and NACC, the codes...

Yang Yin Chen Xiaoqiu Ding Jinhou Zhao Hui Xi Xiaojun

1996-01-01

456

42 CFR 110.46 - Amending a Request Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Package. 110.46 Section 110.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 110.46 Amending a Request...

2012-10-01

457

42 CFR 110.46 - Amending a Request Package.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Package. 110.46 Section 110.46 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages § 110.46 Amending a Request...

2011-10-01

458

9 CFR 112.6 - Packaging biological products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.6 Packaging biological products. (a) Each multiple-dose final...

2013-01-01

459

9 CFR 112.10 - Special packaging and labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.10 Special packaging and labeling. A biological product, which requires special...

2013-01-01

460

Stowing of Packages Containing Radioactive Materials on Conveyances. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study includes the edited version of a reference document giving rules concerning the stowing of packages for land transport. The rules take account of the mechanical stresses to which packages are subjected under normal transport conditions and in ac...

I. Lafontaine J. Draulans

1982-01-01

461

Container Closure Systems for Packaging Human Drugs and ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... 1 This guidance has been prepared by the Packaging Technical Committee of ... means finished dosage form that has not yet been packaged into the ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

462

Review of Proposed Container and Package Labeling - May ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Branch (APLB) reviewed the proposed container and package labeling submitted ... Please ensure that the final packaging for Hiberix is distinct from ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

463

Comparative Study of Inspection Techniques for Array Packages.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the inspection techniques for Column Grid Array (CGA) packages. The CGA is a method of chip scale packaging using high temperature solder columns to attach part to board. It is becoming more popular over other technique...

C. Green J. Mohammed

2008-01-01

464

49 CFR 173.61 - Mixed packaging requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall be treated as belonging to compatibility group D. (8) Explosive articles of compatibility group G, except for fireworks and articles requiring special packaging, may be packaged together with explosive articles of compatibility groups C,...

2011-10-01

465

49 CFR 173.61 - Mixed packaging requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...shall be treated as belonging to compatibility group D. (8) Explosive articles of compatibility group G, except for fireworks and articles requiring special packaging, may be packaged together with explosive articles of compatibility groups C,...

2012-10-01

466

The C-Cat Wordnet Package: An Open Source Package for modifying andapplying Wordnet  

SciTech Connect

We present the C-Cat Wordnet package, an open source library for using and modifying Wordnet. The package includes four key features: an API for modifying Synsets; implementations of standard similarity metrics, implementations of well known Word Sense Disambiguation algorithms, and an implementation of the Castanet algorithm. The library is easily extendible and usable in many runtime environments. We demonstrate it's use on two standard Word Sense Disambiguation tasks and apply the Castanet algorithm to a corpus.

Stevens, K; Huang, T; Buttler, D

2011-09-16

467

Safety analysis report: packages. DOT specification 7A - Type A container Mark 15 sludge shipping package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sludge or filter cake containing 1.1 wt % ²³⁵U enriched uranium from Mark 15 fabrication will be packaged in 55-gallon containers and shipped from SRP to NLO, Fernald, Ohio for recovery of product. About 7 Metric Tons (MT) of filter cake will be produced from fabricating Mark 15 slugs each reactor charge. Packaged shipments of this material, consigned as exclusive

Zeh

1985-01-01

468

Multi-scale modeling of moisture transfer in electronic packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interfacial delamination is one of the primary concerns in electronic package design. Pop-corning in plastic-encapsulated IC packages is a defect frequently occurring during the solder reflow due to moisture penetration into the packages. Moisture absorption has a detrimental effect on the EMC\\/Cu interfacial adhesion and drastically reduces the reliability of the encapsulated package. To obtain good reliability and to prevent

H. B. Fan; M. M. F. Yuen

2010-01-01

469

Popcorn phenomena in a ball grid array package  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of studying popcorn phenomena, plastic ball grid array packages with 119 I\\/O's were tested under the pre-conditioning test conditions. Observations using scanning acoustic tomography and optical microscopy were carried out to investigate the existence of delaminations and cracks in the package, and the cracking patterns after IR reflow. Package deformations and thermo-mechanical stress distributions in the package

Seung-Ho Ahn; Young-Shin Kwon; Kwang-Jae Shin

1994-01-01

470

Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide  

SciTech Connect

This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

Not Available

1993-09-01

471

Chip scale package of a MEMS microphone and ASIC stack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most MEMS microphone systems on the market are packaged by conventional chip bonding and wire bonding.. A significant step towards miniaturization was achieved earlier by applying flip-chip bonding to MEMS microphone packaging. This technology is called chip scale MEMS package (CSMP). Thereby the package size could be reduced to 2.8 ?? 2.05 ?? 0.9 mm3 compared to a standard size

Matthias Winter; Gregor Feiertag; Christian Siegel; Anton Leidl; Helmut Seidel

2010-01-01

472

D2BGA chip-scale IGBT package  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a chip-scale IGBT package, termed die dimensional ball grid array (D2BGA), which uses solder joints to interconnect power chips. D2BGA package consists of a power chip, inner solder caps, high-lead solder balls, and molding resin. It has the same lateral dimensions as the starting power chip, which makes high-density packaging and module miniature possible. This package enables the

Xingsheng Liu; Guo-Quan Lu

2001-01-01

473

Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum  

SciTech Connect

This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

McCormick, W.A.

1998-09-29

474

Geant4 standard electromagnetic package for HEP applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize recent developments and the current status of the Geant4 standard package of electromagnetic physics. The package provides simulation of electromagnetic interactions of photons, leptons, and hadrons in the energy range from 1 keV to 10 PeV. It also includes a sub-package for optical photons production and interaction. Thus, a complete simulation can be performed using Gean4 electromagnetic package,

H. Burkhardt; V. M. Grichine; P. Gumplinger; V. N. Ivanchenko; R. P. Kokoulin; M. Maire; L. Urban

2004-01-01

475

DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new

R. Watkins; J. England

2010-01-01

476

MEMS packaging on a budget (fiscal and thermal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMS packaging poses novel constraints as compared to conventional IC packaging, and accounts for up to 80% of the cost of the device. A new type of package is proposed, addressing the problems of hermeticity and die singulation, as well as an alternative means of MEMS-IC integration. An organic-free, metal-to-metal bond process enables hermetic sealing at low temperatures. The package

Michael B. Cohn; Ryan Roehnelt; Ji-Hai Xu; Alexander Shteinberg; Steven Cheung

2002-01-01

477

Design of vertical packaging technology for RF MEMS switch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wafer-level micro-encapsulation is an innovative, low-cost, wafer-level packaging method for encapsulating RF MEMS switches. This article presents an approach for design and processing steps related to encapsulation of individual RF components e.g. CPW, RF MEMS switches, in view of the variation in performance subsequent to packaging. Bottom contact vertical packaging is more prone to misalignment margin and easy to make connections. Cavity height of 30 m is optimized for bottom contact vertical packaging.

Bansal, Deepak; Sharma, Akshdeep; Kaur, Maninder; Rangra, K. J.

2012-10-01

478

Silicon microbench heater elements for packaging opto-electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

Examples are presented of the application of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s expertise in photonics packaging. Several examples of packaged devices will be described. Particular attention is given to silicon microbenches incorporating heaters and their use in semiconductor optical amplifier fiber pigtailing and packaging.

Combs, R.; Keiser, P.; Kleint, K.; Pocha, M.; Patterson, F.; Strand, O.T.

1995-09-01

479

Effectiveness of IC shielded packages against space radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses research undertaken to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of shielded packages for protecting commercial microelectronics against ionizing dose from electrons and protons in space. The IC shielded package design data base was extended to include all important shield parameters (thickness, atomic number (Z), and edge effects). The shielding effectiveness of these packages was calculated using both forward

J. P. Spratt; B. C. Passenheim; R. E. Leadon; S. Clark; D. J. Strobel

1997-01-01

480

Low cost molded packaging for optical data links  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to lower the cost of optical data link packaging, a new technology has been developed which integrates optical and electrical components in a single, sealed, transfer molded package. This technology utilizes leadframes for low cost and mass handling. Overmolding is used for package sealing and optical port alignment. A unique process, two step transfer molding, allows for internal

S. D. Robinson; M. S. Acarlar; Y. C. Chen; L. T. Manzione; G. J. Shevchuk; D. Stefanik

1994-01-01

481

Low-cost molded packaging for optical data links  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to lower the cost of optical data link packaging, a new technology has been developed which integrates optical and electrical components in a single, sealed, transfer molded package. This technology utilizes leadframes for low cost and mass handling. Overmolding is used for package sealing and optical port alignment. A unique process, two-step transfer molding, allows for internal shielding,

Steven D. Robinson; M. Sabri Acarlar; Yang C. Chen; Louis T. Manzione; George J. Shevchuk; Dennis Stefanik

1995-01-01

482

Compatibility of packaging components with simulant mixed waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the US have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for

P. J. Nigrey; T. G. Dickens

1996-01-01

483

DOE evaluation document for DOT 7A Type A packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document, DOE Evaluation Document for DOT 7A Type A Packaging, March 1987, presents approximately 100 different packagings which have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT Spec 7A Type A packaging (49 CFR 178.350) and satisfies the requirements of 49 CFR 174.315(a) concerning the requirements for a document.

D. A. Edling; D. R. Hopkins; R. L. Williams

1987-01-01

484

Popcorn phenomena in a ball grid array package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic ball grid array packages can be an alternative to the fine-pitch plastic quad flat package with many I\\/O's, due to its advantages, such as small footprint and high density interconnect, improved module assembly yield, superior thermal and electrical performances to plastic quad flat packages, etc. In spite of these many advantages, there are several concerns which hinder the plastic

Seung-Ho Ahn; Young-Shin Kwon

1995-01-01

485

On the mode II popcorn effect in thin packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out using P-TQFP-176 packages to study the mode II popcorn effect in thin packages. The doming of the package backside was measured as a function of time and temperature. The measurements were performed using a line projection method. An \\

Peter Alpern; Rainer Dudek; Roland Schmidt; Viktor Wicher; Rainer Tilgner

2002-01-01

486

DOE evaluation document for DOT 7A Type A packaging  

SciTech Connect

This document, DOE Evaluation Document for DOT 7A Type A Packaging, March 1987, presents approximately 100 different packagings which have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT Spec 7A Type A packaging (49 CFR 178.350) and satisfies the requirements of 49 CFR 174.315(a) concerning the requirements for a document.

Edling, D.A.; Hopkins, D.R.; Williams, R.L.

1987-03-01

487

JAVA SWING-BASED PLOTTING PACKAGE RESIDING WITHIN XAL  

SciTech Connect

A data plotting package residing in the XAL tools set is presented. This package is based on Java SWING, and therefore it has the same portability as Java itself. The data types for charts, bar-charts, and color-surface plots are described. The algorithms, performance, interactive capabilities, limitations, and the best usage practices of this plotting package are discussed.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL

2007-01-01

488

DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE NAVAL SNF WASTE PACKAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF

T. L. Mitchell

2000-01-01

489

PolylactidesChemistry, Properties and Green Packaging Technology: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polylactide (PLA), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, has been studied extensively for its wide applications in various fields from food packaging to interior materials for automobiles. One of PLA's advantages is that the raw material, lactic acid can be derived from renewable resources, which makes PLA very attractive for the packaging and considered as green packaging. Although, the cost of PLA

Jasim Ahmed; Sunil K. Varshney

2011-01-01

490

The EMI suppression of Ultra Thin MEMS microphone package  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an Ultra Thin Flip-chip Package (UTFP) for MEMS microphone. We analyzed the electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise on the signal trace and E-field strength distribution in the package. To achieve the EMI suppression of MEMS microphone packages, we increased the quantity of the micro bumps, added the ground via in the substrate, and applied the metal

Chih-Hsiang Ko; Hsin-Li Lee; Chin-Hung Wang

2010-01-01

491

Flip chip MEMS microphone package with large acoustic reference volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMS microphones must be further miniaturized for use in mobile devices. So we developed packaging technologies for MEMS microphones using flip chip technology instead of wire bonding. The first two generations have the sound hole in a ceramic interposer at the bottom side of the package. Now a new flip chip microphone package with the sound hole on the top

Gregor Feiertag; Wolfgang Pahl; Matthias Winter; Anton Leidl; Stefan Seitz; Christian Siegel; Andreas Beer

2010-01-01

492

Topology optimization of free vibrations of fiber laser packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization problems described in the present paper are inspired by the problem of fiber laser package design for vibrating environments. The optical frequency of tuned fiber lasers glued to stiff packages is sensitive to acoustic or other mechanical vibrations. The paper presents a method for reducing this sensitivity by limiting the glue point movement on the package while using

L. V. Hansen

2005-01-01

493

Design Competition for Development of a General Purpose Fissile Package  

SciTech Connect

Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification packages have been used extensively for transportation of radioactive materials since the 1960s. The objective of the Savannah River Site (SRS) design competition was to advance the development of a new performance-based and compliance-certifiable package as a candidate for replacement of the obsolescent DOT 6M/6L specification package.

Houghtaling, T.K.

2003-04-22

494

Sponsorship leveraged packaging: An exploratory study in FMCG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packaging and sponsorship have been recognised as key tools for gaining competitive advantage, with worldwide packaging expenditures reaching US$500 billion and sponsorship investments reaching US$37 billion. Evidence highlights the importance of supporting sponsorship with additional leveraging, yet little research has addressed the integrative effects of sponsorship with leveraging. This paper examines consumer response to sponsorship leveraged packaging (SLP), a marketing

Frances Woodside; Jane Summers

2011-01-01

495

A New Laser Hermetic Sealing Technique for Aluminum Package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new laser hermetic sealing technique which combines nickel plating with laser welding has been developed for aluminum packages. Laser welding has proved to be the most promising hermetic sealing technique for the aluminum packages. However, laser welding of the package has been difficult because of aluminum's tendency to suffer centerline cracks in the weld zone. Nickel was added in

Tetsuya Sakai; S. Okamoto; TSUTOMU IIKAWA; TAKEHIKO SATO; ZENZO HENMI

1987-01-01

496

Quantification of thermal contact conductance in electronic packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerically obtained values of typical electronic package interface pressures are presented. Combining these predicted pressures and the results of previous investigations, the individual thermal contact resistances and overall package resistance were determined for an 18-lead plastic dual-in-line package constructed from typical commercially available materials. The results indicate that the summation of the contact resistances may make up as much as

WILLIAM S. CHILDRES; G. P. Peterson

1989-01-01

497

MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE AND VACUUM PACKAGING OF MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extension of the shelf-life of meat and poultry products is one of the technology needs to meet the demands of consumers. In this respect, increasing attention is put on packaging techniques. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and vacuum packaging (VP) are recent innovations that have been gaining importance as preservation techniques to improve the shelf-life of meat and poultry. MAP provides

D. Narasimha Rao; N. M. Sachindra

2002-01-01

498

Computational parameter study of chip scale package array cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a computational investigation into the thermal management of chip scale package arrays. The parameters considered include power dissipation, cooling air inlet velocity, chip package spacing, and circuit board conductivity. The geometry used throughout the study was an array of five packages placed on board with forced air cooling along the axis of the array.

Sean P. Watson; Bruce T. Murray; Bahgat G. Sammakia

2000-01-01

499

Molded chip scale package for high pin count  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique molded chip scale package (CSP) associated 1024 pin counts has been developed. This package has the bare die soldering feature, that means highest mount density and enhanced electrical characteristic, and the robust package feature, that means easy to handle, to test and to standardize such as known good die (KGD). The wiring conductor patterns made of copper realized

Shinji Baba; Yoshihiro Tomita; Mitsuyasu Matsuo; Hironori Matsushima; Naoto Ueda; Osamu Nakagawa

1998-01-01

500

Thermal analysis of a chip scale package technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the thermal performance of chip scale packages. Their small size limits the amount of heat removal from the package top directly to the air, thus the large majority of the heat must be conducted into the circuit board on which they are mounted. Simulations reveal ?ja, is a strong function of package size, with I\\/O count and

Ben Chambers; Tien-Yu Tom Lee; William Blood

1998-01-01