Science.gov

Sample records for padul mammoth finds

  1. First finding of a mammoth female ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) on the Taimyr Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.; Khasanov, B. F.

    2011-02-01

    The first finding of a mammoth female skeleton from the Kastykhtakh River valley, Taimyr Peninsula, is described. The skeleton consists of 104 elements including the skull and lower jaw; small distal limb bones, tail vertebrae, and one tusk are absent. There are teeth of the two last changes in the jaws. The skeleton elements have individual features: sigmoid contact of the low second and third molars, crack in the neural arch of the atlas, and false joint and calluses on places of the rib fractures. The calibrated radiocarbon dating of the tubular bone is 32 070-30 565 yr (Kargin interglacial time).

  2. Unravelling the Late Pleistocene habitat of the southernmost woolly mammoths in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alix, A.; Delgado Huertas, A.; Martín Suárez, E.

    2012-01-01

    The southernmost record of woolly mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) in Europe has been found in Late Pleistocene sediments from 'El Padul' peat-bog, in the Granada Basin (southern Spain). In this paper we discuss a plausible habitat based on stable isotopic analyses of these specimens, dated ˜40-30 cal ky BP, probably corresponding with the beginning of Heinrich Stadial 4 (HS4) and the end of Heinrich Stadial 3 (HS3). Woolly mammoth remains preserve an accurate isotopic register of past climatic conditions because they needed to ingest large amount of resources daily (water and fresh food), whose isotopic signature, influenced by the environmental conditions, was recorded in their tissues. The δ18O w values of the past meteoric waters (-5.4‰ to -6.7‰ vs V-SMOW), calculated from the isotopic composition of teeth enamel, suggest moderate temperatures in comparison with those of similar age recovered in central and northern Europe. Due to its geographic position in southern Europe, our samples recorded the highest δ 18O w values of past meteoric waters deduced from mammoth remains in Europe. The difference between these values and those of δ 18O w of current mean annual precipitation are minimal, contrasting with those of higher latitudes during the end of the last glaciation (˜50 to ˜20 cal ky BP). The isotopic values of nitrogen (10.1‰ to 13.2‰ vs AIR) and carbon (-20.7 to -21.8‰ vs V-PDB) of collagen show a dry habitat, which occasionally could have been extreme. Taken as a whole, the isotopic results suggest that the studied specimens lived in a very dry steppic area, with moderately cold conditions, contrasting with the wet environment of 'El Padul' peat-bog, and its colder temperatures, due to the influence of glacial conditions of the Sierra Nevada, the highest peninsular mountain range. The described habitat may be sited in a more westerly position than the 'El Padul' peat-bog, and it was warmer and drier than those of contemporaneous European

  3. Mammoths, Mastodons, and Elephants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Gary

    1993-05-01

    The diminishing population of African and Asian elephants can be compared to the extinction of other elephant-like species, such as mammoths and mastodonts, which occurred more than ten thousand years ago. The purpose of this book is to use the ecology and behavior of modern elephants to create models for reconstructing the life and death of extinct mammoths and mastodonts. The source of the models is a long-term and continuing study of elephants in Zimbabwe, Africa. These models are clearly described with respect to the anatomical, behavioral, and ecological similarities between past and present proboscideans. The implications of these similarities on the life and death of mammoths and mastodonts is explored in detail. The importance of this book is primarily its unifying perspective on living and extinct proboscideans: the fossil record is closely examined and compared to the natural history of surviving elephants. Dr. Haynes's studies of the places where African elephants die (so-called elephant burial grounds) are unique.

  4. Phosphorus mobilizing consortium Mammoth P(™) enhances plant growth.

    PubMed

    Baas, Peter; Bell, Colin; Mancini, Lauren M; Lee, Melanie N; Conant, Richard T; Wallenstein, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient used to maximize plant growth and yield. Current agriculture management practices commonly experience low plant P use efficiency due to natural chemical sorption and transformations when P fertilizer is applied to soils. A perplexing challenge facing agriculture production is finding sustainable solutions to deliver P more efficiently to plants. Using prescribed applications of specific soil microbial assemblages to mobilize soil bound-P to improve crop nutrient uptake and productivity has rarely been employed. We investigated whether inoculation of soils with a bacterial consortium developed to mobilize soil P, named Mammoth P(TM), could increase plant productivity. In turf, herbs, and fruits, the combination of conventional inorganic fertilizer combined with Mammoth P(TM) increased productivity up to twofold compared to the fertilizer treatments without the Mammoth P(TM) inoculant. Jalapeño plants were found to bloom more rapidly when treated with either Mammoth P. In wheat trials, we found that Mammoth P(TM) by itself was able to deliver yields equivalent to those achieved with conventional inorganic fertilizer applications and improved productivity more than another biostimulant product. Results from this study indicate the substantial potential of Mammoth P(TM) to enhance plant growth and crop productivity. PMID:27326379

  5. Phosphorus mobilizing consortium Mammoth P™ enhances plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Colin; Mancini, Lauren M.; Lee, Melanie N.; Conant, Richard T.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical nutrient used to maximize plant growth and yield. Current agriculture management practices commonly experience low plant P use efficiency due to natural chemical sorption and transformations when P fertilizer is applied to soils. A perplexing challenge facing agriculture production is finding sustainable solutions to deliver P more efficiently to plants. Using prescribed applications of specific soil microbial assemblages to mobilize soil bound—P to improve crop nutrient uptake and productivity has rarely been employed. We investigated whether inoculation of soils with a bacterial consortium developed to mobilize soil P, named Mammoth PTM, could increase plant productivity. In turf, herbs, and fruits, the combination of conventional inorganic fertilizer combined with Mammoth PTM increased productivity up to twofold compared to the fertilizer treatments without the Mammoth PTM inoculant. Jalapeño plants were found to bloom more rapidly when treated with either Mammoth P. In wheat trials, we found that Mammoth PTM by itself was able to deliver yields equivalent to those achieved with conventional inorganic fertilizer applications and improved productivity more than another biostimulant product. Results from this study indicate the substantial potential of Mammoth PTM to enhance plant growth and crop productivity. PMID:27326379

  6. Isotopic paleoecology of Clovis mammoths from Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Ballenger, Jesse A. M.; Vance Haynes, C., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    The causes of megafaunal extinctions in North America have been widely debated but remain poorly understood. Mammoths (Mammuthus spp.) in the American Southwest were hunted by Clovis people during a period of rapid climate change, just before the regional onset of Younger Dryas cooling and mammoth extirpation. Thus, these mammoths may provide key insights into late Pleistocene extinction processes. Here we reconstruct the seasonal diet and climatic conditions experienced by mammoths in the San Pedro Valley of Arizona, using the carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope compositions of tooth enamel. These records suggest that Clovis mammoths experienced a warm, dry climate with sufficient summer rainfall to support seasonal C4 plant growth. Monsoon intensity may have been reduced relative to the preceding time period, but there is no isotopic evidence for severe drought. However, it is possible that the "Clovis drought", inferred from stratigraphic evidence, occurred suddenly at the end of the animals' lives and thus was not recorded in the enamel isotopic compositions. Unlike mammoths that lived before the Last Glacial Maximum, Clovis mammoths regularly increased C4 grass consumption during summer, probably seeking seasonally green grasslands farther from the river valley. This predictable seasonal behavior may have made mammoths easier to locate by Clovis hunters. Furthermore, Clovis mammoths probably had no previous experience of such sudden climatic change as is believed to have occurred at the time of their extinction.

  7. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  8. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    PubMed

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  9. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  10. Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  11. Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

  12. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  13. Eruptive history of Mammoth Mountain and its mafic periphery, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Many geographic names that appear in this report are informal despite having been in local use for decades. Most appear on maps distributed by the Town of Mammoth Lakes or the Mammoth Mountain Ski Area and can be found here on map figures 2–5, on several photo figures, and on the geologic map.

  14. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  15. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  16. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  17. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  18. 36 CFR 7.36 - Mammoth Cave National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mammoth Cave National Park. 7... SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.36 Mammoth Cave National Park. (a) Fishing—(1... Creek Lake. Live minnows and worms may be used in all other waters. (ii) (b)(1) Cave entry. Except...

  19. Paleoanthropology. Early human presence in the Arctic: Evidence from 45,000-year-old mammoth remains.

    PubMed

    Pitulko, Vladimir V; Tikhonov, Alexei N; Pavlova, Elena Y; Nikolskiy, Pavel A; Kuper, Konstantin E; Polozov, Roman N

    2016-01-15

    Archaeological evidence for human dispersal through northern Eurasia before 40,000 years ago is rare. In west Siberia, the northernmost find of that age is located at 57°N. Elsewhere, the earliest presence of humans in the Arctic is commonly thought to be circa 35,000 to 30,000 years before the present. A mammoth kill site in the central Siberian Arctic, dated to 45,000 years before the present, expands the populated area to almost 72°N. The advancement of mammoth hunting probably allowed people to survive and spread widely across northernmost Arctic Siberia. PMID:26816376

  20. Climate Change, Humans, and the Extinction of the Woolly Mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Nogués-Bravo, David; Rodríguez, Jesús; Hortal, Joaquín; Batra, Persaram; Araújo, Miguel B

    2008-01-01

    Woolly mammoths inhabited Eurasia and North America from late Middle Pleistocene (300 ky BP [300,000 years before present]), surviving through different climatic cycles until they vanished in the Holocene (3.6 ky BP). The debate about why the Late Quaternary extinctions occurred has centred upon environmental and human-induced effects, or a combination of both. However, testing these two hypotheses—climatic and anthropogenic—has been hampered by the difficulty of generating quantitative estimates of the relationship between the contraction of the mammoth's geographical range and each of the two hypotheses. We combined climate envelope models and a population model with explicit treatment of woolly mammoth–human interactions to measure the extent to which a combination of climate changes and increased human pressures might have led to the extinction of the species in Eurasia. Climate conditions for woolly mammoths were measured across different time periods: 126 ky BP, 42 ky BP, 30 ky BP, 21 ky BP, and 6 ky BP. We show that suitable climate conditions for the mammoth reduced drastically between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, and 90% of its geographical range disappeared between 42 ky BP and 6 ky BP, with the remaining suitable areas in the mid-Holocene being mainly restricted to Arctic Siberia, which is where the latest records of woolly mammoths in continental Asia have been found. Results of the population models also show that the collapse of the climatic niche of the mammoth caused a significant drop in their population size, making woolly mammoths more vulnerable to the increasing hunting pressure from human populations. The coincidence of the disappearance of climatically suitable areas for woolly mammoths and the increase in anthropogenic impacts in the Holocene, the coup de grâce, likely set the place and time for the extinction of the woolly mammoth. PMID:18384234

  1. Ancient DNA reveals late survival of mammoth and horse in interior Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Haile, James; Froese, Duane G.; MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Roberts, Richard G.; Arnold, Lee J.; Reyes, Alberto V.; Rasmussen, Morten; Nielsen, Rasmus; Brook, Barry W.; Robinson, Simon; Demuro, Martina; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Munch, Kasper; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan; Barnes, Ian; Möller, Per; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-01-01

    Causes of late Quaternary extinctions of large mammals (“megafauna”) continue to be debated, especially for continental losses, because spatial and temporal patterns of extinction are poorly known. Accurate latest appearance dates (LADs) for such taxa are critical for interpreting the process of extinction. The extinction of woolly mammoth and horse in northwestern North America is currently placed at 15,000–13,000 calendar years before present (yr BP), based on LADs from dating surveys of macrofossils (bones and teeth). Advantages of using macrofossils to estimate when a species became extinct are offset, however, by the improbability of finding and dating the remains of the last-surviving members of populations that were restricted in numbers or confined to refugia. Here we report an alternative approach to detect ‘ghost ranges’ of dwindling populations, based on recovery of ancient DNA from perennially frozen and securely dated sediments (sedaDNA). In such contexts, sedaDNA can reveal the molecular presence of species that appear absent in the macrofossil record. We show that woolly mammoth and horse persisted in interior Alaska until at least 10,500 yr BP, several thousands of years later than indicated from macrofossil surveys. These results contradict claims that Holocene survival of mammoths in Beringia was restricted to ecologically isolated high-latitude islands. More importantly, our finding that mammoth and horse overlapped with humans for several millennia in the region where people initially entered the Americas challenges theories that megafaunal extinction occurred within centuries of human arrival or were due to an extraterrestrial impact in the late Pleistocene. PMID:20018740

  2. Evolution and dispersal of mammoths across the Northern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Lister, A M; Sher, A V

    2015-11-13

    Mammoths provide a detailed example of species origins and dispersal, but understanding has been impeded by taxonomic confusion, especially in North America. The Columbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi was thought to have evolved in North America from a more primitive Eurasian immigrant. The earliest American mammoths (1.5 million years ago), however, resemble the advanced Eurasian M. trogontherii that crossed the Bering land bridge around that time, giving rise directly to M. columbi. Woolly mammoth M. primigenius later evolved in Beringia and spread into Europe and North America, leading to a diversity of morphologies as it encountered endemic M. trogontherii and M. columbi, respectively. In North America, this included intermediates ("M. jeffersonii"), suggesting introgression of M. primigenius with M. columbi. The lineage illustrates the dynamic interplay of local adaptation, dispersal, and gene flow in the evolution of a widely distributed species complex. PMID:26564853

  3. The angus mammoth: A decades-old scientific controversy resolved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holen, S.R.; May, D.W.; Mahan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Angus Mammoth site in south-central Nebraska has been controversial since its discovery in 1931 when a fluted artifact was reported to be associated with the mammoth. For nearly 80 years it has not been known if Angus was a paleontol??gica! site predating the human occupation of North America as has been asserted by some geologists and paleontologists, or an archaeological site dating to the late Pleistocene as has been advocated by some archaeologists. Geomorphic study and luminescence dating have finally solved the problem after nearly eight decades. Although microwear and technological analyses have determined that the Angus biface is an authentic artifact, TL and IRSL dates have shown that the matrix above the mammoth is much too old for a mammoth/fluted point association to be valid. Copyright ??2011 by the Society for American Archaeology.

  4. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, earth scientists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The USGS continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  5. Anaerobic cultures from preserved tissues of baby mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Fisher, Daniel; Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-10-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 oC. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that keeps other bacteria from colonizing a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one month-old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete sample of the species ever recovered. The diversity of novel psychrophilic anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here, we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new psychrophilic strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for characterization of the cultures.

  6. Anaerobic Cultures from Preserved Tissues of Baby Mammoth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 4 C. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that prevents other bacteria from over-dominating a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one-month old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete such specimen ever recovered. The diversity of novel anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for the characterization of cultures.

  7. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This false-color composite radar image of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on October 3, 1994. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is about 39 kilometers by 51 kilometers (24 miles by 31 miles). North is toward the bottom, about 45 degrees to the right. In this image, red was created using L-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; green was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted/vertically received) polarization data; and blue was created using C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. Crawley Lake appears dark at the center left of the image, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The purple areas at the higher elevations in the upper part of the scene are discontinuous patches of snow cover from a September 28 storm. New, very thin snow was falling before and during the second space shuttle pass. In parallel with the operational SIR-C data processing, an experimental effort is being conducted to test SAR data processing using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's massively parallel supercomputing facility, centered around the Cray Research T3D. These experiments will assess the abilities of large supercomputers to produce high throughput Synthetic Aperture Radar processing in preparation for upcoming data-intensive SAR missions. The image released here was produced as part of this experimental effort. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed

  8. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This image is a false-color composite of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119.0 degrees west longitude. The area is approximately 11.5 kilometers by 78.3 kilometers (7.2 by 48.7 miles) in size. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on its 40th orbit, April 11, 1994. The city of Mammoth Lakes is visible in the bottom right portion of the scene. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV to C-band HV. Blue areas are lakes or slopes facing away from the radar illumination. Yellow represents areas of dry, old snow as well as slopes facing directly the radar illumination. At the time of the SIR-C overflight, the sky conditions were partially cloudy, with low and cold air temperatures. Total snow depth is about 1 to 1.5 meters (3 to 5 feet). The current snow accumulation is only about 40 percent of the average for the season. The most recent snowfall in the area covered the entire area with about 30 centimeters (14 inches) of fresh dry snow. Above 3,000 meters (10,000 feet) elevation the snowpack is dry. Below that elevation, the snowpack has a layered structure. Snow hydrologists are using SIR-C/X-SAR data to determine both the quantity of water held by seasonal snowpack and the amount of snow melting. SIR-C/X-SAR radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm)and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, in conjunction with aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those

  9. Invisible CO2 gas killing trees at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Farrar, Christopher D.; Gerlach, Terrance M.; McGee, Kenneth A.; Evans, William C.; Colvard, Elizabeth M.; Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Rogie, John D.; Hendley, James W., II; Stauffer, Peter H.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, scientists have monitored geologic unrest in Long Valley Caldera and at adjacent Mammoth Mountain, California. After a persistent swarm of earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain in 1989, geologists discovered that large volumes of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) gas were seeping from beneath this volcano. This gas is killing trees on the mountain and also can be a danger to people. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to study the CO2 emissions to help protect the public from this invisible potential hazard.

  10. Space Radar Image of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two false-color composite images of the Mammoth Mountain area in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, Calif., show significant seasonal changes in snow cover. The image at left was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north latitude and 119 degrees west longitude. The area is about 36 kilometers by 48 kilometers (22 miles by 29 miles). In this image, red is L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; green is C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received) polarization data; and blue is C-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization data. The image at right was acquired on October 3, 1994, on the space shuttle Endeavour's 67th orbit of the second radar mission. Crowley Lake appears dark at the center left of the image, just above or south of Long Valley. The Mammoth Mountain ski area is visible at the top right of the scene. The red areas correspond to forests, the dark blue areas are bare surfaces and the green areas are short vegetation, mainly brush. The changes in color tone at the higher elevations (e.g. the Mammoth Mountain ski area) from green-blue in April to purple in September reflect changes in snow cover between the two missions. The April mission occurred immediately following a moderate snow storm. During the mission the snow evolved from a dry, fine-grained snowpack with few distinct layers to a wet, coarse-grained pack with multiple ice inclusions. Since that mission, all snow in the area has melted except for small glaciers and permanent snowfields on the Silver Divide and near the headwaters of Rock Creek. On October 3, 1994, only discontinuous patches of snow cover were present at very high elevations following the first snow storm of the season on September 28, 1994. For investigations in hydrology and land-surface climatology, seasonal snow

  11. The ecological implications of a Yakutian mammoth's last meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, Bas; Aptroot, André; Baittinger, Claudia; Birks, Hilary H.; Bull, Ian D.; Cross, Hugh B.; Evershed, Richard P.; Gravendeel, Barbara; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.; Kuperus, Peter; Mol, Dick; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Pals, Jan Peter; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; van Reenen, Guido; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2008-05-01

    Part of a large male woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) was preserved in permafrost in northern Yakutia. It was radiocarbon dated to ca. 18,500 14C yr BP (ca. 22,500 cal yr BP). Dung from the lower intestine was subjected to a multiproxy array of microscopic, chemical, and molecular techniques to reconstruct the diet, the season of death, and the paleoenvironment. Pollen and plant macro-remains showed that grasses and sedges were the main food, with considerable amounts of dwarf willow twigs and a variety of herbs and mosses. Analyses of 110-bp fragments of the plastid rbcL gene amplified from DNA and of organic compounds supplemented the microscopic identifications. Fruit-bodies of dung-inhabiting Ascomycete fungi which develop after at least one week of exposure to air were found inside the intestine. Therefore the mammoth had eaten dung. It was probably mammoth dung as no bile acids were detected among the fecal biomarkers analysed. The plant assemblage and the presence of the first spring vessels of terminal tree-rings of dwarf willows indicated that the animal died in early spring. The mammoth lived in extensive cold treeless grassland vegetation interspersed with wetter, more productive meadows. The study demonstrated the paleoecological potential of several biochemical analytical techniques.

  12. Evaluation Of The Hydrologic Connection Between Mammoth Creek And Mammoth Community Water District Water Supply Wells, Mono County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burak, S.; Farrar, C.

    2005-12-01

    Groundwater-surface water interactions are examined at several locations in the Mammoth Lakes Basin in the eastern Sierra Nevada. The study sites include three streamflow gauging stations and five water supply and monitor wells located near Mammoth Creek. Major ion chemistry and stable isotope composition of groundwater and surface water were determined and analysis provides evidence that surface and groundwater at the study locations share similar isotopic signatures and seasonal differences due to snowmelt runoff. Streamflow records, well water levels and production well pumpage data were used to qualitatively assess stream-aquifer relationships and suggest that pumpage from production wells located close to Mammoth Creek influences water levels in monitor wells and Mammoth Creek discharge primarily in the fall and early winter. Previous and widely held assumptions that groundwater pumping from deep volcanic aquifers had no effect on stream flows must be revised with the results of the stable isotope analysis. Results suggest there is a connection and this information can be used manage timing and magnitude of groundwater extractions.

  13. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The image on the left is a false-color composite of the Mammoth Mountain area in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. It was acquired on-board the space shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit on April 13, 1994. In the image on the left, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-band HH-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-band VV-polarization to C-band HV-polarization. On the right is a classification map of the surface features which was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California, Santa Barbara. The area is about 23 by 46 kilometers (14 by 29 miles). In the classification image, the colors represent the following surfaces: White snow Red frozen lake, covered by snow Brown bare ground Blue lake (open water) Yellow short vegetation (mainly brush) Green sparse forest Dark green dense forest Maps like this one are helpful to scientists studying snow wetness and snow water equivalent in the snow pack. Across the globe, over major portions of the middle and high latitudes, and at high elevations in the tropical latitudes, snow and alpine glaciers are the largest contributors to run-off in rivers and to ground-water recharge. Snow hydrologists are using radar in an attempt to estimate both the quantity of water held by seasonal snow packs and the timing of snow melt. Snow and ice also play important roles in regional climates; understanding the processes in seasonal snow cover is also important for studies of the chemical balance of alpine drainage basins. SIR-C/X-SAR is a powerful tool because it is sensitive to most snow pack conditions and is less influenced by weather conditions than other remote sensing instruments, such as the Landsat satellite. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth

  14. Sr Isotopes and Migration of Prairie Mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) from Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis-Pichardo, G.; Perez-Crespo, V.; Schaaf, P. E.; Arroyo-Cabrales, J.

    2011-12-01

    Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. For more than 25 years, Sr isotopes have been used as a resourceful tracer tool in this context. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. Sr isotope ratios are obtained through the geologic substrate and its overlying soil, from where an individual got hold of food and water; these ratios are in turn incorporated into the dentition and skeleton during tissue formation. In previous studies from Teotihuacan, Mexico we have shown that a three-step leaching procedure on tooth enamel samples is important to assure that only the biogenic Sr isotope contribution is analyzed. The same Sr isotopic tools can function concerning ancient animal migration patterns. To determine or to discard the mobility of prairie mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) found at Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosi, México the leaching procedure was applied on six molar samples from several fossil remains. The initial hypothesis was to use 87Sr/86Sr values to verify if the mammoth population was a mixture of individuals from various herds and further by comparing their Sr isotopic composition with that of plants and soils, to confirm their geographic origin. The dissimilar Sr results point to two distinct mammoth groups. The mammoth population from Laguna de Cruces was then not a family unit because it was composed by individuals originated from different localities. Only one individual was identified as local. Others could have walked as much as 100 km to find food and water sources.

  15. Histology of a Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) Preserved in Permafrost, Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia.

    PubMed

    Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Link, Karl; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    In 2007, the baby woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) named Lyuba was found frozen in the Siberian tundra permafrost along the Yuribey River. She was proclaimed the best-preserved mammoth discovery. As part of the endoscopic examination of Lyuba, tissue samples of hair, muscle, and internal organs were taken. The sectioned biopsies were stained using standard and special histological stains. In general, the microscopic preservation of the tissue was good although no clearly identifiable cell nuclei were found by standard staining methods. Only a few cell nuclei could be identified in some samples when fluorescence stained with DAPI. The best-preserved structures were collagen fibers and muscle tissue, which gave some structural resemblance to the organs. In the hairs, evidence of pigmentation, a scaly surface, diagonal intra-hair structures, and a medulla were seen. Fat droplets could be identified with Sudan Red in the subcutaneous fat sample and in several organs. Bacteria were seen on the lumen side of the small intestine and caecum, and in the liver and lung tissue. In addition, fungi and pollen were seen in the lung sample. In the wall of the caecum and small intestine, blood vessels and nerves were visualized. Iron was identified in the vivianite sample. Some biopsies compared well structurally with the African elephant tissue sections. The histological findings support the theory that Lyuba drowned in muddy water. The microscopic tissue preservation and cell nuclei destruction indicate that Lyuba's body underwent at least one freeze-thaw cycle. PMID:25998640

  16. The impact of climate change on the structure of Pleistocene food webs across the mammoth steppe

    PubMed Central

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Bocherens, Hervé; Koch, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Species interactions form food webs, impacting community structure and, potentially, ecological dynamics. It is likely that global climatic perturbations that occur over long periods of time have a significant influence on species interaction patterns. Here, we integrate stable isotope analysis and network theory to reconstruct patterns of trophic interactions for six independent mammalian communities that inhabited mammoth steppe environments spanning western Europe to eastern Alaska (Beringia) during the Late Pleistocene. We use a Bayesian mixing model to quantify the contribution of prey to the diets of local predators, and assess how the structure of trophic interactions changed across space and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a global climatic event that severely impacted mammoth steppe communities. We find that large felids had diets that were more constrained than those of co-occurring predators, and largely influenced by an increase in Rangifer abundance after the LGM. Moreover, the structural organization of Beringian and European communities strongly differed: compared with Europe, species interactions in Beringian communities before—and possibly after—the LGM were highly modular. We suggest that this difference in modularity may have been driven by the geographical insularity of Beringian communities. PMID:23658198

  17. About the age and habitat of the Kirgilyakh mammoth (Dima), Western Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkin, A. V.; Anderson, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    The unearthing in 1977 of a complete frozen carcass of a young mammoth, known as the Kirgilyakh mammoth or Dima: 1) provided the first opportunity for detailed study of the anatomy of a mammoth calf; 2) provided a more detailed understanding of interstadial landscapes; and 3) suggested paleoclimatic variability occurred in Western Beringia during marine isotope stage (MIS) 3. Limited access to early Russian literature resulted in unfortunate misinformation in English-language publications. Since then, six other juvenile carcasses have been discovered in northern Siberia and additional Late Pleistocene paleobotanical records have increased understanding of MIS2 and MIS3 environments. Given the new data, it seems timely to re-examine information about the Kirgilyakh mammoth in the context of: 1) correcting mistakes about the age and environments of the site, including the manner of the mammoth's death; 2) comparing paleoenvironmental settings with that of other young mammoth carcasses; and 3) revisiting the concept of mammoth-steppe. This re-examination, which places the Kirgilyakh results in a broader spatial-temporal setting, reinforces the idea that climatic variability, including the Kirgilyakh cool interval, characterized MIS3. Unstable landscapes in mountains and lowlands were key factors in deaths of the Siberian mammoth calves. The prevalence of tundra in MIS2 model reconstructions and abundance of paleobotanical data indicating mesic tundra and forest during MIS3 suggest that classification of these intervals as mammoth-steppe is problematic.

  18. Radiocarbon chronology and environment of woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in northern Asia: results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Orlova, Lyobov A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reviews the history of the woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in Siberia and adjacent northern Asia. The particular emphases are the chronology and environment of mammoth existence and extinction, based on about 530 radiocarbon dates from about 230 localities with mammoth remains and palaeoenvironmental records of the last 50,000 years. Until ca. 12,000 radiocarbon years ago (BP), mammoths inhabited all of northern Asia, from the High Arctic to southern Siberia and northeastern China. Since ca. 12,000 BP, mammoth disappeared from major parts of Siberia and adjacent northern Asia, and survived mainly in the Arctic regions of Siberia, north of 69° northern latitude. However, recently, it was found that some mammoth populations continued to exist in central and southern Western Siberia until ca. 11,100-10,200 BP. 'Normal' size mammoths became extinct in mainland Siberia at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, ca. 9700 BP. On Wrangel Island in the High Arctic, small-sized mammoths survived into the Middle-Late Holocene, ca. 7700-3700 BP. Compared with previous studies, it is now possible to reveal the complex nature of the process of final mammoth extinction in Siberia, with some small populations surviving outside of the Arctic until ca. 10,000 BP. The extinction of mammoth was most probably caused by a combination of factors, such as global warming in the Late Glacial (since ca. 15,000 BP) and the disintegration of landscapes suitable for mammoths throughout the Upper Pleistocene, such as light forests with vast open spaces occupied by meadows and forest tundra. The expansion of forest vegetation after the Last Glacial Maximum in Siberia, including its northeastern part, created unsuitable habitats for herbivorous megafauna, especially for mammoths. However, the Holocene environment of Wrangel Island was not of 'glacial' type and this requires further studies. The relationship between mammoths and Upper Palaeolithic humans is also considered. The

  19. Radiocarbon chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadachowski, Adam; Lipecki, Grzegorz; Wojtal, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    Many fossil mammoth remains from more than 300 localities have been discovered over last 170 years in Poland. First radiocarbon dates of woolly mammoth from Poland were published in the 1960s and the 1970s. These dates must be regarded with caution due to absence of details of the used methods. Recently, about 40 fossil mammoth remains were radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method in the Poznań Radiocarbon Laboratory. Dates are given as an uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (BP) and as calendar dates (cal. BP). The dates range from ca. 52 ka BP to ca. 13,2 ka BP (> 50,0 - ca. 16,1 cal. ka BP) and can be correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 3 and OIS 2. A new radiocarbon evidence fits into the well known colonization pattern of Mammuthus primigenius in Central Europe and confirms a continuous distribution in the Grudziądz Interstadial (middle Weichselian, OIS 3) and the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). On the other hand, the severe climatic circumstances lasting in conventional radiocarbon dates from ca. 22 ka BP to ca. 17 ka BP probably reduced the number of animals or even cased the withdrawal of woolly mammoth from the area north from the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains for 4-5 millennia. Only one date ca. 20,3 ka BP (ca. 24,2 cal, ka BP) is available from this time-span. Mammuthus primigenius reappeared in southern Poland ca. 14,6 ka BP (ca. 17,9 cal. BP) but soon had disappeared from this region because of marked reduction in open habitats at the beginning of Late Glacial Interglacial warming (Greenland Interstadial I or Bølling and Allerød) The latest available record from Poland is from Dzierżysław: 13,180±60 BP (ca. 15,600±400 cal. BP).

  20. Silica Extraction at the Mammoth Lakes Geothermal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Marketable silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources from geothermal fluids eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other (Li, Cs, Rb) resource extraction. Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  1. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  2. Solving the woolly mammoth conundrum: amino acid ¹⁵N-enrichment suggests a distinct forage or habitat.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Narbonne, Rachel; Longstaffe, Fred J; Metcalfe, Jessica Z; Zazula, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Understanding woolly mammoth ecology is key to understanding Pleistocene community dynamics and evaluating the roles of human hunting and climate change in late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Previous isotopic studies of mammoths' diet and physiology have been hampered by the 'mammoth conundrum': woolly mammoths have anomalously high collagen δ(15)N values, which are more similar to coeval carnivores than herbivores, and which could imply a distinct diet and (or) habitat, or a physiological adaptation. We analyzed individual amino acids from collagen of adult woolly mammoths and coeval species, and discovered greater  (15)N enrichment in source amino acids of woolly mammoths than in most other herbivores or carnivores. Woolly mammoths consumed an isotopically distinct food source, reflective of extreme aridity, dung fertilization, and (or) plant selection. This dietary signal suggests that woolly mammoths occupied a distinct habitat or forage niche relative to other Pleistocene herbivores. PMID:26056037

  3. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Graham, Russell W; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J; Davies, Lauren J; Froese, Duane; Heintzman, Peter D; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D; Newsom, Lee A; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-16

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence. PMID:27482085

  4. Mycological evidence of coprophagy from the feces of an Alaskan Late Glacial mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, Bas; Guthrie, R. Dale; Altmann, Jens G.; Broekens, Peter; Bull, Ian D.; Gill, Fiona L.; Jansen, Boris; Nieman, Aline M.; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Dung from a mammoth was preserved under frozen conditions in Alaska. The mammoth lived during the early part of the Late Glacial interstadial (ca 12,300 BP). Microfossils, macroremains and ancient DNA from the dung were studied and the chemical composition was determined to reconstruct both the paleoenvironment and paleobiology of this mammoth. Pollen spectra are dominated by Poaceae, Artemisia and other light-demanding taxa, indicating an open, treeless landscape ('mammoth steppe'). Fruits and seeds support this conclusion. The dung consists mainly of cyperaceous stems and leaves, with a minor component of vegetative remains of Poaceae. Analyses of fragments of the plastid rbcL gene and trnL intron and nrITS1 region, amplified from DNA extracted from the dung, supplemented the microscopic identifications. Many fruit bodies with ascospores of the coprophilous fungus Podospora conica were found inside the dung ball, indicating that the mammoth had eaten dung. The absence of bile acids points to mammoth dung. This is the second time that evidence for coprophagy of mammoths has been derived from the presence of fruit bodies of coprophilous fungi in frozen dung. Coprophagy might well have been a common habit of mammoths. Therefore, we strongly recommend that particular attention should be given to fungal remains in future fossil dung studies.

  5. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Russell W.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J.; Davies, Lauren J.; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D.; Newsom, Lee A.; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence. PMID:27482085

  6. Tomographic image of a seismically active volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Pitt, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP/VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California, using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (5.1 × 109 to 5.9 × 1010m3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ∼2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α = 1.6 × 10−3 to 7.9 × 10−3 (crack-like pores) and mean gas volume fraction ϕ = 8.1 × 10−4 to 3.4 × 10−3. The pore density parameter κ = 3ϕ/(4πα) = na3=0.11, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to be 4.6 × 109 to 1.9 × 1011 kg. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 500 tons day−1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ∼25–1040 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  7. Tomographic image of a seismically active volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Phillip; Chouet, Bernard; Pitt, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP/VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California, using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (5.1 × 109 to 5.9 × 1010m3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ˜2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α = 1.6 × 10-3 to 7.9 × 10-3 (crack-like pores) and mean gas volume fraction ϕ = 8.1 × 10-4 to 3.4 × 10-3. The pore density parameter κ = 3ϕ/(4πα) = na3=0.11, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to be 4.6 × 109 to 1.9 × 1011 kg. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 500 tons day-1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ˜25-1040 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  8. Tomographic Image of a Seismically Active Volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Chouet, B. A.; Pitt, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP /VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (˜50 km3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ˜2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is primarily due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate-spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α ˜8 x 10-4 (crack-like pores) and gas volume fraction φ ˜4 x 10-4. The pore density parameter κ = 3φ / (4πα) = na3 = 0.12, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to range up to ˜1.6 x 1010 kg if the pores exclusively contain CO2, although he presence of an aqueous phase may lower this estimate by up to one order of magnitude. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 5 x 105 kg day-1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ˜8 to ˜90 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  9. Micrometeorite Impacts in Beringian Mammoth Tusks and a Bison Skull

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrum, Jonathon T.; Firestone, Richard B; West, Allen; Stefanka, Zsolt; Revay, Zsolt

    2010-02-03

    We have discovered what appear to be micrometeorites imbedded in seven late Pleistocene Alaskan mammoth tusks and a Siberian bison skull. The micrometeorites apparently shattered on impact leaving 2 to 5 mm hemispherical debris patterns surrounded by carbonized rings. Multiple impacts are observed on only one side of the tusks and skull consistent with the micrometeorites having come from a single direction. The impact sites are strongly magnetic indicating significant iron content. We analyzed several imbedded micrometeorite fragments from both tusks and skull with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). These analyses confirm the high iron content and indicate compositions highly enriched in nickel and depleted in titanium, unlike any natural terrestrial sources. In addition, electron microprobe (EMP) analyses of a Fe-Ni sulfide grain (tusk 2) show it contains between 3 and 20 weight percent Ni. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) of a particle extracted from the bison skull indicates ~;;0.4 mg of iron, in agreement with a micrometeorite ~;;1 mm in diameter. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and XRF analyses of the skull show possible entry channels containing Fe-rich material. The majority of tusks (5/7) have a calibrated weighted mean 14C age of 32.9 +- 1.8 ka BP, which coincides with the onset of significant declines<36 ka ago in Beringian bison, horse, brown bear, and mammoth populations, as well as in mammoth genetic diversity. It appears likely that the impacts and population declines are related events, although their precise nature remains to be determined.

  10. Solving the woolly mammoth conundrum: amino acid 15N-enrichment suggests a distinct forage or habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz-Narbonne, Rachel; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Zazula, Grant

    2015-06-01

    Understanding woolly mammoth ecology is key to understanding Pleistocene community dynamics and evaluating the roles of human hunting and climate change in late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Previous isotopic studies of mammoths’ diet and physiology have been hampered by the ‘mammoth conundrum’: woolly mammoths have anomalously high collagen δ15N values, which are more similar to coeval carnivores than herbivores, and which could imply a distinct diet and (or) habitat, or a physiological adaptation. We analyzed individual amino acids from collagen of adult woolly mammoths and coeval species, and discovered greater  15N enrichment in source amino acids of woolly mammoths than in most other herbivores or carnivores. Woolly mammoths consumed an isotopically distinct food source, reflective of extreme aridity, dung fertilization, and (or) plant selection. This dietary signal suggests that woolly mammoths occupied a distinct habitat or forage niche relative to other Pleistocene herbivores.

  11. Solving the woolly mammoth conundrum: amino acid 15N-enrichment suggests a distinct forage or habitat

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Narbonne, Rachel; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Zazula, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Understanding woolly mammoth ecology is key to understanding Pleistocene community dynamics and evaluating the roles of human hunting and climate change in late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Previous isotopic studies of mammoths’ diet and physiology have been hampered by the ‘mammoth conundrum’: woolly mammoths have anomalously high collagen δ15N values, which are more similar to coeval carnivores than herbivores, and which could imply a distinct diet and (or) habitat, or a physiological adaptation. We analyzed individual amino acids from collagen of adult woolly mammoths and coeval species, and discovered greater  15N enrichment in source amino acids of woolly mammoths than in most other herbivores or carnivores. Woolly mammoths consumed an isotopically distinct food source, reflective of extreme aridity, dung fertilization, and (or) plant selection. This dietary signal suggests that woolly mammoths occupied a distinct habitat or forage niche relative to other Pleistocene herbivores. PMID:26056037

  12. New data on mammoth fauna mammals in the central Lena River basin (Yakutia, Lenskie Stolby National Nature Park and adjacent areas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeskorov, G. G.; Nogovitsyn, P. R.; Mashchenko, E. N.; Belolyubsky, I. N.; Stepanov, A. D.; Plotnikov, V. V.; Protopopov, A. V.; Shchelchkova, M. V.; van der Plicht, J.; Solomonov, N. G.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the data on new findings of mammoth fauna remains in the Middle Lena basin used to specify the species composition of large Late Neopleistocene mammals represented by eleven species. The obtained range of radiocarbon dates made it possible to state that mass burials of Pleistocene mammal remains were formed in the region during the Karginsk Interstadial (24 000-55 000 years ago).

  13. Mammoth and Mastodon collagen sequences; survival and utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, M.; Larkin, N.; Collins, M.

    2011-04-01

    Near-complete collagen (I) sequences are proposed for elephantid and mammutid taxa, based upon available African elephant genomic data and supported with LC-MALDI-MS/MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of collagen digests from proboscidean bone. Collagen sequence coverage was investigated from several specimens of two extinct mammoths ( Mammuthus trogontherii and Mammuthus primigenius), the extinct American mastodon ( Mammut americanum), the extinct straight-tusked elephant ( Elephas ( Palaeoloxodon) antiquus) and extant Asian ( Elephas maximus) and African ( Loxodonta africana) elephants and compared between the two ionization techniques used. Two suspected mammoth fossils from the British Middle Pleistocene (Cromerian) deposits of the West Runton Forest Bed were analysed to investigate the potential use of peptide mass spectrometry for fossil identification. Despite the age of the fossils, sufficient peptides were obtained to identify these as elephantid, and sufficient sequence variation to discriminate elephantid and mammutid collagen (I). In-depth LC-MS analyses further failed to identify a peptide that could be used to reliably distinguish between the three genera of elephantids ( Elephas, Loxodonta and Mammuthus), an observation consistent with predicted amino acid substitution rates between these species.

  14. Three dimensional perspective view of Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of Mammoth Mountain, California. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the Shuttle Endeavour on its 67th orbit, April 13, 1994. This view was constructed by overlaying a SIR-C radar iamage on a U.S. Geological Survey digital elevation Map. Vertical exaggeration is 2X. The image is centered at 37.6 degrees north, 119.0 degrees west. In this color representation, red is C-band HV-polarization, green is C-Band VV-polarization and blue is the ratio of C-Band VV to C-Band HV. Blue areas are smooth and yellow areas are rock outcrops with varying amounts of snow and vegetation. Crowley Lake is in the foreground and Highway 395 crosses in the middle of the image. Mammoth Mountain is shown in the upper right. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43933.

  15. Dynamics of carbon dioxide emission at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogie, J.D.; Kerrick, Derrill M.; Sorey, M.L.; Chiodini, G.; Galloway, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, has been passively degassing large quantities of cold magmatic CO2 since 1990 following a 6-month-long earthquake swarm associated with a shallow magmatic intrussion in 1989. A search for any link between gas discharge and volcanic hazard at this popular recreation area led us to initiate a detailed study of the degassing process in 1997. Our continuous monitoring results elucidate some of the physical controls that influence dynamics in flank CO2 degassing at this volcano. High coherence between variations in CO2 efflux and variations in atmospheric pressure and wind speed imply that meteorological parameters account for much, if not all of the variability in CO2 efflux rates. Our results help explain differences among previously published estimates of CO2 efflux at Mammoth Mountain and indicate that the long-term (annual) CO2 degassing rate has in fact remained constant since ~ 1997. Discounting the possibility of large meteorologically driven temporal variations in gas efflux at other volcanoes may result in spurious interpretations of transients do not reflect actual geologic processes. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mammoths and Humans as Late Pleistocene Contemporaries on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agenbroad, L. D.; Johnson, J.; Morris, D.; Stafford, T. W.

    2007-05-01

    AMS radiocarbon dating of a pygmy mammoth (Mammuthus exilis) thoracic vertebra and associated charcoal has provided evidence for the contemporaneity of the pygmy mammoth and early human remains on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California. Charcoal associated with the vertebra dated 11,010 ±70 RC yr B.P. (B-133594). That date was significantly close to the extinction date for continental mammoths to warrant a date directly on the bone. The vertebral centrum was drilled and submitted for bone collagen dating by Stafford. The resultant date was 11,030 ±50 RC yr. B P (CAMS-71697), only 20 14C years older than the charcoal date. The significance of the dates was immediately apparent, because a date from human remains from the Arlington Springs Site (CA-SRI-173), Santa Rosa Island was 10,960 ±80 RC yr B.P. (CAMS-16810) (Johnson et al., 1999) - a date nearly identical with the M. exilis measurement. The contemporaneity of the mammoth bone date and human bone date indicates that mammoths were still extant on the islands when humans arrived. These data are from only one mammoth and one human ... more research needs to be done on the mammoth and human remains on the island. Was the contemporaneity coincidence, or the prelude to extinction?

  17. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  18. The Demise of the Circumboreal Mammoth Steppe as an Ecological Regime Shift: Drivers and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, D. H.; Groves, P.; Grosse, G.; Gaglioti, B.; Kunz, M.

    2011-12-01

    During the last ice age, the now-vanished Mammoth Steppe stretched from the Yukon westward to Europe and supported a unique guild of megafauna grazers including mammoth, bison, saiga, wooly rhinoceros, caribou, muskox, and horse. The detailed vegetational composition of this extinct biome remains uncertain because of its large size and temporal complexity during multiple climatic shifts. Grasses and sedges were prominent, and Mammoth Steppe vegetation was probably more spatially variable than the tundra and taiga vegetation that replaced it. The environmental factors that maintained the Mammoth Steppe and dictated its variability over time and space are poorly understood. Here we present evidence for an expanded version of the "Schweger Hypothesis", the idea that large regions of the Mammoth Steppe were created and maintained by processes associated with aeolian sediment activity that was driven by enhanced pressure gradients in the full-glacial atmosphere and by increased continentality caused by lowered sea level. Increased seasonal swings in climate plus stronger winds interacted to promote the widespread occurrence of steppe-like vegetation that grew on relatively inactive and marginal dune and loess deposits. Subsequent periods of resumed aeolian deposition or reworking would have inhibited thick organic horizon development which are largely absent from full glacial mammoth steppe. New mapping of sand dune systems in Siberia and improved chronological control over dune fields in Alaska demonstrate the presence of large dune fields and loess belts in the regions occupied by the Mammoth Steppe during the Last Glacial Maximum. In regions of north Siberia, intense periglacial weathering and local transport of sediments also contributed to development and maintenance of the Mammoth Steppe. Local areas where aeolian sediment activity persists today such as active dune fields and loessal soils share several characteristics with the mammoth steppe such as the

  19. Lower crustal earthquake swarms beneath Mammoth Mountain, California - evidence for the magmatic roots to the Mammoth Mountain mafic volcanic field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. P.; Shelly, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a cluster of dacitic domes erupted ~ 68 ka. It stands on the SW topographic rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern CA. Structurally, it is outboard of the caldera ring-fracture system and its magmatic system is genetically distinct from that of the caldera. It resides within a field of mafic (basaltic) vents that erupted between 190 - 8 ka. A series of phreatic explosions from the north flank of the mountain some 700 ybp attest to the infusion of heat to shallow depths shortly prior to the 600 ybp eruptions of the Inyo Domes 6 to 12 km north of the Mountain. Unrest beneath Mammoth Mountain since 1980 has included 1) swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the upper 10 km of the crust that define concentric elliptical ring-like patterns centered beneath the summit, 2) mid-crustal (depths 10 to 20 km) long-period volcanic earthquakes, 3) the onset of diffuse CO2 degassing in 1990 following an 11-month-long swarm of shallow (<10 km), brittle-failure earthquakes in 1989, 4) occasional very-long-period earthquakes at depths of ~ 3 km, and 5) brief swarms of lower-crustal, brittle-failure earthquakes at depths of 20 to 30 km, including sizable episodes June 16-17, 2006 and September 29-30, 2009. Seismic waveform correlation analysis at multiple stations reveals that these lower-crustal, brittle-failure swarms consist of tens to hundreds of repeated similar events and also serves to identify many events not included in the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) catalog. In the case of the 2009 episode, an evolution in waveform is clearly discernible over the sequence, suggesting a corresponding evolution in source location or mechanism. Work is ongoing to take advantage of the waveform similarity to estimate precise hypocentral locations of these events in order to distinguish between these possibilities.We suggest that the brittle-failure earthquakes at depths of 20 to 30 km are occurring within the more mafic mid- to lower-crust, which can remain

  20. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  1. Water Quality in an Elevated CO2 Region: a Field Study at Mammoth Lakes, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, C. D.; Ellis, A. S.; Khachikian, C.; CenterEnergy; Sustainability

    2010-12-01

    Increasing levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have led to concern with regard to the consequences of global warming. Efforts to limit, if not prevent, further increases are becoming a great priority. Among the variety of proposed mitigation methods is that of injecting CO2 into structural reservoirs in deep permeable geologic formations. Understanding the potential side effects on the environment should leaks occur is essential to our ability to prepare and mitigate environmental hazards. This study examines the effect of elevated soil levels of CO2 on water chemistry. In more specific terms, the purpose is to find geochemical signatures to indicate that elevated CO2 is causing observable changes in water chemistry. Preliminary targets elements are Si, Al and Sr in conjunction with major ions. Mammoth Mountain provides an excellent study area as CO2 gas from an underlying magma chamber has been leaking into the overlying soil, turning it into a natural analogue to a leaking CO2 storage formation. Accelerated weathering of minerals is hypothesized to occur in concert with elevated CO2 levels. Water samples were collected from Horseshoe Lake (adjacent to a high flux of soil CO2), streams that drain into Horseshoe lake, and from Mcleod Lake (with “normal” CO2 levels). Preliminary results show that the waters of Mammoth Lakes are generally dilute, with the major inputs being snowmelt and runoff from Mammoth Mountain. Water samples from the high CO2 Horseshoe Lake area have higher alkalinity (0.295 meq/L compared to 0.047 meq/L at McLeod Lake), an indication of more weathering occurring at the high CO2 lake. Weathering from alumnosilicate minerals is one of the main sources of dissolved ions to waters in the region. Al and Si concentrations are higher in the streams (39μg/L and 4575μg/L respectively) than in the lake (16μg/L and 3074 respectively). Al/Na molar ratios in Horseshoe Lake range from 0.008 - 0.028 while stream inputs to the lake

  2. Mammoth ecosystem: Climatic areal, animal's density and cause of extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S.; Zimov, N.; Zimova, G.; Chapin, S. F.

    2008-12-01

    During the last glaciations Mammoth Ecosystem (ME) occupied territory from present-day France to Canada and from the Arctic islands to China. This ecosystem played major role in global carbon cycle and human settling around the planet. Causes of extinction of this ecosystem are debatable. Analyses of hundreds of radiocarbon dates of ME animal fossil remains showed that warming and moistening of climate wasn't accompanied by animal extinction. On the opposite, on the north right after the warming rise of herbivore population was observed. Reconstruction of ME climatic areal showed that its climatic optimum lies within range of annual precipitation of 200-350 mm and average summer temperatures of +8-+12oC which corresponds with modern climate of Northern Siberia. Analyses of bones and skeletons concentrations in permafrost of Northern Siberia showed that animal density in ME was similar to African savannah. That was a high productive ecosystem that could sustain in wide variety of climates because numerous herbivores maintained there pastures themselves.

  3. Source parameters of the 1980 Mammoth Lakes, California earthquake sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.J.; Cranswick, E.; Muller, C.; Spudich, P.

    1982-06-10

    From the more than 1500 Mammoth Lakes earthquakes recorded on three-component digital seismographs (Spudich et al., 1981), 150 were used in an analysis of the locations, mechanism, and source parameters. A composite fault plane solution of nine earthquakes 3.9< or =M< or =5.1 defines a right-lateral strike slip mechanism on a steeply dipping nearly east-west plane striking S75 /sup 0/E or left-lateral strike slip on a nearly north-south plane striking N10 /sup 0/E. Vertical cross sections of well-located aftershocks indicate possible three east-west planes that coincide with the locations of the four largest earthquakes with M/sub L/> or =6.0. Using the spectral analysis of S waves (Brune, 1970), source parameters for 67 earthquakes were determined. Forty-eight had magnitudes greater than or equal to 3.0. Seismic moments ranges from 9.20 x 10/sup 18/ dyn cm to 2.33 x 10/sup 24/ dyn cm. Earthquakes with seismic moment greater than about 1.0 x 10/sup 21/ dyn cm had nearly constant stress drops (approx. =50 bars); earthquakes with seismic moment less than about 1.0 x 10/sup 21/ dyn cm had stress drop that apparetnly decrease as seismic moment decreases.

  4. Holarctic genetic structure and range dynamics in the woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love; Lister, Adrian M.; Vartanyan, Sergey; Sablin, Mikhail; Sher, Andrei; Edmark, Veronica Nyström; Brandström, Mikael D.; Germonpré, Mietje; Barnes, Ian; Thomas, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have provided enhanced resolution of population histories in many Pleistocene taxa. However, most studies are spatially restricted, making inference of species-level biogeographic histories difficult. Here, we analyse mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the woolly mammoth from across its Holarctic range to reconstruct its history over the last 200 thousand years (kyr). We identify a previously undocumented major mtDNA lineage in Europe, which was replaced by another major mtDNA lineage 32–34 kyr before present (BP). Coalescent simulations provide support for demographic expansions at approximately 121 kyr BP, suggesting that the previous interglacial was an important driver for demography and intraspecific genetic divergence. Furthermore, our results suggest an expansion into Eurasia from America around 66 kyr BP, coinciding with the first exposure of the Bering Land Bridge during the Late Pleistocene. Bayesian inference indicates Late Pleistocene demographic stability until 20–15 kyr BP, when a severe population size decline occurred. PMID:24026825

  5. Migrating swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Hill, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    Brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, where high pressures and temperatures would typically promote ductile deformation, are relatively rare but occasionally observed beneath active volcanic centers. Where they occur, these earthquakes provide a rare opportunity to observe volcanic processes in the lower crust, such as fluid injection and migration, which may induce brittle faulting under these conditions. Here, we examine recent short-duration earthquake swarms deep beneath the southwestern margin of Long Valley Caldera, near Mammoth Mountain. We focus in particular on a swarm that occurred September 29-30, 2009. To maximally illuminate the spatial-temporal progression, we supplement catalog events by detecting additional small events with similar waveforms in the continuous data, achieving up to a 10-fold increase in the number of locatable events. We then relocate all events, using cross-correlation and a double-difference algorithm. We find that the 2009 swarm exhibits systematically decelerating upward migration, with hypocenters shallowing from 21 to 19 km depth over approximately 12 hours. This relatively high migration rate, combined with a modest maximum magnitude of 1.4 in this swarm, suggests the trigger might be ascending CO2 released from underlying magma.

  6. Population-level genotyping of coat colour polymorphism in woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Claire; Dalen, Love; Vartanyan, Sergey; Shapiro, Beth; Kosintsev, Pavel; Sher, Andrei; Gotherstrom, Anders; Barnes, Ian

    2011-08-01

    Patterns in the spatial or temporal distribution of genotypes may be indicative of natural selection. Previous work on the woolly mammoth melanocortin-1 receptor ( Mc1r) gene identified three polymorphic positions that suggest Pleistocene populations may have harboured both light- and dark-haired mammoths ( Rompler et al., 2006, 313: 62). Here, we extend this work and present the first population-level analysis of a functional gene in an extinct species. We genotyped the Mc1r gene in 47 woolly mammoth samples excavated from sites across the central portion of the woolly mammoths' former range to examine the extent of variation of this polymorphism through time and across space. Only one individual was found to be heterozygous, indicating that the frequency of the 'light' mutant allele was very low. We conclude that light-coloured woolly mammoths would have been very rare, and may even have been non-existent if the 'light' mutant allele was strongly selected against in its homozygotic form. With the increasing availability of large-scale sequencing technologies, population-level datasets capable of identifying local adaptation will become increasingly attainable.

  7. 78 FR 59923 - Mammoth Three LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mammoth Three LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of Mammoth Three LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis of earthquakes temporal distribution in Mammoth Mountain volcano, Mono County, Eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Ahmad; Kolahi Azar, Amir; Safavi, Ali

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a wavelet-based multifractal approach to characterize the statistical properties of temporal distribution of the 1982-2012 seismic activity in Mammoth Mountain volcano. The fractal analysis of time-occurrence series of seismicity has been carried out in relation to seismic swarm in association with magmatic intrusion happening beneath the volcano on 4 May 1989. We used the wavelet transform modulus maxima based multifractal formalism to get the multifractal characteristics of seismicity before, during, and after the unrest. The results revealed that the earthquake sequences across the study area show time-scaling features. It is clearly perceived that the multifractal characteristics are not constant in different periods and there are differences among the seismicity sequences. The attributes of singularity spectrum have been utilized to determine the complexity of seismicity for each period. Findings show that the temporal distribution of earthquakes for swarm period was simpler with respect to pre- and post-swarm periods.

  9. Mapping Ground Temperature and Radiant Hydrothermal Heat Flux on Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A. J.; Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes in volcanic and geothermal systems is important for monitoring volcanic activity, monitoring the impacts of geothermal development, and assessing resources. We used ground based thermal infrared (TIR) imaging combined with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to produce high-resolution (cm scale) DEMs over which images of ground temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were draped. We apply this methodology to two hydrothermal areas (Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumaroles) on Mammoth Mountain, CA, allowing us to image the detailed topography, map the thermal features at each area and assess the spatial relationships between the two efficiently and at high resolution. Mammoth Mountain is a lava-dome complex located on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera, CA. Unrest at Mammoth Mountain is currently manifested by seismic swarms, ground deformation, elevated 3He/4He ratios in gases at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole, and large changes in diffuse magmatic CO2 emissions from the five tree kill areas on the volcano flanks. We augment the extensive dataset collected at this site over the previous decades by quantifying ground temperatures and hydrothermal heat fluxes at the Mammoth Mountain and South Side fumarole sites. This was accomplished using a hand-held FLIR T650sc camera that simultaneously acquires visible and TIR images of the study site. Daytime and nighttime co-located visible and TIR images were acquired over each study area, and image processing was used to orthorectify and mosaic visible and TIR images, calculate radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes, construct 3D imagery of ground surface, overlay maps of ground temperatures and heat fluxes, and establish spatial relationships between topography and heat flow.

  10. Complete genomes reveal signatures of demographic and genetic declines in the woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Enk, Jacob; Rohland, Nadin; Li, Heng; Omrak, Ayça; Vartanyan, Sergey; Poinar, Hendrik; Götherström, Anders; Reich, David; Dalén, Love

    2015-01-01

    Summary The processes leading up to species extinctions are typically characterized by prolonged declines in population size and geographic distribution, followed by a phase in which populations are very small and may be subject to intrinsic threats, including loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding [1]. However, whether such genetic factors have had an impact on species prior to their extinction is unclear [2, 3]; examining this would require a detailed reconstruction of a species’ demographic history as well as changes in genome-wide diversity leading up to its extinction. Here, we present high-quality complete genome sequences from two woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). The first mammoth was sequenced at 17.1-fold coverage, and dates to ~4,300 years before present, constituting one of the last surviving individuals on Wrangel Island. The second mammoth, sequenced at 11.2-fold coverage, was obtained from a ~44,800 year old specimen from the Late Pleistocene population in northeastern Siberia. The demographic trajectories inferred from the two genomes are qualitatively similar and reveal a population bottleneck during the Middle or Early Pleistocene, and a more recent severe decline in the ancestors of the Wrangel mammoth at the end of the last glaciation. A comparison of the two genomes shows that the Wrangel mammoth has a 20% reduction in heterozygosity as well as a 28-fold increase in the fraction of the genome that is comprised of runs of homozygosity. We conclude that the population on Wrangel Island, which was the last surviving woolly mammoth population, was subject to reduced genetic diversity shortly before it became extinct. PMID:25913407

  11. Complete genomes reveal signatures of demographic and genetic declines in the woolly mammoth.

    PubMed

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Enk, Jacob; Rohland, Nadin; Li, Heng; Omrak, Ayça; Vartanyan, Sergey; Poinar, Hendrik; Götherström, Anders; Reich, David; Dalén, Love

    2015-05-18

    The processes leading up to species extinctions are typically characterized by prolonged declines in population size and geographic distribution, followed by a phase in which populations are very small and may be subject to intrinsic threats, including loss of genetic diversity and inbreeding. However, whether such genetic factors have had an impact on species prior to their extinction is unclear; examining this would require a detailed reconstruction of a species' demographic history as well as changes in genome-wide diversity leading up to its extinction. Here, we present high-quality complete genome sequences from two woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). The first mammoth was sequenced at 17.1-fold coverage and dates to ∼4,300 years before present, representing one of the last surviving individuals on Wrangel Island. The second mammoth, sequenced at 11.2-fold coverage, was obtained from an ∼44,800-year-old specimen from the Late Pleistocene population in northeastern Siberia. The demographic trajectories inferred from the two genomes are qualitatively similar and reveal a population bottleneck during the Middle or Early Pleistocene, and a more recent severe decline in the ancestors of the Wrangel mammoth at the end of the last glaciation. A comparison of the two genomes shows that the Wrangel mammoth has a 20% reduction in heterozygosity as well as a 28-fold increase in the fraction of the genome that comprises runs of homozygosity. We conclude that the population on Wrangel Island, which was the last surviving woolly mammoth population, was subject to reduced genetic diversity shortly before it became extinct. PMID:25913407

  12. Woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) and its environment in northern Europe during the last glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukkonen, P.; Aaris-Sørensen, K.; Arppe, L.; Clark, P. U.; Daugnora, L.; Lister, A. M.; Lõugas, L.; Seppä, H.; Sommer, R. S.; Stuart, A. J.; Wojtal, P.; Zupiņš, I.

    2011-03-01

    Woolly mammoths were large, herbivorous, cold-adapted mammals of the Late Pleistocene. The diet and habitat requirements of the species set certain constraints on the palaeoenvironments it could occupy. The relationship between the mammoth's shifting range and changing environments can be explored using independent data on ice sheet configuration, temperature, and vegetation, provided the locality and age of the fossil remains can be validated. Here we present a comprehensive record of occurrence of the woolly mammoth in the circum-Baltic region of northern Europe during the last glaciation, based on a compilation of radiocarbon-dated remains. The record shows that the mammoth was widespread in northern and north-eastern Europe during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), at 50,000-30,000 calibrated years ago (50-30 ka). The presence of the species up to 65°N latitude supports the restriction of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) during MIS 3. The widest distribution range round 30 ka was followed by a decline that led to the disappearance of mammoths from the area during the maximum extent of the SIS, from 22 to 18 ka. The woolly mammoth re-colonized the Baltic region and southern Scandinavia after the onset of the late-glacial deglaciation at 17 ka. The late-glacial record suggests a markedly fluctuating population changing its range in tune with the rapid environmental changes. The last appearance of mammoth in our study region was in Estonia during the Younger Dryas (Greenland Stadial 1; GS1) at about 12 ka. The two major periods of occurrence during MIS 3 and the late-glacial stadial suggest that mammoth had a wide tolerance of open to semi-open tundra and steppe-tundra habitats with intermediately cold climate, whereas the 22-18 ka disappearance suggests a major southward and/or eastward retreat in response to extremely cold, glacial conditions near the SIS margin. The final regional extinction correlates with the re-forestation during the rapid warming at the

  13. Isotopic tracking of large carnivore palaeoecology in the mammoth steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocherens, Hervé

    2015-06-01

    Isotopic tracking of carnivore palaeoecology is a relatively new approach that yielded important results for the study of the non-analogue mammoth steppe biome. After describing the prerequisite to apply this approach and the possible complications, the main achievements will be described for extinct carnivore species such as scimitar-tooth cat Homotherium serum, cave lion Panthera spelaea, giant short-faced bear Arctodus simus, cave bear Ursus spelaeus s.l., as well as for ancient representatives of extant species such as brown bear Ursus arctos and wolf Canis lupus. Isotopic tracking showed that scimitar-tooth cats in Alaska were not specialist proboscidean predators but rather generalist consumers of other large herbivores. The majority of cave lions analysed so far were focused on reindeer, some individuals were specialized on cave bears, especially in contexts of competition with cave hyenas. Giant short-faced bears in Alaska were not pure herbivores and consumed meat from reindeer, muskoxen and possibly other predators, but may have still incorporated plant resources in their menu. In contrast, all cave bear populations studied so far for which a clear dietary reconstruction could be done were virtually pure herbivores, only a few cases are still unclear. Interestingly, brown bears used the opposite extreme of the dietary spectrum when competing with other large bears such as cave bears and giant short-faced bears, i.e. were more carnivorous in Europe and more herbivorous in Alaska. Finally wolves seem to have been outcompeted by hyenas but became dominant predators during the Lateglacial in Europe to the expense of the last cave lions. The results obtained through this approach are also relevant for improving conservation strategies of endangered extant large carnivores.

  14. Paleontology. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Mammoth Cave (Kentucky) was designated as a national park in 1941 because of its beautiful hills and valleys, scenic rivers, and the vast cave system located within its boundaries. Outstanding physiographic features include karst terrains, sandstone capped plateaus, and bluffs overlooking rivers and streams, which provide an unusually wide variety…

  15. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] 4-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The National Park Service originated with the passage of the Organic Act of 1916. Since then the National Park Service and the U.S. government have designated many places to be protected, either because of their historical significance or natural significance to the nation. In Kentucky, Mammoth Cave National Park is one of four national parks.…

  16. Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Timothy J.; Sargis, Eric J.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-01-01

    Accounts of woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) preserved so well in ice that their meat is still edible have a long history of intriguing the public and influencing paleontological thought on Quaternary extinctions and climate, with some scientists resorting to catastrophism to explain the instantaneous freezing necessary to preserve edible meat. Famously, members of The Explorers Club purportedly dined on frozen mammoth from Alaska, USA, in 1951. This event, well received by the press and general public, became an enduring legend for the Club and popularized the notorious annual tradition of serving rare and exotic food at Club dinners that continues to this day. The Yale Peabody Museum holds a sample of meat preserved from the 1951 meal, interestingly labeled as a South American giant ground sloth (Megatherium), not mammoth. We sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene and studied archival material to verify its identity, which if genuine, would extend the range of Megatherium over 600% and alter our views on ground sloth evolution. Our results indicate that the meat was not mammoth or Megatherium but green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). The prehistoric dinner was likely an elaborate publicity stunt. Our study emphasizes the value of museums collecting and curating voucher specimens, particularly those used for evidence of extraordinary claims. PMID:26840445

  17. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  18. Mammoth Cave: It's Explorers, Miners, Archeologists, and Visitors. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Robert H.

    The mysterious darkness of Mammoth Cave in southwestern Kentucky, about 90 miles south of Louisville and 90 miles north of Nashville, has lured travelers to enter and warned them to stay away. From the dawn of time visitors have been awestruck by the cave's size and rugged beauty. This lesson is based on the National Register of Historic Places…

  19. The origin of Eurasian Mammoth Faunas (Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2014-07-01

    Pleistocene Mammoth Faunas were the most successful, cold-adapted large mammal assemblages in the history of the Earth. However, the causes for their emergence can not be attributed only to the global trend of climate cooling which occurred during the Neogene/Quaternary period. The formation of the Eurasian Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex was a result of interacting tectonic, geographical, climatic, ecological and phylogenetic processes. The key environmental factors controlling the origin and evolution of Palaearctic cold-adapted large mammal faunas were successive aridification of major parts of Eurasia, rhythmic global climatic cooling with prolonged and intensified cold stages, and increasing continentality. Between 2.6 Ma and around 700 ka BP, largely independent mammal faunas became established in continental Asian steppe regions as well as in the circumpolar tundra. Both faunal complexes were adapted to open environmental conditions but were largely separated from each other. The principal requirements in order for species to evolve into members of Mammoth Faunas are progressing adaptation to aridity, decreasing temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations. Eurasian Mammoth Faunas were mainly composed of the descendants of either Central Asian steppe or Arctic tundra faunal elements. The majority of species of Central Asian origin emerged in regions north of the Himalayan-Tibetan uplift. Between 640 and 480 ka BP, saiga, musk-ox and reindeer occasionally spread far beyond the limits of their respective traditional areas, thus anticipating the subsequent merge of steppe and tundra originated species in Eurasian Mammoth Faunas. During the pronounced cold period of MIS 12, tundra species regularly expanded south- and southwestward into a newly formed type of biome, the so-called tundra-steppe. In parallel, species originating from the Asian steppe dispersed into new habitats north and northwest of their ancestral distribution areas. This drastic faunal

  20. Monitoring of Volcanogenic CO2-Induced Tree Kills with AVIRIS Image Data at Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausback, Brian P.; Strong, Mel; Farrar, Chris; Pieri, David

    1998-01-01

    Elevated cold CO2 emissions from the flank of Mammoth Mountain volcano on the southwest rim of the Long Valley Caldera, eastern California, have been the cause of over 100 acres of dead trees in that area since 1990. The source of the CO2 gas is thought to be from one or more magmatic intrusion(s) beneath Mammoth Mountain and is probably related to a period of seismic unrest that began in 1989. The gas rises to the surface probably from depths of a few kilometers, along faults and fracture zones. The gas is at ambient temperature and diffuses from the soil rather than discharging from distinct vents. Typically, soil gas concentrations in tree-kill areas range from 10% to over 90% CO2 by volume, as compared to normal background of < 1% in healthy forest. The gas composition is predominantly CO2 mixed with air (sulfur gases are not elevated), and C and He isotopic ratios are consistent with a magmatic origin for the gas. The total CO2 emission has been estimated at 1200 tons/day, comparable to the emissions at Kilauea. Some of the dead trees are as old as 250 years, suggesting that similar anomalous gas discharge has not occurred over the previous few hundred years. The delta C-13/12 ratio in the Mammoth Mountain CO2 emission averages about -4.5 (PDB standard). This is consistent with a mantle source for the carbon. However, the large volume of the emission suggests that not all of the CO2 is necessarily being generated from the 1989 intrusion. The voluminous gas could be leaking from a vapor-rich zone, capped by an impermeable layer, that was supplied CO2 from degassing of many small magma bodies that intruded beneath the mountain over a period of decades or centuries. Earthquakes in 1989 could have fractured the capping layer and provided pathways for the escape Of CO2 to the surface. Alternatively, some of the CO2 could be derived from contact metamorphism of carbonate rocks intruded by magma. Carbonate-bearing Paleozoic roof pendents crop out in close proximity

  1. Monitoring of Volcanogenic CO(sub 2)-Induced Tree Kills with AVIRIS Image Data at Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, D.; Farrar, C.; Hausback, B.; Strong, M.

    1998-01-01

    Elevated cold CO2 emissions from the flank of Mammoth Mountain volcano on the southwest rim of the Long Valley Caldera, eastern California, have been the cause of over 100 acres of dead trees in that area since 1990.

  2. Palaeo-environmental and dietary analysis of intestinal contents of a mammoth calf (Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, Bas; Fisher, Daniel C.; Rountrey, Adam N.; van Arkel, Jan; Duivenvoorden, Joost F.; Nieman, Aline M.; van Reenen, Guido B. A.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Buigues, Bernard; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Intestinal samples from the one-month-old Siberian mammoth calf 'Lyuba' were studied using light microscopy and ancient DNA to reconstruct its palaeo-environment and diet. The palynological record indicates a 'mammoth steppe'. At least some pollen of arboreal taxa was reworked, and thus the presence of trees on the landscape is uncertain. In addition to visual comparison of 11 microfossil spectra, a PCA analysis contributed to diet reconstruction. This yielded two clusters: one of samples from the small intestine and the other of large-intestine samples, indicating compositional differences in food remains along the intestinal tract, possibly reflecting different episodes of ingestion. Based on observed morphological damage we conclude that the cyperaceous plant remains and some remains of dwarf willows were originally eaten by a mature mammoth, most likely Lyuba's mother. The mammoth calf probably unintentionally swallowed well-preserved mosses and mineral particles while eating fecal material deposited on a soil surface covered with mosses. Coprophagy may have been a common habit for mammoths, and we therefore propose that fecal material should not be used to infer season of death of mammoths. DNA sequences of trnL and rbcL genes amplified from ancient DNA extracted from intestinal samples confirmed and supplemented plant identifications based on microfossils and macro-remains. Results from different extraction methods and barcoding markers complemented each other and show the value of longer protocols in addition to fast and commercially available extraction kits.

  3. Patterns of faunal extinction and paleoclimatic change from mid-Holocene mammoth and polar bear remains, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltre, Douglas W.; Yesner, David R.; Crossen, Kristine J.; Graham, Russell W.; Coltrain, Joan B.

    2008-07-01

    Qagnaxˆ Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, has recently produced a mid-Holocene vertebrate faunal assemblage including woolly mammoth, polar bear, caribou, and Arctic fox. Several dates on the mammoth remains converge on 5700 14C yr BP. These dates, ~ 2300 yr younger than mammoth dates previously published from the Pribilof Islands, make these the youngest remains of proboscideans, and of non-extinct Quaternary megafauna, recovered from North America. Persistence of mammoths on the Pribilofs is most parsimoniously explained by the isolation of the Pribilofs and the lack of human presence in pre-Russian contact times, but an additional factor may have been the local existence of high-quality forage in the form of grasses enriched by nutrients derived from local Holocene tephras. This interpretation is reinforced by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values obtained from the mammoth remains. The endpoint of mammoth survival in the Pribilofs is unknown, but maybe coterminous with the arrival of polar bears whose remains in the cave date to the Neoglacial cold period of ~ 4500 to 3500 14C yr BP. The polar bear record corroborates a widespread cooling of the Bering Sea region at that time.

  4. Temporal genetic change in the last remaining population of woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Veronica; Dalén, Love; Vartanyan, Sergey; Lidén, Kerstin; Ryman, Nils; Angerbjörn, Anders

    2010-01-01

    During the Late Pleistocene, the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) experienced a series of local extinctions generally attributed to human predation or environmental change. Some small and isolated populations did however survive far into the Holocene. Here, we investigated the genetic consequences of the isolation of the last remaining mammoth population on Wrangel Island. We analysed 741 bp of the mitochondrial DNA and found a loss of genetic variation in relation to the isolation event, probably caused by a demographic bottleneck or a founder event. However, in spite of ca 5000 years of isolation, we did not detect any further loss of genetic variation. Together with the relatively high number of mitochondrial haplotypes on Wrangel Island near the final disappearance, this suggests a sudden extinction of a rather stable population. PMID:20356891

  5. A Biochemical-Biophysical Study of Hemoglobins from Woolly Mammoth, Asian Elephant, and Humans†

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yue; Shen, Tong-Jian; Gupta, Priyamvada; Ho, Nancy T.; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Tam, Tsuey Chyi S.; Hofreiter, Michael; Cooper, Alan; Campbell, Kevin L.; Ho, Chien

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the molecular basis of environmental adaptation of woolly mammoth hemoglobin (Hb) to the harsh thermal conditions of the Pleistocene Ice-ages. To this end, we have carried out a comparative biochemical-biophysical characterization of the structural and functional properties of recombinant hemoglobins (rHb) from woolly mammoth (rHb WM) and Asian elephant (rHb AE) in relation to human hemoglobins Hb A and Hb A2 (a minor component of human Hb). We have obtained oxygen equilibrium curves and calculated O2 affinities, Bohr effects, and the apparent heat of oxygenation (ΔH) in the presence and absence of allosteric effectors [inorganic phosphate and inositol hexaphosphate (IHP)]. Here, we show that the four Hbs exhibit distinct structural properties and respond differently to allosteric effectors. In addition, the apparent heat of oxygenation (ΔH) for rHb WM is less negative than that of rHb AE, especially in phosphate buffer and the presence of IHP, suggesting that the oxygen affinity of mammoth blood was also less sensitive to temperature change. Finally, 1H-NMR spectroscopy data indicates that both α1(β/δ)1 and α1(β/δ)2 interfaces in rHb WM and rHb AE are perturbed, whereas only the α1δ1 interface in Hb A2 is perturbed compared to that in Hb A. The distinct structural and functional features of rHb WM presumably facilitated woolly mammoth survival in the Arctic environment. PMID:21806075

  6. Water-quality appraisal. Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Setmire, J.G.

    1984-06-01

    A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that three water-quality processes were occurring: (1) mineralization; (2) eutrophication; and (3) sedimentation. Limited areas of fecal contamination were also observed. Mineralization due primarily to geothermal springs increased dissolved-solids concentration downstream, which changed the chemical composition of the water. The percentage of calcium decreased gradually, the percentage of magnesium and sodium increased, and the percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride fluctuated, but increased overall. These changes produced water quality in Mammoth Creek similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery showed evidence of eutrophication. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147% at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had abundant growth of aquatic vascular plants and algae, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65% to 200%, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, nitrate concentration of 0.44 milligram per liter, and phosphate concentration of 0.157 milligram per liter. Sediment deposition was determined from detailed observations of bed-material composition, which showed that fine material was deposited at Sherwin Creek Road and downstream. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal-coliform bacteria counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal-streptococcal bacteria counts greater than 1000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Although bacterial sampling was sporadic and incomplete, it did indicate adverse effects on water quality for the following beneficial uses that have been identified for Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek: (1) municipal supply; (2) cold-water habitat; and (3) contact and noncontact water recreation. 6 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. A biochemical--biophysical study of hemoglobins from woolly mammoth, Asian elephant, and humans.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Shen, Tong-Jian; Gupta, Priyamvada; Ho, Nancy T; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Tam, Tsuey Chyi S; Hofreiter, Michael; Cooper, Alan; Campbell, Kevin L; Ho, Chien

    2011-08-30

    This study is aimed at investigating the molecular basis of environmental adaptation of woolly mammoth hemoglobin (Hb) to the harsh thermal conditions of the Pleistocene ice ages. To this end, we have carried out a comparative biochemical-biophysical characterization of the structural and functional properties of recombinant hemoglobins (rHb) from woolly mammoth (rHb WM) and Asian elephant (rHb AE) in relation to human hemoglobins Hb A and Hb A(2) (a minor component of human blood). We have obtained oxygen equilibrium curves and calculated O(2) affinities, Bohr effects, and the apparent heat of oxygenation (ΔH) in the presence and absence of allosteric effectors [inorganic phosphate and inositol hexaphosphate (IHP)]. Here, we show that the four Hbs exhibit distinct structural properties and respond differently to allosteric effectors. In addition, the apparent heat of oxygenation (ΔH) for rHb WM is less negative than that of rHb AE, especially in phosphate buffer and the presence of IHP, suggesting that the oxygen affinity of mammoth blood was also less sensitive to temperature change. Finally, (1)H NMR spectroscopy data indicates that both α(1)(β/δ)(1) and α(1)(β/δ)(2) interfaces in rHb WM and rHb AE are perturbed, whereas only the α(1)δ(1) interface in Hb A(2) is perturbed compared to that in Hb A. The distinct structural and functional features of rHb WM presumably facilitated woolly mammoth survival in the Arctic environment. PMID:21806075

  8. Airborne detection of diffuse carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    1999-01-01

    We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at ~2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at ~3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels ~1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of ~250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.We report the first airborne detection of CO2 degassing from diffuse volcanic sources. Airborne measurement of diffuse CO2 degassing offers a rapid alternative for monitoring CO2 emission rates at Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations, temperatures, and barometric pressures were measured at approximately 2,500 GPS-referenced locations during a one-hour, eleven-orbit survey of air around Mammoth Mountain at approximately 3 km from the summit and altitudes of 2,895-3,657 m. A volcanic CO2 anomaly 4-5 km across with CO2 levels approximately 1 ppm above background was revealed downwind of tree-kill areas. It contained a 1-km core with concentrations exceeding background by >3 ppm. Emission rates of approximately 250 t d-1 are indicated. Orographic winds may play a key role in transporting the diffusely degassed CO2 upslope to elevations where it is lofted into the regional wind system.

  9. Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Alfred L; Ishida, Yasuko; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Fratpietro, Stephen; Stewardson, Kristin; Hensley, Shannon; Tisdale, Michele; Boeskorov, Gennady; Greenwood, Alex D

    2009-01-01

    Background Like humans, the living elephants are unusual among mammals in being sparsely covered with hair. Relative to extant elephants, the extinct woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, had a dense hair cover and extremely long hair, which likely were adaptations to its subarctic habitat. The fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) gene affects hair length in a diverse set of mammalian species. Mutations in FGF5 lead to recessive long hair phenotypes in mice, dogs, and cats; and the gene has been implicated in hair length variation in rabbits. Thus, FGF5 represents a leading candidate gene for the phenotypic differences in hair length notable between extant elephants and the woolly mammoth. We therefore sequenced the three exons (except for the 3' UTR) and a portion of the promoter of FGF5 from the living elephantid species (Asian, African savanna and African forest elephants) and, using protocols for ancient DNA, from a woolly mammoth. Results Between the extant elephants and the mammoth, two single base substitutions were observed in FGF5, neither of which alters the amino acid sequence. Modeling of the protein structure suggests that the elephantid proteins fold similarly to the human FGF5 protein. Bioinformatics analyses and DNA sequencing of another locus that has been implicated in hair cover in humans, type I hair keratin pseudogene (KRTHAP1), also yielded negative results. Interestingly, KRTHAP1 is a pseudogene in elephantids as in humans (although fully functional in non-human primates). Conclusion The data suggest that the coding sequence of the FGF5 gene is not the critical determinant of hair length differences among elephantids. The results are discussed in the context of hairlessness among mammals and in terms of the potential impact of large body size, subarctic conditions, and an aquatic ancestor on hair cover in the Proboscidea. PMID:19747392

  10. Reconstruction of the Dynamics of Mammoth Tundra-Steppe Ecosystem Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S. A.; Chapin, F. S.

    2001-12-01

    During periods of glaciation, the mammoth tundra-steppe (MTS) ecosystem was the largest biome.The productivity of this ecosystem is under discussion. During the Pleistocene, a thick layer of frozen loess accumulated on the lowlands of northern Siberia. As loess deposited on the surface, the bottom of the soil profile was incorporated into permafrost. Present-day frozen loess soils of Siberia are cryo-preserved soils of the MTS. These soils have little humus but contain large quantities of grass roots and live Pleistocene microorganisms. As the soil melts, they start to respire actively. Analysis of vertical distribution of respiration in different types of modern soil and permafrost showed that respiration potential of cryo-preserved soil is similar to respiration of low soil horizons. On the basis of the correlation of photosynthesis to respiration, we calculated productivity of the MTS ecosystem and reconstructed its dynamics. Dynamics of MTS productivity was evaluated through the dynamics of the relative quantities of herbivorous animals. We analyzed the distribution of about 600 14C dates of mammoths, bison, and rhinoceroses. An estimate of the absolute density of mammoths in the north of Siberia was calculated on the basis of data collected on the density of skeletons buried in the permafrost. Our investigations showed that vegetation productivity and density of herbivorous animals in the MTS ecosystem varied within a wide range depending on climate. Dynamics of these parameters correlate with data of temperature and atmospheric CH4 obtained from Greenland cores. During periods of climate warming the quantity of mammoths in the north of Siberia was comparable to the quantity of elephants in present-day undisturbed African savanna.

  11. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    PubMed Central

    Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

  12. Hydrology of the cavernous limestones of the Mammoth Cave area, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Richmond F.

    1966-01-01

    The Mammoth Cave National Park in central Kentucky offers a unique opportunity to study the occurrence of ground water in limestone under natural conditions. Ground water occurs as perched and semiperched bodies in alternate sandstone, shale, and limestone formations and under water-table conditions at the approximate level of the Green River in thick soluble limestone. Three continuous recorders that operated for 5 years indicate that precipitation on the Mammoth Cave plateau recharges the underlying sandstone rapidly. Ground water from the sandstone discharges horizontally to the edges of the plateau and vertically to underlying formations. Some of the precipitation recharges underlying formations almost immediately through overland flow to sinkholes and free fall through open shafts to pools at the water table. Much of the precipitation on the Pennyroyal plain flows overland into sinkholes and then through solution openings to the Green River. Water from the Green River flows into limestone solution channels under Mammoth Cave plateau at some stages, and this water discharges again to the Green River downstream. The presence of salt water, high in chloride in the Green River, makes it possible to trace the movement of the river water through the underground streams. Graphs show relationships of chloride concentration, stage of the Green River, time, precipitation, ground-water levels, and stratigraphy.

  13. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths.

    PubMed

    Reumer, Jelle W F; Ten Broek, Clara M A; Galis, Frietson

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

  14. Intraspecific phylogenetic analysis of Siberian woolly mammoths using complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Drautz, Daniela I.; Lesk, Arthur M.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Qi, Ji; Ratan, Aakrosh; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Sher, Andrei; Dalén, Love; Götherström, Anders; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Rendulic, Snjezana; Packard, Michael; Campos, Paula F.; Kuznetsova, Tatyana V.; Shidlovskiy, Fyodor; Tikhonov, Alexei; Willerslev, Eske; Iacumin, Paola; Buigues, Bernard; Ericson, Per G. P.; Germonpré, Mietje; Kosintsev, Pavel; Nikolaev, Vladimir; Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia; Knight, James R.; Irzyk, Gerard P.; Perbost, Clotilde S.; Fredrikson, Karin M.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Sheridan, Sharon; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2008-01-01

    We report five new complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of Siberian woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), sequenced with up to 73-fold coverage from DNA extracted from hair shaft material. Three of the sequences present the first complete mtDNA genomes of mammoth clade II. Analysis of these and 13 recently published mtDNA genomes demonstrates the existence of two apparently sympatric mtDNA clades that exhibit high interclade divergence. The analytical power afforded by the analysis of the complete mtDNA genomes reveals a surprisingly ancient coalescence age of the two clades, ≈1–2 million years, depending on the calibration technique. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the temporal distribution of the 14C ages of these and previously identified members of the two mammoth clades suggests that clade II went extinct before clade I. Modeling of protein structures failed to indicate any important functional difference between genomes belonging to the two clades, suggesting that the loss of clade II more likely is due to genetic drift than a selective sweep. PMID:18541911

  15. Large-scale hydrothermal fluid discharges in the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Sorey, M.L.; Thordsen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Norris–Mammoth corridor is a complex subsidence structure that extends ∼40 km northward from the 0.6 Ma Yellowstone caldera, and contains many hydrothermal features with high fluid discharges totaling ∼1000 l/s. About 150–250 l/s of hydrothermal water, which attains boiling temperature at surface and 360°C at depth, discharge from the Norris Geyser Basin, adjacent to the caldera. The highest thermal water and gas discharges in the corridor are from Mammoth Hot Springs, where 500–600 l/s thermal water with surface temperatures of up to 73°C and calculated subsurface temperatures of ∼100°C issue from ∼100 hot springs scattered over a score of step-like travertine terraces that range in age from ∼0.4 Ma to recent. All the thermal water is meteoric, likely recharged in the Gallatin Range at 2.5–3.0 km elevations. The isotopic and chemical compositions of thermal waters and solutes can be interpreted to indicate a common magmatic source for heat and volatile solutes located near Norris. However, the chemical and isotopic compositions of gases, especially the 3He/4He ratios, provide strong evidence for a separate magmatic source for the Mammoth system.

  16. Temporal Variability of Surface CO2 Emissions at the Horseshoe Lake Tree Kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Rogie, J. D.; Hilley, G. E.; Fischer, M. L.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Benson, S. M.; Yamamoto, K.

    2006-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a dacitic volcano located on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera in eastern California. An eleven-month-long seismic swarm occurred beneath Mammoth in 1989 and was followed in 1990 by CO2 emissions around the flanks of the volcano, resulting in the formation of large areas of tree kill associated with high soil CO2 concentrations. Carbon dioxide emissions have persisted at Mammoth to the present day, allowing Mammoth to serve as a natural analogue for short-to-long-term CO2 leakage from geologic carbon storage sites. The Horseshoe Lake tree kill is the largest on the volcano and numerous investigations have been conducted here to quantify CO2 emission rates, determine spatial and temporal variability, and understand effects on the near-surface environment. In particular, continuous monitoring of soil CO2 fluxes (accumulation chamber method) and meteorological parameters at a point location was carried out along with repeat flux measurements along a grid in the tree-kill area in 1998-2000. Results showed large temporal variations in both point CO2 fluxes and total aerial CO2 emission rates driven primarily by fluctuations in wind and atmospheric pressure, rather than deep subsurface processes. We will build on previous studies of CO2 emissions at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill and present results of an investigation of CO2 emissions using the eddy covariance and accumulation chamber methods carried out in September-October, 2006. Spatially and temporally averaged net CO2 fluxes (eddy covariance method) will be used in conjunction with repeat point measurements of soil CO2 fluxes along a grid (accumulation chamber method) to quantify present-day CO2 emission, its temporal variability on half- hour to monthly time scales, and the physical controls on this variability. Implications of CO2 emissions at Mammoth Mountain for geologic carbon storage projects will be discussed. This work was supported in part by the Ernest Lawrence Berkeley

  17. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, William C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Farrar, C.D.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Hausback, B.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source (??13C = -4.5 to -5???, 3He/4He = 4.5 to 6.7 RA) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO2 discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills are associated with CO2 concentrations of 30-90% in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 g m-2 d-1 at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO2 discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO2 flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30-50 t/d of CO2 are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO2 and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with some combination of magmatic degassing and thermal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks. Furthermore, N2/Ar ratios and nitrogen isotopic values

  18. Tracing and quantifying magmatic carbon discharge in cold groundwaters: Lessons learned from Mammoth Mountain, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Sorey, M.L.; Cook, A.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Shuster, D.L.; Colvard, E.M.; White, L.D.; Huebner, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    A major campaign to quantify the magmatic carbon discharge in cold groundwaters around Mammoth Mountain volcano in eastern California was carried out from 1996 to 1999. The total water flow from all sampled cold springs was ??? 1.8 ?? 107 m3/yr draining an area that receives an estimated 2.5 ?? 107 m3/yr of recharge, suggesting that sample coverage of the groundwater system was essentially complete. Some of the waters contain magmatic helium with 3He/4He ratios as high as 4.5 times the atmospheric ratio, and a magmatic component in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) can be identified in virtually every feature sampled. Many waters have a 14C of 0-5 pmC, a ??13C near -5???, and contain high concentrations (20-50 mmol/1) of CO2(aq); but are otherwise dilute (specific conductance = 100-300 ??S/cm) with low pH values between 5 and 6. Such waters have previously escaped notice at Mammoth Mountain, and possibly at many other volcanoes, because CO2 is rapidly lost to the air as the water flows away from the springs, leaving neutral pH waters containing only 1-3 mmol/1 HCO-3. The total discharge of magmatic carbon in the cold groundwater system at Mammoth Mountain is ~ 20 000 t/yr (as CO2), ranging seasonally from about 30 to 90 t/day. Several types of evidence show that this high discharge of magmatic DIC arose in part because of shallow dike intrusion in 1989, but also demonstrate that a long-term discharge possibly half this magnitude (~ 10 000 t/yr) predated that intrusion. To sustain a 10 000 t/yr DIC discharge would require a magma intrusion rate of 0.057 km3 per century, assuming complete degassing of magma with 0.65 wt% CO2 and a density of 2.7 t/m3. The geochemical data also identify a small ( < 1 t/day) discharge of magmatic DIC that can be traced to the Inyo Domes area north of Mammoth Mountain and outside the associated Long Valley caldera. This research, along with recent studies at Lassen Peak and other western USA volcanoes, suggests that the amount of

  19. Palaeoecological caracterisation of the mammoth steppe at Final Pleistocene in Central Ukraine from zooarchaeology, stable isotope analyses and direct radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péan, Stéphane; Drucker, Dorothée.; Bocherens, Hervé; Haesaerts, Paul; Valladas, Hélène; Stupak, Dmytro; Nuzhnyi, Dmytro

    2010-05-01

    In the Central Ukraine area of the Middle Dnipro Basin, including the Desna river valley, there are exceptional Upper Palaeolithic open air sites with mammoth bone dwelling structures. Mezhyrich is one of these settlements, which are attributed to the Epigravettian cultural facies and occurred in a periglacial environment, during Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 2. Mammoth bone buildings are surrounded by pits, which are filled with archaeological material (tools, hunting weapons, ivory and bone ornaments) and bones of mammoth and other large mammals such as hare, fox, wolf, horse. A new site Buzhanka 2 has yielded a pit which could be related to an expected dwelling structure. These Final Pleistocene sites are particularly appropriate to shed new light upon the relation between man and environment at the time of the mammoth steppe disappearance. Multidisciplinar studies have been carried on, to cross results from zooarchaeology of the pit contents, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope (13C and 15N) analyses of bone collagen, direct 14C dates on mammal bones and microstratigraphic analyses of the loessic sediment. With almost twenty 14C dates available, from mammoth and wolf bones and from charcoals, Mezhyrich is the best dated Epigravettian mammoth bone dwelling site: around 14 500 years BP. Mammoth treatment is zooarchaeologically evidenced in Buzhanka 2, but limited excavated areas do not allow to interpret their procurement yet. In Mezhyrich, consumption of mammoth meat is evidenced from the pit contents, coming from a few juveniles and young adults, probably hunted. The bones used in the dwelling structure no. 4, which are attributed to at least 37 individuals, have two different origins: mostly isolated elements gathered from other deposits, natural accumulations or previous kill sites; a few skeletal portions in anatomical position taken from at least one quite freshly dead mammoth body, for instance a hunted individual. From the stable isotope analyses, it appears

  20. MAMMOTH (matching molecular models obtained from theory): an automated method for model comparison.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Angel R; Strauss, Charlie E M; Olmea, Osvaldo

    2002-11-01

    Advances in structural genomics and protein structure prediction require the design of automatic, fast, objective, and well benchmarked methods capable of comparing and assessing the similarity of low-resolution three-dimensional structures, via experimental or theoretical approaches. Here, a new method for sequence-independent structural alignment is presented that allows comparison of an experimental protein structure with an arbitrary low-resolution protein tertiary model. The heuristic algorithm is given and then used to show that it can describe random structural alignments of proteins with different folds with good accuracy by an extreme value distribution. From this observation, a structural similarity score between two proteins or two different conformations of the same protein is derived from the likelihood of obtaining a given structural alignment by chance. The performance of the derived score is then compared with well established, consensus manual-based scores and data sets. We found that the new approach correlates better than other tools with the gold standard provided by a human evaluator. Timings indicate that the algorithm is fast enough for routine use with large databases of protein models. Overall, our results indicate that the new program (MAMMOTH) will be a good tool for protein structure comparisons in structural genomics applications. MAMMOTH is available from our web site at http://physbio.mssm.edu/~ortizg/. PMID:12381844

  1. High precision earthquake locations reveal seismogenic structure beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prejean, S.; Stork, A.; Ellsworth, W.; Hill, D.; Julian, B.

    2003-01-01

    In 1989, an unusual earthquake swarm occurred beneath Mammoth Mountain that was probably associated with magmatic intrusion. To improve our understanding of this swarm, we relocated Mammoth Mountain earthquakes using a double difference algorithm. Relocated hypocenters reveal that most earthquakes occurred on two structures, a near-vertical plane at 7-9 km depth that has been interpreted as an intruding dike, and a circular ring-like structure at ???5.5 km depth, above the northern end of the inferred dike. Earthquakes on this newly discovered ring structure form a conical section that dips outward away from the aseismic interior. Fault-plane solutions indicate that in 1989 the seismicity ring was slipping as a ring-normal fault as the center of the mountain rose with respect to the surrounding crust. Seismicity migrated around the ring, away from the underlying dike at a rate of ???0.4 km/month, suggesting that fluid movement triggered seismicity on the ring fault. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Geothermal systems within the Mammoth Corridor in Yellowstone National Park and the adjacent Corwin Springs KGRA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael; Colvard, Elizabeth; Sturchio, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    A study of potential impacts of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA north of Yellowstone Park on thermal springs within the Park is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. Thermal waters in the KGRA and at Mammoth Hot Springs, located 13 km inside the Park boundary, are high in bicarbonate and sulfate and are actively depositing travertine. These similarities and the existence of numerous regional-scale structural and stratigraphic features that could provide conduits for fluid flow at depth indicate a possible cause for concern. The objectives of this study include delineations of any hydrologic connections between these thermal waters, the level of impact of geothermal development in the event of such connections, and mitigation measures to minimize or eliminate adverse impacts. The study involves a number of geochemical, geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic techniques, but does not include any test drilling. Preliminary results suggest that thermal waters at Bear Creek Springs may contain a component of water derived from Mammoth but that thermal waters at La Duke Hot Spring do not. The total rate of thermal water that discharges in the area proposed for geothermal development (near La Duke) has been determined; restricting the net production of thermal water to rates less than this total could provide a satisfactory margin of safety for development.

  3. Vertical distribution of ozone and nitric acid vapor on the Mammoth Mountain, eastern Sierra Nevada, California.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Parker, David R; Padgett, Pamela E

    2002-01-01

    In August and September 1999 and 2000, concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) were monitored at an elevation gradient (2184-3325 m) on the Mammoth Mountain, eastern Sierra Nevada, California. Passive samplers were used for monitoring exposure to tropospheric O3 and HNO3 vapor. The 2-week average O3 concentrations ranged between 45 and 72 ppb, while HNO3 concentrations ranged between 0.06 and 0.52 microg/m3. Similar ranges of O3 and HNO3 were determined for 2 years of the study. No clear effects of elevation on concentrations of the two pollutants were detected. Concentrations of HNO3 were low and at the background levels expected for the eastern Sierra Nevada, while the measured concentrations of O3 were elevated. High concentrations of ozone in the study area were confirmed with an active UV absorption O3 monitor placed at the Mammoth Mountain Peak (September 5-14, 2000, average 24-h concentration of 56 ppb). PMID:12806035

  4. Forest-killing diffuse CO2 emission at Mammoth Mountain as a sign of magmatic unrest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, C.D.; Sorey, M.L.; Evans, William C.; Howle, J.F.; Kerr, B.D.; Kennedy, B.M.; King, C.-Y.; Southon, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    MAMMOTH Mountain, in the western United States, is a large dacitic volcano with a long history of volcamsm that began 200 kyr ago1 and produced phreatic eruptions as recently as 500 ?? 200 yr BP (ref. 2). Seismicity, ground deformation and changes in fumarole gas composition suggested an episode of shallow dyke intrusion in 1989-90 (refs 3, 4). Areas of dying forest and incidents of near asphyxia in confined spaces, first reported in 1990, prompted us to search for diffuse flank emissions of magmatic CO2, as have been described at Mount Etna5 and Vulcano6. Here we report the results of a soil-gas survey, begun in 1994, that revealed CO2 concentrations of 30-96% in a 30-hectare region of killed trees, from which we estimate a total CO2 flux of ???1,200 tonnes per day. The forest die-off is the most conspicuous surface manifestation of magmatic processes at Mammoth Mountam, which hosts only weak fumarolic vents and no summit activity. Although the onset of tree kill coincided with the episode of shallow dyke intrusion, the magnitude and duration of the CO2 flux indicates that a larger, deeper magma source and/or a large reservoir of high-pressure gas is being tapped.

  5. Tracking mammoths and mastodons: Reconstruction of migratory behavior using strontium isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, Kathryn A.; Koch, Paul L.; Carlson, Richard W.; Webb, S. David

    1999-05-01

    Variations in the strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) of tooth enamel are used to examine the migration patterns of late Pleistocene mammoths and mastodons from Florida. An animal's 87Sr/86Sr ratio tracks the ratios of its environment, which vary with differences in bedrock and soil. Consequently, the environmentally controlled differences in 87Sr/86Sr ratio recorded in mineralized tissue, such as tooth enamel, may be used to reconstruct the movement patterns of an individual. We map variations in local 87Sr/86Sr ratios across modern Florida and Georgia through analysis of rodent teeth, plants, and surface water, then use this map to interpret the movement patterns of extinct mammals. Mastodons from northern and central Florida have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios than both modern environmental samples from Florida and fossils from nonmigratory species, suggesting that mastodons migrated north into Georgia. Mammoths display ratios similar to those of environmental samples and resident species, suggesting that they did not migrate outside Florida.

  6. Late Quaternary sea-level history and the antiquity of mammoths (Mammuthus exilis and Mammuthus columbi), Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; McGeehin, John P.; Randall Schumann, R.; Agenbroad, Larry D.

    2015-05-01

    Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 2), but a tusk of M. exilis (or immature M. columbi) was found in the lowest marine terrace of Santa Rosa Island. Uranium-series dating of corals yielded ages from 83.8 ± 0.6 ka to 78.6 ± 0.5 ka, correlating the terrace with MIS 5.1, a time of relatively high sea level. Mammoths likely immigrated to the islands by swimming during the glacial periods MIS 6 (~ 150 ka) or MIS 8 (~ 250 ka), when sea level was low and the island-mainland distance was minimal, as during MIS 2. Earliest mammoth immigration to the islands likely occurred late enough in the Quaternary that uplift of the islands and the mainland decreased the swimming distance to a range that could be accomplished by mammoths. Results challenge the hypothesis that climate change, vegetation change, and decreased land area from sea-level rise were the causes of mammoth extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on the Channel Islands. Pre-MIS 2 mammoth populations would have experienced similar or even more dramatic changes at the MIS 6/5.5 transition.

  7. Late Quaternary sea-level history and the antiquity of mammoths (Mammuthus exilis and Mammuthus columbi), Channel Islands NationalPark, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Groves, Lindsey T.; McGeehin, John P.; Schumann, R. Randall; Agenbroad, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    Fossils of Columbian mammoths (Mammuthus columbi) and pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) have been reported from Channel Islands National Park, California. Most date to the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage [MIS] 2), but a tusk of M. exilis (or immature M. columbi) was found in the lowest marine terrace of Santa Rosa Island. Uranium-series dating of corals yielded ages from 83.8 ± 0.6 ka to 78.6 ± 0.5 ka, correlating the terrace with MIS 5.1, a time of relatively high sea level. Mammoths likely immigrated to the islands by swimming during the glacial periods MIS 6 (~ 150 ka) or MIS 8 (~ 250 ka), when sea level was low and the island–mainland distance was minimal, as during MIS 2. Earliest mammoth immigration to the islands likely occurred late enough in the Quaternary that uplift of the islands and the mainland decreased the swimming distance to a range that could be accomplished by mammoths. Results challenge the hypothesis that climate change, vegetation change, and decreased land area from sea-level rise were the causes of mammoth extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on the Channel Islands. Pre-MIS 2 mammoth populations would have experienced similar or even more dramatic changes at the MIS 6/5.5 transition.

  8. Origins of water and solutes in and north of the Norris-Mammoth Corridor, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif; Mariner, Robert; Ambats, Gil; Evans, William; White, Lloyd; Bullen, Thomas; Kennedy, B. Mack

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the impacts of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) on the hydrothermal features of Yellowstone National Park. To determine possible hydrogeochemical connections, we used the diagnostic stable and radioactive isotopes of several elements, and the chemical and gas compositions of thermal and cold waters from the Norris-Mammoth Corridor and areas north of the Park. The investigations were particularly comprehensive in the Mammoth Hot Springs area, Corwin Springs KGRA, and Chico Hot Springs. The geochemical tools used are still subject to uncertainties of 1 - 5%. Preliminary interpretation of the data, especially the ??D and ??18O values of water, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, ??11B values, composition and isotopes of noble gases and several conservative chemical species would indicate that the waters from Mammoth Hot Springs and La Duke Spring area have evolved chemically and isotopically by reactions with different rock types, and are probably not directly connected. These data indicate that a component (<20%) of water in Bear Creek Springs may be derived from the Mammoth system.

  9. Hydrogeology of the Mammoth Spring groundwater basin and vicinity, Markagunt Plateau, Garfield, Iron, and Kane Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-01

    The Markagunt Plateau, in southwestern Utah, lies at an altitude of about 9,500 feet, largely within Dixie National Forest. The plateau is capped primarily by Tertiary- and Quaternary-age volcanic rocks that overlie Paleocene- to Eocene-age limestone of the Claron Formation, which forms escarpments on the west and south sides of the plateau. In the southwestern part of the plateau, an extensive area of sinkholes has formed that resulted primarily from dissolution of the underlying limestone and subsequent subsidence and (or) collapse of the basalt, producing sinkholes as large as 1,000 feet across and 100 feet deep. Karst development in the Claron Formation likely has been enhanced by high infiltration rates through the basalt. Numerous large springs discharge from the volcanic rocks and underlying limestone on the Markagunt Plateau, including Mammoth Spring, one of the largest in Utah, with discharge that ranges from less than 5 to more than 300 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). In 2007, daily mean peak discharge of Mammoth Spring was bimodal, reaching 54 and 56 ft3/s, while daily mean peak discharge of the spring in 2008 and in 2009 was 199 ft3/s and 224 ft3/s, respectively. In both years, the rise from baseflow, about 6 ft3/s, to peak flow occurred over a 4- to 5-week period. Discharge from Mammoth Spring accounted for about 54 percent of the total peak streamflow in Mammoth Creek in 2007 and 2008, and about 46 percent in 2009, and accounted for most of the total streamflow during the remainder of the year. Results of major-ion analyses for water samples collected from Mammoth and other springs on the plateau during 2006 to 2009 indicated calcium-bicarbonate type water, which contained dissolved-solids concentrations that ranged from 91 to 229 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of major ions, trace elements, and nutrients did not exceed primary or secondary drinking-water standards; however, total and fecal coliform bacteria were present in water from Mammoth and

  10. Geology and Thermal History of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1978-01-01

    Mammoth Hot Springs, located about 8 km inside the north entrance to Yellowstone National Park, consists of nearly 100 hot springs scattered over a score of steplike travertine terraces. The travertine deposits range in age from late Pleistocene to the present. Sporadic records of hot-spring activity suggest that most of the current major springs have been intermittently active since at least 1871. Water moving along the Norris-Mammoth fault zone is heated by partly molten magma and enriched in calcium and bicarbonate. Upon reaching Mammoth this thermal water (temperature about 73?C) moves up through the old terrace deposits along preexisting vertical linear planes of weakness. As the water reaches the surface, pressure is released, carbon dioxide escapes as a gas, and bicarbonate in the water is partitioned into more carbon dioxide and carbonate; the carbonate then combines with calcium to precipitate calcium carbonate, forming travertine. The travertine usually precipitates rapidly from solution and is lightweight and porous; however, dense travertine, such as is found in core from the 113-m research drill hole Y-10 located on one of the upper terraces, forms beneath the surface by deposition in the pore spaces of older deposits. The terraces abound with unusual hot-spring deposits such as terracettes, cones, and fissure ridges. Semicircular ledges (ranging in width from about 0.3 m to as much as 2.5 m), called terracettes, formed by deposition of travertine around slowly rising pools. Complex steplike arrangements of terracettes have developed along runoff channels of some hot springs. A few hot springs have deposited cone-shaped mounds, most of which reach heights of 1-2 m before becoming dormant. However, one long-inactive cone named Liberty Cap attained a height of about 14 m. Fissure ridges are linear mounds of travertine deposited from numerous hot-spring vents along a medial fracture zone. The ridges range in height from about 1 to 6 m and in length from a

  11. Carbon dioxide and helium emissions from a reservoir of magmatic gas beneath Mammoth Mountain, California

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.; Evans, W.C. Kennedy, B.M. Farrar, C.D. Hainsworth, L.J. Hausback, B.

    1998-07-01

    Carbon dioxide and helium with isotopic compositions indicative of a magmatic source ({delta}thinsp{sup 13}C={minus}4.5 to {minus}5{per_thousand}, {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He=4.5 to 6.7 R{sub A}) are discharging at anomalous rates from Mammoth Mountain, on the southwestern rim of the Long Valley caldera in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved in cold groundwater. The rate of gas discharge increased significantly in 1989 following a 6-month period of persistent earthquake swarms and associated strain and ground deformation that has been attributed to dike emplacement beneath the mountain. An increase in the magmatic component of helium discharging in a steam vent on the north side of Mammoth Mountain, which also began in 1989, has persisted until the present time. Anomalous CO{sub 2} discharge from soils first occurred during the winter of 1990 and was followed by observations of several areas of tree kill and/or heavier than normal needlecast the following summer. Subsequent measurements have confirmed that the tree kills arc associated with CO{sub 2} concentrations of 30{endash}90{percent} in soil gas and gas flow rates of up to 31,000 gthinspm{sup {minus}2}thinspd{sup {minus}1} at the soil surface. Each of the tree-kill areas and one area of CO{sub 2} discharge above tree line occurs in close proximity to one or more normal faults, which may provide conduits for gas flow from depth. We estimate that the total diffuse CO{sub 2} flux from the mountain is approximately 520 t/d, and that 30{endash}50 t/d of CO{sub 2} are dissolved in cold groundwater flowing off the flanks of the mountain. Isotopic and chemical analyses of soil and fumarolic gas demonstrate a remarkable homogeneity in composition, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} and associated helium and excess nitrogen may be derived from a common gas reservoir whose source is associated with

  12. Full Core TREAT Kinetics Demonstration Using Rattlesnake/BISON Coupling Within MAMMOTH

    SciTech Connect

    Ortensi, Javier; DeHart, Mark D.; Gleicher, Frederick N.; Wang, Yaqi; Alberti, Anthony L.; Palmer, Todd S.

    2015-08-01

    This report summarizes key aspects of research in evaluation of modeling needs for TREAT transient simulation. Using a measured TREAT critical measurement and a transient for a small, experimentally simplified core, Rattlesnake and MAMMOTH simulations are performed building from simple infinite media to a full core model. Cross sections processing methods are evaluated, various homogenization approaches are assessed and the neutronic behavior of the core studied to determine key modeling aspects. The simulation of the minimum critical core with the diffusion solver shows very good agreement with the reference Monte Carlo simulation and the experiment. The full core transient simulation with thermal feedback shows a significantly lower power peak compared to the documented experimental measurement, which is not unexpected in the early stages of model development.

  13. Automated sinkhole detection using a DEM subsetting technique and fill tools at Mammoth Cave National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Levine, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    An automated workflow for sinkhole detection is developed using Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data from Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). While the park is known to sit within a karst formation, the generally dense canopy cover and the size of the park (~53,000 acres) creates issues for sinkhole inventorying. Lidar provides a useful remote sensing technology for peering beneath the canopy in hard to reach areas of the park. In order to detect sinkholes, a subsetting technique is used to interpolate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) thereby reducing edge effects. For each subset, standard GIS fill tools are used to fill depressions within the DEM. The initial DEM is then subtracted from the filled DEM resulting in detected depressions or sinkholes. Resulting depressions are then described in terms of size and geospatial trend.

  14. Paleontology and paleoecology of guano deposits in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widga, Chris; Colburn, Mona

    2015-05-01

    Bat guano deposits are common in the Mammoth Cave system (Kentucky, USA). Paleontological remains associated with these deposits are important records of local landscape changes. Recent excavations in the cave suggest that vertebrate remains in most of these deposits are dominated by Chiroptera. Although no extinct fauna were identified, the presence of a large roost of Tadarida brasiliensis in the Chief City section is beyond the northern extent of its current range suggesting that this deposit dates to an undetermined interglacial period. Stable isotope analyses of Tadarida-associated guano indicate a C3 prey signature characteristic of forested habitat. This was unexpected since this species is typically associated with open environments. Further ecomorphological analysis of wing shape trends in interglacial, Holocene, and historic-aged assemblages indicate that interglacial faunas are dominated by fast-flying, open-space taxa (T. brasiliensis) while late Holocene and Historic assemblages contain more taxa that utilized closed forest or forest gaps.

  15. Acid Loading of Soils by Magmatic CO2 at Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, K. A.; Gerlach, T. M.; Doukas, M. P.

    2003-12-01

    Areas of tree kill appeared in the early 1990's after a shallow intrusion of magma under the south flank of Mammoth Mountain, California. Subsequent field measurements have revealed high concentrations of soil CO2 in these areas, the locations of which are controlled by faults and fractures that serve as conduits for magmatic CO2 streaming to the surface from depth. Detailed surveys at the largest of these tree-kill areas, Horseshoe Lake, about 14 ha in size, have consistently shown soil CO2 concentrations that range up to 90% or greater in the shallow soil layers. Continuous soil CO2 monitoring stations established in 1995 at Horseshoe Lake reveal a pattern of both short-term and seasonal variations in magmatic CO2. Because the pressure of CO2 is externally fixed by CO2 streaming to the surface, carbonic acid activity is constrained by open-system buffering of magmatic CO2. Eight years of intensive soil CO2 monitoring have documented a consistent pattern whereby pH values as low as 4 can be achieved in the soil solution during spring melting of the winter snow pack. Coupled with the seasonal drop in pH, aluminum, which can also be toxic to forest ecosystems, is released from soils in those areas with the highest CO2 concentrations. After more than a decade of exposure to elevated levels of CO2 and repeated cycles of acid loading, along with nearly complete tree and vegetation mortality and the release of Al3+, the soils at Horseshoe Lake and the other areas of tree kill may not recover their ability to sustain any significant level of forest production for several years, even if the CO2 degassing should stop immediately. The level of in-situ acid loading by magmatic CO2 in the tree kill areas around Mammoth Mountain rivals that of the better known process of rain-out of acid gases from volcanic plumes in the troposphere.

  16. The 1989 earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain, California: an initial look at the 4 May through 30 September activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a 50 000- to 200 000-yr-old cumulovolcano standing on the southwestern rim of Long Valley in eastern California. On 4 May 1989, two M=1 earthquakes beneath the south flank of the mountain marked the onset of a swarm that has continued for more than 6 months. In addition to its longevity, noteworthy aspects of this persistent swarm are described. These aspects of the swarm, together with its location along the southern extension of the youthful Mono-Inyo volcanic chain, which last erupted 500 to 600 yr ago, point to a magmatic source for the modest but persistent influx of strain energy into the crust beneath Mammoth Mountain. -from Authors

  17. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    PubMed Central

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-01-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage. PMID:27143688

  18. Megafaunal split ends: microscopical characterisation of hair structure and function in extinct woolly mammoth and woolly rhino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tridico, Silvana R.; Rigby, Paul; Kirkbride, K. Paul; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The large extinct megafaunal species of the Late Pleistocene, Mammuthus primigenius (woolly mammoth) and Coelodonta antiquitatis (woolly rhino) are renowned for their pelage. Despite this, very little research has been conducted on the form and function of hair from these iconic species. Using permafrost preserved hair samples from seven extinct megafaunal remains, this study presents an in-depth microscopical characterisation of preservation, taphonomy, microbial damage, pigmentation and morphological features of more than 420 hairs. The presence of unique structural features in hairs, from two extinct megafauna species, such as multiple medullae and unparallelled stiffness suggests evolution of traits that may have been critical for their survival in the harsh arctic environment. Lastly, despite popular depictions of red-haired and/or uniformly coloured mammoths, a closer examination of pigmentation reveals that mammoth coats may have exhibited a mottled/variegated appearance and that their 'true' colours were not the vivid red/orange colour often depicted in reconstructions. Insights gained from microscopical examination of hundreds of extinct megafauna hairs demonstrate the value of extracting as much morphological data as possible from ancient hairs prior to destructive sampling for molecular analyses.

  19. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth.

    PubMed

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-01-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage. PMID:27143688

  20. Changes in variation at the MHC class II DQA locus during the final demise of the woolly mammoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pečnerová, Patrícia; Díez-Del-Molino, David; Vartanyan, Sergey; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    According to the nearly-neutral theory of evolution, the relative strengths of selection and drift shift in favour of drift at small population sizes. Numerous studies have analysed the effect of bottlenecks and small population sizes on genetic diversity in the MHC, which plays a central role in pathogen recognition and immune defense and is thus considered a model example for the study of adaptive evolution. However, to understand changes in genetic diversity at loci under selection, it is necessary to compare the genetic diversity of a population before and after the bottleneck. In this study, we analyse three fragments of the MHC DQA gene in woolly mammoth samples radiocarbon dated to before and after a well-documented bottleneck that took place about ten thousand years ago. Our results indicate a decrease in observed heterozygosity and number of alleles, suggesting that genetic drift had an impact on the variation on MHC. Based on coalescent simulations, we found no evidence of balancing selection maintaining MHC diversity during the Holocene. However, strong trans-species polymorphism among mammoths and elephants points to historical effects of balancing selection on the woolly mammoth lineage.

  1. The mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) compared with the brain of the extant African elephant (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Kharlamova, Anastasia S; Saveliev, Sergei V; Protopopov, Albert V; Maseko, Busisiwe C; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the results of an examination of the mummified brain of a pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) recovered from the Yakutian permafrost in Siberia, Russia. This unique specimen (from 39,440-38,850 years BP) provides the rare opportunity to compare the brain morphology of this extinct species with a related extant species, the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). An anatomical description of the preserved brain of the woolly mammoth is provided, along with a series of quantitative analyses of various brain structures. These descriptions are based on visual inspection of the actual specimen as well as qualitative and quantitative comparison of computed tomography imaging data obtained for the woolly mammoth in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging data from three African elephant brains. In general, the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined, estimated to weigh between 4,230 and 4,340 g, showed the typical shape, size, and gross structures observed in extant elephants. Quantitative comparative analyses of various features of the brain, such as the amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and gyrnecephalic index, all indicate that the brain of the woolly mammoth specimen examined has many similarities with that of modern African elephants. The analysis provided here indicates that a specific brain type representative of the Elephantidae is likely to be a feature of this mammalian family. In addition, the extensive similarities between the woolly mammoth brain and the African elephant brain indicate that the specializations observed in the extant elephant brain are likely to have been present in the woolly mammoth. PMID:26011110

  2. Magmatic CO2 emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California, tracked by 14C in tree core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B.; Mangan, M.; McGeehin, J. P.; King, J.; Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Magmatic CO2 efflux to the atmosphere causes persistent depletion of 14C in the wood of trees that grow in areas of strong emissions. The record of 14C depletion in core from a surviving tree at the Horseshoe Lake tree-kill area, on the S flank of Mammoth Mountain volcano, has been updated to cover the time period 1984 to 2010. The amount of depletion was reasonably stable in annual growth rings for years 1995-2009 and indicates that the magmatic CO2 component in air at canopy height was 31±7 ppmv. Depletion increased sharply in the 2010 ring, yielding a magmatic CO2 concentration of 56 ppmv. This observation is consistent with accumulation chamber and eddy covariance measurements from the area, which indicate that magmatic CO2 effluxes and near-surface atmospheric concentrations increased during 2010. The agreement between tree-core and direct gas measurements suggests that the selected tree may be suitable for constraining the long-term record of CO2 emission strength at Horseshoe Lake, but the ability of a single tree to constrain total CO2 discharge from a broad region of diffuse emissions needs investigation. New concentration source-area modeling based on local atmospheric data measured by a 3-m tall eddy covariance tower suggests that the 13-m tall tree cored may provide a weighted integration of CO2 emission strength over an area at least as large as the Horseshoe Lake gas anomaly (0.3 km2). If the tree-core record accurately reflects total CO2 discharge, then emission strength in 2010 approached that in 1990, when anomalous gas efflux began in the aftermath of a 6-month seismic swarm linked to upflow of magmatic fluids. The apparent increase in emission strength in 2010 may correlate with a recent resurgence in seismicity beneath Mammoth Mountain and an increase in the 3He/4He ratio in fumarolic emissions near the summit, both of which began in 2009. If so, a correlative increase in 14C depletion is likely to exist in trees at other areas around the

  3. Field test of a calcite dissolution rate law: Fort's Funnel Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Slunder, J.S. ); Groves, C.G. . Center for Cave and Karst Studies)

    1994-03-01

    The laboratory-derived calcite dissolution rate law of Plummer et al. (1978) is the most widely used and mechanistically detailed expression currently available for predicting dissolution rates as a function of water chemistry. Such rate expressions are of great use in understanding timescales associated with limestone karst development. Little work has gone into the field testing of the rate law under natural conditions. This work measured dissolution rates by a crystal weight loss experiment in Buffalo Creek within Fort's funnel Cave, which lies within a pristine, forested catchment of Mammoth Cave National Park. Continuous water chemistry sampling over the same period allowed a time-integrated prediction of the dissolution based on the Plummer et al. (1978) expression. Results indicate that the rate law overpredicted dissolution by a factor of about ten. This concurs with earlier laboratory work suggesting that the law tends to overpredict rates in solutions close to equilibrium with respect to calcite, as were the waters within this part of the groundwater flow system.

  4. Mapping Volcanic Gas Emissions in the Mammoth Mountain Area Using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJong, Steven M.; Chrien, Thomas G.

    1996-01-01

    The Long Valley Caldera located in the eastern Sierra Nevada (California) shows new signs of volcanic activity. This renewed activity is expressed by gas emissions, hydrothermal activity and frequent earthquakes. Analysis of the gas composition regarding the percentage biogenic carbon and the He-3/He-4 ratio revealed that the gas source is the magma body approximately 7 km beneath the Long Valley Caldera. The gas from the magma body surfaces not only via the fumaroles but also emerges along geological faults. Some of the spots where gas surfaces are marked by dead or stressed trees. Other spots may not yet be identified. It is only recently known, from research at 'Vulcano Island' in southern Italy, that volcanoes release abundant carbon dioxide from their flanks as diffuse soil emanations. Mammoth Mountain seems to behave in a similar manner. The research described in this paper is designed to determine whether AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) can be used to identify areas of volcanic gas emissions.

  5. Tocuila Mammoths, Basin of Mexico: Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene stratigraphy and the geological context of the bone accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David; Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Dominguez-Vazquez, Gabriela; Bischoff, James

    2014-07-01

    We report new stratigraphic, tephrochronology and dating results from the Tocuila Mammoth site in the Basin of Mexico. At the site there is evidence for a thin meteorite airburst layer dated between 10,878 and 10,707 cal BC at the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cool period. The Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) tephra marker, caused by a Plinian eruption of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, dated from 10,666 to 10,612 cal BC, is above that layer. The eruption must have caused widespread environmental disruption in the region with evidence of extensive reworking and channelling by the Lake Texcoco shoreline and contributed to the widespread death and/or extinction of megafaunal populations, as suggested by earlier authors, but the new work reinforces the view that both catastrophic events must have caused large environmental disruption in a short time period of around two hundred years. There is no evidence for megafauna (mammoths, sabre toothed cats, camels, bison, glyptodonts) after the UTP volcanic event and subsequent lahars in the Basin of Mexico. At Tocuila, although there are some in situ tephra markers in nearshore lake sediments, such as the Great Basaltic Ash (GBA) and the UTP Ash, there is evidence of much reworking of several tephra populations in various combinations. The mammoth bone accumulation is reworked in a lahar sequence (volcanic mudflow) derived from several source sediments but associated with the major UTP Plinian eruption. Paleoindian populations were also present in the Basin of Mexico during the YD period, where several Paleoindian skeletons were found associated with the UTP ash deposits, e.g. Metro Man, Chimalhuacan Man and Tlapacoya Man.

  6. Crustal migration of magmatic CO2 tracked by tree-ring radiocarbon and seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.; Shelly, D. R.; King, J.; McGeehin, J. P.; Mangan, M.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a dacitic dome complex situated on the southwestern rim of Long Valley caldera, eastern California. Since 1989, unrest at Mammoth Mountain has been expressed by seismicity, ground deformation, diffuse CO2 emissions, and elevated 3He/4He ratios in fumarolic gases, all apparently driven by the release of CO2-rich aqueous fluids from basaltic intrusions in the middle to lower crust. Three lower-crustal (32-19 km depth) seismic swarms occurred beneath the mountain in 2006, 2008 and 2009 and were consistently followed several months later by peaks in the frequency of shallow (≤10 km depth) earthquakes. We measured the radiocarbon depletion relative to global background values in the annual rings (1998-2012) of a tree growing in the largest (~0.3 km2) area of diffuse CO2 emissions on Mammoth Mountain (the Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK). We modeled the ground surface area, on average, that emitted the magmatic CO2 photosynthesized by the study tree (the magmatic CO2 source area) using measured atmospheric parameters. Results indicated that the tree integrated magmatic CO2 emissions over the majority of the HLTK area. The tree-ring radiocarbon record and magmatic CO2 source area modeling together implied that magmatic CO2 emissions from the HLTK were relatively stable from 1998 to 2009, nearly doubled from 2009 to 2011, and then declined by the 2012 growing season. The initial increase in CO2 emissions was detected during the growing season immediately after the largest (February 2010) peak in shallow earthquake frequency. Propagation of CO2-rich magmatic fluids may have driven observed patterns of elevated deep, then shallow seismicity, whereas the relationship between pore fluid pressures within a shallow (upper 3 km of crust) fluid reservoir and permeability structure of the reservoir cap rock may have controlled temporal variations in surface CO2 emissions.

  7. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  8. Volcanological perspectives on Long Valley, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono Craters: several contiguous but discrete systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, Wes

    2004-09-01

    The volcanic history of the Long Valley region is examined within a framework of six successive (spatially discrete) foci of silicic magmatism, each driven by locally concentrated basaltic intrusion of the deep crust in response to extensional unloading and decompression melting of the upper mantle. A precaldera dacite field (3.5-2.5 Ma) northwest of the later site of Long Valley and the Glass Mountain locus of >60 high-silica rhyolite vents (2.2-0.79 Ma) northeast of it were spatially and temporally independent magmatic foci, both cold in postcaldera time. Shortly before the 760-ka caldera-forming eruption, the mantle-driven focus of crustal melting shifted ˜20 km westward, abandoning its long-stable position under Glass Mountain and energizing instead the central Long Valley system that released 600 km 3 of compositionally zoned rhyolitic Bishop Tuff (760 ka), followed by ˜100 km 3 of crystal-poor Early Rhyolite (760-650 ka) on the resurgent dome and later by three separate 5-unit clusters of varied Moat Rhyolites of small volume (527-101 ka). West of the caldera ring-fault zone, a fourth focus started up ˜160 ka, producing a 10×20-km array of at least 35 mafic vents that surround the trachydacite/alkalic rhyodacite Mammoth Mountain dome complex at its core. This young 70-vent system lies west of the structural caldera and (though it may have locally re-energized the western margin of the mushy moribund Long Valley reservoir) represents a thermally and compositionally independent focus. A fifth major discrete focus started up by ˜50 ka, 25-30 km north of Mammoth Mountain, beneath the center of what has become the Mono Craters chain. In the Holocene, this system advanced both north and south, producing ˜30 dike-fed domes of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite, some as young as 650 years. The nearby chain of mid-to-late Holocene Inyo domes is a fault-influenced zone of mixing where magmas of at least four kinds are confluent. The sixth and youngest focus is at

  9. CRUSTAL REFRACTION PROFILE OF THE LONG VALLEY CALDERA, CALIFORNIA, FROM THE JANUARY 1983 MAMMOTH LAKES EARTHQUAKE SWARM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luetgert, James H.; Mooney, Walter D.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic-refraction profiles recorded north of Mammoth Lakes, California, using earthquake sources from the January 1983 swarm complement earlier explosion refraction profiles and provide velocity information from deeper in the crust in the area of the Long Valley caldera. Eight earthquakes from a depth range of 4. 9 to 8. 0 km confirm the observation of basement rocks with seismic velocities ranging from 5. 8 to 6. 4 km/sec extending at least to depths of 20 km. The data provide further evidence for the existence of a partial melt zone beneath Long Valley caldera and constrain its geometry. Refs.

  10. Foliar injury, tree growth and mortality, and lichen studies in Mammoth Cave National Park. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    McCune, B.; Cloonan, C.L.; Armentano, T.V.

    1987-03-01

    Foliar condition, tree growth, tree mortality, and lichen communities were studied in Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, to document the present forest condition and to provide a basis for detecting future changes. Foliar injury by ozone was common on many plant species in 1985. Species showing the most injury were white ash, green ash, redbud, sycamore, tulip poplar, milkweed, and wild grape. Injury apparently depended on canopy position and vigor. Tree growth was equivocally related to visible symptoms in 1986, probably because of the low ozone levels in that year. Tree mortality rates from 1966-1985 in two natural stands were somewhat lower than mortality rates known for other midwestern woods.

  11. A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, L.M.; Van Manen, F.T.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; DePoy, M.

    2006-01-01

    Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  12. Ancient astronomical culture in Ukraine. 1: Finds relating to the Paleolithic era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, Irina B.; Artemenko, Tetyana G.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we describe some archaeological finds in the territory of modern Ukraine which are thought to provide evidence of the ancient astronomical culture of our ancestors. These finds date to Upper and Middle Paleolithic times (i.e. 100,000-12,000 BCE). Among the finds unearthed at the Gontsy and Kiev-Kirillovskaya archaeological sites are mammoth tusk fragments which feature engraved patterns that have been interpreted as tables of lunar phase observations. More remarkable are two mammoth ivory bracelets from the site of Mezin which contain elaborate engraved ornamentation that also has been connected with a lunar calendar. In this paper we also mention astronomical finds at Paleolithic sites on the Crimean peninsula, including the famous solar petroglyph at Chokcurcha-1 and a possible 'star map' engraved on a mammoth shoulder bone that was found at Chokurcha-2. After briefly discussing the problems associated with trying to assign astronomical meaning to these types of archaeological finds, we conclude that a complicated lunar mythology was indeed developed in Paleolithic times.

  13. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the HorseshoeLake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Benson, S.M.

    2006-11-20

    We investigate spatio-temporal relationships between soilCO2 flux (FCO2), meteorological variables, and topography over a ten-dayperiod (09/12/2006 to 09/21/2006) at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill,Mammoth Mountain, CA. Total CO2 discharge varied from 16 to 52 t d-1,suggesting a decline in CO2 emissions over decadal timescales. Weobserved systematic changes in FCO2 in space and time in association witha weather front with relatively high wind speeds from the west and lowatmospheric pressures. The largest FCO2 changes were observed inrelatively high elevation areas. The variations in FCO2 may be due todynamic coupling of wind-driven airflow through the subsurface and flowof source CO2 at depth. Our results highlight the influence of weatherfronts on volcanic gas flow in the near-surface environment and how thisinfluence can vary spatially within a study area.

  14. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas". PMID:21738409

  15. Decadal-scale variability of diffuse CO2 emissions and seismicity revealed from long-term monitoring (1995-2013) at Mammoth Mountain, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Cynthia; Bergfeld, Deborah; Farrar, Christopher D.; Doukas, Michael P.; Kelly, Peter J.; Kern, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain, California, is a dacitic volcano that has experienced several periods of unrest since 1989. The onset of diffuse soil CO2 emissions at numerous locations on the flanks of the volcano began in 1989-1990 following an 11-month period of heightened seismicity. CO2 emission rates were measured yearly from 1995 to 2013 at Horseshoe Lake (HSL), the largest tree kill area on Mammoth Mountain, and measured intermittently at four smaller degassing areas around Mammoth from 2006 to 2013. The long-term record at HSL shows decadal-scale variations in CO2 emissions with two peaks in 2000-2001 and 2011-2012, both of which follow peaks in seismicity by 2-3 years. Between 2000 and 2004 emissions gradually declined during a seismically quiet period, and from 2004 to 2009 were steady at ~ 100 metric tonnes per day (t d- 1). CO2 emissions at the four smaller tree-kill areas also increased by factors of 2-3 between 2006 and 2011-2012, demonstrating a mountain-wide increase in degassing. Delays between the peaks in seismicity and degassing have been observed at other volcanic and hydrothermal areas worldwide, and are thought to result from an injection of deep CO2-rich fluid into shallow subsurface reservoirs causing a pressurization event with a delayed transport to the surface. Such processes are consistent with previous studies at Mammoth, and here we highlight (1) the mountain-wide response, (2) the characteristic delay of 2-3 years, and (3) the roughly decadal reoccurrence interval for such behavior. Our best estimate of total CO2 degassing from Mammoth Mountain was 416 t d- 1 in 2011 during the peak of emissions, over half of which was emitted from HSL. The cumulative release of CO2 between 1995 and 2013 from diffuse emissions is estimated to be ~ 2-3 Mt, and extrapolation back to 1989 gives ~ 4.8 Mt. This amount of CO2 release is similar to that produced by the mid-sized (VEI 3) 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano in Alaska (~ 2.3 Mt over 11 months), and

  16. Annual cycle of magmatic CO2 in a tree-kill soil at Mammoth Mountain, California: implications for soil acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, K.A.; Gerlach, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Time-series sensor data reveal significant short-term and seasonal variations of magmatic CO2 in soil over a 12 month period in 1995-1996 at the largest tree-kill site on Mammoth Mountain, central-eastern California. Short-term variations leading to ground-level soil CO2 concentrations hazardous and lethal to humans were triggered by shallow faulting in the absence of increased seismicity or intrusion, consistent with tapping a reservoir of accumulated CO2, rather than direct magma degassing. Hydrologic processes closely modulated seasonal variations in CO2 concentrations, which rose to 65%-100% in soil gas under winter snowpack and plunged more than 25% in just days as the CO2 dissolved in spring snowmelt. The high efflux of CO2 through the tree-kill soils acts as an open-system CO2 buffer causing infiltration of waters with pH values commonly of < 4.2, acid loading of up to 7 keqH+.ha-1.yr-1, mobilization of toxic Al3+, and long-term decline of soil fertility.

  17. Late Pleistocene paleoecology of arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests from Interior Alaska's mammoth steppe ecosystem, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Barnes, Brian M.; Zazula, Grant D.; Beaudoin, Alwynne B.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2011-11-01

    Botanical analyses of fossil and modern arctic ground squirrel ( Urocitellus parryii) caches and nests have been used to reconstruct the past vegetation from some parts of Beringia, but such archives are understudied in Alaska. Five modern and four fossil samples from arctic ground squirrel caches and nests provide information on late Pleistocene vegetation in Eastern Beringia. Modern arctic ground squirrel caches from Alaska's arctic tundra were dominated by willow and grass leaves and grass seeds and bearberries, which were widespread in the local vegetation as confirmed by vegetation surveys. Late Pleistocene caches from Interior Alaska were primarily composed of steppe and dry tundra graminoid and herb seeds. Graminoid cuticle analysis of fossil leaves identified Calamagrostis canadensis, Koeleria sp. and Carex albonigra as being common in the fossil samples. Stable carbon isotopes analysis of these graminoid specimens indicated that plants using the C 3 photosynthetic pathways were present and functioning with medium to high water-use efficiency. Fossil plant taxa and environments from ground squirrel caches in Alaska are similar to other macrofossil assemblages from the Yukon Territory, which supports the existence of a widespread mammoth steppe ecosystem type in Eastern Beringia that persisted throughout much of the late Pleistocene.

  18. Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2011-08-01

    Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published for Late Wisconsinan middens dating to ˜25-29 14C ka BP (MIS 3/2) from the region. Although multivariate statistical comparisons suggest differences between the relative abundances of plant macrofossils, the co-occurrence of steppe-tundra plants and insects (e.g., Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides, Artemisia frigida, Phlox hoodii, Connatichela artemisiae) provides evidence for successive reestablishment of the zonal steppe-tundra habitats during cold stages of the Late Pleistocene. Arctic ground squirrels were well adapted to the cold, arid climates, steppe-tundra vegetation and well-drained loessal soils that characterize cold stages of Late Pleistocene Beringia. These glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrel populations to expand their range to the interior regions of Alaska and Yukon, including the Klondike, where they are absent today. Arctic ground squirrels have endured numerous Quaternary climate oscillations by retracting populations to disjunct "interglacial refugia" during warm interglacial periods (e.g., south-facing steppe slopes, well-drained arctic and alpine tundra areas) and expanding their distribution across the mammoth-steppe biome during cold, arid glacial intervals.

  19. Attempted DNA extraction from a Rancho La Brea Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi): prospects for ancient DNA from asphalt deposits

    PubMed Central

    Gold, David A; Robinson, Jacqueline; Farrell, Aisling B; Harris, John M; Thalmann, Olaf; Jacobs, David K

    2014-01-01

    Fossil-bearing asphalt deposits are an understudied and potentially significant source of ancient DNA. Previous attempts to extract DNA from skeletons preserved at the Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles, California, have proven unsuccessful, but it is unclear whether this is due to a lack of endogenous DNA, or if the problem is caused by asphalt-mediated inhibition. In an attempt to test these hypotheses, a recently recovered Columbian mammoth (Mammuthus columbi) skeleton with an unusual pattern of asphalt impregnation was studied. Ultimately, none of the bone samples tested successfully amplified M. columbi DNA. Our work suggests that reagents typically used to remove asphalt from ancient samples also inhibit DNA extraction. Ultimately, we conclude that the probability of recovering ancient DNA from fossils in asphalt deposits is strongly (perhaps fatally) hindered by the organic compounds that permeate the bones and that at the Rancho La Brea tar pits, environmental conditions might not have been ideal for the general preservation of genetic material. PMID:24634719

  20. Eddy covariance measurement of CO2 flux to the atmosphere from a area of high volcanogenic emissions, Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.E.; Farrar, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    Three pilot studies were performed to assess application of the eddy covariance micrometeorological method in the measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2) flux of volcanic origin. The selected study area is one of high diffuse CO2 emission on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Because terrain and source characteristics make this a complex setting for this type of measurement, added consideration was given to source area and upwind fetch. Footprint analysis suggests that the eddy covariance measurements were representative of an upwind elliptical source area (3.8 ?? 103 m2) which can vary with mean wind direction, surface roughness, and atmospheric stability. CO2 flux averaged 8-16 mg m-2 s-1 (0.7-1.4 kg m-2 day-1). Eddy covariance measurements of flux were compared with surface chamber measurements made in separate studies [Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 (1998a) 1947; EOS Trans. 79 (1998) F941.] and were found to be similar. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crustal migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids recorded by tree-ring radiocarbon and seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hilley, George E.; Shelly, David R.; King, John C.; McGeehin, John P.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Evans, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Unrest at Mammoth Mountain over the past several decades, manifest by seismicity, ground deformation, diffuse CO2 emissions, and elevated 3He/4He ratios in fumarolic gases has been driven by the release of CO2-rich fluids from basaltic intrusions in the middle to lower crust. Recent unrest included the occurrence of three lower-crustal (32–19 km depth) seismic swarms beneath Mammoth Mountain in 2006, 2008 and 2009 that were consistently followed by peaks in the occurrence rate of shallow (≤10 km depth) earthquakes. We measured 14C in the growth rings (1998–2012) of a tree growing in the largest (∼0.3 km2) area of diffuse CO2 emissions on Mammoth Mountain (the Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK) and applied atmospheric CO2 concentration source area modeling to confirm that the tree was a reliable integrator of magmatic CO2 emissions over most of this area. The tree-ring 14C record implied that magmatic CO2 emissions from the HLTK were relatively stable from 1998 to 2009, nearly doubled from 2009 to 2011, and then declined by the 2012 growing season. The initial increase in CO2 emissions was detected during the growing season that immediately followed the largest (February 2010) peak in the occurrence rate of shallow earthquakes. Migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids may have driven observed patterns of elevated deep, then shallow seismicity, while the relationship between pore fluid pressures within a shallow (upper 3 km of crust) fluid reservoir and permeability structure of the reservoir cap rock may have controlled the temporal pattern of surface CO2 emissions.

  2. Radiocarbon studies of plant leaves and rings from mammoth mountain, CA: A long-term record of magmatic CO2 release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, A.C.; Hainsworth, L.J.; Sorey, M.L.; Evans, William C.; Southon, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of 14C in tree rings provides a measure of the flux of magmatic CO2 from Mammoth Mountain both before and after 1994 when copious diffuse emissions were first discovered and linked to tree kill. We analyzed the annual rings of trees with two main purposes: (1) to track changes in the magnitude of magmatic CO2 emission over time, and (2) to determine the onset of magmatic CO2 emission at numerous sites on Mammoth Mountain. The onset of CO2 emission at different areas of tree kill was determined to be in 1990, closely following the seismic events of 1989. At Horseshoe Lake (HSL), CO2 emission was found to have peaked in 1991 and to have subsequently declined by a factor of two through 1998. The tree-ring data also show that emissions of magmatic carbon from cold springs below the tree-kill areas occurred well before 1989. Trees located on the margins of the kill areas or otherwise away from zones of maximum gas discharge were found to be better integrators of magmatic CO2 emission than those located in the center of tree kills. Although quantitative extrapolations from our data to a flux history will require that a relationship be established between 14C depletion in tree rings and average annual magmatic CO2 flux, the pattern of 14C depletion in tree rings is likely to be the most reliable indicator of the long-term changes in the magnitude of CO2 release from Mammoth Mountain. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Crustal migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids recorded by tree-ring radiocarbon and seismicity at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, J. L.; Hilley, G. E.; Shelly, D. R.; King, J. C.; McGeehin, J. P.; Mangan, M.; Evans, W. C.

    2014-03-01

    Unrest at Mammoth Mountain over the past several decades, manifest by seismicity, ground deformation, diffuse CO2 emissions, and elevated He3/He4 ratios in fumarolic gases has been driven by the release of CO2-rich fluids from basaltic intrusions in the middle to lower crust. Recent unrest included the occurrence of three lower-crustal (32-19 km depth) seismic swarms beneath Mammoth Mountain in 2006, 2008 and 2009 that were consistently followed by peaks in the occurrence rate of shallow (⩽10 km depth) earthquakes. We measured C14 in the growth rings (1998-2012) of a tree growing in the largest (∼0.3 km) area of diffuse CO2 emissions on Mammoth Mountain (the Horseshoe Lake tree kill; HLTK) and applied atmospheric CO2 concentration source area modeling to confirm that the tree was a reliable integrator of magmatic CO2 emissions over most of this area. The tree-ring C14 record implied that magmatic CO2 emissions from the HLTK were relatively stable from 1998 to 2009, nearly doubled from 2009 to 2011, and then declined by the 2012 growing season. The initial increase in CO2 emissions was detected during the growing season that immediately followed the largest (February 2010) peak in the occurrence rate of shallow earthquakes. Migration of CO2-rich magmatic fluids may have driven observed patterns of elevated deep, then shallow seismicity, while the relationship between pore fluid pressures within a shallow (upper 3 km of crust) fluid reservoir and permeability structure of the reservoir cap rock may have controlled the temporal pattern of surface CO2 emissions.

  4. Use of dye tracing to determine ground-water movement to Mammoth Crystal Springs, Sylvan Pass area, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Susong, David D.

    2006-01-01

    At the request of and in cooperation with the Geology Program at Yellowstone National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation of the Sylvan Pass area in June 2005 to determine the relation between surface water and ground-water flow to Mammoth Crystal Springs. Results of a dye-tracing investigation indicate that streamflow lost into talus deposits on Sylvan Pass enters the ground-water system and moves to the southeast to discharge at Mammoth Crystal Springs. Ground-water travel times to the springs from a distance of 1.45 miles and a vertical relief of 500 feet were less than 1 day, indicating apparent rates of movement of at least 8,000 feet per day, values that are similar to those in karst aquifers. Peak dye concentrations were reached about 2 days after dye injection, and transit time of most of the dye mass through the system was about 3 weeks. High permeability and rapid travel times within this aquifer also are indicated by the large variation in springflow in response to snowmelt runoff and precipitation, and by the high concentration of suspended sediment (turbidity) in the water discharging into the spring-fed lake.

  5. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and Structure-from-Motion photogrametry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aaron Lewis; George Hilley; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 oC and 450 W m-2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  6. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, A.; Hilley, G. E.; Lewicki, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the structure-from-motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 °C and 450 W m- 2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  7. Maps showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; Mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey Maps are presented showing coal-split boundaries, isopachs of coal splits, coal resources, and coal quality; mammoth coal bed, Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Bull Mountain coal field, south-central Montana.

  8. When CO2 kills: effects of magmatic CO2 flux on belowground biota at Mammoth Mountain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, J.; Waldrop, M. P.; Mangan, M.

    2011-12-01

    The biomass, composition, and activity of the soil microbial community is tightly linked to the composition of the aboveground plant community. Microorganisms in aerobic surface soils, both free-living and plant-associated are largely structured by the availability of growth limiting carbon (C) substrates derived from plant inputs. When C availability declines following a catastrophic event such as the death of large swaths of trees, the number and composition of microorganisms in soil would be expected to decline and/or shift to unique microorganisms that have better survival strategies under starvation conditions. High concentrations of volcanic cold CO2 emanating from Mammoth Mountain near Horseshoe Lake on the southwestern edge of Long Valley Caldera, CA has resulted in a large kill zone of tree species, and associated soil microbial species. In July 2010, we assessed belowground microbial community structure in response to disturbance of the plant community along a gradient of soil CO2 concentrations grading from <0.6% (ambient forest) to >80% (no plant life). We employed a microbial community fingerprinting technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to determine changes in overall community composition for three broad functional groups: fungi, bacteria, and archaea. To evaluate changes in ectomycorrhizal fungal associates along the CO2 gradient, we harvested root tips from lodgepole pine seedlings collected in unaffected forest as well as at the leading edge of colonization into the kill zone. We also measured soil C fractions (dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C, and non-extractable C) at 10 and 30 cm depth, as well as NH4+. Not surprisingly, our results indicate a precipitous decline in soil C, and microbial C with increasing soil CO2; phospholipid fatty acid analysis in conjunction with community fingerprinting indicate both a loss of fungal diversity as well as a dramatic decrease in biomass as one proceeds further into the kill zone

  9. Geology and geochemistry of the Mammoth breccia pipe, Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona: Evidence for a magmatic-hydrothermal origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, E.D.; Atkinson, W.W., Jr.; Marsh, T.; Iriondo, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Copper Creek mining district, southeastern Arizona, contains more than 500 mineralized breccia pipes, buried porphyry-style, copper-bearing stockworks, and distal lead-silver veins. The breccia pipes are hosted by the Copper Creek Granodiorite and the Glory Hole volcanic rocks. The unexposed Mammoth breccia pipe, solely recognized by drilling, has a vertical extent of 800 m and a maximum width of 180 m. The pipe consists of angular clasts of granodiorite cemented by quartz, chalcopyrite, bornite, anhydrite, and calcite. Biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar dates suggest a minimum age of 61.5??0.7 Ma for the host Copper Creek Granodiorite and 40Ar/39Ar dates on hydrothermal sericite indicate an age of 61.0??0.5 Ma for copper mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies suggest that a supercritical fluid with a salinity of approximately 10 wt.% NaCl equiv. condensed to a dilute aqueous vapor (1-2.8 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and a hypersaline brine (33.4-35.1 wt.% NaCl equiv.). Minimum trapping temperatures are 375??C and trapping depths are estimated at 2 km. Sulfur isotope fractionation of cogenetic anhydrite and chalcopyrite yields a temperature of mineralization of 469??25??C. Calculated oxygen and hydrogen isotope values for fluids in equilibrium with quartz and sericite range from 10.2??? to 13.4??? and -60??? to -39???, respectively, suggesting that the mineralizing fluid was dominantly magmatic. Evidence from the stable isotope and fluid inclusion analyses suggests that the fluids responsible for Cu mineralization within the Mammoth breccia pipe exsolved from a gray porphyry phase found at the base of the breccia pipe. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  10. Quantification of Dynamic Water-Rock-Microbe Interactions in a Travertine-Depositing Hot Spring, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, L. M.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G.; Sanford, R. A.; Fouke, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Filamentous microbial mats in a travertine-depositing hot spring at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park exert primary controls on the growth rate, mineralogy, and crystal fabric of calcium carbonate minerals (travertine) that precipitate in the spring. Filaments directly affect porosity and permeability of travertine by providing a structural framework consisting of "ropes" of microbial cells around which carbonate minerals precipitate, creating a uniquely biogenetic mineral fabric characterized by horizontal layers of large tubular pores. Nanometer scale microscopy reveals that these mineral fabrics may be directly tied to microbial activities, as aragonite crystals precipitating directly on filaments are smaller and more densely packed than crystals precipitating on extra-polymeric substances (EPS) between filaments. In order to more closely examine the processes which control calcium carbonate crystallization dynamics in this system, a high-resolution transect of water and travertine was sampled for geochemistry, microscopy, and microbial biomass along the primary flow path from upstream to downstream of Narrow Gauge spring at Mammoth Hot Springs. Travertine samples were analyzed for petrography using transmitted light, cathodoluminescence, and laser confocal microscopy to examine crystal morphology and associations with microbial filaments and provide insight on pore network distributions. Additionally, travertine and spring water geochemistry was also analyzed for major and trace ions, δ34S, δ13C, and δ18O, to identify any trends that may relate to crystallization rates, microbial biomass, or crystal habit. Total biomass was determined using dried weight. Water-rock-microbe interactions result in upstream-to-downstream variations in travertine crystal morphology and water chemistry that are directly related to systematic changes in microbial biomass and community respiration. Geochemical modeling lends insight into the biogeochemical reactions

  11. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  12. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  13. Origin and causes of the mammoth steppe: a story of cloud cover, woolly mammal tooth pits, buckles, and inside-out Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale Guthrie, R.

    2001-01-01

    To account for the vastness of the northern arid steppes during Glacial episodes, I propose the proximate key variable was simply frequent clear skies. This hitherto under-emphasized point is the hub which best explains many questions. Low maritime cloud cover best accounts for today's tundra, and in a related way, the cloudy Polar Front accounts for the whole of the taiga. Even during Glacial maxima, the proximity of the sea to the Bering isthmus created intermittent maritime cloud cover. This regional cloud cover produced an ecological interruption, or buckle, of the arid steppe belt. While this Beringian mesic buckle did not serve as an intercontinental ecological barrier to most steppe-adapted species, it does seem to have limited the distributions of woolly rhinos, camels, American kiangs, short-faced bears, badgers, and some others. At the beginning of the Holocene, this narrow refugium seems to have been a source of some mesic-adapted species which colonized westward into the now tundra vegetation of northern Asia and eastward into northern North America. This Holocene expansion from a limited and regional Pleistocene refugium created our present misconceptions about Beringia. The mid-strait mesic ecological conditions were the exception to the more extensive, arid-adapted, communities of the Mammoth Steppe.

  14. Three-year decline of magmatic CO2 emissions from soils of a Mammoth Mountain tree kill: Horseshoe Lake, CA, 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    1998-01-01

    We used the closed chamber method to measure soil CO2 efflux over a three-year period at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain in central eastern California. Efflux contour maps show a significant decline in the areas and rates of CO2 emission from 1995 to 1997. The emission rate fell from 350 t d-1 (metric tons per day) in 1995 to 130 t d-1 in 1997. The trend suggests a return to background soil CO2 efflux levels by early to mid 1999 and may reflect exhaustion of CO2 in a deep reservoir of accumulated gas and/or mechanical closure or sealing of fault conduits transmitting gas to the surface. However, emissions rose to 220 t d-1 on 23 September 1997 at the onset of a degassing event that lasted until 5 December 1997. Recent reservoir recharge and/or extension-enhanced gas flow may have caused the degassing event.

  15. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  16. Triggered deformation and seismic activity under Mammoth Mountain in long Valley caldera by the 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Prejean, S.G.; Hill, D.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 3 November 2002 Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake triggered deformational offsets and microseismicity under Mammoth Mountain (MM) on the rim of Long Valley caldera, California, some 3460 km from the earthquake. Such strain offsets and microseismicity were not recorded at other borehole strain sites along the San Andreas fault system in California. The Long Valley offsets were recorded on borehole strainmeters at three sites around the western part of the caldera that includes Mammoth Mountain - a young volcano on the southwestern rim of the caldera. The largest recorded strain offsets were -0.1 microstrain at PO on the west side of MM, 0.05 microstrain at MX to the southeast of MM, and -0.025 microstrain at BS to the northeast of MM with negative strain extensional. High sample rate strain data show initial triggering of the offsets began at 22:30 UTC during the arrival of the first Rayleigh waves from the Alaskan earthquake with peak-to-peak dynamic strain amplitudes of about 2 microstrain corresponding to a stress amplitude of about 0.06 MPa. The strain offsets grew to their final values in the next 10 min. The associated triggered seismicity occurred beneath the south flank of MM and also began at 22:30 UTC and died away over the next 15 min. This relatively weak seismicity burst included some 60 small events with magnitude all less than M = 1. While poorly constrained, these strain observations are consistent with triggered slip and intrusive opening on a north-striking normal fault centered at a depth of 8 km with a moment of l016 N m, or the equivalent of a M 4.3 earthquake. The cumulative seismic moment for the associated seismicity burst was more than three orders of magnitude smaller. These observations and this model resemble those for the triggered deformation and slip that occurred beneath the north side of MM following the 16 October 1999 M 7.1 Hector Mine, California, earthquake. However, in this case, we see little post-event slip decay reflected in

  17. Six-week time series of eddy covariance CO2 flux at Mammoth Mountain, California: performance evaluation and role of meteorological forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, Jennifer; Lewicki, J.L.; Fischer, M.L.; Hilley, G.E.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} and heat fluxes were measured over a six-week period (09/08/2006 to 10/24/2006) by the eddy covariance (EC) technique at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK), Mammoth Mountain, CA, a site with complex terrain and high, spatially heterogeneous CO{sub 2} emission rates. EC CO{sub 2} fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (mean = 1346 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}). Using footprint modeling, EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the chamber method on a grid repeatedly over a 10-day period. Half-hour EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were moderately correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.42) with chamber fluxes, whereas average-daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were well correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.70) with chamber measurements. Average daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were correlated with both average daily wind speed and atmospheric pressure; relationships were similar to those observed between chamber CO{sub 2} fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R{sup 2} = 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance closure fell within the range observed in many investigations conducted in contrasting ecosystems and climates. Results indicate that despite complexities presented by the HLTK, EC can be reliably used to monitor background variations in volcanic CO{sub 2} fluxes associated with meteorological forcing, and presumably changes related to deeply derived processes such as volcanic activity.

  18. Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2007-04-01

    -tundra vegetation, loessal soils and glacial climates of the mammoth-steppe biome.

  19. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouke, B. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N. C.; Burns, P. C.; Discipulo, M. K.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 degrees C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43-72 degrees C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30-62 degrees C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite "ice sheets", calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles ("fuzzy dumbbells") precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28-54 degrees C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28-30 degrees C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite "feather" crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO2 degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding delta 13C. Travertine delta 13C and delta 18O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature (approximately 50-73 degrees C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (< approximately 50 degrees C) depositional facies exhibits delta 13C and delta 18O

  20. Depositional facies and aqueous-solid geochemistry of travertine-depositing hot springs (Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, B.W.; Farmer, J.D.; Des Marais, D.J.; Pratt, L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Burns, P.C.; Discipulo, M.K.

    2000-05-01

    Petrographic and geochemical analyses of travertine-depositing hot springs at Angel Terrace, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, have been used to define five depositional facies along the spring drainage system. Spring waters are expelled in the vent facies at 71 to 73 C and precipitate mounded travertine composed of aragonite needle botryoids. The apron and channel facies (43--72 C) is floored by hollow tubes composed of aragonite needle botryoids that encrust sulfide-oxidizing Aquificales bacteria. The travertine of the pond facies (30--62 C) varies in composition from aragonite needle shrubs formed at higher temperatures to ridged networks of calcite and aragonite at lower temperatures. Calcite ice sheets, calcified bubbles, and aggregates of aragonite needles (fuzzy dumbbells) precipitate at the air-water interface and settle to pond floors. The proximal-slope facies (28--54 C), which forms the margins of terracette pools, is composed of arcuate aragonite needle shrubs that create small microterracettes on the steep slope face. Finally, the distal-slope facies (28--30 C) is composed of calcite spherules and calcite feather crystals. Despite the presence of abundant microbial mat communities and their observed role in providing substrates for mineralization, the compositions of spring-water and travertine predominantly reflect abiotic physical and chemical processes. Vigorous CO{sub 2} degassing causes a +2 unit increase in spring water pH, as well as Rayleigh-type covariations between the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and corresponding {delta}{sup 13}C. Travertine {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O are nearly equivalent to aragonite and calcite equilibrium values calculated from spring water in the higher-temperature ({approximately}50--73 C) depositional facies. Conversely, travertine precipitating in the lower-temperature (<{approximately}50 C) depositional facies exhibits {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O values that are as

  1. Soil efflux and total emission rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain total HLTK CO2 emissions and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and total CO2 emission rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of total CO2 emission rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 emissions at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. Total CO2 emission rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is

  2. Mammoth order for Singapore project.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two new hospitals in Singapore that form a new integrated healthcare hub, that feature a range of innovations in patient treatment and care, and are reportedly the country's first such healthcare facilities built together as an integrated development to complement each other's capabilities and services, were officially opened by Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, last October. Operated by Jurong Health, a public healthcare 'cluster' formed to facilitate the integration of healthcare services in the west of Singapore, the Ng Teng Fong Hospital and Jurong Community Hospital feature an extensive array of Gerflor flooring, selected, as the company explains in this article, for a combination of outstanding aesthetics, durability, safety, and hard wear. PMID:26946579

  3. Breakpoint analysis and relations of nutrient and turbidity stressor variables to macroinvertebrate integrity in streams in the Crawford-Mammoth Cave Uplands Ecoregion, Kentucky, for the development of nutrient criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, Angela S.; Caskey, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    To assist Kentucky in refining numeric nutrient criteria in the Pennyroyal Bioregion, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Division of Water collected and analyzed water chemistry, turbidity, and biological-community data from 22 streams throughout the Crawford-Mammoth Cave Upland ecoregion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Level IV Ecoregion, 71a) within the Pennyroyal Bioregion from September 2007 to May 2008. Statistically significant and ecologically relevant relations among the stressor (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and turbidity) variables and response (macroinvertebrate-community attributes) variables and the breakpoint values of biological-community attributes and metrics in response to changes in stressor variables were determined. Thirteen of 18 macroinvertebrate attributes were significantly and ecologically correlated (p-value < 0.10) with at least one nutrient measure. Total number of individuals, Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera richness, and average tolerance value were macroinvertebrate measures that most strongly correlated with the concentrations of nutrients. Comparison of the average macroinvertebrate-breakpoint value for the median concentration of total phosphorus (TP, 0.033 mg/L) and for median concentration of total nitrogen (TN, 1.1 mg/L) to Dodds' trophic classification for TP and TN indicates streams in the Crawford-Mammoth Cave Uplands ecoregion within the Pennyroyal Bioregion would be classified as mesotrophic-eutrophic. The biological breakpoint relations with median concentrations of TP in this study were similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed numeric TP criteria (0.037 mg/L), but were 1.5 times higher than the proposed numeric criteria for concentrations of TN (0.69 mg/L). No sites were impacted adversely using median turbidity values based on a 25 Formazin nephelometric turbidity unit biological threshold. The breakpoints determined in this study, in addition to Dodds' trophic

  4. Looking for earths : the race to find new solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan

    1998-09-01

    The ultimate insider's account of astronomy's fantastic voyage in search of brave new worlds in faraway galaxies "Highly recommended." -Science and Technology "Full of humor, heartbreak, and a deep understanding of the ardor and luck that compose years of research. . . . The reader becomes not merely a receiver of Boss's vision, but a fellow explorer." -Astronomy "A rewarding account." -Scientific American Are we alone in the universe . . . or are there other planets generating and sustaining life? The question may be as old as civilization, but in the twilight of a century marked by countless frustrated quests to find other solar systems, several teams of pioneering astronomers have at last discovered a rich crop of mammoth, Jupiter-sized gas planets -the first compelling evidence that there may indeed be life in other galaxies. In Looking for Earths, a prominent planetary scientist takes us along on this thrilling hunt for new life, revealing the behind-the-scenes stories of scientific determination, frustration, and triumph. Ushering us to the mountaintop observatories that house the world's most powerful telescopes, and into the tension-filled scientific meetings where new results are announced and old results overturned, Alan Boss brings the process of exploration vividly alive. Experience the roller-coaster ride as intricate observations of minuscule stellar wobbles raise hopes that at last a true planet has been found, only to be almost immediately shattered by more powerful observations. Boss also introduces the principal players whose dreams defied all odds and made the first major discovery possible. Like no other book, Looking for Earths captures the lively tension between theory and observation that defines cutting-edge astronomical discovery, along with the heated battles that will determine the direction of big-ticket American astronomy for years to come. "You will find no better introduction to one of the truly revolutionary developments in modern

  5. Find a Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring teeth ... find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring teeth ...

  6. [Explosive "Roman find"].

    PubMed

    Stiel, Michael; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2006-01-01

    A case of a 40-year-old hobby archeologist is presented who searched for remains from Roman times. After finding an oblong, cylindrical object, he opened it with a saw to examine it, which triggered an explosion killing the man. The technical investigation of the remains showed that the find was actually a grenade from the 2nd World War. The autopsy findings and the results of the criminological investigation are presented. PMID:16529179

  7. Fluid-Faulting Interactions Examined Though Massive Waveform-Based Analyses of Earthquake Swarms in Volcanic and Tectonic Settings: Mammoth Mountain, Long Valley, Lassen, and Fillmore, California Swarms, 2014-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelly, D. R.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Prejean, S. G.; Hill, D. P.; Hardebeck, J.; Hsieh, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake swarms, sequences of sustained seismicity, convey active subsurface processes that sometimes precede larger tectonic or volcanic episodes. Their extended activity and spatiotemporal migration can often be attributed to fluid pressure transients as migrating crustal fluids (typically water and CO2) interact with subsurface structures. Although the swarms analyzed here are interpreted to be natural in origin, the mechanisms of seismic activation likely mirror those observed for earthquakes induced by industrial fluid injection. Here, we use massive-scale waveform correlation to detect and precisely locate 3-10 times as many earthquakes as included in routine catalogs for recent (2014-2015) swarms beneath Mammoth Mountain, Long Valley Caldera, Lassen Volcanic Center, and Fillmore areas of California, USA. These enhanced catalogs, with location precision as good as a few meters, reveal signatures of fluid-faulting interactions, such as systematic migration, fault-valve behavior, and fracture mesh structures, not resolved in routine catalogs. We extend this analysis to characterize source mechanism similarity even for very small newly detected events using relative P and S polarity estimates. This information complements precise locations to define fault complexities that would otherwise be invisible. In particular, although swarms often consist of groups of highly similar events, some swarms contain a population of outliers with different slip and/or fault orientations. These events highlight the complexity of fluid-faulting interactions. Despite their different settings, the four swarms analyzed here share many similarities, including pronounced hypocenter migration suggestive of a fluid pressure trigger. This includes the July 2015 Fillmore swarm, which, unlike the others, occurred outside of an obvious volcanic zone. Nevertheless, it exhibited systematic westward and downdip migration on a ~1x1.5 km low-angle, NW-dipping reverse fault at midcrustal depth.

  8. Find a Midwife

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Find a Midwife practice locator is a web-based service that allows you to find midwifery practices in ... practice name, address, phone number, e-mail address, web site and a map of the ... reproductive health services, or gynecologic health, you may leave the birth ...

  9. Find a Physical Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students of physical therapy. Other Popular Resources: - Member Directory - Annual Reports Careers & Education Find Jobs Courses & Conferences About PT/PTA Careers Career Management ...

  10. Find a Cancer Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status message Locating you... The Find an Oncologist Database is made available by ASCO as an informational resource for patients and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health ...

  11. Find a Physical Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are numerous benefits to treatment by a physical therapist. Go There » For Patients Choosing Your PT Preparing ... need to know before your appointment with your physical therapist. Go There » Find a PT For Health Professionals ...

  12. Find an ACFAS Physician

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text Size Print Bookmark Find an ACFAS Physician Acceptance Policy By clicking on the "I Accept" ... Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem People's Rep Korea, Rebublic Of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan ...

  13. Find a Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts Find Help News and Research Tips for Soldiers and Veterans Tips for Families and Friends Take ... questions to ask for yourself and for your child . If we can be of further assistance Contact ...

  14. Finding New Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) Initial findings are presented for several new variable stars that have been identified using CCD photometry done with the 0.9-meter telescope located at the BYU West Mountain Observatory.

  15. ASGE: Find a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join ASGE Event Calendar Cart LOG IN MEMBERS HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS PATIENTS ADVOCACY Advocacy Agenda Legislation Regulation Take Action ... New Members GI-Related Links MEMBERS Find A Doctor About ASGE Members ASGE physicians and surgeons have ...

  16. Finding a Neurosurgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... The first step in getting proper treatment for Chiari is to find the right doctor. While many ... neurologist, given that the only real treatment for Chiari is surgical, Conquer Chiari recommends that patients see ...

  17. Finding Your Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author offers ways on how to find a voice when telling or sharing stories in print or in person. To find a voice, someone must: (1) Trust themselves; (2) Trust their audience whether they know they can trust them or not; (3) Be respectful in their inventions; (4) Listen to and read the stories of others; (5) Make mistakes; (6)…

  18. Finding the engram.

    PubMed

    Josselyn, Sheena A; Köhler, Stefan; Frankland, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    Many attempts have been made to localize the physical trace of a memory, or engram, in the brain. However, until recently, engrams have remained largely elusive. In this Review, we develop four defining criteria that enable us to critically assess the recent progress that has been made towards finding the engram. Recent 'capture' studies use novel approaches to tag populations of neurons that are active during memory encoding, thereby allowing these engram-associated neurons to be manipulated at later times. We propose that findings from these capture studies represent considerable progress in allowing us to observe, erase and express the engram. PMID:26289572

  19. Find a Periodontist

    MedlinePlus

    Search form Search Search form Search Select a Page Home About Us Vision and Mission AAP Membership Benefits of Membership AAP Benefits Details ... a Periodontist - Advanced Search Find a Periodontist - Advanced Search U.S. Zip Code Search The best way to ...

  20. Find a Massage Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Workplace Options Business Finances Career Path Quiz Job Bank Job Bank AMTA's Customized Job Bank Works for You Search massage therapy jobs in ... open positions and resumes for free. AMTA Job Bank » Get Started Find Jobs Sign up for Job ...

  1. Find a Podiatrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Yukon Territory Zip / Postal Code: The closest podiatrist may not be in your zip code. Please use the mile radius search OR enter just the first 3 digits of your zip code to find the ...

  2. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  3. Finding Those Missing Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses not to give up on a site when a URL returns an error message. Many web sites can be found by using strategies such as URL trimming, searching cached sites, site searching and searching the WayBack Machine. Methods and tips for finding web sites are contained within this article.

  4. Find a Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... AGD. It shall not be used for any commercial purpose without the express, written permission, and consent of the AGD. Misuse of this service will result in prosecution to the fullest extent of all applicable law. Home | InfoBites | Find an AGD Dentist | Your Family's ...

  5. CT findings in leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1984-12-01

    Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

  6. Sonographic Findings of Hydropneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Nations, Joel Anthony; Smith, Patrick; Parrish, Scott; Browning, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being used in examination of the thorax. The sonographic features of normal aerated lung, abnormal lung, pneumothorax, and intrapleural fluid have been published. The sonographic features of uncommon intrathoracic syndromes are less known. Hydropneumothorax is an uncommon process in which the thoracic cavity contains both intrapleural air and water. Few published examples of the sonographic findings in hydropneumothorax exist. We present 3 illustrative cases of the sonographic features of hydropneumothorax with comparative imaging and a literature review of the topic. PMID:27556194

  7. MRI Findings in Neuroferritinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2∗WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21808735

  8. [Silicosis: computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    González Vázquez, M; Trinidad López, C; Castellón Plaza, D; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, J; Tardáguila Montero, F

    2013-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, which is caused by the inhalation of silica and affects a wide range of jobs. There are many clinical forms of silicosis: acute silicosis, results from exposure to very large amounts of silica dust over a period of less than 2 years. Simple chronic silicosis, the most common type that we see today, results from exposure to low amounts of silica between 2 and 10 years. Chronic silicosis complicated, with silicotic conglomerates. In many cases the diagnosis of silicosis is made according to epidemiological and radiological data, without a histological confirmation. It is important to know the various radiological manifestations of silicosis to differentiate it from other lung diseases and to recognize their complications. The objective of this work is to describe typical and atypical radiological findings of silicosis and their complications in helical and high resolution (HRCT) thorax CT. PMID:22884889

  9. Finding the Next Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Kepler Team

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago, we knew of no planets orbiting other Sun-like stars, yet today, the roll call is nearly 1,000 strong. Statistical studies of exoplanet populations are possible, and words like "habitable zone" are heard around the dinner table. Theorists are scrambling to explain not only the observed physical characteristics but also the orbital and dynamical properties of planetary systems. The taxonomy is diverse but still reflects the observational biases that dominate the detection surveys. We've yet to find another planet that looks anything like home. The scene changed dramatically with the launch of the Kepler spacecraft in 2009 to determine, via transit photometry, the fraction of stars harboring earth-size planets in or near the Habitable Zone of their parent star. Early catalog releases hint that nature makes small planets efficiently: over half of the sample of 2,300 planet candidates discovered in the first two years are smaller than 2.5 times the Earth's radius. I will describe Kepler's milestone discoveries and progress toward an exo-Earth census. Humankind's speculation about the existence of other worlds like our own has become a veritable quest.

  10. Scintigraphic findings in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Orduña, E; Silva, F

    1995-12-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is a tropical parasitic disease caused by a blood fluke which inhabits the portal system of humans. Fifteen pediatric patients with the acute disease were evaluated with liver and spleen scintigraphy (LSS). Clinical history, physical examination, and serum chemistries failed to reveal any other underlying systemic disease. Liver and spleen scintigraphies were performed before therapy, 7 months and 9 years after therapy with oxamniquine. LSS initially showed hepatomegaly in 93% of the patients. In the first follow up study a reactive spleen was evident in 78% of the cases, with an unchanged hepatic image. Long term follow up revealed that from the initially enlarged livers, 93% became normal. However, 47% of the spleens were abnormal. The scintigraphic changes observed in the liver over the years were those expected for an acute infection. The findings in the spleen might indicate the persistence of an immunologic reaction with a continuous trigger, probably an antibody. These observations suggest that the LSS can be used in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8637963

  11. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  12. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

  13. Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…

  14. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / ... the time. From the MedlinePlus page on Traumatic Brain Injury, you can use Go Local to find ...

  15. Radiographic findings of Proteus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nishant Mukesh; Davalos, Eric A.; Varma, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    The extremely rare Proteus Syndrome is a hamartomatous congenital syndrome with substantial variability between clinical patient presentations. The diagnostic criteria consist of a multitude of clinical findings including hemihypertrophy, macrodactyly, epidermal nevi, subcutaneous hamartomatous tumors, and bony abnormalities. These clinical findings correlate with striking radiographic findings. PMID:27186241

  16. Histological findings in human brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A. C.; Bothwell, P. W.

    1967-01-01

    The histological findings in 14 cases of brucellosis are described. Unusual findings include the occurrence of brucellosis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease and in another with lymphosarcoma. A patient with hepatic cirrhosis apparently due to brucellosis is included in the series. Images PMID:5632572

  17. Empirical Findings and Educational Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter, Ludwig

    1988-01-01

    Sketches relevant issues of the relationship between findings in the field of educational science and decisions to be taken in educational policy. Discusses possible interaction models, identifying factors relevant to their realization. States that the identification of factors determining the application of research findings remains an important…

  18. Finding the object'' proceedings addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, M.A.; Devaney, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss finding the object -- that is, how software engineers imagine, invent, design, or recycle objects and their behaviors for object-oriented software engineering. The workshop organizers (and, as we subsequently discovered, several of the workshop participants) felt that this issue is crucial to successful object-oriented software engineering (after all, finding objects is what the projects is all about, isn't it ). Unfortunately, when previous workshops have had the opportunity to review and discuss techniques practitioners use to find objects, too often the results were heated debates on what is an object '' which becomes all consuming. We believed that, given appropriate control over the question of which kind of object'' is being discussed (which meant tell us what object you are trying to find, then tell us your method), a workshop to concentrate on techniques for finding objects would be quite appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Finding an Eye Care Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... article rating hospitals in the United States. Website: http://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals For More Information ... ophthalmologists in the United States and abroad. Website: https://secure.aao.org/aao/find-ophthalmologist The American ...

  20. Visual direction finding by fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

  1. A Family Finds Its Way

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury A Family Finds Its Way Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... spoke recently with NIH MedlinePlus ' Christopher Klose. At its heart, TBI, hearing loss, any health condition is ...

  2. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall ... local health and social services for survivors of TBI is as important as knowing about the medical ...

  3. Find a NCCAOM Certified Practitioner

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCAOM Certification Get Certified Get Recertified PDA Search Engine Find A Practitioner State Licensing Helpful NCCAOM Links ... My Status State Licensure Diplomates Recertification PDA Search Engine State Licensure Consumers Diplomate of Acupuncture Diplomate of ...

  4. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J

    1989-01-01

    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18. PMID:2748230

  5. CT findings of atrial myxoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, F.; Kohno, A.; Saitoh, R.; Shigeta, A.

    1984-04-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of six atrial myxomas was analyzed. Five of the myxomas were located in the left atrium and one was in the right atrium. The margin of the myxoma was at least slightly lobulated in five cases and the content was inhomogeneous in all. Calcification was demonstrated in three cases. The site of attachment of the myxoma was demonstrated by CT to be the arial septum in all cases. The CT finding correlated well with the operative findings. It is concluded that it is possible with CT to diagnose atrial myxoma by the location and nature of the intracardiac mass and to differentiate it from thrombus.

  6. Peak finding using biorthogonal wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.

    2000-02-01

    The authors show in this paper how they can find the peaks in the input data if the underlying signal is a sum of Lorentzians. In order to project the data into a space of Lorentzian like functions, they show explicitly the construction of scaling functions which look like Lorentzians. From this construction, they can calculate the biorthogonal filter coefficients for both the analysis and synthesis functions. They then compare their biorthogonal wavelets to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigations) wavelets when used for peak finding in noisy data. They will show that in this instance, their filters perform much better than the FBI wavelets.

  7. 1980-1981 Evaluation Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    This volume summarizes the results of evaluation and testing activities carried out in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District (AISD) during the 1980-81 school year. The text consists of five parts: Section one highlights important findings in the areas of Title I Schoolwide Projects, compensatory programs, early childhood programs,…

  8. MR imaging findings of endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Cornelius, Rebecca; Cunnane, Mary Beth; Golnik, Karl; Morales, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Endophthalmitis is a sight-threatening ophthalmologic emergency. The clinical diagnosis is often challenging, and delayed diagnosis may exacerbate the poor visual prognosis. B-scan ultrasonography or spectral domain optical coherence tomography are imaging aids at the clinician's office. Cross-sectional imaging such as CT and particularly MRI can also help in the assessment of disease extent or complications. MR imaging findings are rarely described in the literature. Here, we discuss the spectrum of imaging findings of endophthalmitis and correlate them with key anatomic and pathophysiologic details of the globe. Early disease is often subtle on MR imaging with thick uveal enhancement, while advanced disease demonstrates retinal/choroidal detachment, vitreal exudates and peribulbar inflammation. Other noninfectious inflammatory diseases of the globe can show similar findings; however, MR diffusion-weighted images help identify infectious exudates and evaluate response to therapy. Knowledge of the spectrum of imaging findings of this disease is important for radiologists and help in the management decision process. PMID:26915896

  9. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable

    SciTech Connect

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address root cause'' as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a root problems'' approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee's part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  10. Writing audit findings: Be reasonable!

    SciTech Connect

    Girvin, N.W.

    1992-05-01

    A customary approach to auditing and reporting deficiencies is to keep a running list of those that are found, evaluate the severity of each, and based on the evidence, document findings or observations or concerns in an audit report. The report is issued and the auditee is normally requested to address ``root cause`` as part of their corrective action. This paper describes a ``root problems`` approach to documenting audit findings that is designed not only to put the QA auditor in a more favorable light, but to more effectively enable the auditee to identify root cause and meaningful corrective action. The positive results of this approach are considerable. You will have fewer findings but those you do have will be substantial. You will cite requirements that sound reasonable and make arguments difficult. If some of the supporting deficiencies (examples) prove to be incorrect, you will still have ample support for the original finding. You will be seen as reasonable individual who can help lead the auditee towards identification of root cause without taking away part of the responsibility. You even have a fair chance of fostering a sense of commitment to quality improvement on the auditee`s part. This in itself, is its own reward.

  11. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; Jung, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  12. Finding Geography Using Found Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Functional literacy is important in both English/language arts and geography. Using the "found poetry" strategy, students will summarize a piece of text, identify main ideas and find geographic connections. While using young adult literature is a great way to incorporate geography into English/language arts classroom, understanding of geography…

  13. Findings from ATSDR's Health Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susten, Allan S.

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes findings from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry concerning the evaluation of data about hazardous substance release into the environment. Identifies the hazardous substances, exposure, health effects, and public health impact from 951 facilities identified on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the Environmental…

  14. Finding a Voice through Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Jose; Vizcaino, Alida

    2006-01-01

    One question guided this experimental study: What impact does the change from teacher training to educational research have on university teachers' methodology and attitudes to teaching? To find answers to this question, the researchers selected five teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the language centre of a private university on…

  15. Multi-Criteria Path Finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A.

    2012-07-01

    Path finding solutions are becoming a major part of many GIS applications including location based services and web-based GIS services. Most traditional path finding solutions are based on shortest path algorithms that tend to minimize the cost of travel from one point to another. These algorithms make use of some cost criteria that is usually an attribute of the edges in the graph network. Providing one shortest path limits user's flexibility when choosing a possible route, especially when more than one parameter is utilized to calculate cost (e.g., when length, number of traffic lights, and number of turns are used to calculate network cost.) K shortest path solutions tend to overcome this problem by providing second, third, and Kth shortest paths. These algorithms are efficient as long as the graphs edge weight does not change dynamically and no other parameters affect edge weights. In this paper we try to go beyond finding shortest paths based on some cost value, and provide all possible paths disregarding any parameter that may affect total cost. After finding all possible paths, we can rank the results by any parameter or combination of parameters, without a substantial increase in time complexity.

  16. Organizing pneumonia: chest HRCT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Igor Murad; Zanetti, Gláucia; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Araujo-Neto, Cesar Augusto; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of HRCT findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma of patients with organizing pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the HRCT scans of 36 adult patients (26 females and 10 males) with biopsy-proven organizing pneumonia. The patients were between 19 and 82 years of age (mean age, 56.2 years). The HRCT images were evaluated by two independent observers, discordant interpretations being resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The most common HRCT finding was that of ground-glass opacities, which were seen in 88.9% of the cases. The second most common finding was consolidation (in 83.3% of cases), followed by peribronchovascular opacities (in 52.8%), reticulation (in 38.9%), bronchiectasis (in 33.3%), interstitial nodules (in 27.8%), interlobular septal thickening (in 27.8%), perilobular pattern (in 22.2%), the reversed halo sign (in 16.7%), airspace nodules (in 11.1%), and the halo sign (in 8.3%). The lesions were predominantly bilateral, the middle and lower lung fields being the areas most commonly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the most common findings, with a predominantly random distribution, although they were more common in the middle and lower thirds of the lungs. PMID:26176521

  17. Finding Cryptography in Object Code

    SciTech Connect

    Jason L. Wright

    2008-10-01

    Finding and identifying Cryptography is a growing concern in the malware analysis community. In this paper, a heuristic method for determining the likelihood that a given function contains a cryptographic algorithm is discussed and the results of applying this method in various environments is shown. The algorithm is based on frequency analysis of opcodes that make up each function within a binary.

  18. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    PubMed

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  19. Breast Ultrasound: Indications and Findings.

    PubMed

    Gundry, Kathleen R

    2016-06-01

    Breast ultrasound is a widely used adjuvant to mammography for the detection of breast cancer. This chapter will review some of the basic ultrasound technical factors and techniques, describe findings on ultrasound with an emphasis on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System terminology, and present the indications for breast ultrasound. New innovations in breast ultrasound, such as elastography, ultrasound contrast, 3-dimensional, and automated whole-breast ultrasound, will be reviewed. Ultrasound-guided breast procedures are also presented. PMID:26974219

  20. Radiological Findings of Michel Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayse; Demirtas, Hakan; Celik, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital abnormalities of the inner ear is the most common cause of neurosensory hearing loss. Michel inner ear deformity is a rare developmental anomaly refers to the total aplasia of the inner ear. It is caused by developmental arrest of otic placode early during the third week of gestational age. Case report: We have discussed here that three year old girl diagnosed Michel aplasia with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. PMID:27482139

  1. Angiographic Findings in Biliary Atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, Renan Pariente, Daniele M.

    2004-09-15

    We present the angiographic findings of 46 patients with biliary atresia (BA). There were 25 males and 21 females, with a mean age of 22.5 months (range - 1.5 to 141 months). Hepatic and mesenteric angiography were obtained as part of a liver transplantation work-up or as part of the treatment of clinical events. All patients had a histological diagnosis of BA. The portal vein was patent in 43 patients, with a mean size of 4.1 mm, using the arterial catheter as comparison. Portal hepatopetal flow was observed in 20 patient and hepatofugal flow was observed in 21 patients. Presence of gastroesophageal varices was observed in 41 patients. The hepatic artery was enlarged in all patients. In all 46 patients studied, the intrahepatic peripheral hepatic artery branches presented with irregularities in contour, including encasement, strictures, dilatation and angulation, and images suggestive of peripheral occlusion. Angiographic vascular 'tuft-like' blush surrounding the irregular or occluded peripheral arterial segments was observed in 40 patients. The injection of Microfil (registered) in one case showed a marked vascular proliferation within the portal tract, apparently derived from arterial and portal connections, filling the entire portal space. We conclude that the presence of angiographically demonstrable perivascular arterial tufts in the periphery of the hepatic arterial circulation is a common finding in cases of BA, and may be a characteristic diagnostic angiographic finding.

  2. Adult Hirschprung disease: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Mindelzun, R E; Hicks, S M

    1986-09-01

    Hirschprung disease is usually diagnosed in infancy. Occasionally patients reach adulthood without diagnosis or treatment. Four cases of adult Hirschprung disease are described. The principal radiographic findings are a markedly dilated, feces-filled colon above the zone of transition; a narrowed rectum; a cone- or funnel-shaped zone of transition; and a mosaic colonic pattern caused by collapsed redundant mucosa after colonic cleansing. In an adult, identification on a barium enema examination of an abrupt, smooth transition zone in the rectum with proximal colonic dilatation, in conjunction with an appropriate clinical history, should suggest the diagnosis of adult Hirschprung disease. PMID:3737900

  3. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, M. Mohsen; El-Said, Galal M.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen echocardiographic recordings in nine patients with bacterial endocarditis revealed vegetations in six cases. The vegetations appeared as uneven, irregular thickening of a valve, a mass of shaggy, dense echoes attached to a leaflet or cusp, or a mass of irregular dense echoes in the cavity or outflow tract of the left ventricle. Such findings were seen only on the echocardiograms of very sick patients with severe valvular lesions. Three patients had flail mitral valves. Echocardiography was not helpful in differentiating between active and healed lesions. Problems in the identification and differential diagnosis of vegetations shown on echocardiograms are discussed. Images PMID:15216037

  4. Imaging Findings of Congestive Hepatopathy.

    PubMed

    Wells, Michael L; Fenstad, Eric R; Poterucha, Joseph T; Hough, David M; Young, Phillip M; Araoz, Philip A; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-01-01

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) refers to hepatic abnormalities that result from passive hepatic venous congestion. Prolonged exposure to elevated hepatic venous pressure may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver dysfunction and corresponding clinical signs and symptoms typically manifest late in the disease process. Recognition of CH at imaging is critical because advanced liver fibrosis may develop before the condition is suspected clinically. Characteristic findings of CH on conventional images include dilatation of the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins; retrograde hepatic venous opacification during the early bolus phase of intravenous contrast material injection; and a predominantly peripheral heterogeneous pattern of hepatic enhancement due to stagnant blood flow. Extensive fibrosis can be seen in chronic or severe cases. Hyperenhancing regenerative nodules that may retain hepatobiliary contrast agents are often present. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography can show elevated liver stiffness and may be useful in evaluation of fibrosis in CH because it can be incorporated easily into routine cardiac MR imaging. Preliminary experience with MR elastography suggests its future use in initial evaluation of patients suspected of having CH, for monitoring of disease, and for assessment after therapy. To facilitate appropriate workup and treatment, radiologists should be familiar with findings suggestive of CH at radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MR imaging, and MR elastography. In addition, knowledge of underlying pathophysiology, comparative histologic abnormalities, and extrahepatic manifestations is useful to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and suggest appropriate additional diagnostic testing. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27284758

  5. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  6. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: neuroradiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W M; Brant-Zawadzki, M

    1983-11-01

    Central nervous system complications depicted by CT in ten patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are described. Three patients had multifocal intra-axial enhancing lesions representing atypical brain abscesses (two with toxoplasmosis, one with candidiasis). A fourth patient with multifocal "ring" lesions whose biopsy was interpreted as suggestive of toxoplasmosis responded poorly to treatment. Following his death three months later of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, autopsy revealed primary intracerebral immunoblastic lymphoma. One patient had Kaposi sarcoma involving the right frontal lobe (seen as an enhancing mass on the CT scan). CT findings in the remaining five patients revealed mild to moderate enlargement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces (including ventricles and basal cisternae) as a result of cryptococcal meningitis in three patients and "aseptic" meningitis in two. The two patients in whom early biopsy confirmed toxoplasmosis responded well to anti-infective therapy, resulting in dramatic clinical recoveries. PMID:6622693

  7. Magellan: Principal Venus science findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the science findings of the Magellan mission, principally based on data from the radar system. Future plans for Magellan include acquisition of high resolution gravity data from a nearly circular orbit and atmospheric drag and occultation experiments. The Magellan science results represent the combined effort of more than 100 Magellan investigators and their students and colleagues. More extensive discussions can be found in the August and October, 1992 issues of the Journal of Geophysical Research, Planets. The Magellan mission's scientific objectives were to provide a global characterization of landforms and tectonic features; to distinguish and understand impact processes; to define and explain erosion, deposition, and chemical processes; and to model the interior density distribution. All but the last objective, which requires new global gravity data, have been accomplished, or we have acquired the data that are required to accomplish them.

  8. Finding and Not Finding Rat Perirhinal Neuronal Responses to Novelty.

    PubMed

    von Linstow Roloff, Eva; Muller, Robert U; Brown, Malcolm W

    2016-08-01

    There is much evidence that the perirhinal cortex of both rats and monkeys is important for judging the relative familiarity of visual stimuli. In monkeys many studies have found that a proportion of perirhinal neurons respond more to novel than familiar stimuli. There are fewer studies of perirhinal neuronal responses in rats, and those studies based on exploration of objects, have raised into question the encoding of stimulus familiarity by rat perirhinal neurons. For this reason, recordings of single neuronal activity were made from the perirhinal cortex of rats so as to compare responsiveness to novel and familiar stimuli in two different behavioral situations. The first situation was based upon that used in "paired viewing" experiments that have established rat perirhinal differences in immediate early gene expression for novel and familiar visual stimuli displayed on computer monitors. The second situation was similar to that used in the spontaneous object recognition test that has been widely used to establish the involvement of rat perirhinal cortex in familiarity discrimination. In the first condition 30 (25%) of 120 perirhinal neurons were visually responsive; of these responsive neurons 19 (63%) responded significantly differently to novel and familiar stimuli. In the second condition eight (53%) of 15 perirhinal neurons changed activity significantly in the vicinity of objects (had "object fields"); however, for none (0%) of these was there a significant activity change related to the familiarity of an object, an incidence significantly lower than for the first condition. Possible reasons for the difference are discussed. It is argued that the failure to find recognition-related neuronal responses while exploring objects is related to its detectability by the measures used, rather than the absence of all such signals in perirhinal cortex. Indeed, as shown by the results, such signals are found when a different methodology is used. © 2016 The Authors

  9. Finding and Not Finding Rat Perirhinal Neuronal Responses to Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Robert U.; Brown, Malcolm W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is much evidence that the perirhinal cortex of both rats and monkeys is important for judging the relative familiarity of visual stimuli. In monkeys many studies have found that a proportion of perirhinal neurons respond more to novel than familiar stimuli. There are fewer studies of perirhinal neuronal responses in rats, and those studies based on exploration of objects, have raised into question the encoding of stimulus familiarity by rat perirhinal neurons. For this reason, recordings of single neuronal activity were made from the perirhinal cortex of rats so as to compare responsiveness to novel and familiar stimuli in two different behavioral situations. The first situation was based upon that used in “paired viewing” experiments that have established rat perirhinal differences in immediate early gene expression for novel and familiar visual stimuli displayed on computer monitors. The second situation was similar to that used in the spontaneous object recognition test that has been widely used to establish the involvement of rat perirhinal cortex in familiarity discrimination. In the first condition 30 (25%) of 120 perirhinal neurons were visually responsive; of these responsive neurons 19 (63%) responded significantly differently to novel and familiar stimuli. In the second condition eight (53%) of 15 perirhinal neurons changed activity significantly in the vicinity of objects (had “object fields”); however, for none (0%) of these was there a significant activity change related to the familiarity of an object, an incidence significantly lower than for the first condition. Possible reasons for the difference are discussed. It is argued that the failure to find recognition‐related neuronal responses while exploring objects is related to its detectability by the measures used, rather than the absence of all such signals in perirhinal cortex. Indeed, as shown by the results, such signals are found when a different methodology is used.

  10. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by

  11. Somatosensory findings in postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Nurmikko, T; Bowsher, D

    1990-01-01

    Somatic sensory perception thresholds (warm, cold, hot pain, touch, pinprick, vibration, two-point discrimination), allodynia and skin temperature were assessed in the affected area of 42 patients with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 20 patients who had had unilateral shingles not followed by PHN (NoPHN), and in the mirror-image area on the other side. There was no difference between the two groups for age or length of time after the acute herpes zoster infection. The PHN group showed significant changes in all sensory threshold measurements when the affected area was compared with the mirror-image area on the unaffected side, while the NoPHN group exhibited no threshold changes. Mechanical allodynia was present in 87% of the PHN group; half of the 12 patients with ophthalmic PHN showed extension of allodynia to the maxillary distribution. No differences in skin temperature were recorded between affected and unaffected regions in either group. Our findings show a deficit of sensory functions mediated by both large and small primary afferent fibres and also suggest major central involvement in the pathophysiology of the condition. If PHN does not occur following acute herpes zoster, recovery of neural functions appears to be good. PMID:2313300

  12. Pollution! Find a STEM solution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takač, Danijela; Moćan, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Primary and secondary school Pantovčak is an innovative school in downtown Zagreb, Croatia. The school is involved in many projects concerning STEM education. Pollution! Find a STEM solution! is a two year long cross-curricular project that grew out of identified need to develop STEM and ICT skills more. Pisa results make evident that students' knowledge is poor and motivation for math and similar subjects is low. Implying priorities of European Commission, like e-learning, raises motivation and also develops basic skills and improves knowledge in science, math, physic, ICT. Main objectives are to increase students' interest in STEM education and careers and introduce them to all available new trends in technology, engineering and science in their region by visiting clean technology industries and strengthening links with them, to introduce some future digital jobs and prepare students for rapid technological changes by integrating ICT into classroom practice more, to highlight the importance of global environmental issues and improve the knowledge in the areas of sustainable development and renewable energy, to develop collaborative partnership between schools and the wider community in formal, non-formal and informal learning, to support multilingualism by publishing Open Educational Resources in 8 different languages and to strengthen the professional profile of the teaching profession. The project brings together 231 teachers and 2729 students from five different European countries in learning to think globally and work on activities that contribute to the community's well-being. There are altogether 33 activities, divided in 4 categories. STEM activities are focused on students building the devices for measuring air, light and noise pollution in their school and homes. They use the scientific method to analyze the data and compare the results with their peers to find a solution. Eskills, digital literacy and digital jobs are focused on introducing career

  13. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  14. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  15. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  16. Transmyocardial laser revascularization: histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Dedic, K; Klima, T; Cooley, D A; Frazier, O H; Kadipasaoglu, K A; Cihan, H B

    1998-01-01

    Transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) is a new surgical technique clinically tested in patients with advanced severe coronary arteriosclerosis when classic routine treatment by medicaments, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or aorto-coronary bypass surgery does not improve symptoms of ischemic heart disease. During the procedure high-energy CO 2 laser performs 35-40 transmyocardial channels via left-sided thoracotomy. Channels are drilled from the epicardial side of the heart through the myocardium into the left ventricle cavity. Impulses are synchronized with EKG (diastole), the channel diameter is about 1 mm. Transmural laser penetration is confirmed by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). This technique is based on a theory that channels allow blood supply from left ventricle directly into the intramyocardial vessels (possibly capillaries) and so improve oxygenation of ischemic myocardium. Presented are gross and microscopic findings in a 75-year-old woman who suffered from classic class IV angina with shortness of breath. She had a history of an inferior myocardial infarct, ventricular tachyarrhythmia, aorto-coronary bypass, and mitral valvuloplasty. Her ejection fraction by echocardiography was 25%. Angiographically, she had multiple occlusions of native coronary arteries and diffuse distal stenosis in the graft of the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Thirty six of forty laser pulses were confirmed by TEE as transmural. The patient died suddenly of ventricular fibrillation 5 days after TMLR surgery. The autopsy was performed 6 hours after death. After cross-sectioning of the heart all the laser-bored channels were found partially or completely filled by fibrin and cell infiltrate composed mainly of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Patent channels were found within myocardial scars, channels performed through viable myocardium appeared to be partially

  17. Postmortem perianal findings in children.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Reay, D; Siebert, J; Stephens, B G; Wirtz, S

    1996-12-01

    The postmortem finding of anal dilation or an exposed pectinate line in children who have died under suspicious circumstances continues to raise the concern of possible sexual abuse. The following multicenter, collaborative study was designed to help address that question. Sixty-five subjects, ranging in age from birth to 17 years, were autopsied at three different sites. A standard protocol along with 35-mm cameras were used to record the results. Thirty-eight (58%) subjects were boys, and 27 (42%) were girls. Forty-two (65%) were white, 10 (15%) African-American, five (8%) Asian, three (5%) white Hispanic and five (8%) other. Fifty-seven (88%) were in Tanner stage I of secondary sexual development. Thirty-four (52%) died of natural causes, 26 (40%) from accidental injuries, three (5%) from other causes, and four (6%) as a result of a homicide. Forty-eight subjects (74%) had some dilation of the anal sphincters. In 21 children (32%), the entire anal canal, including the rectal ampulla, could be visualized. In another 21 (32%) subjects, the pectinate line was exposed. Only the outer portion of the anal canal opened in six children (10%), whereas 17 (26%) had no dilatation of the anus. Anal laxity led to flattened skin folds in 50 (77%), a shallow anal canal in 40 (62%), the exposure of both the pectinate line in 38 (59%), and the anal mucosa in 24 (37%). Venous congestion was present in 14 (22%), venous pooling in three (5%), erythema in six (9%), and increased pigmentation in eight (12%). Funneling was found in two (3%). Blood was present in three (5%), and an abrasion was discovered in one (2%). No fissures, lacerations, hemorrhoids, or scars were found in any of the children. Anal orifice size varied with the age of the child, the amount of traction applied to the buttocks, and a history of a CNS injury at the time of death. It is suggested, finally, that anal dilatation alone cannot be used a marker for prior sexual abuse and the exposure of the pectinate line

  18. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  19. Cost Finding: Why It Is Important.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance of cost finding for public libraries and the relationship of cost finding to output measures. A cost finding study conducted on the cost of gift books is described; several worksheets from the study are included. Suggestions are offered for beginning a cost-finding project. (three references) (MES)

  20. 38 CFR 41.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audit findings. 41.510... OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in a schedule...

  1. 7 CFR 3052.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit findings. 3052.510 Section 3052.510 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  2. 29 CFR 99.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Audit findings. 99.510 Section 99.510 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 99.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  3. 38 CFR 41.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Audit findings. 41.510... OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in a schedule...

  4. 38 CFR 41.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Audit findings. 41.510... OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in a schedule...

  5. 29 CFR 99.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Audit findings. 99.510 Section 99.510 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 99.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  6. 29 CFR 99.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Audit findings. 99.510 Section 99.510 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 99.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  7. 29 CFR 99.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audit findings. 99.510 Section 99.510 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 99.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  8. 7 CFR 3052.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit findings. 3052.510 Section 3052.510 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  9. 7 CFR 3052.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Audit findings. 3052.510 Section 3052.510 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 3052.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in...

  10. 38 CFR 41.510 - Audit findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Audit findings. 41.510... OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.510 Audit findings. (a) Audit findings reported. The auditor shall report the following as audit findings in a schedule...