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Sample records for pae jan-roland raukas

  1. 24 CFR 401.201 - How does HUD select PAEs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How does HUD select PAEs? 401.201...) § 401.201 How does HUD select PAEs? (a) Selection of PAE. HUD will select qualified PAEs in accordance... qualified public agency. (d) No PAE for project. If HUD does not select a PAE for a project, HUD may...

  2. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  3. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  4. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  5. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  6. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  7. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  8. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  9. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring...

  10. 24 CFR 401.200 - Who may be a PAE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) §...

  11. 24 CFR 401.201 - How does HUD select PAEs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement...

  12. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... evaluates bidders' capability, timeliness, ability to work with tenant and community groups, and cost. (b... performance, tenant satisfaction with the PAE's performance, the infusion of public funds from non-HUD...

  13. 24 CFR 401.313 - Consequences of PAE violations; finality of HUD determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) § 401.313 Consequences of PAE violations; finality of...

  14. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  15. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  16. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  17. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  18. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  19. Beyond Barriers: Involving Hispanic Families in the Education Process. Padres a la escuela (PAE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Magdalena C.

    The Padres a la escuela (PAE) or Parents in the School program in San Antonio (Texas) encouraged the participation of Hispanic parents in the education of their children. The successes of the PAE program are used in this guidebook to help parents, program staff, and policy makers in similar efforts. This handbook describes the history,…

  20. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  1. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  2. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  3. Gas/solid particulate phthalic esters (PAEs) in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-xin; Fan, Chinbay Q

    2014-07-15

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used in many branches of industry and are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. An investigation on particulate- and gas-phase distribution of PAEs has been conducted between January 2011 and December 2012 in Nanjing (China). Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils were sampled from urban to suburban/remote sites, to investigate the pine needle/soil distribution of PAEs. The results showed that the average total PAE concentration (gas+particle) was 97.0ngm(-3). The six PAE congeners considered predominantly existed in the gas phase and the average contribution of gas phase to total PAEs ranged from 75.0% to 89.1%. The PAE concentrations in rhizosphere soils and pine needles were positively correlated with their particulate- and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, which suggested that surface soils accumulated PAEs mainly through gravity deposition of particles and pine needle stomata absorbed PAEs mainly from the gas phase. The gas/particle partitioning (KP) and soil-pine needle ratio (Rs/n) were determined. Experimentally determined KP values correlated well with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (PL). A set of interesting relationships of logRs/n-logKP-logPL was employed to explain the experimental findings of PAEs deposition to surface soils and to needles. This data set offered a unique perspective into the influence that Rs/n played in KP and correlated with PL. PMID:24887117

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and adolescent stress: Unmasking persistent attentional deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, Wendy L; Winstanley, Catharine A; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can produce a myriad of deficits. Unfortunately, affected individuals may also be exposed to the stress of an adverse home environment, contributing to deficits of attentional processes that are the hallmark of optimal executive function. Male offspring of ad libitum-fed Control (Con), Pairfed (PF), and PAE dams were randomly assigned to either a five day period of variable chronic mild stress (CMS) or no CMS (Non CMS) in adolescence. In adulthood, rats were trained in a non-match to sample task (T-maze), followed by extensive assessment in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Once rats acquired the 5-CSRTT (stable accuracy), rats were tested in three challenge conditions, 1) increased sustained attention, 2) selective attention and, 3) varying doses of d- amphetamine, an indirect dopamine and norepinephrine agonist. At birth and throughout the study, PAE offspring showed reduced body weight. Moreover, although PAE were comparable to Con animals in task acquisition, they were progressively less proficient with transitions to shorter stimulus durations (decreased accuracy and increased omissions). Five days of adolescent CMS increased basal corticosterone levels in adolescence and disrupted cognitive performance in adulthood. Further, CMS augmented PAE-related disturbances in acquisition and, to a lesser extent, disrupted attentional processes in Con and PF animals as well. Following task acquisition, challenges unmasked persistent attentional difficulties resulting from both PAE and adolescent CMS. In conclusion, PAE, adolescent CMS, and their interaction produced unique behavioural profiles that suggest vulnerability in select neurobiological processes at different stages of development. PMID:25059261

  5. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided. PMID:26202432

  6. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male. PMID:25253058

  7. Current status and historical variations of phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in the sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Wang, Qing-Mei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 μg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 μg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 μg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 μg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 μg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores. PMID:26330308

  8. [Effect of municipal sludge and chemical fertilizers on phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contents in Ipomoea aquatica grown on paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Cai, Quanying; Mo, Cehui; Zhu, Xizhen; Wu, Qitang; Wang, Boguang; Jiang, Chengai; Li, Haiqin

    2003-11-01

    GC/MS determinations on six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in Ipomoea aquatic grown on potted paddy soil fertilized with municipal sludge and chemical fertilizers showed that the total contents of PAEs (sigma PAEs) in Ipomoea aquatic aboveground parts ranged from 2.129 mg.kg-1 to 7.111 mg.kg-1, decreasing in order of Guangzhou sludge + fertilizers (7.111 mg.kg-1) > Guangzhou sludge (4.767 mg.kg-1) > Foshan sludge (3.569 mg.kg-1) > Foshan sludge + fertilizers (3.305 mg.kg-1) > fertilizers (2.638 mg.kg-1) > control (2.129 mg.kg-1), indicating that compared with control, fertilization increased sigma PAEs in Ipomoea aquatica to a different extent. Only certain compounds of PAEs in different treatments of Ipomoea aquatica were dominant, e.g., butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) in control, chemical fertilizers, Foshan sludge, and Guangzhou sludge accounted for 40% to 80% of sigma PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate(DnBP) in foshan sludge + chemical fertilizers accounted for 56%, while di-n-octyl phthalate(DnOP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP) and BBP in Guangzhou sludge + chemical fertilizers accounted for approximately 30%. sigma PAEs and the contents of its most compounds were higher in the plants of Ipomoea aquatica than in its roots to a different extent. PMID:14997666

  9. Inappropriate Feeding Behaviors and Dietary Intakes in Children with FASD or Probable PAE

    PubMed Central

    Werts, Rachel L.; Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Wargowski, David S.; Smith, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a leading cause of significant neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. Its potential consequences for eating behaviors, nutritional status and other nutritional issues in childhood have received little attention. Methods Nineteen children (11 male, 8 female) of mean age 9.6 years, referred for FASD screening and assessment, were analyzed with physical exams and caregiver questionnaires to identify possible abnormalities in food and eating behaviors. Fourteen children contributed 24-hour diet recalls and were assessed for nutritional status. Results Seventy-nine percent of participants were diagnosed with FASD and 63.2% had confirmed PAE. Fifty percent of females were overweight or obese, whereas 37% of males had reduced stature, weight, or BMI for their age. Recurring feeding problems included constant snacking (36.8%), lack of satiety (26.3%), and picky eating/poor appetite (31.6%). None had oral feeding problems. Constipation was common (26.3%). Macronutrient intakes were largely normal but sugar consumption was excessive (140%-190% of recommendations) in 57% of subjects. Vitamin A intake exceeded the Upper Limit for 64% of participants, whereas ≥50% had intakes <80% of RDAs for choline, vitamin E, potassium, β-carotene, and essential fatty acids; 100% had vitamin D intakes <80% of the RDA. Conclusions PAE may be associated with altered acquisition and distribution of body mass with increasing age. Disordered eating was common. The increased feeding behaviors surrounding lack of satiety suggest self-regulation may be altered. Constipation could reflect low dietary fiber or altered gastrointestinal function. These exploratory data suggest that children with PAE may be at risk for nutritional deficiencies, which are influenced by inappropriate food preferences, disordered eating patterns, medication use, and the stressful dynamics surrounding food preparation and mealtime. PMID:24164456

  10. Effects of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) on the neonate and aspects of teratogenic actions.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J A; Wienckowski, D B; Gillies, B A; Thomas, M J; Youkilis, E J

    1986-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals that several different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are capable of causing testicular damage. Phthalate-induced zinc deficiency is consistent with germinal epithelial damage. Among experimental animals, mice perhaps show the greatest sensitivity to phthalate-induced terata, but high doses/exposure are required. Little toxicologic information is available with regard to phthalate-induced effects upon the neonate. PMID:3709448

  11. Association of PAEs with Precocious Puberty in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Liu, Shu-Dan; Lei, Xun; Ling, Yu-Shuang; Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precocious puberty (PP) currently affects 1 in 5000 children and is 10 times more common in girls. Existing studies have tried to detect an association between phathalic acid esters (PAEs) and PP, but the results did not reach a consensus. Objective: To estimate the association between PAEs and children with PP based on current evidence. Methods: Databases including PubMed (1978 to March 2015), OVID (1946 to March 2015), Web of Science (1970 to March 2015), EBSCO (1976 to March 2015), CNKI (1979 to March 2015), WANFANG DATA (1987 to March 2015), CBM (1978 to March 2015) and CQVIP (1989 to March 2015) were searched to identify all case-control studies that determined the exposure and concentration of PAEs and their metabolites in children with PP. Meta-analysis of the pooled standard mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: A total of 14 studies involving 2223 subjects were finally included. The pooled estimates showed that PP was associated with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) exposure (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.77 to 5.49). Besides, the concentration of DEHP (SMD: 1.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.91) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (SMD: 4.31, 95% CI: 2.67 to 5.95) in the PP group were significantly higher than those in the control group, respectively, while no difference was detected between case and control groups in either serum or urinary concentration of mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate(MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) or monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Conclusions: Exposure of DEHP and DBP might be associated with PP risk for girls, however, there is no evidence to show an association between the exposure to most PAE metabolites and PP. Given the moderate strength of the results, well-designed cohort studies with large sample size should be performed in

  12. Nucleotide sequence of the PaeR7 restriction/modification system and partial characterization of its protein products.

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, G; Roy, P H; Howard, K A; Benner, J S; Brooks, J E; Waters, A F; Gingeras, T R

    1985-01-01

    Bal31 deletion experiments on clones of the PaeR7 restriction-modification system from Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate that it is arranged as an operon, with the methylase gene preceding the endonuclease gene. The DNA sequence of this operon agrees with in vitro transcription-translation assays which predict proteins of 532 amino acids, Mr = 59,260 daltons, and 246 amino acids, Mr = 27,280 daltons, coincident with the methylase and endonuclease genes, respectively. These predicted values coincide with the measured molecular weights of the purified, denatured PaeR7 endonuclease and methylase proteins. The first twenty amino acids from the amino-terminus of the purified endonuclease exactly match those predicted from the DNA sequence. Finally, potential regulatory mechanisms for the expression of phage restriction are described based on the properties of several PaeR7 subclones. Images PMID:3001639

  13. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in soils. The average concentrations of PAEs in pot herb mustard, celery and lettuce were >3.00mgkg(-1) but were <2.50mgkg(-1) in the corresponding soils. Stem and leaf vegetables accumulated more PAEs. There were no clear relationships between vegetable and soil PAEs. Risk assessment indicates that DnBP, DEHP and DnOP exhibited elevated non-cancer risk with values of 0.039, 0.338 and 0.038, respectively. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was about 3.94×10(-5) to farmers working in plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. PMID:25863503

  14. Flow of sewage sludge-borne phthalate esters (PAEs) from human release to human intake: implication for risk assessment of sludge applied to soil.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Ying; Xiang, Nan; Chen, Ling; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Bing; Dai, Xiaohu; Zhang, Yun-Hui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    The wide production and use of phthalate esters (PAEs) in both industry and commercial products lead to their ubiquitous existence in the environment. However, understanding flow and pathway of human exposure to PAEs from sources to receptors is necessary and challenging. In this study, we selected final sewage sludge, an inevitable byproduct of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), as one type of important carrier/sources of PAEs to clarify the flow of PAEs between human and the environment, e.g. the release by human to sludge and in turn ingestion by human after these sludges were disposed as soil amendment. Twenty-five sludge samples were collected from 25 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, East China. Of all 16 PAE congeners, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) were predominant with mean concentrations of 97.4 and 22.4 μg/g dw, respectively, both locating at the high end of the global range. WWTP treating industrial waster generally contained higher PAEs compared to those treating domestic wastewater, but no positive relationship was found between PAE levels with the percentage of industrial wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that similar PAE sources for all WWTPs in Shanghai with three exceptions, in which specific PAE products were made. The annual mass loadings via sludge of DEHP, DnBP, and Σ16PAEs were 31.4, 7.44, and 39.6 tons in Shanghai and 1042, 247, and 1314 tons in China, respectively, only accounting for 0.09% of the total consumption of PAEs in China. If this sludge is applied in soil, human will take 16.4 and 3.8 μg/kg bw for DEHP and DnBP every day, respectively, via dietary and soil ingestion, which were lower than the toxicological safety parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze the flow of sludge-borne PAEs from human release to human intake. PMID:24468498

  15. ROPE Registry Project to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE) for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE).

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Caused by Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE); Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE); Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP); Open Prostatectomy; Laser Enucleation or Ablation of the Prostate

  16. Spatial and temporal variation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 and the influence of ambient temperature in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83 ng m-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33 ng m-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9 ± 202.8 ng m-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin.

  17. Effects of Chung-Pae Inhalation Therapy on a Mouse Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lee, Beom-Joon; Jung, Hee Jae; Kim, Kwan-Il; Choi, Jun-Yong; Joo, Myungsoo; Jung, Sung-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Chung-pae (CP) inhalation therapy is a method frequently used in Korea to treat lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the effects of CP inhalation on a COPD animal model. C57BL/6 mice received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alternately three times for 3 weeks to induce COPD. Then, CP (5 or 20 mg/kg) was administered every 2 h after the final LPS administration. The effect of CP was evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis of lung tissue, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, and tumor growth factor- (TGF-) β. Intratracheal CP administration reduced the number of leukocytes and neutrophils in BAL fluid, inhibited the histological appearance of lung damage, and decreased the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β. Intratracheal CP administration effectively decreased the chronic inflammation and pathological changes in a PPE- and LPS-induced COPD mouse model. Therefore, we suggest that CP is a promising strategy for COPD. PMID:26539225

  18. Morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies in the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai`ōpae, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Rozet, N. K.; Takabayashi, M.

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies (GAs) in the coral, Montipora capitata, from Wai`ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai`i Island. A macro-image analysis of skeletal microstructure placed GAs into two definable categories; Type A and Type B. Type A GAs had polyp density reduced by 43.05 ± 0.80% (mean ± SE) compared to healthy M. capitata tissue, with many fused and protrusive tuberculae. Type B GAs had no discernable polyps or calices and fused protuberant coenosteum. The prevalence of Type A and Type B GAs among all M. capitata colonies ( n = 1,093) in 8 tide pools at Wai`ōpae was 22.1% (range 2.8-33.7%) and 8.2% (range 0.0-16.9%), respectively. The proportion of colony surface area occupied by GA (relative GA cover) was quantified to assess the severity of this disease among all surveyed colonies. The relative GA cover was significantly greater on colonies larger than 1 m in diameter than smaller colonies and in the central portion of colonies than in the periphery. Furthermore, relative GA cover was negatively related to water motion ( R 2 = 0.748, P < 0.01). Developing field diagnostic criteria of M. capitata GA allowed for a detailed epizootiological assessment that determined several cofactors associated with disease severity. Such epizootiological analysis is applicable to future studies of GAs elsewhere.

  19. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: the study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wei, Junfu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han

    2014-05-30

    A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application. PMID:24721695

  20. [Feasibility of 3BER-S Process for the Deep Denitrification in Synch with the Removal of PAEs from Reclaimed Water].

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng-cheng; Hao, Rui-xia; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Dong-yue; Zhong, Li-yan; Xu, Hao-dan

    2016-02-15

    In order to investigate the feasibility of deep denitrification and simultaneous removing phthalate esters (PAEs) in the process of reclaimed water treatment uses three-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor coupled with sulfur autotrophic deep denitrification technology (3BER-S), the technological characteristics and mechanisms were analyzed based on determining the static adsorption capacity of biofilm cultured active carbon fillers in 3BER-S reactor together with the operation results of dynamic denitrification and simultaneous PAEs removing. The results showed that the average adsorption rates of DBP, DEHP were 85.84% and 97.12% in the biofilm cultured active carbon fillers, the equilibrium adsorption capacities were 0.1426 mg x g(-1) and 0.162 mg(-1) and the time spans of reaching adsorption saturation were 120 min and 60 min, respectively; The existence of PAEs had no obvious effect on denitrification, the reactor effluent concentration of TN was in range of 1-2 mg x L(-1) before and after the addition of PAEs, and the average removal rate of TN reached above 94%; 3BER-S denitrification system showed significant ability in removing PAEs, leading to effluent concentrations of DBP and DEHP of no more than 6 microg x L(-1) with removal rates of above 96%; this was due to the synergistic effect of absorption, biodegradation and electrochemistry. After treatment with 3BER-S technology, DBP and DEHP in simulative municipal secondary effluent met the regulated limitation of The Reuse of Urban Recycling Water Quality Standard for Groundwater Recharge (GB/T 19772-2005). PMID:27363158

  1. Self-assembled micelles based on pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-cholesterol block copolymer for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can Yang; Xiong, Di; Sun, Yao; Zhao, Bin; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Li Juan

    2014-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic triblock pH-sensitive poly(β-amino ester)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-cholesterol (PAE-g-MPEG-Chol) was designed and synthesized via the Michael-type step polymerization and esterification condensation method. The synthesized copolymer was determined with proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. The grafting percentages of MPEG and cholesterol were determined as 10.93% and 62.02%, calculated from the area of the characteristic peaks, respectively. The amphiphilic copolymer was confirmed to self-assemble into core/shell micelles in aqueous solution at low concentrations. The critical micelle concentrations were 6.92 and 15.14 mg/L at pH of 7.4 and 6.0, respectively, obviously influenced by the changes of pH values. The solubility of pH-responsive PAE segment could be transformed depending on the different values of pH because of protonation-deprotonation of the amino groups, resulting in pH sensitivity of the copolymer. The average particle size of micelles increased from 125 nm to 165 nm with the pH decreasing, and the zeta potential was also significantly changed. Doxorubicin (DOX) was entrapped into the polymeric micelles with a high drug loading level. The in vitro DOX release from the micelles was distinctly enhanced with the pH decreasing from 7.4 to 6.0. Toxicity testing proved that the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, whereas the copolymer showed low toxicity. The results demonstrated how pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-Chol micelles were proved to be a potential vector in hydrophobic drug delivery for tumor therapy. PMID:25364250

  2. Self-assembled micelles based on pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-cholesterol block copolymer for anticancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Can Yang; Xiong, Di; Sun, Yao; Zhao, Bin; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Li Juan

    2014-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic triblock pH-sensitive poly(β-amino ester)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-cholesterol (PAE-g-MPEG-Chol) was designed and synthesized via the Michael-type step polymerization and esterification condensation method. The synthesized copolymer was determined with proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. The grafting percentages of MPEG and cholesterol were determined as 10.93% and 62.02%, calculated from the area of the characteristic peaks, respectively. The amphiphilic copolymer was confirmed to self-assemble into core/shell micelles in aqueous solution at low concentrations. The critical micelle concentrations were 6.92 and 15.14 mg/L at pH of 7.4 and 6.0, respectively, obviously influenced by the changes of pH values. The solubility of pH-responsive PAE segment could be transformed depending on the different values of pH because of protonation–deprotonation of the amino groups, resulting in pH sensitivity of the copolymer. The average particle size of micelles increased from 125 nm to 165 nm with the pH decreasing, and the zeta potential was also significantly changed. Doxorubicin (DOX) was entrapped into the polymeric micelles with a high drug loading level. The in vitro DOX release from the micelles was distinctly enhanced with the pH decreasing from 7.4 to 6.0. Toxicity testing proved that the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, whereas the copolymer showed low toxicity. The results demonstrated how pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-Chol micelles were proved to be a potential vector in hydrophobic drug delivery for tumor therapy. PMID:25364250

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Chung-Pae, an Experimental Herbal Formula, on Acute Lung Inflammation Is Associated with Suppression of NF-κB and Activation of Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Kwan-Il; Kim, Yong Ho; Lee, Mei; Choi, Jun-Yong; Jung, Hee Jae; Jung, Sung-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an inflammatory disease with high mortality, but therapeutics against it is unavailable. Recently, we elaborated a formula, named Chung-pae (CP), that comprises four ethnic herbs commonly prescribed against various respiratory diseases in Asian traditional medicine. CP is being administered in aerosol to relieve various respiratory symptoms of patients in our clinic. Here, we sought to examine whether CP has a therapeutic effect on ALI and to uncover the mechanism behind it. Reporter assays show that CP suppressed the transcriptional activity of proinflammatory NF-κB and activated that of anti-inflammatory Nrf2. Similarly, CP suppressed the expression of NF-κB dependent, proinflammatory cytokines and induced that of Nrf2 dependent genes in RAW 264.7. An aerosol intratracheal administration of CP effectively reduced neutrophilic infiltration and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, hallmarks of ALI, in the lungs of mice that received a prior intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. The intratracheal CP administration concomitantly enhanced the expression of Nrf2 dependent genes in the lung. Therefore, our results evidenced a therapeutic effect of CP on ALI, in which differential regulation of the two key inflammatory factors, NF-κB and Nrf2, was involved. We propose that CP can be a new therapeutic formula against ALI. PMID:24062787

  4. Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.

    PubMed

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Gordon C C; Wang, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Yu-Han

    2014-07-30

    This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study. PMID:24630800

  5. Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Xie, Fang-Qin; Li, Yan-Xing; Wan, Xue-Lian; Ma, Wei-Wei; Wang, De-Cai; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population. PMID:25384258

  6. 78 FR 61352 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... characteristics of products or technologies. Information Requests The FTC will have PAE Firms and Other Firms... Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Trade... comments on proposed information requests to Patent Assertion Entities (``PAEs'') and other...

  7. Postantibiotic, Postantibiotic Sub-MIC, and Subinhibitory Effects of PGE-9509924, Ciprofloxacin, and Levofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Odenholt, Inga; Löwdin, Elisabeth; Cars, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Postantibiotic effects (PAEs), postantibiotic sub-MIC effects, and sub-MIC effects of the new nonfluoroquinolone PGE-9509924, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative strains were investigated. In comparison to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, PGE-9509924 exerted very similar PAEs against all strains except for both strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, where longer PAEs were found for PGE-9509924. All three investigated quinolones showed no minimal PAEs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:14506057

  8. Postantibiotic Effect and Postantibiotic Sub-MIC Effect of Levofloxacin Compared to Those of Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin against 20 Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Sheila K.; Lin, Gengrong; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respectively, for quinolones and 1 to 8, 1 to 8, and 1 to 6, respectively, for macrolides. PMID:9593160

  9. Postantibiotic effect and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect of levofloxacin compared to those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Lin, G; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1998-05-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respectively, for quinolones and 1 to 8, 1 to 8, and 1 to 6, respectively, for macrolides. PMID:9593160

  10. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J; Laue, Bridget E; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M; Jackson, Robert W; Kamoun, Sophien

    2010-01-01

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

  11. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250-2000 μm) and fine sand (53-250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  12. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  13. Occurence of the phthalate esters in soil and street dust samples from the Novi Sad city area, Serbia, and the influence on the children's and adults' exposure.

    PubMed

    Škrbić, Biljana D; Ji, Yaqin; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Zhao, Jie

    2016-07-15

    This is the first study reporting the presence of 6 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in 60 composite soil and street dust samples collected in the urban zone of Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia. The results were further used to assess children's and adults' PAEs nondietary daily intakes (DIs) through incidental soil and dust ingestion and/or dermal absorption. The study could be regarded as the important baseline for future monitoring of PAEs in the urban environments, particularly as it contributes to the rare data on PAEs occurence in the street dust. All 6 PAEs were detected in every analyzed soil and street dust samples from 0.0002mgkg(-1) to 4.82mgkg(-1), with the highest level obtained for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which was the most dominant PAE (70-96%). The highest total PAEs (Σ6PAEs) contents in soil (2.12mgkg(-1)) and street dust (5.45mgkg(-1)) samples were obtained for the samples from city parks. In all soil samples, Σ6PAEs exceeded the soil sustainable quality limit sets by the relevant Serbian Regulation, but were much lower than the limit requiring remediation measures. Concerning the estimated DIs, children were more susceptible to PAEs intake than adults regardless of the exposure routes. All the estimated DIs values were far below the known reference values. PMID:27039030

  14. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable. PMID:27322908

  15. Distribution of phthalate esters in urban soils of subtropical city, Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Feng; Cui, Kunyan; Xie, Zhiyong; Wu, Lina; Luo, Danling; Chen, Lixuan; Lin, Yujun; Liu, Min; Sun, Gouxuan

    2009-05-30

    Surface soils from 37 sampling sites including roadsides (RS), parks (PA) and residential areas (RE) of the Subtropical City, Guangzhou, were collected in December of 2005 and analyzed for 16 phthalate esters (PAEs). PAEs were detected in all surface soils analyzed, which indicate that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The summation operator(16)PAEs concentrations ranged from 1.67 to 322 microg g(-1)-dry weight (dw), with the median concentration of 17.7 microg g(-1)-dw, mainly originating from municipal solid waste leachate, discarded plastic effusion, municipal sewage and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were poorly correlated with soil organic carbon content, suggesting mixing process between local and on-going sources. Of the 16 PAEs, diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs, with the median concentrations of 1.63 microg g(-1)-dw, 1.80 microg g(-1)-dw and 14.8 microg g(-1)-dw, respectively, and accounted for 74.2-99.8% of the summation operator(16)PAEs concentrations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the distribution patterns of PAEs in the urban soils. Significant correlations existed among DiBP, DnBP, and DEHP, and between dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between this and studies conducted elsewhere, which is consistent with the application of similar commercial PAEs around the world. As compared to the results from other studies, the urban soils of Guangzhou city were severely contaminated with PAEs. The environmental and human health risks posed by PAEs in the urban soils of Guangzhou city may deserve further attention. PMID:18963455

  16. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  17. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid). PMID:22678026

  18. Atmospheric deposition of phthalate esters in a subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Feng; Lin, Yujun; Cui, Kunyan; Wen, Jiaxin; Ma, Yongqin; Chen, Hongli; Zhu, Fang; Ma, Zhiling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2010-02-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected two-weekly, from February 2007 to January 2008, at three representative areas, one suburban and two urbanized, in the subtropical city, Guangzhou, China, to assess the deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of phthalate esters (PAEs). Sixteen PAE congeners in bulk deposition samples were measured and the depositional fluxes of ∑ 16PAEs ranged from 3.41 to 190 μg m -2 day -1, and were highly affected by local anthropogenic activities. The significant relationship between PAEs and particulate depositional fluxes (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001) showed PAEs are associated primarily with particles. Temporal flux variations of PAEs were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters, and the deposition fluxes of PAEs were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Diisobutyl phthalate (D iBP), Di- n-butyl phthalate (D nBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE pattern in bulk depositions, which is consistent with a high consumption of the plasticizer market in China. PAE profiles in bulk deposition showed similarities exhibited in both time and space, and a weak increase of high molecular weight PAE (HMW PAE) contribution in the wet season compared to those in the dry season. Average atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAEs in the present study were significantly higher than those from other studies, reflecting strong anthropogenic inputs as a consequence of rapid industrial and urban development in the region.

  19. Phthalic Acid Esters in Soils from Vegetable Greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs. PMID:24747982

  20. Monitoring of phthalates in foodstuffs using gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Yang, Cui; Geng, Renjie; Zhao, Xiangai; Hong, Lian; Piao, Xiangfan; Chen, Tie; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-06-16

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are commonly used as nonreactive plasticisers in vinyl plastics to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Numerous studies have indicated that the PAEs as a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition, the studies have also shown that a major source of human exposure to phthalates is the diet. To date, the largest problem in PAEs analysis is the high blank value because PAEs are widely used in various applications and products. To overcome this shortcoming, gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was applied, which established a new and low-blank-value analytical method for PAE analysis to analyse PAEs in foodstuffs. In this study, GP-MSE was used as a clean-up method, and the overall recoveries ranged from 85.7 to 102.6%, and the RSD was less than 10%. More importantly, this method can overcome the problem of the high blank value in PAE analysis. This method was applied for measuring PAEs in 78 foodstuffs. The results showed that a wide variety of PAE concentrations were found in the different groups, and the content of PAEs (varies from 658 to 1610 ng g(-1) fresh weight) is greatest in seafood. The concentrations were in the following order: DEHP>DBP>DEP≈DMP>BBP≈DNOP. Finally, the daily intake of PAEs was estimated for adults based on the levels of PAEs in foodstuffs. The total EDIdiet values of 3.2 and 12.9 μg kg(-1) bw d(-1) were calculated for DEHP based on the mean and highest concentrations in foodstuffs, respectively. PMID:26002478

  1. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klooster, N J; Kitslaar, P; Janevski, B K

    1988-06-01

    Two patients with unilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) are reported. The importance of diligence in angiographic diagnosis and recognition of the so-called "functional" PAES group as a separate entity are stressed. It is inferred from our material that a surgical approach for PAES is to be advocated since surgical release of the entrapment can lead to complete resolution of symptoms regardless of aetiology. PMID:2837797

  2. 24 CFR 401.309 - PRA term and termination provisions; other provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio...

  3. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:27051444

  4. Phthalate esters in soil, plastic film, and vegetable from greenhouse vegetable production bases in Beijing, China: Concentrations, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Ma, Xupu; Lu, Anxiang

    2016-10-15

    The increased use of plastic film in greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) could result in phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in vegetables. However, limited information is currently available on their occurrence and associated potential risks in GVP systems. The present study documents the occurrence and composition of 15 PAEs in soil, plastic film, and vegetable samples from eight large-scale GVP bases in Beijing, China. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous contaminants in these GVP bases. Total PAE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.13mg/kg (mean 0.99mg/kg) in soils and from 0.15 to 6.94mg/kg (mean 1.49mg/kg) in vegetables. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diisobutyl phthalate were the most abundant components, which accounted for >90% of the total PAEs. This investigation also indicated that the widespread application of plastic film in GVP systems may be the primary source of these PAEs. The non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of target PAEs were estimated based on the exposures of vegetable intake. The hazard quotients of PAE in all vegetable samples were lower than 1 and the carcinogenic risks were also at acceptable levels for consumers. The data in this study can provide valuable information to understand the status of potential pollutants, specifically PAEs, in GVP systems. PMID:27318515

  5. Evaluating Pharmacological Effects of Two Major Components of Shuangdan Oral Liquid: Role of Danshensu and Paeonol in Diabetic Nephropathy Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Zhuying; Zhou, Fuxing; Zhao, Hang; Yang, Qian; Li, Hua; Sun, Jiyuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Shuangdan oral liquid (SDO) containing radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (Chinese name Danshen) and cortex moutan (Chinese name Mudanpi) is a traditional Chinese medicine using for treating vascular diseases. Danshensu (DSS) is a main effective monomer composition derived from radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and paeonol (Pae) from cortex moutan. Although the two herbs are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, the pharmacological functions of their active compositions were not reported. Therefore, the research of DSS and Pae in mechanisms and pharmacodynamics interaction can provide scientific evidence to support clinical application. The diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats which were induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SDO, DSS, Pae, and DSS+Pae for eight weeks. The positive effects on DN animal models were investigated by detection of physiological and biochemical indexes and oxidative stress markers, within five treatments: SDO, DSS, Pae, DSS+Pae and insulin group. Compared with the model group, the DSS+Pae group improved the renal function, blood lipid metabolism and blood viscosity, increased the vitality of T-SOD or T-AOC and decreased the level of MDA or NO after the treatment. The study was successfully showed that the DSS+Pae group could delay the process of DN, especially in the renal injury part of histopathology changes. Our results suggest that the co-administration of DSS and Pae significantly may play a protective role in DN rats through decreasing the oxidative stress and improving the blood lipid metabolism mechanisms. PMID:27582557

  6. Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK).

    PubMed

    Gondwe, M; Kamadyaapa, D R; Tufts, M A; Chuturgoon, A A; Ojewole, J A O; Musabayane, C T

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of P. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (PAE) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of PAE were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. Rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive controls, respectively. Acute renal effects of PAE were investigated in anesthetized rats challenged with 0.077 M NaCl after a 3.5-h equilibration for 4 h comprising 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. PAE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Hepatic glycogen concentration was measured after 6 weeks of daily treatment with PAE. PAE induced dose-dependent hypoglycaemic responses in STZ-induced diabetic rats while subchronic PAE treatment additionally increased hepatic glycogen concentrations. Acute PAE infusion decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. These results indicate not only the basis of the ethnomedicinal use of P. americana leaf extract in diabetes management, but also of need for further studies to identify and evaluate the safety of PAE's bioactive compounds. PMID:18389095

  7. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk; Kim, Okjin

    2016-03-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:27051444

  8. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks) was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%), the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies. PMID:23577281

  9. Evaluating Pharmacological Effects of Two Major Components of Shuangdan Oral Liquid: Role of Danshensu and Paeonol in Diabetic Nephropathy Rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Zhuying; Zhou, Fuxing; Zhao, Hang; Yang, Qian; Li, Hua; Sun, Jiyuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-09-01

    Shuangdan oral liquid (SDO) containing radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (Chinese name Danshen) and cortex moutan (Chinese name Mudanpi) is a traditional Chinese medicine using for treating vascular diseases. Danshensu (DSS) is a main effective monomer composition derived from radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and paeonol (Pae) from cortex moutan. Although the two herbs are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, the pharmacological functions of their active compositions were not reported. Therefore, the research of DSS and Pae in mechanisms and pharmacodynamics interaction can provide scientific evidence to support clinical application. The diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats which were induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SDO, DSS, Pae, and DSS+Pae for eight weeks. The positive effects on DN animal models were investigated by detection of physiological and biochemical indexes and oxidative stress markers, within five treatments: SDO, DSS, Pae, DSS+Pae and insulin group. Compared with the model group, the DSS+Pae group improved the renal function, blood lipid metabolism and blood viscosity, increased the vitality of T-SOD or T-AOC and decreased the level of MDA or NO after the treatment. The study was successfully showed that the DSS+Pae group could delay the process of DN, especially in the renal injury part of histopathology changes. Our results suggest that the co-administration of DSS and Pae significantly may play a protective role in DN rats through decreasing the oxidative stress and improving the blood lipid metabolism mechanisms. PMID:27582557

  10. Chronic supplementation of paeonol combined with danshensu for the improvement of vascular reactivity in the cerebral basilar artery of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Li, Ya-Ling; Li, Zi-Lin; Li, Hua; Zhou, Xuan-Xuan; Qiu, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Qian; Wang, Si-Wang

    2012-01-01

    One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew) and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae) and danshensu (DSS), should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh) which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl(2)-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS treated diabetic

  11. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring. PMID:25940002

  12. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  13. Positive Alcohol Expectancies Mediate the Influence of the Behavioral Activation System on Alcohol Use: A Prospective Path Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Colder, Craig R.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    Gray’s (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray’s theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  14. Distribution of phthalate esters in topsoil: a case study in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Hongjun, Yang; Wenjun, Xie; Qing, Liu; Jingtao, Liu; Hongwen, Yu; Zhaohua, Lu

    2013-10-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of phthalate esters (PAEs) of soil residues, soil samples (0∼20 cm) (n = 82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. PAEs were detected in all topsoil samples analyzed, which indicated that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Concentrations of 11 PAEs are in the range of 0.794∼19.504 μg g(-1), with an average value of 2.975 μg g(-1). It was presented that PAEs pollution in this area was weak and monotonously increasing along the rural-urban gradient. Higher concentrations were observed from roadsides (and/or gutters), densely anthropogenic activities areas (such as the urbanization and industrialization), and agriculture influence district, which mainly originated from construction waste, municipal sewage, agricultural waste and pesticide, discarded plastic effusion and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were weakly positivity correlated with soil organic carbon content and pH, which suggested both of them can affect the distribution of PAEs. The concentration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate dominated in the 11 PAEs, with the average values of 0.735 and 1.915 μg g(-1), respectively, and accounted for 92.1 % of the whole PAEs' concentrations. No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between our work and others previously reported, which is consistent with the use of similar commercial PAEs around the world. PMID:23609921

  15. Transgene Delivery using Poly(amino ether)-Gold Nanorod Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, James; Rege, Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have emerged as promising nanomaterials for biosensing, imaging, photothermal treatment and therapeutic delivery for several diseases, including cancer. We have generated poly(amino ether)-functionalized gold nanorods (PAE-GNRs) using a layer-by-layer deposition approach; polymers from a poly(amino ether) library recently synthesized in our laboratory were employed to generate the PAE-GNR assemblies. PAE-GNR assemblies demonstrate long-term colloidal stability as well as the capacity to bind plasmid DNA by means of electrostatic interactions. Sub-toxic concentrations of PAE-GNRs were employed to deliver plasmid DNA to prostate cancer cells in vitro. PAE-GNRs generated using 1,4C-1,4Bis, a cationic polymer from our laboratory demonstrated significantly higher transgene expression and exhibited lower cytotoxicities when compared to similar assemblies generated using 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine) (PEI25k-GNRs), a current standard for polymer-mediated gene delivery. The roles of polyelectrolyte chemistry and zeta-potential in determining transgene expression efficacies of PAE-GNR assemblies were investigated. Our results indicate that stable and effective PAE-GNR assemblies are a promising engineered platform for transgene delivery. PAE-GNRs also have the potential to be used simultaneously for photothermal ablation, photothermally enhanced drug and gene delivery, and biological imaging, thus making them a powerful theranostic platform. PMID:22170455

  16. Developmental and behavioral consequences of early life maternal separation stress in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Alberry, Bonnie; Singh, Shiva M

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), characterized by developmental disability. As children with FASD are often raised in suboptimal conditions, we have investigated the combination of PAE via maternal preference consumption of 10% ethanol in water with early life stress (ELS) via daily 3h maternal separation and isolation. Our results focus on development and behavioral features, including activity, anxiety-like behavior, as well as learning and memory. PAE influenced the number of pups surviving to postnatal day 2 and 70, with fewer surviving pups associated with the severity of ethanol exposure. PAE and ELS both had effects on pup weight at postnatal day 21, with amount of ethanol exposure positively correlating with pup weight. We found females were more active than males in a novel open field environment, but not following PAE. In addition, PAE resulted in overall increased exploratory behavior in the open field. Further, PAE and ELS both resulted in overnight hypoactivity in a home cage environment, as well as learning deficits that were influenced by sex in the Barnes Maze for learning and memory. These results are attributed to environmental interactions involving PAE and ELS. PMID:27102339

  17. Attitudes toward physical activity and exercise: comparison of memory clinic patients and their caregivers and prediction of activity levels.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan E; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Crossley, Margaret; Morgan, Debra G

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons' Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers' attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients' participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E. PMID:24451476

  18. Study on the Mechanism of Interaction between Phthalate Acid Esters and Bovine Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Zhao, Jing; You, Hong; Wang, Mingjing

    2016-08-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are widely used in plastic products as a series of chemical softeners. However, PAEs, which now exist in many environmental media such as the atmosphere, water, and soil, have been shown to be environmental endocrine disruptors. Hemoglobin is a functional protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells of animals. This study aims at revealing the interactions between bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and PAEs using spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results indicate that the selected representative PAEs-dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-can interact with BHb to form BHb-PAE complexes with one binding site, mainly relying on hydrophobic forces, with the affinity order DMP > DEP > DBP, opposite to the order of side-chain length. The binding of PAEs can cause conformational and micro-environmental changes in BHb, which may affect the physiological functions of Hb. Furthermore, molecular docking was applied to define the specific binding sites, the results of which show that all the three PAEs can bind into the central cavity of BHb. The study contributes to expound the toxic mechanism of PAEs in vivo from the point of hematological toxicology. PMID:27379662

  19. A Foot behind the Door: An Historical Analysis of Adult Education in Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannam, Will G.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a history of prison adult education (PAE), describing it as a discipline in its own right with the serving officers being adult educators. Indicates that the history of PAE is an integral part of the history of adult education. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex, BN8 5DL, UK) (JOW)

  20. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  1. Reliable quantification of phthalates in environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil): a review.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Delmont, Anne; Sempéré, Richard; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-05-15

    Because of their widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health, so their quantification has become a necessity. Various extraction procedures as well as gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection techniques are found as suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, PAEs are ubiquitous in the laboratory environment including ambient air, reagents, sampling equipment, and various analytical devices, that induces difficult analysis of real samples with a low PAE background. Therefore, accurate PAE analysis in environmental matrices is a challenging task. This paper reviews the extensive literature data on the techniques for PAE quantification in natural media. Sampling, sample extraction/pretreatment and detection for quantifying PAEs in different environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil) have been reviewed and compared. The concept of "green analytical chemistry" for PAE determination is also discussed. Moreover useful information about the material preparation and the procedures of quality control and quality assurance are presented to overcome the problem of sample contamination and these encountered due to matrix effects in order to avoid overestimating PAE concentrations in the environment. PMID:25723871

  2. Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Sempéré, Richard; Delmont, Anne; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-04-01

    Because of their large and widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in all the environmental compartements. They have been widely detected throughout the worldwide environment. Indoor air where people spend 65-90% of their time is also highly contaminated by various PAEs released from plastics, consumer products as well as ambient suspended particulate matter. Because of their widespread application, PAEs are the most common chemicals that humans are in contact with daily. Based on various exposure mechanisms, including the ingestion of food, drinking water, dust/soil, air inhalation and dermal exposure the daily intake of PAEs may reach values as high as 70 μg/kg/day. PAEs are involved in endocrine disrupting effects, namely, upon reproductive physiology in different species of fish and mammals. They also present a variety of additional toxic effects for many other species including terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Therefore, their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. This paper is a synthesis of the extensive literature data on behavior, transport, fate and ecotoxicological state of PAEs in environmental matrices: air, water, sediment, sludge, wastewater, soil, and biota. First, the origins and physicochemical properties of PAEs that control the behavior, transport and fate in the environment are reviewed. Second, the compilation of data on transport and fate, adverse environmental and human health effects, legislation, restrictions, and ecotoxicological state of the environment based on PAEs is presented. PMID:25730609

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs executive function in mice into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Kristin; Sigdel, Rahul; Caldwell, Kevin; Brigman, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a wide range of impairments in cognitive, social and emotional behaviors, drinking during pregnancy remains common. Although there is a general understanding that high levels of drinking during pregnancy are unsafe, conflicting evidence regarding the impact of low intake may account for the persistence of this behavior. Methods In order to investigate the effects of PAE on learning and executive control we utilized a voluntary paradigm where pregnant mice had access to a saccharin sweetened 10% alcohol solution for 4 hours, during the dark cycle, throughout gestation. Male and female offspring were tested as adults on a touch-screen discrimination and reversal task mediated by corticostriatal circuits. Results Consistent with previous findings, PAE did not lead to gross morphological, motor or sensory alterations in offspring. Both PAE and saccharin control female mice were slower to acquire the discrimination than males, but PAE did not impair associative learning in either sex. During reversal, PAE led to a specific and significant impairment in the early phase, where cortical control is most required to flexibly alter choice behavior. PAE mice showed a significant increase in maladaptive perseverative responses but showed intact learning of the new association during late reversal. Conclusions Previously, data from clinical studies have suggested that executive control deficits may underlie cognitive, as well as social, problems seen in adolescents with documented PAE. These data demonstrate that even more moderate alcohol exposure during development can lead to impaired cognitive functioning well into adulthood. PMID:25581651

  4. Pharmacodynamic effects of antibiotics and acid pump inhibitors on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg, M; Hanberger, H; Nilsson, M; Nilsson, L E

    1997-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic studies of Helicobacter pylori exposed to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole were performed with microscopy, viable count determination, and bioluminescence assay of intracellular ATP. The pharmacodynamic parameters determined were change in morphology, change in cell density, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and control-related effective regrowth time (CERT). The PAE is delayed regrowth after brief exposure to antibiotics or acid pump inhibitors. CERT was defined as the time required for the bacteria to resume logarithmic growth and return to the pre-exposure inoculum in the test culture minus the corresponding time for the control culture. CERT measures the combined effect of initial killing and PAE. There was a good concordance between the bioluminescence assay and viable counts for determining CERT, which makes this parameter useful for pharmacodynamic studies of the effects of antibiotics and acid pump inhibitors on H. pylori. Amoxicillin and metronidazole produced a strong, concentration-dependent initial decrease in CFU per milliliter, but there was a less prominent initial change in intracellular ATP in these cultures. Amoxicillin caused a long PAE when assayed by the bioluminescence assay but no PAE or a negative PAE when assayed by viable count determination. However, amoxicillin showed similar long CERTs with both methods. The pharmacodynamic effects of amoxicillin were concentration dependent up to a maximum response, indicating that concentrations above this level do not increase the antibiotic effect. The PAEs and CERTs of clarithromycin and metronidazole were concentration dependent with no maximum response. With omeprazole and lanzoprazole, there was no PAE or CERT. PMID:9333051

  5. Finger length ratios (2D:4D) in anthropoids implicate reduced prenatal androgens in social bonding.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Shultz, Susanne

    2010-03-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) has been proposed as a biomarker reflecting prenatal androgen effects (PAE), such that individuals with lower ratios have experienced higher PAE than those with higher ratios. 2D:4D has been correlated with a number of sex-linked traits in humans such as aggression, promiscuity, and competitiveness. In addition, polygynous societies reportedly have lower 2D:4D (higher PAE) than more monogamous populations. This evidence suggests that PAE may be implicated in the development of sexually selected behaviors in humans. To place 2D:4D research into a broader context, we test the relationship between digit ratios and behavior across nonhuman anthropoids; polygynous species, with higher levels of intrasexual competition, should have more pronounced markers of PAE (lower 2D:4D) than pair-bonded species. Our results accord with those found in humans: 2D:4D is lower in polygynous species and higher (lower PAE) in pair-bonded species. Old World monkeys have low, and relatively invariant 2D:4D (high PAE), which is coupled with high levels of intrasexual competition. This contrasts with higher and more variable ratios in both great apes and New World monkeys. In addition, both male and female ratios decrease with increasing levels of intrasexual competition. Human ratios are intermediate between pair-bonded and more promiscuous hominoids. We propose that PAE may be involved in promoting species characteristic social behavior in anthropoids. PMID:19862809

  6. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the PAE is unable to identify at least three comparable properties within the local market, the PAE...) If necessary to go outside the market, use comparable properties as far outside the local market as... comparable market rents. 401.410 Section 401.410 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating...

  7. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

  8. Comparative genomics of pectinacetylesterases: Insight on function and biology

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Amancio José; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pectin acetylation influences the gelling ability of this important plant polysaccharide for the food industry. Plant apoplastic pectinacetylesterases (PAEs) play a key role in regulating the degree of pectin acetylation and modifying their expression thus represents one way to engineer plant polysaccharides for food applications. Identifying the major active enzymes within the PAE gene family will aid in our understanding of this biological phenomena as well as provide the tools for direct trait manipulation. Using comparative genomics we propose that there is a minimal set of 4 distinct PAEs in plants. Possible functional diversification of the PAE family in the grasses is also explored with the identification of 3 groups of PAE genes specific to grasses. PMID:26237162

  9. Comparative genomics of pectinacetylesterases: Insight on function and biology.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Amancio José; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pectin acetylation influences the gelling ability of this important plant polysaccharide for the food industry. Plant apoplastic pectinacetylesterases (PAEs) play a key role in regulating the degree of pectin acetylation and modifying their expression thus represents one way to engineer plant polysaccharides for food applications. Identifying the major active enzymes within the PAE gene family will aid in our understanding of this biological phenomena as well as provide the tools for direct trait manipulation. Using comparative genomics we propose that there is a minimal set of 4 distinct PAEs in plants. Possible functional diversification of the PAE family in the grasses is also explored with the identification of 3 groups of PAE genes specific to grasses. PMID:26237162

  10. Water-Soluble Poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s: A Sensor Array Discriminates Aromatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinsong; Wang, Benhua; Bender, Markus; Seehafer, Kai; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2016-08-10

    A chemical tongue consisting of 11 elements (four poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s (PAE) at pH 7 and pH 13, and seven electrostatic complexes formed from oppositely charged poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s at pH 7) discriminate 21 benzoic and phenylacetic acid derivatives in aqueous solution. The mechanism of discrimination is the fluorescence modulation of the PAEs, leading to quenching or fluorescence turn-on. The PAEs alone at both pH values and the tongue, consisting of the complexes only, discriminate the 21 acids with 92% (PAEs at pH 7), 95% (PAEs at pH 13), and 99% (complexes at pH 7) reliability after linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A sensor field with all 14 elements, according to LDA, discriminates all of the 21 acids with 100% accuracy. PMID:27415439

  11. Xylose induces the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica to produce a cutinase-like enzyme which efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Fujii, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Hiroko Kuze

    2014-03-01

    There is a need to speed up the degradation of used agricultural mulch films that are made of biodegradable plastics (BPs) in the field. Treating them with BP-degrading enzymes could be a solution to this problem. A cutinase-like enzyme of yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) has wide specificity of BPs degradation, but needs to be produced efficiently. Here we report that the production of PaE by P. antarctica can be increased by using xylose as carbon source. BP-degradation activity was analyzed using a polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) emulsion as the substrate. Strain P. antarctica GB-4(1)W was found to be the best PaE producer among the tested strains. Using a 5-L jar fermentor with xylose fed-batch cultivation, high PaE productivity could be maintained and about 21 U/ml of PaE was obtained in 120 h. This amount was 100 times higher than the amount that we obtained previously (0.21 U/ml by flask cultivation using glycerol as carbon source). Under repeated xylose fed-batch cultivation with 24 h intervals, the maximum PaE production rate (0.34 U/ml/h) was maintained and the highest PaE productivity (28,000 U/2 L/d) was repeatedly obtained for 7 intervals. The activity of filtered jar-culture (crude PaE) was stable over 12 weeks at 4°C. Commercially available BP mulch films (20 μm thickness, cut into 1-cm-squares) were completely degraded by submerging them in crude PaE (2 U/ml) at 30°C in 24 h. These results indicated that concentrated PaE can rapidly degrade the strength of BP mulch films in the field so that they do not interfere with plowing. PMID:24095046

  12. pH-responsive copolymers based on pluronic P123-poly(β-amino ester): Synthesis, characterization and application of copolymer micelles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoqing; Liu, Mengrui; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Deqing; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-06-01

    A novel amphiphilic and pH-responsive copolymer, pluronie P123-poly(β-amino ester) (P123-PAE), was firstly designed and synthesized using a Michael-type step polymerization. Nano-sized polymeric micelles based on P123-PAE block copolymer were prepared by self-assembly. Curcumin (Cur), a potential cancer therapy drug, was efficiently encapsulated into the P123-PAE micelles to enhance anticancer efficacy. The obtained Cur loaded P123-PAE micelles (Cur-P123-PAE) presented a spherical shape and high drug loading (18.4%). Interestingly, when the media pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.5, the particle size of the micelles shrank from 152.5nm to 122.1nm due to the protonation of PAE blocks, and the zeta potential of the P123-PAE micelles changed from weakly positive (1.5mV) to highly positive (9.0mV) over a pH range from 7.4 to 5.5. In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that the release rate of Cur was markedly influenced by pH. In vitro cytotoxicity tests showed that all the blank micelles were non-toxic. Cur-P123-PAE exhibited similar antitumor effect against MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to solubilized Cur solution. Using Coumarin-6 as a fluorescence probe, it was observed that Cur-P123-PAE micelles experienced longer circulation followed by accumulation at tumor tissues with stronger fluorescence intensity. The results of pharmacokinetics studies showed that the P123-PAE micelles could significantly prolong the retention time of Cur in vivo. PMID:26945163

  13. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  14. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  15. PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS STEADY-STATE AND ACTIVATED GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ADULT RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Katarzyna A.; Lussier, Alexandre A.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Pavlidis, Paul; Kobor, Michael S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations in numerous physiological systems, including the stress and immune systems . We have previously shown that PAE increases the course and severity of arthritis in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. While the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, changes in neural gene expression are emerging as important factors in the etiology of PAE effects. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) play key roles in neuroimmune function, PAE-induced alterations to their transcriptome may underlie abnormal steady-state functions and responses to immune challenge. The current study examined brains from adult PAE and control females from our recent AA study to determine whether PAE causes long-term alterations in gene expression and whether these mediate the altered severity and course of arthritis in PAE females Methods Adult females from PAE, pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed control [C]) groups were injected with either saline or complete Freund’s adjuvant. Animals were terminated at the peak of inflammation or during resolution (days 16 and 39 post-injection, respectively); cohorts of saline-injected PAE, PF and C females were terminated in parallel. Gene expression was analyzed in the PFC and HPC using whole genome mRNA expression microarrays. Results Significant changes in gene expression in both the PFC and HPC were found in PAE compared to controls in response to ethanol exposure alone (saline-injected females), including genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, in response to inflammation (adjuvant-injected females), PAE animals showed unique expression patterns, while failing to exhibit the activation of genes and regulators involved in the immune response observed in control and pair-fed animals. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that PAE affects neuroimmune function at the level of gene expression

  16. Absorption characteristic of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Ma, Yong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    1. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) was synthesized to improve the poor oral absorption of paeoniflorin (Pae). 2. This study was performed to investigate the absorptive behavior and mechanism of CP-25 in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats, using Pae as a control. 3. The results showed that intestinal absorption of CP-25 was neither segmental nor sex dependent. However, the main segment of intestine that absorbed Pae was the duodenum. Furthermore, passive transport was confirmed to be the main absorption pattern of CP-25. More importantly, the absorption of CP-25 was much higher than Pae in the small intestine. 4. Among the ABC transporter inhibitors, the absorption rate of Pae increased in the presence of P-gp inhibitors verapamil and GF120918, which indicated that Pae was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, such was not observed in the presence of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Finally, the ABC transporter inhibitors did not have any significant impact on CP-25 as demonstrated in the parallel studies. 5. CP-25 could improve the poor absorption of Pae, which may be attributed to both the lipid solubility enhancement and its resistance to P-gp-mediated efflux. PMID:26711120

  17. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  18. Analysis of phosphate acquisition efficiency in different Arabidopsis accessions.

    PubMed

    Narang, R A; Bruene, A; Altmann, T

    2000-12-01

    The morphological and physiological characteristics of Arabidopsis accessions differing in their phosphate acquisition efficiencies (PAEs) when grown on a sparingly soluble phosphate source (hydroxylapatite) were analyzed. A set of 36 accessions was subjected to an initial PAE evaluation following cultivation on synthetic, agarose-solidified media containing potassium phosphate (soluble) or hydroxylapatite (sparingly soluble). From the five most divergent accessions identified in this way, C24, Co, and Cal exhibited high PAEs, whereas Col-0 and Te exhibited low PAEs. These five accessions were analyzed in detail. Significant differences were found in root morphology, phosphate uptake kinetics, organic acid release, rhizosphere acidification, and the ability of roots to penetrate substrates. Long root hairs at high densities, high uptake per unit root length, and high substrate penetration ability in the efficient accessions C24 and Co mediate their high PAEs. The third accession with high PAE, Cal, exhibits a high shoot-to-root ratio, long roots with long root hairs, and rhizosphere acidification. These results are consistent with previous observations and highlight the suitability of using Arabidopsis accessions to identify and isolate genes determining the PAE in plants. PMID:11115894

  19. Dynamic Computed Tomography Angiography: Role in the Evaluation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Anil, Gopinathan Tay, Kiang-Hiong; Howe, Tse-Chiang; Tan, Bien-Soo

    2011-04-15

    This study reviews our experience with dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) as an imaging modality in the evaluation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). Eight patients with surgically proven PAES were included in this study. Dynamic CTA studies performed with the feet in neutral and plantar flexed positions were reviewed for the detailed anatomy of the region and to define the location and extent of the stenosis, occlusions and collateral circulation. These findings were compared with intraoperative observations. CTA provided adequate angiographic and anatomic information required to arrive at the diagnosis and make a surgical decision. Thirteen limbs were affected in eight patients. There was popliteal artery occlusion in four limbs, stenosis at rest that was accentuated on stress imaging in two limbs, and patent popliteal artery with marked stenosis on stress imaging in seven limbs. Long-segment stenosis was seen in functional entrapment compared to short-segment stenosis in anatomic PAES. Anteroposterior compression of the popliteal artery in anatomic PAES unlike the side-to-side compression in functional PAES was a unique observation in this study. The CTA and surgical characterisation and classification of PAES matched in all the patients, except for misinterpretation of compressing fibrous bands as accessory slips of muscles in three limbs. In conclusion, dynamic CTA is a robust diagnostic tool that provides clinically relevant information and serves as a rapidly performed and easily available 'one-stop-shop' imaging modality in the management of PAES.

  20. Inhibitory mechanism of phthalate esters on Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wen, Fuling; Li, Fengmin; Zheng, Xiang; Liang, Zhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, raises concern to environmental and human health globally. The PAEs have been demonstrated to inhibit algae growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, diethyl ortho-phthalate (DEP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, and benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (BBP) were screened from 11 species of PAEs to study their inhibitory effects on Karenia brevis and determine their target sites on algae. With increasing the alkyl chains of these five PAEs, the values of EC50,96h decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased with the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algae cells. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase and catalase contents were first activated and then inhibited. The ultrastructures of Karenia brevis cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and cells treated with PAEs exhibiting distorted shapes and large vacuoles. Thus, the algae were damaged by ROS accumulation, resulting in lipid oxidation and algal growth inhibition. The inhibitors of the electron transport chain showed that the sites of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis cells under DEP and BBP were the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively. Moreover, the target sites of DAP and DBP were both the chloroplast and mitochondria. These results are useful for controlling PAEs contamination in and revealing the fate of PAEs in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:27151426

  1. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  2. Removal of phthalate esters from water using immobilized lipase on chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Dulazi, Ashura A; Liu, Hui

    2011-10-01

    Lipase immobilized on chitosan beads was investigated as a possible efficient and cost-effective method of removing phthalate esters (PAEs) from water, under the hypothesis that the immobilized lipase could degrade PAEs and the amino group of chitosan could adsorb the degraded products. Three immobilization methods, namely crosslinking using glutaraldehyde (GLA), activation with 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and a binary method using both GLA and EDC, were compared. The results showed that lipase immobilized by crosslinking with GLA exhibited a higher degradation ability for PAEs with lower molecular weights. It removed 100% of dimethyl phthalate and 93.86% of diethyl phthalate. On the other hand, lipase immobilized by EDC activation exhibited efficient degradation of PAEs with higher molecular weights, such as diethylhexyl phthalate (removal efficiency 100%). However, lipase immobilized by the binary method unexpectedly showed less than 50% removal efficiency for all five PAEs. The PAE solutions treated with different immobilized lipases were characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the mechanism of the removal of PAEs by the lipase immobilized on chitosan beads using different methods is further discussed. PMID:22329134

  3. IREB2 and GALC Are Associated with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Wells, J. Michael; Dransfield, Mark T.; Bowler, Russell P.; Lynch, David A.; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10−8; versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10−9). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10−8). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  4. The feasibility and cost of neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure by measuring phosphatidylethanol in dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Savich, Renate D.; Raisch, Dennis W.; Cano, Sandra; Annett, Robert D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Garg, Mahek; Goff, Chelsea; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is required as a diagnostic criterion for the majority of children adversely affected by PAE who do not manifest the physical features associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. A number of ethanol biomarkers have been used to assess PAE, often with suboptimal results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and cost of PAE screening in newborns by measuring phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) cards. Methods The feasibility of collecting an additional DBS card during routine newborn screening and the background prevalence of PAE were evaluated in a de-identified sample of newborn children delivered at the University of New Mexico Hospital. Electronic orders to collect DBS cards from newborns who continue to bleed after the routine newborn screen, glucose or hematocrit testing were initiated for all infants delivered during a 4-week timeframe. Specimens were sent to a contract laboratory for PEth analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A cost analysis was conducted to compare the cost of PAE screening by PEth in DBS vs. PEth in conventional blood specimens and by meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). Results From 230 collected cards, 201 (87.4%) had at least one full blood spot (amount sufficient for PEth analysis), and 6.5% had PEth >20ng/mL indicative of potential PAE in late pregnancy. PAE screening by PEth in DBS is logistically simpler and less expensive compared to two other screening approaches. Conclusions These results indicate that screening for PAE in DBS cards is a feasible procedure and that a majority of infants have enough blood after the routine heel prick to fill an additional card. Moreover, screening by PEth analysis from DBS cards is cost-efficient. The acceptability of such screening by parents and corresponding ethical issues remain to be investigated. PMID:23421919

  5. IREB2 and GALC are associated with pulmonary artery enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10(-8); versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10(-9)). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10(-8)). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  6. Anticoagulant effect and safety assessment of an aqueous extract of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) harms and Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Ex Hook.) harms

    PubMed Central

    Nyansah, Wilson Bright; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Asare, Frederick; Gyanfosu, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently available therapeutic options for thromboembolic disorders are often very expensive and are associated with unfavorable side effects. Aim: To establish the anticoagulant effect and safety profile of an extract made from of the root bark of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms and the aerial part of Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Harms (PAE). Materials and Methods: PAE (0.5-2.0 g/L) effect on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were evaluated on whole blood drawn from the marginal ear vein of New Zealand White rabbits. Effect of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg) on bleeding time (BT) and clotting time (CT) in Sprague-Dawley rats were also assessed. Histopathological, hematological, and liver function studies were also carried out to assess the safety for use of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg). Results: PAE had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on PT, but resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in aPTT. The PAE treatment resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in BT and CT in vivo compared with control. Safety studies indicated no deaths with PAE treatment with hematological and liver function tests being normal. Histological studies revealed pathological changes in the liver at a PAE treatment dose of 2000 mg/kg but all doses had no detrimental effect on kidney and stomach tissue. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was <2000 mg/kg when given orally. Conclusion: PAE has anticoagulant effect in vitro and is safe to use at oral doses <2000 mg/kg. PMID:27104036

  7. Volume changes and brain-behavior relationships in white matter and subcortical gray matter in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prapti; Lebel, Catherine; Narr, Katherine L; Mattson, Sarah N; May, Philip A; Adnams, Colleen M; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Kan, Eric C; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may have cognitive, behavioral and brain abnormalities. Here, we compare rates of white matter and subcortical gray matter volume change in PAE and control children, and examine relationships between annual volume change and arithmetic ability, behavior, and executive function. Participants (n = 75 PAE/64 control; age: 7.1-15.9 years) each received two structural magnetic resonance scans, ~2 years apart. Assessments included Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Child Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Subcortical white and gray volumes were extracted for each hemisphere. Group volume differences were tested using false discovery rate (q < 0.05). Analyses examined group-by-age interactions and group-score interactions for correlations between change in volume and raw behavioral scores. Results showed that subjects with PAE had smaller volumes than control subjects across the brain. Significant group-score interactions were found in temporal and parietal regions for WISC arithmetic scores and in frontal and parietal regions for behavioral measures. Poorer cognitive/ behavioral outcomes were associated with larger volume increases in PAE, while control subjects generally showed no significant correlations. In contrast with previous results demonstrating different trajectories of cortical volume change in PAE, our results show similar rates of subcortical volume growth in subjects with PAE and control subjects. We also demonstrate abnormal brain-behavior relationships in subjects with PAE, suggesting different use of brain resources. Our results are encouraging in that, due to the stable volume differences, there may be an extended window of opportunity for intervention in children with PAE. PMID:25711175

  8. [Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Products Around the Pearl River Delta. South China].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Deng, Jie-fan; Wang, Ke; Liang, Wen-li; Zeng, Cai-ming; Peng, Si-qing; Zhang, Tian-bin; Yang, Guo-yi

    2016-01-15

    In order to investigate and assess the distribution of pathalic acid easters (PAEs) in agricultural products from typical areas of the Pearl River Delta, South China, 131 agricultural products were sampled for determination of 6 PAEs priority pollutants classified by the U. S. EPA by GC-FID. The results showed that the total contents of the PAEs (sigma PAEs) in agricultural products samples ranged from nd to 79.86 mg x kg(-1) and the mean value was 2.84 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 98.5%. The average concentrations of sigma PAEs in different types of agricultural products were ordered by vegetables (3.03 mg x kg(-1)) > rice (2.52 mg x kg(-1)) > fruits (1.26 mg x kg(-1)). The mean concentration of PAEs distributed in the four typical cities of the Pearl River Delta, and decreased in the sequence of Zhuhai (6.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Dongguan (2.59 mg x kg(-1)) > Huizhou (1.53 mg x kg(-1)) > Zhongshan (1.12 mg x kg(-1)). Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) contributed more than 90. 8% of the total PAEs in samples, and were the main components of PAEs in agricultural products from the Pearl River Delta, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. Meanwhile, the average concentrations of sigma PAEs in cabbage mustard, lettuce occurred in Zhuhai and Dongguan cities, followed by lettuce and leaf lettuce in the corresponding DEHP from Zhuhai city, both exceeded the suggested standards in U.S.A. and Europe and were of high health risk. There were significant differences among 14 various vegetables in the contents of the 6 PAEs compounds, and the sigma PAEs contents in cabbage mustard and lettuce as part of leafy vegetables were higher than those in other vegetables, while the lowest were detected in flowering cabbage and edible amaranth. Therefore, the type of vegetables and its growing environment exposed to the atmosphere and soil were the main factors that significantly affected their accumulation of

  9. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy; Ellis, Linda A.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic dopamine activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and dopamine (DA) systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and dopamine systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24 hours following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared

  10. Pharmacodynamic effects of subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an in vitro dynamic model.

    PubMed Central

    Maggiolo, F; Taras, A; Frontespezi, S; Legnani, M C; Silanos, M A; Pravettoni, G; Suter, F

    1994-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE), sub-MIC effect (SME), and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PASME) of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated with an in vitro dynamic model reproducing in vivo elimination kinetics of the antibiotic. The PASMEs were constantly longer than the corresponding SMEs, but differences between them were not statistically significant. Both PASMEs and SMEs were initially bactericidal and were significantly longer than PAEs. The mean values of both PASMEs and SMEs were over 12 h. SMEs appear to be more relevant for the bacterial growth kinetics than PAEs. PMID:8092847

  11. [Intervention epidemiology training programs in Germany and Europe. An investment in our future].

    PubMed

    Bremer, Viviane; Alpers, Katharina; Krause, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases such as SARS and influenza can have a profound impact on society. Therefore, training epidemiologists in infectious diseases control is of crucial importance. The German Postgraduate training in Applied Epidemiology (PAE) at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) are striving to meet these challenges. Currently, 27 and 12 persons of German origin have joined PAE and EPIET, respectively. A total of 17 out of the 36 alumni started working at the RKI, regional or local German health authorities after completing their training. Since 2006, the number of yearly admitted fellows increased from 3 to 6 in PAE, and 9 to 19 in EPIET and 5 state health departments have been added as training sites. The collaboration between EPIET and PAE has been strengthened and diversified in recent years. Alumni of these programs will play a key role in the control of infectious diseases in Germany and Europe. PMID:19214461

  12. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  13. 24 CFR 401.314 - Environmental review responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring...

  14. 24 CFR 401.302 - PRA administrative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring...

  15. 24 CFR 401.311 - Standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement...

  16. 24 CFR 401.300 - What is a PRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA) §...

  17. 24 CFR 401.312 - Confidentiality of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring...

  18. Identification of a bacterial pectin acetyl esterase in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    PubMed

    Shevchik, V E; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The structural complexity of pectin requires the combined action of several pectinases for its efficient breakdown. Three types of pectinases have so far been identified in E. chrysanthemi: two pectin methyl esterases (PemA, PemB), a polygalacturonase (PehX), and eight pectate lyases (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelL, PelZ, PelX). We report in this paper the analysis of a novel enzyme, the pectin acetyl esterase encoded by the paeY gene. No bacterial form of pectin acetyl esterases has been described previously, while plant tissues and some pectinolytic fungi were found to produce similar enzymes. The paeY gene is present in a cluster of five pectinase-encoding genes, pelA-pelE-pelD-paeY-pemA. The paeY open reading frame is 1650 bases long and encodes a 551-residue precursor protein of 60704Da, including a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. PaeY shares one region of homology with a rhamnogalacturonan acetyl esterase of Aspergillus aculeatus. To characterize the enzyme, the paeY gene was overexpressed and its protein product was purified. PaeY releases acetate from sugar-beet pectin and from various synthetic substrates. Moreover, the enzyme was shown to act in synergy with other pectinases. The de-esterification rate by PaeY increased after previous demethylation of the pectins by PemA and after depolymerization of the pectin by pectate lyases. In addition, the degradation of sugar-beet pectin by pectate lyases is favoured after the removal of methyl and acetyl groups by PemA and PaeY, respectively. The paeY gene was first identified on the basis of its regulation, which shares several characteristics with that of other pectinases. Analysis of the paeY transcription, using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pae

  19. HYPOCHLORITE-SERUM REACTION PRODUCTS INHIBIT PORCINE VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELL GROWTH IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro toxicity studies were initiated in order to determine if chlorination affects vascular endothelial cells. Twelfth to twentieth passage porcine aortic vascular endothelial cells (PAE) were grown to confluency and replated in the presence of complete media (Eagle's minimum...

  20. Review of Current Literature for Prostatic Artery Embolization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeon; Isaacson, Ari J; Burke, Charles T

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is an emerging, novel interventional technique in the management of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a common clinical condition in middle-aged and elderly men resulting in LUTS, including nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency, decreased urinary flow rates, hesitancy, and incomplete bladder emptying. Traditionally, LUTSs have been managed by medical or surgical therapies. Since the initial incidental discovery that selective PAE performed for uncontrolled bleeding secondary to BPH resulted in improved LUTS, the technique has continually evolved with a growing body of evidence supporting its safety and efficacy. However, despite the available data, PAE has yet to be established as a standard-of-care treatment option for patients with LUTS/BPH. In this article, the authors review the history and current state of PAE, including published data from case reports, animal studies, retrospective/prospective cohort studies, and prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:27582611

  1. High resolution positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy of the CuM 2,3VV-transition and of Cu sub-monolayers on Pd and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Schreckenbach, K.

    2010-09-01

    We present a high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) of the CuM 2,3VV-transition with the unprecedented energy resolution of Δ/EE <1%. This energy resolution and the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC enabled us to resolve the double peak structure with PAES for the first time within a measurement time of only 5.5 h. In addition, sub-monolayers of Cu were deposited on Fe- and Pd-samples in order to investigate the surface selectivity of PAES in comparison with EAES. The extremely high surface selectivity of PAES due to the different positron affinity of Cu and Fe lead to the result that with only 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe more than 55% of the emitted Auger electrons stem from Cu, whereas with EAES the Cu Auger fraction amounted to less than 6%.

  2. Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Magcalas, Christy M.; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W.; Rodriguez, Carlos I.; Fink, Brandi C.; Pellis, Sergio M.; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE1, and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  3. Development of rapid determination of 18 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Li

    2013-02-13

    A simultaneous and fast determination of 18 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. After solvent extraction, the PAEs in the oil sample were further cleaned up by solid-phase extraction. After concentration, the extract was directly injected into gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in positive-ion electron impact (EI) mode. Method quantification limits of 18 PAEs were between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. Quantitative recoveries ranging from 63.9 to 115.3% were obtained by analysis of spiked oil. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% (n = 6). The method could potentially overcome the interference from large amounts of lipids and pigment. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation of PAEs in routine analysis. PMID:23339279

  4. Transient Ischemic Rectitis as a Potential Complication after Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Airton Mota; Marques, Carlos Frederico Sparapan; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Nahas, Caio Sergio Rizkallah Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Gregorio Ariza, Miguel Angel de; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is an alternative treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Complications are primarily related to non-target embolization. We report a case of ischemic rectitis in a 76-year-old man with significant lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, probably related to nontarget embolization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an 85.5-g prostate and urodynamic studies confirmed Inferior vesical obstruction. PAE was performed bilaterally. During the first 3 days of follow-up, a small amount of blood mixed in the stool was observed. Colonoscopy identified rectal ulcers at day 4, which had then disappeared by day 16 post PAE without treatment. PAE is a safe, effective procedure with a low complication rate, but interventionalists should be aware of the risk of rectal nontarget embolization.

  5. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Alex; Koymen, A. R.; Mehl, David; Jensen, K. O.; Lei, Chun; Lee, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Weiss et al. have demonstrated that it is possible to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons using a low energy (less than 30eV) beam of positrons. This mechanism makes possible a new electron spectroscopy, Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). The probability of exciting an Auger transition is proportional to the overlap of the positron wavefunction with atomic core levels. Since the Auger electron energy provides a signature of the atomic species making the transition, PAES makes it possible to determine the overlap of the positron wavefunction with a particular element. PAES may therefore provide a means of detecting positron-atom complexes. Measurements of PAES intensities from clean and adsorbate covered Cu surfaces are presented which indicate that approx. 5 percent of positrons injected into CU at 25eV produce core annihilations that result in Auger transitions.

  6. Postantibiotic effect of sanfetrinem compared with those of six other agents against 12 penicillin-susceptible and -resistant pneumococci.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Lin, G; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1997-10-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) of sanfetrinem were compared to those of penicillin G, amoxicillin, cefpodoxime, ceftriaxone, imipenem, and clarithromycin against four penicillin-susceptible, four intermediately susceptible, and four resistant pneumococci. The MICs of imipenem were the lowest against all of the strains (0.03 to 0.5 microg/ml), followed by those of sanfetrinem (0.016 to 1.0 microg/ml), amoxicillin and ceftriaxone (0.016 to 2.0 microg/ml), and cefpodoxime (0.03 to 8.0 microg/ml). High-level resistance to clarithromycin (MIC, >64.0 microg/ml) was seen in three selected strains. The PAEs of all of the oral beta-lactams tested were similar for all of the strains, ranging from 1 to 6.5 h. The PAEs of ceftriaxone and imipenem ranged from 1 to 8 h, and those of clarithromycin ranged from 1 to 7 h. The mean PAEs of all of the beta-lactams and clarithromycin were 2.8 to 4.3 and 2.5 h, respectively. PAE-SMEs could not be determined for all of the strains due to complete killing, especially at high subinhibitory concentrations. However, the overall pattern with all of the compounds tested was that PAE-SMEs were longer than PAEs. Measurable PAE-SMEs of sanfetrinem at the three subinhibitory concentrations (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC) were 2 to 7, 2 to 7, and 3 to 6 h, while those of amoxicillin and cefpodoxime were 1 to 7.5, 2 to 4, and 4 to 9 and 2 to 7, 4 to 7, and 4 to 6 h, respectively. Measurable PAE-SMEs of ceftriaxone and imipenem were 1 to 6.5, 2 to 9, and 2 to 9 and 1.5 to 6, 2 to 5.8, and 4 to 7.7 h, respectively. Measurable clarithromycin PAE-SMEs were 1 to 5, 1 to 5, and 1 to 6 h at the three concentrations. PMID:9333043

  7. Venous and paradoxical air embolism in the sitting position. A prospective study with transoesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, G; Kuhly, P; Brock, M; Rudolph, K H; Link, J; Eyrich, K

    1994-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the frequency of patent foramen ovale (PFO), venous air embolism (VAE) and paradoxical air embolism (PAE) by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in neurosurgical patients operated on in the sitting position. The risk of PAE after exclusion of PFO is assessed. A PFO was identified by pre-operative TOE and VAE and PAE by continuous intraoperative TOE. Sixty-two patients were divided into two groups, 22 patients were studied in group 1 (posterior fossa surgery) and group 2 (cervical surgery) contained 40 patients. Pre-operative TOE demonstrated a PFO in 5 of the 22 patients in group 1 (23%). Patients with proven PFO were excluded from the sitting position. Two further patients of this group (12% of 17 patients), in whom a PFO had been excluded pre-operatively, nevertheless had PAE, air occurring in all cavities of the heart. In group 2 the incidence of PFO was 4 out of 40 patients (10%). No PAE was observed in this group. Three morphological types of VAE with different haemodynamic and ventilation changes were demonstrated. VAE was observed in 76% of all posterior fossa operations and in 25% of cervical laminectomies. We conclude that a pre-operative search for PFO is mandatory considering its incidence of 23% in group 1 and of 10% in group 2, and the risk of PAE. If a PFO is detected, the sitting position should be avoided. A residual risk for PAE remains despite exclusion of PFO because the reliability of TOE is limited. TOE is the method of choice for detecting VAE and PAE. PMID:8042546

  8. Rapid screening of edible oils for phthalates using phase-transfer catalyst-assisted hydrolysis and liquid phase microextraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhui; Liu, Laping; Han, Yangying; Sun, Jingru; Feng, Jing; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Chongming

    2015-11-13

    Edible oil is easily contaminated with phthalic acid esters (PAEs). Conventional procedures to analyze individual PAEs require very rigorous experimental conditions that are extremely labor-intensive due to significant procedural contaminations generated by the ubiquitous presence of PAEs in the laboratory environment. In this study, a rapid screening method for PAEs in edible oil was successfully developed. Using a phase-transfer catalyst (terabutylammonium bromide) during oil/water biphasic base hydrolysis of PAEs, the hydrolysis time was decreased from a previously reported time of 20 h to 10 min (80 °C). The resulting phthalic acid in the acidified hydrolysate was extracted with 600 μL of tributyl phosphate and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 6 min. Parameters affecting the hydrolysis of PAEs and the extraction of phthalic acid were optimized, and the analytical method was validated. No obvious matrix effect existed in the edible oils whether an external or internal standard method was used. The detection limit was 1.0 μmol kg(-1), and the quantification limit was 1.3 μmol kg(-1). The recovery rates varied from 86 to 107% with relative standard deviations equal to or lower than 9.9% in all of the tested conditions. Twenty-six samples were analyzed, and the background corrected total PAE content was found to be in the range of PAEs. In addition, it presents a new and promising methodology to deal with oil matrices. PMID:26477519

  9. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia; Campos Pinheiro, Luis; Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A.; Oliveira, Antonio G.; O'Neill, Joao

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  10. Functionalized injectable hydrogels for controlled insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Dai P; Nguyen, Minh K; Pi, Bong S; Kim, Min S; Chae, Su Y; Lee, Kang C; Kim, Bong S; Kim, Sung W; Lee, Doo S

    2008-06-01

    The concept of this research is using poly(beta-amino ester) (PAE) as a duo-functional group for synthesis of the novel sensitive injectable hydrogel for controlled drug/protein delivery. Firstly, PAE made of 1,4-butanediol diacrylate and 4,4'-trimethylene dipiperidine is used as a pH-sensitive moiety to conjugate to the temperature-sensitive biodegradable triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) to manufacture pH/temperature-sensitive injectable hydrogel of pentablock copolymer PAE-PCL-PEG-PCL-PAE. Furthermore, the cationic nature of PAE is used as the second function to make the ionic complexes with anionic biomolecule loaded into the hydrogel such as insulin. As a result, the release of drug/protein from this hydrogel device can be controlled by the degradation of copolymer. Sol-gel phase transition behavior of PAE-PCL-PEG-PCL-PAE block copolymer was investigated; the results showed that the aqueous media of the pentablock copolymer changed from a sol to a gel phase with increasing temperature and pH. The effect of anionic biomolecule such as insulin on sol-gel phase transition, degradation of the complex gel of the material with insulin was studied in vitro. Then the schematic of the ionic complexes between positive charges in PAE and the negatively charges in protein was simulated. In addition, the mechanism of controlled release behavior of insulin from the complex gel was supposed, which includes the chemically-controlled and diffusion-controlled stages. To prove the simulations, the cumulative release of the protein from the complex gel was investigated in vitro with different methods. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic release of insulin from the complex gel in vivo on male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was compared with that from triblock copolymer hydrogel of PCL-PEG-PCL. PMID:18329707

  11. Tips and Tricks for Difficult Prostatic Artery Embolization.

    PubMed

    Bagla, Sandeep; Isaacson, Ari J

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a promising, new, safe, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it can be a one of the most technically difficult interventional radiology procedures because of the challenging anatomy involved. To help achieve technical success and limit complications, the authors present here a series of tips and tricks that have been proven useful from prior PAE experience. PMID:27582612

  12. Outcome of pelvic arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage: A retrospective review of 117 cases

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Ji Yoon; Kong, Tae Wook; Son, Joo Hyuk; Won, Je Hwan; Yang, Jeong In

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate indications, efficacy, and complications associated with pelvic arterial embolization (PAE) for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 117 consecutive patients who underwent PAE for PPH between January 2006 and June 2013. Results In our single-center study, 117 women underwent PAE to control PPH refractory to conservative management including uterine massage, use of uterotonic agents, surgical repair of genital tract lacerations, and removal of retained placental tissues. Among 117 patients, 69 had a vaginal delivery and 48 had a Cesarean section. The major indication for embolization was uterine atony (54.7%). Other causes were low genital tract lacerations (21.4%) and abnormal placentation (14.5%). The procedure showed a clinical success rate of 88.0% with 14 cases of PAE failure; there were 4 hemostatic hysterectomies and 10 re-embolizations. On univariate analysis, PAE failure was associated with overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (P=0.009), transfusion of more than 10 red blood cell units (RBCUs, P=0.002) and embolization of both uterine and ovarian arteries (P=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that PAE failure was only associated with transfusions of more than 10 RBCUs (odds ratio, 8.011; 95% confidence interval, 1.531-41.912; P=0.014) and embolization of both uterine and ovarian arteries (odds ratio, 20.472; 95% confidence interval, 2.715-154.365; P=0.003), which were not predictive factors, but rather, were the results of longer time for PAE. Three patients showed uterine necrosis and underwent hysterectomy. Conclusion PAE showed high success rates, mostly without procedure-related complications. Thus, it is a safe and effective adjunct or alternative to hemostatic hysterectomy, when primary management fails to control PPH. PMID:24596814

  13. Radiodermitis After Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Assis, Andre Moreira De; Ioakeim, Ignatios Sánchez-Ballestín, María; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Gregorio, Miguel Angel De

    2015-06-15

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a technically demanding new treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We present a case of radiation-induced dermitis in a 63-year-old patient after a technically successful PAE, due to high radiation exposure (KAP: 8,023,949 mGy cm{sup 2}) and long fluoroscopy time (72 min). Anatomical and technical aspects are discussed, as well as recommendations to decrease radiation exposure in these procedures.

  14. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  15. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. PMID:27424779

  16. Popliteal entrapment syndrome. A systematic review of the literature and case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gokkus, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Bakalim, Tamer; Taskaya, Ertugrul; Aydin, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is rare in young adults. Claudication of the young patient, which is often overlooked, is a very rare symptom for orthopedic surgeons. In elder patients, the physician might expect atherosclerotic claudication, however in young patients, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) should be considered as a possibility in the cases of claudication. Here, an unusual presentation of an uncommon disease that is not widely known by orthopedic surgeons is reported. PMID:25332925

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of β-patchoulene isolated from patchouli oil in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Chen, Xiaoying; Chen, Hanbin; Wang, Lan; Liang, Jiali; Luo, Dandan; Liu, Yuhong; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Yucui; Xie, Jianhui; Su, Ziren

    2016-06-15

    β-Patchoulene (β-PAE) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from the oil of Pogostemon cablin (patchouli oil), which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, as one of the major principle of patchouli oil, the biological activity of β-PAE has not been explored so far. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and the underlying mechanism, of β-PAE was investigated on experimental mice models of acute inflammation, i.e. xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that β-PAE evoked a significant dose-dependent inhibition of ear edema induced by xylene, paw edema induced by carrageenan and suppressed the increase of vascular permeability elicited by acetic acid. Histopathological analysis indicated that β-PAE could markedly decrease the cellular infiltration in paw tissue. β-PAE was also shown to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in edema paw. In addition, carrageenan-induced production of some pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner in mice subjected to β-PAE pretreatment, and it also significantly down-regulated the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Further analysis revealed that β-PAE also inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and stabilize the conversion of nuclear factor-κBα (IκBα) level. These results provided additional chemical and pharmacological basis for the traditional application of P. cablin in inflammatory disorders. PMID:27090925

  18. Analysis of phthalate migration from plastic containers to packaged cooking oil and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Niping; Shen, Yanyan; Xu, Shi; Zhang, Ling; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-11-10

    The migration of phthalates (PAEs), a class of typical environmental estrogen contaminants in food, from food packaging to packaged food attracts more and more attention worldwide. Many factors will affect the migration processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAE migration from plastic containers to cooking oil and mineral water packed in authentic commercial packaging and stored under various conditions (different storage temperatures, contact times, and storage states (static or dynamic state)) and to identify a potential relationship between the amount and type of PAEs migrated and the lipophilic character of the food matrix. The samples were analyzed by a novel method of liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction by an electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers mat, with PAE detection limits of 0.001 μg/L in mineral water and 0.020 μg/L in cooking oil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the cooking oil was a more suitable medium for the migration of PAEs from packages into foodstuffs than mineral water. Scilicet, the migration potential of the PAEs into foodstuffs, depends on the lipophilic characteristics of the food matrix. The results also demonstrated that migrations were more significant at higher temperature, longer contact time, and higher dynamic frequency; thus, the migration tests should be evaluated with consideration of different storage temperatures and contact times. Mathematical models with good logarithmic relationships were established to demonstrate the relationship between the PAE migration and food/packaging contact time for different storage temperatures. These established mathematical models would be expected to become a set of practical tools for the prediction of PAE migration. PMID:20949921

  19. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked. PMID:25051237

  20. Crystallinity and motional dynamics study of a series of poly(arylene ether sulfone) segmented copolymer analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Spano, Justin; Chen, Ying; Turner, Richard; Wi, Sungsool

    2012-07-12

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy was utilized to study the crystallinity and its correlation to the motional dynamics of a series of biphenol based poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) copolymer analogues obtained by incorporating flexible aliphatic blocks. Introduction of a series of conformationally flexible aliphatic blocks into the rigid aromatic PAES blocks in the copolymer sequence had increased the crystallinity of the polymer matrix because the copolymer system with aliphatic blocks provided a decrease in the glass transition temperature (Tg) while maintaining a nonvariant melting temperature (Tm). Modified PAES copolymer systems with aliphatic blocks had yielded shorter (1)H T1 relaxation times and longer (1)H T1ρ relaxation times relative to the neat aromatic PAES copolymer. Trends observed in (1)H T1ρ and T1 data had demonstrated direct correlations to the observed ΔT (= Tm - Tg) and thus to the amount of crystallinity in the polymer matrix. Slow segmental reorientations of PAES blocks in a few milliseconds range also became slightly faster as the size of an aliphatic, segmented block became larger. Additionally, the local electronic environments of aromatic PAES blocks were invariant to the incorporation of aliphatic segments in the copolymer sequence. PMID:22697501

  1. Production of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from cheese whey by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(1)W.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-08-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation. PMID:24581837

  2. Can echocardiographically estimated pulmonary arterial elastance be a non-invasive predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Neeraj; Devabhaktuni, Srikala; Kadambi, Aparna; McClung, John A.; Lehrman, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is essential in evaluating a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Material and methods Data from right heart catheterization (RHC) and echocardiograms performed within 90 days of each other on 45 non-consecutive adult patients were reviewed in this retrospective study. Patients were recruited using an assortment of strategies to ensure the presence of patients with a wide range of PVR. Results The linear regression equation between RHC-derived PVR and echocardiographic pulmonary arterial elastance (PAE) was: PVR = (562.6 × PAE) – 38.9 (R = 0.56, p < 0.0001). An adjustment for echocardiographic PAE was made by multiplying it by hemoglobin (in g/dl) and (right atrial area)1.5 (in cm3). As RHC-derived PVR varies with blood hemoglobin, an adjustment for PVR was made for hemoglobin of 12 g/dl. Visualization of the XY scatter plot of adjusted PVR and adjusted PAE isolated a subset of patients with PVR higher than 8.8 Wood units, where a strong linear relationship existed (adjusted PVR = (0.89 × adjusted PAE) + 137.4, R = 0.89, p = 0.008). Conclusions The correlation coefficient of the regression equation connecting echocardiographic PAE and RHC-derived PVR was moderate. In a subset of patients with very high PVR and after appropriate adjustment, a strong linear relationship existed with an excellent correlation coefficient. PMID:25276152

  3. Effects of plastic film residues on occurrence of phthalates and microbial activity in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lv, Shenghong; Zhang, Manyun; Chen, Gangcai; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Shen; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-05-01

    Plastic film mulching has played an important role in Chinese agriculture, especially in vegetable production, but large amounts of film residues can accumulate in the soil. The present study investigated the effects of plastic film residues on the occurrence of soil PAEs and microbial activities using a batch pot experiment. PAE concentrations increased with increasing plastic film residues but the soil microbial carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activities and microbial diversity decreased significantly. At the end of the experiment the PAE concentrations were 0-2.02 mg kg(-1) in the different treatments. Soil microbial C and N, enzyme activities, AWCD value, and Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices declined by about 28.9-76.2%, 14.9-59.0%, 4.9-22.7%, 23.0-42.0% and 1.8-18.7%, respectively. Soil microbial activity was positively correlated with soil PAE concentration, and soil PAE concentrations were impacted by plastic color and residue volume. Correlations among, and molecular mechanisms of, plastic film residues, PAE occurrence and microbial activity require further study. PMID:26938679

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure selectively enhances young adult perceived pleasantness of alcohol odors.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., "pleasantness") to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  5. Uptake and Metabolism of Phthalate Esters by Edible Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gan, Jay

    2015-07-21

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are large-volume chemicals and are found ubiquitously in soil as a result of widespread plasticulture and waste disposal. Food plants such as vegetables may take up and accumulate PAEs from soil, potentially imposing human health risks through dietary intake. In this study, we carried out a cultivation study using lettuce, strawberry, and carrot plants to determine the potential of plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their primary metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). All four compounds were detected in the plant tissues, with the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 4.78 ± 0.59. However, the test compounds were poorly translocated from roots to leaves, with a translocation factor below 1. Further, PAEs were readily transformed to their monoesters following uptake. Incubation of PAEs and monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs) in carrot cell culture showed that DnBP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than DEHP, while the monoesters were transformed more quickly than their parent precursors. Given the extensive metabolism of PAEs to monoesters in both whole plants and plant cells, metabolism intermediates such as MPEs should be considered when assessing human exposure via dietary intake of food produced from PAE-contaminated soils. PMID:26090545

  6. Effects of Various Antibiotics Alone or in Combination with Doripenem against Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek Celik, Berna; Mataraci-Kara, Emel; Yilmaz, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Colistin, tigecycline, levofloxacin, tobramycin, and rifampin alone and in combination with doripenem were investigated for their in vitro activities and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) on Klebsiella pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of tested antibiotics in combination with doripenem were determined using a microbroth checkerboard technique. To determine the PAEs, K. pneumoniae strains in the logarithmic phase of growth were exposed for 1 h to antibiotics, alone and in combination. Recovery periods of test cultures were evaluated using viable counting after centrifugation. Colistin, tobramycin, and levofloxacin produced strong PAEs ranging from 2.71 to 4.23 h, from 1.31 to 3.82 h, and from 1.35 to 4.72, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. Tigecycline and rifampin displayed modest PAEs ranging from 1.18 h to 1.55 h and 0.92 to 1.19, respectively. Because it is a beta-lactam, PAEs were not exactly induced by doripenem (ranging from 0.10 to 0.18 h). In combination, doripenem scarcely changed the duration of PAE of each tested antibiotic alone. The findings of this study may have important implications for the timing of doses during K. pneumoniae therapy with tested antibiotics. PMID:25530961

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  8. Higher functioning children with prenatal alcohol exposure: is there a specific neurocognitive profile?

    PubMed

    Quattlebaum, Justin L; O'Connor, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    Recent attempts to identify a neurocognitive profile of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) have led to an emerging "generalized deficit" conceptualization marked by diffuse information processing and integration difficulties as opposed to a specific profile. This study examines whether this conceptualization can be extended to higher functioning children with PAE who are without intellectual disability and addresses several limitations of previous research. One hundred twenty-five children aged 6-12 years with social skills deficits, 97 of whom met diagnostic criteria for a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), underwent a comprehensive, multi-informant assessment of neurocognitive, emotional, social, behavioral, and adaptive functioning. Multivariate analyses of variance examined differences in functioning between the PAE group and a nonexposed comparison group with and without controlling for child IQ. Results indicated that the PAE group returned significantly poorer scores than the nonexposed group on every construct assessed, including executive functioning, attention, working/visuospatial memory, linguistic abstraction, adaptive behavior, emotional/behavioral functioning, and social cognition. These differences largely maintained after controlling for IQ and were similar regardless of informant, although teachers reported somewhat fewer group differences. Within the PAE group, no differences were found across FASD subtypes. These results provide evidence extending the emerging generalized deficit conceptualization of children with PAE to those higher functioning individuals without global intellectual disability. PMID:22905880

  9. Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: Poorly Understood and Frequently Missed? A Review of Clinical Features, Appropriate Investigations, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Matthew; Kennedy, Dominic; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an important and possibly underrecognized cause of exertional leg pain (ELP). As it is poorly understood, it is at risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The features indicative of PAES are outlined, as it can share features with other causes of ELP. Investigating functional PAES is also fraught with potential problems and if it is performed incorrectly, it can result in false negative and false positive findings. A review of the current vascular investigations is provided, highlighting some of the limitations standard tests have in determining functional PAES. Once a clinical suspicion for PAES is satisfied, it is necessary to further distinguish the subcategories of anatomical and functional entrapment and the group of asymptomatic occluders. When definitive entrapment is confirmed, it is important to identify the level of entrapment so that precise intervention can be performed. Treatment strategies for functional PAES are discussed, including the possibility of a new, less invasive intervention of guided Botulinum toxin injection at the level of entrapment as an alternative to vascular surgery. PMID:26464888

  10. Photoacoustic endoscopy with hollow structured lens-focused polyvinylidine fluoride transducer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiaying; Li, Yanan; Jin, Wentao; Peng, Kuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Wang, Bo

    2016-03-20

    Currently, most transducers in photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) are ceramic based, which are complicated to fabricate and are expensive. In this work, we have for the first time presented a hollow structured epoxy lens-focused transducer that was based on a 52 μm thick polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) film for the purpose of PAE imaging. Intensive field characteristic tests were performed on transducers with different lens curvatures, and results show that with the 6 mm fixed aperture, a lateral resolution less than 0.5 mm can be obtained with a focal length around 19 mm, which is close to the theoretical calculations. The PAE application of the built transducer was also demonstrated with phantom experiments. Compared with the commonly used ceramic-based transducers, the proposed method has greatly reduced the design and fabrication cost of the hollow structured focused transducer as required in PAE, and facilitated the development of the PAE system in lab conditions. The built transducer may play an important role in the PAE imaging of some relatively large human structures and organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and the cervical canal. PMID:27140566

  11. Compound-specific carbon isotopic fractionation during transport of phthalate esters in sandy aquifer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Li, YanXi; He, Xi; Sissou, Zakari; Tong, Lei; Yarnes, Chris; Huang, Xianyu

    2016-02-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the carbon isotopic fractionation of phthalate esters (PAEs) during transport in an sandy aquifer. Breakthrough curves of di-methyl phthalate (DMP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in mixed solution were determined by miscible displacement experiment, and simulated using HYDRUS-1D software. The stable carbon isotopes (δ(13)C) of 3 PAEs in effluent were analyzed at different times. Results showed that, in the transport process in sandy sediment, PAEs are mainly trapped into the pore space instead of being adsorbed on the surface of particles. At the initial stage of transport, PAEs with lighter carbon tend to run faster in the sandy sediment, and PAEs with heavier carbon run after. However, there is no priority for the transport of PAEs with different carbon isotopes at Stage Ⅱ with mainly time-limited sorption. So the transport-based isotope fractionation occurs in the front area of contaminant plume. This effect may be relevant for interpreting carbon isotope signatures in the real contaminant site. PMID:26539707

  12. The Effect of Prenatal Alcohol Co-Exposure on Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in Infants Born to Mothers in Opioid Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kreitinger, Christine; Gutierrez, Hilda; Hamidovic, Ajna; Schmitt, Cheryl; Sarangarm, Preeyaporn; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the incidence and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Study design For this pilot study, 70 pregnant women on opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) were recruited from a perinatal substance abuse clinic. Subjects were categorized into three study groups based on the timing of alcohol use during pregnancy as assessed by repeated self-reported measures and a comprehensive panel of ethanol biomarkers. NAS outcomes included: duration of hospital stay, the need for pharmacological treatment of NAS, newborn age at the initiation of NAS treatment, duration of treatment, and cumulative methadone dose administered. Results The study included a large proportion of ethnic minorities (81.4% Hispanic, 5.7% American Indian), women with less than a high school education (52.2%) and unplanned pregnancy (82.9%). In multivariate analysis, PAE was not associated with NAS outcomes; however, one newborn diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome demonstrated much more severe NAS compared to other PAE infants. Interestingly, 3rd trimester PAE was associated with a higher prevalence of microcephaly (62.5%) compared to the PAE abstaining group (36.8%; p=0.08). Conclusion In this study, PAE was not associated with NAS severity; however, further examination in a larger study is needed. PMID:25758627

  13. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    PubMed

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  14. Differential expression of astrocytic connexins in a mouse model of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Meera; Mylvaganam, Shanthini; Krawczyk, Michal; Wang, Lihua; Zoidl, Christiane; Brien, James; Reynolds, James N; Kapur, Bhushan; Poulter, Michael O; Zoidl, Georg; Carlen, Peter L

    2016-07-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during gestation can cause serious injury to the fetus, and may result in a range of physiological and behavioral impairments, including increased seizure susceptibility, that are collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The cellular mechanisms underlying increased seizure susceptibility in FASD are not well understood, but could involve altered excitatory coupling of neuronal populations mediated by gap junction proteins. We utilized a mouse model of the prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) to study the expression pattern of connexin (Cx) major components of gap junctions, and pannexin proteins, which form membrane channels, in the brain of 2-3weeks old PAE and control postnatal offspring. PAE during the first trimester-equivalent period of pregnancy in mice resulted in significant up-regulation of Cx30 mRNA and Cx30 total protein in the hippocampus of PAE animals compared to age-matched controls. Surface level expression of both dimeric and monomeric Cx30 were also found to be significantly up-regulated in both hippocampus and cerebral cortex of PAE animals compared to age-matched controls. On the membrane surface, the fast migrating form of Cx43 was found to be up-regulated in the hippocampus of PAE mice. However, we did not see any up-regulation of the phosphorylated forms of Cx43 on the membrane surface. These results indicate that the expression and processing of astrocytic connexins (Cx30, Cx43) are up-regulated in the brain of PAE offspring, and these changes could play a role in the cerebral hyperexcitability observed in these animals. PMID:26951949

  15. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  16. Prostatic Artery Embolization as a Primary Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Results in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Mauricio da; Oliveira Cerri, Luciana Mendes de; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Freire, Geraldo Campos; Moreira, Airton Mota; Srougi, Miguel; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2010-04-15

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically occurs in the sixth and seventh decades, and the most frequent obstructive urinary symptoms are hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, sensation of incomplete emptying, nocturia, frequency, and urgency. Various medications, specifically 5-{alpha}-reductase inhibitors and selective {alpha}-blockers, can decrease the severity of the symptoms secondary to BPH, but prostatectomy is still considered to be the traditional method of management. We report the preliminary results for two patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH, successfully treated by prostate artery embolization (PAE). The patients were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, by digital rectal examination, urodynamic testing, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine volume complemented the investigation at 30, 90, and 180 days after PAE. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia; embolization of the prostate arteries was performed with a microcatheter and 300- to 500-{mu}m microspheres using complete stasis as the end point. One patient was subjected to bilateral PAE and the other to unilateral PAE; they urinated spontaneously after removal of the urethral catheter, 15 and 10 days after the procedure, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, US and MRI revealed a prostate reduction of 39.7% and 47.8%, respectively, for the bilateral PAE and 25.5 and 27.8%, respectively, for the patient submitted to unilateral PAE. The early results, at 6-month follow-up, for the two patients with BPH show a promising potential alternative for treatment with PAE.

  17. A comparison of the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure obtained via maternal self-reports versus meconium testing: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal self-reports, used for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), may lack validity, necessitating the use of an objective biomarker. The detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (products of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism) in meconium has been established as a novel biomarker of PAE. The purpose of the current study was to compare the prevalence of PAE as reported via maternal self-reports with the results of meconium testing, and to quantify the disparity between these two methods. Methods A systematic literature search for studies reporting on the prevalence of PAE, using maternal self-reports in combination with meconium testing, was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on eight studies, using the Mantel-Haenszel method, assuming a random effects model. A random effects meta-regression was performed to test for a difference. Results The pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by meconium testing was 4.26 (95% CI: 1.34-13.57) times the pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by maternal self-reports. Large variations across the studies in regard to the difference between estimates obtained from maternal self-reports and those obtained from meconium testing were observed. Conclusions If maternal self-reports are the sole information source upon which health care professionals rely, a number of infants who were prenatally exposed to alcohol are not being recognized as such. However, further research is needed in order to validate existing biomarkers, as well as discover new biomarkers, for the detection of PAE. PMID:24708684

  18. Neurocircuitry Underlying Stress and Emotional Regulation in Animals Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Subjected to Chronic Mild Stress in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Raineki, Charlis; Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Bodnar, Tamara; Lavigne, Katie M.; Ellis, Linda; Woodward, Todd S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals exposed to alcohol during gestation show higher rates of psychopathologies. The hyperresponsivity to stress induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be related to this increased rate of psychopathologies, especially because this population is more likely to be exposed to stressful environments throughout life. However, alcohol-induced changes in the overlapping neurocircuitries that underlie stress and the expression of psychopathologies are not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the neural activity within central areas known to play key roles in both emotional and stress regulation. Adult male and female offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control conditions were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). Following CMS, the neural activity (c-fos mRNA) of the amygdala, ventral hippocampal formation, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) was assessed in response to an acute stress (elevated plus maze). Our results demonstrate that, overall, PAE decreased neural activity within the amygdala and hippocampal formation in males and increased neural activity within the amygdala and mPFC in females. CMS reduced neural activity within the mPFC and PVN in PAE males, but reduced activity in all areas analyzed in control males. By contrast, CMS reduced neural activity in the mPFC in PAE females and had no effects in control females. Furthermore, the constrained principal component analysis revealed that these patterns of neural activity resulted in differential activation of the functional neural networks in males compared to females, indicating sexually dimorphic effects of PAE and CMS. Importantly, the altered networks of brain activation in PAE animals may underlie the hyperresponsivity to stress and increased psychopathologies observed among individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. PMID:24592255

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  20. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Garic, Ana; Berres, Mark E; Flentke, George R

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development, including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genome-wide SNP analysis links PDGFRA with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and - resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss-and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to ethanol's neurotoxicity. PMID

  1. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied. PMID:24769174

  2. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Garic, Ana; Berres, Mark E.; Flentke, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development, including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genome-wide SNP analysis links PDGFRA with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and – resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss-and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene–ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to ethanol’s neurotoxicity

  3. Transport and sorption behavior of individual phthalate esters in sandy aquifer: column experiments.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Sissou; Liu, Hui; Li, Yan-Xi; He, Xi; Tong, Lei

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to quantify the transport and sorption behavior of four individual phthalate esters (PAEs) in sandy aquifer using column experiments so as to provide important parameters for the prediction and control of PAEs pollution plume in groundwater system. The transport curves of four individual PAEs were simulated with HYDRUS-1D through fitting linear and nonlinear equilibrium (LE/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, one-site non-equilibrium (LO/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, two-site non-equilibrium (LFO/NFO) sorption models. Simulation results showed that two-site models (LFO and NFO) displayed similar best fittings. The results from LFO model simulation showed that when water flowed 1000 m in sandy aquifer, PAEs with shorter carbon chains (DMP and DEP) transport 31.6 and 22.2 m, respectively. Unexpectedly for the same water transport distance, PAEs with longer carbon chains (DBP and DiBP) transported 40.2 and 60.7 m, respectively, which were faster than DMP and DEP, mainly due to the limited accessibility of type-2 sorption sites. The retardations were mainly caused by the sorption of PAEs on the time-dependent type-2 sites. DBP and DiBP exhibited higher mass transfer speed to and fro type-2 sites but showed lower total sorption coefficient (K) due to the limited accessibility of sorption sites. Coexistence of PAEs and smaller sorbent particles increased total K values of DBP and DiBP due to synergic development of more sorption sites with DMP and DEP. PMID:27146532

  4. Aminoglycoside-derived amphiphilic nanoparticles for molecular delivery.

    PubMed

    Miryala, Bhavani; Godeshala, Sudhakar; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Christensen, Matthew D; Tian, Yanqing; Rege, Kaushal

    2016-10-01

    The development of effective drug carriers can lead to improved outcomes in a variety of disease conditions. Aminoglycosides have been used as antibacterial therapeutics, and are attractive as monomers for the development of polymeric materials in various applications. Here, we describe the development of novel aminoglycoside-derived amphiphilic nanoparticles for drug delivery, with an eye towards ablation of cancer cells. The aminoglycoside paromomycin was first cross-linked with resorcinol diglycidyl ether leading to the formation of a poly (amino ether), PAE. PAE molecules were further derivatized with methoxy-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) or mPEG resulting in the formation of mPEG-PAE polymer, which self-assembled to form nanoparticles. Formation of the mPEG-PAE amphiphile was characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and FTIR spectroscopy. Self-assembly of the polymer into nanoparticles was characterized using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the pyrene fluorescence assay. mPEG-PAE nanoparticles were able to carry significant amounts of doxorubicin (DOX), presumably by means of hydrophobic interactions between the drug and the core. Cell-based studies indicated that mPEG-PAE nanoparticles, loaded with doxorubicin, were able to induce significant loss in viabilities of PC3 human prostate cancer, MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer, and MB49 murine bladder cancer cells; empty nanoparticles resulted in negligible losses of cell viability under the conditions investigated. Taken together, our results indicate that the mPEG-PAE nanoparticle platform is attractive for drug delivery in different applications, including cancer. PMID:27472455

  5. Nanoparticles based on phenylalanine ethyl ester-alginate conjugate as vitamin B2 delivery system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Shi-Rui; Li, Jun-Xia; Hong, Liang; Raja, Mazhar A; Yu, Le-Jun; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ethyl ester (PAE)-alginate (Alg) conjugate (PAE-Alg, PEA) was synthesized and formation of an amide bond between PAE and Alg was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The degree of PAE substitution was 3.5-4.7 (PAE group per hundred sugar residues of Alg) which was determined by elemental analysis. The critical aggregation concentration values determined for PEA conjugates PEA1, PEA2, and PEA3 were 0.20, 0.12, and 0.10 mg/ml, respectively. The particle size of PEA nanoparticles (PEA-NPs) decreased from 425 nm to 226 nm with the increasing degree of PAE substitution. Vitamin B2 (VB2), as a model nutrient, was encapsulated into the nanoparticles. The drug-loading content increased with increasing degree of PAE substitution. The maximum VB2 loading capacity and loading efficiency of PEA3 nanoparticles were 3.53 ± 0.03% and 91.48 ± 0.80%, respectively. The in vitro release behavior of VB2 from the PEA-NPs showed a biphasic release profile with an initial burst release of about 40-50% of VB2 in the first 10 h followed by a steady and continuous release phase for the following 50 h in PBS, pH 7.4. The human colorectal carcinoma cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of PEA-NPs. Our results showed that various concentrations of nanoparticles did not cause significant cytotoxicity against cell lines at normal concentrations. PMID:26916950

  6. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O; Kamadyaapa, D R; Gondwe, M M; Moodley, K; Musabayane, C T

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The effects of PAE on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vitro. The hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examined in healthy normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats in vivo. P americana aqueous leaf extract (25-800 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001), negative inotropic and negative chronotropic effects on guinea pig isolated electrically driven left and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. Moreover, PAE reduced or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the positive inotropic and chronotropic responses of guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips induced by noradrenaline (NA, 10(-10)-10(-5) M), and calcium (Ca(2+), 5-40 mM). PAE (50-800 mg/ml) also significantly reduced (p < 0.05-0.001) or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the rhythmic, spontaneous, myogenic contractions of portal veins isolated from healthy normal Wistar rats. Like acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-8)-10(-5) M), the plant extract (25- 800 mg/ml) produced concentration-related relaxations of isolated endothelium-containing thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline. The vasorelaxant effects of PAE in the isolated, endothelium-intact aortic rings were markedly inhibited or annulled by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-5) M), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Furthermore, PAE (25-400 mg/kg iv) caused dose-related, transient but significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of the anaesthetised normotensive and hypertensive rats used. The results of

  7. Changes in Mood in New Enrollees at a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Stephanie M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Austin, Shane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine changes in mood after 9 months of enrollment in a Program of All- Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). DESIGN Cohort Study SETTING Alexian Brothers PACE–St. Louis, Missouri PARTICIPANTS Newly enrolled patients aged 55 or older, living in the PACE service area, eligible for nursing home care, and able to live safely in the community with continuous care for at least 9 months (n=182). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 score at the pre- admission evaluation (PAE) and the 9 month evaluation (9ME). RESULTS Of the 182 patients evaluated, 27% (n=49) met the definition of depression as defined by the GDS-15 score of ≥6 at the PAE. At the 9ME, only 11% of patients met the depression criteria (p<0.001). Of the patients who met the criteria for depression at the PAE, 80% of patients (n=39) no longer met this criteria at the 9ME (p=0.029). Similar findings were observed by age, sex, and race. Greater improvement was observed among those who were depressed at the PAE; the depressed cohort improved by 5.0 points (p<0.001) on the GDS-15 scale from the PAE to the 9ME, whereas the non-depressed cohort improved by 0.6 points (p=0.003). CONCLUSION The use of PACE as an alternative intervention may be a good option to improve mood in older adults. PMID:26260643

  8. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M.; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility. PMID:22247250

  9. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Designing culturally-sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients’ involvement in their treatment, and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multi-level activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health, and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms, and how they impact patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and Value Based Purchasing, Patient Centered Medical Homes, and the Community Health Benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable, and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients’ abilities to manage their health, helping patients to express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  10. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  11. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  12. Transurethral Photoacoustic Endoscopy for Prostate Cancer: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shanshan; Chen, Jian; Samant, Pratik; Stratton, Kelly; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the configuration of a photoacoustic endoscope (PAE) for prostate cancer detection and therapy monitoring. The placement of optical fiber bundles and ultrasound detectors was chosen to maximize the photoacoustic imaging penetration depth. We performed both theoretical calculations and simulations of this optimized PAE configuration on a prostate-sized phantom containing tumor and various photosensitizer concentrations. The optimized configuration of PAE with transurethral light delivery simultaneously increases the imaging penetration depth and improves image quality. Thermal safety, investigated via COMSOL Multiphysics, shows that there is only a 4 mK temperature rise in the urethra during photoacoustic imaging, which will cause no thermal damage. One application of this PAE has been demonstrated for quasi-quantifying photosensitizer concentrations during photodynamic therapy. The sensitivity of the photoacoustic detection for TOOKAD was 0.18 ng/mg at a 763 nm laser wavelength. Results of this study will greatly enhance the potential of prostate PAE for in vivo monitoring of drug delivery and guidance of the laser-induced therapy for future clinical use. PMID:26886974

  13. What Research Is Being Done on Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Russian Research Community?

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. Results: The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Conclusions: Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD. PMID:24158024

  14. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  15. Parallel Synthesis of Poly(amino ether)-Templated Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Transgene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have been increasingly investigated for numerous applications in medicine, sensing, and catalysis. In particular, gold nanoparticles have been investigated for separations, sensing, drug/nucleic acid delivery, and bioimaging. In addition, silver nanoparticles demonstrate antibacterial activity, resulting in potential application in treatments against microbial infections, burns, diabetic skin ulcers, and medical devices. Here, we describe the facile, parallel synthesis of both gold and silver nanoparticles using a small set of poly(amino ethers), or PAEs, derived from linear polyamines, under ambient conditions and in absence of additional reagents. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were dependent on PAE concentration and chemical composition. In addition, yields were significantly greater in case of PAEs when compared to 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine), which was used as a standard catonic polymer. Ultraviolet radiation enhanced the kinetics and the yield of both gold and silver nanoparticles, likely by means of a coreduction effect. PAE-templated gold nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to deliver plasmid DNA, resulting in transgene expression, in 22Rv1 human prostate cancer and MB49 murine bladder cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results indicate that chemically diverse poly(amino ethers) can be employed for rapidly templating the formation of metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. The simplicity of synthesis and chemical diversity make PAE-templated nanoparticles useful tools for several applications in biotechnology, including nucleic acid delivery. PMID:25084138

  16. [Preparation of self-microemulsion drug delivery system of the mixture of paeonol and borneol based on Xingbi Fang].

    PubMed

    Lü, Feng-Qin; Li, Huang; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Ming-Qing; Zheng, Jian; Chu, Ke-Dan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) of the mixture of paeonol (Pae) and borneol (Bor). Solubility test, ternary phase diagrams and simplex lattice method were employed to screen and optimize the formulation of the mixture of Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS. After formed into microemulsions, the particle diameter (PD) was determined and a TEM was employed to observe the microemulsions' morphology. The contents of Pae and Bor were determined by gas chromatography. As a result, while ethyl oleate (EO) as the oil phase, cremophor EL35 (EL35) as surfactant and Transcutol HP (HP) as cosurfactant, the range of the microemulsion on the ternary phase diagram was larger than other combinations. And at a ratio of 20:45:35, the microemulsions' PD was about 34 nm and the polydispersity index (PI) was about 0.2. There were 16% of Pae, 2% of Bor, 16% of EO, 37% of EL35 and 29% of HP in the prepared SMEDDS. The preparation process of the Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS based on Xingbi Fang is simple and feasible. This study provides a reference for the researches on the related traditional Chinese medicine and the related components. PMID:24417089

  17. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  18. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of erythromycin, roxithromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Yun, H

    2001-06-01

    When intermittent dosing is used during treatment, the concentrations of antibiotics fluctuate and subinhibitory concentrations may occur between doses. Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic subinhibitory effects (PA SMEs) on bacteria may provide additional, valuable information for the rational use of a drug in clinical practice. In this study tilmicosin was the most active antibiotic tested against P. multocida type D with MICs ranging from 4-16 mg/l. Roxithromycin and tilmicosin induced a statistically significantly longer PAE than did tylosin against P. multocida types A and D (P < 0.05). The duration of PAEs and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on P. multocida. Tilmicosin had a longer PA SME compared with erythromycin, roxithromycin and tylosin for P. multocida. The computerized incubator used in the present study provided an efficient and convenient determination of PAE and PA SME, allowing frequent measurements of the bacterial growth. PMID:11397617

  19. Simultaneous determination of 17 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by GC-MS with silica/PSA-mixed solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Wu, PingGu; Yang, DaJin; Zhang, Liqun; Shen, XiangHong; Pan, XiaoDong; Wang, LiYuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Feng, Liang; Ying, Ying

    2012-11-01

    A quantified method for the determination of 17 phthalate esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oil by GC-MS with the pretreatment of acetonitrile extraction and silica/N-(n-Propyl)ethylenediamine-mixed SPE column was established. By the quantification of internal standard of D(4)-di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a good linearity range of related 17 PAEs was observed. The correlation coefficient was ranged at 0.994~1.000, and the standard lowest quantified level was 0.05~0.15 mg/L. The spiking recoveries of 17 PAEs were 78.3~108.9% with the relative standard deviations of 4.3~12.1% (n = 6). The method detection limits were 0.1~0.2 mg/kg. Meanwhile, PAEs were determined in 30 plastic buckets of edible vegetable oil from supermarkets in Hangzhou city of China. The survey of 30 oil samples showed di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) had the 100% (30/30) detection rate. The levels of diisobutyl phthalate with 86.7% (26:30), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with 70% (21:30) and diethyl phthalate with 10% (3:30) were detected. It was worth note that DBP with 16.7% (5:30) samples and DEHP with 10% (3:30) samples were beyond the regular migrating limit, which indicated that more attention should be paid to the PAEs in oil with plastic package. PMID:23065997

  20. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  1. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time. PMID:24295676

  2. Synthesis of novel fluorine containing poly(arylene ether-pyrazoles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.G.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1993-12-31

    Several novel poly(arylene ether-pyrazoles) (PAE-pyrazoles) containing N-tetrafluorophenyl or octafluorobiphenal groups have been prepared. Polymers containing N-tetrafluorophenyl groups were prepared from two new monomers namely, 3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrazole and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrazole, respectively. Several bisphenol pyrazole monomers were polymerized with decafluorobiphenyl under controlled reaction conditions to obtain PAE-pyrazoles containing octafluorobiphenyl moieties. All polymers were obtained as white granular or fibrous solids with inherent viscosities of 0.19-1.40 dL/g, and were stable up to 480{degrees}C in air and helium. In general, the thermal properties of fluorine containing PAE-pyrazoles were comparable or lower than their corresponding non-fluorine containing systems. The preparation and thermal properties of these polymers will be discussed.

  3. Novel pH/Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels Based on Poly(β-Amino Ester) for Controlled Protein Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Dai Phu; He, Chaoliang; Lee, Doo Sung

    The concept of this research was to use poly(β-amino ester) (PAE) as a bi-functional group for synthesis of the novel stimuli-sensitive injectable hydrogels for controlled drug/protein delivery. Firstly, PAE was used as a pH-sensitive moiety to conjugate with the temperature-sensitive biodegradable triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)(PCL-PEG-PCL) or poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) (PACL-PEG-PCLA). Secondly, the cationic nature of PAE was used as the second function to make ionic complexes with anionic biomolecules loaded onto the hydrogel such as insulin. As a result, the release of the drug/protein from the hydrogel device can be controlled by the degradation of the copolymer.

  4. Graphene nanoplatelets as a highly efficient solid-phase extraction sorbent for determination of phthalate esters in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, FeiFang; Ji, Shunli; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-03-01

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GN) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography has been used for the determination of five phthalate esters (PAEs) in aqueous solution. The operation parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Comparative studies showed that GN was superior to other common SPE sorbents in terms of recovery and adsorption capacity. Under optimization conditions, detection limits of 0.09-0.33 ng mL(-1) were achieved for five PAEs and enrichment factors of 402-711 for the analytes were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAEs in tap water and drink samples with recoveries ranging from 87.7% to 100.9%. PMID:24468344

  5. Preparation of C18-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for extraction and determination of phthalic acid esters in Chinese herb preparations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bize; Ji, Shunli; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng; Gu, Jiangping; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-11-01

    The extraction and determination of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) residue in Chinese herbal preparations (CHP) by C18-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (C18-FS-MNP) has been firstly performed. It was synthesized through coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sodium silicate, followed by freeze-drying technique and then modified with C18 groups. C18-FS-MNPs prepared via freeze-drying technique were superior to those particles prepared via common vacuum drying method in terms of dispersion and extraction recovery. C18-FS-MNPs demonstrated obvious enrichment effect for four model PAEs and 478-627-fold enrichment factors were obtained. The limit of detection was <1.89ng/mL and relative standard deviation was ranging from 3.7 to 5.8%. It was successfully applied for determination of trace PAEs residue in CHP with good recoveries. PMID:25213260

  6. Direct Observation of the Surface Segregation of Cu in Pd by Time-Resolved Positron-Annihilation-Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Schreckenbach, K.

    2010-11-12

    Density functional theory calculations predict the surface segregation of Cu in the second atomic layer of Pd which has not been unambiguously confirmed by experiment so far. We report measurements on Pd surfaces covered with three and six monolayers of Cu using element selective positron-annihilation-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) which is sensitive to the topmost atomic layer. Moreover, time-resolved PAES, which was applied for the first time, enables the investigation of the dynamics of surface atoms and hence the observation of the segregation process. The time constant for segregation was experimentally determined to {tau}=1.38(0.21) h, and the final segregated configuration was found to be consistent with calculations. Time-dependent PAES is demonstrated to be a novel element selective technique applicable for the investigation of, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, corrosion, or surface alloying.

  7. Pinosylvin-Based Polymers: Biodegradable Poly(Anhydride-Esters) for Extended Release of Antibacterial Pinosylvin.

    PubMed

    Bien-Aime, Stephan; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    Pinosylvin is a natural stilbenoid known to exhibit antibacterial bioactivity against foodborne bacteria. In this work, pinosylvin is chemically incorporated into a poly(anhydride-ester) (PAE) backbone via melt-condensation polymerization, and characterized with respect to its physicochemical and thermal properties. In vitro release studies demonstrate that pinosylvin-based PAEs hydrolytically degrade over 40 d to release pinosylvin. Pseudo-first order kinetic experiments on model compounds, butyric anhydride and 3-butylstilbene ester, indicate that the anhydride linkages hydrolyze first, followed by the ester bonds to ultimately release pinosylvin. An antibacterial assay shows that the released pinosylvin exhibit bioactivity, while in vitro cytocompatibility studies demonstrate that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. These preliminary findings suggest that the pinosylvin-based PAEs can serve as food preservatives in food packaging materials by safely providing antibacterial bioactivity over extended time periods. PMID:27071713

  8. Physical activity promotion among underserved adolescents: "make it fun, easy, and popular".

    PubMed

    Louise Bush, Paula; Laberge, Suzanne; Laforest, Sophie

    2010-05-01

    There is a paucity of studies regarding noncurricular physical activity promotion interventions among adolescents, and even less such research pertaining to underserved youth. This article describes the development and implementation of a noncurricular, school-based physical activity promotion program designed for a multiethnic, underserved population of adolescents. The program's impact on leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and on physical activity enjoyment (PAE) is also presented. The 16-week program, named FunAction, utilizes social marketing principles. Control (n = 90) and intervention (n = 131) students are assessed pre- and postintervention for levels of LTPA and PAE. Results indicate that although the program did not contribute to an increase in LTPA or PAE among intervention group students, participation in the program was elevated. This study offers preliminary evidence that noncurricular physical activity promotion programs that apply social marketing principles can be effective in engaging multiethnic, underserved adolescents in physical activity. PMID:19168890

  9. Prostate Artery Embolization as a New Treatment for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: Contemporary Status in 2016.

    PubMed

    Noor, Amir; Fischman, Aaron M

    2016-07-01

    The gold standard treatment for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy (OP). Recently, there has been increased interest and research in less invasive alternative treatments with less morbidity including prostate artery embolization (PAE). Several studies have shown PAE to be an effective alternative to TURP to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with BPH with decreased morbidity. Specifically, PAE has been advantageous in selected patient populations such as those with prostates too large for TURP or unsuitable surgical candidates, showing a promising potential for the future care of patients with BPH. Further studies are being done to demonstrate the clinical applications and advantages of this therapy in reduction of LUTS. PMID:27146488

  10. An Early Assessment of Accountable Care Organizations' Efforts to Engage Patients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M; Sehgal, Neil J; Bibi, Salma; Ramsay, Patricia P; Neuhauser, Linda; Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A

    2015-10-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have incentives to meet quality and cost targets to share in any resulting savings. Achieving these goals will require ACOs to engage more actively with patients and their families. The extent to which ACOs do so is currently unknown. Using mixed methods, including a national survey, phone interviews, and site-visits, we examine the extent to which ACOs actively engage patients and their families, explore challenges involved, and consider approaches for dealing with those challenges. Results indicate that greater ACO use of patient activation and engagement (PAE) activities at the point-of-care may be related to positive perceptions among ACO leaders of the impact of PAE investments on ACO costs, quality, and outcomes of care. We identify a number of important practices associated with greater PAE, including high-level leadership commitment, goal-setting supported by adequate resources, extensive provider training, use of interdisciplinary care teams, and frequent monitoring and reporting on progress. PMID:26038349

  11. Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, E.R.; Noble, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    We used prepositioned area electrofishers (PAEs, 10X1.5 m) to assess diel differences in distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in August 1992-1993 in a paired sampling design. PAEs were placed parallel to shore in an embayment of an unvegetated reservoir (B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina, USA). The catch per unit effort (CPUE=fish/PAE) was significantly higher at night than during the day in both years, indicating that age-0 largemouth bass exhibit nocturnal inshore movements. Age-0 largemouth bass captured inshore during day were smaller than those captured at night, indicating that movement patterns may change ontogenetically. Inshore-offshore movements of age-0 largemouth bass were significantly reduced in the presence of cover, suggesting that diel movements were influenced by specific habitat components. Diel movements likely were related to foraging, resting and predator avoidance behavior and could affect population dynamics and introduce bias in assessment programs.

  12. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: a common cause of a rare clinical entity--critical leg ischemia in the young.

    PubMed

    Tsilogianni, Zoi; Grapatsas, Konstantinos; Papanikolaou, Zisis; Kokkini-Paschou, Aggeliki; Tsantilas, Apostolos; Tsiligiris, Vasileios; Vourliotakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare but important cause of leg ischemia and even disability in young athletes. Entrapment occurs because of an abnormal relationship between the popliteal artery and the surrounding muscular structures in the popliteal fossa. These anomalies lead to decreased blood flow to the affected leg with signs of claudication, coldness, and symptoms of exercise-induced leg pain. In this article, we present a case of a young soldier who presented with the above signs and symptoms in his left foot after exercise. On questioning, he admitted to having chronic lower leg pain. He was diagnosed with PAES in both legs and he was emergently treated with an arterial bypass procedure in the left one. He had no postoperative complications. PAES should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic or acute lower leg pain in any young patient. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent limb loss and lead to a good operative outcome. PMID:24402998

  13. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T.C. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ < 15) even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications. PMID:26690232

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters synaptic activity of adult hippocampal dentate granule cells under conditions of enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Kenta; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Allan, Andrea M; Ge, Shaoyu; Gu, Yan; Cunningham, Lee Anna

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which is characterized by a wide range of cognitive and behavioral deficits that may be linked to impaired hippocampal function and adult neurogenesis. Preclinical studies in mouse models of FASD indicate that PAE markedly attenuates enrichment-mediated increases in the number of adult-generated hippocampal dentate granule cells (aDGCs), but whether synaptic activity is also affected has not been studied. Here, we utilized retroviral birth-dating coupled with whole cell patch electrophysiological recordings to assess the effects of PAE on enrichment-mediated changes in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity as a function of DGC age. We found that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) had no effect on baseline synaptic activity of 4- or 8-week-old aDGCs from control mice, but significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in 8-week-old aDGCs from PAE mice. In contrast, exposure to EE significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in older pre-existing DGCs situated in the outer dentate granule cell layer (i.e., those generated during embryonic development; dDGCs) in control mice, an effect that was blunted in PAE mice. These findings indicate distinct electrophysiological responses of hippocampal DGCs to behavioral challenge based on cellular ontogenetic age, and suggest that PAE disrupts EE-mediated changes in overall hippocampal network activity. These findings may have implications for future therapeutic targeting of hippocampal dentate circuitry in clinical FASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27009742

  15. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  16. The anti-tumor efficacy of curcumin when delivered by size/charge-changing multistage polymeric micelles based on amphiphilic poly(β-amino ester) derivates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Qiu, Liyan

    2014-03-01

    Modifying positive surface charge and reducing bulk size of nanoparticles has been proven beneficial to cancer cellular delivery, but meanwhile results in fast clearance and unspecific distribution in body after intravenous injection. How to balance these problems is still a challenge to construct an ideal nano-scaled drug delivery system in cancer treatment. Herein, we developed a multistage drug delivery system to enhance anticancer efficacy of curcumin (CUR), which could intelligently alter its size and surface charge after long-circulation and extravasation from leaky blood vessels at tumor sites. This micellar system was constructed by amphiphilic and pH-sensitive methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide)-poly(β-amino ester) (MPEG-PLA-PAE) copolymers. As compared with MPEG-PLA micelles, MPEG-PLA-PAE micelles displayed several advantageous characteristics for drug delivery and treatment. We found that CUR-loaded MPEG-PLA-PAE micelles remained stable in murine plasma at 37 °C even with high drug loading. More interestingly, when the media pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.5, the micelles shrank from 171.0 nm to 22.6 nm and their surface charge increased to 24.8 mV meanwhile, which resulted in the significantly improved cell uptake of CUR by human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Using indocyanine green (ICG) as a fluorescence probe, it was observed that MPEG-PLA-PAE micelles experienced longer circulation than MPEG-PLA micelles followed by accumulation at tumors with stronger fluorescence intensity. Consequently, MPEG-PLA-PAE micelles achieved enhanced cancer growth inhibition of 65.6% in vivo. All these findings demonstrated the potential of size/charge-changing MPEG-PLA-PAE micelles as a promising drug delivery system for tumor-targeted therapy. PMID:24439418

  17. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Alberto A.; Carnevale, Francisco C. Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M.; Cerri, Luciana M. O.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.; Marcelino, Antonio S. Z.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  18. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1999-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were studied in vitro. The effect of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs (1/4, 1/2 MIC) on bacterial growth was evaluated. The presence of tilmicosin, tylosin and apramycin in the medium decreased the rate of growth of the bacterial strains tested using drug concentrations as low as 1/4 MIC. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) which is the suppression of optimal bacterial growth that persists after a short exposure (2 h) of microorganisms to an antibiotic was studied by exposure of bacteria to drugs at 1/4, 1/2, 1, 4 and 8 times MIC. The duration of PAEs increased with rising concentration for all drugs tested but at concentrations below the MIC, tilmicosin showed more significant PAEs than tylosin or apramycin against P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae. Tilmicosin and tylosin caused PAEs of up to 8 h when used at 8 times the MIC, while apramycin caused PAEs of up to 5 h when used at this concentration. Sub-MICs of either tilmicosin, tylosin, or apramycin had no effect on P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin production. However sub-MICs of tylosin, or apramycin significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of A. pleuropneumoniae and affected the capsular material production of this isolate and of one isolate of P. multocida (type A). The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied. In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs. PMID:10461841

  19. Novel 4-Arm Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly(Anhydride-Esters) Amphiphilic Copolymer Micelles Loading Curcumin: Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuanyuan; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaofen; Li, Mingna; Guo, Shengrong; Huang, Shengtang

    2013-01-01

    A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE) was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(anhydride-esters) which was obtained by melt polycondensation of α-, ω-acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid). The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by 1H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38 μg/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles were prepared by a solid dispersion method and the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of the micelles were 7.0% and 85.2%, respectively. The curcumin-loaded micelles were spherical with a hydrodynamic diameter of 151.9 nm. Curcumin was encapsulated within 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles amorphously and released from the micelles, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4, presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. The hemolysis rate of the curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles was 3.18%, which was below 5%. The IC50 value of the curcumin-loaded micelles against Hela cells was 10.21 μg/mL, lower than the one of free curcumin (25.90 μg/mL). The cellular uptake of the curcumin-loaded micelles in Hela cell increased in a time-dependent manner. The curcumin-loaded micelles could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Hela cells. PMID:23936812

  20. Suppression of polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in vitro: a study of the mechanisms and the correlation with ring abscess in pseudomonal keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Kamata, R.; Nishino, N.; Okamura, R.; Kambara, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria, or the culture supernatants of an elastase non-producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elicited a chemotactic response from polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in vitro. The chemoattractive capacity was diminished under the presence of Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe, a receptor antagonist of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) which is a bacterial chemotactic peptide to PMN. This indicated that the chemoattractant derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was a fMLP-like molecule(s). In contrast, culture supernatants of an elastase producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced negligible chemotactic response from PMN. Indeed, an inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants or of purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE) on PMN chemotaxis was observed when fMLP was used as a chemoattractant. Another fMLP-induced function of PMN, respiratory burst activation, was also diminished by pretreatment of PMN with PAE. PAE hydrolysed fMLP at the Met-Leu bond and diminished the chemoattractant capacity. In addition, a receptor analysis with fML-3H-P demonstrated a decrease in numbers of fMLP receptors on PMN without changing the dissociation constant values after the treatment of the cells with PAE. In the primary structure of the fMLP receptor previously reported, a preferential amino acid sequence for cleavage by PAE was identified in what was believed to be an extracellular portion of the receptor molecule. These results suggested that PAE could diminish PMN infiltration in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo by cleavage of the fMLP-like pseudomonal chemotactic ligand and the receptors on PMN. Images Figure 4 PMID:7734333

  1. Metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent of porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of six phthalate esters from drinking water: a combination of experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Conglu; Yang, Zhao; Dai, Xinpeng; Cheng, Maosheng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    An attractive metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) material was synthesized at the nanoscale and applied as a sorbent in the porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) device for the pre-concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the selection of sorbent materials, pH adjustment, the effect of salt, magnetic-stirring extraction time, the desorption solvent and the desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis for PAEs varied from 0.004 to 0.02 μg L(-1). The linear ranges were from 0.1 to 50 μg L(-1) or from 0.2 to 50 μg L(-1) for the analytes with the relative standard deviations fluctuating from 0.8 to 10.9% (n = 5). The enrichment factors (EFs) for the target PAEs were varied from 143 to 187. MIL-101(Cr) exhibited remarkable advantages compared to activated carbon and MIL-100(Fe). On the other hand, the computational method was first used to predict the adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) towards PAEs. The molecular interactions and the free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and PAEs were observed and calculated in terms of the molecular modeling method. MIL-101(Cr) showed high potential in the analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinking water. The computational result was consistent with the detected enrichment factors. The computational modeling accurately predicted the extraction efficiency of MOF-based material towards the target analytes. Therefore, the combination of experimental and computational study provided a new strategy on the trace contaminant analysis. PMID:26076497

  2. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope for use in the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. K.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We have successfully developed a fully-sheathed, flexible shaft-based, mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The endoscopic system uses a single element ultrasonic transducer and flexible shaft-based proximal actuation mechanism, and it has a 2.5 m long and 3.2 mm diameter catheter section, which can be accommodated in the 3.7 mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo imaging capability of the PAE system.

  3. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. PMID:24880061

  4. Postantibiotic Effects and Bactericidal Activities of Clarithromycin–14-Hydroxy-Clarithromycin, versus Those of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate, against Anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rose; Messick, Chad R.; Pendland, Susan L.; Tesoro, Eljim P.; Losendahl, Karen J.; Schriever, Christopher A.; Danziger, Larry H.

    2000-01-01

    The bactericidal activities and postantibiotic effects (PAE) of clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against Bacteroides fragilis and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius were determined. A concentration of twice the MIC resulted in bactericidal activity against four of four and three of four organisms at 24 h with clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. The PAE of clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin was 1.44 to 3.20 h, compared to the less than 1 h of amoxicillin-clavulanate. Clarithromycin–14-hydroxy-clarithromycin possesses good activity against susceptible anaerobes. PMID:10681358

  5. Positron states on the Cs/Cu(100) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Koeymen, A.R.; Lee, K.H.; Mehl, D.; Weiss, A. ); Jensen, K.O. )

    1991-02-01

    The attenuation of the CuM{sub 23}VV Auger peak with Cs coverage on Cu(100) is measured using both positron-annihilation-induced Auger electron emission (PAES) and conventional (electron induced) Auger electron spectroscopy (EAES). The Cs coverage varies from 0 to 1 physical monolayer (ML). The data indicates that below 0.5 ML in agreement with first order theoretical calculations the positrons are trapped at the Cu/Cs interface. At higher Cs coverages the thermal desorption of the positrons as positronium drops the PAES intensity to zero whereas the EAES signal changes linearly as expected.

  6. Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Rao, Bin; Yao, Junjie; Yeh, Cheng-Hung; Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has become a major experimental tool of photoacoustic tomography, with unique imaging capabilities for various biological applications. However, conventional imaging systems are all table-top embodiments, which preclude their use in internal organs. In this study, by applying the OR-PAM concept to our recently developed endoscopic technique, called photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE), we created an optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy (OR-PAEM) system, which enables internal organ imaging with a much finer resolution than conventional acoustic-resolution PAE systems. OR-PAEM has potential preclinical and clinical applications using either endogenous or exogenous contrast agents. PMID:25798315

  7. Envelope tracking CMOS power amplifier with high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier for mobile handsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Sakai, Yasufumi; Oishi, Kazuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Mori, Toshihiko; Yamaura, Shinji; Suto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    A high-efficiency CMOS power amplifier (PA) based on envelope tracking (ET) has been reported for a wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) and long term evolution (LTE) application. By adopting a high-speed CMOS envelope amplifier with current direction sensing, a 5% improvement in total power-added efficiency (PAE) and a 11 dB decrease in adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) are achieved with a W-CDMA signal. Moreover, the proposed PA achieves a PAE of 25.4% for a 10 MHz LTE signal at an output power (Pout) of 25.6 dBm and a gain of 24 dB.

  8. Influence of pilates mat and apparatus exercises on pain and balance of businesswomen with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants' static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE. PMID:24764614

  9. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan Mishra, Shanti; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2013-09-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg-1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P < 0.001) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bile salts. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of 50 mg kg-1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg-1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  10. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins. PMID:26304812

  11. The Frustration with Utilization: Why Have Improvements in Internal Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency in Crops Remained so Elusive?

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Terry J.; Rose, Michael T.; Pariasca-Tanaka, Juan; Heuer, Sigrid; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Despite the attention internal phosphorus utilization efficiency (PUE) of crops has received in the literature, little progress in breeding crop cultivars with high PUE has been made. Surprisingly few studies have specifically investigated PUE; instead, genotypic variation for PUE has been investigated in studies that concurrently assess phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE). We hypothesized that genotypic differences in PAE confound PUE rankings because genotypes with higher PAE suffer a lower degree of P stress, resulting in lower PUE. The hypothesis was tested by comparing soil-based screening to a modified technique whereby rice genotypes were grown in individual containers with a single dose of solution P, to eliminate differences in P uptake among genotypes. Genotypic differences in PUE were apparent in root and shoot tissue using the modified nutrient solution technique, but PUE rankings showed no correlation with those from traditional soil-based screening. We conclude that PUE in soil-based screening systems is unavoidably linked with genotypic PAE, resulting in PUE rankings confounded by differences in P uptake. Only screening techniques assuring equal P uptake are suitable for the exploitation of genotypic variation for PUE. PMID:22639608

  12. Novel time-of-flight spectrometer for the analysis of positron annihilation induced Auger electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Legl, Stefan

    2006-10-15

    Positron annihilation induced Auger-electron spectroscopy (PAES) has several advantages over conventional Auger-electron spectroscopy such as extremely high surface sensitivity and outstanding signal-to-noise ratio at the Auger-transition energy. In order to benefit from these prominent features a low-energy positron beam of high intensity is required for surface sensitive PAES studies. In addition, an electron energy analyzer is required, which efficiently detects the Auger electrons with acceptable energy resolution. For this reason a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed at the intense positron source NEPOMUC that allows PAES studies within short measurement time. This TOF-PAES setup combines a trochoidal filter and a flight tube in a Faraday cage in order to achieve an improved energy resolution of about 1 eV at high electron energies up to E{approx_equal}1000 eV. The electron flight time is the time between the annihilation radiation at the sample and when the electron hits a microchannel plate detector at the end of the flight tube.

  13. Kinetics of phenolic and phthalic acid esters biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The kinetic of phenolic and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate was investigated. Laboratory-scale MBR was fed with mixture of fresh and stabilized landfill leachate containing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 10, 6, 3 and operated under different solid retention time (SRT) of 90, 15 and 5 d. Batch experiments using MBR sludge obtained from each steady-state operating condition revealed highest biodegradation rate constant (k) of 0.059-0.092 h(-1) of the phenolic and PAEs compounds at C/N of 6. Heterotrophic bacteria were the major group responsible for biodegradation of compounds whereas the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) helped accelerating their removals. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria found under high ammonia condition had an important role in enhancing the biodegradation of phenols and PAEs by releasing phenol hydroxylase (PH), esterase (EST) and phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) enzymes and the presence of AOB helped improving biodegradation of phenolic and PAEs compounds through their co-metabolism. PMID:26908045

  14. 24 CFR 401.310 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conflicts of interest. 401.310...) § 401.310 Conflicts of interest. (a) Definitions—(1) Conflict of interest means a situation in which a... with HUD. (b) General prohibitions. (1) The PAE may not permit conflicts of interest to exist...

  15. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish management standards consistent with industry standards and HUD guidelines. The management standards must be...

  16. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish management standards consistent with industry standards and HUD guidelines. The management standards must be...

  17. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish management standards consistent with industry standards and HUD guidelines. The management standards must be...

  18. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish management standards consistent with industry standards and HUD guidelines. The management standards must be...

  19. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish management standards consistent with industry standards and HUD guidelines. The management standards must be...

  20. 24 CFR 401.500 - Required notices to third parties and meeting with third parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.500 Required notices to...) Access to Restructuring Plan. (1) The PAE must make the Restructuring Plan available to the...

  1. 24 CFR 401.503 - Access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.503 Access to information. (a) PAE responsibilities. The...

  2. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  3. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 2424. (2) Other grounds. HUD may elect not to permit continued consideration of the... under 2 CFR part 2424; (ii) HUD or the PAE determines that the owner or an affiliate has engaged in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rejection of a request for...

  4. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 2424. (2) Other grounds. HUD may elect not to permit continued consideration of the... under 2 CFR part 2424; (ii) HUD or the PAE determines that the owner or an affiliate has engaged in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rejection of a request for...

  5. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 2424. (2) Other grounds. HUD may elect not to permit continued consideration of the... under 2 CFR part 2424; (ii) HUD or the PAE determines that the owner or an affiliate has engaged in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rejection of a request for...

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). International Communication, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Split Images: Arab and Asian Political Leaders' Portraits in Major U.S. News Magazines" (Hye-Kyeong Pae); "Public Relations Functions and Models: U.S. Practitioners in International Assignments" (Alan R. Freitag); "The Influence of Ideological…

  7. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 2424. (2) Other grounds. HUD may elect not to permit continued consideration of the... under 2 CFR part 2424; (ii) HUD or the PAE determines that the owner or an affiliate has engaged in... meet the housing quality standards in § 401.558 and that the poor condition of the project is...

  8. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on social, cognitive and affective behavioral domains: Insights from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Kristin; Brigman, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are characterized by deficits in working memory, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility. However, the combination and severity of impairments are highly dependent upon maternal ethanol consumption patterns, which creates a complex variety of manifestations. Rodent models have been essential in identifying behavioral endpoints of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, experimental model outcomes are extremely diverse based on level, pattern, timing, and method of ethanol exposure, as well as the behavioral domain assayed and paradigm used. Therefore, comparisons across studies are difficult and there is currently no clear comprehensive behavioral phenotype of PAE. This lack of defined cognitive and behavioral phenotype is a contributing factor to the difficulty in identifying FASD individuals. The current review aims to critically examine preclinical behavioral outcomes in the social, cognitive, and affective domains in terms of the PAE paradigm, with a special emphasis on dose, timing, and delivery, to establish a working model of behavioral impairment. In addition, this review identifies gaps in our current knowledge and proposes future areas of research that will advance knowledge in the field of PAE outcomes. Understanding the complex behavioral phenotype, which results from diverse ethanol consumption will allow for development of better diagnostic tools and more critical evaluation of potential treatments for FASD. PMID:26992695

  9. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health. PMID:26675858

  10. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meet the housing quality standards in § 401.558 and that the poor condition of the project is not... CFR part 2424. (2) Other grounds. HUD may elect not to permit continued consideration of the... under 2 CFR part 2424; (ii) HUD or the PAE determines that the owner or an affiliate has engaged...

  11. POLYAMIDE-EPICHLOROHYDRIN RESINS FOR UNION DYEING WOOL/COTTON BLENDED FABRICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cationic amine polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resins were applied as pretreatments to all-wool, all-cotton, and blends of wool/cotton for subsequent one-step union dyeing with acid dyes following the conventional wool dyeing process. Compared to cationic biguanide and dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneur...

  12. Influence of Pilates Mat and Apparatus Exercises on Pain and Balance of Businesswomen with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants’ static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE. PMID:24764614

  13. Biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate by Sphingomonas sp. isolated from phthalic-acid-degrading aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Moy, Benjamin Yan-Pui; Song, Yong-Hui; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2008-10-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contamination in water, air, and soil is one of the major environmental concerns in many countries. Besides the PAE biodegradation process, the PAE degrading bacteria have become one of the focuses of study. This study reports the successful isolation of one kind of indigenous bacterium PA-02 from phthalic acid (PA)-degrading aerobic granules. Based on its 16S ribosomal DNA sequence, isolate PA-02 was identified as Sphingomonas genus with 100% similarity to Sphingomonas sp. strain D84532. Strain PA-02 was a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium with strong auto-aggregation ability. In particular, the strain PA-02 possessed PAE-degrading ability without acclimation. Results of growth tests showed that strain PA-02 could degrade dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate. The specific degradation rates of DMP and PA were concentration-dependent with maximum values of 0.4 g-DMP g(-1) biomass h(-1) and 1.3 g-PA g(-1) biomass h(-1), respectively. Kinetic studies also revealed that PA-02 was robust under high concentrations of DMP and PA. Even when the PA concentration was increased to 1,000.0 mg l(-1), the specific PA degradation rate was about 0.25 g-PA g(-1) biomass h(-1). The corresponding value for DMP was 0.067 g-DMP g(-1) biomass h(-1) at 1,000 mg l(-1). PMID:18751698

  14. In-Plasma Photo-Assisted Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Demetre

    2015-09-01

    A methodology to precisely control the ion energy distribution (IED) on a substrate allowed the study of silicon etching as a function of ion energy at near-threshold energies. Surprisingly, a substantial etching rate was observed, independent of ion energy, when the ion energy was below the ion-assisted etching threshold (~ 16 eV for etching silicon with chlorine plasma). Careful experiments led to the conclusion that this ``sub-threshold'' etching was due to photons, predominately at wavelengths <1700 Å. Among the plasmas investigated, photo-assisted etching (PAE) was lowest in Br2/Ar gas mixtures and highest in HBr/Cl2/Ar. Above threshold etching rates scaled with the square root of ion energy. PAE rates scaled with the product of surface halogen coverage (measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and Ar emission intensity (7504 Å). Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM) revealed that photo-etched surfaces were very rough, quite likely due to the inability of the photo-assisted process to remove contaminants from the surface. In-plasma PAE may be be a complicating factor for processes that require low ion energies, such as atomic layer etching. On the other hand PAE could produce sub-10 nm high aspect ratio (6:1) features by highly selective plasma etching to transfer nascent nanopatterns in silicon. Work supported by DOE Plasma Science Center and NSF.

  15. 75 FR 29728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...: Administrative Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, PAE (February 22, 1993; 58 FR 10227). Reason: Based... 3, OPM/Govt 10, A0600-8-104 AHRC, F036 AF PC C, N01070-3, M01070-6. The system will be...

  16. Characterization and Genomic Analysis of a Highly Efficient Dibutyl Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium Gordonia sp. Strain QH-12

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Xinxin; Deng, Ye; Jia, Minghong; Yu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain QH-12 isolated from activated sludge was identified as Gordonia sp. based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and was found to be capable of utilizing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and other common phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source. The degradation kinetics of DBP under different concentrations by the strain QH-12 fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R2 > 0.98). However, strain QH-12 could not utilize the major intermediate product phthalate (phthalic acid; PA) as the sole carbon and energy source, and only a little amount of PA was detected. The QH-12 genome analysis revealed the presence of putative hydrolase/esterase genes involved in PAEs-degradation but no phthalic acid catabolic gene cluster was found, suggesting that a novel degradation pathway of PAEs was present in Gordonia sp. QH-12. This information will be valuable for obtaining a more holistic understanding on diverse genetic mechanisms of PAEs-degrading Gordonia sp. strains. PMID:27347943

  17. Detection of phthalate esters in seawater by stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Si, Qingqing; Li, Fengmin; Gao, Chenchen; Wang, Cong; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-15

    We developed the stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect 15 kinds of PAEs in seawater. The stir bars (20mm in length and 1mm in film thickness) coated with 150μL of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were found to demonstrate the optimal extraction of PAEs. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time of 2h, extraction temperature of 25°C, sodium chloride of 5%, methanol of 10%, analytical time of 50min, and methanol-acetonitrile (4:1) as the solvent. SBSE-GC-MS revealed that under the set temperature, the chromatographic peaks of all 15 PAEs can appear with complete separation. The detection limit ranged from 0.07μg/L to 5.71μg/L, whereas the limit of quantification ranged from 0.023μg/L to 193μg/L, and the correlation coefficients between the chromatographic peak area and concentration of the PAEs were greater than 0.92. PMID:27157609

  18. Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Xu, Xijin; Zhu, Yueqin; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development. PMID:26867681

  19. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  20. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  1. [Simultaneous determination of four phthalate esters in water samples using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanling; Chen, Lingxin; Ding, Yangjun; Ming, Yongfei; Li, Jinhua

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (UA-DLLME-HPLC) was developed for the determination of four typical phthalate esters (PAEs). The analyzed PAEs included dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). The UA-DLLME parameters such as types/volumes of extraction/dispersion solvents, ultrasonic time, ionic strength and extraction time, were investigated. Enrichment factor (EF)was employed to evaluate the extraction efficiency. The conditions were finally chosen: CCl4 (40 microL)/ acetonitrile (1.0 mL) as extraction/dispersion solvents; 30 g/L NaCl; ultrasound/centrifugation of 5 min. Under the optimized extraction conditions, UA-DLLME exhibited strong enrichment ability for the four PAEs. The EFs for DMP, DEP, DBP and DnOP obtained were 71, 144, 169 and 159, respectively. The limits of detection were 3.78, 1.77, 3.07 and 3.30 microg/L for DMP, DEP, DBP and DnOP, respectively. The satisfactory recoveries for three water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.99%-114.47%, with the relative standard deviations of 1.93%-8.31%. It is a convenient, speedy, environmentally benign method for the routine analysis of PAEs in water samples. PMID:23697182

  2. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's leaf extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that 'avocado' leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces its anticonvulsant effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy. PMID:16775810

  3. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  4. Characterization and Genomic Analysis of a Highly Efficient Dibutyl Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium Gordonia sp. Strain QH-12.

    PubMed

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Xinxin; Deng, Ye; Jia, Minghong; Yu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain QH-12 isolated from activated sludge was identified as Gordonia sp. based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and was found to be capable of utilizing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and other common phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source. The degradation kinetics of DBP under different concentrations by the strain QH-12 fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R² > 0.98). However, strain QH-12 could not utilize the major intermediate product phthalate (phthalic acid; PA) as the sole carbon and energy source, and only a little amount of PA was detected. The QH-12 genome analysis revealed the presence of putative hydrolase/esterase genes involved in PAEs-degradation but no phthalic acid catabolic gene cluster was found, suggesting that a novel degradation pathway of PAEs was present in Gordonia sp. QH-12. This information will be valuable for obtaining a more holistic understanding on diverse genetic mechanisms of PAEs-degrading Gordonia sp. strains. PMID:27347943

  5. Isolation and characterization of recombinant lambda gt11 bacteriophages expressing eight different mycobacterial antigens of potential immunological relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A B; Worsaae, A; Chaparas, S D

    1988-01-01

    A genomic lambda gt11 DNA library of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was screened for expression of mycobacterial protein antigens with murine monoclonal antibodies. The reactivity patterns of the monoclonal antibodies ranged from those showing a limited interspecies reactivity to antibodies widely cross-reactive among different mycobacterial species. Twelve recombinant bacteriophages were isolated, containing eight mycobacterial genes (paa, pab, pac, pad, paeA, paeB, pafA, and pafB) encoding protein antigens. Physical maps of the phages were generated and the products of the recombinant genes were analyzed by immunoblotting techniques. PaeA and PaeB are distinct proteins but were shown to share an epitope. A similar condition was observed between PafA and PafB. Among the phages isolated, two groups expressed epitopes specific for M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. One group of phages produced an antigenic determinant which is found in M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum but not in M. bovis BCG. Images PMID:2451643

  6. [Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of 13 phthalate acid esters in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fu, Shanliang; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Jiao, Yanna; Gong, Qiang; Chen, Jitao; Wang, Libing

    2011-08-01

    A method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) with magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for the determination of 13 phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as extraction time, pH of water sample, desorption solvent, and desorption time, were carefully investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: extraction time, 10 min; pH of water samples, 5 - 7; desorption solvent, 2 mL acetone; desorption time, 5 min. The extraction efficiencies were 89.7% - 100.5% under the optimized conditions. The method was sensitive with the detection limits (S/N = 3) between 0.08 -0.47 microg/L for the 13 PAEs. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of tap water, bottle drinking water and lake water, and none of the 13 PAEs was detected. The recoveries ranged from 84.5% to 107.5% for the 3 real spiked samples, and the relative standard deviations were between 1.9% and 12.8%. The developed method has proved convenient, time-saving, accurate, sensitive, and environmental-friendly, and can be used for the determination of PAEs in water samples. PMID:22128736

  7. An Evaluation of the Response Modulation Hypothesis in Relation to Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Richard F.; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 18) and normal controls (n = 23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter…

  8. Remediation of phthalates in river sediment by integrated enhanced bioremediation and electrokinetic process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gordon C C; Huang, Sheng-Chih; Jen, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Pei-Shin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of enhanced bioremediation coupling with electrokinetic process for promoting the growth of intrinsic microorganisms and removing phthalate esters (PAEs) from river sediment by adding an oxygen releasing compound (ORC). Test results are given as follows: Enhanced removal of PAEs was obtained by electrokinetics, through which the electroosmotic flow would render desorption of organic pollutants from sediment particles yielding an increased bioavailability. It was also found that the ORC injected into the sediment compartment not only would alleviate the pH value variation due to acid front and base front, but would be directly utilized as the carbon source and oxygen source for microbial growth resulting in an enhanced degradation of organic pollutants. However, injection of the ORC into the anode compartment could yield a lower degree of microbial growth due to the loss of ORC during the transport by EK. Through the analysis of molecular biotechnology it was found that both addition of an ORC and application of an external electric field can be beneficial to the growth of intrinsic microbial and abundance of microflora. In addition, the sequencing result showed that PAEs could be degraded by the following four strains: Flavobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Rhodococcus sp. The above findings confirm that coupling of enhanced bioremediation and electrokinetic process could be a viable remediation technology to treat PAEs-contaminated river sediment. PMID:26733014

  9. HPV Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of these cancers can be prevented by HPV vaccine. HPV VACCINE IS RECOMMENDED AT THE SAME TIME AS OTHER ... caused by HPV, and meningitis. V1a1c-ci1n2esyfeoarryooludr:  THMdPaeVpningococcal HPV VACCINE IS BEST AT 11-12 YEARS Preteens have ...

  10. Students Protest Lack of Representation at Spellings Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Student lobbyists have sent Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings a letter scolding her for what they see as a minimizing of student representation at the higher-education summit held last week. The Department of Education responded by saying that students had indeed been invited to participate. The letter, which was signed by Jennifer S. Pae,…