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Sample records for paecilomyces variotii cbs115145

  1. Paecilomyces variotii in peritoneal dialysate.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, A; Heron, L G; Pritchard, R C; Butcher, R H; Powell, H R; Disney, A P; Tosolini, F A

    1993-01-01

    Four cases of peritonitis caused by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces variotii in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are reported. Removal of the Tenckhoff catheter and antifungal chemotherapy led to resolution of symptoms in all cases. Possible contaminating events are discussed, and reported infections with P. variotii are reviewed. PMID:8408561

  2. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale. PMID:26274842

  3. Metabolism of Ferulic Acid by Paecilomyces variotii and Pestalotia palmarum

    PubMed Central

    Rahouti, Mohammed; Seigle-Murandi, Françoise; Steiman, Régine; Eriksson, Karl-Erik

    1989-01-01

    Ferulic acid metabolism was studied in cultures of two micromycetes producing different amounts of phenol oxidases. In cultures of the low phenol oxidase producer Paecilomyces variotii, ferulic acid was decarboxylated to 4-vinylguaiacol, which was converted to vanillin and then either oxidized to vanillic acid or reduced to vanillyl alcohol. Vanillic acid underwent simultaneously an oxidative decarboxylation to methoxyhydroquinone and a nonoxidative decarboxylation to guaiacol. Methoxyhydroquinone and guaiacol were demethylated to yield hydroxyquinol and catechol, respectively. Catechol was hydroxylated to pyrogallol. Degradation of ferulic acid by Paecilomyces variotii proceeded mainly via methoxyhydroquinone. The high phenol oxidase producer Pestalotia palmarum catabolized ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, and methoxyhydroquinone. However, the main reactions observed with this fungus involved polymerization reactions. Images PMID:16348018

  4. The Chemical Diversity of the Ascomycete Fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Mioso, Roberto; Toledo Marante, Francisco Javier; Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma

    2015-10-01

    Paecilomyces variotii isolated from a broad range of habitats drives the diversification of new high-value-added secondary metabolites that could potentially play an important role in human and animal health. These metabolites include the anhydride metabolite of the nonadride family, as well as the following compounds: naphthopyranone metabolites, sphingofungins, eicosenoic acids, new branched fatty acids, ascofuranone, polyketides, an anacardic acid analogue, straight-chain peptides, and volatile compounds. These natural products show that P. variotii can provide leading compounds for new drug discoveries, which may include herbicide agents, some of which are important in the agrochemical market. Finally, this review outlines recent developments, trends, and prospects for the chemistry of this ascomycete. PMID:26288080

  5. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  6. Dimeric Octaketide Spiroketals from the Jellyfish-Derived Fungus Paecilomyces variotii J08NF-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hong, Jongki; Yin, Jun; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Liu, Yonghong; Wei, Xiaoyi; Oh, Dong-Chan; Jung, Jee H

    2015-11-25

    Paeciloketals (1-3), new benzannulated spiroketal derivatives, were isolated from the marine fungus Paecilomyces variotii derived from the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Compound 1 was present as a racemate and was resolved into enantiopure 1a and 1b by chiral-phase separation on a cellulose column. Compounds 2 and 3, possessing a novel benzannulated spiroketal skeleton, were rapidly interconvertible and yielded an equilibrium mixture on standing at room temperature. The relative and absolute configurations of compounds 2 and 3 were determined by NOESY analysis and ECD calculations. Compound 1 showed modest antibacterial activity against the marine pathogen Vibrio ichthyoenteri. PMID:26562481

  7. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by Paecilomyces variotii: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Swami, T; Pannu, S; Kumar, Mukesh; Gupta, G

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognised entity, both in normal and immunocompromised individuals. The recent increase in mycotic nasal and paranasal infections is due to both improved diagnostic research and an increase in the conditions that favour fungal infection. Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species are the most common causative agents of fungal sinusitis, but infection with lesser known species have been reported across the world infrequently. This article reviews and presents a case report of chronic fungal sinusitis in an immunocompetent adult male infected with Paecilomyces variotii which is opportunistic soil saprophyte, uncommon to humans. PMID:26776131

  8. Determination of hydration properties and thermal behavior of Paecilomyces variotii by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Canel, R S; Ludemann, V; De La Osa, O; Wagner, J R

    2013-01-01

    Due to the structure and the composition of Paecilomyces variotii, the mycelia of this fungus could have potential applications as ingredients in wettable foods. For this use, drying could be employed, justifying the study of thermal behavior of P. variotii. The objectives of this work were to perform a study of thermal behavior of P. variotii isolates, to evaluate the hydration properties of these mycelia and to analyze the effect of different technological parameters on the latter properties. Wet cultures exhibited a wide endothermic transition, with mean values of peak temperature of 61 degrees C and denaturation enthalpy of4 J/g dry matter. Initial (50 degrees C) and final (80 degrees C) temperatures of the endothermic transition were used to dry the mycelia. Freeze-drying was also assayed. For all dried mycelia, a decrease in denaturation enthalpy between 40 and 50% was observed for drying at 50 degrees C and freeze-drying, and a drastic decrease of almost 100% for drying at 80 degrees C. According to the hydration properties, wet mycelia exhibited water holding capacity (WHC) value of 45 g water/g dry matter. Significant differences among dried mycelia, resulting WHC values in order: 50 degrees C > freeze-dried > 80 degrees C (p < 0.05) were revealed for each P. variotii strain. Fungi obtained by drying at 50 degrees C and by freeze-drying, showed a rapid water absorption (t(1/2) < 0.1 min). Ionic strength, pH and particle size of dried mycelia influenced the hydration properties. PMID:25507782

  9. Paecilonic acids A and B, bicyclic fatty acids from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii J08NF-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hong, Jongki; Yin, Jun; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yonghong; Choi, Jae Sue; Jung, Jee H

    2016-05-01

    Two new bicyclic fatty acids, paecilonic acids A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the culture broth of the marine fungus Paecilomyces variotii derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Compounds 1 and 2 share the same molecular formula and possess a 6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core skeleton. The planar structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic analysis, which included NMR and ESI-MS/MS. Relative and absolute configurations were determined by analyzing coupling constants, NOESY correlations, and optical rotations. PMID:27009897

  10. Growth of Paecilomyces variotii in B0 (diesel), B100 (biodiesel) and B7 (blend), degradation and molecular detection.

    PubMed

    Gassen, J; Bento, F M; Frazzon, A P G; Ferrão, M F; Marroni, I V; Simonetti, A B

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of biodiesel to diesel may allow the fuel to be more susceptible to microorganism growth, especially during incorrect storage. To evaluate the effect of adding biodiesel in pure diesel on the growth of Paecilomyces variotii, microcosms containing pure diesel (B0), blend diesel/biodiesel (B7) and pure biodiesel (B100) were used. In microcosm with minimal mineral medium and B0, B7 or B100, after 60 days, the biomass (dry weight) formed at interface oil-water in B7 and B100 was significantly higher when compared to that of B0. Infrared analysis showed reduction of the carbonile fraction in B7 and B100 suggesting formation of intermediate compounds in B7. To monitor possible contamination of fuel storage tank by P. variotii samples were collected and analysed by specific-PCR assay for detection of P. variotii spores in the aqueous phase. This method was able to detect a minimum of 103 spores ml-1, corresponding to 0.0144 ng µl-1 of DNA. Specificity was tested against Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudallescheria boydii. PMID:26421768

  11. Purification and properties of S-hydroxymethylglutathione dehydrogenase of Paecilomyces variotii no. 5, a formaldehyde-degrading fungus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    S-hydroxymethylglutathione dehydrogenase from Paecilomyces variotii No. 5 strain (NBRC 109023), isolated as a formaldehyde-degrading fungus, was purified by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and hydroxyapatite chromatography and isoelectrofocusing. Approximately 122-fold purification was achieved with a yield of 10.5%. The enzyme preparation was homogeneous as judged by sodium dodecyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 49 kDa by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, suggesting that it is a monomer. Enzyme activity was optimal at pH 8.0 and was stable in the range of pH 7.0–10. The optimum temperature for activity was 40°C and the enzyme was stable up to 40°C. The isoelectric point was pH 5.8. Substrate specificity was very high for formaldehyde. Besides formaldehyde, the only aldehyde or alcohol tested that served as a substrate was pyruvaldehyde. Enzyme activity was enhanced by several divalent cations such as Mn2+ (179%), Ba2+ (132%), and Ca2+ (112%) but was completely inhibited by Ni2+, Fe3+, Hg2+, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and cuprizone. Inactivation of the enzyme by sulfhydryl reagents (Hg2+ and PCMB) indicated that the sulfhydryl group of the enzyme is essential for catalytic activity. PMID:22731626

  12. Antifungal susceptibilities of Paecilomyces species.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C; Pujol, I; Sala, J; Guarro, J

    1998-07-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  13. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Paecilomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, C.; Pujol, I.; Sala, J.; Guarro, J.

    1998-01-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  14. [HYPEREOSINOPHILIC SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH SEPSIS DUE TO PAECILOMYCES FUNGI DISSEMINATED INTO THE LIVER].

    PubMed

    Akhunov, V M; Akhunova, A M; Lavrent'eva, T P

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year old woman with signs of chronic sepsis, hepatomegaly, and high eosinophil count was under long-term examination including consultations with an oncologist, parasitologist, and hematologist, diagnostic laparotomy, and studies of liver biopsies. Seeding blood samples onto Saburo's medium resulted in the growth of Paecilomyces variotii Bainier colonies. Counting mature spherules of the fungus revealed 59000 spherules per 1 mcl compared with the normal value of 1000-6000 which suggested paecilomycotic etiology of sepsis. The histological study of liver biopsies demonstrated hemorrhagic foci and eosinophilic infiltrates around fungal spherules. The clinical recovery of the patient was achieved after 3 courses of pulsed terbinafine therapy (500 mg/d every other day for 14 days during a month) in combination with vitamins and i/v infusion of 100 ml of a fluconazole solution (2 mg/ml) every third day (10 procedures during a course of therapy). PMID:27459766

  15. Microbially Influenced Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel and Titanium by P. variotii and A. niger in Humid Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dawei; Zhou, Feichi; Xiao, Kui; Cui, Tianyu; Qian, Hongchong; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) poses significant threats to reliability and safety of engineering materials and structures. While most MIC studies focus on prokaryotic bacteria such as sulfate-reducing bacteria, the influence of fungi on corrosion behaviors of metals has not been adequately reported. In this study, 304 stainless steel and titanium were exposed to two very common fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus niger and their mixtures under highly humid atmosphere. The initial corrosion behaviors within 28 days were studied via scanning Kelvin probe, which showed marked surface ennoblement and increasingly heterogeneous potential distribution upon prolonged fungus exposure. Using stereomicroscopy, fungus growth as well as corrosion morphology of 304 stainless steel and titanium were also evaluated after a long-term exposure for 60 days. The presence of fungi decreased the corrosion resistance for both 304 stainless steel and titanium. Titanium showed higher resistance to fungus growth and the induced corrosion. Exposure to the mixed strains resulted in the highest fungus growth rate but the mildest corrosion, possibly due to the decreased oxygen level by increased fungal activities.

  16. Evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Bruker Biotyper for identification of Penicillium marneffei, Paecilomyces species, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus species, and Pseudallescheria boydii

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Yen-Hung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hung, Chien-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the MALDI Bruker Biotyper system (microflex LT; Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany), on the identification of 50 isolates of clinically encountered molds, including Penicillium marneffei (n = 28), Paecilomyces species (n = 12), Fusarium solani (n = 6), Rhizopus species (n = 3), and Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 1). The isolates were identified to species levels by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using primers ITS1 and ITS4. None of the 28 genetically well characterized isolates of P. marneffei were identified as P. marneffei by MALDI-TOF MS, because P. marneffei was not present in either Bruker general library (DB 5627) or Bruker filamentous fungi library V1.0. However, the rate of accurate identification as P. marneffei (score value ≥ 2.000) was 85.7% based on newly created database from one P. marneffei strain (NTUH-3370) by MALDI Biotyper system. Sequencing analysis of these 22 non-P. marneffei isolates of molds revealed seven Paecilomyces variotii, six F. solani, four Paecilomyces lilacinus, and one each of Paecilomyces sinensis, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. microspores, and P. boydii. Although all the seven P. variotii isolates, four of the six F. solani, two of the four P. lilacinus, and two of the three isolates of Rhizopus species, and the P. boydii isolate had concordant identification results between MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing analysis, the score values of these isolates were all of <1.700. This study indicated that the MALDI Bruker Biotyper is ineffective for identifying P. marneffei and other unusual molds because of the current database limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously update the MALDI-TOF MS databases. PMID:26217315

  17. Paecilomyces lilacinus Vaginitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Ron; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus, an environmental mold found in soil and vegetation, rarely causes human infection. We report the first case of P. lilacinus isolated from a vaginal culture in a patient with vaginitis. PMID:14519255

  18. Medical management of suspected Paecilomyces sp. deep keratitis.

    PubMed

    Holland, Lee; Lee, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman developed a deep keratitis presenting with an endothelial plaque without overlying stromal involvement. Owing to the characteristic clinical appearance, she was provisionally diagnosed with a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Corneal scrapings and aqueous humour samples were culture negative. The difficulties in diagnosing Paecilomyces sp. keratitis are discussed. The patient's keratitis was managed with a combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole. This medical management strategy was successful in achieving good infection control and visual outcome. We report a rarely encountered presentation of keratitis in which the clinical appearance and response to voriconazole are highly suggestive evidence of a Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. We believe the combination of topical, oral and intracameral injections of voriconazole represents a novel treatment approach for Paecilomyces sp. keratitis. Our case supports the potential for a medical approach as initial treatment in this otherwise devastating form of oculomycosis. PMID:26135494

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  1. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores.

    PubMed

    Holland, R J; Gunasekera, T S; Williams, K L; Nevalainen, K M H

    2002-10-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. PMID:12489777

  2. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells. PMID:26912165

  3. Peritonitis Due to Thermoascus taitungiacus (Anamorph Paecilomyces taitungiacus)

    PubMed Central

    Korzets, Asher; Weinberger, Miriam; Chagnac, Avry; Goldschmied-Reouven, Anna; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Sutton, Deanna A.

    2001-01-01

    The first case of human disease due to the thermophilic ascomycete Thermoascus taitungiacus (the teleomorph of Paecilomyces taitungiacus) is presented. T. taitungiacus was recovered from four dialysate fluid specimens of a 57-year-old patient undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Identification was based upon cylindrical conidia, reddish orange nonostiolate ascomata, lack of growth at 20°C, thermotolerance, and ascospores that appeared pale yellow, elliptical, thick walled, and predominately echinulate by light microscopy but irregularly verrucose by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:11158134

  4. Beauverolides L and La from Beauveria tenella and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus.

    PubMed

    Jegorov, A; Sedmera, P; Matha, V; Simek, P; Zahradnícková, H; Landa, Z; Eyal, J

    1994-11-01

    New beauverolides L and La were isolated and identified from the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria tenella and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Their structures, cyclo-[3-hydroxy-4-methyldecanoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanyl-D-leucyl ], and cyclo-[3-hydroxy-4-methyldecanoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanyl-D-allo-i soleucyl] were deduced from HPLC and GC-mass spectrometric analyses of their hydrolysates and NMR and mass spectral data. PMID:7765754

  5. Characterization of an Indonesian isolate of Paecilomyces reniformis.

    PubMed

    Kalkar, O; Carner, G R; Scharf, D; Boucias, D G

    2006-02-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus (IndGH 96), identified as Paecilomyces reniformis, was isolated from long-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The phenotypic and molecular data identified the IndGH 96 as a P. reniformis. We present the first comprehensive characterization of this species using morphological features, sequencing of the ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region, D1/D2 region of 28S of rDNA, and a portion of the tubulin gene, and laboratory bioassays. Distinguishing features include a hyphal body stage during vegetative growth and the production of distinctly curved, light-green conidia. High dosage bioassays showed that IndGH 96 was infectious to both long-horned and short-horned grasshoppers but not to the house cricket, Acheta domestica, or to the lepidopterans velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis or fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Phenotypic and genetic analyses suggest that IndGH 96 and other isolates of P. reniformis are more closely related to Nomuraea rileyi than to other species of Paecilomyces. PMID:16463094

  6. Production, purification, and properties of serine carboxypeptidase from Paecilomyces carneus.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, H; Hishinuma, K; Wake, H; Ichishima, E

    1996-07-01

    Seventeen strains of the genus Paecilomyces were examined for their ability to produce serine carboxypeptidase. Paecilomyces carneus IFO 7012 exhibited the highest potency for serine carboxypeptidase production. A maximum yield of serine carboxypeptidase was obtained by koji culture of the strain at 22 degrees C for 7 days. The serine carboxypeptidase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of the koji culture. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 47,000 by HPLC. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was determined to be 4.0, and the optimum pH was 4.0 toward benzyloxycarbonyl-L-glutamyl-L-tyrosine (Z-Glu-Tyr) and benzyloxycarbonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanine (Z-Phe-Ala), respectively. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and p-chloromercurybenzoate. Relative hydrolysis rates of N-acylpeptides and kinetic studies indicated that the enzyme preferred substrates having bulky amino acids in the penultimate position from their carboxy-termini. PMID:8661688

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Paecilomyces hepiali (Ascomycota, Eurotiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Wang, Linping; Xu, Jiayue; Li, Huchen; Song, Lipu; Yu, Yi; Zhang, Wensheng; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali, belonging to the Eurotiales order Ascomycota, is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis anamorph stage. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of P. hepiali for the first time. The genome is 24,245 bp in length, encoding 15 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 25 tRNA genes and 3 homing endonucleases. The overall AT composition is 73.37% and the average AT content of PCG, rRNA, tRNA and non-coding region are 74.21%, 66.07%, 62.83% and 75.96%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis with eight Ascomycota species and thirteen Basidiomycota species revealed that P. hepiali is was more closely related to Cordyceps bassiana, Cordycep smilitaris and Cordyceps brongniartii. It is confirmed that P. hepiali is a derivative of Cordyceps sinensis. This study provided valuable information on the gene contents of the mitochondrial genome and would facilitate the study of function and evolution of P. hepiali. PMID:24963769

  8. Keratitis by Paecilomyces lilacinus: A case report from Sub-Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V; Angrup, A; Panwar, P; Verma, S; Singh, D; Kanga, A

    2015-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is a filamentous fungus found in soil and air, which is a rare cause of ocular infection. The majority of case reports involving P. lilacinus among healthy hosts are of endophthalmitis and keratitis. We report a rare case of keratomycosis by P. lilacinus, in an immunocompetent, which responded well to treatment with ketoconazole. Some species belonging to the genus Paecilomyces such as P. lilacinus generally shows a poor response to conventional antifungal drugs. Therefore, correct identification of clinical isolates to the species level is mandatory for the appropriate treatment of the disease. PMID:26470971

  9. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    PubMed Central

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, João Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development. PMID:24031361

  10. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this A...

  11. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  12. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  13. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-03-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

  14. Biosorption of Arsenic(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Modified Fungal Biomass of Paecilomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Rodríguez, Ismael; Martínez-Juárez, Víctor M.; Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Moctezuma-Zárate, María de Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The biosorption of As(III) on iron-coated fungal biomass of Paecilomyces sp. was studied in this work. It was found that the biomass was very efficient removing the metal in solution, using Atomic Absorption, reaching the next percentage of removals: 64.5%. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 6.0, at 30°C after 24 hours of incubation, with 1 mg/L of modified fungal biomass. PMID:24235911

  15. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

  16. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Jung Fu

    1989-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  18. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by a Paecilomyces sp. Fungal Strain Isolated from Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A resistant and capable fungal strain in removing hexavalent chromium was isolated from an environment near of Chemical Science Faculty, located in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The strain was identified as Paecilomyces sp., by macro- and microscopic characteristics. Strain resistance of the strain to high Cr (VI) concentrations and its ability to reduce chromium were studied. When it was incubated in minimal medium with glucose, another inexpensive commercial carbon source like unrefined and brown sugar or glycerol, in the presence of 50 mg/L of Cr (VI), the strain caused complete disappearance of Cr (VI), with the concomitant production of Cr (III) in the growth medium after 7 days of incubation, at 28°C, pH 4.0, 100 rpm, and an inoculum of 38 mg of dry weight. Decrease of Cr (VI) levels from industrial wastes was also induced by Paecilomyces biomass. These results indicate that reducing capacity of chromate resistant filamentous fungus Cr (VI) could be useful for the removal of Cr (VI) pollution. PMID:20634988

  19. Investigations on the antifatigue and antihypoxic effects of Paecilomyces hepiali extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Li, Lan Zhou; Liu, Yan Ge; Teng, Li Rong; Lu, Jia Hui; Xie, Jing; Hu, Wen Ji; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Di; Teng, Le Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali, one of the most valuable and effective Chinese medicinal herbs, possesses potential antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antitumor and anti‑inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to investigate the antifatigue and antihypoxic effects of Paecilomyces hepiali extract (PHC) in a mouse model. Using a rotating rod, forced swimming and running assessment, the antifatigue activity of PHC was determined. PHC administration for 7 days had no effect on mouse horizontal or vertical movement, indicating no neurotoxicity at the selected doses was observed. Using a normobaric hypoxia, sodium nitrite toxicosis and acute cerebral ischemia assessments, PHC was confirmed to possess antihypoxic effects. PHC treatment for 7 days significantly enhanced the serum and liver levels of adenosine triphosphate, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, prior to and following 60 min of swimming. The levels of antioxidant‑associated proteins in the livers of the mice were analyzed using western blotting. PHC effectively increased the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑5'‑monophosphate (AMP)‑activated protein kinase (AMPK), p‑protein kinase B (AKT) and p‑mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The results of the present study demonstrated that PHC efficiently enhanced endurance from fatigue and had antihypoxic effects through elevation of the antioxidant capacity in the serum and liver, at least in part through the AMPK and AKT/mTOR pathways. These results indicate the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue, hypoxia and their associated diseases. PMID:26717979

  20. Growth of Isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Their Efficacy in Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Enrique; Barker, K. R.; Nelson, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of 13 Paecilomyces lilacinus isolates from various geographic regions as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita, the effects of temperature on their growth, and the characterization of the impact of soil temperature on their efficacy for controlling this nematode were investigated. Maximum fungal growth, as determined by dry weight of the mycelium, occurred from 24 to 30 C; least growth was at 12 and 36 C. The best control of M. incognita was provided by an isolate from Peru or a mixture of isolates of P. lilacinus. As soil temperatures increased from 16 to 28 C, both root-knot damage caused by M. incognita and percentage of egg masses infected by P. lilacinus increased. The greatest residual P. lilacinus activity on M. incognita was attained with a mixture of fungal isolates. These isolates effected lower root-galling and necrosis, egg development, and enhanced shoot growth compared with plants inoculated with M. incognita alone. PMID:19287594

  1. Inactivation of conidia of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus by near-ultraviolet (UVB and UVA) and visible radiation.

    PubMed

    Fargues, J; Rougier, M; Goujet, R; Smits, N; Coustere, C; Itier, B

    1997-01-01

    The detrimental effects of solar radiation, especially the ultraviolet waveband, on quiescent conidia of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were investigated. Conidia were irradiated by a high-intensity source, which emitted a continuous spectrum from 270 to 1100 nm and which was equipped with long-pass filters to block short wavelengths below 280, 295, 320, or 400 nm. After irradiation, conidia were tested for germinability, survival, and infectivity toward Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. It was demonstrated that the detrimental effects of light depended on irradiance in the shortest wavelengths. The UVB (280-320 and 295-320 nm) appeared to be the most detrimental part of natural radiation, although UVA (320-400 nm) was also harmful. Visible and near infrared radiations were less harmful than UV. Our results demonstrate that the irradiance of the UVB waveband should be considered as the pertinent factor for the detrimental effects of sunlight on the persistence of conidia of entomopathogenic fungi in insolated environments. PMID:9028931

  2. Lignin degradation in a compost environment by the deuteromycete Paecilomyces inflatus.

    PubMed

    Kluczek-Turpeinen, B; Tuomela, M; Hatakka, A; Hofrichter, M

    2003-05-01

    Two strains of the deuteromycete Paecilomyces inflatus were isolated from compost samples consisting of municipal wastes, paper and wood chips. Lignin degradation by P. inflatus was studied following the mineralization of a synthetic (14)C(beta)-labeled lignin (side-chain labeled dehydrogenation polymer, DHP). Approximately 6.5% of the synthetic lignin was mineralized during solid-state cultivation of the fungus in autoclaved compost; and 15.5% was converted into water-soluble fragments. Laccase was the only ligninolytic enzyme detectable when the isolates were grown in autoclaved compost. Production of the enzyme was growth-associated and dependent on the culture conditions. The optimal pH for laccase production was between 4.5 and 5.5 and the optimal temperature was around 30 degrees C. Activity levels of laccase increased in the presence of low-molecular-mass aromatic compounds, such as veratryl alcohol, veratric acid, vanillin and vanillic acid. PMID:12743768

  3. Conversion of food waste into biofertilizer for the biocontrol of root knot nematode by Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen; Zhang, You-Chi; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of converting food waste into nematocidal biofertilizer by nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (P. lilacinus) was investigated. The culture conditions of P. lilacinus were optimized through response surface methodology. Results showed that fermentation time, the amount of food waste, initial pH and temperature were most important factors for P. lilacinus production. The P. lilacinus production under optimized conditions was 10(9.6 ± 0.3) conidia mL⁻¹. After fermentation, the chemical oxygen demand concentration of food waste was efficiently decreased by 81.92%. Moreover, the property evaluation of the resultant food waste as biofertilizer indicates its high quality with reference to the standard released by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. The protease activity and nematocidal ability of P. lilacinus cultured by food waste were 10.8% and 27% higher than those by potato dextrose agar, respectively. PMID:26075798

  4. Huperzine A production by Paecilomyces tenuis YS-13, an endophytic fungus isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Su, Jingqian; Yang, Minhe

    2015-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA), a naturally occurring alkaloid in the plant family Huperziaceae, has drawn great interest for its potential application in Alzheimer disease therapy. Our primary objective was to identify alkaloid- and HupA-producing fungi from the Chinese folk herb, Huperzia serrata. We established a rapid and efficient model for screening HupA-producing endophytic fungal strains. The presence of HupA in Paecilomyces tenuis YS-13 was analysed by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The fermentation yield of HupA was 21.0 μg/L, and the IC50 of the crude extract of YS-13 fermentation broth was 1.27 ± 0.04 mg/mL. This is the first report of P. tenuis as a HupA-producing endophyte isolated from Huperziaceae. PMID:25427833

  5. Paecilomyces tabacinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culture characteristics - (in the dark, 25 °C after 7 d): Colonies on MEA 30–31 mm diam, velutinous to slightly floccose, mycelium white, sporulation abundant, cream-buff [R30; Ridgway (1912)], exudate clear, small droplets dominate, soluble pigments not observed, reverse cream-buff to chamois (R30)...

  6. A masquerader? Paecilomyces must be distinguished from Penicillium in fungal keratitis: a report of two contrasting cases.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Arsham; Nguyen, Alexander T; Harocopos, George; Lubniewski, Anthony J; Huang, Andrew J W

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical outcomes of two contrasting cases of fungal keratitis due to Paecilomyces spp. The first case involving a 58-year-old woman was complicated by an initial laboratory misidentification as Penicillium and consequently a delay in treatment with an optimised antifungal regimen. The patient had a protracted clinical course that required a total of four penetrating keratoplasties. However, an accurate diagnosis was promptly made in the second case, a 46-year-old woman, which resulted in a satisfactory outcome after penetrating keratoplasty. Our principal aim was to highlight a diagnostic challenge relating to the accurate microbial identification of Paecilomyces spp. This can be difficult given its morphological similarity to Pencillium, and confusion over the two genera has resulted in misdiagnoses reported previously. Our report aims to raise awareness of this potential laboratory misidentification, which can affect clinical decision-making in guiding antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26286907

  7. Anaerobic Growth and Fermentation Characteristics of Paecilomyces lilacinus Isolated from Mullet Gut

    PubMed Central

    Mountfort, Douglas O.; Rhodes, Lesley L.

    1991-01-01

    The anaerobic growth and fermentation of a marine isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus is described. The fungus was isolated from mullet gut and grew optimally at 30°C and at a salinity of ≥10%. The best growth was obtained with glucose or laminarin as substrate, and the growth yield was 5.0 g (dry weight of fungus) per mol of hexose fermented. Moles of products as a percentage of moles of hexose fermented were acetate, 29.0%; ethanol, 156.6%; CO2, 108.0%; and lactate, 4.3%. Together these products accounted for >80% of hexose carbon. Hydrogen and formate were not detectable as fermentation end products (<0.5%). Other substrates utilized for growth, although less effectively than laminarin or glucose, included the monosaccharides galactose, fructose, arabinose, and xylose and the disaccharides maltose and cellobiose. No growth of the fungus occurred on cellulose, and of a variety of other polysaccharides tested only xylan supported growth. Images PMID:16348521

  8. Composting of food waste subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment and inoculated with Paecilomyces sp. FA13.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Mimoto, Hiroshi; Tran, Quyen Ngoc Minh; Oinuma, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Food waste collected from restaurants, convenience stores, and food-processing factories was mixed with sawdust and subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 30min to prepare compost raw material. Furan compounds such as 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural were produced at concentration levels of approximately 8 and 0.5mg/g-ds, respectively, through hydrothermal pretreatment. The furan compounds inhibited the activity of composting microorganisms, thus delaying the start of organic matter degradation during composting. A newly identified fungus, Paecilomyces sp. FA13, which possesses the ability to degrade furan compounds, was isolated and used as an inoculum for the composting of the raw material prepared by hydrothermal pretreatment. By inoculating the FA13 into the compost raw material at 10(5)CFU/g-ds, the degradation of furan compounds was accelerated. As a result, bacterial activity, which contributed to composting, was enhanced, significantly promoting the start of vigorous degradation of organic materials. PMID:25585259

  9. Mechanism study of alachlor biodegradation by Paecilomyces marquandii with proteomic and metabolomic methods.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Rafał; Soboń, Adrian; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2015-06-30

    Alachlor is an herbicide that is widely used worldwide to protect plant crops against broadleaf weeds and annual grasses. However, due to its endocrine-disrupting activity, its application had been banned in the European Union. As described in our earlier work, Paecilomyces marquandii is a microscopic fungus capable of alachlor removal by N-acetyl oxidation. Our current work uses proteomics and metabolomics to gain a better understanding of alachlor biodegradation by the microscopic fungus P. marquandii. The data revealed that the addition of alachlor reduced the culture growth and glucose consumption rates. Moreover, the rates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acids (TCA) cycle increased during the initial stage of growth, and there was a shift toward the formation of supplementary materials (UDP-glucose/galactose) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers (ascorbate). Proteomic analysis revealed that the presence of xenobiotics resulted in a strong upregulation of enzymes related to energy, sugar metabolism and ROS production. However, the unique overexpression of cyanide hydratase in alachlor-containing cultures may implicate this enzyme as the key protein involved in the alachlor biodegradation pathway. The characterization of P. marquandii-mediated alachlor removal in terms of cell structure and function provides a deeper insight into the strategies of microorganisms toward xenobiotic biodegradation. PMID:25765177

  10. Liquid-culture production of blastospores of the bioinsecticidal fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus using portable fermentation equipment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Mark A; Payne, Angela R; Odelson, David A

    2004-05-01

    The production of fungal spores using on-site, non-sterile, portable fermentation equipment is technically constrained. Very little information is available on the production requirements, such as medium concentration, inoculum stabilization, required fermentation times, and maintenance of axenic growth. In this study, we developed a two-part, liquid concentrate of the production medium that remains stable and soluble at room temperature. We also examined inoculum stability and showed that freeze- or air-dried blastospore preparations were stable for 7 days after rehydration when stored at 4 degrees C. The use of a low-pH (pH 4), relatively rich complex medium provided a growth environment deleterious to bacterial growth yet conducive to rapid sporulation by Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. High concentrations of blastospores (7.9 x 10(8)/ml) of P. fumosoroseus were produced in a 40-h fermentation with very low levels of bacterial contamination when the fermentor was charged with a blastospore production medium with a starting pH of 4 and inoculated with blastospore concentrations greater than 1 x 10(6) spores/ml. These studies demonstrate that the use of disinfected, portable fermentation equipment has potential for on-site production of high concentrations of blastospores of the bioinsecticidal fungus P. fumosoroseus. PMID:15071762

  11. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Mingxia; Xie, Minhao; Dai, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1 (PHMPs) were investigated. As results, the optimal parameters for extraction of PHMPs were obtained by a Box-Behnken design as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extracting time 190 min and ratio of water to material 43 mL/g. The analysis of monosaccharide composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that PHMPs was composed of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in molar ratio of 46.07:0.59:2.25:1.29:1.42:18.82:26.17:1.13:2.26, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PHMPs had a significant protective effect against oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in mice, as evident by higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and level of total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower levels of malondialdehyde in serums and livers compared to the d-galactose-treated group. These results suggested that PHMPs could be explored as promising natural antioxidant. PMID:26686161

  12. Overexpression of a cuticle-degrading protease Ver112 increases the nematicidal activity of Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinkui; Zhao, Xuna; Liang, Lianming; Xia, Zhenyuan; Lei, Liping; Niu, Xuemei; Zou, Chenggang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-03-01

    Due to their ability to degrade the proteins in nematode cuticle, serine proteases play an important role in the pathogenicity of nematophagous fungi against nematodes. The serine protease Ver112 was identified from the nematophagous fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae capable of degrading the nematode cuticle and killing nematodes effectively. In this study, the gene ver112 was introduced into the commercial biocontrol fungal agent Paecilomyces lilacinus by the restriction enzyme-mediated integration transformation. Compared to the wild strain, the transformant P. lilacinus 112 showed significantly greater protease activity, with nematicidal activities increased by 79% and 96% to Panagrellus redivivus and Caenorhabditis elegans at the second day, respectively. The crude protein extract isolated from the culture filtrate of P. lilacinus 112 also showed 20-25% higher nematicidal activity than that of the wild-type strain. Reverse transcription PCR results showed that the expression of gene ver112 in P. lilacinus 112 was correlated to protease activity of the culture filtrate. Our results demonstrated the first successful transfer of a virulence gene from one nematophagous fungus to another nematophagous fungus, and improved the pathogenicity of the recipient fungus against pest nematodes. PMID:21110018

  13. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-01-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 107 conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 104 conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm. PMID:25606011

  14. The effect of Paecilomyces catenlannulatus on removal of U(VI) by illite.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengbo; Gao, Zhimou; Li, Xiaoyu; Fang, Lejin

    2014-11-01

    The effect of Paecilomyces catenlannulatus (P. catenlannulatus) on removal of U(VI) onto illite as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, and solution concentration was conducted by batch techniques. The adsorption kinetics indicated that the removal of U(VI) on illite and illite coated P. catenlannulatus can be fitted by pseudo-second order kinetic model very well. The removal of U(VI) on illite and illite coated P. catenlannulatus increased with increasing pH from 1.0 to 7.0, whereas the decrease of U(VI) adsorption on illite and illite coated P. catenlannulatus was observed at pH > 7.5. The adsorption behavior of U(VI) on illite and illite coated P. catenlannulatus can be simulated by the double diffuse model under various pH conditions. The ionic strength-dependent experiments showed that the removal of U(VI) on illite was outer-sphere surface complexation, whereas the inner-sphere surface complexation predominated the U(VI) adsorption onto illite coated P. catenlannulatus at pH 5.0-7.0. The maximum adsorption capacity of U(VI) on illite and illite coated P. catenlannulatus calculated from Langmuir model at pH 5.0 and T = 298 K was 46.729 and 54.347 mg/g, respectively, revealing enhanced adsorption of U(VI) on illite coated P. catenlannulatus. This paper highlights the effect of microorganism on the removal of radionuclides from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution management. PMID:24998746

  15. Structure and chain conformation of a neutral intracellular heteropolysaccharide from mycelium of Paecilomyces cicadae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-yang; Li, Wei-qi; Shao, Shuang-shuang; He, Liang; Cheng, Junwen; Han, Sufang; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-20

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (PCIPS2) was isolated and purified from mycelium of Paecilomyces cicadae, which was investigated to be mainly composed of D-mannose, L-rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-D-galactose, D-glucose and D-galactose with a molar ratio of 47.9:3.1:6.4:0.9:0.8. It had a backbone of 1,4-linked α-L-Rhap residues and 1,6-linked α-D-Manp residues with branches at O-3 of α-D-Manp residues. Its side chain was comprised of minor terminal β-D-glucose and 1,4-linked α-3-O-Me-D-Galp residues terminated by α-D-galactose. Furthermore, its chain information on the values of weight-average molar mass (Mw), root mean square radius ([Formula: see text]), hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) for PCIPS2 were analyzed to be 3.09 × 10(4)g/mol, 7.8 nm, 3.6 nm and 8.5 mL/g, respectively. The structural exponent α of 0.57 indicated that PCIPS2 existed as a flexible chain conformation with a coil-like structure in 0.1M NaNO3 at 25 °C. In terms of known theory for worm-like chains, the model parameters for PCIPS2 were as following: molar mass per unit contour length (ML) = 379 nm(-1), persistence length (q) = 0.74 nm and hydrodynamic diameter of cylinder (d) = 0.82 nm, which were further evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:26572406

  16. Ovicidal activity of Pochonia chlamydosporia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Braga, F R; Araujo, J M; Alves, C D F

    2010-04-19

    An assessment was made of the ovicidal activity of egg-parasitizing fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4) and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. The fungal isolates were inoculated onto Petri dishes with 2% water-agar (2% WA) and stored at 25 degrees C for 10 days in an incubator, in the dark. The control group was comprised of Petri dishes without fungi, containing the 2%WA medium only. Later, 1000 embryonated eggs were placed on the surface of the plates with fungal isolates and also on the control plates, and were then incubated at 25 degrees C for 7, 14 and 21 days. At these intervals, the eggs were retrieved and underwent percentage assessment according to the following parameters: no changes; type 1 effect, physiological and biochemical effect without morphological damage to eggshell, with visualization of hyphae adhered to eggshell; type 2 effect, lytic effect with morphological changes in embryo and eggshell, without hyphal penetration through the eggshell; type 3 effect, lytic effect with morphological changes in embryo and eggshell, with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All the fungal isolates showed ovicidal activity (type 3 effect) on T. canis eggs, with 13.8%, 20.5% and 20.3% of ovicidal activity using P. chlamydosporia isolate VC1 after 7, 14 and 21 days, whereas isolate VC4 showed 15.2%, 19.0% and 21.7% of ovicidal activity at the same time intervals. P. lilacinus showed ovicidal activity of 12.3%, 18.8% and 20.0% after 7, 14 and 21 days. P. chlamydosporia and P. lilacinus were effective in vitro on T. canis eggs and can be considered a potential candidate to biological controller of those nematodes. PMID:20097478

  17. Effect of Population Dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Colonization of Polyfoam Rooting Cubes by Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, D. Kelly; Benson, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Suspensions of Pseudomonas cepacia (strain 5.5B) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (isolate 6.2F) were applied to polyfoam rooting cubes for control of stem rot of poinsettia caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The populations of antagonists and colonization of rooting cubes by R. solani were monitored during a 3-week period. Colonization of cubes by R. solani was reduced in cubes treated with P. cepacia, but the population of P. cepacia decreased by as much as 97% during the test period. Increased colonization by R. solani was correlated with a decline in population of P. cepacia. P. lilacinus was more persistent than P. cepacia in cubes, with only a 21% reduction observed during the 3-week period. Colonization of the P. lilacinus-treated cubes by R. solani was significantly less than colonization of infested controls. No correlation existed between population of P. lilacinus and colonization of cubes by R. solani. PMID:16349353

  18. Paecilomyces niveus Stolk & Samson, 1971 (Ascomycota: Thermoascaceae) as a pathogen of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley, 1841) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadneak, M A C; Pimentel, I C; Robl, D; Dalzoto, P; Vicente, V; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Porsani, M; Cuquel, F L

    2015-11-01

    Nasonovia ribisnigri is a key pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Brazil that requires alternative control methods to synthetic pesticides. We report, for the first time, the occurrence of Paecilomyces niveus as an entomopathogen of the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of mummified aphids were collected from lettuce crops. The fungus P. niveus (PaePR) was isolated from the insect bodies and identified by macro and micromorphology. The species was confirmed by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA. We obtained a sequence of 528 bp (accession number HQ441751), which aligned with Byssochlamys nivea strains (100% identities). In a bioassay, 120 h after inoculation of N. ribisnigri with pathogenic P. niveus had an average mortality of 74%. The presence of P. niveus as a natural pathogen of N. ribisnigri in Brazil suggests that it may be possible to employ P. niveus to minimize the use of chemical insecticides. PMID:26602345

  19. Isolation of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in an endemic area in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marti, Gerardo A; Lastra, Claudia C López; Pelizza, Sebastian A; García, Juan J

    2006-11-01

    A survey for entomopathogenic fungi of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans was conducted in two provinces of Argentina from March-December 2003. Field-collected insects that died in the laboratory were individually maintained in moist chamber and incubated at 22 degrees C. Triatominae adults infected with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus were found at El Quebracho (27 degrees 34'S-64 degrees 31'W), Santiago del Estero province, Argentina, in December 2003. Paecilomyces lilacinus was cultured and isolated from infected insects in SDAY, PYG and MEA media. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results were recorded. The median survival time (MST) of T. infestans exposed to a P. lilacinus conidial suspension was 12.8 days, and 100% mortality occurred at 30 days post-treatment. This is the first record of natural infection caused by P. lilacinus in T. infestans in the world. PMID:17123036

  20. Studies on the Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Paecilomyces hepiali Water Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Teng, Lirong; Liu, Yange; Hu, Wenji; Chen, Wenqi; Hu, Xi; Wang, Yingwu

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is a fungus widely used in Asian countries for various potential pharmacological activities. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the Paecilomyces hepiali mycelium water extract (PHC) in diabetic rat, which is established by eight-week high-fat diet administration followed by one-week tail intravenous injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). After four-week 0.12 g/kg metformin and PHC at doses of 0.08, 0.4, and 2.0 g/kg treatment, an increment of body weight, a decrement of plasma glucose, low levels of total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats were observed. PHC promotes glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin, pyruvate kinase activity, and increasing the synthesis of glycogen. PHC normalized the disturbed levels of superoxide dismutase, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, and glutathione peroxidase in kidney. The inhibitory effects on the levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and kidney revealed the protection of PHC against diabetic nephropathy. Compared with nontreated diabetic rats, four-week PHC treatment resulted in a decrement on nuclear factor kappa B expression in kidney. These results show that Paecilomyces hepiali possesses antidiabetic and antinephritic effects which are related to the modulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity. PMID:27034961

  1. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis▿

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko; Bertelsen, Mads F.

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3 mm in diameter were grossly visible in the liver and other organs. Histopathology revealed fungal elements that were spherical to ovoid in shape, fragments of slender to irregularly swollen hyphae, and occasional conidia produced on phialides. Fungal isolates were initially suspected on the basis of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon isolates to be a related undescribed anamorphic species within the family Clavicipitaceae that includes many insect pathogens. Chamaeleomyces granulomatis gen. et sp. nov. is given as the name for the newly described fungus, and P. viridis is transferred to the new genus as Chamaeleomyces viridis comb. nov. Chamaeleomyces species are distinguished by having basally swollen phialides tapering to a narrow neck, conidia in fragile chains, and pale green to greenish-gray colonies. Both species are dimorphic, producing a transitory yeast stage characterized by ovoid-to-subglobose or subcylindrical yeast-like cells. Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons. PMID:20660211

  2. Disseminated mycosis in veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a new fungus related to Paecilomyces viridis.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C; Kokotovic, Branko; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2010-09-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3 mm in diameter were grossly visible in the liver and other organs. Histopathology revealed fungal elements that were spherical to ovoid in shape, fragments of slender to irregularly swollen hyphae, and occasional conidia produced on phialides. Fungal isolates were initially suspected on the basis of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon isolates to be a related undescribed anamorphic species within the family Clavicipitaceae that includes many insect pathogens. Chamaeleomyces granulomatis gen. et sp. nov. is given as the name for the newly described fungus, and P. viridis is transferred to the new genus as Chamaeleomyces viridis comb. nov. Chamaeleomyces species are distinguished by having basally swollen phialides tapering to a narrow neck, conidia in fragile chains, and pale green to greenish-gray colonies. Both species are dimorphic, producing a transitory yeast stage characterized by ovoid-to-subglobose or subcylindrical yeast-like cells. Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons. PMID:20660211

  3. Immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis under normal and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressive conditions in mice models.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-08-10

    The present study was designed to evaluate immune-modulating effects of the glycopeptide from Paecilomyces sinensis (CPS-II) by using mouse peritoneal macrophage and cytoxan (CTX) induced immunosuppression models. Our results from phagocytotic and mononuclear phagocytic system function assays showed that CPS-II stimulated phagocytosis of the phagocytes. A splenocyte proliferation assay showed that CPS-II acted to combine Concanavalin A (ConA) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in splenocyte proliferation. The results demonstrated that CPS-II increased the indices of the thymus and spleen. Hematological and histopathological analysis revealed the protective effect of CPS-II against CTX induced immunosuppression. CPS-II also significantly increased the expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) splenic T lymphocytes, which were suppressed by CTX in peripheral blood. The expressions of serum cytokines related to immune function, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ, were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of the transcription factor NF-κB in the spleen was enhanced after CPS-II-treatment. In conclusion, our results indicated that CPS-II was involved in immunostimulatory actions leading to its modulatory effects on immunosuppression, and one possible mechanism of action was to activate NF-κB. PMID:27460423

  4. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Abawi, G S; Zuckerman, B M

    2000-03-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, cv. Montello, were transplanted into the soils 3 to 4 days later. All the bacterial and fungal antagonists applied without a soil amendment, except the B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus treatment, reduced root galling and increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated organic soil, but not in the fumigated soil. All three amendments were also effective against M. hapla and reduced root galling in fumigated and unfumigated soils. Wheat mash amendment increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated soil. In general, no antagonist x amendment interaction was detected. Soil populations of B. thuringiensis were maintained at >/=4.0 log10 colony-forming units/g organic soil during the first 14 days after planting. However, viable cells of B. thuringiensis were not detected after 49 days. PMID:19270951

  5. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Abawi, G. S.; Zuckerman, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, cv. Montello, were transplanted into the soils 3 to 4 days later. All the bacterial and fungal antagonists applied without a soil amendment, except the B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus treatment, reduced root galling and increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated organic soil, but not in the fumigated soil. All three amendments were also effective against M. hapla and reduced root galling in fumigated and unfumigated soils. Wheat mash amendment increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated soil. In general, no antagonist × amendment interaction was detected. Soil populations of B. thuringiensis were maintained at ≥4.0 log10 colony-forming units/g organic soil during the first 14 days after planting. However, viable cells of B. thuringiensis were not detected after 49 days. PMID:19270951

  6. Similarities and Specificities of Fungal Keratinolytic Proteases: Comparison of Keratinases of Paecilomyces marquandii and Doratomyces microsporus to Some Known Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Gradišar, Helena; Friedrich, Jožica; Križaj, Igor; Jerala, Roman

    2005-01-01

    Based on previous screening for keratinolytic nonpathogenic fungi, Paecilomyces marquandii and Doratomyces microsporus were selected for production of potent keratinases. The enzymes were purified and their main biochemical characteristics were determined (molecular masses, optimal temperature and pH for keratinolytic activity, N-terminal amino acid sequences). Studies of substrate specificity revealed that skin constituents, such as the stratum corneum, and appendages such as nail but not hair, feather, and wool were efficiently hydrolyzed by the P. marquandii keratinase and about 40% less by the D. microsporus keratinase. Hydrolysis of keratin could be increased by the presence of reducing agents. The catalytic properties of the keratinases were studied and compared to those of some known commercial proteases. The profile of the oxidized insulin B-chain digestion revealed that both keratinases, like proteinase K but not subtilisin, trypsin, or elastase, possess broad cleavage specificity with a preference for aromatic and nonpolar amino acid residues at the P-1 position. Kinetic studies were performed on a synthetic substrate, succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide. The keratinase of P. marquandii exhibited the lowest Km among microbial keratinases reported in the literature, and its catalytic efficiency was high in comparison to that of D. microsporus keratinase and proteinase K. All three keratinolytic enzymes, the keratinases of P. marquandii and D. microsporus as well as proteinase K, were significantly more active on keratin than subtilisin, trypsin, elastase, chymotrypsin, or collagenase. PMID:16000744

  7. Biodegradation of a keratin waste and the concomitant production of detergent stable serine proteases from Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Cavello, I A; Cavalitto, S F; Hours, R A

    2012-07-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (LPS 876) efficiently degraded keratin in chicken feather during submerged cultivation producing extracellular proteases. Characterization of crude protease activity was done including its compatibility in commercial detergents. Optimum pH and temperature were 10.0 and 60 °C, respectively. Protease activity was enhanced by Ca²⁺ but was strongly inhibited by PMSF and by Hg²⁺ suggesting the presence of thiol-dependent serine proteases. The crude protease showed extreme stability toward non-ionic (Tween 20, Tween 85, and Triton X-100) and anionic (SDS) surfactants, and relative stability toward oxidizing agent (H₂O₂ and sodium perborate). In addition, it showed excellent stability and compatibility with various solid and liquid commercial detergents from 30 to 50 °C. The enzyme preparation retained more than 95% of its initial activity with solid detergents (Ariel™ and Drive™) and 97% of its original activity with a liquid detergent (Ace™) after pre-incubation at 40 °C. The protective effect of polyols (propylene glycol, PEG 4000, and glycerol) on the heat inactivation was also examined and the best results were obtained with glycerol from 50 to 60 °C. Considering its promising properties, P. lilacinus enzymatic preparation may be considered as a candidate for use in biotechnological processes (i.e., as detergent additive) and in the processing of keratinous wastes. PMID:22447221

  8. Preliminary crystallographic study of two cuticle-degrading proteases from the nematophagous fungi Lecanicillium psalliotae and Paecilomyces lilacinus

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fengping; Liang, Lianming; Mi, Qili; Yang, Jinkui; Lou, Zhiyong; Sun, Yuna; Guo, Yu; Meng, Zhaohui; Zhang, Keqin

    2009-01-01

    Cuticle-degrading proteases are extracellular subtilisin-like serine proteases that are secreted by entomopathogenic and nematophagous fungi. These proteases can digest the host cuticle during invasion of an insect or nematode and serve as a group of important virulence factors during the infection of nematodes by nematophagous fungi. To elucidate the mechanism of interaction between the proteases and the nematode cuticle, two cuticle-degrading proteases, Ver112 from Lecanicillium psalliotae (syn. Verticillium psalliotae) and PL646 from Paecilomyces lilacinus, were studied. The Ver112 protein and the complex between PL646 and the substrate-like tetrapeptide inhibitor methoxy­succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethyl ketone (MSU-AAPV) were crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 289 K. The crystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to resolutions of 1.65 and 2.2 Å, respectively. These analyses identified that crystals of Ver112 belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.7, b = 67.8, c = 76.3 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. In contrast, crystals of the PL646–MSU-AAPV complex belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 65.1, b = 62.5, c = 67.6 Å, β = 92.8°. PMID:19255481

  9. A Comparative Study on the Biosorption of Cd2+ onto Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA and Mucoromycote sp. XLC.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lu; Xu, Xingjian; Zhu, Wei; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungi XLA and XLC isolated from Cd-contaminated soil were identified morphologically and phylogenetically as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Mucoromycote sp., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Cr6+ in minimum mineral (MM) medium agar plates were 29,786, 2945, 9425, 5080, 1785 and 204 mg · L(-1) for XLA and 11,240, 884, 9100, 2540, 3060 and 51 mg · L(-1) for XLC, respectively. Favorable biosorption conditions for adsorption of Cd2+ by the tested fungi were investigated. Efficient performances of the biosorbents were described using Langmuir isotherm model, and the predicted maximum biosorption capacities for Cd2+ were 77.61 mg · g(-1) of XLA and 79.67 mg · g(-1) of XLC. Experiments on desorption potential of biosorbents validated their efficacy at a large scale. Results showed that XLA obtained a desorption rate of 84.7% by 2% EDTA and XLC gained a desorption rate of 78.9% by 0.1 M HCl. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that groups of C-N, COO- for XLA and C-N, CH2 and phosphate for XLC were the dominant binding sites for Cd2+ biosorption. Our results indicated that the fungus XLA, rather than XLC, could potentially be used as an inexpensive, eco-friendly and effective bioremediation agent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater. PMID:26184169

  10. A Comparative Study on the Biosorption of Cd2+ onto Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA and Mucoromycote sp. XLC

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lu; Xu, Xingjian; Zhu, Wei; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungi XLA and XLC isolated from Cd-contaminated soil were identified morphologically and phylogenetically as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Mucoromycote sp., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Cr6+ in minimum mineral (MM) medium agar plates were 29,786, 2945, 9425, 5080, 1785 and 204 mg·L−1 for XLA and 11,240, 884, 9100, 2540, 3060 and 51 mg·L−1 for XLC, respectively. Favorable biosorption conditions for adsorption of Cd2+ by the tested fungi were investigated. Efficient performances of the biosorbents were described using Langmuir isotherm model, and the predicted maximum biosorption capacities for Cd2+ were 77.61 mg·g−1 of XLA and 79.67 mg·g−1of XLC. Experiments on desorption potential of biosorbents validated their efficacy at a large scale. Results showed that XLA obtained a desorption rate of 84.7% by 2% EDTA and XLC gained a desorption rate of 78.9% by 0.1 M HCl. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that groups of C–N, COO– for XLA and C–N, CH2 and phosphate for XLC were the dominant binding sites for Cd2+ biosorption. Our results indicated that the fungus XLA, rather than XLC, could potentially be used as an inexpensive, eco-friendly and effective bioremediation agent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater. PMID:26184169

  11. A mutant of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) is a novel biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Abdelnabby, Hazem; Xiao, Yannong

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes severe stem rot and yield loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crops worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on Paecilomyces lilacinus as a nematophagous bioagent. However, no reports stated the effect of P. lilacinus as a biocontrol agent against oilseed rape rot S. sclerotiorum. This study describes such effect in lab and field trials using the new transformant pt361 derived from the wild strain P. lilacinus 36-1. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant pt361 showed high antagonistic effect against S. Sclerotiorum A. Under lab conditions, the pt361 inhibited (65%) radial mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in dual culture test producing 5.9 mm inhibition zone IZ in front of the S. sclerotiorum colony. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of pt361 culture showed strong inhibitory effects (60.3-100%) on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. In leaf detached assay, pt361 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited (40.4-97.9%) the extension of the leaf spots caused by S. sclerotiorum A at all tested concentrations. The genomic DNA sequences of the inserted T-DNA flanking obtained from pt361 strain was cloned, verified as a glycoside hydrolase 31 family by homologous analysis with other fungal strains, and named PGH31 (2556bp). Secondary structure prediction showed a domain (Glycoside hydrolase31). Three years field trial confirmed that the cell-free filtrates or spores suspension of pt361 achieved significant (p < 0.05) suppression of oilseed rape stem rot, promoted growth and increased yield compared to the control and exceeded, at dose 100%, the action of the fungicide procymidone(®). In conclusion, the mutant pt361 of P. lilacinus is a novel and promising biocontrol agent against oilseed rape Sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:26521137

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase from Paecilomyces thermophila

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shaoqing; Wang, Yaxi; Jiang, Zhengqiang Hua, Chengwei

    2008-08-01

    The crystal of a 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase produced by Paecilomyces thermophila belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.54, c = 87.62 Å. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a thermostable 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase produced by Paecilomyces thermophila is described. The purified 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.54, c = 87.62 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.54 Å and gave a data set with an overall R{sub merge} of 7.3% and a completeness of 94.6%. The Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) and the solvent content are 2.38 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and 48%, respectively.

  13. In vitro antifungal activity of pneumocandin L-743,872 against a variety of clinically important molds.

    PubMed Central

    Del Poeta, M; Schell, W A; Perfect, J R

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the new antifungal drug pneumocandin L-743,872 against 55 isolates of clinically important molds was examined by an adapted macrobroth dilution method for yeasts. Pneumocandin L-743,872 exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against Alternaria sp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Curvularia lunata, Exophiala jeanselmei, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Paecilomyces variotii, and Scedosporium apiospermum. The drug appeared to lack significant in vitro inhibitory activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus arrhizus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Scedosporium prolificans. PMID:9257774

  14. Optimization of the Solid-state Fermentation and Properties of a Polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xueyong; He, Liang; Cheng, Junwen; Chang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS) produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Plackett–Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD) was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS) generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%), rhamnose (32.1%), xylose (14.5%) and arabinose (10.2%). Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75×106 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw) and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg2)z1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants. PMID:24498337

  15. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  16. Effects of temperature and solar radiation interactions on the survival of quiescent conidia of the entomopathogenic hyphomycetePaecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith.

    PubMed

    Smits, N; Fargues, J; Rougier, M; Goujet, R; Itier, B

    1996-09-01

    The detrimental effect of solar radiation on the survival of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungusPaecilomyces fumoroseus was studied by monitoring germinability and ability to form colonies (CFU) of conidia irradiated at two temperatures, 25 and 35 °C, harmless to shaded conidia. There was no apparent effect when spores were exposed to a high level of artificial radiation (0.66 W m(-2) UVB). However, at a lower level of irradiance (0.33 W m(-2)), effects of radiation occurred more quickly at 35 °C than at 25 °C. Under natural solar radiation, the rate of decrease in germinability or viability was doubled at 35 °C as compared to 25 °C, indicating an interaction between temperature and radiation effects under natural conditions. This interaction was not detected in indoor experiments, indicating that the spectral distribution of UV radiation has to be taken in account as well as its irradiance when studying its effects. PMID:20882452

  17. Analysis and Modeling of Time-Dose-Mortality of Melanoplus sanguinipes, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) from Beauveria, Metarhizium, and Paecilomyces Isolates from Madagascar

    PubMed

    Nowierski; Zeng; Jaronski; Delgado; Swearingen

    1996-05-01

    A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to model time-dose-mortality relationships from bioassay tests of 26 fungal isolates mostly from Madagascar, Africa, against three acridid species, all referred to here as "grasshoppers." The fungal pathogens included 15 isolates of Beauveria bassiana, 9 isolates of Metarhizium flavoviridae, and 2 isolates of Paecilomyces spp. Grasshopper species tested included Melanoplus sanguinipes, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and Schistocerca gregaria. The scaled deviance, mean deviance, Pearson X2 statistic, Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) C statistic, and three-dimensional time-dose-mortality graphs were used to assess extra-binomial variation, data points that were potential outliers, conformance of the scaled deviance statistic and Pearson's X2 statistic to a chi2 distribution, and the fit of the CLL model. The H-L C statistic also was found to be useful in showing the goodness of fit of the CLL model for the fungal isolates prior to modeling the extra-binomial variation. After the extra-binomial variation was modeled using Williams' method, the slope from maximum likelihood estimation, modified log(LD50) estimates (which were corrected for background mortality using the CLL model), a dynamic ranking of the log(LD50) values over time, and a three-dimensional plot of time, dose, and mortality of the three grasshopper species were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungal isolates. In general, the CLL model provided a rather poor fit of the fungal isolates which had a large number of replicate trials in the bioassay tests (i.e., a large sample size) due to extra-binomial variation. The CLL model provided an excellent fit of the time-dose-mortality relationships of such isolates after the extra-binomial variation was modeled and included in the CLL model. Metarhizium isolates MFV and SP5 were found to be the most virulent isolates tested against M. sanguinipes, followed by Metarhizium isolates: SP8, SP7, SP9, SP6, and SP1, and

  18. The Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (Formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana Negatively Affect Cotton Aphid Reproduction under Both Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  19. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host

  20. A spectral study of 2-formylimidazole 4N-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Douglas X.; Lockwood, Mark A.; Albert, Julyan N.; Liberta, Anthony E.

    1993-11-01

    Copper(II) complexes of 2-formylimidazole 4N-methyl-, 4N-dimethyl- 4N-ethyl- and 3-hexa-methyleneiminylthiosemicarbazone, along with two nickel(II) complexes of the latter thiosemicarbazone, have been synthesized. Infrared, electronic, NMR and ESR spectra have been used to characterize the complexes and the uncomplexed thiosemicarbazones. None of the complexes or thiosemicarbazones possess growth inhibitory activity against Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii.

  1. Bioprocessing of "Hair Waste" by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing "hair waste," a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg(2+) inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  2. Bioprocessing of “Hair Waste” by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Hours, Roque A.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing “hair waste,” a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg2+ inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  3. A novel dodine-free selective medium based on the use of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) to isolate Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato and Paecilomyces lilacinus from soil.

    PubMed

    Posadas, Julieta B; Comerio, Ricardo M; Mini, Jorge I; Nussenbaum, Ana L; Lecuona, Roberto E

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the quaternary ammonium compound cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as an alternative to the chemically related dodecylguanidine (dodine) for the selective isolation of entomopathogenic fungi. Oatmeal agar (OA) with chloramphenicol was used as basal medium, and three concentrations of CTAB (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 g/L) were evaluated and compared against OA + 0.46 g/L dodine. Selective isolation and growth studies were performed with the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Paecilomyces lilacinus and five common non-entomopathogenic non-target species. The three entomopathogenic fungi sporulated earlier on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB than on OA + 0.46 g/L dodine, while none of the non-target fungi sporulated on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB. All entomopathogenic fungal isolates grew on OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB, despite some intra-species variation, whereas non-target fungi showed no growth or sporulation. OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB resulted in an efficient medium to isolate B. bassiana, M. anisopliae s. l. and P. lilacinus from soil samples. Results of our study suggest that OA + 0.6 g/L CTAB is a suitable, simple and inexpensive to prepare medium to replace OA + 0.46 g/L dodine for the selective isolation of these fungi. PMID:22314588

  4. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. PMID:24295958

  5. Antifungal Activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and Standard Antifungal Agents against Clinical Non-Aspergillus Mold Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans. PMID:25896696

  6. [Infectious-allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis].

    PubMed

    Akhunova, A M

    1991-01-01

    Primary or secondary infection of the lungs with fungi of the Paecilomyces family (P. variotii and P. viridis) gives rise to the development of infectious allergic bronchopulmonary paecilomycosis characterized by the presence of chronic allergic interstitial pneumonia and obstructive bronchitis, bronchial asthma, total and pulmonary eosinophilia, the presence of the tissue parasitic form of the fungus in sputum, blood, pulmonary tissue, the presence of allergen-specific IgE and/or IgG antibodies in patients' sera, immediate or double (20 min and 6 h) reaction of the skin to administration of allergen of Paecilomyces, by not infrequent combination of lung damage and impairment of other organs as well as by chronic relapses. PMID:1805416

  7. Geosmithia argillacea: An Emerging Cause of Invasive Mycosis in Human Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Challipalli, Malliswari; Anderson, Victoria; Shea, Yvonne R.; Marciano, Beatriz; Hilligoss, Dianne; Marquesen, Martha; DeCastro, Rosamma; Liu, Yen-chun; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Kammeyer, Patricia L.; Sigler, Lynne; Sullivan, Kathleen; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Malech, Harry L.; Holland, Steven M.; Zelazny, Adrian M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase that leads to defective production of microbicidal superoxide and other oxidative radicals, resulting in increased susceptibility to invasive infections, especially those due to fungi. Methods. Geosmithia argillacea was identified from cultured isolates by genomic sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Isolates previously identified as Paecilomyces variotii, a filamentous fungus closely resembling G. argillacea, were also examined. Results. We identified G. argillacea as the cause of invasive mycosis in 7 CGD patients. In 5 cases, the fungus had been previously identified morphologically as P. variotii. All patients had pulmonary lesions; 1 had disseminated lesions following inhalational pneumonia. Infections involved the chest wall and contiguous ribs in 2 patients and disseminated to the brain in 1 patient. Four patients with pneumonia underwent surgical intervention. All patients responded poorly to medical treatment, and 3 died. Conclusions. We report the first cases of invasive mycosis caused by G. argillacea in CGD patients. G. argillacea infections in CGD are often refractory and severe with a high fatality rate. Surgical intervention has been effective in some cases. G. argillacea is a previously underappreciated and frequently misidentified pathogen in CGD that should be excluded when P. variotii is identified morphologically. PMID:21367720

  8. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E

    2016-03-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC-MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity. PMID:26981002

  9. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC–MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity. PMID:26981002

  10. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  11. Biological and hematological responses of Biomphalaria alexandrina to mycobiosynthsis silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Hoda; Mekawey, Amal A I

    2014-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgPNs) extracts were prepared from seven Seven fungal isolates were evaluated through measuring their toxicity against Biomphalaria alexandrina snails. The effects of the two promising Paecilomyces variotii and Aspergillus niger AgNPs sublethal concentrations (LC10 & LC25) on the levels of steroid sex hormones, liver enzymes, total protein, lipids, albumhin, glucose, total and differential count of hemocytes and morphology of hemocytes, oocytes and sperms were studied in this work. The short period of snails' exposure (24h) to the two fungal AgNPs resulted in significant decrease in the levels of progesterone in B. alexandrina. The level of testosterone hormone showed significant increase in snails exposed to P. variotii AgNPs while no significant change was recorded at the exposure to A. niger AgNPs. Also, estradiol hormone concentration increased significantly in this investigation with the increase of the concentration of the two tested compounds. In addition, significant elevation in ALT, AST and Alkaline phosphatase was recorded. The total number of the hematocytes increased significantly by 17.4-47.8%. Snails' granulocytes were reduced by 19.1-43.8%, while hyalinocytes increased by 63.6-354.5%. The exposure of B. alexandrina to LC25 of both P. variotii and A. niger AgNPs showed apoptotic hemolymph cells, fragmented, vacuolated and degenerated cytoplasm, shrunken nucleus and phagocytosis in the light microscopy photographs of the hemocytes. Besides, the photographs showed also, abnormal nuclear division, degeneration and large fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm and swallowed atretic oocytes. Also, the photographs showed dead sperm head separated from its tail, other sperms showed abnormal swallowed head with severely nodded tail, dead sperms with wrinkled tails, hyperplasia and necrotic sperm heads led to overlapping of tails. In conclusion, applying the biosynthesized compounds which led to destruction of blood cells (the immune system), ova

  12. Microbial, chemical and physical aspects of citrus waste composting.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, I; Cronjé, C; Swart, S H; Kotzé, J M

    2002-01-01

    Citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a C/N ratio of 24:1, pH of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. With regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. Compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 mS m(-1). Phosphorus content (in mg l(-1)) was 15, potassium 1,170, calcium 362, magnesium 121, sodium 32, chloride 143, boron 0.31, and water-soluble nitrogen and organic matter 126 and 4788, respectively. Total carbon amounted to 8.85% and total nitrogen to 1.26% of the dry weight, giving a C/N ratio of 7. Mature compost showed some, but acceptable, levels of phytotoxicity. Raw citrus waste was predominantly colonised by mesophilic yeasts. Thermophilous microorganisms present during the thermic phase mainly comprised the bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis, B. macerans and B. stearothermophilus and, to a lesser extent, fungi such as Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, Penicillium diversum, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor pusillus, Talaromyces thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus. Bacteria prevalent in the final product included B. licheniformis, B. macerans, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, P. luteola and Serratia marcescens, whereas fungi isolated most frequently comprised Aspergillus puniceus, A. ustus, E. nidulans. Paecilomyces lilacinus, T lanuginosus, yeasts and a basidiomycetous species, probably Coprinus lagopus. PMID:11708757

  13. Purification and identification of a novel antifungal protein secreted by Penicillium citrinum from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    A novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1, which was isolated from a Southwest Indian Ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. The culture supernatant of P. citrinum W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. citrinum W1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (PcPAF) was purified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that PcPAF might be an unknown antifungal protein. PcPAF displayed antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Alternaria longipes at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.52, 6.08, 3.04, and 6.08 µg/disc, respectively. PcPAF possessed high thermostability and had a certain extent of protease and metal ion resistance. The results suggested that PcPAF may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection. PMID:24931500

  14. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch heartwood lignans.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Avila, J Guillermo; García, Ana M; Becerra, José; Flores, Cristian; Aqueveque, Pedro; Bittner, Magalis; Hoeneisen, Maritza; Martinez, Miguel; Silva, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Five lignans (secoisolariciresinol, pinoresinol, eudesmin, lariciresinol, and lariciresinol-4-methyl ether) were isolated from an MeOH extract from Araucaria araucana (Mol.) K. Koch wood for the first time in this species and their structures determined with spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds were determined for the bacteria Citrobacter sp., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for the white rooting and staining fungi Mucor miehei, Paecilomyces variotii, Ceratocystis pilifera, Trametes versicolor, and Penicillium notatum, and in addition, the MeOH extract was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium moniliforme, F. sporotrichum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The most sensitive bacteria against pinoresinol were the Gram-positive. However, secoisolariciresinol exhibited a significant antifungal activity on fungi of white rooting and wood staining and this compound completely inhibited the mycelial growth of T. versicolor and C. pilifera at 300 and 400 microg per disc, respectively, whereas pinoresinol showed a moderate inhibitory activity. On the other hand, the MeOH extract had the highest activity against rooting and staining and pathogenic fungi as well as T. versicolor, Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, inhibiting completely the growth at 400 microg per disc. PMID:16610214

  15. Synthesis of Phthalimide Derivatives as Potential PPAR-γ Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Eom, So Hyeon; Liu, Sen; Su, Mingzhi; Noh, Tae Hwan; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Nam Deuk; Chung, Hae Young; Yang, Min Hye; Jung, Jee H.

    2016-01-01

    Paecilocin A, a phthalide derivative isolated from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii, activates PPAR-γ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) in rat liver Ac2F cells. Based on a SAR (Structure-activity relationships) study and in silico analysis of paecilocin A-mimetic derivatives, additional N-substituted phthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for PPAR-γ agonistic activity in both murine liver Ac2F cells and in human liver HepG2 cells by luciferase assay, and for adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Docking simulation indicated PD6 was likely to bind most strongly to the ligand binding domain of PPAR-γ by establishing crucial H-bonds with key amino acid residues. However, in in vitro assays, PD1 and PD2 consistently displayed significant PPAR-γ activation in Ac2F and HepG2 cells, and adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. PMID:27338418

  16. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  17. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

  18. Species-specific profiles of mycotoxins produced in cultures and associated with conidia of airborne fungi derived from biowaste.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Müller, T; Schwalbe, R; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    2000-10-01

    The potential to produce mycotoxins and non-volatile secondary metabolites was investigated for approximately 250 freshly isolated fungal strains. Among the eleven most relevant species, viz. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. clavigerum, P. crustosum, and P. polonicum, a wide range of metabolites partly of toxicological relevance was identified. Several unknown metabolites were found for the less frequent species, which were primarily investigated for chemotaxonomic delimitation from closely related species. The spectra of metabolites in conidial extracts and culture extracts (containing also mycelium and medium) were compared for a limited number of relevant fungi. Some mycotoxins, such as sterigmatocystin in Emericella nidulans, were not present in the conidial extracts, though produced by most strains. Fumigaclavine C, tryptoquivaline, and trypacidin, characteristic for A. fumigatus, were found in conidial extracts, but highly toxic compounds such as gliotoxin and fumitremorgens were not present. Finally, compounds such as cyclopenol, cyclopenin, and penitrem A being characteristic for certain penicillia, were found in conidial extracts and are therefore assumed to occur in native bioaerosols. PMID:11109562

  19. Identification and Characterization of an Antifungal Protein, AfAFPR9, Produced by Marine-Derived Aspergillus fumigatus R9.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qi; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-05-01

    A fungal strain, R9, was isolated from the South Atlantic sediment sample and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. An antifungal protein, AfAFPR9, was purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus fumigatus R9. AfAFPR9 was identified to be restrictocin, which is a member of the ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. AfAFPR9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria longipes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.6, 0.6, 1.2, 1.2, and 2.4 μg/disc, respectively. Moreover, AfAFPR9 exhibited a certain extent of thermostability, and metal ion and denaturant tolerance. The iodoacetamide assay showed that the disulfide bridge in AfAFPR9 was indispensable for its antifungal action. The cDNA encoding for AfAFPR9 was cloned from A. fumigatus R9 by RTPCR and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant AfAFPR9 protein exhibited obvious antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, T. viride, and A. longipes. These results reveal the antifungal properties of a RIP member (AfAFPR9) from marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus and indicated its potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:25394604

  20. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig A.; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2007-11-28

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 °C or held at 5 °C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 μm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMAwith DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  1. Assessment of NemOut (Paecilomyces lilacinus) for Management of Meloidogyne arenaria Race 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, will cause considerable damage to the peanut crop in the southeastern United States if not adequately managed. Field trials were conducted at the North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, in 2006, 2007, and 2008 and at the Coastal...

  2. Temperature-dependent changes in the microbial storage flora of birch and spruce sawdust.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Johanna; Leong, Su-lin L; Sandgren, Mats; Lestander, Torbjörn; Passoth, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Sawdust can be used to make pellets (biofuel) and particle boards and as a potential lignocellulose feedstock in bioethanol production. Microbial activity can affect sawdust quality; hence, we monitored the microbial population in birch- and spruce sawdust after 3 months' storage at various temperatures. Species composition was similar on both materials but was strongly influenced by temperature. Bacteria were present on all materials at all conditions: on birch, 2.8 × 10(8) , 1.1 × 10(8) , and 8.8 × 10(6) , and on spruce, 4.1 × 10(8) , 5.6 × 10(7) , and 1.5 × 10(8)  CFU/g DM, at 2, 20, and 37 °C, respectively. Dominant bacteria at 2, 20, and 37 °C were Pseudomonas spp. (some Enterobacteriaceae spp. present), Luteibacter rhizovicinus, and Fulvimonas sp., respectively. Pseudomonas spp. were absent at ≥20 °C. Among microfungi, yeasts dominated at 2 °C but were absent at 37 °C, whereas molds dominated at 20 and 37 °C. Common yeasts included Cystofilobasidium capitatum, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Candida saitoana, Candida oregonensis, and Candida railenensis. Ophiostoma quercus was a common mold at 2 and 20 °C, whereas the human pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii dominated at 37 °C. Attempts to influence the microflora by addition of the biocontrol yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Scheffersomyces stipitis, were unsuccessful, as their growth in sawdust was poor to absent. PMID:24527731

  3. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health. PMID:26861361

  4. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health. PMID:26861361

  5. Development of an environmental relative moldiness index for US homes

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David J.; DeWalt, Gary; Friedman, Warren

    2007-08-01

    As part of the HUD American Healthy Survey, dust samples were collected by vacuuming 2 m2 in the bedroom plus 2 m2 in the living room of a nationally representative 1096 homes in the USA using the Mitest™ sampler. Five mg of sieved (300 µ pore, nylon mesh) dust was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR for the 36 EPA Mold Panel Species. On this basis, an “environmental relative moldiness index” (ERMI) was created with values ranging from about -10 to 20 (lowest to highest). In order to try to reduce the cost of this analysis, the number of test species was reduced by selecting only those species with a national average concentration of 30 cell equivalents (CE) per mg dust or greater. Only 19 of 36 species met this criterion. (In 40% of the homes, an additional 46 species were quantified from the same dust sample. All of these species had average concentrations less than 30 CE per mg dust.) These 19 species were then categorized into two groups based on their coefficient of variation (CV). If the CV was > 9, the mold was placed in Category 1 (10/19) and the other molds were placed in Category 2 (9/19). Using these Categories, the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of three Category 2 molds (C. herbarum, A. alternata and C. cladosporioides Type 1) was subtracted from the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of the ten Category 1 molds (Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Eurotium amsteldoami, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum and Wallemia sebi). Assembling these values for the 1096 AHHS homes from lowest to highest produced the “American relative moldiness index” (ARMI). The correlation between the ERMI and ARMI values was 0.88. The ERMI or ARMI scales may be useful as a standard for mold exposure estimates in epidemiological studies.

  6. Potential of topic applications, leaf residues and soil drenches of the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for management of the Diaprepes root weevil: laboratory and greenhouse investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaprepes root weevil, (DRW) Diaprepes abbreviatus is a key pest of citrus and ornamental plants in Florida and Texas. DRW larvae burrow through the soil feeding on roots which when girdled causes secondary infection of the structural roots or root crown by Phytopthora spp. wherein mature citrus tre...

  7. Evaluation of the desiccation tolerance of blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomyces)using a lab- scale, air-drying chamber with controlled relative humidity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stabilization of living microbial agents for use as biological control agents is often accomplished through desiccation. The drying process must be conducive to the survival of the living microbial agent during desiccation and storage. Our air-drying studies with liquid culture-produced blasto...

  8. Mycobiota of peat-gleyic soils during the process of recultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibatullina, I.; Khabibullina, F.

    2009-04-01

    Zhakkar coefficient of similarity to show the difference of mycobiota structure of rehabilitated ecosystems. The greatest similarity was observed between the communities of soil micromycetes from recultivated area and the area with low pollution (42.8%), the smallest - mycobiota of a non-polluted and heavily contaminated soil (5.4%). Mikobiota of virgin soil is characterized with the richest biodiversity of micromycetes species; rates of similarity coefficient between the mycobiota of virgin soils and oil-polluted here have the lowest value. In summary, we want to mark that micromycet complexes are changing in soils under the influence of oil pollution: first, a reduction in the diversity of fungal complexes in the soil, compared with the background, and secondly, there is an increase of dominant and often encountered species and reducing the number of rare species. There is also the appearance of fungi, which are typical for the more southern regions. Influenced by oil pollution the investigated soils become a sphere of accumulation of potentially hazardous to human species of micromycetes: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, etc.

  9. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki towards entomopathogenic fungal volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Termites adjust their response to entomopathogenic fungi according to the profile of the fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study first demonstrated the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) towards the Formosan s...

  10. Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) infection and dissemination of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae)under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  11. Fatal, disseminated Acremonium strictum infection in a neutropenic host.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, W A; Perfect, J R

    1996-01-01

    Disseminated Acremonium strictum infection in a neutropenic patient is reported. Positive fecal cultures preceded positive cutaneous and blood cultures by 18 and 21 days, respectively, which suggests gastrointestinal colonization and invasion as initiating events. Microscopic examination of cutaneous biopsy and pulmonary specimens revealed hyphae, phialides, and phialoconidia in vivo. These adventitious forms also can occur in infections due to other phialidic fungi such as Fusarium and Paecilomyces species and can be misdiagnosed as Candida species. Budding cells also can occur in vivo for species of Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and apparently Acremonium, further adding to the potential for misdiagnosis. The occurrence of adventitious forms in infections caused by species of Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium, and Blastoschizomyces is suggested as a mechanism for dissemination of infection and as an explanation of the relatively higher frequency of positive blood cultures in these cases. PMID:8727935

  12. Degradation of organic sulfur compounds by a coal-solubilizing fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Faison, B.D.; Clark, T.M.; Lewis, S.N.; Sharkey, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Ma, C.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Paecilomyces sp. TLi, a coal-solubilizing fungus, was shown to degrade organic sulfur-containing coal substructure compounds. Dibenzothiophene was degraded via a sulfur-oxidizing pathway to 2.2'-biphenol. No further metabolism of the biphenol was observed. Ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl sulfide were degraded to the corresponding sulfones. A variety of products were formed from benzyl sulfide, presumably via free radical intermediates. Phenyl disulfide and benzyl disulfide were cleaved to the corresponding thiols and other single-ring products. It was concluded that degradation of organic sulfur compounds by Paecilomyces involves an oxidative attack localized at the sulfur atom. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. A foam formulation for the delivery of microbial biological control agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common surfactants and foaming agents are toxic to most microorganisms. To identify suitable foaming agents for use with microbes, several classes of surfactants/foaming agents were screened for compatibility with blastospores of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. The surfactants were assayed to determine...

  14. Virulence of Hypocreales fungi to pecan aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for aphids in commercial orchards. As a preliminary step to this end we determined the virulence of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus to three pecan aphids Monellia caryella, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and Monelliopsis pecanis under laboratory conditions. Ra...

  15. Avellanin C, an inhibitor of quorum-sensing signaling in Staphylococcus aureus, from Hamigera ingelheimensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hamigera is one of the least studied genera of Eurotiales in terms of secondary metabolism compared with metabolically prolific genera such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Monascus and Talaromyces.1 Although thousands of metabolites are known from Aspergillus and Penicillium,2 only 20–30 ...

  16. Isaria poprawskii sp. nov. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitacae), a new entomopathogenic fungus from Texas affecting sweet potato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isaria poprawskii is described as a new entomopathogenic species similar to Isaria javanica (=Paecilomyces javanicus). It was discovered ont he sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), USA. Morphological and DNA examinations indicated the dist...

  17. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two entomopathogenic fungi and one bacterium were tested for their ability to cause mortality of Formosan subterranean termites (FST) after exposure in liquid, and for their propensity to repel FST. The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Isaria fumosorosea) strain 3581 at 109 spores/ml caused 82.5% m...

  18. Microsatellite variability in the entomopathogenic fungus Paeciolomyces fumosoroseus: genetic diversity and population structure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) is a geographically widespread fungus capable of infecting various insect hosts. The fungus has been used for the biological control of several important insect pests of agriculture. However knowledge of the fungus’ genetic diversity and population str...

  19. Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

  20. Use of real-time O2 concentration measurements in shake-flask fermentations of the bioinsecticidal fungus Isaria fumosorosea for improved yields of blastospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroseus (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. For use in spray applications as a biological control agent against insect pests, the yeast-like (blastospore) mode of growth is preferred....

  1. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found affecting A. cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15 percent infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one M. anisopliae detect...

  2. Combined effect of microbial and chemical control agents on subterranean termites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subterranean termites are responsible for several billion dollars in damage in the United States annually, including control and repair costs. Formosan subterranean termites (FST) cause a large proportion of this damage. The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) has been previously shown to control...

  3. Perspectives for the biological control of Cameraria ohridella.

    PubMed

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Volter, Lubomír; Weyda, Frantisek; Skuhravý, Václav

    2007-01-01

    The horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) is a serious invasive pest of Aesculus hippocastanum in Europe. The larvae of this species feed on leaf parenchyma and can reduce the tree growth. We studied the impact of parasitoids on C. ohridella in the Czech Republic and also searched for entomopathogenic fungi associated with this pest. The results showed that the rate of parasitism varied between 5% and 15% in most cases. The most parasitized stages of C. ohridella were spinning stages and especially pupae. The most abundant parasitoid species were Minotetrastichus frontalis, Pnigalio sp. and Pediobius saulius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). All species are polyphagous. Using the Galleria-bait method we isolated many strains of entomopathogenic fungi. Dominant species were Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus and Beauveria bassiana. The perspectives of fungal bioagents in control of C. ohridella is discussed. PMID:18399483

  4. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  5. [Technical support in the testing of microoganisms for their ability to accumulate strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions]. Final reports, Task order No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-15

    This report describes the binding of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solution in a variety of microorganisms. Data is provided on the absorption by Ashbya gossyppi, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Candida sp. Ml13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scenedesmus obliqus, Streptococcus mutans, Anabaena flosaquae, Escherichia coli, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus luteus, Zoogloea ramigera, Coelastrum proboscideum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Paecilomyces marquandi, and Caulobacter fusiformis.

  6. Variability in the production of extracellular enzymes by entomopathogenic fungi grown on different substrates

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Valério, Henrique Maia; Feltrin, Thaisa; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are important controllers of pest-insects populations in agricultural production systems and in natural environment. These fungi have enzymatic machinery which involve since the recognition and adherence of spores in their hosts culminating with infection and death of these insects. The main objective of this study was to analyzed extracellular enzyme production of the fungi strains Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces sp when cultured on substrates. These fungi were grown in minimal media containing specific substrates for the analysis of different enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, esterases, lipases, proteases (gelatin and caseinase), pectinases and cuticles of Musca domestica larvae and adults. All the assays were performed with and without the presence of dextrose in the culture media. The quantification of enzyme activity was performed by the ratio of halo / colony (H/C) and the results subjected to variance analysis level of 5% (ANOVA) followed by post-Tukey test. All strains were positive for lipase and also they showed a high significant enzyme production for gelatin at concentrations of 4 and 1%. B. bassiana and Paecilomyces sp. were positive for amylase, pectinase and caseinase, and only Paecilomyces sp. showed cellulase activity. PMID:24031896

  7. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    PubMed

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions. PMID:17188205

  8. Interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Helen; Gray, Simon N; Crump, David H

    2003-01-01

    The efficacies of three nematophagous fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Pochonia chlamydosporia, for controlling potato cyst nematodes (PCN) as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) regime were studied. The compatibility of the nematophagous fungi with commonly used chemical pesticides and their ability to compete with the soil fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium bilaii and Trichoderma harzianum were tested in vitro. Paecilomyces lilacinus was the most successful competitor when the ability to grow and inhibit growth of an opposing colony at both 10 and 20 degrees C was considered. P. lilacinus also showed potential for control of the soil-borne fungal pathogen R. solani, releasing a diffusable substance in vitro which inhibited its growth and caused morphological abnormalities in its hyphae. Pochonia chlamydosporia was least susceptible to growth inhibition by other fungi at 20 degrees in vitro, but the isolate tested did not grow at 10 degrees. Plectosphaerella cucumerina was a poor saprophytic competitor. Radial growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Plectosphaerella cucumerina was slowed, but not prevented, when grown on potato dextrose agar incorporating the fungicides fenpiclonil and tolclofos-methyl, and was not inhibited by the addition of pencycuron or the nematicide oxamyl. Radial growth of Pochonia chlamydosporia was partially inhibited by all the chemical pesticides tested. The efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus as a control agent for R. solani was further investigated in situ. Treatment with P. lilacinus significantly reduced the symptoms of Rhizoctonia disease on potato stems in a pot trial. The effectiveness of P. lilacinus and P. cucumerina against PCN was also tested in situ. Three application methods were compared; incorporating the fungi into alginate pellets, Terra-Green inoculated with the fungi and applying conidia directly to the tubers. Both formulations containing P

  9. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance. PMID:26332985

  10. Microfungi in cultivated fields in Eskişehir provience (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Demirel, Rasime; Ilhan, Semra; Asan, Ahmet; Kinaci, Engin; Oner, Setenay

    2005-01-01

    The soil microfungi flora was investigated in four locations of Eskişehir (Turkey). 56 soil samples were seasonaly collected from 14 stations in the areas of Karacahöyük, Bahçecik, OGU I, and OGU II. A total of 110 species belonging to 32 genera were encountered including Absidia, Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Botryoderma, Chaetomium, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Eupenicillium, Eurotium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gliocladium, Gonytrichum, Metarrhizium, Mucor, Myrothecium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Phoma, Plectosphaerella, Rhizoctania, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Septonema, Stachybotrys, Trichocladium, Trichoderma, Ulocladium, Verticillium, and Wardomyces. Twenty five species were more frequent (all locations) while twenty seven species were rare (only one sample). Mainly, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. terricola var. americanus, A. versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Gliocladium roseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. implicatum, P. restrictum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most common and abundant microfungi in all locations. Five species Aspergillus subsessilis, A. terreus var. africanus, Eupenicillium egyptiacum, Paecilomyces ramosus, and Penicillium novae-zeelandiae are likely to be newly recorded for Turkey. The microfungi number in Eskişehir soils was between 25,000-234,000 CFU/g (mean value at 126,375 CFU/g). PMID:16028200

  11. Influence of fungal odor on grooming behavior of the termite, Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya; Yokohari, Fumio; Shimizu, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    The termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) protects itself from entomopathogenic fungus by mutual grooming behavior. C. formosanus removes foreign organisms, such as fungal conidia, from the body surface of its nestmates by mutual grooming behavior and eating them. The conidia removal rate from the body surface differed according to the isolate of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria brongniartii 782, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus K3, and Metarhizium anisopliae 455), and the removal rate of the fungal isolates seemed to depend on feeding preference, which was determined using paper discs moistened with a fungal suspension. In addition, it was found that C. formosanus without antennae groomed their nestmates more frequently than those with antennae. Consequently, it seems that C. formosanus antennae detect substances without touching, such as via odor, and it affects the efficiency of grooming behavior. The results of single sensillum recording support the hypothesis that C. formosanus are capable of distinguishing three species of fungi by their odors. PMID:21073347

  12. Total Synthesis of Spirotenuipesines A and B

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Spirotenuipesines A and B, isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes by Oshima and co-workers, have been synthesized. The synthesis features the highly stereoselective construction of two vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers (C5 and C6) via an intramolecular cyclopropanation/radical initiated fragmentation sequence and a diastereoselective intermolecular Diels−Alder reaction between α-methylenelactone dienophile 20 and synergistic diene 6a. Installation of the C9 tertiary alcohol occurred via nucleophilic methylation. An RCM reaction to produce a tetrasubstituted double bond in the presence of free allylic alcohol and homoallylic oxygenated functional group is also described. This route shortened the synthesis of 11 from 9 steps to 3 steps. We have further developed a strategy to gain access to optically active spirotenuipesines A and B through the synthesis of enantioenriched 10 from commercially available R-(−)-epichlorohydrin. PMID:18973385

  13. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium solani with complete reduction of Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra. PMID:26373176

  14. Diversity of Keratinophilic Fungi on Human Hairs and Nails at Four Governorates in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Maghraby, Thanaa A.; El-Sharony, Hassan M.; Hussein, Mohmaed A.

    2006-01-01

    The mycobiota of 160 hair and nail samples collected from 4 different governorates in upper Egypt were estimated using soil plate method for isolating keratinophilic and dermatophytic fungi. Twenty-three fungi were recorded on both hair and nail samples collected from the four governorates. Highest fungal diversity (20) was collected from Red Sea samples followed by Qena (18) and Aswan (17) while lowest fungal diversity was recorded from Sohage samples. The common genera were Aphanoascus, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Chrysosporium. The most prevalent species belonging to these genera were: A. fulvescens, Aphanoascus sp. A. flavus link, A. flavus var. columnaris, P. chrysogenium. P. lilacinus and C. sulfureum. True dermatophytes such as Nannizzia fulva appeared in 20~30% of the male samples. PMID:24039495

  15. Ergothioneine Contents in Fruiting Bodies and Their Enhancement in Mycelial Cultures by the Addition of Methionine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wi Young; Ahn, Jin Kwon; Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    The levels of ergothioneine (ERG), which have been shown to act as an excellent antioxidant, were determined in both fruiting bodies and mycelia of various mushroom species. We found that ERG accumulated at different levels in fruiting bodies of mushrooms and showed up to a 92.3-fold difference between mushrooms. We also found that ERG accumulated at higher levels in mycelia than in fruiting bodies of economically important mushroom species such as Ganoderma neo-japonicum, G. applanatum and Paecilomyces tenuipes. The addition of 2 mM methionine (Met) to mycelial culture medium increased the ERG contents in most mushroom species tested, indicating that Met is a good additive to enhance the ERG levels in a variety of mushroom species. Taking these results into consideration, we suggest that the addition of Met to the mycelial culture medium is an efficient way to enhance the antioxidant properties in economically important mushroom species. PMID:23983506

  16. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  17. [Method of biological control of Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, using entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Romaña, C A; Fargues, J; Pays, J F

    1987-01-01

    Bioassays determined the pathogenic activity of 14 strains of 5 entomopathogenic hyphomycetous species (Fungi imperfecti), Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Nomuraea rileyi and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus to Rhodnius prolixus. Treatments consisted of direct spraying with conidial titrated suspensions on first instar larvae. When tested at 3 X 10(5) conidia/cm2, only 2 strains, B. bassiana n. 297 and B. bassiana n. 326 killed 100% of larvae at 10 days post-exposure. In the same time their LD50 and their LD90 did not differ significantly. After 3 weeks, the mortality caused by either dose of spores of B. bassiana n. 297 was very high. In contrast, in the case of B. bassiana n. 326 mortality due to reduced doses remained at low rates. This laboratory study demonstrated that the isolate, B. bassiana n. 297 might have potential as microbial control agent against the assassin bugs. PMID:3111731

  18. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  19. Analysis of the effect of soil saprophytic fungi on the eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis.

    PubMed

    Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Hernández, José A; Arroyo, Fabián L; Miguélez, Silvia; Romasanta, Ángel; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Arias, María S

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a soil-transmitted helminth mainly found in raccoons (Procyon lotor) which can also affect other domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as humans, when the eggs released in the feces of parasitized raccoons are accidentally ingested. Three assays have been conducted to assess the effect of three saprophytic fungi, Mucor circinelloides, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Verticillium sp., on the eggs of B. procyonis. Firstly, their ovicidal effect was in vitro ascertained by placing 1 mL with 2 × 10(6) spores of each fungus in Petri plates with water-agar (2 %) and simultaneously adding 200 eggs of Baylisascaris/plate. Two in vivo probes were carried out, by spraying the fungal spores (3 mL containing about 2 × 10(6) spores/mL) on the feces of raccoons and coatis (Nasua narica) passing eggs of B. procyonis in a zoological park; the other assay consisted of evaluating the activity of the fungi after adding sand to fecal samples from raccoons. An ovicidal type 3 activity characterized by morphological damage of the eggshell with hyphal penetration, internal egg colonization, and embryo alteration was observed for all the tested fungi. In the plate assays, viability of Baylisascaris eggs reduced significantly by 53-69 % with Mucor, 45-62 % with Paecilomyces, and 52-67 % with Verticillium. A similar ovicidal effect was detected in the feces with sand. These results demonstrate the usefulness of spraying spores of M. circinelloides, Pa. lilacinus, or Verticillium sp. on the feces of animals infected by Baylisascaris to decrease the numbers of viable eggs and, thus, the risk of infection. PMID:25828813

  20. [Antagonistic interactions between saprotrophic fungi and geohelminths. 1. Saprotrophic fungi in the biological control of phytopathogenic geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    The state of knowledge on the possible antagonism between soil saprotrophic fungi and phytopathogenic nematodes of the genera Meloidogyne, Heterodera, and Globodera is reviewed basing on the literature and our own research. Mycelial colonisation of various developmental stages of these geohelminths is the most common factor thought to reduce their populations in nature. The following parasitic fungi can be found on the cysts, eggs, as well as the larvae of the nematodes: Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. The fungi invade the nematodes, such as Heterodera, Globodera, or Meloidogyne, "passively" penetrating through the natural orifices of the cysts, eggs, and larvae of the host. Equally frequent, however, is a biochemical action of the fungi prior to colonisation, which is linked with production of mycotoxirls or hydrolytic enzymes. Such an active way of fungal penetration of various stages of the phytopathogenic nematodes has been observed in Pochonia chlamydosporia, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, P. frequentans, Sclerotinia rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium spp. Triacylglycerols (TAG), phenols, as well as trichothecene, T-2, have been found in the metabolites extracted from mycelia of these species. Predation by fungi is also a factor that may reduce a population of phytopathogenic nematodes. This form of antagonism is characteristic for nematicidal fungi of the genera Arthrobotrys and Dactylella. These fungi form shrinking rings and hooks in their mycelia by which the fungus entangles and paralyses a migrating form of nematode. Despite the fact that the antagonism between fungi and nematodes is a commonly occurring phenomenon observed in the soil, the nematicidal and nematotoxic properties of fungi have not a wide application in biological plant protection. Up till now, only the bionematicides based on Arthrobotrys robusta (Royal 300 and

  1. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  2. Detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. kernel by Trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  3. The role of antennae in removing entomopathogenic fungi from cuticle of the termite, Coptotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Aya; Yokohari, Fumio; Shimizu, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    Our previous research has shown that the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), protects itself from entomopathogenic fungi by mutual grooming behavior. The termite removes and discards foreign organisms, such as fungal conidia, from the body surface of its nestmates by mutual grooming behavior. The role of the antennae in detecting the condia was examind here. Three entomopathogenic fungi were used, Beauveria brongniartii 782 (Saccardo) (Hypocreales), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus K3 (Wize) (Hyphomycetes), and Metarhizium anisopliae 455 Sorokin (Hyphomycetes). Termites with antennae removed conidia more efficiently than termites without antennae. There were differences between termites with and without antennae in selection of sites to be groomed on nestmates, in the length of grooming and in occurrence of grooming. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses were recorded from termite antennae and the waveforms were rather specific to the kinds of fungi used as odor sources. Termites were able to distinguish between the tested fungi in feeding tests. These results show that the antennae play important roles in the mutual grooming behavior of the termite. PMID:19611249

  4. Immunohistologic identification of Aspergillus spp. and other hyaline fungi by using polyclonal fluorescent antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, L; Standard, P G; Jalbert, M; Kraft, D E

    1997-01-01

    Isolation and identification of pathogenic Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. from clinical materials provide the most accurate means for establishing a diagnosis of infections by these molds. Such efforts, however, are not always successful. Histologic diagnosis also has its limitations. In vivo the hyphae of Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. are very similar and their in situ manifestations are not pathognomonic. To improve the histologic diagnosis of infections by Aspergillus and Fusarium species, we developed polyclonal fluorescent-antibody reagents to Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani and evaluated their diagnostic utilities. Our studies revealed that A. fumigatus and F. solani share epitopes not only with one another but also with other Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. as well as with Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pseudallescheria boydii. Adsorption of the A. fumigatus conjugate with cells of Fusarium proliferatum and F. solani and F. solani antiserum with cells of Aspergillus flavus resulted in reagents that distinguished Aspergillus spp. from Fusarium spp. but that still cross-stained P. lilacinus and P. boydii. Adjunctive use of a specific P. boydii conjugate enabled the identification of Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., P. lilacinus, and P. boydii in formalin-fixed tissue sections from 19 humans with culture-proven cases of mycotic infection. PMID:9276388

  5. Virulence of Isaria sp. and Purpureocillium lilacinum to Rhipicephalus microplus tick under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Isabele C; Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bahiense, Thiago C; Perinotto, Wendell M S; Golo, Patricia S; Moraes, Ana Paula R; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2012-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) is an ectoparasite accountable for great economic losses. The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control arthropods has shown promising responses. The present study evaluated the virulence of Isaria farinosa (Holmsk.) Fr., Isaria fumosorosea (Wize) Brown and Smith, and Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) (Thom.) Samson to engorged females, eggs, and larvae of R. microplus. There were four treatment groups (10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) conidia ml(-1)) and the control group (water and Tween 80, 0.1% v/v). The treatment was based on immersion of the specimen in 1 ml of the suspension or control solution. The study observed changes in egg viability and larval mortality after treatment. The results showed that I. farinosa, P. lilacinum, and I. fumosorosea caused alterations in the biological parameters of R. microplus ticks. I. fumosorosea presented the greatest potential to control R. microplus engorged females in vitro, causing a 49% decrease in nutritional index. All fungal isolates presented significant reduction in the egg production index. I. farinosa reduced the hatching percentage if the eggs were treated with the two highest conidial concentrations. All conidial concentrations of I. fumosorosea were able to reduce the hatching percentage significantly. All tested isolates showed pathogenicity toward unfed R. microplus larvae. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the effect in vitro of I. farinosa, I. fumosorosea, and P. lilacinum to different developmental stages of R. microplus ticks. PMID:22710525

  6. Preferential utilization and colonization of keratin baits by different myco-keratinophiles.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Sandeep; Sumbali, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Myco-keratinophilic species have a predilection for different keratinous substrates but show variability in their affinity towards them. Keeping this in view, a survey was conducted in the Khardung and Khardung La soils of Ladakh (India) and 28 myco-keratinophilic species belonging to 15 fungal genera (Sarocladium, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, Clonostachys, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Metarhizium, Penicillium and Sagenomella) were isolated by using keratin bait technique. These isolated species were tested for their preferential utilization ability and colonization on different baits by morphological assessment. Different types of keratin baits used were feathers, human hair, human nails and wool. Overall assessment revealed that feathers were colonized and utilized by all the species (100 %), followed in decreasing order by nails (89.29 %), hair (85.71 %) and sheep wool (67.86 %). So, it is concluded that feather baiting technique, could be more useful in trapping keratinophilic fungi than the hair baiting technique which is till date regarded as the best method for the isolation of myco-keratinophiles. On the basis of succession on keratinous baits, the recovered keratinophilic species were also categorized into four categories: early successional species (pioneer colonizers), late successional species (final colonizers), persistent species and no-pattern species. PMID:27516942

  7. Moisture Sorption Behaviour and Mould Ecology of Trade Garri Sold in South Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tochukwu; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2014-01-01

    Garri is a creamy white or yellow starchy grit produced by roasting to gelatinization and dryness of peeled, washed, mashed, and fermented dewatered cassava roots. It is the most important product of cassava in West and Central Africa. Mean moisture content of yellow and white garri was 11.11% and 10.81% within 24 hrs of sampling from the market, increasing to 17.27% and 16.14%, respectively, following 3 months of storage at room temperature. The water activity of samples varied from initial 0.587 to 0.934 following storage. Moisture sorption isotherms, determined by static gravimetric techniques at 20° and 30°C, showed temperature dependent BET Sigmoidal type II behaviour typical of carbohydrate rich foods but modulated very slightly by the content of palm oil. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with increase in temperature at constant water activity. A total of 10 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Rhizopus, and Paecilomyces were identified, with range increasing with water activity of samples. PMID:26904621

  8. Variability in susceptibility to simulated sunlight of conidia among isolates of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes.

    PubMed

    Fargues, J; Goettel, M S; Smits, N; Ouedraogo, A; Vidal, C; Lacey, L A; Lomer, C J; Rougier, M

    1996-09-01

    The influence of simulated sunlight on survival of conidia of 4 species of entomopathogenic Hyphomycetes was investigated. Conidia from 65 isolates ofBeauveria bassiana, 23 ofMetarhizium anisopliae, 14 ofMetarhizium flavoviride and 33 isolates ofPaecilomyces fumosoroseus were irradiated by artificial sunlight (295 to 1,100 nm at an ultraviolet-B irradiance of 0.3 W m(-2)) for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h. Survival was estimated by comparing the number of colony forming units (CFU) produced by conidia exposed to irradiation to the number of CFUs produced by an unexposed control. Survival decreased with increased exposure to simulated sunlight; exposure for 2 h or more was detrimental to all isolates tested. Overall, isolates ofM. flavoviride were the most resistant to irradiation followed byB. bassiana andM. anisopliae. Conidia ofP. fumosoroseus were most susceptible. In addition to the large interspecies differences in susceptibility to irradiation, there was also an intraspecies variation indicating that strain selection to irradiation tolerance may be important in the development of microbial control agents where increased persistence in an insolated environment is desirable. PMID:20882453

  9. Phosphatase-mediated bioprecipitation of lead by soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinjin; Kierans, Martin; Ceci, Andrea; Hillier, Stephen; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2016-01-01

    Geoactive soil fungi were examined for their ability to release inorganic phosphate (Pi ) and mediate lead bioprecipitation during growth on organic phosphate substrates. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus grew in 5 mM Pb(NO3)2-containing media amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) or phytic acid (PyA) as sole P sources, and liberated Pi into the medium. This resulted in almost complete removal of Pb from solution and extensive precipitation of lead-containing minerals around the biomass, confirming the importance of the mycelium as a reactive network for biomineralization. The minerals were identified as pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl), only produced by P. javanicus, and lead oxalate (PbC2O4), produced by A. niger and P. javanicus. Geochemical modelling of lead and lead mineral speciation as a function of pH and oxalate closely correlated with experimental conditions and data. Two main lead biomineralization mechanisms were therefore distinguished: pyromorphite formation depending on organic phosphate hydrolysis and lead oxalate formation depending on oxalate excretion. This also indicated species specificity in biomineralization depending on nutrition and physiology. Our findings provide further understanding of lead geomycology and organic phosphates as a biomineralization substrate, and are also relevant to metal immobilization biotechnologies for bioremediation, metal and P biorecovery, and utilization of waste organic phosphates. PMID:26235107

  10. Identification and evaluation of SERI-NF1 fungus for ethanol production from xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    This work aimed at identifying the SERI-NF1 fungus isolated by Solar Energy Research Institute investigators, as well as evaluating the fungus as an ethanol producer from xylose fermentations. Microscopic and physiological observations led to the conclusion that the fungus is Paecilomyces varioti Bainier 1907. The fungus grows relatively fast in PDA plates, and its cultures release a light sweet aromatic odor. In liquid cultures the fungus forms round mycelial balls (1--12 mm in diameter). It showed to be thermophilic (grown well at 26--36/degree/C) and thermotolerant (exposed for two hours to 60/degree/C resumed its growth), and to prefer pH levels close to neutrality. Cultures of the fungus were tested (in 125 ml flasks) for fermenting xylose to ethanol. Its growth in the liquid cultures was slow and formed mycelial balls. The yield of ethanol production was low. The amount of fungal mass has to be more than a few mycelial balls per flask to get a reasonable yield of ethanol. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Hany M.; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated to be 1.03×106 blastospores/ml. The strain CCM 8367 was more virulent, causing 92.6% mortality of larvae (LT50 = 5.0 days) compared to the reference strain Apopka 97, which caused 54.5% mortality (LT50 = 7.0 days). The combined application of the fungus with the nematodes increased the mortality up to 98.0%. The best results were obtained when S. feltiae was applied simultaneously with I. fumosorosea (LT50 = 2.0 days); later application negatively affected both the penetration rate and the development of the nematodes. We can conclude that the strain CCM 8367 of I. fumosorosea is a prospective biocontrol agent against immature stages of L. decemlineata. For higher efficacy, application together with an entomopathogenic nematode is recommended. PMID:27015633

  12. Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi in indoor dust of houses and hospitals.

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Mishra, A; Kushwaha, Rks

    2009-01-01

    Dermatophytes, related keratinophilic and opportunistic fungi were isolated from indoor dust samples of 46 hospitals and 47 houses in Kanpur. A total of 19 fungi represented by 11 genera were isolated by the hair-baiting technique from 230 and 235 samples from hospitals and houses respectively. The isolated fungi are Acremonium implicatum (Indian Type Culture Collection) ITCC 5266, A. strictum (Germplasm Centre for Keratinophilic Fungi) GPCK 1137, Aphanoascus fulvescens GPCK 1081, Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270, C. indicum ITCC 5269, C. pannicola GPCK 1022, C. tropicum GPCK 1269, Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267, Gymnoascus reessii ITCC 5265, Malbranchea fulva GPCK 1075, Malbranchea pulchella ITCC 5268, Micosporum gypseum GPCK 1038 , Microsporum cookei GPCK 2001, M. fulvum GPCK 2002, Paecilomyces lilacinum GPCK 1080, Penicillium expansum GPCK 1082, Trichophyton mentagrophytes GPCK 2003 and T. terrestre GPCK 2004. In hospitals, the minimum frequency was of Ctenomyces serratus ITCC 5267 while the maximum frequency was of Arthroderma simii GPCK 1275. In houses, Chrysosporium queenslandicum ITCC 5270 and C. tropicum GPCK 1269 were with minimum and maximum frequencies respectively. This makes the first report of these fungi with keratinolytic ability in the indoor dust of hospitals and houses. PMID:19584506

  13. Comparative performance evaluation of multi-metal resistant fungal strains for simultaneous removal of multiple hazardous metals.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyadarshini; Gola, Deepak; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Kumar, Peeyush; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Patel, Neelam; von Bergen, Martin; Jehmlich, Nico

    2016-11-15

    In the present study, five fungal strains viz., Aspergillus terreus AML02, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus 4099, Beauveria bassiana 4580, Aspergillus terreus PD-17, Aspergillus fumigatus PD-18, were screened for simultaneous multimetal removal. Highest metal tolerance index for each individual metal viz., Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn (500mg/L) was recorded for A. fumigatus for the metals (Cd, 0.72; Cu, 0.72; Pb, 1.02; Zn, 0.94) followed by B. bassiana for the metals (Cd, 0.56; Cu, 0.14; Ni, 0.29; Zn, 0.85). Next, the strains were exposed to multiple metal mixture (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) of various concentrations (6, 12, 18, 30mg/L). Compared to other strains, B. bassiana and A. fumigatus had higher cube root growth (k) constants indicating their better adaptability to multi metal stress. After 72h, multimetal accumulation potential of B. bassiana (26.94±0.07mg/L) and A. fumigatus (27.59±0.09mg/L) were higher than the other strains at initial multimetal concentration of 30mg/L. However, considering the post treatment concentrations of individual metals in multimetal mixture (at all the tested concentrations), A. fumigatus demonstrated exceptional performance and could bring down the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn below the threshold level for irrigation prescribed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). PMID:27497228

  14. Protective effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris on alcoholic hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Ahn, Hee-Young; Cho, Young-Su; Je, Jae-Young

    2013-10-01

    This study was to investigate the protective effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol-feeding rats were fed diets with Paecilomyces japonica as CPJ group, C. militaris as CCM group, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris as CCMα group at the 3% (w/w) level and silymarin at the 0.1% (w/w) level for 4 weeks. Alcohol administration resulted in a significant increase in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the levels of blood alcohol and acetaldehyde in serum. However, CCMα group markedly prevented from alcohol-induced elevation of these parameters in serum. CCMα group showed the increased both hepatic activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Unlike the action of alcohol treatment on alcoholic fatty liver, CCMα group was also attenuated lipid droplet accumulation in the hepatocytes. Present study was also confirmed the beneficial roles of silymarin (hepatoprotective agent) against alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Therefore, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris can be a promising candidate to prevent from alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23876821

  15. Fungi recovered from Slovakian poultry feed mixtures and their toxinogenity.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Roman; Tancinová, Dana

    2006-01-01

    To contribute towards the knowledge of microbiology of feeds, more than 100 samples of poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia were mycologically investigated in terms of the overall fungal diversity and toxicological potential of isolated fungi. The study revealed that out of 22 genera recovered, Penicillium was the most frequent and diverse genus, followed by Aspergillus and Mucor being found in 89 % (34 spp.), 69 % (11 spp.) and 50 % (4 spp.), respectively. The most frequently encountered taxa were Fusarium proliferatum, followed by Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium crustosum and Aspergillus flavus . In addition, the following genera were recorded (in descending order) Rhizopus (44 %, 3 spp.), Eurotium (42 %, 5 spp.), Fusarium (42 %, 3 spp.), Cladosporium (31 %, 1 sp.), Alternaria (22 %, 3 spp.), Absidia (16 %, 3 spp.), Acremonium (12 %, 2 spp.), Scopulariopsis (10 %, 2 spp.), Paecilomyces (4 %, 1 sp.), Ulocladium (3 %, 1 sp.), Trichoderma (2 %, 1 sp.), Zygorrhynchus (2 %, 1 sp.), and finally Emericella, Epicoccum, Geosmithia, Monascus, Stachybotrys, Syncephalastrum and Wardomyces , all were encountered in 1 % of the samples being represented by a single species. The mean value counts of total fungi ranged from 1 x 10 (3) to 200 x 10(5) cfu/g. Outcomes from mycotoxin screening within the appropriate potentially toxinogenic species showed a number of mycotoxin producers, namely those forming aflatoxin B (1) (n=3), citrinin (17), cyclopiazonic acid (76), fumonisin B(1) (86), griseofulvin (42), moniliformin (18), ochratoxin A (5), patulin (56), penitrem A (30) and sterigmatocystin (10). PMID:17195991

  16. In vitro Stimulation of NK Cells and Lymphocytes Using an Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:27162531

  17. Impact of Plant Species and Site on Rhizosphere-Associated Fungi Antagonistic to Verticillium dahliae Kleb.

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gabriele; Zachow, Christin; Lottmann, Jana; Götz, Monika; Costa, Rodrigo; Smalla, Kornelia

    2005-01-01

    Fungi with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens play an essential role in plant growth and health. To analyze the effects of the plant species and the site on the abundance and composition of fungi with antagonistic activity toward Verticillium dahliae, fungi were isolated from oilseed rape and strawberry rhizosphere and bulk soil from three different locations in Germany over two growing seasons. A total of 4,320 microfungi screened for in vitro antagonism toward Verticillium resulted in 911 active isolates. This high proportion of fungi antagonistic toward the pathogen V. dahliae was found for bulk and rhizosphere soil at all sites. A plant- and site-dependent specificity of the composition of antagonistic morphotypes and their genotypic diversity was found. The strawberry rhizosphere was characterized by preferential occurrence of Penicillium and Paecilomyces isolates and low numbers of morphotypes (n = 31) and species (n = 13), while Monographella isolates were most frequently obtained from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, for which higher numbers of morphotypes (n = 41) and species (n = 17) were found. Trichoderma strains displayed high diversity in all soils, but a high degree of plant specificity was shown by BOX-PCR fingerprints. The diversity of rhizosphere-associated antagonists was lower than that of antagonists in bulk soil, suggesting that some fungi were specifically enriched in each rhizosphere. A broad spectrum of new Verticillium antagonists was identified, and the implications of the data for biocontrol applications are discussed. PMID:16085804

  18. Amplicon-based metagenomics identified candidate organisms in soils that caused yield decline in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangming; Passey, Thomas; Wei, Feng; Saville, Robert; Harrison, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A phenomenon of yield decline due to weak plant growth in strawberry was recently observed in non-chemo-fumigated soils, which was not associated with the soil fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, the main target of fumigation. Amplicon-based metagenomics was used to profile soil microbiota in order to identify microbial organisms that may have caused the yield decline. A total of 36 soil samples were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from four sites for metagenomic studies; two of the four sites had a yield-decline problem, the other two did not. More than 2000 fungal or bacterial operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were found in these samples. Relative abundance of individual OTUs was statistically compared for differences between samples from sites with or without yield decline. A total of 721 individual comparisons were statistically significant - involving 366 unique bacterial and 44 unique fungal OTUs. Based on further selection criteria, we focused on 34 bacterial and 17 fungal OTUs and found that yield decline resulted probably from one or more of the following four factors: (1) low abundance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas populations, which are well known for their ability of supressing pathogen development and/or promoting plant growth; (2) lack of the nematophagous fungus (Paecilomyces species); (3) a high level of two non-specific fungal root rot pathogens; and (4) wet soil conditions. This study demonstrated the usefulness of an amplicon-based metagenomics approach to profile soil microbiota and to detect differential abundance in microbes. PMID:26504572

  19. Impact of plant species and site on rhizosphere-associated fungi antagonistic to Verticillium dahliae kleb.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gabriele; Zachow, Christin; Lottmann, Jana; Götz, Monika; Costa, Rodrigo; Smalla, Kornelia

    2005-08-01

    Fungi with antagonistic activity toward plant pathogens play an essential role in plant growth and health. To analyze the effects of the plant species and the site on the abundance and composition of fungi with antagonistic activity toward Verticillium dahliae, fungi were isolated from oilseed rape and strawberry rhizosphere and bulk soil from three different locations in Germany over two growing seasons. A total of 4,320 microfungi screened for in vitro antagonism toward Verticillium resulted in 911 active isolates. This high proportion of fungi antagonistic toward the pathogen V. dahliae was found for bulk and rhizosphere soil at all sites. A plant- and site-dependent specificity of the composition of antagonistic morphotypes and their genotypic diversity was found. The strawberry rhizosphere was characterized by preferential occurrence of Penicillium and Paecilomyces isolates and low numbers of morphotypes (n = 31) and species (n = 13), while Monographella isolates were most frequently obtained from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape, for which higher numbers of morphotypes (n = 41) and species (n = 17) were found. Trichoderma strains displayed high diversity in all soils, but a high degree of plant specificity was shown by BOX-PCR fingerprints. The diversity of rhizosphere-associated antagonists was lower than that of antagonists in bulk soil, suggesting that some fungi were specifically enriched in each rhizosphere. A broad spectrum of new Verticillium antagonists was identified, and the implications of the data for biocontrol applications are discussed. PMID:16085804

  20. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-06-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. PMID:23416228

  1. Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Its Damage to Lettuce Grown in a Mineral Soil Amended with Chitin and Biocontrol Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Abawi, G. S.; Zuckerman, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Chitin was used as soil amendment in fiberglass field microplots, alone or with one or a combination of two to three species of Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Streptomyces costaricanus. Sudangrass and rapeseed were planted as cover crops and incorporated into soil as green manure amendments. Chitin amendment alone increased the marketable yield of lettuce in 1995 and reduced root-galling ratings and the reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla in both 1995 and 1996. Green manure amendments of sudangrass and rapeseed increased total and marketable yields of lettuce, and decreased root-galling ratings and the reproduction of M. hapla in 1996. Hirsutella rhossiliensis in combination with chitin increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1995. The combination of B. thuringiensis, S. costaricanus, and chitin either with or without P. marquandii increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1996. In most cases, however, the nematode-antagonistic organisms did not improve lettuce yield or further suppression of M. hapla compared to the chitin amendment alone. The introduced fungi were recoverable from the infested soil. The rifampicin-resistant mutant of B. thuringiensis was not isolated at the end of the season. PMID:19270942

  2. Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Its Damage to Lettuce Grown in a Mineral Soil Amended with Chitin and Biocontrol Organisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Abawi, G S; Zuckerman, B M

    1999-12-01

    Chitin was used as soil amendment in fiberglass field microplots, alone or with one or a combination of two to three species of Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Streptomyces costaricanus. Sudangrass and rapeseed were planted as cover crops and incorporated into soil as green manure amendments. Chitin amendment alone increased the marketable yield of lettuce in 1995 and reduced root-galling ratings and the reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla in both 1995 and 1996. Green manure amendments of sudangrass and rapeseed increased total and marketable yields of lettuce, and decreased root-galling ratings and the reproduction of M. hapla in 1996. Hirsutella rhossiliensis in combination with chitin increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1995. The combination of B. thuringiensis, S. costaricanus, and chitin either with or without P. marquandii increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1996. In most cases, however, the nematode-antagonistic organisms did not improve lettuce yield or further suppression of M. hapla compared to the chitin amendment alone. The introduced fungi were recoverable from the infested soil. The rifampicin-resistant mutant of B. thuringiensis was not isolated at the end of the season. PMID:19270942

  3. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics. PMID:26701360

  4. Diversity of fungi from the mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest soils.

    PubMed

    Duff, Lyndon B; Urichuk, Theresa M; Hodgins, Lisa N; Young, Jocelyn R; Untereiner, Wendy A

    2016-07-01

    Culture-based methods were employed to recover 3929 isolates of fungi from soils collected in May and July 2014 from mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest sites. The abundance, diversity, and richness of species from nest mounds exceeded those of non-mound soils, particularly in July. Communities of fungi from mounds were more similar to those from mounds than non-mounds; this was also the case for non-mound soils with the exception of one non-mound site in July. Species of Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were dominant in nest soils and represented up to 81.8% of the taxa recovered. Members of the genus Aspergillus accounted for the majority of Trichocomaceae from nests and were represented almost exclusively by Aspergillus navahoensis and Aspergillus pseudodeflectus. Dominant fungi from non-mound sites included Cladosporium cladosporioides, Geomyces pannorum, and species of Acremonium, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Phoma. Although mound nests were warmer than adjacent soils, the dominance of xerotolerant Aspergillus in soils from mounds and the isolation of the majority of Trichocomaceae at 25 and 35 °C suggests that both temperature and water availability may be determinants of fungal community structure in nests of F. ulkei. PMID:27192606

  5. Mold contamination and air handling units.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen C; Palmatier, Robert N; Andriychuk, Larysa A; Martin, Jared M; Jumper, Cynthia A; Holder, Homer W; Straus, David C

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted on selected locations in air handling units (AHUs) to (a) identify common mold species found on these locations, (b) determine whether some locations (and subsets) featured mold growth sites more frequently than others, (c) ascertain whether the operating condition of AHUs is related to mold contamination, and (d) provide a basis for a microbial sampling protocol for AHUs. A total of 566 tape lifts and 570 swab samples were collected from the blower wheel fan blades, insulation, cooling coil fins, and ductwork from 25 AHUs. All AHU conditions were numerically rated using a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) survey. Results showed that Cladosporium sp. fungi were commonly recovered in terms of growth sites and deposited spores, and they were found mainly in the blower wheel fan blades, the ductwork, and the cooling coil fins. Subsections of the fan blades, insulation, and cooling coil fins showed no preferred area for mold growth sites. Other organisms such as Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were recovered from the cooling coil fins and insulation. Because of the widespread prevalence of Cladosporium sp., there was no relationship between mold growth and operating condition. However, the presence of different species of molds in locations other than the blower wheel blades may indicate that the AHU condition is not optimal. A suggested microbial sampling protocol including interpretations of sample results is presented. PMID:17487721

  6. Clarification of generic and species boundaries for Metarhizium and related fungi through multigene phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Ryan M; Humber, Richard A; Bischoff, Joseph F; Rehner, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The genus Metarhizium historically refers to green-spored asexual insect pathogenic fungi. Through culturing and molecular methods, Metarhizium has been linked to Metacordyceps sexual states. Historically fungal nomenclature has allowed separate names for the different life stages of pleomorphic fungi. However, with the move to one name for one fungus regardless of life stage, there is a need to determine which name is correct. For Metarhizium the situation is complicated by the fact that Metacordyceps sexual states are interspersed among additional asexual genera, including Pochonia, Nomuraea and Paecilomyces. Metarhizium has priority as the earliest available name, but delimiting the boundaries of this genus remains problematic. To clarify relationships among these taxa we have obtained representative material for each genus and established a molecular dataset of the protein-coding genes BTUB, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF. The resulting phylogeny supports Metarhizium combining the majority of species recognized in Metacordyceps as well as the green-spored Nomuraea species and those in the more recently described genus Chamaeleomyces. Pochonia is polyphyletic, and we restrict the definition of this genus to those species forming a monophyletic clade with P. chlamydosporia, and the excluded species are transferred to Metapochonia gen. nov. It is our hope that this unified concept of sexual and asexual states in Metarhizium will foster advances in communication and understanding the unique ecologies of the associated species. PMID:24891418

  7. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hany M; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated to be 1.03×106 blastospores/ml. The strain CCM 8367 was more virulent, causing 92.6% mortality of larvae (LT50 = 5.0 days) compared to the reference strain Apopka 97, which caused 54.5% mortality (LT50 = 7.0 days). The combined application of the fungus with the nematodes increased the mortality up to 98.0%. The best results were obtained when S. feltiae was applied simultaneously with I. fumosorosea (LT50 = 2.0 days); later application negatively affected both the penetration rate and the development of the nematodes. We can conclude that the strain CCM 8367 of I. fumosorosea is a prospective biocontrol agent against immature stages of L. decemlineata. For higher efficacy, application together with an entomopathogenic nematode is recommended. PMID:27015633

  9. Amplicon-based metagenomics identified candidate organisms in soils that caused yield decline in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangming; Passey, Thomas; Wei, Feng; Saville, Robert; Harrison, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    A phenomenon of yield decline due to weak plant growth in strawberry was recently observed in non-chemo-fumigated soils, which was not associated with the soil fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, the main target of fumigation. Amplicon-based metagenomics was used to profile soil microbiota in order to identify microbial organisms that may have caused the yield decline. A total of 36 soil samples were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from four sites for metagenomic studies; two of the four sites had a yield-decline problem, the other two did not. More than 2000 fungal or bacterial operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were found in these samples. Relative abundance of individual OTUs was statistically compared for differences between samples from sites with or without yield decline. A total of 721 individual comparisons were statistically significant – involving 366 unique bacterial and 44 unique fungal OTUs. Based on further selection criteria, we focused on 34 bacterial and 17 fungal OTUs and found that yield decline resulted probably from one or more of the following four factors: (1) low abundance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas populations, which are well known for their ability of supressing pathogen development and/or promoting plant growth; (2) lack of the nematophagous fungus (Paecilomyces species); (3) a high level of two non-specific fungal root rot pathogens; and (4) wet soil conditions. This study demonstrated the usefulness of an amplicon-based metagenomics approach to profile soil microbiota and to detect differential abundance in microbes. PMID:26504572

  10. Autoradiographic method to screen for soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Zamani, B.; Knezek, B.D.; Flegler, S.L.; Beneke, E.S.; Dazzo, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic method was developed to screen for and isolate soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc (ZN). Diluted soil samples (pH 5.9) were plated on soil extract-glucose agar containing radioactive /sup 65/Zn. After 7 days of incubation, individual colonies which accumulated sufficient /sup 65/Zn could be detected by autoradiography. These colonies were isolated and confirmed as Zn accumulators in pure culture by using the autoradiographic plate technique. Most Zn accumulators were filamentous fungi, identified as Penicillium janthinellum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Paecilomyces sp. Isolates of Penicillium janthinellum were the most common Zn accumulators. The most abundant Zn-accumulating bacteria were Bacillus spp. The validity of the autoradiographic plate technique to differentiate soil microbes which accumulate Zn was examined independently by energy dispersive X-ray analysis in a scanning electron microscope. This method confirmed that fungal isolates which gave positive autoradiographic responses in the plate assay bioaccumulated more Zn in their biomass than fungal isolates from the same soil sample which gave negative autoradiographic responses. Thus, this technique can be applied to specifically screen for and isolate microbes from the environment which bioaccumulate Zn.

  11. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi from agricultural and natural ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their virulence towards thrips and whiteflies.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  12. Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    de Aguirre, Liliana; Hurst, Steven F.; Choi, Jong Soo; Shin, Jong Hee; Hinrikson, Hans Peter; Morrison, Christine J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor, differentiated 41 isolates (3 to 9 each of the respective species; P < 0.001) in a PCR-EIA detection matrix and gave no false-positive reactions with 33 species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Candida, Fusarium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, or other aspergilli tested. A single DNA probe to detect all seven of the most medically important Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus, and A. versicolor) was also designed. Identification of Aspergillus species was accomplished within a single day by the PCR-EIA, and as little as 0.5 pg of fungal DNA could be detected by this system. In addition, fungal DNA extracted from tissues of experimentally infected rabbits was successfully amplified and identified using the PCR-EIA system. This method is simple, rapid, and sensitive for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species and for their differentiation from other opportunistic fungi. PMID:15297489

  13. Fungal transformation of metallic lead to pyromorphite in liquid medium.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Young Joon; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2014-10-01

    Many approaches have been proposed to reduce the toxicity of hazardous substances such as lead in the environment. Several techniques using microorganisms rely on metal removal from solution by non-specific biosorption. However, immobilization of metals through formation of biominerals mediated by metabolic processes offers another solution but which has been given limited attention. In this work, we have investigated lead biomineralization by Paecilomyces javanicus, a fungus isolated from a lead-contaminated soil, in a liquid medium. P. javanicus was able to grow in the presence of metallic lead, supplied as lead shot, and secondary lead minerals were deposited on the lead surfaces as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray powder diffraction revealed that pyromorphite was formed in the presence of the fungus, but not in abiotic controls. Our results clearly demonstrate that fungal activities can play an important role in lead biocorrosion and biomineralization in an aqueous environment. These findings are relevant to bioremediation approaches for liquid wastes contaminated with lead, or other metals, and also to the immobilization and biorecovery of rare or valuable elements. They also provide further understanding of microbial roles in environmental lead cycling. PMID:25065784

  14. Bioremediation of aflatoxins by some reference fungal strains.

    PubMed

    El-Shiekh, Hussein H; Mahdy, Hesham M; El-Aaser, Mahmoud M

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus RCMB 002001 (2) producing four types of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was used in this study as an aflatoxin-producer. Penicillium griseofulvum, P. urticae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a non-toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus were found to be able to exhibit growth on aflatoxin B1-containing medium up to a concentration of 500 ppb. It was also found that several fungal strains exhibited the growth in co-culture with A. parasiticus, natural aflatoxins producer, and were able to decreased the total aflatoxin concentration, resulting in the highest inhibition percentage of 67.2% by T viride, followed by P. lilacinus, P. griseofulvum, S. cerevisiae, C. utilis, P. urticae, Rhizopus nigricans and Mucor rouxii with total aflatoxin inhibition percentage of 53.9, 52.4, 52, 51.7, 44, 38.2 and 35.4%, respectively. The separation of bioremediation products using GC/MS revealed that the toxins were degraded into furan moieties. PMID:18062656

  15. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Srinath R. . E-mail: srinathrangamani@yahoo.com; Bhave, Prashant P. . E-mail: drppbhave@vsnl.net

    2006-07-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  16. In vitro Stimulation of NK Cells and Lymphocytes Using an Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Park, Jisang; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2016-04-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild Ophiocordyceps is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitat, and its price limits its use in clinical practice. Therefore, the development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of Ophiocordyceps as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild Ophiocordyceps, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 on natural killer cells and B and T lymphocytes. CBG-CS-2 stimulated splenocyte proliferation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression in the mouse splenocytes. Importantly, in vitro CBG-CS-2 treatment enhanced the killing activity of the NK-92MI natural killer cell line. These results indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from Ophiocordyceps exhibits immune-modulating activity, as was observed in vivo and this suggests its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:27162531

  17. Immune-Modulating Activity of Extract Prepared from Mycelial Culture of Chinese Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Seung-Hwan; Jang, Hyonseok; Chae, Soo-Wan; Jung, Su-Jin; So, Byung-Ok; Ha, Ki-Chan; Sin, Hong-Sig; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a natural fungus that has been valued as a health food and traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The fungus is parasitic and colonizes insect larva. Naturally occurring O. sinensis thrives at high altitude in cold and grassy alpine meadows on the Himalayan mountain ranges. Wild O. sinensis is becoming increasingly rare in its natural habitats, and its price is out of reach for clinical practice. For these reasons, development of a standardized alternative is a great focus of research to allow the use of O. sinensis as a medicine. To develop an alternative for wild O. sinensis, a refined standardized extract, CBG-CS-2, was produced by artificial fermentation and extraction of the mycelial strain Paecilomyces hepiali CBG-CS-1, which originated from wild O. sinensis. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immune-modulating effect of CBG-CS-2 in mice. Oral administration of CBG-CS-2 supported splenocyte stimulation and enhanced Th1-type cytokine expression from the splenocytes. Importantly, the same treatment significantly enhanced the natural killer cell activity of the splenocytes. Finally, oral administration of CBG-CS-2 enhanced the potential for inflammatory responses. Together, these findings indicate that the mycelial culture extract prepared from O. sinensis exhibited immune-modulating activity and suggest its possible use in the treatment of diseases caused by abnormal immune function. PMID:26854106

  18. Distribution of Keratinophilic Fungi in Soil Across Tunisia: A Descriptive Study and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Anane, Sonia; Al-Yasiri, Mohammed Hashim Yasir; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Data on the frequency and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil of Tunisia are scanty. The present survey aimed to describe the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soils collected in Tunisia. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated using Vanbreuseghem's hair-baiting technique from 354 soil samples collected in 15 governorates of Tunisia and identified according to their morphology with further DNA and MALDI-TOF analysis when necessary. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 46.3 % of the samples from 14 governorates. Chrysosporium keratinophilum was the predominant species (30.5 %) followed by Microsporum gypseum (27.4 %). Other isolated species included C. tropicum (14.0 %), C. indicum (11.0 %), Chaetomium sp. (4.9 %), Arthroderma curreyi, Arthroderma cuniculi (3.7 % each), C. merdarium (3.1 %), Anixiopsis stercoraria, C. parvum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Auxarthron zuffianum (2.4 % each), Fusarium oxysporum, Aphanoascus verrucosus, Gymnascella dankaliensis (1.2 % each) and 12 other species (0.6 % each). Two to five distinct fungal species were associated with 11.5 % of the positive samples. Keratinophilic fungi were more frequently isolated in rural (54.8 %) than in urban (41.1 %) areas (p = 0.012). The highest (100 %) positive culture rate was noted in soil collected in stables. Keratinophilic fungi are frequent throughout Tunisian territory, particularly in soils with a high organic matter content that should be regarded as humans and animals mycoses reservoir. PMID:25690159

  19. Disseminated fungal infection in two species of captive sharks.

    PubMed

    Marancik, David P; Berliner, Aimee L; Cavin, Julie M; Clauss, Tonya M; Dove, Alistair D M; Sutton, Deanna A; Wickes, Brian L; Camus, Alvin C

    2011-12-01

    In this report, two cases of systemic mycosis in captive sharks are characterized. These cases were progressive and ultimately culminated in terminal disease. Paecilomyces lilacinus, an uncommon pathogen in human and veterinary medicine, was associated with areas of necrosis in the liver, heart, and gill in a great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran). Fungal growth was observed from samples of kidney, spleen, spinal fluid, and coelomic cavity swabs. Dual fungal infection by Exophiala pisciphila and Mucor circinelloides was diagnosed in a juvenile zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum). Both fungi were present in the liver, with more severe tissue destruction associated with E. pisciphila. E. pisciphila also produced significant necrosis in the spleen and gill, while M. circinelloides was associated with only minimal tissue changes in the heart. Fungal cultures from liver, kidney, and spleen were positive for both E. pisciphila and M. circinelloides. Identification of P. lilacinus and M. circinelloides was based on colonial and hyphal morphology. E. pisciphila was identified by sequence analysis of the 28S rRNA D1/D2 region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 18S and 28S rRNA subunit. These cases, and a lack of information in the literature, highlight the need for further research and diagnostic sampling to further characterize the host-pathogen interaction between elasmobranchs and fungi. PMID:22204064

  20. Bacterial and fungal taxon changes in soil microbial community composition induced by short-term biochar amendment in red oxidized loam soil.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liao; Cao, Lixiang; Zhang, Renduo

    2014-03-01

    To take full advantage of biochar as a soil amendment, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar addition on soil bacterial and fungal diversity and community composition. Incubation experiments with a forest soil (a red oxidized loam soil) with and without biochar amendment were conducted for 96 days. The culture-independent molecular method was utilized to analyze soil bacterial and fungal species after the incubation experiments. Results showed that bacteria and fungi responded differently to the biochar addition during the short-term soil incubation. Twenty four and 18 bacterial genara were observed in the biochar amended and unamended soils, respectively, whereas 11 and 8 fungal genera were observed in the biochar amended and unamended soils, respectively. Microbial taxa analysis indicated that the biochar amendment resulted in significant shifts in both bacterial and fungal taxa during the incubation period. The shift for bacteria occurred at the genus and phylum levels, while for fungi only at the genus level. Specific taxa, such as Actinobacteria of bacteria and Trichoderma and Paecilomyces of fungi, were enriched in the biochar amended soil. The results reveal a pronounced impact of biochar on soil microbial community composition and an enrichment of key bacterial and fungal taxa in the soil during the short time period. PMID:24136343

  1. An outbreak of fungal dermatitis and stomatitis in a free-ranging population of pigmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Cheatwood, Joseph L; Jacobson, Elliott R; May, Peter G; Farrell, Terence M; Homer, Bruce L; Samuelson, Don A; Kimbrough, James W

    2003-04-01

    Between September 1997 and March 1998, a severe skin, eye, and mouth disease was observed in a population of dusky pigmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri), at the Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge in Volusia County, Florida (USA). Three affected pigmy rattlesnakes were submitted for necropsy. All snakes had severe necrotizing and predominantly granulomatous dermatitis, stomatitis, and ophthalmitis, with involvement of the subadjacent musculature and other soft tissues. Numerous fungal hyphae were seen throughout tissue sections stained with periodic acid Schiff and Gomori's methenamine silver. Samples of lesions were cultured for bacteria and fungi. Based on hyphae and spore characteristics, four species of fungi were identified from culture: Sporothrix schenckii, Pestalotia pezizoides, Geotrichum candidum (Galactomyces geotrichum), and Paecilomyces sp. While no additional severely affected pigmy rattlesnakes were seen at the study site, a garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and a ribbon snake (Thamnophis sauritis) with similar lesions were found. In 1998 and 1999, 42 pigmy rattlesnakes with multifocal minimal to moderate subcutaneous masses were seen at the study site. Masses from six of these snakes were biopsied in the field. Hyphae morphologically similar to those seen in the severe cases were observed with fungal stains. Analysis of a database representing 10,727 captures in previous years was performed after the 1998 outbreak was recognized. From this analysis we determined that 59 snakes with clinical signs similar to those seen during the 1998 outbreak were documented between 1992 and 1997. This study represents the first documented report of a mycotic disease of free-ranging snakes. PMID:12910760

  2. Uranium phosphate biomineralization by fungi.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinjin; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gray, Nia; Ceci, Andrea; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-06-01

    Geoactive soil fungi were investigated for phosphatase-mediated uranium precipitation during growth on an organic phosphorus source. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus were grown on modified Czapek-Dox medium amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) as sole P source and uranium nitrate. Both organisms showed reduced growth on uranium-containing media but were able to extensively precipitate uranium and phosphorus-containing minerals on hyphal surfaces, and these were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as uranyl phosphate species, including potassium uranyl phosphate hydrate (KPUO6 .3H2 O), meta-ankoleite [(K1.7 Ba0.2 )(UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O], uranyl phosphate hydrate [(UO2 )3 (PO4 )2 .4H2 O], meta-ankoleite (K(UO2 )(PO4 ).3H2 O), uramphite (NH4 UO2 PO4 .3H2 O) and chernikovite [(H3 O)2 (UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O]. Some minerals with a morphology similar to bacterial hydrogen uranyl phosphate were detected on A. niger biomass. Geochemical modelling confirmed the complexity of uranium speciation, and the presence of meta-ankoleite, uramphite and uranyl phosphate hydrate between pH 3 and 8 closely matched the experimental data, with potassium as the dominant cation. We have therefore demonstrated that fungi can precipitate U-containing phosphate biominerals when grown with an organic source of P, with the hyphal matrix serving to localize the resultant uranium minerals. The findings throw further light on potential fungal roles in U and P biogeochemistry as well as the application of these mechanisms for element recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25580878

  3. Transplastomic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing multiple defence genes encoding protease inhibitors and chitinase display broad-spectrum resistance against insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Jane, Wann-Neng; He, Yong; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2014-05-01

    Plastid engineering provides several advantages for the next generation of transgenic technology, including the convenient use of transgene stacking and the generation of high expression levels of foreign proteins. With the goal of generating transplastomic plants with multiresistance against both phytopathogens and insects, a construct containing a monocistronic patterned gene stack was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plastids harbouring sweet potato sporamin, taro cystatin and chitinase from Paecilomyces javanicus. Transplastomic lines were screened and characterized by Southern/Northern/Western blot analysis for the confirmation of transgene integration and respective expression level. Immunogold localization analyses confirmed the high level of accumulation proteins that were specifically expressed in leaf and root plastids. Subsequent functional bioassays confirmed that the gene stacks conferred a high level of resistance against both insects and phytopathogens. Specifically, larva of Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua either died or exhibited growth retardation after ingesting transplastomic plant leaves. In addition, the inhibitory effects on both leaf spot diseases caused by Alternaria alternata and soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were markedly observed. Moreover, tolerance to abiotic stresses such as salt/osmotic stress was highly enhanced. The results confirmed that the simultaneous expression of sporamin, cystatin and chitinase conferred a broad spectrum of resistance. Conversely, the expression of single transgenes was not capable of conferring such resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an efficacious stacked combination of plastid-expressed defence genes which resulted in an engineered tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:24479648

  4. EFFECTS OF SOME BIOINSECTICIDES AND ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA L.).

    PubMed

    Öztürk, H E; Güven, Ö; Karaca, I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (4 strains) isolated from the Colorado potato beetle and the commercial biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi; Priority® (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), Nibortem® (Verticillium lecanii), Nostalgist® (Beauveria bassiana), Bio-Magic* (Metarhizium anisopliae), Bio-Nematon* (Paeciliomyces sp.) and plant extracts; Nimbedicine EC* (Azadiractin) were determined against Leptinotarsa decemlineata under laboratory conditions. An Imidacloprid active ingredient commercial insecticide was also used to compare the insecticidal activity and distilled water was used as control. The biological control agents were applied to 2nd-3rd larval instars, 4th larval instars and adults with spray and leaf dipping methods. Single concentration (10⁸ conidia/mL⁻¹) of entomopathogenic fungi and recommended dose of bioinsecticides were prepared for application. The number of dead insects were determined at 3, 5, and 7 days after applications. Experiments were conducted at 25 ±1° C and 60% ± 5 relative humidity with 16:8 h light: dark conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi and bioinsecticides were found to be more effective on larval stage than 4th larval instars and adults. In spray methods, Bio-Magic®, Nibortem®, and Nostalgist® caused 96.4%, 92.9% and 82.1% mortality on 2nd larval instars and 20%, 36.7% and 33.3% mortality on adults, respectively. All local fungal isolates (B. bassiana) applied on 2nd and 4th larval instars caused 100% mortality. Adults showed 58.6-86.2% mortality. PMID:27145587

  5. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  6. Impact of biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a genetically modified derivative on the diversity of culturable fungi in the cucumber rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Girlanda, M; Perotto, S; Moenne-Loccoz, Y; Bergero, R; Lazzari, A; Defago, G; Bonfante, P; Luppi, A M

    2001-04-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  7. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  8. Ecology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in swimming pools and polluted and unpolluted streams.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Khaleel, Tayseer Kh M; Jamous, Rana M

    2002-01-01

    The biodiversity and richness of keratinophilic fungal communities including dermatophytes were assessed in three stream sites and three swimming pools in the Nablus district in Palestine, using hair baiting (HBT) and surface dilution plate (SDP) techniques, over 8- and 6-month periods, respectively. The effect of wastewater effluent and selected ecological factors on these fungi in relation to species diversity and population densities were also considered. Fifty keratinophilic fungal species were recovered from the aquatic habitats studied, of which 42 were recovered from stream sites and 22 from swimming pools. Of these fungi 6 were either dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) or dermatophyte related species (Chrysosporium merdarium, Ch. tropicum, Ch. keratinophilum and T. terrestre). The most frequently isolated species in the three pools were Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides, using Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA). The most abundant species were Acr. strictum, and Aspergillus flavus. However, only 4 species were isolated using the SDA medium amended with 5-flurocytosine (5-FC). The most frequent and abundant species in the three stream sites using SDA medium were Geotricum candidum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. The most frequent species in the three sites using the 5-FC medium, was Paecilomyces lilacinus. Using HBT, the most abundant and frequent species in the three stream sites were G. candidum, and Pa. lilacinus, on SDA medium, and Pa. lilacinus, and Gliocladium nigrovirens on the 5-FC medium. The 5-FC medium was more suitable for the isolation of dermatophytes and closely related species than the SDA medium; 6 were recovered on 5-FC, whereas only one on the SDA medium. Variation in the levels of keratinophilic fungal populations from the three stream sites sampled 5 times over an 8-month period, followed comparable fluctuation patterns. Wastewater affected fungal population densities with the highest

  9. Topical voriconazole therapy of Purpureocillium lilacinum keratitis that occurred in disposable soft contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Yamada, Norihiro; Fukuchi, Mariko; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe 2 cases of keratitis caused by Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) that occurred in disposable contact lens users, which were successfully treated with topical voriconazole. Case 1 was a healthy 44-year-old woman, who wore weekly disposable contact lenses and had developed a superficial corneal infection in her right eye. For diagnosis, corneal scraping and molecular identification of the cultured pathogen were performed. A corneal smear revealed the presence of fungi. The pathogen was identified as P. lilacinum by traditional morphological identification of fungal culture, and this identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. Therapy with topical fluconazole, topical pimaricin (natamycin), and oral itraconazole were ineffective. Topical voriconazole showed a significant effect, and the keratitis was successfully treated. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman with bilateral recurrent peripheral corneal ulcers by meibomian gland dysfunction, who used therapeutic bandage contact lenses on her left eye. However, a corneal abscess with hypopyon occurred in the eye after 3 months. The microbial smear examination showed the presence of fungi and the fungal culture, and the DNA sequence of ITS region revealed that the causative agent was P. lilacinum. The susceptibility testing against antifungal agents showed that voriconazole was effective. The lesion improved gradually by topical voriconazole. As a conclusion, P. lilacinum keratitis can occur in disposable soft contact lens wearer. Early and accurate detection of the pathogenic organism is essential. Topical voriconazole was effective against P. lilacinum keratitis. PMID:24974133

  10. Characterization of Airborne Molds, Endotoxins, and Glucans in Homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita▿

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Carol Y.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Chew, Ginger L.; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H.; Brown, Clive

    2007-01-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean = 3,700 CFU/m3) (P = 0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans were 1.7 μg/m3 and 0.9 μg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 μg/m3 for (1→3,1→6)-β-d-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States. PMID:17209066

  11. Atrazine degradation by fungal co-culture enzyme extracts under different soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2016-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the atrazine degradation by fungal enzyme extracts (FEEs) in a clay-loam soil microcosm contaminated at field application rate (5 μg g(-1)) and to study the influence of different soil microcosm conditions, including the effect of soil sterilization, water holding capacity, soil pH and type of FEEs used in atrazine degradation through a 2(4) factorial experimental design. The Trametes maxima-Paecilomyces carneus co-culture extract contained more laccase activity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content (laccase = 18956.0 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 6.2 mg L(-1)) than the T. maxima monoculture extract (laccase = 12866.7 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 4.0 mg L(-1)). Both extracts were able to degrade atrazine at 100%; however, the T. maxima monoculture extract (0.32 h) achieved a lower half-degradation time than its co-culture with P. carneus (1.2 h). The FEE type (p = 0.03) and soil pH (p = 0.01) significantly affected atrazine degradation. The best degradation rate was achieved by the T. maxima monoculture extract in an acid soil (pH = 4.86). This study demonstrated that both the monoculture extracts of the native strain T. maxima and its co-culture with P. carneus can efficiently and quickly degrade atrazine in clay-loam soils. PMID:26830051

  12. Mold and Endotoxin Levels in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Project of Homes in New Orleans Undergoing Renovation

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ginger L.; Wilson, Jonathan; Rabito, Felicia A.; Grimsley, Faye; Iqbal, Shahed; Reponen, Tiina; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Morley, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    Background After Hurricane Katrina, many New Orleans homes remained flooded for weeks, promoting heavy microbial growth. Objectives A small demonstration project was conducted November 2005–January 2006 aiming to recommend safe remediation techniques and safe levels of worker protection, and to characterize airborne mold and endotoxin throughout cleanup. Methods Three houses with floodwater lines between 0.3 and 2 m underwent intervention, including disposal of damaged furnishings and drywall, cleaning surfaces, drying remaining structure, and treatment with a biostatic agent. We measured indoor and outdoor bioaerosols before, during, and after intervention. Samples were analyzed for fungi [culture, spore analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and endotoxin. In one house, real-time particle counts were also assessed, and respirator-efficiency testing was performed to establish workplace protection factors (WPF). Results At baseline, culturable mold ranged from 22,000 to 515,000 colony-forming units/m3, spore counts ranged from 82,000 to 630,000 spores/m3, and endotoxin ranged from 17 to 139 endotoxin units/m3. Culture, spore analysis, and PCR indicated that Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces predominated. After intervention, levels of mold and endotoxin were generally lower (sometimes, orders of magnitude). The average WPF against fungal spores for elastomeric respirators was higher than for the N-95 respirators. Conclusions During baseline and intervention, mold and endotoxin levels were similar to those found in agricultural environments. We strongly recommend that those entering, cleaning, and repairing flood-damaged homes wear respirators at least as protective as elastomeric respirators. Recommendations based on this demonstration will benefit those involved in the current cleanup activities and will inform efforts to respond to future disasters. PMID:17185280

  13. Occurrence of microscopic fungi and mycotoxins in conserved high moisture corn from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Biro, Daniel; Juracek, Miroslav; Kacaniova, Miroslava; Simko, Milan; Galik, Branislav; Michalkova, Jaroslava; Gyongyova, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Contamination by microscopic fungi and mycotoxins in high moisture corn (HMC) silages conserved by chemical additives was investigated. The samples were examined for the concentration and identification of microscopic fungi able to grow on Malt and Czapek-Dox agar and for mycotoxins content (deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, zearalenone and total aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins) by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The average fungal counts were 3.37 +- 2.52 log cfu/g in control HMC silages, 2.91 +- 0.51 log cfu/g in HMC silages treated by organic salts and inorganic salt, 3.62 +- 1.46 log cfu/g in HMC ensiled with organic acids and 3.49 +- 1.12 log cfu/g of HMC silages treated by organic acids along with organic salt. In this study, 740 isolates belonging to 10 fungal species representing 9 genera were recovered. The genera of microscopic fungi most frequently found in HMC were Penicillium (56.49 percentages) and Paecilomyces (32.16 percentages). T-2 toxin was the secondary metabolite with the highest concentration ranging from 179.13 +- 3.04 to 249.40 +- 24.69 micrograms/kg, followed by deoxynivalenol and total fumonisins. The highest mean of deoxynivalenol level was 0.13 +- 0.02 mg/kg and concentration of total fumonisins ranged from 20.13 +- 2.53 to 90.33 +- 10.35 micrograms/kg. This study indicated that application of chemical additives containing organic acids, organic salts and inorganic salt was sufficient to inhibit mycotoxins formation. The use of calcium formiate, sodium benzoate and sodium nitrite resulted in high hygienic quality of HMC silages and significantly reduced the concentration of zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and total ochratoxins and fumonisins. PMID:20047255

  14. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants. PMID:15151303

  15. Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl film

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, W.T.; Davidson, P.M.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30/sup 0/C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources.

  16. Studies on PVA pectin cryogels containing crosslinked enzyme aggregates of keratinase.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Yanina N; Cavello, Ivana; Cavalitto, Sebastián; Illanes, Andres; Castro, Guillermo R

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol-pectin (PVA-P) films containing enrofloxacin and keratinase were developed to treat wounds and scars produced by burns and skin injuries. However, in order to prevent enzyme inactivation at the interface between the patch and the scars, crosslinked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) from a crude extract of keratinase produced by Paecilomyces lilacinus (LPSC#876) were synthesized by precipitation with acetone and crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. Soluble vs. CLEA keratinase (K-CLEA) activities were tested in 59% (v/v) hydrophobic (isobutanol and n-hexane) and hydrophilic (acetone and dimethylsulfoxide) solvents mixtures. K-CLEA activity was 1.4, 1.7 and 6.6 times higher in acetone, n-hexane and isobutanol than the soluble enzyme at 37 °C after 1 h of incubation, respectively. K-CLEA showed at least 45% of enzyme residual activity in the 40-65 °C range, meanwhile the soluble biocatalyst was fully inactivated at 65 °C after 1h incubation. Also, the soluble enzyme was completely inactivated after 12 h at pH 7.4 and 45 °C, even though K-CLEA retained full activity. The soluble keratinase was completely inactivated at 37 °C after storage in buffer solution (pH 7.4) for 2 months, meanwhile K-CLEAs kept 51% of their activity. K-CLEA loaded into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA-P cryogels showed six times lower release rate compared to the soluble keratinase at skin pH (5.5). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis showed that K-CLEA bound to pectin rather than to PVA in the PVA-P matrix. PMID:24657614

  17. Characterization of chlordecone-tolerant fungal populations isolated from long-term polluted tropical volcanic soil in the French West Indies.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Chloé; Devers, Marion; Crouzet, Olivier; Heraud, Cécile; Steinberg, Christian; Mougin, Christian; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-04-01

    The insecticide chlordecone is a contaminant found in most of the banana plantations in the French West Indies. This study aims to search for fungal populations able to grow on it. An Andosol heavily contaminated with chlordecone, perfused for 1 year in a soil-charcoal system, was used to conduct enrichment cultures. A total of 103 fungal strains able to grow on chlordecone-mineral salt medium were isolated, purified, and deposited in the MIAE collection (Microorganismes d'Intérêt Agro-Environnemental, UMR Agroécologie, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Dijon, France). Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed that all isolated strains belonged to the Ascomycota phylum and gathered in 11 genera: Metacordyceps, Cordyceps, Pochonia, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Ophiocordyceps, Purpureocillium, Bionectria, Penicillium, and Aspergillus. Among predominant species, only one isolate, Fusarium oxysporum MIAE01197, was able to grow in a liquid culture medium that contained chlordecone as sole carbon source. Chlordecone increased F. oxysporum MIAE01197 growth rate, attesting for its tolerance to this organochlorine. Moreover, F. oxysporum MIAE01197 exhibited a higher EC50 value than the reference strain F. oxysporum MIAE00047. This further suggests its adaptation to chlordecone tolerance up to 29.2 mg l(-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that 40 % of chlordecone was dissipated in F. oxysporum MIAE01197 suspension culture. No chlordecone metabolite was detected by GC-MS. However, weak amount of (14)CO2 evolved from (14)C10-chlordecone and (14)C10-metabolites were observed. Sorption of (14)C10-chlordecone onto fungal biomass followed a linear relationship (r (2) = 0.99) suggesting that it may also account for chlordecone dissipation in F. oxysporum MIAE01197 culture. PMID:23872892

  18. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  19. Activity of oil-formulated conidia of the fungal entomopathogens Nomuraea rileyi and Isaria tenuipes against lepidopterous larvae.

    PubMed

    Vega-Aquino, Paulina; Sanchez-Peña, Sergio; Blanco, Carlos A

    2010-03-01

    The fungi Nomuraea rileyi and Isaria tenuipes (=Paecilomyces tenuipes) are ecologically obligate, widespread pathogens of lepidopterans. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the activity of oil-suspended conidia of N. rileyi and I. tenuipes against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea, and Heliothis virescens. The tests consisted of two bioassay sets. In the first set, conidia of N. rileyi and I. tenuipes were suspended in water+Tween 80, and in vegetable (canola, soybean) and mineral (proprietary mixture of alkanes and cyclic paraffins) oils, and tested against S. frugiperda. Both fungi were highly compatible with oils and caused mortalities near 100% in all oil treatments; the lowest LT(50) values were 4.7 days for N. rileyi in mineral oil and 6.0 days for I. tenuipes in soybean oil. The second set included additional fungal strains and oil formulations (mineral, canola, sunflower, olive and peanut oils) tested against larvae of S. exigua, S. frugiperda, H. zea and H. virescens. The highest activity was that of N. rileyi in mineral oil against Spodoptera spp., with LT(50) values of 2.5 days (strain ARSEF 135) and 3 days (strain ARSEF 762) respectively. For two different isolates of I. tenuipes the lowest LT(50) values (5.1-5.6 days respectively) were obtained with mineral oil formulations against Spodoptera spp. and H. zea respectively. Additionally, we tested both fungi against prepupae of all four lepidopteran species. Mortalities with I. tenuipes against S. exigua ranged from 90% to 100% (strains ARSEF 2488 and 4096); N. rileyi caused 95% mortality on S. frugiperda. The activity of formulations depended on host species and oil used; Spodoptera spp. was more susceptible to these fungi than Heliothis and Helicoverpa. The results indicate that a comprehensive evaluation of these entomopathogens in agriculture using oil application technologies is advisable, particularly, in organic and sustainable settings. PMID:20025883

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fungal Endophyte Communities Isolated from Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    PubMed Central

    Ek-Ramos, María J.; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U.; Antwi, Josephine B.; Kalns, Lauren L.; Morgan, Gaylon D.; Kerns, David L.; Sword, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  1. Study of the production of alkaline keratinases in submerged cultures as an alternative for solid waste treatment generated in leather technology.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Chesini, Mariana; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2013-01-01

    Six nonpathogenic fungal strains isolated from alkaline soils of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus sidowii, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Neurospora tetrasperma, Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), and Westerdikella dispersa) were tested for their ability to produce keratinolytic enzymes. Strains were grown on feather meal agar as well as in solid-state and submerged cultures, using a basal mineral medium and "hair waste" as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. All the tested fungi grew on feather meal agar, but only three of them were capable of hydrolyzing keratin, producing clear zones. Among these strains, P. lilacinum produced the highest proteolytic and keratinolytic activities, both in solid-state and submerged fermentations. The medium composition and culture conditions for the keratinases production by P. lilacinum were optimized. Addition of glucose (5 g/l) and yeast extract (2.23 g/l) to the basal hair medium increased keratinases production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for the enzyme production were 28℃ and 6.0, respectively. A beneficial effect was observed when the original concentration of four metal ions, present in the basal mineral medium, was reduced up to 1:10. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 15.96 Uc/ml in the optimal hair medium; this value was about 6.5-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. These results suggest that keratinases from P. lilacinum can be useful for biotechnological purposes such as biodegradation (or bioconversion) of hair waste, leading to a reduction of the environmental pollution caused by leather technology with the concomitant production of proteolytic enzymes and protein hydrolyzates. PMID:23711525

  2. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  3. Presence of Actinobacterial and Fungal Communities in Clean and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Subsurface Soil

    PubMed Central

    Björklöf, Katarina; Karlsson, Sanja; Frostegård, Åsa; Jørgensen, Kirsten S

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the microbial communities adapted to soil environments contaminated with aged complex hydrocarbon mixtures, especially in the subsurface soil layers. In this work we studied the microbial communities in two different soil profiles down to the depth of 7 m which originated from a 30-year-old site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) and from a clean site next to the contaminated site. The concentration of oxygen in the contaminated soil profile was strongly reduced in soil layers below 1 m depth but not in the clean soil profile. Total microbial biomass and community composition was analyzed by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) measurements. The diversity of fungi and actinobacteria was investigated more in detail by construction of rDNA-based clone libraries. The results revealed that there was a significant and diverse microbial community in subsoils at depth below 2 m, also in conditions where oxygen was limiting. The diversity of actinobacteria was different in the two soil profiles; the contaminated soil profile was dominated by Mycobacterium -related sequences whereas sequences from the clean soil samples were related to other, generally uncultured organisms, some of which may represent two new subclasses of actinobacteria. One dominating fungal sequence which matched with the ascomycotes Acremonium sp. and Paecilomyces sp. was identified both in clean and in contaminated soil profiles. Thus, although the relative amounts of fungi and actinobacteria in these microbial communities were highest in the upper soil layers, many representatives from these groups were found in hydrocarbon contaminated subsoils even under oxygen limited conditions. PMID:19543551

  4. Characterization of airborne molds, endotoxins, and glucans in homes in New Orleans after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Rao, Carol Y; Riggs, Margaret A; Chew, Ginger L; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Van Sickle, David; Dunn, Kevin H; Brown, Clive

    2007-03-01

    In August and September 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita caused breeches in the New Orleans, LA, levee system, resulting in catastrophic flooding. The city remained flooded for several weeks, leading to extraordinary mold growth in homes. To characterize the potential risks of mold exposures, we measured airborne molds and markers of molds and bacteria in New Orleans area homes. In October 2005, we collected air samples from 5 mildly water-damaged houses, 15 moderately to heavily water-damaged houses, and 11 outdoor locations. The air filters were analyzed for culturable fungi, spores, (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans, and endotoxins. Culturable fungi were significantly higher in the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses (geometric mean=67,000 CFU/m3) than in the mildly water-damaged houses (geometric mean=3,700 CFU/m3) (P=0.02). The predominant molds found were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma, and Paecilomyces. The indoor and outdoor geometric means for endotoxins were 22.3 endotoxin units (EU)/m3 and 10.5 EU/m3, respectively, and for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans were 1.7 microg/m3 and 0.9 microg/m3, respectively. In the moderately/heavily water-damaged houses, the geometric means were 31.3 EU/m3 for endotoxins and 1.8 microg/m3 for (1-->3,1-->6)-beta-D-glucans. Molds, endotoxins, and fungal glucans were detected in the environment after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans at concentrations that have been associated with health effects. The species and concentrations were different from those previously reported for non-water-damaged buildings in the southeastern United States. PMID:17209066

  5. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal aerosols during the autumn haze days in Xi'an, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanpeng; Fu, Honglei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Meng, Qinglong; Wang, Wenke

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, haze pollution has become one of the most critical environmental issues in Xi'an, China, with particular matter (PM) being one of the top pollutants. As an important fraction of PM, bioaerosols may have adverse effects on air quality and human health. In this study, to better understand the characteristics of such biological aerosols, airborne microbial samples were collected by using an Andersen six-stage sampler in Xi'an from October 8th to 22nd, 2014. The concentration, size distribution and genera of airborne viable bacteria and fungi were comparably investigated during the haze days and non-haze days. Correlations of bioaerosol levels with meteorological parameters and PM concentrations were also examined. The results showed that the daily average concentrations of airborne viable bacteria and fungi during the haze days, 1102.4-1736.5 and 1466.2-1703.9 CFU/m3, respectively, were not only much higher than those during the non-haze days, but also exceeded the recommended permissible limit values. Comparing to size distributions during the non-haze days, slightly different patterns for bacterial aerosols and similar single-peak distribution pattern for fungal aerosols were observed during the haze days. Moreover, more allergic and infectious genera (e.g. Neisseria, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces) in bioaerosols were identified during the haze days than during non-haze days. The present results reveal that bioaerosols may have more significant effects on public health and urban air quality during the haze days than during non-haze days.

  6. Validation of a novel real-time PCR for detecting Rasamsonia argillacea species complex in respiratory secretions from cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, J; Giraud, S; Schmidt, D; Sedlacek, L; Hamprecht, A; Houbraken, J; Meis, J F; Bouchara, J P; Buer, J; Rath, P-M

    2014-01-01

    Members of the recently introduced fungal genus Rasamsonia (formerly included in the Geosmithia genus) have been described as emerging pathogens in immunosuppressed hosts or patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Rasamsonia species have often been misidentified as Penicillium or Paecilomyces because of similar morphological characteristics. We validated a commercially available real-time PCR assay (Primerdesign™, UK) for accurate detection of species from the Rasamsonia argillacea complex. First, we tested this assay with a collection of 74 reference strains and clinical isolates and then compared the PCR with cultures of 234 respiratory samples from 152 patients with CF from two University Hospitals in Germany and France. The assay reliably detected the three main species within the Rasamsonia argillacea species complex (R. argillacea, R. piperina, R. aegroticola), which are typically encountered in CF patients. The limit of DNA detection was between 0.01 and 1 pg/μL. Analysis of the DNA extracts from respiratory specimens of CF patients revealed that four out of the 153 patients studied (2.6%) were colonized with R. argillacea species complex. Two species from the R. argillacea complex grew in the parallel cultures from the same patients. In one patient the PCR was positive 5 months before culture. The real-time PCR assay is a sensitive and specific method for detecting the three most important species of the R. argillacea species complex encountered in the CF context. Detection of these emerging pathogens in respiratory secretions from CF patients by this novel assay may increase our understanding of the occurrence and epidemiology of the R. argillacea species complex. PMID:25356347

  7. Laboratory evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea against Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Zemek, R; Hussein, H M; Prenerová, E

    2012-01-01

    Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is potentially useful for the biological control of economically important agricultural and forest insect pests. We evaluated efficacy of two strains of this entomopathogenic fungus against last instar larvae and pupae of Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. The first strain was Apopka 97 which is an active ingredient of commercial biopesticide PreFeRal WG (Biobest, Belgium). The second strain was isolated from Cameraria ohridella and is currently deposited under number CCM 8367 as a patent culture in the Czech Collection of Microorganisms in Brno. Blastospores of both strains were obtained after 120 hours submerged cultivation in grow media using orbital shaker. The concentration of blastospores was adjusted to 5 x 10(7) spores/ml of suspension. Soaking agent Tween 80 was added to the suspension at concentration 0.02%. Lethal effects of both fungal strains on S. littoralis were evaluated using standard dip test. Treated insects were individually placed into plastic Petri dishes (diam. 9 cm) and kept at constant laboratory conditions (temperature 23 degrees C, R.H. approx. 100%, 16L:8D photoperiod). Virulence of the strains was expressed as percentages of cumulative daily mortality corrected for mortality in the control variant. Obtained results revealed higher virulence of CCM 8367 blastospores to the last instar larvae of S. littoralis (93.1% mortality) on the 7th day after the treatment compared to Apopka 97 (65.5% mortality). Even more obvious difference was found in pupae, where corrected mortality of CCM 8367-treated pupae was 80.0% while mortality in Apopka 97-treated pupae reached only 3.3% on the 8th day after the treatment. We can conclude that the strain I. fumosorosea CCM 8367 has strong insecticidal effects on S. littoralis and has a potential to be implemented as a novel biocontrol agent. PMID:23885438

  8. Impact of Biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a Genetically Modified Derivative on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi in the Cucumber Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Girlanda, M.; Perotto, S.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Bergero, R.; Lazzari, A.; Defago, G.; Bonfante, P.; Luppi, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  9. Diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales in soil and phylloplanes of five Mediterranean cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Jurado, Inmaculada; Fernández-Bravo, María; Campos, Carlos; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    The diversity of entomopathogenic Hypocreales from the soil and phylloplanes in five Mediterranean cropping systems with different degrees of management [organic olive orchard conventional olive orchard, holm oak reforestation, holm oak dehesa (a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system), and sunflower plantation] was studied during four seasons. A total of 697 entomopathogenic fungal isolates were obtained from 272 soil samples, 1608 crop phylloplane samples and 1368 weed phylloplane samples. The following nine species were identified: Beauveria amorpha, B. bassiana, B. pseudobassiana, B. varroae, Metarhizium brunneum, M. guizhoense, M. robertsii, Paecilomyces marquandii and lilacinum using EF-1α gene sequences. All the fungal entomopathogenic species were found in both the soil and phylloplane samples, with the exception of M. robertsii, which was only isolated from the soil. The species richness, diversity (Shannon-Wiener index) and evenness (Pielou index) were calculated for each cropping system, yielding the following species ranking, which was correlated with the crop management intensity: holm oak reforestation>organic olive orchard>conventional olive orchard>holm oak dehesa>sunflower plantation. The number of fungal species isolated was similar in both phylloplane habitats and dissimilar between the soil and the crop phylloplane habitats. The ISSR analysis revealed high genotypic diversity among the B. bassiana isolates on the neighbourhood scale, and the isolates were clustered according to the habitat. These results suggest that the entomopathogenic Hypocreales in the phylloplane could result from the dispersal of fungal propagules from the soil, which might be their habitat of origin; a few isolates, including EABb 09/28-Fil of Beauveria bassiana, inhabit only the phylloplane. PMID:26146223

  10. Screening for Indian isolates of egg-parasitic fungi for use in biological control of fascioliasis and amphistomiasis in ruminant livestock.

    PubMed

    De, S; Sanyal, P K; Sarkar, A K; Patel, N K; Pal, S; Mandal, S C

    2008-09-01

    Wild isolates of the egg-parasitic fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium, obtained from the organic environment of Durg, Chhattisgarh, India, were subjected to screening for in vitro growth using different media types, range of incubation temperature and pH, and their predatory activity to the eggs of Fasciola gigantica and Gigantocotyle explanatum. Maximum growth of P. lilacinus was obtained in corn-meal agar compared to any other media types. The preferred medium for growth of V. chlamydosporium was corn-meal agar, followed by potato-dextrose agar. After initial growth for 16 h of incubation, no growth was observed in water agar for both the fungi. Six different temperatures--4 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 26 degrees C, 34 degrees C and 40 degrees C--were used to observe growth profiles of the fungi in corn-meal agar medium. While no and very little growth of P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium was observed at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, growth profiles of both the fungi were optimal at 26-40 degrees C. A range of pH (pH 4-8) supported growth of both P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium. Full-grown plates of the fungi baited with viable eggs of F. gigantica and G. explanatum revealed that V. chlamydosporium was more vigorous in its egg-parasitic ability compared to P. lilacinus. Distortion of the eggs started on day 2-3 of egg baiting in culture plates of V. chlamydosporium, with complete distortion by day 7. On the contrary, P. lilacinus exhibited very limited egg-parasitic ability and some of the baited eggs even showed development of miracidia. PMID:18462555

  11. THE ROLE FUNGI AND YEAST IN MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.; Abe, M.; Johnson, B.; Simpson, W.; Mckinsey, P.

    2010-01-26

    Fungi and yeast have been characterized as important components in the bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil and water including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); however, research into their ability to metabolize these compounds in extreme environments has been limited. In this work forty-three fungi and yeasts were isolated from a PAH-contaminated sludge waste lagoon in Poland. The lagoon was part of a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study where natural reduction of PAHs and associated toxicity over time in non-disturbed areas of the sludge lagoon indicated MNA activity. The microorganisms were initially isolated on minimal medium containing naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. Fungal isolates were then maintained on MEA and identified based on microscopic examination and BIOLOG{reg_sign}. The analysis identified several of the fungal isolates as belonging to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Aspergillus, and Eupenicillium. Yeasts included Candida parapsilosis and C. fluvialitis. Further microbial characterization revealed that several isolates were capable of rowing on acidified media of pH 4, 3, and 2.5. Over twenty percent of the fungi demonstrated growth as low as pH 2.5. Of the 43 isolates examined, 24 isolates exhibited growth at 5 C. Nine of the fungal isolates exhibiting growth at 5 C were then examined for metabolic activity using a respirometer testing metabolic activity at pH 3. Microcosm studies confirmed the growth of the fungi on PAH contaminated sediment as the sole carbon and energy source with elevated metabolic rates indicating evidence of MNA. Our findings suggest that many of the Poland fungal isolates may be of value in the bioremediation processes in acidic waste sites in northern climates typical of Northern Europe.

  12. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2002, 15 wells and four surface water sites were sampled, and in September 2002, those same wells and sites plus four additional surface sites were sampled in five parishes of northwestern Louisiana. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to select residential water wells for sampling. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically), and metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and evidence of leptospiral bacterial presence. A polymerase chain reaction protocol was optimized for detection of pathogenic leptospires, and the sensitivity of the assay was determined. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and the incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the overall number of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and thirteen chemical elements (As, B, Br, Cl, Cr, F, Li, Na, P, Rb, Se, Sr, W) from the well water as compared to the controls. Among the species of fungi from the total of 136 isolates were 12 Penicillium spp., at least two Aspergillus spp., a number of other genera (Alternaria sp., Eupenicillium lapidosum, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum sp., Trichoderma sp., Paecilomyces sp., Chrysosporium sp., Chloridium sp.), and Zygomycetes, and Coelmycetes -- some of which are known mycotoxin producers. The two control wells yielded a mean of 6.5 (SD = 3.5355) individual isolates, while the mean number of isolates from all other sites was 7.6 (SD = 4.4866). Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was

  13. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  14. Improved sanguinarine production via biotic and abiotic elicitations and precursor feeding in cell suspensions of latex-less variety of Papaver somniferum with their gene expression studies and upscaling in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay K; Ghosh, Sumit; Shanker, Karuna; Kalra, Alok

    2014-11-01

    Elicitors play an important role in challenging the plant defense system through plant-environment interaction and thus altering the secondary metabolite production. Culture filtrates of four endophytic fungi, namely, Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus niveoglaucus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Trichoderma harzianum were tested on embryogenic cell suspensions of latex-less Papaver somniferum in dose-dependent kinetics. Besides this, abiotic elicitors salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide were also applied for improved sanguinarine production. Maximum biomass accumulation (growth index (GI) = 293.50 ± 14.82) and sanguinarine production (0.090 ± 0.008 % dry wt.) were registered by addition of 3.3 % v/v T. harzanium culture filtrate. Interestingly, it was further enhanced (GI = 323.40 ± 25.30; 0.105 ± 0.008 % dry wt.) when T. harzanium culture filtrate was employed along with 50 μM shikimate. This was also supported by real-time (RT) (qPCR), where 8-9-fold increase in cheilanthifoline synthase (CFS), stylopine synthase (STS), tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-methyltransferase (TNMT), and protopine 6-hydroxylase (P6H) transcripts was observed. Among abiotic elicitors, while hydrogen peroxide and carbon dioxide registered low level of sanguinarine accumulation, maximum sanguinarine content was detected by 250 μM salicylic acid (0.058 ± 0.003 % dry wt.; GI = 172.75 ± 13.40). RT (qPCR) also confirms the downregulation of sanguinarine pathway on CO2 supplementation. Various parameters ranging from agitation speed (70 rpm), impeller type (marine), media volume (2 l), inoculum weight (100 g), and culture duration (9 days) were optimized during upscaling in 5-l stirred tank bioreactor to obtain maximum sanguinarine production (GI = 434.00; 0.119 ± 0.070 % dry wt.). Addition of 3.3 % v/v T. harzanium culture filtrate and 50-μM shikimate was done on the 6th day of bioreactor run. PMID:24677097

  15. Molecular characterization of microbial communities and quantification of Mycobacterium immunogenum in metal removal fluids and their associated biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfeng; Franzblau, Alfred; Xi, Chuanwu

    2016-03-01

    A number of human health effects have been associated with exposure to metal removal fluids (MRFs). Multiple lines of research suggest that a newly identified organism, Mycobacterium immunogenum (MI), appears to have an etiologic role in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in case of MRFs exposed workers. However, our knowledge of this organism, other possible causative agents (e.g., Pseudomonads), and the microbial ecology of MRFs in general, is limited. In this study, culture-based methods and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene clone library approach were used to characterize microbial communities in MRF bulk fluid and associated biofilm samples collected from fluid systems in an automobile engine plant. PCR amplification data using universal primers indicate that all samples had bacterial and fungal contaminated. Five among 15 samples formed colonies on the Mycobacteria agar 7H9 suggesting the likely presence of Mycobacteria in these five samples. This observation was confirmed with PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment using Mycobacteria specific primers. Two additional samples, Biofilm-1 and Biofilm-3, were positive in PCR amplification for Mycobacteria, yet no colonies formed on the 7H9 cultivation agar plates. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the abundance of M. immunogenum in these samples, and the data showed that the copies of M. immunogenum 16S rRNA gene in the samples ranges from 4.33 × 10(4) copy/ml to 4.61 × 10(7) copy/ml. Clone library analysis revealed that Paecilomyces sp. and Acremonium sp. and Acremonium-like were dominant fungi in MRF samples. Various bacterial species from the major phylum of proteobacteria were found and Pseudomonas is the dominant bacterial genus in these samples. Mycobacteria (more specifically MI) were found in all biofilm samples, including biofilms collected from inside the MRF systems and from adjacent environmental surfaces, suggesting that biofilms may play an important role in microbial ecology in MRFs

  16. Pattern of onychomycosis--a RIMS study.

    PubMed

    Pukhrambam, Pratita Devi; Devi, Kh Ranjana; Singh, Ng Brajachand

    2011-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or non-dermatophytes moulds. In this study, 500 patients suspected of having onychomycosis reffered from the out patient department (OPD), Dermatology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) Hospital Imphal Manipur during the period from January 2007 to December 2008 were processed in the Department of Microbiology RIMS. Nail clippings or scrapings depending on the variety of onychomycosis were collected with sterile blades under all aseptic measures. Specimens were put up for 10% KOH mount, fungal cultures on two sets of SDA (Sabouraud's dextrose agar) incorporated with antibiotics and lactophenol cotton blue preparation (LCB) from the cultures and examined microscopically. Slide cultures were also put up if necessary. Out of 500 samples processed, a total of 444 (88.8%) were positive for the various fungi. The positive fungi were dermatophytes 258 (58.1%), non-dermatophytes 139 (31.3%), yeasts and yeast-like 17 (3.8%) and mixed fungal isolates 30 (6.7%). Of the 230 males and 270 females studied,193 (83.9%) males and 251 (92.9%) females respectively were positive for various fungi causing onychomycosis. Maximum number of suspected cases were in the age group of 21-30 years. Among the dermatophytes, Trichophyton species (spp.) 250 (50%) was the commonest isolate followed by Epidermophyton spp. 8 (1.6%). Among the non-dermatophytes, Aspergillus spp. 70 (14%) was the commonest followed by Penicillium spp. 24 (4.8%), Acremonium spp. 9 (1.8%), Fusarium spp. 8 (1.6%), Curvularia spp. 7 (1.4%), Alternaria spp. 5 (1%), Scopulariopsis spp. 4 (0.8%), Cladosporium spp. 4 (0.8%), Nigrospora spp. 2 (0.4%), Mucor spp. 1 (0.2%), Paecilomyces spp. 1 (0.2%), Pseudallescheria spp. (0.2%), Rhizopus spp. 1 (0.2%), Verticillium spp. 1 (0.2%), Exophiala jeanselmei 1 (0.2%). Among the yeast and yeast-like i.e. Candida spp. 15, Geotrichum spp. 1, Rhodotorula spp. 1 were 17 (3.8%), mixed fungal isolates 30

  17. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (<3 MPN g(-1)) and the helminths were reduced to ≤5 eggs/2 g during the process. The competition for nutrients and the presence of suppressive fungi of the genera Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class

  18. Cork taint of wines: role of the filamentous fungi isolated from cork in the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole by o methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; López-Ocaña, Laura; López-Coronado, José Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; Martínez, María Jesús; Larriba, Germán; Coque, Juan-José R

    2002-12-01

    Cork taint is a musty or moldy off-odor in wine mainly caused by 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). We examined the role of 14 fungal strains isolated from cork samples in the production of 2,4,6-TCA by O methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The fungal strains isolated belong to the genera Penicillium (four isolates); Trichoderma (two isolates); and Acremonium, Chrysonilia, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, and Verticillium (one isolate each). Eleven of these strains could produce 2,4,6-TCA when they were grown directly on cork in the presence of 2,4,6-TCP. The highest levels of bioconversion were carried out by the Trichoderma and Fusarium strains. One strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum could also efficiently produce 2,4,6-TCA in liquid medium. However, no detectable levels of 2,4,6-TCA production by this strain could be detected on cork when putative precursors other than 2,4,6-TCP, including several anisoles, dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, or other highly chlorinated compounds, were tested. Time course expression studies with liquid cultures showed that the formation of 2,4,6-TCA was not affected by a high concentration of glucose (2% or 111 mM) or by ammonium salts at concentrations up to 60 mM. In T. longibrachiatum the O methylation of 2,4,6-TCP was catalyzed by a mycelium-associated S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase that was strongly induced by 2,4,6-TCP. The reaction was inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, an inhibitor of SAM-dependent methylation, suggesting that SAM is the natural methyl donor. These findings increase our understanding of the mechanism underlying the origin of 2,4,6-TCA on cork, which is poorly understood despite its great economic importance for the wine industry, and they could also help us improve our knowledge about the biodegradation and detoxification processes associated with chlorinated phenols. PMID:12450804

  19. Cork Taint of Wines: Role of the Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Cork in the Formation of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole by O Methylation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; López-Ocaña, Laura; López-Coronado, José Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; Martínez, María Jesús; Larriba, Germán; Coque, Juan-José R.

    2002-01-01

    Cork taint is a musty or moldy off-odor in wine mainly caused by 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). We examined the role of 14 fungal strains isolated from cork samples in the production of 2,4,6-TCA by O methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The fungal strains isolated belong to the genera Penicillium (four isolates); Trichoderma (two isolates); and Acremonium, Chrysonilia, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, and Verticillium (one isolate each). Eleven of these strains could produce 2,4,6-TCA when they were grown directly on cork in the presence of 2,4,6-TCP. The highest levels of bioconversion were carried out by the Trichoderma and Fusarium strains. One strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum could also efficiently produce 2,4,6-TCA in liquid medium. However, no detectable levels of 2,4,6-TCA production by this strain could be detected on cork when putative precursors other than 2,4,6-TCP, including several anisoles, dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, or other highly chlorinated compounds, were tested. Time course expression studies with liquid cultures showed that the formation of 2,4,6-TCA was not affected by a high concentration of glucose (2% or 111 mM) or by ammonium salts at concentrations up to 60 mM. In T. longibrachiatum the O methylation of 2,4,6-TCP was catalyzed by a mycelium-associated S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase that was strongly induced by 2,4,6-TCP. The reaction was inhibited by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, an inhibitor of SAM-dependent methylation, suggesting that SAM is the natural methyl donor. These findings increase our understanding of the mechanism underlying the origin of 2,4,6-TCA on cork, which is poorly understood despite its great economic importance for the wine industry, and they could also help us improve our knowledge about the biodegradation and detoxification processes associated with chlorinated phenols. PMID:12450804

  20. Monitoring of the Environment at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Matoušková, Ivanka; Holy, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Aim of this study was to monitor the environment at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic, University Hospital Olomouc (Olomouc, Czech Republic) and identify risks for the patients. Methods and Results: Microorganisms were cultivated under standard aerobic conditions. Strains were biochemically identified using the BD Phoenix™ PID Panel (USA). Legionella pneumophila was identified by DNA sequencing. From the air, the most frequently isolated strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (94.3%), Micrococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. No Gram-negative strains were isolated from the air. From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (67.4%), Bacillus spp., enterococci (5.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%) and Micrococcus spp. (1.7%). From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were from genera Pseudomonas (28%), Enterobacter (28%), E. coli (6%), and Klebsiella spp. (5%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.6%), Bacillus spp. (24.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (9.8%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were Enterobacter spp. (61%), Klebsiella oxytoca (18%), and E. coli (11%). Microscopic filamentous fungi were isolated in 13 cases (2.71%). Isolated strains were Aspergillus spp. (4), Trichoderma spp. (2), Penicillium spp. (2), one case of the strains Paecilomyces spp., Eurotium spp., Monilia spp. Conclusions: The study found no significant deviations in the microbial contamination of the cleanroom air. The personnel entrance of the Transplant Unit represent a high risk area, an extreme value (7270 CFU/m3) was recorded. Regime measures are fully effective, no other deficiencies were found. Significance and Impact of the Study: This epidemiological study, which was held for the duration of one year at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic, University

  1. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  2. Phylogeny of Penicillium and the segregation of Trichocomaceae into three families

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Trichocomaceae occur commonly and are important to both industry and medicine. They are associated with food spoilage and mycotoxin production and can occur in the indoor environment, causing health hazards by the formation of β-glucans, mycotoxins and surface proteins. Some species are opportunistic pathogens, while others are exploited in biotechnology for the production of enzymes, antibiotics and other products. Penicillium belongs phylogenetically to Trichocomaceae and more than 250 species are currently accepted in this genus. In this study, we investigated the relationship of Penicillium to other genera of Trichocomaceae and studied in detail the phylogeny of the genus itself. In order to study these relationships, partial RPB1, RPB2 (RNA polymerase II genes), Tsr1 (putative ribosome biogenesis protein) and Cct8 (putative chaperonin complex component TCP-1) gene sequences were obtained. The Trichocomaceae are divided in three separate families: Aspergillaceae, Thermoascaceae and Trichocomaceae. The Aspergillaceae are characterised by the formation flask-shaped or cylindrical phialides, asci produced inside cleistothecia or surrounded by Hülle cells and mainly ascospores with a furrow or slit, while the Trichocomaceae are defined by the formation of lanceolate phialides, asci borne within a tuft or layer of loose hyphae and ascospores lacking a slit. Thermoascus and Paecilomyces, both members of Thermoascaceae, also form ascospores lacking a furrow or slit, but are differentiated from Trichocomaceae by the production of asci from croziers and their thermotolerant or thermophilic nature. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Penicillium is polyphyletic. The genus is re-defined and a monophyletic genus for both anamorphs and teleomorphs is created (Penicillium sensu stricto). The genera Thysanophora, Eupenicillium, Chromocleista, Hemicarpenteles and Torulomyces belong in Penicillium s. str. and new combinations for the species belonging to these genera

  3. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    ), Ochroconis dracaenae (on Dracaena reflexa), Rasamsonia columbiensis (air of a hotel conference room), Paecilomyces tabacinus (on Nicotiana tabacum), Toxicocladosporium hominis (from human broncoalveolar lavage fluid), Nothophoma macrospora (from respiratory secretion of a patient with pneumonia), and Penidiellopsis radicularis (incl. Penidiellopsis gen. nov.) from a human nail. Novel taxa described from Malaysia include Prosopidicola albizziae (on Albizzia falcataria), Proxipyricularia asari (on Asarum sp.), Diaporthe passifloricola (on Passiflora foetida), Paramycoleptodiscus albizziae (incl. Paramycoleptodiscus gen. nov.) on Albizzia falcataria, and Malaysiasca phaii (incl. Malaysiasca gen. nov.) on Phaius reflexipetalus. Two species are newly described from human patients in the Czech Republic, namely Microascus longicollis (from toenails of patient with suspected onychomycosis), and Chrysosporium echinulatum (from sole skin of patient). Furthermore, Alternaria quercicola is described on leaves of Quercus brantii (Iran), Stemphylium beticola on leaves of Beta vulgaris (The Netherlands), Scleroderma capeverdeanum on soil (Cape Verde Islands), Scleroderma dunensis on soil, and Blastobotrys meliponae from bee honey (Brazil), Ganoderma mbrekobenum on angiosperms (Ghana), Geoglossum raitviirii and Entoloma kruticianum on soil (Russia), Priceomyces vitoshaensis on Pterostichus melas (Carabidae) (Bulgaria) is the only one for which the family is listed, Ganoderma ecuadoriense on decaying wood (Ecuador), Thyrostroma cornicola on Cornus officinalis (Korea), Cercophora vinosa on decorticated branch of Salix sp. (France), Coprinus pinetorum, Coprinus littoralis and Xerocomellus poederi on soil (Spain). Two new genera from Colombia include Helminthosporiella and Uwemyces on leaves of Elaeis oleifera. Two species are described from India, namely Russula intervenosa (ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta), and Crinipellis odorata (on bark of Mytragyna parviflora). Novelties from Thailand