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Sample records for paediatric cancer patients

  1. Dental Awareness among Parents and Oral Health of Paediatric Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bansal, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Anupam; Gupta, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental care is often overlooked by the parents of children receiving treatment for cancer including chemotherapy who are in a phase of severe immunosuppression. Aim (i) To study dental attitudes of parents of children receiving chemotherapy towards importance of dental care. (ii) To evaluate oral hygiene status and compare it with healthy controls. Materials and Methods A questionnaire assessing the awareness towards dental care was given to the parents of 47 paediatric patients suffering from cancer receiving chemotherapy and to parents of 47 paediatric patients reporting to outpatient Department of Pedodontics at SGT Dental College. Oral examination was also carried out for both the groups and DMFT/dmft, plaque and gingival index were noted. Results Parents had a varying opinion regarding dental health of their child. The caries status of children in the control group was greater than children in the study group. The mean plaque index of children in the control group (1.40) was greater than children in the study group (1.34) which was statistically significant according to Mann-Whitney U test. The gingival health of children in the study group was better than children in the control group which was also not statistically significant. Conclusion This study highlights need for a periodic referral of the child cancer patients to the paediatric dental clinic in hospitals for the timely dental care. PMID:27437369

  2. Next-generation personalised medicine for high-risk paediatric cancer patients - The INFORM pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worst, Barbara C; van Tilburg, Cornelis M; Balasubramanian, Gnana Prakash; Fiesel, Petra; Witt, Ruth; Freitag, Angelika; Boudalil, Miream; Previti, Christopher; Wolf, Stephan; Schmidt, Sabine; Chotewutmontri, Sasithorn; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Schick, Matthias; Schlesner, Matthias; Hutter, Barbara; Taylor, Lenka; Borst, Tobias; Sutter, Christian; Bartram, Claus R; Milde, Till; Pfaff, Elke; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Stackelberg, Arend; Meisel, Roland; Borkhardt, Arndt; Reinhardt, Dirk; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Dirksen, Uta; Jürgens, Heribert; Kramm, Christof M; von Bueren, Andre O; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias; Burkhardt, Birgit; Wößmann, Wilhelm; Nathrath, Michaela; Bielack, Stefan S; Frühwald, Michael C; Fulda, Simone; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koscielniak, Ewa; Schwab, Matthias; Tremmel, Roman; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Schulte, Johannes H; Brors, Benedikt; von Deimling, Andreas; Lichter, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Capper, David; Pfister, Stefan M; Jones, David T W; Witt, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    The 'Individualized Therapy for Relapsed Malignancies in Childhood' (INFORM) precision medicine study is a nationwide German program for children with high-risk relapsed/refractory malignancies, which aims to identify therapeutic targets on an individualised basis. In a pilot phase, reported here, we developed the logistical and analytical pipelines necessary for rapid and comprehensive molecular profiling in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven patients from 20 centers were prospectively recruited. Malignancies investigated included sarcomas (n = 25), brain tumours (n = 23), and others (n = 9). Whole-exome, low-coverage whole-genome, and RNA sequencing were complemented with methylation and expression microarray analyses. Alterations were assessed for potential targetability according to a customised prioritisation algorithm and subsequently discussed in an interdisciplinary molecular tumour board. Next-generation sequencing data were generated for 52 patients, with the full analysis possible in 46 of 52. Turnaround time from sample receipt until first report averaged 28 d. Twenty-six patients (50%) harbored a potentially druggable alteration with a prioritisation score of 'intermediate' or higher (level 4 of 7). Common targets included receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and cell cycle control. Ten patients received a targeted therapy based on these findings, with responses observed in some previously treatment-refractory tumours. Comparative primary relapse analysis revealed substantial tumour evolution as well as one case of unsuspected secondary malignancy, highlighting the importance of re-biopsy at relapse. This study demonstrates the feasibility of comprehensive, real-time molecular profiling for high-risk paediatric cancer patients. This extended proof-of-concept, with examples of treatment consequences, expands upon previous personalised oncology endeavors

  3. PET/CT-guided treatment planning for paediatric cancer patients: a simulation study of proton and conventional photon therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brodin, N P; Björk-Eriksson, T; Birk Christensen, C; Kiil-Berthelsen, A; Aznar, M C; Hollensen, C; Markova, E; Munck af Rosenschöld, P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of including fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning in the planning of paediatric radiotherapy (RT). Methods: Target volumes were first delineated without and subsequently re-delineated with access to 18F-FDG PET scan information, on duplicate CT sets. RT plans were generated for three-dimensional conformal photon RT (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The results were evaluated by comparison of target volumes, target dose coverage parameters, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and estimated risk of secondary cancer (SC). Results: Considerable deviations between CT- and PET/CT-guided target volumes were seen in 3 out of the 11 patients studied. However, averaging over the whole cohort, CT or PET/CT guidance introduced no significant difference in the shape or size of the target volumes, target dose coverage, irradiated volumes, estimated NTCP or SC risk, neither for IMPT nor 3DCRT. Conclusion: Our results imply that the inclusion of PET/CT scans in the RT planning process could have considerable impact for individual patients. There were no general trends of increasing or decreasing irradiated volumes, suggesting that the long-term morbidity of RT in childhood would on average remain largely unaffected. Advances in knowledge: 18F-FDG PET-based RT planning does not systematically change NTCP or SC risk for paediatric cancer patients compared with CT only. 3 out of 11 patients had a distinct change of target volumes when PET-guided planning was introduced. Dice and mismatch metrics are not sufficient to assess the consequences of target volume differences in the context of RT. PMID:25494657

  4. Evaluation of Relationship Between Demographics and Dental Status in a Defined Group of Iranian Paediatric Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Tashvighi, Maryam; Azizian, Morteza; Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Sabour, Siamak; Movahhedian, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Context Cancer is a major cause of death in children under 15 years of age. Aims This study aimed to evaluate relationship between demographics and dental status in a defined group of Iranian paediatric patients undergoing cancer therapy. Settings and Design This cross-sectional study was accomplished on 161 subjects age ranging 8-12 years. There were 76 cancerous patients hospitalized at Mahak Hospital (one of the major children’s cancer centers in Tehran) as the study group and 85 healthy children attending at Dental School, International Branch of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Materials and Methods Demographics were gathered by using data-form. Oral examination and DMFT Index were used to describe teeth status in all teeth and in the first permanent molars. According to Becker’s definition, “D” stands for untreated decayed teeth, “M” indicates missing teeth, and “F” shows Filled teeth. It is noteworthy that full coverage crowns are considered as “F” in this Index. Statistical Analysis Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Student’s t-tests and Logistic Regression were used for data analysis. Results The most frequent type of cancer was acute lymphoblastic/lymphocytic leukemia (33.3%). Patients were significantly shorter than controls (p=0.03), and their fathers and mothers were of lower educational achievement (p=0.01, p= 0.001). Although DMFT of all dentition showed significantly higher score in cancerous children (p=0.001), DMFT of four first permanent molars (left, right, upper, and lower) was borderline significantly higher in patients (p= 0.06). Moreover, frequency of cancer was borderline significantly higher in children with lower birth order (p= 0.05). According to Logistic Regression, in as much as patients grew elder 1 year, DMFT index increased 1.5 units. Conclusion Patients under cancer therapy were shorter than healthy ones, and their parents were of lower educational levels. In addition

  5. A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control venepuncture-related pain of paediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liossi, Christina; White, Paul; Hatira, Popi

    2009-04-01

    Venepuncture for blood sampling can be a distressing experience for a considerable number of children. A prospective controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of a local anaesthetic (EMLA) with a combination of EMLA with self-hypnosis in the relief of venepuncture-induced pain and anxiety in 45 paediatric cancer outpatients (age 6-16years). A secondary aim of the trial was to test whether the intervention will have a beneficial effect on parents' anxiety levels during their child's procedure. Patients were randomized to one of three groups: local anaesthetic, local anaesthetic plus hypnosis, and local anaesthetic plus attention. Results confirmed that patients in the local anaesthetic plus hypnosis group reported less anticipatory anxiety, and less procedure-related pain and anxiety, and were rated as demonstrating less behavioural distress during the procedure than patients in the other two groups. Parents whose children were randomized to the local anaesthetic plus hypnosis condition experienced less anxiety during their child's procedure than parents whose children had been randomized to the other two conditions. The therapeutic benefit of the brief hypnotic intervention was maintained in the follow-up. The present findings are particularly important in that this study was a randomized, controlled trial conducted in a naturalistic medical setting. In this context, convergence of subjective and objective outcomes was reached with large effect sizes that were consistently supportive of the beneficial effects of self-hypnosis, an intervention that can be easily taught to children, is noninvasive and poses minimal risk to young patients and their parents. PMID:19231082

  6. Popliteal vasculature injuries in paediatric trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, S A; Roberts, D C; Clarke, N M P

    2012-10-01

    Popliteal-artery injuries in the paediatric-trauma patient are uncommon, difficult to diagnose and with prolonged ischaemia lead to substantial complications. We report three cases of popliteal-vasculature injury in paediatric-trauma patients with diverse mechanisms of injury: blunt trauma, penetrating injury and a Salter-Harris I fracture. We present a range of the significant sequelae that can result from paediatric popliteal-artery injury, both physically and psychologically. It is imperative that clinicians have a high index of suspicion when confronted with paediatric patients with trauma around the knee and that popliteal-vasculature injuries are diagnosed early. If insufficiencies are detected, further imaging should be considered, but surgical exploration should not be delayed in the presence of ischaemia. PMID:22776610

  7. Caring and curing: paediatric cancer services since 1960.

    PubMed

    Barnes, E

    2005-09-01

    This paper traces the history of the specialist meanings of 'cure' in paediatric oncology in the UK, how they have changed with increasing organization of the discipline, ever-rising survival rates for all childhood cancers, and with feedback from patients and families. It examines the differing ways in which those involved in researching, treating, and raising funds for work on childhood cancers have understood and used the language of cure, and speculates as to why talking about the 'cure' of survivors of childhood cancers is so problematic. The paper discusses the particular importance of holistic care in the development of paediatric oncology. Psychosocial support is delivered alongside surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The focus for support is the patient's whole family, building a tenet of palliative care into curative treatment. The concept of the 'truly cured child' is argued to have been crucial in the discipline's decision in the 1970s and 1980s to make the psychosocial needs of patients and their families central in the programme of curing children with cancer. PMID:16098123

  8. Phase I study of temozolomide in paediatric patients with advanced cancer. United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Estlin, E. J.; Lashford, L.; Ablett, S.; Price, L.; Gowing, R.; Gholkar, A.; Kohler, J.; Lewis, I. J.; Morland, B.; Pinkerton, C. R.; Stevens, M. C.; Mott, M.; Stevens, R.; Newell, D. R.; Walker, D.; Dicks-Mireaux, C.; McDowell, H.; Reidenberg, P.; Statkevich, P.; Marco, A.; Batra, V.; Dugan, M.; Pearson, A. D.

    1998-01-01

    A phase I study of temozolomide administered orally once a day, on 5 consecutive days, between 500 and 1200 mg m(-2) per 28-day cycle was performed. Children were stratified according to prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosourea therapy. Sixteen of 20 patients who had not received prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosourea therapy were evaluable. Myelosuppression was dose limiting, with Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade 4 thrombocytopenia occurring in one of six patients receiving 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle, and two of four patients treated at 1200 mg m(-2) per cycle. Therefore, the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle. The MTD was not defined for children with prior craniospinal irradiation because of poor recruitment. Plasma pharmacokinetic analyses showed temozolomide to be rapidly absorbed and eliminated, with linear increases in peak plasma concentrations and systemic exposure with increasing dose. Responses (CR and PR) were seen in two out of five patients with high-grade astrocytomas, and one patient had stable disease. One of ten patients with diffuse intrinsic brain stem glioma achieved a long-term partial response, and a further two patients had stable disease. Therefore, the dose recommended for phase II studies in patients who have not received prior craniospinal irradiation or nitrosoureas is 1000 mg m(-2) per cycle. Further evaluation in diffuse intrinsic brain stem gliomas and other high-grade astrocytomas is warranted. Images Figure 5 p658-b Figure 6 p659-b PMID:9744506

  9. Creating a unique, multi-stakeholder Paediatric Oncology Platform to improve drug development for children and adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Vassal, Gilles; Rousseau, Raphaël; Blanc, Patricia; Moreno, Lucas; Bode, Gerlind; Schwoch, Stefan; Schrappe, Martin; Skolnik, Jeffrey; Bergman, Lothar; Bradley-Garelik, Mary Brigid; Saha, Vaskar; Pearson, Andy; Zwierzina, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Seven years after the launch of the European Paediatric Medicine Regulation, limited progress in paediatric oncology drug development remains a major concern amongst stakeholders - academics, industry, regulatory authorities, parents, patients and caregivers. Restricted increases in early phase paediatric oncology trials, legal requirements and regulatory pressure to propose early Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs), missed opportunities to explore new drugs potentially relevant for paediatric malignancies, lack of innovative trial designs and no new incentives to develop drugs against specific paediatric targets are some unmet needs. Better access to new anti-cancer drugs for paediatric clinical studies and improved collaboration between stakeholders are essential. The Cancer Drug Development Forum (CDDF), previously Biotherapy Development Association (BDA), with Innovative Therapy for Children with Cancer Consortium (ITCC), European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) has created a unique Paediatric Oncology Platform, involving multiple stakeholders and the European Union (EU) Commission, with an urgent remit to improve paediatric oncology drug development. The Paediatric Oncology Platform proposes to recommend immediate changes in the implementation of the Regulation and set the framework for its 2017 revision; initiatives to incentivise drug development against specific paediatric oncology targets, and repositioning of drugs not developed in adults. Underpinning these changes is a strategy for mechanism of action and biology driven selection and prioritisation of potential paediatric indications rather than the current process based on adult cancer indications. Pre-competitive research and drug prioritisation, early portfolio evaluation, cross-industry cooperation and multi-compound/sponsor trials are being explored, from which guidance for innovative trial designs will be

  10. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186

  11. Parental involvement in paediatric cancer treatment decisions

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, K; Collier, J; Hewitt, M; Blake, H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated parents' information needs and involvement in decision-making processes affecting the care of children diagnosed with cancer. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess parental satisfaction in 50 mothers and 16 fathers responsible for 58 children in an English Paediatric Oncology Unit. Parents reported that doctors contributed almost twice as much to the decision-making process as they did, but parental satisfaction was positively correlated with the amount of information provided when giving informed consent. Satisfaction about their involvement in this process relied heavily upon the level of support received from others. Parents consenting to their child's involvement in non-randomised trials perceived themselves to be under greater pressure from others during the decision-making process while those whose children were further along the treatment trajectory were more uncertain about decisions previously made. Findings indicate that the accessibility, support, information and degree of control afforded to parents by healthcare professionals impacts upon their satisfaction with both the decision-making process and their confidence in the decisions thus made. Information and support tailored to parents' specific needs may therefore enhance satisfaction with clinical decision making and reassure parents about decisions made in the long-term interest of their child's health. PMID:19807776

  12. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for paediatric patients in Sudan: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, A

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric patients are recognised to be at higher risk of developing radiation-induced cancer than adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the radiation doses to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) procedures in order to propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A total of 296 patients (aged 6-10 y) were investigated in 8 hospitals equipped with 64-, 16- and dual-slice CT machines. The mean dose length product values were 772, 446 and 178 mGy cm for head, abdomen and chest, respectively. Imaging protocols were not adapted to the patient's weight in certain CT machines. The results confirmed that paediatric patients are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. The established DRLs were higher than those available in other countries. This study showed the need for harmonisation of the practice in CT departments and radiation dose optimisation. PMID:25836694

  13. Movie making as a cognitive distraction for paediatric patients receiving radiotherapy treatment: qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    Shrimpton, Bradley J M; Willis, David J; Tongs, Cáthal D; Rolfo, Aldo G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish the outcomes achieved by using an innovative movie-making programme designed to reduce fear of radiotherapy among paediatric patients. Design Qualitative descriptive evaluation based on semistructured, qualitative interviews with purposeful sampling and thematic analysis. Setting Tertiary Cancer Centre. Participants 20 parents of paediatric patients who had produced a movie of their radiation therapy experience and were in a follow-up phase of cancer management. Results Participants attributed a broad range of outcomes to the movie-making program. These included that the programme had helped reduce anxiety and distress exhibited by paediatric patients and contributed to a willingness to receive treatment. Other outcomes were that the completed movies had been used in school reintegration and for maintaining social connections. Conclusions Allowing children to create a video of their experience of radiotherapy provided a range of benefits to paediatric patients that varied according to their needs. For some patients, movie-making offered a valuable medium for overcoming fear of the unknown as well as increasing understanding of treatment processes. For others, the development of a personalised video offered an important cognitive/attentional distraction through engaging with an age-appropriate activity. Together these outcomes helped children maintain self-control and a positive outlook. PMID:23328308

  14. Paediatric patient family engagement with clinical research at a tertiary care paediatric hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Carson; Ansermino, Mark J; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Mulpuri, Kishore; Doan, Quynh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subject recruitment is essential for conducting clinical research; however, there are very few studies evaluating research uptake by families in a paediatric setting. OBJECTIVES: To determine how frequently paediatric patients and their families receiving care at a tertiary paediatric hospital participated in research. The secondary objectives were to explore factors that influence patient families’ decisions to participate in research and how they perceived their experiences. METHODS: A cross-sectional study surveying families of children receiving care in a sample of clinical areas at a tertiary care paediatric hospital in British Columbia was conducted. A self-administered questionnaire was used, and was facilitated by trained interviewers. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of patient families that have previously been invited to participate in research and, among these, the proportion who had agreed to participate. Patient families’ perceptions of research and their past experiences therein were also reported. RESULTS: A total of 657 families were approached, of which 543 were enrolled (82.6% response rate). Among the 439 families that had visited the hospital previously, 114 (26.0%) had been invited to participate in research and 99 (87%) had consented to participate. Of these 99 families, only one had a negative experience, and 84 (85%) of these participant families were at least somewhat likely to participate in research again in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Only one-quarter of families that had previously visited the hospital had been invited to participate in a research project. Of the families approached previously, there was a high rate of participation and willingness to participate in future research. PMID:25587233

  15. Pharmacokinetics of anti-infective agents in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Butler, D R; Kuhn, R J; Chandler, M H

    1994-05-01

    Various differences in drug disposition exist between children and adults. For example, the volume of distribution (Vd) for many drugs is larger in children than in adults. Other parameters, including excretion and elimination may be altered in children compared with adults. The penicillins and cephalosporins are used commonly for the treatment of infection in paediatric patients. The increased Vd in children contributes to the increased elimination half-life of these agents. Clearance of the acylureido-penicillins is increased in children with cystic fibrosis, a disease that decreases the elimination half-life for these drugs. Aminoglycosides distribute into extracellular fluid and their pharmacokinetic profile is affected by changes in Vd. The Vd for aminoglycosides is slightly higher in children than in adults. Children with cystic fibrosis, burns, or cancer have higher clearance rates and larger Vd values for aminoglycosides. Few data in the literature address the pharmacokinetics of other anti-infective agents, including vancomycin, teicoplanin, erythromycin, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole), in children. Similarly, there is little information regarding the pharmacokinetic profile of antivirals and antifungals in children. Dosage guidelines are available to enable the clinician to initiate anti-infective therapy in children. Subsequent dosage requirements may change based on the patient's current clinical condition. Although several studies have investigated the pharmacokinetics of anti-infectives in neonates and adults, data for children are limited. Therefore, further studies are required so that the ever growing arsenal of anti-infectives can be administered appropriately to children. PMID:8055682

  16. Thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients with vitiligo: retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Borlu, Murat; Çınar, Salih Levent; Kesikoğlu, Ayten; Utaş, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between vitiligo and thyroid disease is not fully investigated especially in paediatric patients. Aim To determine the incidence of vitiligo and thyroid disorders in children. This is the first report from middle Anatolia and the second report from Turkey. Material and methods A retrospective chart review was performed to examine the presence of thyroid abnormalities in paediatric patients who had been admitted to the dermatology department with vitiligo. Results A total of 155 paediatric patients, including 80 (52%) male and 75 (48%) female patients were included. The mean age was 8.6 years. Non segmental vitiligo was the most common type of the disease in 140 (90%) reviewed patients, while segmental vitiligo appeared only in 15 (10%) patients. The mean onset of vitiligo was 5.6 ±0.9 years. A family history of vitiligo was found in 14 (9%) children. Thirty-four (22%) patients had thyroid function tests and/or thyroid autoantibody abnormality. All of these patients had non segmental vitiligo. It was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in types of vitiligo and thyroid disease parameters. Conclusions Our results show that it may be useful to screen thyroid in children with non segmental vitiligo. PMID:27512360

  17. Paediatric radiation oncology in the care of childhood cancer: A position paper by the International Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS).

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities. PMID:27106553

  18. Incorporating educative environments into the holistic care of paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Susan E; Green, Julie B; Zazryn, Tsharni R

    2012-08-01

    Hospital settings can, and should, create educative spaces and learning opportunities as part of their holistic care for young patients. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evidence for creating high quality, child-centred learning environments within paediatric settings. We explore the impact of physical spaces on learning; the literature on developmental stages of learning for children and young people as it relates to learning environments; and the literature on learning in out-of-school settings, particularly as this applies to children who are separated from their daily communities. As all paediatric settings can create opportunities for the ongoing educational development of their patients, this paper presents a way forward for this approach to holistic care. PMID:22935113

  19. Paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Shumer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Medical intervention for transgender adolescents is a controversial issue but a recently published article describing long-term psychological outcomes using ‘the Dutch model’ of care should help to silence critics and reassure the growing number of clinicians treating this patient population. PMID:25403246

  20. An mHealth system for toxicity monitoring of paediatric oncological patients using Near Field Communication technology.

    PubMed

    Duregger, Katharina; Hayn, Dieter; Morak, Jürgen; Ladenstein, Ruth; Schreier, Gunter

    2015-08-01

    Home-based monitoring might be useful to reduce the burden of long-lasting oncological treatment for children. Current telemonitoring applications focus on chronic diseases or elderly people. Based on the workflow for different stakeholders and the identification of parameters important in paediatric oncology, we developed a prototype of a smartphone-based telehealth system using Near Field Communication technology for monitoring paediatric neuroblastoma patients at home. The parameters blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, body weight, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, wellbeing, pain level, nausea level and skin alterations could be monitored using a smartphone, a designated app, point-of-care measurement devices and a smart-poster containing RFID tags. The system has been designed to increase the quality of life for paediatric cancer patients. As a future step, a clinical trial is currently being planned to evaluate the system in clinical setting. PMID:26737866

  1. [Paediatric gynaecological outpatient department--a report on 600 patients].

    PubMed

    Grünberger, W; Fischl, F

    1982-11-26

    Problems arising during the examination and treatment of paediatric gynaecological patients are described. 387 out of 600 girls seen at the outpatient department for infants and juveniles of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the University of Vienna were premenarchal and 213 were post-menarchal (average age 7.45 years). The most frequent diagnosis was vulvovaginitis (43%), followed by pathological vaginal bleeding (12%), vulval disorders (6%) and pubertas praecox (5%); about twenty additional conditions were diagnosed. Absolute and extended indications for gynaecological and vaginoscopic examinations are demonstrated. PMID:7164465

  2. Unusual presentations of osteoarticular tuberculosis in two paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Ho, Kenneth Wai Yip; Lam, Ying Lee; Shek, Tony Wai Hung

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a universal mimicker and thus could be a differential diagnosis of any osteolytic lesion. Bone biopsy is crucial in these cases for culture and histological proof of tuberculous infection. This is a case report of two paediatric patients with unusual presentations of tuberculosis. One patient presented with knee pain and had imaged findings of an osteolytic lesion at the epiphysis. Interval scan showed spread of the lesion through the physis to the metaphyseal region. The second patient presented with hip pain and an osteolytic lesion of the acetabulum. He was subsequently found to have involvement of the brain and spine as well. Both patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis by bone biopsy for culture and pathological examination. They were treated successfully with antituberculous medications without chronic sequelae. These two patients showed that early recognition and prompt treatment are critical for management of tuberculosis to avoid chronic sequelae. PMID:23087272

  3. Paediatric cancer stage in population-based cancer registries: the Toronto consensus principles and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumit; Aitken, Joanne F; Bartels, Ute; Brierley, James; Dolendo, Mae; Friedrich, Paola; Fuentes-Alabi, Soad; Garrido, Claudia P; Gatta, Gemma; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Gross, Thomas; Howard, Scott C; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Moreno, Florencia; Pole, Jason D; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Ramirez, Oscar; Ries, Lynn A G; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Shin, Hee Young; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Sung, Lillian; Supriyadi, Eddy; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Torode, Julie; Vora, Tushar; Kutluk, Tezer; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Population-based cancer registries generate estimates of incidence and survival that are essential for cancer surveillance, research, and control strategies. Although data on cancer stage allow meaningful assessments of changes in cancer incidence and outcomes, stage is not recorded by most population-based cancer registries. The main method of staging adult cancers is the TNM classification. The criteria for staging paediatric cancers, however, vary by diagnosis, have evolved over time, and sometimes vary by cooperative trial group. Consistency in the collection of staging data has therefore been challenging for population-based cancer registries. We assembled key experts and stakeholders (oncologists, cancer registrars, epidemiologists) and used a modified Delphi approach to establish principles for paediatric cancer stage collection. In this Review, we make recommendations on which staging systems should be adopted by population-based cancer registries for the major childhood cancers, including adaptations for low-income countries. Wide adoption of these guidelines in registries will ease international comparative incidence and outcome studies. PMID:27300676

  4. The devil you know: parents seeking information online for paediatric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gage, Elizabeth A; Panagakis, Christina

    2012-03-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the effect that online information-seeking has on patients' experiences, empowerment and interactions with healthcare providers. This mixed-methods study combines surveys and in-depth interviews with 41 parents of paediatric cancer patients in the USA to examine how parents think about, evaluate, access and use the internet to seek information related to their child's cancer. We find that, during the acute crisis of a child being diagnosed with cancer, parents preferred to receive information related to their child's diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options from a trusted healthcare provider rather than through the internet. We find that access to medically related cancer information through the internet was deemed to be untrustworthy and frightening. Parents' reasons for avoiding online information-seeking included fear of what they might find out, uncertainty about the accuracy of information online, being overloaded by the volume of information online and having been told not to go online by oncologists. Some parents also had logistical barriers to accessing the internet. While most parents did not turn to the internet as a source of health-related information, many did use it to connect with sources of social support throughout their child's illness. PMID:21854400

  5. The devil you know: parental online information seeking after a paediatric cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Elizabeth A.; Panagakis, Christina

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in understanding the effect that online information seeking has on patient experiences, empowerment, and interactions with health care providers. This mixed-methods study combines surveys and in-depth interviews with 41 parents of paediatric cancer patients in the US to examine how parents think about, evaluate, access, and use the Internet to seek information related to their child’s cancer. We find that during the acute crisis of a child being diagnosed with cancer parents preferred to receive information related to their child’s diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options from a trusted health care provider rather than through the Internet. To this end, we find that access to medically related cancer information through the Internet was deemed untrustworthy and frightening. Parents’ reasons for avoiding online information seeking included fear of what they might find out, uncertainty about the accuracy of information online, being overloaded by the volume of information online, and having been told not to go online by oncologists. Some parents also had logistical barriers to accessing the Internet. While most parents did not turn to the Internet as a source of health-related information, many did use the Internet to connect with sources of social support throughout their child’s illness. PMID:21854400

  6. Dosimetric Comparison and Potential for Improved Clinical Outcomes of Paediatric CNS Patients Treated with Protons or IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Armoogum, Kris S.; Thorp, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background: We compare clinical outcomes of paediatric patients with CNS tumours treated with protons or IMRT. CNS tumours form the second most common group of cancers in children. Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment of many of these patients but also contributes to late side effects in long term survivors. Radiation dose inevitably deposited in healthy tissues outside the clinical target has been linked to detrimental late effects such as neurocognitive, behavioural and vascular effects in addition to endocrine abnormalities and second tumours. Methods: A literature search was performed using keywords: protons, IMRT, CNS and paediatric. Of 189 papers retrieved, 10 were deemed relevant based on title and abstract screening. All papers directly compared outcomes from protons with photons, five papers included medulloblastoma, four papers each included craniopharyngioma and low grade gliomas and three papers included ependymoma. Results: This review found that while proton beam therapy offered similar clinical target coverage, there was a demonstrable reduction in integral dose to normal structures. Conclusions: This in turn suggests the potential for superior long term outcomes for paediatric patients with CNS tumours both in terms of radiogenic second cancers and out-of-field adverse effects. PMID:25927402

  7. The prioritisation of paediatrics and palliative care in cancer control plans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, M S; Yao, A J J; Renner, L A; Harif, M; Lam, C G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the burden of childhood cancer and palliative care need in Africa, this paper investigated the paediatric and palliative care elements in cancer control plans. Methods: We conducted a comparative content analysis of accessible national cancer control plans in Africa, using a health systems perspective attentive to context, development, scope, and monitoring/evaluation. Burden estimates were derived from World Bank, World Health Organisation, and Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance. Results: Eighteen national plans and one Africa-wide plan (10 English, 9 French) were accessible, representing 9 low-, 4 lower-middle-, and 5 upper-middle-income settings. Ten plans discussed cancer control in the context of noncommunicable diseases. Paediatric cancer was mentioned in 7 national plans, representing 5127 children, or 13% of the estimated continental burden for children aged 0–14 years. Palliative care needs were recognised in 11 national plans, representing 157 490 children, or 24% of the estimated Africa-wide burden for children aged 0–14 years; four plans specified paediatric palliative needs. Palliative care was itemised in four budgets. Sample indicators and equity measures were identified, including those highlighting contextual needs for treatment access and completion. Conclusions: Recognising explicit strategies and funding for paediatric and palliative services may guide prioritised cancer control efforts in resource-limited settings. PMID:26042935

  8. Dermatological Findings in Turkish Paediatric Haematology-Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Uksal, Umit; Ozturk, Pinar; Colgecen, Emine; Taslidere, Nazan; Patiroglu, Turkan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Borlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diagnoses of skin, mucosae, hair and nail manifestations in malignant diseases are often challenging because of life-threatening drug reactions, opportunistic infections or skin involvement of primary processes. Description of morphology, configuration and distribution of lesions is important in order to differentiate the self-healing eruptions from serious side effects of chemotherapy. There are case reports from Turkey including dermatological manifestations of malignancies and case series in adult patients but there are no published large group studies assessing all manifestations in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological features of dermatological findings in children with haemato-oncological diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was performed at the Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Clinic, Turkey. Three dermatologists daily consulted all patients admitted to the clinic during a one-year period. Results: The study group comprised of 157 children (79 female/78 male) aged 1–16 years (mean 7.19±4.63). Detailed dermatological examinations were performed, including oral-genital mucosae, hair and nails. Thorough skin examination revealed that 70% of the patients exhibited at least one dermatological finding. Generalized xerosis and hyperpigmentation were the most common findings among patients undergoing chemotherapy (24.19%). Multiple nevi on at least 10 covered areas were very frequent among patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy (18.47%). Three were identified as dysplastic nevus, but malignant transformation was not observed during the one-year study period. Conclusion: Regular dermatological consultation may help resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic problems in paediatric haemato-oncology clinics. PMID:27551173

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin hydrochloride in paediatric patients with neuropathic and non-neuropathic bladder

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Yasuhiro; Tatami, Shinji; Yamamura, Norio; Tadayasu, Yusuke; Sarashina, Akiko; Liesenfeld, Karl-Heinz; Staab, Alexander; Schäfer, Hans-Günter; Ieiri, Ichiro; Higuchi, Shun

    2010-01-01

    AIMS The main objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin hydrochloride (HCl) in paediatric patients with neuropathic and non-neuropathic bladder. A secondary objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics in paediatric patients and adults. METHODS Tamsulosin HCl plasma concentrations in 1082 plasma samples from 189 paediatric patients (age range 2–16 years) were analyzed with NONMEM, applying a one compartment model with first-order absorption. Based on the principles of allometry, body weight was incorporated in the base model, along with fixed allometric exponents. Covariate analysis was performed by means of a stepwise forward inclusion and backward elimination procedure. Simulations based on the final model were used to compare the pharmacokinetics with those in adults. RESULTS Beside the priori-implemented body weight, only α1-acid glycoprotein had an effect on both apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution. No other investigated covariates, including gender, age, race, patient population and concomitant therapy with anti-cholinergics, significantly affected the pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin HCl (P < 0.001). The results of simulations indicated that the exposure in 12.5 kg paediatric patients was 3.5–4.3 fold higher than that in 70.0 kg adults. After a weight-based dose administration, the exposure in paediatric patients was comparable with that in healthy adults. CONCLUSIONS A population pharmacokinetic model of tamsulosin HCl in paediatric patients was established and it described the data well. There was no major difference in the pharmacokinetics of tamsulosin HCl between paediatric patients (age range 2–16 years) and adults when the effect of body weight was taken into consideration. PMID:20642551

  10. Cognitive impairment in paediatric multiple sclerosis patients is not related to cortical lesions.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Maria A; De Meo, Ermelinda; Amato, Maria P; Copetti, Massimiliano; Moiola, Lucia; Ghezzi, Angelo; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Capra, Ruggero; Fiorino, Agnese; Pippolo, Lorena; Pera, Maria C; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the contribution of cortical lesions to cognitive impairment in 41 paediatric MS patients. Thirteen (32%) paediatric MS patients were considered as cognitively impaired. T2-hyperintense and T1-hypointense white matter lesion volumes did not differ between cognitively impaired and cognitively preserved MS patients. Cortical lesions number, cortical lesions volume and grey matter volume did not differ between cognitively impaired and cognitively preserved patients, whereas white matter volume was significantly lower in cognitively impaired versus cognitively preserved MS patients (p=0.01). Contrary to adult MS, cortical lesions do not seem to contribute to cognitive impairment in paediatric MS patients, which is likely driven by white matter damage. PMID:25392332

  11. Off-label use of maraviroc in HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Claudia; Gómez, María Luisa Navarro; Soler-Palacín, Pere; González-Tomé, María Isabel; De Ory, Santiago J; Espiau, María; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; León-Leal, Juan Antonio; Méndez, María; Moreno-Pérez, David; Guasch, Claudia Fortuny; Sierra, Antoni Mur; Guruceta, Itziar Pocheville; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; Briz, Verónica

    2015-10-23

    Maraviroc (MVC) is not approved for HIV-1-infected paediatric patients. This is the first assessment of the use of MVC-based salvage therapy in vertically HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical settings. The results suggest that MVC-based salvage therapy is useful in children and adolescents with extensive resistance profile leading to maintained virological suppression in up to 88% of the patients with CCR5-tropic virus. The likelihood of treatment success might increase when MVC is combined with other active drugs. PMID:26544580

  12. Application of in vitro biopharmaceutical methods in development of immediate release oral dosage forms intended for paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Hannah K; Kendall, Richard; Desset-Brethes, Sabine; Alex, Rainer; Ernest, Terry B

    2013-11-01

    Biopharmaceutics is routinely used in the design and development of medicines to generate science based evidence to predict in vivo performance; the application of this knowledge specifically to paediatric medicines development is yet to be explored. The aim of this review is to present the current status of available biopharmaceutical tools and tests including solubility, permeability and dissolution that may be appropriate for use in the development of immediate release oral paediatric medicines. The existing tools used in adults are discussed together with any limitations for their use within paediatric populations. The results of this review highlight several knowledge gaps in current methodologies in paediatric biopharmaceutics. The authors provide recommendations based on existing knowledge to adapt tests to better represent paediatric patient populations and also provide suggestions for future research that may lead to better tools to evaluate paediatric medicines. PMID:23665448

  13. Paediatric cardiac surgery in a patient with cold agglutinins.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomomi; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Maruo, Ayako; Matsuhisa, Hironori

    2012-03-01

    Cold agglutinins (CAs) lead to organ thrombosis or haemolysis due to increased blood viscosity and red blood cell clumping when blood temperature drops below the thermal amplitude for haemagglutination. Although it is well known that CAs are particularly relevant to adult cardiac surgery with hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), paediatric cardiac surgery with congenital heart disease and with CAs has been reported very rarely. We present here a case of paediatric cardiac surgery to repair atrial septal defect with pulmonary stenosis in an 11-month old infant with a family history of CAs. She was detected to have a high titre of CAs preoperatively, and underwent an intracardiac repair with normothermic CPB using temporary electrical fibrillation for added safety. Her post-operative course was uneventful without any complications. PMID:22184466

  14. Highlights of Children with Cancer UK's Workshop on Drug Delivery in Paediatric Brain Tumours.

    PubMed

    Nailor, Audrey; Walker, David A; Jacques, Thomas S; Warren, Kathy E; Brem, Henry; Kearns, Pamela R; Greenwood, John; Penny, Jeffrey I; Pilkington, Geoffrey J; Carcaboso, Angel M; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Macarthur, Donald; Slavc, Irene; Meijer, Lisethe; Gill, Steven; Lowis, Stephen; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Pearl, Monica S; Clifford, Steven C; Morrissy, Sorana; Ivanov, Delyan P; Beccaria, Kévin; Gilbertson, Richard J; Straathof, Karin; Green, Jordan J; Smith, Stuart; Rahman, Ruman; Kilday, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The first Workshop on Drug Delivery in Paediatric Brain Tumours was hosted in London by the charity Children with Cancer UK. The goals of the workshop were to break down the barriers to treating central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, leading to new collaborations and further innovations in this under-represented and emotive field. These barriers include the physical delivery challenges presented by the blood-brain barrier, the underpinning reasons for the intractability of CNS cancers, and the practical difficulties of delivering cancer treatment to the brains of children. Novel techniques for overcoming these problems were discussed, new models brought forth, and experiences compared. PMID:27110286

  15. Highlights of Children with Cancer UK’s Workshop on Drug Delivery in Paediatric Brain Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Nailor, Audrey; Walker, David A; Jacques, Thomas S; Warren, Kathy E; Brem, Henry; Kearns, Pamela R; Greenwood, John; Penny, Jeffrey I; Pilkington, Geoffrey J; Carcaboso, Angel M; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Macarthur, Donald; Slavc, Irene; Meijer, Lisethe; Gill, Steven; Lowis, Stephen; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Pearl, Monica S; Clifford, Steven C; Morrissy, Sorana; Ivanov, Delyan P; Beccaria, Kévin; Gilbertson, Richard J; Straathof, Karin; Green, Jordan J; Smith, Stuart; Rahman, Ruman; Kilday, John-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The first Workshop on Drug Delivery in Paediatric Brain Tumours was hosted in London by the charity Children with Cancer UK. The goals of the workshop were to break down the barriers to treating central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, leading to new collaborations and further innovations in this under-represented and emotive field. These barriers include the physical delivery challenges presented by the blood–brain barrier, the underpinning reasons for the intractability of CNS cancers, and the practical difficulties of delivering cancer treatment to the brains of children. Novel techniques for overcoming these problems were discussed, new models brought forth, and experiences compared. PMID:27110286

  16. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M

    2015-07-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resourced countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. PMID:25836695

  17. Dosimetry and Image Quality in Control Studies in Computerised Tomography Realized to Paediatric Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, M. R.; Dies, P.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Rickards, J.; Ruiz, C.

    2008-08-01

    Computerised tomography (CT) is a favourite method of medical diagnosis. Its use has thus increased rapidly throughout the world, particularly in studies relating to children. However to avoid administering unnecessarily high doses of radiation to paediatric patients it is important to have correct dose reference levels to minimize risk. The research is being developed within the public health sector at the Hospital Infantil de México "Dr. Federico Gómez." We measured the entrance surface air kerma (KP) in paediatric patients, during the radiological studies of control in CT (studies of head, thorax and abdomen). Phantom was used to evaluate image quality as the tomograph requires a high resolution image in order to operate at its optimum level.

  18. Dosimetry and Image Quality in Control Studies in Computerised Tomography Realized to Paediatric Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, M. R.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Dies, P.; Rickards, J.; Ruiz, C.

    2008-08-11

    Computerised tomography (CT) is a favourite method of medical diagnosis. Its use has thus increased rapidly throughout the world, particularly in studies relating to children. However to avoid administering unnecessarily high doses of radiation to paediatric patients it is important to have correct dose reference levels to minimize risk. The research is being developed within the public health sector at the Hospital Infantil de Mexico 'Dr. Federico Gomez.' We measured the entrance surface air kerma (K{sub P}) in paediatric patients, during the radiological studies of control in CT (studies of head, thorax and abdomen). Phantom was used to evaluate image quality as the tomograph requires a high resolution image in order to operate at its optimum level.

  19. External iliac artery occlusion in a paediatric patient following handlebar trauma

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Animesh A.; McPherson, Danielle; Singla, Apresh A; Cross, Jane; Leslie, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Arterial occlusion following blunt trauma is an uncommon occurrence. We report an unusual case of delayed external iliac artery occlusion in a young male following blunt abdominal injury. He was successfully treated with thromboendarterectomy and saphenous vein patch repair. There have only been a handful of documented cases occurring in the paediatric population. All patients presenting with groin injury from this mechanism should be carefully investigated and monitored for risk of vascular injury. PMID:25733671

  20. External iliac artery occlusion in a paediatric patient following handlebar trauma.

    PubMed

    Singla, Animesh A; McPherson, Danielle; Singla, Apresh A; Cross, Jane; Leslie, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Arterial occlusion following blunt trauma is an uncommon occurrence. We report an unusual case of delayed external iliac artery occlusion in a young male following blunt abdominal injury. He was successfully treated with thromboendarterectomy and saphenous vein patch repair. There have only been a handful of documented cases occurring in the paediatric population. All patients presenting with groin injury from this mechanism should be carefully investigated and monitored for risk of vascular injury. PMID:25733671

  1. Disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient: Lichthemia corymbifera successfully treated with combination antifungal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anita; Cooper, Celia; Davis, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a severe fungal infection that largely affects immunocompromised individuals. It carries a high morbidity and mortality rate and is characterised by extensive angioinvasion and necrosis of host tissue. This case report details success in treating disseminated mucormycosis in a paediatric patient with an underlying haematological malignancy. Treatment included institution of combination antifungal therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and caspofungin, aggressive surgical debridement of infected tissue and reversal of underlying immunosuppression. PMID:25379392

  2. Computed tomographic evaluation of mouth breathers among paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Farid, MM; Metwalli, N

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Mouth breathing causes many serious problems in the paediatric population. It has been maintained that enlarged adenoids are principally responsible for mouth breathing. This study was designed to evaluate whether other mechanical obstacles might predispose the child to mouth breathing. Methods 67 children with ages ranging from 10 to 15 years were studied and grouped into mouth-breathers and nose-breathers. The children first underwent axial CT scans of the brain for which they were originally referred. In addition, they were subjected to a limited coronal CT examination of the paranasal sinuses. Congenital anatomical variations as well as inflammatory changes were assessed. Results 87% of mouth-breathing children had hypertrophied adenoids, 77% had maxillary sinusitis, 74% had pneumatized middle concha, 55% had a deviated nasal septum, 55% had hypertrophied inferior conchae, 45% had ethmoidal sinusitis and 23% showed frontal sinusitis. Such changes were significantly less prevalent in nose-breathers. 12.9% of mouth-breathing children did not have adenoids. Of these children, only 3.3% had one or more congenital or inflammatory change whereas the other 9.6% showed a completely normal CT scan signifying the incidence of habitual non-obstructive mouth breathing. Conclusions It is clear that adenoids have a dominant role in causing mouth breathing. Yet, we recommend that paediatricians should assess other mechanical obstacles if mouth breathing was not corrected after adenoidectomy. Further research should be performed to test the validity of correction of such factors in improving the quality of life of mouth-breathing children. PMID:20089737

  3. Misdiagnosis and Quality of Management in Paediatric Surgical Patients Referred to a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cazares-Rangel, Joel; Zalles-Vidal, Cristian; Davila-Perez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: The literature on diagnosis and management prior to transfer paediatric surgical patients to a tertiary care center is scarce. In referral centers, it is common to receive patients previously subjected to inadequate or inappropriate health care. Aim: Analyze the prevalence of misdiagnosis and quality of management in patients before being referred and factors related to misdiagnosis and inadequate management. Design: Prospective, longitudinal, comparative study between patients with appropriate and inappropriate submission diagnosis and between patients with adequate or inadequate treatment. Setting: Third level care hospital, Mexico City. Participants: Newborn to adolescents referred to Paediatric Surgery Department. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Misdiagnosis and quality of management prior to being referred. Result: Two hundred patients were evaluated. Correlation between submission diagnosis and final diagnosis showed that 70% were correct and 30% incorrect; 48.5% were properly managed and 51.5% inappropriately managed. Incorrect diagnosis was more frequent when referred from first-or second-level hospitals and in inflammatory conditions. Patients referred by paediatricians had a higher rate of adequate management. Conclusion: We present the frequency of incorrect diagnosis and inadequate patient management in a highly selected population. Sample size should be increased as well as performing these studies in other hospital settings in order to determine whether the results are reproducible. PMID:24959495

  4. A Retrospective Analysis of Spontaneous Adverse Drug Reactions Reports Relating to Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, Rosliana; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Manan, Mohamed Mansor

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous reporting on adverse drug reactions (ADR) has been established in Malaysia since 1987, and although these reports are monitored by the Malaysia drug monitoring authority, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, information about ADRs in the paediatric patient population still remains unexplored. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the ADRs reported in respect to the Malaysian paediatric population and to relate the data to specific paediatric age groups. Methods Data on all ADRs reported to the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau between 2000 and 2013 for individuals aged from birth to 17 years old were analysed with respect to age and gender, type of reporter, suspected medicines (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification), category of ADR (according to system organ class) as well as the severity of the ADR. Results In total, 11,523 ADR reports corresponding to 22,237 ADRs were analysed, with half of these reporting one ADR per report. Vaccines comprised 55.7% of the 11,523 ADR reports with the remaining being drug related ADRs. Overall, 63.9% of ADRs were reported for paediatric patients between 12 and 17 years of age, with the majority of ADRs reported in females (70.7%). The most common ADRs reported were from the following system organ classes: application site disorders (32.2%), skin and appendages disorders (20.6%), body as a whole general disorders (12.8%) and central and peripheral nervous system disorders (11.2%). Meanwhile, ADRs in respect to anti-infectives for systemic use (2194/5106; 43.0%) were the most frequently reported across all age groups, followed by drugs from the nervous system (1095/5106; 21.4%). Only 0.28% of the ADR cases were reported as fatal. A large proportion of the reports were received from healthcare providers in government health facilities. Discussion ADR reports concerning vaccines and anti-infectives were the most commonly reported in children, and are mainly

  5. Giant Cell Fibroma in a Paediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar; Kumar, Naveen; Battepati, Prashant; Samyuktha, Lalitha; Nanga, Swapna Priya

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell fibroma is a form of fibrous tumour affecting the oral mucosa. Its occurrence is relatively rare in paediatric patients. Clinically it is presented as a painless, sessile, or pedunculated growth which is usually confused with other fibrous lesions like irritation fibromas. Here we are presenting a case where a seven-year-old male patient reported with a painless nodular growth in relation to lingual surface of 41 and 42. Considering the size and location of the lesion, excisional biopsy was performed and sent for histopathological analysis which confirmed the lesion as giant cell fibroma. PMID:26693359

  6. Paediatric anaesthesia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Langton, Helen Elizabeth

    2015-10-28

    This article provides an overview of the nursing considerations for paediatric anaesthesia. It is aimed at newly qualified operating department practitioners and anaesthetic nurses, and those with limited experience in the care of paediatric patients. It explores the ways in which paediatric anatomy and physiology differ from those of adults and looks at the implications for treatment in the anaesthetic environment. It also discusses the equipment required and the rationale for its use. PMID:26508256

  7. Patients' Reactions to Local Anaesthetic Application Devices in Paediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bajrić, Elmedin; Kobasglija, Sedin; Jurić, Hrvoje

    2015-09-01

    Local anaesthesia is the most common medium for pain control in most dental treatments. Physical appearance of syringe itself can be considered as a provoking factor for the emergence of dental fear and anxiety (DFA). In this research the patient reactions to local anaesthesia application devices, as one of the main causes for DFA emergence, were inquired. The sample comprised of 120 patients, divided in three age groups, formed of 40 patients aged 8, 12 and 15 years. DFA prevalence was quantified by Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). Three different syringes were offered to the patients. Reasons for choosing one of the syringes were detected. Patients assigned statistically highest rank to plastic syringe. Boys chose metal and intraligamental syringe statistically more often than girls. Patients with higher CFSS-DS scores chose metal syringe as last option. None of the reasons for selection was dominant, except pain that could be caused by usage of any of the three syringes. A large number of patients did not mention any of the reasons for choosing particular syringes. Plastic syringe represented the most acceptable device for local anaesthetic application to our patients. Patients often linked pain with dental syringes. PMID:26898066

  8. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma in paediatric and young adult patients.

    PubMed

    Turner, Suzanne D; Lamant, Laurence; Kenner, Lukas; Brugières, Laurence

    2016-05-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a heterogeneous disease of debateable origin that, in children, is largely anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive with aberrant ALK activity induced following the formation of chromosomal translocations. Whilst the survival rates for this disease are relatively high, a significant proportion (20-40%) of patients suffer disease relapse, in some cases on multiple occasions and therefore suffer the toxic side-effects of combination chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients are treated with a combination of agents although recent data from relapse patients have suggested that low risk patients might benefit from single agent vinblastine and, going forward, the addition of ALK inhibitors to the therapeutic regimen may have beneficial consequences. There are also a plethora of other drugs that might be advantageous to patients with ALCL and many of these have been identified through laboratory research although the decision as to which drugs to implement in trials will not be trivial. PMID:26913827

  9. Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients--UF Series B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2006-09-21

    Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy Korean adult (UF Series B). Even though partial-body phantoms (head-torso) may be used in a variety of medical dose reconstruction studies where the extremities are out-of-field or receive only very low levels of scatter radiation, whole-body phantoms play important roles in general radiation protection and in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Inclusion of the arms and legs is critical for dosimetry studies of paediatric patients due to the presence of active bone marrow within the extremities of children. While the UF Series A phantoms preserved the body dimensions and organ masses as seen in the original patients who were scanned, comprehensive adjustments were made for the Series B phantoms to better match International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) age-interpolated reference body masses, body heights, sitting heights and internal organ masses. The CT images of arms and legs of a Korean adult were digitally rescaled and attached to each phantom of the UF series. After completion, the resolutions of the phantoms for the 9-month, 4-year, 8-year, 11-year and 14-year were set at 0.86 mm x 0.86 mm x 3.0 mm, 0.90 mm x 0.90 mm x 5.0 mm, 1.16 mm x 1.16 mm x 6.0 mm, 0.94 mm x 0.94 mm x 6.00 mm and 1.18 mm x 1.18 mm x 6.72 mm, respectively. PMID:16953048

  10. Serum Metal Ion Concentrations in Paediatric Patients following Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Megaprostheses

    PubMed Central

    Friesenbichler, Jörg; Sadoghi, Patrick; Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Szkandera, Joanna; Glehr, Mathias; Ogris, Kathrin; Wolf, Matthias; Weger, Christian; Leithner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum in the serum of paediatric tumour patients after fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty. Further, these metal ion levels were compared with serum metal ion levels of patients with other orthopaedic devices such as hip and knee prostheses with metal-on-metal or metal-on-polyethylene articulation to find differences between anatomical locations, abrasion characteristics, and bearing surfaces. After an average follow-up of 108 months (range: 67 to 163) of 11 paediatric patients with fixed hinge total knee arthroplasty, the mean concentrations for Co and Cr were significantly increased while Mo was within the limits compared to the upper values from the reference laboratory. Furthermore, these serum concentrations were significantly higher compared to patients with a standard rotating hinge device (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001) and preoperative controls (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the serum levels of patients following MoM THA or rotating hinge arthroplasty using megaprostheses were higher. Therefore, periodic long-term follow-ups are recommended due to the rising concerns about systemic metal ion exposure in the literature. Upon the occurrence of adverse reactions to metal debris the revision of the fixed hinge implant should be considered. PMID:25276819

  11. Violent behaviour from young adults and the parents of paediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jacqueline; Hazelton, Michael; Kable, Ashley

    2013-07-01

    Violence in healthcare is a significant issue and one that is increasing in prevalence globally. Nurses have been identified as the professional group at most risk, with patients the main source of this violence. The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of Australian ED nurses with episodes of patient-related violence from young adults (16-25years of age) and the parents of paediatric patients. Data analysis of semi-structured interviews led to the identification of antecedents to episodes of violence and behaviours specific to these two groups of interest. These behaviours included: "performing" and attention-seeking behaviours and violent behaviours including both verbal and physical abuse. Antecedents discussed by participants included: parental emotions and alcohol and substance abuse. Overall the results speak to a working environment where participants regularly feel unsafe. Violence in the ED is perceived to occur frequently and to such an extent that participants have become resigned to expect and accept it as part of their job. The role played by distinct groups such as young adults and the parents of paediatric patients must be acknowledged and this knowledge used along with other known risk factors to help identify patients at risk of potential violence. PMID:23063841

  12. Factors influencing nurses' use of nonpharmacological pain alleviation methods in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Tarja; Laukkala, Helena; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the factors promoting and hindering nurses' use of nonpharmacological methods in children's surgical pain relief, and demographic variables related to this. The data were collected by a Likert-type questionnaire, which was completed by nurses (n = 162) who were working in one of the paediatric surgical wards located in university hospitals in Finland. The response rate was 99%. Factor analysis was used to analyse the data. According to the results, five promoting factors (nurse's competence, versatile use of pain alleviation methods, workload/time, child's age/ability to cooperate, and parental participation), as well as five hindering factors (nurse's insecurity, beliefs regarding parental roles/child's ability to express pain, heavy workload/lack of time, limited use of pain alleviation methods, and work organizational model/patient turnover rate) were found to influence the nurses' use of nonpharmacological methods. Almost all of the nurses (98%) hoped to make progress in their career and to learn different pain alleviation methods, but less than half of them (47%) agreed that they had obtained sufficient education regarding these methods. Demographic variables such as the nurse's age, education, and work experience were significantly related to certain factors influencing the use of nonpharmacological methods. In conclusion, paediatric patients' surgical pain relief in the hospital was affected more by the nurses' personal characteristics, than by work-related factors or characteristics of the child or the child's parents. The nurses had positive attitudes towards learning different pain alleviation methods, which constitute the basis for the development of pain management in paediatric patients. PMID:14629640

  13. Prevalence of and Reasons for Patients Leaving Against Medical Advice from Paediatric Wards in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghafri, Mohamed; Al-Bulushi, Abdullah; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and reasons for patients leaving against medical advice (LAMA) in a paediatric setting in Oman. This retrospective study was carried out between January 2007 and December 2009 and assessed patients who left the paediatric wards at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, against medical advice. Of 11,482 regular discharges, there were 183 cases of LAMA (prevalence: 1.6%). Dissatisfaction with treatment and a desire to seek a second opinion were collectively the most cited reasons for LAMA according to data from the hospital's electronic system (27.9%) and telephone conversations with patients' parents (55.0%). No reasons for LAMA were documented in the hospital's electronic system for 109 patients (59.6%). The low observed prevalence of LAMA suggests good medical practice at the Royal Hospital. This study indicates the need for thorough documentation of all LAMA cases to ensure the availability of high-quality data for healthcare workers involved in preventing LAMA. PMID:26909217

  14. Complete bronchial obstruction by granuloma in a paediatric patient with translaryngeal endotracheal tube: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although continuous or frequent stimuli in tracheostomized patients may cause tracheal granulomas, little is known about management of patients with translaryngeal intubation. Case presentation A 1-month-old Japanese boy, weighing 3.5kg, was admitted to our hospital owing to cardiac failure caused by an atrial septal defect and intractable arrhythmia. To treat his unstable cardiovascular status, surgery was performed to close his atrial septal defect. After the operation, stenosis was detected by auscultation and flow limitation worsened. A bronchoscopy revealed granulomas completely obstructing his right bronchus and partially obstructing his left bronchus. Dexamethasone infusion partially reduced the mass, after which removal by yttrium aluminium garnet laser was tried. The airway obstruction was not resolved, however, because of granuloma reproliferation. Budesonide (aerosol liquid) inhalation was started, and tissue was reduced using an yttrium aluminium garnet laser and physically removed using forceps. After continued budesonide inhalation, he was successfully liberated from the ventilator. Conclusions Life-threatening airway obstruction by granulomas developed in a translaryngeally intubated paediatric patient. The granuloma was detected after a couple of weeks of intubation. A bronchial granuloma is rare in paediatric patients. It should be suspected with evidence of bronchial obstruction. Treatment with corticosteroids and surgery using a laser maybe indicated. PMID:25060137

  15. Regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in paediatric, adolescent and young adult patients: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Georg; Budach, Volker; Keilholz, Ulrich; Wust, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2016-01-01

    Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology.Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy. RHT is a safe and effective treatment delivering local thermic effects, which may also stimulate immunological processes via heat-shock protein reactions. RHT is used chiefly in children and adolescents with sarcomas or germ cell tumours located in the abdomino-pelvic region, chest wall or extremities to improve operability or render the tumour operable. It could potentially be combined with radiation therapy in a post-operative R1 setting where more radical surgery is not possible or combined with chemotherapy instead of radiation therapy in cases where the necessary radiation dose is impossible to achieve or would have mutilating consequences. RHT might also be an option for chemotherapy intensification in the neoadjuvant first-line treatment setting for children and adolescents, as was recently reflected in the promising long-term outcome data in adults with high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (EORTC 62961/ESHO trial).The limited data available indicate that combining RHT with chemotherapy is a promising option to treat germ cell tumours and, potentially, sarcomas. RHT may also be beneficial in first-line therapy in children, adolescents and young adults. The research should focus on optimising necessary technical demands and then initiate several clinical trials incorporating RHT into interdisciplinary treatment of children

  16. Optimization of image quality and patient dose in radiographs of paediatric extremities using direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, C; Jerrom, C; Honey, I D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of beam quality on the image quality (IQ) of ankle radiographs of paediatric patients in the age range of 0–1 year whilst maintaining constant effective dose (ED). Methods: Lateral ankle radiographs of an infant foot phantom were taken at a range of tube potentials (40.0–64.5 kVp) with and without 0.1-mm copper (Cu) filtration using a Trixell Pixium 4600 detector (Trixell, Morains, France). ED to the patient was computed for the default exposure parameters using PCXMC v. 2.0 and was fixed for other beam qualities by modulating the tube current-time product. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured between the tibia and adjacent soft tissue. The IQ of the phantom images was assessed by three radiologists and a reporting radiographer. Four IQ criteria were defined each with a scale of 1–3, giving a maximum score of 12. Finally, a service audit of clinical images at the default and optimum beam qualities was undertaken. Results: The measured CNR for the 40 kVp/no Cu image was 12.0 compared with 7.6 for the default mode (55  0.1 mm Cu). An improvement in the clinical IQ scores was also apparent at this lower beam quality. Conclusion: Lowering tube potential and removing filtration improved the clinical IQ of paediatric ankle radiographs in this age range. Advances in knowledge: There are currently no UK guidelines on exposure protocols for paediatric imaging using direct digital radiography. A lower beam quality will produce better IQ with no additional dose penalty for infant extremity imaging. PMID:25816115

  17. Blunt Trauma in Paediatric Patients – Experience from a Small Centre

    PubMed Central

    Djordjevic, I; Slavkovic, A; Marjanovic, Z; Zivanovic, D

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Despite great prevention efforts, blunt abdominal trauma still remains a leading cause of injury, especially in the paediatric population. Abdominal trauma is the main culprit of serious children's injury and the most common area of initially missed diagnosis with a fatal outcome. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, aetiology, grades of abdominal organ injuries, diagnosis, management and outcome of blunt abdominal trauma in a paediatric population. Method: This is a retrospective study of 31 patients with isolated parenchymatous abdominal organs, treated in a single centre. Stable patients with no signs of peritonitis and insignificant changes in laboratory findings were managed conservatively. Unstable patients received surgery. Results: The leading cause of injuries were traffic accidents (64.5%), followed by fall from a height (22.5%), bicycle handlebar injuries (6.45%), contact sport and child abuse (3.22% each). The majority of injured children (90.32%) were managed conservatively. Only three patients (9.68%) were operated on due to complete avulsion and organ smash, or devascularization of the injured organs. Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan examination was performed on 93.5% of patients. Few patients had grade I and grade V injuries, while the largest proportion of patients had grade III and IV injuries. The most frequently injured organs were the spleen and kidney. There was no mortality. Conclusion: The results emphasize that conservative treatment was appropriate for all stable patients with blunt abdominal trauma regardless of organ injury grade. The success of non-operative management depends upon proper patient selection. The choice of non-operative treatment should be based predominantly on physiological response, rather than grade injury on CT scan. PMID:26360685

  18. An elusive cause of hypoxaemia in a paediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Bola, Sundeep Singh; Narang, Indra

    2014-01-01

    Summary A 5-year-old girl presented to an ambulatory cardiology clinic with shortness of breath, described by the patient's mother and chest discomfort on exertion. At this visit, she was noted to have low baseline room air oxygen saturations of 89%. Subsequent cardiac, respiratory and haematological investigations including contrast echocardiography, CT scan of the chest, polysomnography and haemoglobin electrophoresis were unhelpful in yielding a diagnosis. A CT scan of the chest with contrast was performed which revealed a persistent left-sided superior vena cava that appeared to be draining into the left atrium, creating a right-to-left shunt. This was not revealed on contrast echocardiography as contrast (micro bubbles) had been injected into the right arm. This case report highlights the nuances of diagnostic investigations, which without a high index of suspicion may exclude a timely diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. PMID:24859546

  19. Critical care for paediatric patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Costello, John M; Mazwi, Mjaye L; McBride, Mary E; Gambetta, Katherine E; Eltayeb, Osama; Epting, Conrad L

    2015-08-01

    This review offers a critical-care perspective on the pathophysiology, monitoring, and management of acute heart failure syndromes in children. An in-depth understanding of the cardiovascular physiological disturbances in this population of patients is essential to correctly interpret clinical signs, symptoms and monitoring data, and to implement appropriate therapies. In this regard, the myocardial force-velocity relationship, the Frank-Starling mechanism, and pressure-volume loops are discussed. A variety of monitoring modalities are used to provide insight into the haemodynamic state, clinical trajectory, and response to treatment. Critical-care treatment of acute heart failure is based on the fundamental principles of optimising the delivery of oxygen and minimising metabolic demands. The former may be achieved by optimising systemic arterial oxygen content and the variables that determine cardiac output: heart rate and rhythm, preload, afterload, and contractility. Metabolic demands may be decreased by a number of ways including positive pressure ventilation, temperature control, and sedation. Mechanical circulatory support should be considered for refractory cases. In the near future, monitoring modalities may be improved by the capture and analysis of complex clinical data such as pressure waveforms and heart rate variability. Using predictive modelling and streaming analytics, these data may then be used to develop automated, real-time clinical decision support tools. Given the barriers to conducting multi-centre trials in this population of patients, the thoughtful analysis of data from multi-centre clinical registries and administrative databases will also likely have an impact on clinical practice. PMID:26377713

  20. Oral Health Status of Chinese Paediatric and Adolescent Oncology Patients with Chemotherapy in Hong Kong: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kung, A.Y.H; Zhang, S; Zheng, L.W; Wong, G.H.M; Chu, C.H

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the oral health status of Chinese children and adolescents undergoing chemotherapy in Hong Kong. Method: All Chinese children and adolescent oncology patients aged 18 or below attending the Children's Centre for Cancer and Blood Disease at a hospital for chemotherapy were invited and parental consent was sought before they were accepted into the study. The study comprised of 1) a parental questionnaire, 2) the collection of medical history and 3) a clinical examination for tooth decay (caries) and mucosal status. Results: A total of 69 patients were invited, and they all participated in this study. Their mean age was 9.2±5.0 and 44 (64%) were males. Twenty-six patients (38%) had no caries experience (DMFT and/or dmft = 0). Higher caries experience was detected in participants that were not born in Hong Kong, had completed active chemotherapy, participated in school dental care service and whose parents had low educational levels. There were 41 patients with active chemotherapy, 24 of whom were diagnosed with acute leukaemia, 5 with haematological malignancies other than leukaemia and 11 with solid tumours. Antimetabolites, cytotoxic antibiotics, alkylating agents and plant alkaloids were administered in 49%, 32%, 24% and 22% of them, respectively. Twenty-six (63%) patients showed no mucosal complications. The most common oral complication was oral mucositis (24%) followed by petechiae (10%). Conclusion: About two-thirds of paediatric and adolescent cancer patients had caries experience, which was more common among those who had completed chemotherapy. Oral mucositis followed by petechiae were the two most common complications of receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25674168

  1. Paediatric hereditary angioedema: a survey of UK service provision and patient experience

    PubMed Central

    Read, N; Lim, E; Tarzi, M D; Hildick-Smith, P; Burns, S; Fidler, K J

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disease characterized by episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. For affected children in the United Kingdom, there are relatively few data regarding disease prevalence, service organization and the humanistic burden of the disease. To improve knowledge in these areas, we surveyed major providers of care for children with HAE. A questionnaire was sent to major paediatric centres to determine patient numbers, symptoms, diagnostic difficulties, management and available services. In addition, all patients at a single centre were given a questionnaire to determine the experiences of children and their families. Sixteen of 28 centres responded, caring for a total of 111 UK children. Seven children had experienced life-threatening crises. One-third of patients were on long-term prophylactic medication, including C1 inhibitor prophylaxis in four children. Eight centres reported patients who were initially misdiagnosed. Broad differences in management were noted, particularly regarding indications for long-term prophylaxis and treatment monitoring. We also noted substantial variation in the organization of services between centres, including the number of consultants contributing to patient care, the availability of specialist nurses, the availability of home therapy training and the provision of patient information. Ten of 12 patient/carer questionnaires were returned, identifying three common themes: the need to access specialist knowledge, the importance of home therapy and concerns around the direct effect of angioedema on their life. To our knowledge, this study represents the first dedicated survey of paediatric HAE services in the United Kingdom and provides useful information to inform the optimization of services. PMID:25113655

  2. Ecthyma gangrenosum: a manifestation of Pseudomonas sepsis in three paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y H; Chong, C Y; Puthucheary, J; Loh, T F

    2006-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis rarely occurs in healthy children. In immunocompromised children, it usually carries a high mortality rate. Ecthyma gangrenosum is a known cutaneous manifestation of Pseudomonas septicaemia. Three paediatric cases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa septicaemia with ecthyma gangrenosum were retrospectively reviewed. The three patients were aged seven years, seven months, and five months, respectively. An underlying disease of hypogammaglobulinaemia was present in the oldest patient. Blood cultures grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa in all three patients. All underwent repeated wound debridement and received intravenous ceftazidime and an aminoglycoside for a minimum of two weeks. One needed colostomy and subsequent posterior sagittal anorectoplasty as a result of complete obliteration of the anal canal from the ecthyma. There was no mortality. In conclusion, Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis should be treated early. Recognition of ecthyma gangrenosum as a manifestation of this problem can allow early institution of the appropriate antibiotics before culture results. PMID:17139406

  3. Template of patient-specific summaries facilitates education and outcomes in paediatric cardiac surgery units

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Hemant S.; Wolfram, Karen B.; Slayton, Jennifer M.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Cutrer, William B.; Bichell, David P.; Harris, Zena L.; Barr, Frederick E.; Deshpande, Jayant K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Few educational opportunities exist in paediatric cardiac critical care units (PCCUs). We introduced a new educational activity in the PCCU in the form of of patient-specific summaries (TPSS). Our objective was to study the role of TPSS in the provision of a positive learning experience to the multidisciplinary clinical team of PCCUs and in improving patient-related clinical outcomes in the PCCU. METHODS Prospective educational intervention with simultaneous clinical assessment was undertaken in PCCU in an academic children's hospital. TPSS was developed utilizing the case presentation format for upcoming week's surgical cases and delivered once every week to each PCCU clinical team member. Role of TPSS to provide clinical education was assessed using five-point Likert-style scale responses in an anonymous survey 1 year after TPSS provision. Paediatric cardiac surgery patients admitted to the PCCU were evaluated for postoperative outcomes for TPSS provision period of 1 year and compared with a preintervention period of 1 year. RESULTS TPSS was delivered to 259 clinical team members including faculty, fellows, residents, nurse practitioners, nurses, respiratory therapists and others from the Divisions of Anesthesia, Cardiology, Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Critical Care, and Pediatrics working in the PCCU. Two hundred and twenty-four (86%) members responded to the survey and assessed the role of TPSS in providing clinical education to be excellent based on mean Likert-style scores of 4.32 ± 0.71 in survey responses. Seven hundred patients were studied for the two time periods and there were no differences in patient demographics, complexity of cardiac defect and surgical details. The length of mechanical ventilation for the TPSS period (57.08 ± 141.44 h) was significantly less when compared with preintervention period (117.39 ± 433.81 h) (P < 0.001) with no differences in length of PCICU stay, hospital stay and mortality for the two time periods

  4. Information Seeking Behaviour of Parents of Paediatric Patients for Clinical Decision Making: The Central Role of Information Literacy in a Participatory Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostagiolas, Petros; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Georgantzi, Georgia; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the information seeking behaviour and needs of parents of paediatric patients and their motives for seeking Internet-based information. Method: A questionnaire survey of 121 parents was conducted in a paediatric clinic of a Greek university hospital. Analysis: The data were analysed using SPSS; descriptive…

  5. Experience with biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Joanna; Jarzębicka, Dorota; Meglicka, Monika; Oracz, Grzegorz; Kierkus, Jaroslaw

    2016-09-01

    Infliximab was the first monoclonal antibody used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Over several years, this antitumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment proved its efficacy in both induction and maintenance therapy. In many cases this biological treatment stopped the progression of the disease, probably also decreasing morbidity and hospitalization rates, and improving patients' comfort. When the patent on infliximab started to expire, the first biosimilar of a monoclonal antibody was introduced onto the pharmacological market. Biosimilar infliximab was studied in rheumatology and proved a high similarity to the reference drug. Based on extrapolation, biosimilars were approved to treat adult and paediatric IBD patients. Biosimilar infliximab, mainly because of its lower cost, has started to be in common use in Europe. The first studies have shown a similar efficacy and safety profile in comparison with reference drug. Biosimilar infliximab is raising hopes for improving the availability of this effective treatment. PMID:27582886

  6. Application of Behavior Management Techniques for Paediatric Dental Patients by Tanzanian Dental Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Kawia, Hassan Mohamed; Mbawalla, Hawa Shariff; Kahabuka, Febronia Kokulengya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Management of children’s behavior is an integral component of pediatric dental practice. Objective: To investigate the oral health care providers’ awareness, use and factors for choice of behavior management techniques when attending paediatric dental patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study among dental practitioners in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Data collection was done through interview using a structured questionnaire. The recorded information included: awareness and application of behavior management techniques (BMT) when attending a child dental patient, factors influencing choice of a particular technique, socio-demographics, level of professional training, working experience and facility profile. Using SPSS program version 18, frequency distributions and cross tabulations analyses were performed. Results: 74 dental practitioners participated in the study, of whom 49 (66.2%) were males and 44 (59.5%) were graduates. Most participants were aware of the behavior management techniques, ranging from 100% for Tell-Show-Do to 86% for distraction. A small proportion (9.5%) reported to have adequate skills, all of them were graduates. The use of universally accepted BMTs was reported by 65% of experienced practitioners, 61% of graduates, 59% of those reporting to have received formal training and all of those reporting to have fair/inadequate skills to apply BMTs (p= 0.01). Conclusion: Most participants were aware of BMTs, although few acknowledged having adequate skills to apply the techniques. They use BMTs during treatment of paediatric dental patients and their choice of the technique is mainly influenced by children’s factors. PMID:26962374

  7. Posttraumatic temporal TGF-β mRNA expression in lens epithelial cells of paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Berezowski, P; Strzalka-Mrozik, B; Forminska-Kapuscik, M; Mazurek, U; Filipek, E; Nawrocka, L; Pieczara, E; Banasiak, P; Kimsa, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine temporal TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 gene expression profiles in the anterior lens capsule of paediatric patients with posttraumatic cataract. The patient group comprised 22 children selected with a fragment of anterior lens capsule obtained during elective cataract surgery and sampled for molecular analysis. The levels of TGF-β isoforms in the anterior lens capsule were determined based on the number of mRNA copies per 1 μg total RNA by real-time qRTPCR. Three time-related result clusters were identified based on hierarchical cluster analysis: 2.2, 4.4 and 15.0 months (time span from injury to anterior capsule sampling during surgery) and compared with regard to temporal gene expression profile and quantitative relations of TGF-β1, 2 and 3 mRNAs. TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 mRNAs were detected in all anterior lens capsule samples. A comparative analysis revealed: TGF-β1>TGF-β2>TGF-β3 during the entire observation period. The TGF-β mRNA levels continued to increase up to four months after injury, then returning close to the base levels after around 15 months. The expression patterns of TGF-β isoforms showed a similar tendency. Differences in the expression levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 between the particular clusters were statistically significant. Posttraumatic transcriptional activities of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in the anterior lens capsule of paediatric patients depend on the time elapsing from injury. Our findings indicate that the transcriptional activities of TGFB family genes show a transient period of over-expression during the months after injury. TGF-β1 is a dominant isoform expressed in lens epithelial cells following injury. PMID:22464821

  8. How do clinical features help identify paediatric patients with fractures following blunt wrist trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Webster, A P; Goodacre, S; Walker, D; Burke, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective Wrist injuries are a common presentation to the emergency department (ED). There are no validated decision rules to help clinicians evaluate paediatric wrist trauma. This study aimed to identify which clinical features are diagnostically useful in deciding the need for a wrist radiograph, and then to develop a clinical decision rule. Methods This prospective cohort study was carried out in the ED of Sheffield Children's Hospital. Eligible patients were recruited if presenting within 72 hours following blunt wrist trauma. A standardised data collection form was completed for all patients. The outcome measure was the presence or absence of a fracture. Univariate analysis was performed with the χ2 test. Associated variables (p<0.2) were entered into a multivariate model. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to derive the clinical decision rule. Results In total, 227 patients were recruited and 106 children were diagnosed with fractures (47%). Of 10 clinical features analysed, six were found by univariate analysis to be associated with a fracture. CART analysis identified the presence of radial tenderness, focal swelling, or an abnormal supination/pronation as the best discriminatory features. Cross fold validation of this decision rule had a sensitivity of 99.1% (95% confidence interval 94.8% to 100%) and a specificity of 24.0% (17.2% to 32.3%). The radiography rate would be 87%. Conclusions Radial tenderness, focal swelling, and abnormal supination/pronation are associated with wrist fractures in children. The clinical decision rule derived from these features had a high sensitivity, but low specificity, and would not substantially alter our current radiography rate. The potential for a clinical decision rule for paediatric wrist trauma appears limited. PMID:16627835

  9. Procedural sedation and analgesia for paediatric patients in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Evered, Lisa M

    2003-01-01

    Children presenting to the emergency department (ED) often require sedation for brief procedures such as fracture and dislocation reductions, laceration repairs, and imaging procedures that are painful, anxiety provoking or both. This article presents three cases of paediatric patients who require sedation and/or analgesia, and summarizes important aspects of procedural sedation for the primary care practitioner in the emergency setting. Presedation assessment and monitoring equipment are detailed. Discussion of routes of administration and different agents including barbiturates, opiates, benzodiaxepines, the ‘cardiac coctail’, ketamine, propofol, nitrous oxide, and etomidate follow. Emphasis is placed on indications, contraindications, dosing, timing and advantages and disadvantages of each. Reversal agents are mentioned, and discharge criteria are outlined. PMID:20019936

  10. Grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy and paediatric allergic rhinitis: A patient-oriented decision.

    PubMed

    Miceli Sopo, Stefano; Battista, Andrea; Greco, Monica; Monaco, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines and systematic review report that allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is, in general, effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. However, experts suggest not generalising the results of different clinical studies: for example, it would not be advisable to translate the results found in an adult population to a paediatric population or the results on the efficacy of AIT against a specific allergen to the AIT against a different allergen. Moreover, according to Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), clinical decisions are individualised and should derive from the "integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values". Taking into account the high specificity of the AIT and EBM principles, we tried to answer the question on how advisable it is to prescribe the AIT for the management of grass allergic rhinitis in children. To do this, we revised the scientific literature in order to solve a specific case scenario. PMID:26321601

  11. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema following tracheal tube obstruction in a paediatric patient: a preventable anaesthesia related morbidity.

    PubMed

    Imarengiaye, C O; Ogunsakin, A

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe negative pressure pulmonary oedema due to undetected tracheal tube obstruction in a paediatric patient. A healthy 6 week-old scheduled for release of tongue-tie under general anaesthesia was noticed to be diagnosed at the preparation of the surgical site. The patient was quickly assessed, and ventilation with 100% oxygen was commenced. The heart sounds were still present. Two minutes later, pink frothy secretion was noticed in the lumen of the tracheal tube. Assisted manual ventilation was continued for about 3 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU). Clinical examination after 8 hours of oxygen therapy indicated stable vital signs and was discharged to the ward. Undetected tracheal obstruction due to unsupervised patient positioning may result in negative pressure pulmonary oedema in a paediatric patient. Improved communication between the surgical and the anaesthetic teams may prevent this morbidity. PMID:14692058

  12. Drug discovery in paediatric oncology: roadblocks to progress

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter C.; Houghton, Peter J.; Perilongo, Giorgio; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Approval of new cancer drugs for paediatric patients generally occurs after their development and approval for treating adult cancers. As most drug development occurs in the industry setting, the relatively small market of paediatric oncology does not provide the financial incentives for companies to actively pursue paediatric oncology solutions. Indeed, between 1948 and January 2003 the FDA approved 120 new cancer drugs, of which only 30 have been used in children. This slow rate of development must be addressed in a meaningful way if we are to make progress in the most pressing settings in childhood cancer. In this Viewpoint article, the key opinion leaders in the field weigh in and offer practical advice on how to address this issue. PMID:25223555

  13. Impaired skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We used Laser Doppler Fluximetry (LDF) to define "normal" endothelial function in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents and to evaluate skin microcirculation in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods LDF was performed in 102 healthy children (12.8 ± 3.3 years of age; 48 male) and 68 patients (12.9 ± 3.3 years of age; 33 male). Duration of disease was 5.0 ± 3.97 years. Each participant sequentially underwent three stimulation protocols (localized thermal hyperaemia with localized warming to maximum 40°C, iontophoretic delivery of pilocarpine hydrochloride (PCH) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)). The maximum relative increase in skin blood flow and the total relative response, i.e. the area under the curve (AUC) to each stimulus (AUCheat, AUCPCH, AUCSNP) was determined. In addition, the area of a right-angled triangle summarizing the time to and the amplitude of the first peak, which represents the axon reflex mediated neurogenic vasodilation (ARR) was calculated. Results In healthy controls, AUCheat, AUCPCH, AUCSNP, and ARR turned out to be independent of sex, age, and anthropometric values. Per parameter the 10th percentile generated from data of healthy controls was used as the lower threshold to define normal endothelial function. Diabetic patients showed significantly reduced vasodilatative response to either physical or pharmacological stimulation with SNP, whereas the response to PCH was comparable in both cohorts. In patients compared to controls i) a significantly higher frequency of impaired vasodilatation in response to heat and SNP was noted and ii) vascular response was classified as pathological in more than one of the parameters with significantly higher frequency. Conclusions/interpretation Skin microvascular endothelial dysfunction is already present in about 25% of paediatric type 1 diabetic patients suffering from type 1 diabetes for at least one year. Future studies are needed to assess the

  14. Standard instruction versus simulation: Educating registered nurses in the early recognition of patient deterioration in paediatric critical care.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Jessica; Nash, Robyn; Lewis, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and stabilising deterioration in a child with significant clinical compromise is both a challenging and necessary role of the paediatric critical care nurse. Within adult critical care research, high fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has been shown to positively impact learner outcomes regarding identification and management of a deteriorating patient; however, there is a paucity of evidence examining the use of HFPS in paediatric nursing education. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HFPS on nurses' self-efficacy and knowledge for recognising and managing paediatric deterioration. Further, participants' perceptions of the learning experiences specific to the identification and management of a deteriorating child were also explored. Registered nurses working in a tertiary-referral paediatric critical care unit were recruited for this quasi-experimental study. Using a pre-test/post-test control-group design, participants were assigned to one of two learning experiences: HFPS or standard instruction. Following the learning experience, nurses were also invited to participate in semi-structured interviews. 30 nurses participated in the study (control n=15, experiment n=15). Participants in the HFPS intervention were most likely to demonstrate an increase in both perceived self-efficacy (p=<0.01) and knowledge (p=<0.01). No statistically significant change was observed in control group scores. The mean difference in self-efficacy gain score between the two groups was 5.67 score units higher for the experiment group compared to the control. HFPS also yielded higher follow-up knowledge scores (p=0.01) compared to standard instruction. Ten nurses participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of the interview data identified four themes: self-awareness, hands-on learning, teamwork, and maximising learning. The results of this study suggest that HFPS can positively influence nurses' self-efficacy and knowledge test scores

  15. Bloodstream infections in children with cancer: a multicentre surveillance study of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. Supportive Therapy Group-Infectious Diseases Section.

    PubMed

    Viscoli, C; Castagnola, E; Giacchino, M; Cesáro, S; Properzi, E; Tucci, F; Mura, R M; Alvisi, P; Zanazzo, G; Surico, G; Bonetti, F; De Sio, L; Izzi, G; Di Cataldo, A; Ziino, O; Massolo, F; Nardi, M; Santoro, N; Binda, S

    1999-05-01

    A one-year prospective, multicentre surveillance study on aetiology, main clinical features and outcome of bloodstream infections in children with cancer was conducted in 18 paediatric haematology centres belonging to the Italian Association for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. A total of 191 bloodstream infections were reported during the study period. Of them, 123 (64%) occurred in neutropenic and 68 (36%) in non-neutropenic patients. Gram-positive cocci caused 45% (85/191) of the episodes, gram-negative rods 41% (78/191), and fungi 9% (18/191). The remaining 5% (10/191) of the episodes were poly-microbial infections. A total of 204 pathogens were isolated (46% gram-positive cocci; 44% gram-negative rods; and 10% fungi). The aetiologic distribution was similar among neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. A correlation between the infection and the presence of an indwelling central venous catheter was found in 20% (23/114) of the episodes among neutropenic patients and in 55% (23/62) among non-neutropenic patients. Gram-negative micro-organisms were isolated in an unusually high proportion of catheter-related infections (48%). The overall mortality rate from any cause within 30 days from the first positive blood culture was 11%, and was higher among patients who were neutropenic at the onset of the infection than among those who were not neutropenic (15 versus 4%, P = 0.03). In addition, the mortality was significantly higher in recipients of bone marrow transplantation than in patients with acute leukaemia or solid tumour (21, 11 and 6%, respectively) and was also higher in fungaemias and poly-microbial infections (22 and 30%) than in single gram-positive and gram-negative bacteraemias (11 and 6%). PMID:10505037

  16. A MONTE-CARLO SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR JOINT OPTIMISATION OF IMAGE QUALITY AND PATIENT DOSE IN DIGITAL PAEDIATRIC RADIOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Menser, Bernd; Manke, Dirk; Mentrup, Detlef; Neitzel, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    In paediatric radiography, according to the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle, the imaging task should be performed with the lowest possible radiation dose. This paper describes a Monte-Carlo simulation framework for dose optimisation of imaging parameters in digital paediatric radiography. Patient models with high spatial resolution and organ segmentation enable the simultaneous evaluation of image quality and patient dose on the same simulated radiographic examination. The accuracy of the image simulation is analysed by comparing simulated and acquired images of technical phantoms. As a first application example, the framework is applied to optimise tube voltage and pre-filtration in newborn chest radiography. At equal patient dose, the highest CNR is obtained with low-kV settings in combination with copper filtration. PMID:26628612

  17. A global patient outcomes registry: Cochlear paediatric implanted recipient observational study (Cochlear™ P-IROS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a paucity of data concerning the long-term outcomes, educational placement and quality of life of children implanted with hearing devices from large and representative samples of the population. To address this concern, a large, prospective, multicentre, multinational patient-outcomes registry for paediatric recipients of implantable hearing devices was developed. The benefits of this registry, its approach and methodology are described. Methods/Design The Cochlear™ Paediatric Implanted Recipient Observational Study (Cochlear P-IROS) is a prospective international patient-outcomes registry for children who are implanted in routine clinical practice with one or more hearing devices. The study aims to collect data on patient comorbidities, device use, auditory performance, quality of life and health-related utilities, across different types of implantable hearing devices from a range of manufacturers. Patients will be evaluated with a set of standardised and non-standardised questionnaires prior to initial device activation (baseline) and at six-monthly follow-up intervals up to 24 months and annually thereafter. The Cochlear P-IROS utilises a secure web interface to administer electronic case report forms to clinicians and families of implanted children. The web interface is currently available in five languages: English, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin and Russian. The interface also provides printable versions of the case report forms translated into 22 local languages for collection of data prior to entry online; additional languages may be added, as required. Participation in the Cochlear P-IROS registry is investigator-driven and voluntary. To date, the Cochlear P-IROS has recruited implant clinics across Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Turkey and Vietnam. The registry also aims to recruit multiple clinics in Cuba, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea and Russia. Discussion The use of a registry such as

  18. Improving patient outcomes with technology and social media in paediatric diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Sze May

    2015-01-01

    The UK has the highest number of children and young people with diagnosed Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Europe, but the lowest numbers attaining good diabetes control (1, 2). Novel strategies and incorporation of digital strategies were identified in the team for development to improve overall patient care and outcomes in our population of children and young people with T1DM. Within a dual-site integrated care organisation, 3 digital initiatives were proposed from 2012-2013 to 1) establish Facebook communications with parents/patients, 2) to implement an electronic diabetes information management system (using Twinkle.Net) and 3) to undertake routine uploading of blood glucose meters and insulin pumps (using DIASEND®) with the aim to improve outcomes in paediatric diabetes care. Key objectives for the three initiatives were aimed to optimise the following outcomes: • Reduce HbA1c levels • Decrease emergency admissions, reduce diabetes-related complications and minimise the length of hospital stays • Improve patient satisfaction and communication • Improve efficiencies with mandatory audit submissions • Empower patients, parents, and the multidisciplicnary team with accurate, real-time information. These digital initiatives showed effective use of technology and social media in achieving significant improvements in all the outcomes within the objectives. PMID:26734405

  19. Effectiveness and Comparison of Various Audio Distraction Aids in Management of Anxious Dental Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Nikita; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Singh, Rahul Kumar; Chadha, Dheera; Navit, Pragati; Sharma, Anshul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a widespread phenomenon and a concern for paediatric dentistry. The inability of children to deal with threatening dental stimuli often manifests as behaviour management problems. Nowadays, the use of non-aversive behaviour management techniques is more advocated, which are more acceptable to parents, patients and practitioners. Therefore, this present study was conducted to find out which audio aid was the most effective in the managing anxious children. Aims and Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of audio-distraction aids in reducing the anxiety of paediatric patients while undergoing various stressful and invasive dental procedures. The objectives were to ascertain whether audio distraction is an effective means of anxiety management and which type of audio aid is the most effective. Materials and Methods A total number of 150 children, aged between 6 to 12 years, randomly selected amongst the patients who came for their first dental check-up, were placed in five groups of 30 each. These groups were the control group, the instrumental music group, the musical nursery rhymes group, the movie songs group and the audio stories group. The control group was treated under normal set-up & audio group listened to various audio presentations during treatment. Each child had four visits. In each visit, after the procedures was completed, the anxiety levels of the children were measured by the Venham’s Picture Test (VPT), Venham’s Clinical Rating Scale (VCRS) and pulse rate measurement with the help of pulse oximeter. Results A significant difference was seen between all the groups for the mean pulse rate, with an increase in subsequent visit. However, no significant difference was seen in the VPT & VCRS scores between all the groups. Audio aids in general reduced anxiety in comparison to the control group, and the most significant reduction in anxiety level was observed in the audio stories group

  20. Pharmacokinetics of once and twice daily dosing of intravenous tobramycin in paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brigg Turner, R; Elbarbry, Fawzy; Biondo, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    The optimal dosing of intravenous tobramycin for treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has not been completely delineated. We performed a retrospective study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once daily dosing (ODD) of IV tobramycin compared to twice daily dosing (TDD). Fifty-nine and 44 patients were included in the ODD and TDD groups, respectively. Once daily dosing achieved higher Cmax as compared to TDD (29.5 ± 11.0 vs 19.0 ± 4.9, P < 0.001), lower 24 hour AUC (92.8 ± 28.7 vs 128.5 ± 34.6, P < 0.001), and greater time that drug concentration was below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (13.4 ± 1.7 vs 3.9 ± 3.1 hour, P < 0.001). Twice daily dosing failed to achieve goal Cmax:MIC for MICs >1.0 mg/l. Twice daily dosing may be a viable alternative to ODD in treating organisms with MICs ≤ 1.0 mg/l; however, with MICs >1.0 mg/l, ODD is likely necessary to achieve goal Cmax:MIC ratios. PMID:26430825

  1. Creation of two tomographic voxel models of paediatric patients in the first year of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipper, J. C.; Williams, J. L.; Bolch, W. E.

    2002-09-01

    Tomographic computational models, based on regional segmentation of CT or MRI medical images, have increasingly been proposed as replacements for current stylized mathematical models of human anatomy used in radiation dosimetry studies. While much effort has been devoted towards the creation of adult models, few research studies have been initiated to address the need for models supporting paediatric radiology dosimetry. In this study, two tomographic models were created using a combination of automatic and manual segmentation via a program created in-house using IDL version 5.5. The first model is of a normal 6 day female newborn, and consists of a 512 × 512 × 485 data array. The CT slices of this model were obtained every 1 mm, and 66 different anatomic regions were defined. The second model is of a patient developmentally equivalent to a 2 month male, and was saved as a 512 × 512 × 438 data array. This subject had severe tissue oedema within the gut, kidneys, liver and spleen. The model is thus considered representative of a critically ill child, from a patient subpopulation expected to receive a larger than normal number of diagnostic x-ray exams. The voxel volumes for the two models are 0.35 mm3 and 0.30 mm3, respectively, thus making these models the most detailed in existence for paediatric dosimetry applications. Ratios of organ masses for the UF newborn model to those within the reference ORNL/MIRD model range from highs of 1.2 to 1.7 for the oesophagus and small intestine/colon, respectively, to lows of 0.18 to 0.27 for the mandible and humeri, respectively. For the UF 2 month model, ratios of organ masses in the UF model to those in the 8 week GSF BABY model ranged from highs of 3.7 to 5.2 for the clavicles and spleen, respectively, to lows of 0.2 to 0.3 for the adrenals and scapulae, respectively.

  2. Recombinant factor IX (BAX326) in previously treated paediatric patients with haemophilia B: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Urasinski, T; Stasyshyn, O; Andreeva, T; Rusen, L; Perina, F G; Oh, M S; Chapman, M; Pavlova, B G; Valenta-Singer, B; Abbuehl, B E

    2015-03-01

    A newly developed recombinant factor IX (BAX326(1) ) was investigated for prophylactic use in paediatric patients aged <12 years with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level 1-2%) haemophilia B. The aim of this prospective clinical trial was to assess the safety, haemostatic efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of BAX326 in previously treated paediatric patients. BAX326 was administered as prophylaxis twice a week for a period of 6 months, and on demand for treatment of bleeds. Safety was assessed by the occurrence of related AEs, thrombotic events and immunologic assessments. Efficacy was evaluated by annualized bleeding rate (ABR), and by treatment response rating (excellent, good, fair, none). PK was assessed over 72 h. None of the 23 treated paediatric subjects had treatment-related SAEs or AEs. There were no thrombotic events, inhibitory or specific binding antibodies against FIX, rFurin or CHO protein. Twenty-six bleeds (19 non-joint vs. 7 joint bleeds) occurred (mean ABR 2.7 ± 3.14, median 2.0), of which 23 were injury-related. Twenty subjects (87%) did not experience any bleeds of spontaneous aetiology. Haemostatic efficacy of BAX326 was excellent or good for >96% of bleeds (100% of minor, 88.9% of moderate and 100% of major bleeds); the majority (88.5%) resolved after 1-2 infusions. Longer T1/2 and lower IR were observed in younger children (<6 years) compared to those aged 6 to 12 years. BAX326 administered as prophylactic treatment as well as for controlling bleeds is efficacious and safe in paediatric patients aged <12 years with haemophilia B. PMID:25495591

  3. Comparative genomics of non-pseudomonal bacterial species colonising paediatric cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ormerod, Kate L.; George, Narelle M.; Fraser, James A.; Wainwright, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The genetic disorder cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting condition affecting ∼70,000 people worldwide. Targeted, early, treatment of the dominant infecting species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has improved patient outcomes; however, there is concern that other species are now stepping in to take its place. In addition, the necessarily long-term antibiotic therapy received by these patients may be providing a suitable environment for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. To investigate these issues, we employed whole-genome sequencing of 28 non-Pseudomonas bacterial strains isolated from three paediatric patients. We did not find any trend of increasing antibiotic resistance (either by mutation or lateral gene transfer) in these isolates in comparison with other examples of the same species. In addition, each isolate contained a virulence gene repertoire that was similar to other examples of the relevant species. These results support the impaired clearance of the CF lung not demanding extensive virulence for survival in this habitat. By analysing serial isolates of the same species we uncovered several examples of strain persistence. The same strain of Staphylococcus aureus persisted for nearly a year, despite administration of antibiotics to which it was shown to be sensitive. This is consistent with previous studies showing antibiotic therapy to be inadequate in cystic fibrosis patients, which may also explain the lack of increasing antibiotic resistance over time. Serial isolates of two naturally multi-drug resistant organisms, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, revealed that while all S. maltophilia strains were unique, A. xylosoxidans persisted for nearly five years, making this a species of particular concern. The data generated by this study will assist in developing an understanding of the non-Pseudomonas species associated with cystic fibrosis. PMID:26401445

  4. Comparative genomics of non-pseudomonal bacterial species colonising paediatric cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ormerod, Kate L; George, Narelle M; Fraser, James A; Wainwright, Claire; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The genetic disorder cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting condition affecting ∼70,000 people worldwide. Targeted, early, treatment of the dominant infecting species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has improved patient outcomes; however, there is concern that other species are now stepping in to take its place. In addition, the necessarily long-term antibiotic therapy received by these patients may be providing a suitable environment for the emergence of antibiotic resistance. To investigate these issues, we employed whole-genome sequencing of 28 non-Pseudomonas bacterial strains isolated from three paediatric patients. We did not find any trend of increasing antibiotic resistance (either by mutation or lateral gene transfer) in these isolates in comparison with other examples of the same species. In addition, each isolate contained a virulence gene repertoire that was similar to other examples of the relevant species. These results support the impaired clearance of the CF lung not demanding extensive virulence for survival in this habitat. By analysing serial isolates of the same species we uncovered several examples of strain persistence. The same strain of Staphylococcus aureus persisted for nearly a year, despite administration of antibiotics to which it was shown to be sensitive. This is consistent with previous studies showing antibiotic therapy to be inadequate in cystic fibrosis patients, which may also explain the lack of increasing antibiotic resistance over time. Serial isolates of two naturally multi-drug resistant organisms, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, revealed that while all S. maltophilia strains were unique, A. xylosoxidans persisted for nearly five years, making this a species of particular concern. The data generated by this study will assist in developing an understanding of the non-Pseudomonas species associated with cystic fibrosis. PMID:26401445

  5. Discussing patient management online: the impact of roles on knowledge construction for students interning at the paediatric ward.

    PubMed

    De Wever, Bram; Van Winckel, Myriam; Valcke, Martin

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to explore the use of asynchronous discussion groups during medical students' clinical rotation in paediatrics. In particular, the impact of role assignment on the level of knowledge construction through social negotiation is studied. Case-based asynchronous discussion groups were introduced to enhance reflection and critical thinking on patient management and treatment, and to offer an exercise in evidence-based medical practice. Groups of approximately 4-5 students were asked to discuss 4 authentic cases during clinical rotation in paediatrics. 49 students interning at the paediatric ward participated in this study. With respect to role assignment, differences between groups (1) with a student or an instructor as moderator and (2) with or without a developer of alternatives for patient management were explored. A content analysis was performed to explore the different levels of social construction of knowledge. The results of multilevel logit analyses show a significant difference in knowledge construction through social negotiation between conditions with a student moderator and conditions where the instructor is moderating, but only when a developer of alternatives is involved. No significant difference was revealed between student-moderated and instructor-moderator groups without a developer of alternatives. It can be concluded that when both the moderator and developer role are assigned to students, their contributions are more likely to reflect a high level of knowledge construction. PMID:16841238

  6. Urinary antibiotic activity in paediatric patients attending an outpatient department in north-western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Emary, Katherine R W; Carter, Michael J; Pol, Sreymom; Sona, Soeng; Kumar, Varun; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M; Moore, Catrin E

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antibiotic resistance is a prominent public and global health concern. We investigated antibiotic use in children by determining the proportion of unselected children with antibacterial activity in their urine attending a paediatric outpatient department in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Methods Caregiver reports of medication history and presence of possible infection symptoms were collected in addition to urine samples. Urine antibiotic activity was estimated by exposing bacteria to urine specimens, including assessment against multiresistant bacteria previously isolated from patients in the hospital (a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a multiresistant Salmonella typhi and an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolate). Results Medication information and urine were collected from 775 children. Caregivers reported medication use in 69.0% of children in the preceding 48 h. 31.7% samples showed antibacterial activity; 16.3% showed activity against a local multiresistant organism. No specimens demonstrated activity against an ESBL-producing E. coli. Conclusions Antibiotics are widely used in the community setting in Cambodia. Parents are often ill-informed about drugs given to treat their children. Increasing the regulation and training of private pharmacies in Cambodia may be necessary. Regional surveillance of antibiotic use and resistance is also essential in devising preventive strategies against further development of antibiotic resistance, which would have both local and global consequences. PMID:25324202

  7. Cytotoxic and cell vacuolating activity of Vibrio fluvialis isolated from paediatric patients with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rupa; Chakraborty, Subhra; De, Keya; Sinha, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Khanam, Jasmina; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Nair, G Balakrish

    2005-08-01

    Vibrio fluvialis is a halophilic Vibrio species associated with acute diarrhoeal illness in humans. It has the potential to cause outbreaks and has an association with paediatric diarrhoea. In this study, 11 V. fluvialis strains isolated from hospitalized patients with acute diarrhoea at the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata were extensively characterized. All the strains showed growth in peptone broth containing 7% NaCl. The strains showed variable results in Voges-Proskauer test and to a vibriostatic agent. There was also variation in their antibiograms, and some of the strains were multidrug resistant. Among the 11 strains, two showed only a single band difference in their PFGE profile and the remaining strains showed nine different PFGE patterns. However, unlike PFGE, the strains exhibited close matches and clustering in their ribotype patterns. The haemolytic effect on sheep red blood cells varied with strains. Partial sequence analysis revealed that the V. fluvialis haemolysin gene has 81% homology with that of the El Tor haemolysin of Vibrio cholerae. A striking finding was the capability of all the strains to evoke distinct cytotoxic and vacuolation effects on HeLa cells. PMID:16014422

  8. Our experience with pre-operative haemostatic assessment of paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi

    PubMed Central

    Adekwu, Amali; Adoga, Agida Samuel; Gav, Terna Ambrose

    2016-01-01

    Background: In 2-4% of all patients requiring adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy, pre-operative screening tests for coagulation disorders are indicated to detect surgical bleeding complications. However, because of cost effect on the patients, the usefulness of these tests is being challenged. We therefore highlight our experience in paediatric patients undergoing adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or both in our centre. Patients and Methods: This is a 3½-year analysis of the data of 165 paediatric patients who had adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy or both over the study period. The data collected included age, sex, procedure done and detailed clinical bleeding history. Results: A total of 165 children had either adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy, or both. There were 76 males and 89 females giving a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Their ages ranged from 10 months to 18 years. Eighty-five (51.5%) patients had adenotonsillectomy, 48 (29.1%) and 32 (19.4%) had only tonsillectomies and adenoidectomies, respectively. Only 11 (6.7%) families volunteered the history of either prolonged bleeding with minor injury on the skin or occasional slight nose bleeding. Six (3.6%) patients including 3 of the children with positive family history had posttonsillectomy bleed, out of which 4 (66.7%) were moderate whereas the remaining 2 (33.3%) were severe bleeding, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.041). The two cases of severe bleeding had fresh whole blood transfused whereas the rest that had no bleeding issues were discharged home 48 h postoperatively. Conclusion: Our experience in this study suggests that detailed bleeding history is necessary as well as pre-operative haemostatic assessment, if available and affordable for paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy. PMID:27251655

  9. The use of natural health products by paediatric patients in respite care

    PubMed Central

    Beringer, Audrey; Vaillancourt, Régis; Villarreal, Gilda; Vadeboncoeur, Christina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the use and potential interactions of natural health products (NHPs) with conventional medications in children with life-limiting illnesses. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective medical record review of palliative care patients <18 years of age who were admitted for respite care to a Canadian paediatric hospice between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013. The NHPs were identified according to Health Canada’s inclusion criteria. RESULTS: A total of 106 children were included in the present study. Eighty-two (77.4%) had used one or more NHPs: 60 (56%) used vitamins and minerals; 45 (42.5%) used other products including probiotics, omega-3, organic acids and essential fatty acids; 34 (32.1%) used everyday consumer products; 12 (11.3%) used herb or plant-based remedies; and one (0.9%) used homeopathic remedies. Thirty-nine potential NHP-medication and 10 potential NHP-NHP interactions were identified. A considerable number of patients (n=54) used at least one medication and NHP, or two NHPs with potential interactions. The most common type of interaction was pharmacokinetic: decreasing blood concentrations of the medication, NHP or both (43.9% of NHP users); and enhancing the blood concentration of an NHP for NHP-NHP interactions (22% of NHP users). CONCLUSION: A high proportion of patients in respite care use NHPs. Most used NHPs and medications that have potential interactions, although there were no adverse clinical manifestations in the present study. It is important to educate health care professionals about NHPs, the evidence available and lack thereof. This could reduce the most serious interactions and improve the alliance between parents and health care providers to balance the potential risks and benefits of NHPs. PMID:25722640

  10. Risk stratification for the recurrence of trigger thumb after surgical release in the paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S; Richards, R H

    2016-08-01

    Trigger thumb, or stenosing tenovaginitis, is a relatively uncommon condition affecting the flexor pollicis longus tendon of children. The condition is characterized by the formation of a nodule within the tendon and thickening of the tendon sheath as it passes through the flexor pulley of the thumb at the level of the metacarpo-phalangeal joint. The optimum age for surgical intervention continues to be discussed. The aim of this study is to establish the temporal relationship and surgical variables to determine factors that may contribute to recurrence of the condition. A retrospective analysis of the entire surgical logbook and patient notes of a stand-alone consultant paediatric orthopaedic practice was scrutinized. 94 patients, 107 thumbs, over a 13-year period were operated on for trigger thumb. The recurrence rate was found to be 5.61 %. The average age of patients at primary release who went on to recurrence was 2.8 years, which is significantly younger than those that did not recur (p = 0.044). Sensitivity analysis revealed that the primary procedure at an age of less than 2.5 years confers a higher risk of recurrence. The data presented here advocate surgical release of trigger thumb after 2½ years of age, a senior surgeon as lead operator and a transverse skin incision at the level of the nodule or a more extensive "zig-zag" one to clearly see the structures to be released. We recommend that the surgeon ensures the stenosing pulley and sheath are released in their entirety. PMID:27352865

  11. A multiplex nested PCR for the detection and identification of Candida species in blood samples of critically ill paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nosocomial candidaemia is associated with high mortality rates in critically ill paediatric patients; thus, the early detection and identification of the infectious agent is crucial for successful medical intervention. The PCR-based techniques have significantly increased the detection of Candida species in bloodstream infections. In this study, a multiplex nested PCR approach was developed for candidaemia detection in neonatal and paediatric intensive care patients. Methods DNA samples from the blood of 54 neonates and children hospitalised in intensive care units with suspected candidaemia were evaluated by multiplex nested PCR with specific primers designed to identify seven Candida species, and the results were compared with those obtained from blood cultures. Results The multiplex nested PCR had a detection limit of four Candida genomes/mL of blood for all Candida species. Blood cultures were positive in 14.8% of patients, whereas the multiplex nested PCR was positive in 24.0% of patients, including all culture-positive patients. The results obtained with the molecular technique were available within 24 hours, and the assay was able to identify Candida species with 100% of concordance with blood cultures. Additionally, the multiplex nested PCR detected dual candidaemia in three patients. Conclusions Our proposed PCR method may represent an effective tool for the detection and identification of Candida species in the context of candidaemia diagnosis in children, showing highly sensitive detection and the ability to identify the major species involved in this infection. PMID:25047415

  12. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: An alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Jaya; Dubey, Kamta Prasad; Sahu, Bal Swaroop; Shah, Pratibha Jain

    2010-01-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a supraglottic airway management device. The LMA is preferred for airway management in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures. The recently introduced ProSeal (PLMA), a modification of Classic LMA, has a gastric drainage tube placed lateral to main airway tube which allows the regurgitated gastric contents to bypass the glottis and prevents the pulmonary aspiration. This study was done to compare the efficacy of ProSeal LMA with an endotracheal tube in paediatric patients with respect to number of attempts for placement of devices, haemodynamic responses and perioperative respiratory complications. Sixty children, ASA I and II, weighing 10-20 kg between 2 and 8 years of age group of either sex undergoing elective ophthalmological and lower abdominal surgeries of 30-60 min duration, randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each were studied. The number of attempts for endotracheal intubation was less than the placement of PLMA. Haemodynamic responses were significantly higher (P<0.05) after endotracheal intubation as compared to the placement of PLMA. There were no significant differences in mean SpO2 (%) and EtCO2 levels recorded at different time intervals between the two groups. The incidence of post-operative respiratory complications cough and bronchospasm was higher after extubation than after removal of PLMA. The incidence of soft tissue trauma was noted to be higher for PLMA after its removal. There were no incidences of aspiration and hoarseness/sore throat in either group. It is concluded that ProSeal LMA can be safely considered as a suitable and effective alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures. PMID:21224972

  13. Menstrual disorders in a Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic: patient presentations and longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chung, P W; Chan, Symphorosa S C; Yiu, K W; Lao, Terence T H; Chung, Tony K H

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE. To study the presentations, diagnoses, and outcomes in adolescents with menstrual disorders. DESIGN. Prospective cohort study. SETTING. Paediatric and Adolescent Gynaecology Clinic, Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS. A total of 577 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The presentations and diagnoses of adolescents with menstrual disorders were reviewed and their menstrual outcomes determined by a telephone survey. RESULTS. In all, 47% presented with menorrhagia, prolonged menstruation, and short menstrual cycles; 27% had secondary amenorrhoea, 12% had dysmenorrhoea, 11% had oligomenorrhoea, and 3% had primary amenorrhoea. Significant diagnoses included congenital genital tract anomalies, premature ovarian failure, anorexia nervosa, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Polycystic ovarian syndrome was diagnosed in 16% of the cohort. In all, 24% of these 577 patients had abnormal menstrual cycles 4 years later. Direct logistic regression analysis indicated a cycle length of more than 35 days at presentation (adjusted odds ratio=2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.5), previous diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (adjusted odds ratio=2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4), and current body mass index of 23 kg/m(2) or higher (adjusted odds ratio=1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.0) were risk factors for persistently long menstrual cycle exceeding 35 days. Adolescents who were screened out with a definitive diagnosis after initial assessment were at low risk of persistently long menstrual cycles at follow-up (adjusted odds ratio=0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8). CONCLUSIONS. Adolescent menstrual disorders should not be ignored. Long cycle, diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome at first consultation, and a current body mass index of 23 kg/m(2) or higher were statistically associated with persistent problems. PMID:21979477

  14. Bipolaris hawaiiensis as etiologic agent of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis: first case in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Anuradha; Randhawa, Harbans S; Singh, Varinder; Khan, Z U; Ahmad, S; Kathuria, Shallu; Roy, P; Khanna, Geetika; Chandra, Jagdish

    2011-10-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) is a worldwide hypersensitivity lung disease of multiple etiologies with Aspergillus fumigatus as the most common etiologic agent. We report the first instance of Bipolaris hawaiiensis causing ABPM in a paediatric patient. A six-year-old girl presented in June 2009 with productive cough, exertional dyspnoea, occasional wheezing, restricted air entry in left infra-scapular and infra-axillary areas, 7% eosinophils (absolute count 540/mm(3)) and total IgE 1051.3 IU/m in the sera. Bronchoscopy revealed narrowing of left main bronchus and mucoid impaction of the left lower lobe segmental bronchi. Cytological examination of BAL revealed few eosinophils, Charcot-Leyden crystals and mucus embedded hyphae. Examination of KOH wet mounts of repeated sputum and BAL specimens revealed septate, brownish hyphae and culture of the specimens resulted in the isolation of multiple colonies of a fungus later identified as B. hawaiiensis based on phenotypic characters and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 regions of rDNA. In addition, (1-3)-β-D-glucan was demonstrated in serum (316 pg/ml) by Fungitell kit, supportive of fungal infection/colonization. Histopathologic studies of a bronchial biopsy revealed necrotic debris, macrophage aggregates, lymphocytes, polymorphs and PAS positive hypae. The patient was administered oral itraconazole for 12 weeks, intravenous liposomal amphotericin B for one month, weekly bronchoscopic suctioning and voriconazole instillation, resulting in reduced mucopurulent secretions and considerable clinical improvement. A serum sample collected on 5 November demonstrated precipitins against antigens of the B. hawaiiensis isolate. In March 2010, intradermal skin testing revealed a strong, type I hypersensitivity (induration diam-12 mm) against B. hawaiiensis. The patient relapsed with wheezing and difficulty in respiration in April 2010. Considering the positive type I cutaneous hypersensitivity, the

  15. Systemic exposure to menthol following administration of peppermint oil to paediatric patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peppermint oil (PMO) has been used to treat abdominal ailments dating to ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Despite its increasing paediatric use, as in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) treatment, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of menthol in children given PMO has not been explored. Single-site, exploratory p...

  16. Biomarker-based diagnostic work-up of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised paediatric patients--is Aspergillus PCR appropriate?

    PubMed

    Buchheidt, Dieter; Reinwald, Mark; Spiess, Birgit; Boch, Tobias; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Groll, Andreas H; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults with haematologic malignancies or undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and early diagnosis and adequate antifungal treatment improve outcome. However, important differences exist between children and adults regarding epidemiology, underlying disease, and comorbidities, and the value of diagnostic tools to detect IA may also differ between these patient populations. Imaging studies are important to detect IA early, but typical findings of IA in chest computed tomography of adults are not detected in the majority of children. Whereas the value of the serum marker galactomannan seems to be comparable in children and adults, data on the performance of beta-d-glucan in children are too limited for firm conclusions. PCR-based assays are a promising diagnostic approach to rapidly and reliably detect and identify Aspergillus species in various clinical samples. However, as the majority of data on PCR-based approaches has been obtained in adult patients, the value of this method in paediatric patients has not been defined to date. The present review focuses on studies of PCR-based methods to diagnose IA in immunocompromised paediatric patients. PMID:26756571

  17. Review of therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and protocols for management in adult and paediatric patients using the GRADE classification

    PubMed Central

    Goutos, Ioannis; Clarke, Maria; Upson, Clara; Richardson, Patricia M.; Ghosh, Sudip J.

    2010-01-01

    To review the current evidence on therapeutic agents for burns pruritus and use the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) classification to propose therapeutic protocols for adult and paediatric patients. All published interventions for burns pruritus were analysed by a multidisciplinary panel of burns specialists following the GRADE classification to rate individual agents. Following the collation of results and panel discussion, consensus protocols are presented. Twenty-three studies appraising therapeutic agents in the burns literature were identified. The majority of these studies (16 out of 23) are of an observational nature, making an evidence-based approach to defining optimal therapy not feasible. Our multidisciplinary approach employing the GRADE classification recommends the use of antihistamines (cetirizine and cimetidine) and gabapentin as the first-line pharmacological agents for both adult and paediatric patients. Ondansetron and loratadine are the second-line medications in our protocols. We additionally recommend a variety of non-pharmacological adjuncts for the perusal of clinicians in order to maximise symptomatic relief in patients troubled with postburn itch. Most studies in the subject area lack sufficient statistical power to dictate a ‘gold standard’ treatment agent for burns itch. We encourage clinicians to employ the GRADE system in order to delineate the most appropriate therapeutic approach for burns pruritus until further research elucidates the most efficacious interventions. This widely adopted classification empowers burns clinicians to tailor therapeutic regimens according to current evidence, patient values, risks and resource considerations in different medical environments. PMID:21321658

  18. Topical Tacrolimus versus Hydrocortisone on Atopic Dermatitis in Paediatric Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M F; Nandi, A K; Kabir, S; Kamal, M; Basher, M S; Banu, L A

    2015-07-01

    .16. Difference was highly significant (p<0.001). It is evidenced that Tacrolimus ointment (0.03%) acts as an effective as well as safe non-steroidal topical therapy for the treatment of dermatitis in paediatric patients. PMID:26329939

  19. Respiratory Paradoxical Adverse Drug Reactions Associated with Acetylcysteine and Carbocysteine Systemic Use in Paediatric Patients: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Bavoux, Françoise; Boyer-Gervoise, Marie-José; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report pediatric cases of paradoxical respiratory adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after exposure to oral mucolytic drugs (carbocysteine, acetylcysteine) that led to the withdrawal of licenses for these drugs for infants in France and then Italy. Design The study followed the recommendations of the European guidelines of pharmacovigilance for medicines used in the paediatric population. Setting Cases voluntarily reported by physicians from 1989 to 2008 were identified in the national French pharmacovigilance public database and in drug company databases. Patients The definition of paradoxical respiratory ADRs was based on the literature. Exposure to mucolytic drugs was arbitrarily defined as having received mucolytic drugs for at least 2 days (>200 mg) and at least until the day before the first signs of the suspected ADR. Results The non-exclusive paradoxical respiratory ADRs reported in 59 paediatric patients (median age 5 months, range 3 weeks to 34 months, 98% younger than 2 years old) were increased bronchorrhea or mucus vomiting (n = 27), worsening of respiratory distress during respiratory tract infection (n = 35), dyspnoea (n = 18), cough aggravation or prolongation (n = 11), and bronchospasm (n = 1). Fifty-one (86%) children required hospitalization or extended hospitalization because of the ADR; one patient died of pulmonary oedema after mucus vomiting. Conclusion Parents, physicians, pharmacists, and drug regulatory agencies should know that the benefit risk ratio of mucolytic drugs is at least null and most probably negative in infants according to available evidence. PMID:21818391

  20. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  1. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: Treatment of complicated cases and risk patients. Consensus statement by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (SEIP) and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases (SENP)].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Tagarro García, A; Escribano Montaner, A; Figuerola Mulet, J; García García, J J; Moreno-Galdó, A; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Lliria, C; Saavedra Lozano, J

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia complications has increased during the last decade. According to the records from several countries, empyema and necrotizing pneumonia became more frequent during the last few years. The optimal therapeutic approach for such conditions is still controversial. Both pharmacological management (antimicrobials and fibrinolysis), and surgical management (pleural drainage and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery), are the subject of continuous assessment. In this paper, the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases have reviewed the available evidence. Consensus treatment guidelines are proposed for complications of community-acquired pneumonia in children, focusing on parapneumonic pleural effusion. Recommendations are also provided for the increasing population of patients with underlying diseases and immunosuppression. PMID:25617977

  2. Paediatric manpower.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, M M; Bellman, M H

    1982-01-01

    Two investigations of paediatric manpower in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland were carried out, each using a different method. The first survey located registrars and senior registrars and checked on their occupational status 3 years later in order to see which ones had been promoted. Loss factors--such as emigration, retirement for personal reasons, part-time training, or transfer to general practice, community paediatrics, or other medical specialties--were examined closely. The second survey was a cross-sectional analysis of the entire paediatric establishment. It examined in particular the distribution of consultants and registrars. Using figures from survey 2 and loss factors from survey 1, a model of the paediatric career structure could be constructed. This showed that the present career pyramid would be unable to absorb the current number of registrars in training. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive registration scheme for registrars, especially those with honorary contracts, who are not currently included in official records. Paediatrics is unique in having a high proportion of women for whom there is little opportunity of reconciling career aspirations with family commitments. PMID:7125690

  3. [Physiotherapy of cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Gomez, Izabella; Szekanecz, Éva; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Bender, Tamás

    2016-07-01

    Physiotherapy of cancer patients is one of the most controversial issues in our country. Malignant diseases are firstly mentioned as a contraindication of physiotherapy. Until now, physiotherapy was not suggested (or only in limited accessibility) for those patients who had malignant disease in medical history. International medical practice was less restrictive in managing this topic. The development of imaging techniques put this question in a new light. On the basis of evidence, the majority of articles have reported beneficial effects of physiotherapy in cancer patients, and only few articles mentioned it as harmful. Of course, each patient requires an individual assessment, however, if we exclude the possibility of tumor recurrence and metastasis, most of physiotherapy procedures can be used safely. One of the aims of this review is to support the physicians' decisions when to prescribe treatments, in such a way, that more patients could receive physiotherapy. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(31), 1224-1231. PMID:27476518

  4. Insomnia in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Joseph F

    2004-01-01

    Insomnia affects up to 50% of patients with cancer, but has received little attention from the oncology community compared with other symptoms such as pain and fatigue. Insomnia and subsequent sleep disturbances can lead to fatigue, mood disturbances, and contribute to immunosuppression, which can have a profound impact on quality of life and perhaps affect the course of disease. Insomnia in cancer patients must be distinguished from cancer-related fatigue. Although they are 2 distinct conditions, insomnia and fatigue are interrelated. Insomnia often leads to daytime fatigue that interferes with normal functioning. Conversely, daytime fatigue can lead to behaviors such as napping, which result in insomnia. The primary goal of insomnia treatment should first be to relieve any underlying disorder (eg, cancer pain, depression, anxiety) that may be causing the sleep disturbance. Because insomnia in this patient population may be due to a variety of causes, treatment must be multimodal and include both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. A plan that combines attention to sleep hygiene and cognitive-behavioral therapy with prescription of hypnotic medications can help relieve the symptoms of insomnia in cancer patients and improve their quality of life. PMID:15675652

  5. Paediatric diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes does not spare any section of society, and its prevalence in the paediatric and adolescent age group is rising. This review highlights the etiological and clinical features of childhood diabetes, including secular changes in epidemiology. It discusses the aspects of non pharmacological and pharmacological therapy which are unique to the paediatric age group, and explores current use of novel therapeutic modalities. The article calls for modulation of the psychological environment of the child with diabetes, to help improve his or her quality of life, and sensitizes physicians to take proactive, affirmative action to address the special needs of children with type1 diabetes. PMID:24601207

  6. Influence of age and concurrent medication on steady-state valproic acid serum level-dose ratios in Japanese paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Yukawa, E; Suzuki, A; Higuchi, S; Aoyama, T

    1991-08-01

    The effects of age and co-medication on steady-state valproic acid (VPA) level/dose (L/D) ratios were evaluated retrospectively in 382 paediatric patients. The VPA L/D ratio increased significantly with age up to 15 years of age in patients on monotherapy (L/D = 0.149 x AGE + 2.708, n = 192, r = 0.549, P less than 0.001). In patients taking three or more anti-epileptic drugs, including VPA, there was no such effect. Associated anti-epileptic therapy affected the VPA L/D ratio, which was significantly reduced in patients on polytherapy as compared to patients on monotherapy. Therefore, routine monitoring of VPA serum levels would be extremely useful, especially in the paediatric age group, and in patients who require associated anti-epileptic medication. PMID:1939408

  7. The cost effectiveness of treating paediatric cancer in low-income and middle-income countries: a case-study approach using acute lymphocytic leukaemia in Brazil and Burkitt lymphoma in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Nickhill; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Gupta, Sumit; Howard, Scott C

    2013-02-01

    Approximately 90% of children with cancer reside in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) where healthcare resources are scarce and allocation decisions difficult. The cost effectiveness of treating childhood cancers in these settings is unknown. The objective of the present work was to determine cost-effectiveness thresholds for common paediatric cancers using acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Brazil and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in Malawi as examples. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented by treatment were compared to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of each country to define cost-effectiveness thresholds using WHO-CHOICE ('CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective') guidelines. The case examples were selected due to the data available and because ALL and BL both have the potential to yield significant health gains at a low cost per patient treated. The key findings were as follows: the 3:1 cost/DALY prevented to GDP/capita ratio for ALL in Brazil was US $771,225; expenditures below this threshold were cost effective. Costs below US $257,075 (1:1 ratio) were considered very cost effective. Analogous thresholds for BL in Malawi were US $42,729 and US $14,243. Actual costs were far less. In Brazil, US $16,700 was spent to treat each patient while in Malawi total drug costs were less than US $50 per child. In summary, treatment of certain paediatric cancers in LMIC is very cost effective. Future research should evaluate actual treatment and infrastructure expenditures to help guide policymakers. PMID:23201550

  8. Mass spectrometry based data of the blister fluid proteome of paediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Zang, Tuo; Broszczak, Daniel A; Cuttle, Leila; Broadbent, James A; Tanzer, Catherine; Parker, Tony J

    2016-09-01

    The data presented here are associated with the article "The blister fluid proteome of paediatric burns" (Zang et al., 2016) [1]. Burn injury is a highly traumatic event for children. The degree of burn severity (superficial-, deep-, or full-thickness injury) often dictates the extent of later scar formation which may require long term surgical operation or skin grafting. The data were obtained by fractionating paediatric burn blister fluid samples, which were pooled according to burn depth and then analysed using data dependent acquisition LC-MS/MS. The data includes a table of all proteins identified, in which burn depth category they were found, the percentage sequence coverage for each protein and the number of high confidence peptide identifications for each protein. Further Gene Ontology enrichment analysis shows the significantly over-represented biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components of the burn blister fluid proteome. In addition, tables include the proteins associated with the biological processes of "wound healing" and "response to stress" as examples of highly relevant processes that occur in burn wounds. PMID:27536711

  9. A review of paediatric telehealth for pre- and post-operative surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony C; Garner, Lisa; Caffery, Liam J; McBride, Craig A

    2014-10-01

    The Queensland Telepaediatric Service (QTS) was established in the year 2000 to deliver a broad range of paediatric specialist health services from the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Brisbane, mainly via videoconference. During a 13-year study period, the QTS facilitated 18,949 video consultations, comprising Mental Health (42%), Medicine (30%), Surgery (21%) and Other (8%). We reviewed the surgical services provided through the QTS. There were 3880 video consultations with a paediatric surgeon. Most of these (91%) used fixed videoconferencing units, 8% were delivered via mobile units (robots) and 1% were delivered using Skype. Surgical consultations were provided by telehealth to 106 sites: 89% in Queensland and the rest to other states. The main surgical specialties were burns (50%), ear, nose and throat (19%), general surgery (21%), orthopaedics (9%) and vascular anomalies (2%). During a 12-month audit period, there were 224 teleconsultations in general surgery; the most common reason for referral was for undescended testes (17%). During the study period there was a significant growth in all surgical telehealth activity: linear regression showed an annual increase of 17 cases per year (P < 0.02). In the last four years of the study, there was a substantial growth in the general surgical component, although there was also a reduction in the burns component. Telehealth has potential for other specialist consultations which require periodic assessment and review. PMID:25400001

  10. Can linking databases answer questions about paediatric heart failure?

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Davies, Ryan R

    2015-08-01

    Numerous data sets collect information on patients with paediatric cardiovascular disease, including paediatric heart failure and transplant patients. This review discusses methodologies available for linking and integrating information across data sets, which may help facilitate answering important questions in the field of paediatric heart failure and transplant that cannot be answered with individual data sets or single-centre data alone. PMID:26377723

  11. Evaluation of radiation dose to anthropomorphic paediatric models from positron-emitting labelled tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-03-01

    PET uses specific molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides to provide valuable biochemical and physiological information. However, the administration of radiotracers to patients exposes them to low-dose ionizing radiation, which is a concern in the paediatric population since children are at a higher cancer risk from radiation exposure than adults. Therefore, radiation dosimety calculations for commonly used positron-emitting radiotracers in the paediatric population are highly desired. We evaluate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 19 positron-emitting labelled radiotracers in anthropomorphic paediatric models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old male and female. This is achieved using pre-calculated S-values of positron-emitting radionuclides of UF-NCI paediatric phantoms and published biokinetic data for various radiotracers. The influence of the type of anthropomorphic model, tissue weight factors and direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data on the effective dose for paediatric phantoms was also evaluated. In the case of 18F-FDG, dosimetry calculations of reference paediatric patients from various dose regimens were also calculated. Among the considered radiotracers, 18F-FBPA and 15O-water resulted in the highest and lowest effective dose in the paediatric phantoms, respectively. The ICRP 103 updated tissue-weighting factors decrease the effective dose in most cases. Substantial differences of radiation dose were observed between direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data. Moreover, the effect of using voxel- versus MIRD-type models on the calculation of the effective dose was also studied. The generated database of absorbed organ dose and effective dose for various positron-emitting labelled radiotracers using new generation computational models and the new ICRP tissue-weighting factors can be used for the assessment of radiation risks to paediatric patients in clinical practice. This work also contributes

  12. Bridging the Distance in the Caribbean: Telemedicine as a means to build capacity for care in paediatric cancer and blood disorders.

    PubMed

    Adler, Ellie; Alexis, Cheryl; Ali, Zulaika; Allen, Upton; Bartels, Ute; Bick, Cassandra; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Bodkyn, Curt; Boyle, Rosemary; De Young, Stephanie; Fleming-Carroll, Bonnie; Gupta, Sumit; Ingram-Martin, Patricia; Irwin, Meredith; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; McLean-Salmon, Sharon; Mihelcic, Paul; Richards-Dawson, Michelle Ann; Reece-Mills, Michelle; Shaikh, Furqan; Sinquee-Brown, Corrine; Thame, Minerva; Weitzman, Sheila; Wharfe, Gilian; Blanchette, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, survival for children in high-income countries has increased from 30% to over 80%, compared to 10-30% in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Given this gap in survival, established paediatric cancer treatment centres, such as The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) are well positioned to share clinical expertise. Through the SickKids Centre for Global Child Health, the SickKids-Caribbean Initiative (SCI) was launched in March 2013 to improve the outcomes and quality of life for children with cancer and blood disorders in the Caribbean. The six participating Caribbean countries are among those defined by the United Nations as Small Island Developing States, due to their small size, remote location and limited accessibility. Telemedicine presents an opportunity to increase their accessibility to health care services and has been used by SCI to facilitate two series of interprofessional rounds. Case Consultation Review Rounds are a forum for learning about diagnostic work-up, management challenges and treatment recommendations for these diseases. To date, 54 cases have been reviewed by SickKids staff, of which 35 have been presented in monthly rounds. Patient Care Education Rounds provide nurses and other staff with the knowledge base needed to safely care for children and adolescents receiving treatment. Five of these rounds have taken place to date, with over 200 attendees. Utilized by SCI for both clinical and non-clinical meetings, telemedicine has enhanced opportunities for collaboration within the Caribbean region. By building capacity and nurturing expert knowledge through education, SCI hopes to contribute to closing the gap in childhood survival between high and low-resource settings. PMID:25980698

  13. Criteria versus guidelines: Are we doing the best for our paediatric patients?

    PubMed

    Hanvey, Kate; Ambler, Marette; Maggs, Justine; Wilson, Katherine

    2016-04-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance for the provision of cochlear implants (NICE Technology Appraisal Guidance 166. Cochlear implants for children and adults with severe to profound deafness. 2009. National Health Service National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.) are used to develop candidacy criteria by public health funding bodies within the UK. Often the guidance is interpreted as strict 'criteria' whereby clinicians adhere to specific audiometric thresholds without accounting for the acceptable range of performance on individual tests or a child's functional development. In this paper four clinical paediatric case studies are described from two cochlear implant centres which serve to illustrate difficulties in applying NICE guidance as strict criteria. These are presented in the context of recommending more flexible interpretation based on the content of the current guidance along with considerations of circumstances where NICE guidance might be adapted to optimise use of cochlear implant technology within a national framework. PMID:27099118

  14. Next generation exome sequencing of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease patients identifies rare and novel variants in candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Katja; Wiskin, Anthony E; Gibson, Jane; Tapper, William; Willis, Claire; Afzal, Nadeem A; Upstill-Goddard, Rosanna; Holloway, John W; Simpson, Michael A; Beattie, R Mark; Collins, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple genes have been implicated by association studies in altering inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predisposition. Paediatric patients often manifest more extensive disease and a particularly severe disease course. It is likely that genetic predisposition plays a more substantial role in this group. Objective To identify the spectrum of rare and novel variation in known IBD susceptibility genes using exome sequencing analysis in eight individual cases of childhood onset severe disease. Design DNA samples from the eight patients underwent targeted exome capture and sequencing. Data were processed through an analytical pipeline to align sequence reads, conduct quality checks, and identify and annotate variants where patient sequence differed from the reference sequence. For each patient, the entire complement of rare variation within strongly associated candidate genes was catalogued. Results Across the panel of 169 known IBD susceptibility genes, approximately 300 variants in 104 genes were found. Excluding splicing and HLA-class variants, 58 variants across 39 of these genes were classified as rare, with an alternative allele frequency of <5%, of which 17 were novel. Only two patients with early onset Crohn's disease exhibited rare deleterious variations within NOD2: the previously described R702W variant was the sole NOD2 variant in one patient, while the second patient also carried the L1007 frameshift insertion. Both patients harboured other potentially damaging mutations in the GSDMB, ERAP2 and SEC16A genes. The two patients severely affected with ulcerative colitis exhibited a distinct profile: both carried potentially detrimental variation in the BACH2 and IL10 genes not seen in other patients. Conclusion For each of the eight individuals studied, all non-synonymous, truncating and frameshift mutations across all known IBD genes were identified. A unique profile of rare and potentially damaging variants was evident for each patient with this

  15. Systemic exposure to menthol following administration of peppermint oil to paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Gregory L; Chumpitazi, Bruno Pedro; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Garg, Uttam; Shulman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Peppermint oil (PMO) has been used to treat abdominal ailments dating to ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome. Despite its increasing paediatric use, as in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) treatment, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of menthol in children given PMO has not been explored. Design and setting Single-site, exploratory pilot study of menthol PK following a single 187 mg dose of PMO. Subjects with paediatric Rome II defined (IBS; n=6, male and female, 7–15 years of age) were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained before PMO administration and at 10 discrete time points over a 12 h postdose period. Menthol was quantitated from plasma using a validated gas chromatography mass spectrometry technique. Menthol PK parameters were determined using a standard non-compartmental approach. Results Following a dose of PMO, a substantial lag time (range 1–4 h) was seen in all subjects for the appearance of menthol which in turn, produced a delayed time of peak (Tmax=5.3±2.4 h) plasma concentration (Cmax=698.2±245.4 ng/mL). Tmax and Tlag were significantly more variable than the two exposure parameters; Cmax, mean residence time and total area under the curve (AUC=4039.7±583.8 ng/mL×h) which had a coefficient of variation of <20%. Conclusions Delayed appearance of menthol in plasma after oral PMO administration in children is likely a formulation-specific event which, in IBS, could increase intestinal residence time of the active ingredient. Our data also demonstrate the feasibility of using menthol PK in children with IBS to support definitive studies of PMO dose–effect relationships. PMID:26270949

  16. The outcomes and treatment burden of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia in Australia, 1997-2008: A report from the Australian Paediatric Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Foresto, Steven A; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Hallahan, Andrew R; Aitken, Joanne F; Moore, Andrew S

    2015-09-01

    Childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) requires intensive therapy and is associated with survival rates that are substantially inferior to many other childhood malignancies. We undertook a retrospective analysis of Australian Paediatric Cancer Registry data from 1997 to 2008 together with a single-centre audit during the same period assessing burden on service delivery at a tertiary children's hospital (Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane). Although survival improved from 54.3% (1997-2002) to 69.2% (2003-2008), childhood AML caused a disproportionate number of childhood cancer deaths, accounting for 5.5% of all childhood cancer diagnoses yet 7.9% of all childhood cancer mortality. Furthermore, treatment was associated with significant toxicity requiring intensive use of local health resources. Novel therapeutic strategies aimed at improving survival and reducing toxicity are urgently required. PMID:25855531

  17. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-04-15

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  18. Determining standard criteria for endotracheal suctioning in the paediatric intensive care patient: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kylie; Monterosso, Leanne; Leslie, Gavin

    2011-04-01

    This four-phase mixed method study developed an evidence based "Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool" (ESAT) as a guide for nurses undertaking "endotracheal tube" (ETT) suction within "Paediatric Intensive Care" (PIC). Phase 1 involved a comprehensive literature review to determine the most commonly used criteria for assessing the need for ETT suction. In Phase 2 an "Endotracheal Suction Questionnaire" (ESQ) was developed to survey experienced PIC nurses in Australia and New Zealand regarding their ETT suction decision making process and validity testing of the ESQ. In Phase 3, the ESQ was administered to target group (n=104). In Phase 4, the empirical evidence generated from this study, based upon the criteria rated by nurses in this study as being most clinically important and essential during the decision making process, determined the ESAT design. Analyses of quantitative results showed a positive correlation between the perceived frequency of use of a criterion and the appropriateness of the assessment. Where a criterion was used less frequently as a clinical indicator for the requirement for ETT suction, participants had a lower regard for this when rating the criterion as a specific single indicator to perform suction. Findings from qualitative data identified six criteria not previously documented within the literature. Further testing and validation of the tool within the PIC setting will determine the clinical viability of the ESAT. PMID:21371887

  19. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... mould-related diseases in immunocompromised patients. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2011;66:i5-i14. Ribaud P. Fungal ... al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer: 2010 Update ...

  20. Dosimetric Quantities for Computed Tomography Examinations of Paediatric Patients on the Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-M, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Dies, P.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.

    2010-12-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a high dose X ray imaging procedure and its use has rapidly increased in the last two decades fueled by the development of helical CT. The aim of this study is to present values of the dosimetric quantities for CT paediatric examinations of thoracic and abdominal regions. The protocols studied were those of chest, lung-mediastine, chest-abdomen, pulmonary high resolution and mediastine-abdomen, which are the more common examinations performed at "Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez" in the thoracic-abdominal region. The measurements were performed on a Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT Scanner and the equipment used was a CT pencil ionization chamber, connected to an electrometer. This system was calibrated for RQT9 CT beam quality. A PMMA head phantom with diameter of 16 cm and length of 15 cm was also used. The dosimetric quantities measured were the weighted air kerma index (Cw), the volumetric dose index (Cvol) and the CT air kerma-length product. It was found that the pulmonary high resolution examination presented the highest values for the Cw (31.1 mGy) and Cvol (11.1 mGy). The examination with the lowest values of these two quantities was the chest-abdomen protocol with 10.5 mGy for Cw and 5.5 mGy for Cvol. However, this protocol presented the highest value for PKL,CT (282.2 mGy cm) when considering the average clinical length of the examinations.

  1. Dosimetric Quantities for Computed Tomography Examinations of Paediatric Patients on the Thoracic and Abdominal Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Flores-M, E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Dies, P.

    2010-12-07

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a high dose X ray imaging procedure and its use has rapidly increased in the last two decades fueled by the development of helical CT. The aim of this study is to present values of the dosimetric quantities for CT paediatric examinations of thoracic and abdominal regions. The protocols studied were those of chest, lung-mediastine, chest-abdomen, pulmonary high resolution and mediastine-abdomen, which are the more common examinations performed at ''Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez'' in the thoracic-abdominal region. The measurements were performed on a Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT Scanner and the equipment used was a CT pencil ionization chamber, connected to an electrometer. This system was calibrated for RQT9 CT beam quality. A PMMA head phantom with diameter of 16 cm and length of 15 cm was also used. The dosimetric quantities measured were the weighted air kerma index (C{sub w}), the volumetric dose index (C{sub vol}) and the CT air kerma-length product. It was found that the pulmonary high resolution examination presented the highest values for the C{sub w}(31.1 mGy) and C{sub vol}(11.1 mGy). The examination with the lowest values of these two quantities was the chest-abdomen protocol with 10.5 mGy for C{sub w} and 5.5 mGy for C{sub vol}. However, this protocol presented the highest value for P{sub KL,CT}(282.2 mGy cm) when considering the average clinical length of the examinations.

  2. Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

  3. Paediatric personnel extremity dose study.

    PubMed

    Gallet, J M C; Reed, M H

    2002-03-01

    Concern has been expressed in paediatric radiology regarding the magnitude of the extremity dose received by attending personnel during routine fluoroscopic procedures and CT. Common procedures that may be of short duration in adults can be quite the opposite in paediatric patients. The extremities of attending personnel are more likely to be exposed to the primary beam and for a longer period of time owing to a variety of reasons such as assisting in the procedure or physically restraining the patient during the examination. During the period mid 1998 to mid 2000, two paediatric radiologists, four senior radiographers and two paediatric nurses were monitored using ring thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Each participant wore the ring TLD on either the left or right ring finger, depending on which hand the individual favoured. Left/right asymmetrical studies were not conducted, nor were records kept of whether an examination used a grid or gridless technique. Initial apprehension about higher paediatric fluoroscopic and CT extremity doses was dispelled as a result of this quantitative dosimetric study. PMID:11932219

  4. Cost trajectories for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wodchis, W.P.; Arthurs, E.; Khan, A.I.; Gandhi, S.; MacKinnon, M.; Sussman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care spending is known to be highly skewed, with a small subset of the population consuming a disproportionate amount of health care resources. Patients with cancer are high-cost users because of high incremental health care costs for treatment and the growing prevalence of cancer. The objectives of the present study included characterizing cancer-patient trajectories by cost, and identifying the patient and health system characteristics associated with high health system costs after cancer treatment. Methods This retrospective cohort study identified Ontario adults newly diagnosed with cancer between 1 April 2009 and 30 September 2010. Costs of health care use before, during, and after cancer episodes were used to develop trajectories of care. Descriptive analyses examined differences between the trajectories in terms of clinical and health system characteristics, and a logistic regression approach identified predictors of being a high-cost user after a cancer episode. Results Ten trajectories were developed based on whether patients were high- or low-cost users before and after their cancer episode. The most common trajectory represented patients who were low-cost in the year before cancer, survived treatment, and continued to be low-cost in the year after cancer (31.4%); stage ii cancer of the male genital system was the most common diagnosis within that trajectory. Regression analyses identified increases in age and in multimorbidity and low continuity of care as the strongest predictors of high-cost status after cancer. Conclusions Findings highlight an opportunity to proactively identify patients who might transition to high-cost status after cancer treatment and to remediate that transition. PMID:26985150

  5. What kinds of cases do paediatricians refer to clinical ethics? Insights from 184 case referrals at an Australian paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Rosalind J; Notini, Lauren

    2016-09-01

    Clinical ethics has been developing in paediatric healthcare for several decades. However, information about how paediatricians use clinical ethics case consultation services is extremely limited. In this project, we analysed a large set of case records from the clinical ethics service of one paediatric hospital in Australia. We applied a paediatric-specific typology to the case referrals, based on the triadic doctor-patient-parent relationship. We reviewed the 184 cases referred to the service in the period 2005-2014, noting features including the type of case, the referring department(s) and the patient's age at referral. The two most common types of referral involved clinician uncertainty about the appropriate care pathway for the child (26% of total referrals) and situations where the child's parents disagreed with the doctors' recommendations for the child's care (22% of total referrals). Referrals came from 28 different departments. Cancer, cardiology/cardiac surgery and general medicine referred the highest numbers of cases. The most common patient age groups were children under 1, and 14-15 years old. For three controversial areas of paediatric healthcare, clinicians had initiated processes of routine review of cases by the clinical ethics service. These insights into the way in which one very active paediatric clinical ethics service is used further our understanding of the work of paediatric clinical ethics, particularly the kinds of ethically challenging cases that paediatricians view as appropriate to refer for clinical ethics support. PMID:27317508

  6. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of bacterial and viral enteropathogens in stool samples of paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Onori, Manuela; Coltella, Luana; Mancinelli, Livia; Argentieri, Marta; Menichella, Donato; Villani, Alberto; Grandin, Annalisa; Valentini, Diletta; Raponi, Massimiliano; Russo, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated a multiplex PCR assay, the Seeplex Diarrhoea ACE detection, that simultaneously detects 15 enteric pathogens, including Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., toxin B producer Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Aeromonas spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli, adenovirus, Group A rotavirus, norovirus GI and GII, and astrovirus. We compared this assay with clinical methods routinely used in our laboratory, for detecting enteropathogens in stool samples collected from 245 paediatric patients with suspected infectious gastroenteritis. We recovered 61 bacterial pathogens and 121 enteric viruses with our laboratory assays, while we detected 78 bacteria and 167 viruses with the molecular assay. We calculated specificity and sensitivity for both methods after analysis of discordant results and demonstrated greater sensitivity for multiplex PCR than for our routine methods, with the exception of Salmonella spp. and toxigenic C. difficile detection. The multiplex PCR assay proved to be a reliable tool to directly detect the most common enteropathogens in stool samples but with some limitations. PMID:24656922

  7. Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus using Direct Fluorescent Antibody Assay in Paediatric Patients with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boloor, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) pulmonary disease manifesting as bronchiolitis and pneumonia continues to play a major role in the childhood mortality and morbidity. Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of RSV among hospitalized children presenting with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI) and its correlation with risk factors. Aim To determine the occurrence of RSV related respiratory tract infection in paediatric patients and to access the risk factors and clinical features associated. Materials and Methods RSV antigen detection was performed by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) staining on 100 nasopharyngeal aspirate collected from hospitalized children below 5 years of age with a diagnosis of ARTI. Results Out of the 100 samples tested for RSV with DFA, 22 (22%) were found RSV positive with a mean age of 12 months and a male to female ratio of (1.75:1). Clinical features significantly associated with RSV were wheezing and breathlessness. Congenital heart disease (CHD) and prematurity were the risk factors significantly associated with RSV infection. Conclusion RSV infection is a significant cause of morbidity among children presenting with ARTI. In resource limited countries DFA can be used as an important tool for rapid detection of RSV and can potentially eliminate prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  8. Evaluation of a tissue-engineered bovine pericardial patch in paediatric patients with congenital cardiac anomalies: initial experience with the ADAPT-treated CardioCel® patch

    PubMed Central

    Neethling, William M.L.; Strange, Geoff; Firth, Laura; Smit, Francis E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study evaluated the safety, efficacy and clinical performance of the tissue-engineered ADAPT® bovine pericardial patch (ABPP) in paediatric patients with a range of congenital cardiac anomalies. METHODS In this single-centre, prospective, non-randomized clinical study, paediatric patients underwent surgery for insertion of the ABPP. Primary efficacy measures included early (<30 day) morbidity; incidence of device-related complications; haemodynamic performance derived from echocardiography assessment at 6- and 12-month follow-up and magnetic resonance imaging findings in 10 randomly selected patients at 12 months. Secondary measures included device-handling characteristics; shape and sizing characteristics and perioperative implant complications. The Aristotle complexity scoring system was used to score the complexity level of all surgical procedures. Patients completing the 12-month study were eligible to enter a long-term evaluation study. RESULTS Between April 2008 and September 2009, the ABPP was used in 30 paediatric patients. In the 30-day postoperative period, no graft-related morbidity was observed. In total, there were 5 deaths (2 in the 30-day postoperative period and 3 within the first 6 postoperative months). All deaths were deemed due to comorbid non-graft-related events. Echocardiography assessment at 6 and 12 months revealed intact anatomical and haemodynamically stable repairs without any visible calcification of the patch. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment in 10 patients at 12 months revealed no signs of calcification. Fisher's exact test demonstrated that patients undergoing more complex, higher risk surgical repairs (Aristotle complexity score >8) were significantly more likely to die (P = 0.0055, 58% survival compared with 100% survival for less complex surgical repairs). In 19 patients, echocardiographic data were available at 18–36 months with no evidence of device calcification, infection, thromboembolic events or

  9. Target concentration intervention is needed for tobramycin dosing in paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis – a population pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Stefanie; Norris, Ross; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J

    2008-01-01

    Aim The primary aim was to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters of once-daily intravenous (i.v.) tobramycin in paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and to investigate the influence of covariates. The second aim was to assess the need for target concentration intervention (TCI) for tobramycin in this patient group. Methods Retrospective demographic, dosing and concentration data were collected from 35 CF patients (21 female, 14 male) aged 0.5–17.8 years, from whom 318 tobramycin plasma concentrations were available. NONMEM was used to estimate the population pharmacokinetics of tobramycin. Simulations were performed using weight-based dosing with a weight from a covariate distribution model to evaluated current dosing schedules and monitoring practices. Results A two-compartment model best described the data with population parameter estimates for clearance of central compartment (CL) of 6.37 l h−1 per 70 kg; volume of central compartment (Vc) of 18.7 l per 70 kg; intercompartmental clearance (Q) of 0.393 l h−1; and volume of peripheral compartment (Vper) of 1.32 l. The inclusion of total body weight as covariate reduced the random component of between-subject variability in CL from 50.1% to 11.7% and in Vc from 62.2% to 11.6%. The between-occasion variability on CL was estimated in the final model as 6.5%. Simulations show that one dose does not fit all and TCI and dose adjustment are required. Conclusions This study provides the first pharmacokinetic model of once-daily i.v. tobramycin for the use of target concentration intervention in paediatric CF patients. What is already known about this subject Two recent papers have been published which have attempted to build a full population pharmacokinetic model for tobramycin in children with cystic fibrosis.However, neither study was able to provide any information about between-subject variability (BSV) and between-occasion variability (BOV), which is necessary to justify and draw conclusions

  10. The role of surgery in the treatment of invasive fungal infection in paediatric haematology patients: a retrospective single-centre survey.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Pegoraro, Anna; Tridello, Gloria; Pillon, Marta; Cannata, Elisa; Faggin, Stefano; Cecchetto, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    Surgery may improve the control of fungal disease and patient survival. The aim of this study was to report a single-centre experience in using surgery for the treatment of paediatric invasive fungal infection (IFI). From 2001 to 2009, 18 paediatric onco-haematology patients underwent 24 surgical procedures as treatment of IFI. At surgery, severe thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were present in four and one episodes respectively. Complications were one pleural effusion, one pleural effusion and surgical wound infection, one pneumothorax with wound dehiscence and one wound dehiscence. None of them required repeat surgery. The median duration of hospitalisation for four complicated procedures was 11 days, range 3-16, and 7 days, range 2-13, for the 20 uncomplicated procedures. No surgery-related deaths occurred. Fourteen patients resumed chemotherapy after a median of 26 days, range 9-77, whereas nine patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after a median of 42 days, range 27-110. At 3 months from IFI, 17 patients were alive (94%) and one patient (6%) died from mycosis; the 3-month overall survival (OS) being 94.4%, CI 66.6-99.2. After a median follow-up of 7.1 years (CI 2.8-7.5), the OS was 54.5%, CI 29.2-74.2. Surgery is a feasible and valuable option in paediatric patients because it is associated with a low incidence of complications and an acceptable delay in resuming the chemotherapeutic plan. PMID:24438353

  11. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Soininen, Leena; Pokhrel, Arun; Dyba, Tadek; Pukkala, Eero; Hakulinen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30) and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20), indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland. PMID:22765936

  12. Molecular Typing and Epidemiology Profiles of Human Adenovirus Infection among Paediatric Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yamin; Zhou, Weimin; Zhao, Yanjie; Wang, Yanqun; Xie, Zhengde; Lou, Yongliang; Tan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been recognised as pathogens that cause a broad spectrum of diseases. The studies on HAdV infection among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) are limited. Objective To investigate the prevalence, epidemiology, and genotype of HAdV among children with SARI in China. Study Design Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) or induced sputum (IS) was collected from hospitalised children with SARIs in Beijing (representing Northern China; n = 259) and Zhejiang Province (representing Eastern China; n = 293) from 2007 to 2010. The prevalence of HAdV was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequence typing of PCR fragments that targeted the second half of the hexon gene. In addition, co-infection with other human respiratory viruses, related epidemiological profiles and clinical presentations were investigated. Results and Conclusions In total, 76 (13.8%) of 552 SARI patients were positive for HAdV, and the infection rates of HAdV in Northern and Eastern China were 20.1% (n = 52) and 8.2% (n = 24), respectively. HAdV co-infection with other respiratory viruses was frequent (infection rates: Northern China, 90.4%; Eastern China, 70.8%). The peak seasons for HAdV-B infection was winter and spring. Additionally, members of multiple species (Human mastadenovirus B, C, D and E) were circulating among paediatric patients with SARI, of which HAdV-B (34/52; 65.4%) and HAdV-C (20/24, 83.3%) were the most predominant in Northern and Eastern China, respectively. These findings provide a benchmark for future epidemiology and prevention strategies for HAdV. PMID:25856575

  13. [Sexy cancer--sexuality for cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Peleg-Nesher, Sharon; Yachini, Brurya; Inbar, Moshe

    2009-09-01

    Sexuality is a basic need for every human being as long as he or she is alive, irrespective of age or health status. Approximately 23,500 individuals are diagnosed with cancer each year in Israel and join the 120,000 cancer patients currently living in Israel. The results of cancer treatments are traditionally assessed and based on the outcome regarding mortality versus survival. An equally important aspect to be addressed in this assessment must relate to quality of life. One of the more painful insults to the quality of life of cancer patients relates to the deleterious effects on sexuality. This article aims to present physicians with the spectrum of sexuality-related issues which are encountered by cancer patients and their partners, starting from the moment of diagnosis, throughout the various stages of treatment and to provide basic knowledge. Many individuals contracting cancer have difficulty dealing with the issue of sexuality. They are typically embarrassed and feel uneasy when asking health care providers about such a non-life threatening issue. Partners similarly feel both shame and guilt. In many cases sexuality, intimacy and emotional attachment are important aspects and may be essential for survival. Addressing these issues during treatment can provide patients with a sense of security, avoiding embarrassment and further exacerbation of such problems. Unfortunately, little has been done to develop an optimal interventional program, although standard sexual treatments have often been applied. Prospective clinical research and outcomes are missing. The physician can use the well-known PLISSIT model (1978): to provide sexuality involvement on different levels. The very new BETTER model (2004) can help emphasize that cancer treatment and the disease have an influence on intimacy and sexuality. PMID:20070056

  14. Autoclaved Tumor Bone for Skeletal Reconstruction in Paediatric Patients: A Low Cost Alternative in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Umer, Masood; Umer, Hafiz Muhammad; Qadir, Irfan; Rashid, Haroon; Awan, Rabia; Askari, Raza; Ashraf, Shamvil

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed in this series forty patients of pediatric age who underwent resection for malignant tumors of musculoskeletal system followed by biological reconstruction. Our surgical procedure for reconstruction included (1) wide en bloc resection of the tumor; (2) curettage of tumor from the resected bone; (3) autoclaving for 8 minutes (4) bone grafting from the fibula (both vascularized and nonvascularized fibular grafts used); (5) reimplantation of the autoclaved bone into the host bone defect and fixation with plates. Functional evaluation was done using MSTS scoring system. At final followup of at least 18 months (mean 29.2 months), 31 patients had recovered without any complications. Thirty-eight patients successfully achieved a solid bony union between the graft and recipient bone. Three patients had surgical site infection. They were managed with wound debridement and flap coverage of the defect. Local recurrence and nonunion occurred in two patients each. One patient underwent disarticulation at hip due to extensive local disease and one died of metastasis. For patients with non-union, revision procedure with bone graft and compression plates was successfully used. The use of autoclaved tumor grafts provides a limb salvage option that is inexpensive and independent of external resources and is a viable option for musculoskeletal tumor management in developing countries. PMID:24455717

  15. Clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics of paediatric epithelioid glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Broniscer, Alberto; Tatevossian, Ruth G.; Sabin, Noah D.; Klimo, Paul; Dalton, James; Lee, Ryan; Gajjar, Amar; Ellison, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims A few case series in adults have described the characteristics of epithelioid glioblastoma (e-GB), one of the rarest variants of this cancer. We evaluated clinical, radiological, histological, and molecular characteristics in the largest series to date of paediatric e-GB. Methods Review of clinical characteristics and therapy, imaging studies, and histology was performed in patients younger than 22 years with e-GB seen at our institution over 15 years. Sequencing of hotspot mutations and FISH of relevant genes were undertaken. Results Median age at diagnosis of six patients was 7.6 years. Tumours originated in the cerebral cortex (n=2) or diencephalon (n=4). Three patients presented with acute, massive haemorrhage and three had leptomeningeal dissemination at diagnosis. Paediatric e-GB had the typical histological characteristics seen in adult tumours. Universal immunoreactivity for INI1 and lack of diverse protein expression were seen in all cases. One tumour had a chromosome 22q loss. Three tumours (50%) harboured a BRAF: p.V600E. One thalamic tumour had an H3F3A p.K27M. All patients received radiation therapy with (n=3) or without chemotherapy (n=3). All patients experienced tumour progression with a median survival of 169 days. One patient with non-metastatic disease had early leptomeningeal progression. Two patients had symptomatic tumour spread outside the central nervous system (CNS) through a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. One additional patient had widespread metastases outside the CNS identified at autopsy. Conclusions Paediatric e-GBs are rare cancers with an aggressive behaviour that share histological and genetic characteristics with their adult counterparts. BRAF inhibition is a potential treatment for these tumours. PMID:24127995

  16. Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Straker, Norman

    1998-01-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective as an approach to understanding the psychological conflicts and the psychiatric symptoms of cancer patients as well as to planning useful psychological interventions. The author recommends that the psychotherapist who treats cancer patients be familiar with the following: 1) the natural course and treatment of the illness, 2) a flexible approach in accord with the medical status of the patient, 3) a common sense approach to defenses, 4) a concern with quality-of-life issues, and 5) counter- transference issues as they relate to the treatment of very sick patients. Case reports illustrate the unique problems facing psychotherapists who are treating cancer patients. Further, these cases show the effective use of psychodynamic principles to inform the therapist of successful psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:9407471

  17. Essentials of paediatric infection control

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L

    2001-01-01

    Young children readily transmit and acquire nosocomial infections. Children are also vulnerable to endogenous infections as a result of the breakdown of their normal defences by disease, invasive procedures or therapy. The increasing acuity of illness in hospitalized children and therapeutic advances have resulted in a patient population that is increasingly at higher risk for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a problem in some paediatric hospitals, usually in intensive care and oncology units. Infection rates are the highest in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (where bloodstream infections are the most frequent), and are usually associated with intravascular devices. On general paediatric wards, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections predominate, reflecting the occurrence in the community. The surveillance of nosocomial infections identifies priorities for infection control activities and permits evaluation of interventions. The prevention of transmission between patients and to personnel requires that certain measures be taken with all patients, and that additional precautions be taken with some infections, based on the route of transmission. The prevention of transmission from personnel involves ensuring that personnel are appropriately immunized and counselled about working with infections. The prevention of nosocomial infection also involves control of visitors, appropriate management of invasive procedures and devices, sterilization and disinfection of equipment, provision of a clean environment and adequate staffing. Severely immunocompromised children require extra protection, including ventilation systems that reduce the risk of exposure to filamentous fungi. Infection control in paediatrics is an evolving field that must adapt to changes in the paediatric patient population and in health care technology. PMID:20084127

  18. Discussing Patient Management Online: The Impact of Roles on Knowledge Construction for Students Interning at the Paediatric Ward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Winckel, Myriam; Valcke, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to explore the use of asynchronous discussion groups during medical students' clinical rotation in paediatrics. In particular, the impact of role assignment on the level of knowledge construction through social negotiation is studied. Case-based asynchronous discussion groups were introduced to enhance reflection…

  19. It is time to consider third-line options in antiretroviral-experienced paediatric patients?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The historic use of full-dose ritonavir as part of an unboosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy regimen in some South African children contributes to the frequent accumulation of major PI resistance mutations. Methods In order to describe the prevalence of major PI resistance in children failing antiretroviral therapy and to investigate the clinical, immunological and virological outcomes in children with PI resistance, we conducted a cross-sectional study, with a nested case series, following up those children with major PI resistance. The setting was public health sector antiretroviral clinics in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and the subjects were children failing antiretroviral therapy. The following outcome measures were investigated: CD4 count, viral load and resistance mutations. Results Fourteen (17%) of 82 patients, referred from tertiary hospitals, had major PI resistance. All these patients were exposed to regimens that included ritonavir as a single PI. Immune reconstitution and clinical benefit were achieved when using a lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatment regimen in these children with prior PI resistance. At first HIV-1 viral load follow up after initial resistance testing (n = 11), only one patient had a viral load of less than 400 copies/ml; at a subsequent follow up (n = 9), the viral loads of five patients were less than 400 copies/ml. Patients retained on LPV/r had lower viral loads than those switched to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). However, two of three patients with follow-up resistance tests accumulated additional PI resistance. Conclusions In children with pre-existing PI resistance, although initially effective, the long-term durability of a lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatment regimen can be compromised by the accumulation of resistance mutations. Furthermore, a second-line NNRTI regimen is often not durable in these patients. As genotypic resistance testing and third

  20. Biomarkers detect involvement of acute myocardial injury in a paediatric haemolytic-uraemic syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Palanca Arias, Daniel; López Ramón, Marta; Jiménez Montañés, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Although extrarenal manifestations of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome are not frequent, myocardial dysfunction should be given special consideration because of the importance of proper early haemodynamic management and potential complications. We report the case of a 21-month-old child with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome who developed clinical signs of poor myocardial function with depressed myocardial function noted by bedside echocardiography and significant elevation of biomarkers. Early intervention and supportive treatment for the patient were crucial during the acute phase of cardiac failure, and repeated monitoring of biomarkers and ecocardiography were useful diagnostic tools that provided relevant information throughout the patient's evolution. PMID:26838960

  1. Strategies for optimizing compliance of paediatric patients for seasonal antibacterial vaccination with sublingually administered Polyvalent Mechanical Bacterial Lysates (PMBL).

    PubMed

    Rosaschino, Filippo; Cattaneo, Laura

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate efficacy, tolerance and compliance of paediatric patients vis-à-vis a cycle of PMBL treatment (a sublingual tablet taken for ten consecutive days over three consecutive months). The study enrolled 89 children (65 randomised to the treated group and 24 to the control group). The study protocol included an enrolment check-up (TO) and follow-ups at two months (T1), three months (T2) and nine months (T3) following the end of treatment, during which episodes of RRI were recorded; the main blood chemistry, immunology and phlogosis parameters were measured, together with hepatic, renal and bone marrow toxicity indexes. The administration of PMBL led to a significant decrease in RRI in the treated group, not only among the same children in relation to the previous winter, but also in comparison with untreated children during the same winter (mean number of infective episodes per patient 7.84 vs. 4.78, p<0.05, in the first case; 6.78 vs. 4.78, p<0.05, in the second case). White blood cell count showed a drop in the treated group as opposed to an increase in the untreated group, but there were no statistically significant differences in the intergroup analysis or in the intragroup one. Phlogosis indexes (PCR and plasma mucoprotein) in the treated group fell following treatment with PMBL, and this is statistically significant not only in the intragroup analysis but also the intergroup one. Mean values of B-lymphocytes in the treated group seemed to increase significantly following treatment, which was not the case in the untreated group. The variations in all the blood chemistry indexes for toxicity were far from significant and they remained within the norm, without significant clinical manifestations of side-effects of drug intolerance. As to evaluation of patient compliance, use of the device we describe enabled acceptable compliance with treatment even in the youngest children, similar to the compliance observed among

  2. Bordetella bronchiseptica in a paediatric cystic fibrosis patient: possible transmission from a household cat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from the sputum of a cystic fibrosis patient recently exposed to a kitten with an acute respiratory disease. Genetic characterization of the isolate and comparison with other isolates of human or feline origin strongly implicate the kitten as the source of infe...

  3. Modeling secondary cancer risk following paediatric radiotherapy: a comparison of intensity modulated proton therapy and photon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Naomi

    Proton radiotherapy is known to reduce the radiation dose delivered to normal healthy tissue compared to photon techniques. The increase in normal tissue sparing could result in fewer acute and late effects from radiation therapy. In this work proton therapy plans were created for patients previously treated using photon therapy. Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans were planned using inverse planning in VarianRTM's Eclipse(TM) treatment planning system with a scanning proton beam model to the same relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted prescription dose as the photon plan. Proton and photon plans were compared for target dose conformity and homogeneity, body volumes receiving 2 Gy and 5 Gy, integral dose, dose to normal tissues and second cancer risk. Secondary cancer risk was determined using two methods. The relative risk of secondary cancer was found using the method described by Nguyen et al. 1 by applying a linear relationship between integral dose and relative risk of secondary cancer. The second approach used Schneider et al. 's organ equivalent dose concept to describe the dose in the body and then calculate the excess absolute risk and cumulative risk for solid cancers in the body. IMPT and photon plans had similar target conformity and homogeneity. However IMPT plans had reduced integral dose and volumes of the body receiving low dose. Overall the risk of radiation induced secondary cancer was lower for IMPT plans compared to the corresponding photon plans with a reduction of ~36% using the integral dose model and ˜50% using the organ equivalent dose model. *Please refer to dissertation for footnotes.

  4. Theatre of paediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    McBride, Craig A; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the first edition of this journal, operative paediatric surgery has undergone radical change. Many of the most common instruments are unchanged, both as a testament to their utility and in recognition of past surgeons remembered eponymously. Surrounding that basic core of instruments, theatre has changed radically as new tools and techniques have arisen. Surgeons have come down from their pedestals, recognising surgery as a team sport rather than a solo performance. More than half of the current paediatric surgical trainees are women, a higher proportion than in any other craft group of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The appearance, and rapid development, of laparoscopy is to many observers the most notable change in surgery over the last 50 years. Placed in its context though, it is simply the most prominent example of a frameshift in surgical thinking. The patient as a whole is now the focus, rather than just the disease. Recent developments are as much about minimising harm to normal tissues as they are about extirpating pathology. As a surgical maxim, 'Primum non nocere' is even more in evidence in 2015 than it was in 1965. PMID:25586851

  5. Social vulnerability in paediatric dentistry: an overview of ethical considerations of therapeutic patient education.

    PubMed

    Trentesaux, Thomas; Delfosse, Caroline; Rousset, Monique Marie; Hervé, Christian; Hamel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial condition that remains a major public health issue in high income countries. The prevalence of dental caries in children has markedly declined in most countries over the past 30 years. However, the disease continues to affect a vulnerable population defined as a high-risk group. As many public health policies are inefficient in dealing with this underprivileged group, it is necessary to find other strategies to decrease the incidence and the burden of dental caries. Defining dental caries as a chronic disease enables us to develop the concept of 'therapeutic patient education.' It is meant to train patients to self-manage or adapt treatment to their particular chronic disease and to cope with new processes and skills. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to dental caries, in particular to early childhood caries. That should decrease the gravity and prevalence of the disease in this specific population. As a result, this new approach could increase the quality of life of many children both in terms of function and aesthetics. PMID:24318642

  6. Treatment adherence in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: perceptions from adolescent patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Hommel, Kevin A; Odell, Shannon; Sander, Emily; Baldassano, Robert N; Barg, Frances K

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine patient- and parent-perceived factors that impact adherence to inflammatory bowel disease treatment using a qualitative descriptive individual interview approach. Sixteen adolescents and their parents were recruited from May through August 2007 and interviewed about medication adherence using an open-ended semi-structured interview format. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and coded into themes. Parent-child dyads identified forgetting, interfering activities, parent-child conflict and oppositional behaviour and inadequate planning for treatment as challenges to adherence. Participants reported that family support and good parent-child relationships, routines, monitoring and reminding and organisational tools such as pill boxes facilitated treatment adherence. Other issues that emerged included immediacy of treatment effects and parent-adolescent responsibility for treatment. Patients and parents experience a number of challenges related to adherence within behavioural, educational, organisational and health belief domains. Behavioural interventions should focus on these issues, reduction of perceived barriers, and effective transition of responsibility for treatment adherence. Future research considerations are discussed. PMID:21143544

  7. Mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal calculi in paediatric patients: A review of twenty cases

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Nischith; Paul, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to report our initial experience of mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) performed on patients in the pediatric age group (<18 years) using a miniature nephroscope (12F). Subjects and Methods: A total of 20 children underwent mPCNL for renal stone extraction in the Department of Urology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, India, from February 2013 to January 2014. The patients were evaluated on the basis of parameters viz. age at the time of surgery, size and number of stones, duration of surgery, stone clearance, and postoperative complications. Results: A total of 20 mPCNLs were performed on children, with age ranging from 8 to 16 years. Three children had three stones each, six children had two stones each, eight children had one stone each, and three had multiple. The median stone burden was 1.36 cm. The procedure was via single puncture in 15 cases, and two punctures in five cases. Punctures were upper calyceal in seven cases, lower calyceal in seven cases, and combined upper and lower calyceal in six cases. The calculi were accessed by a 12F mini nephroscope, laser lithotripsy was used in 12 cases and pneumatic lithotripsy used for the rest. Total clearance was achieved in 18 out of 20 cases (90%). Postoperative complications developed in one child, in the form of sepsis. Conclusion: Our initial experience concludes that mPCNL is a safe and efficacious tool for the management of renal calculi in the pediatric population. PMID:26834395

  8. Interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in paediatric patients suffering from an underlying chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Marseglia, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Carla; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Terranova, Leonardo; Ierardi, Valentina; Gambino, Monia; Principi, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the interaction between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in school-age children and adolescents suffering from an underlying chronic disease. To increase our knowledge in this regard, an oropharyngeal swab was obtained from school-age children and adolescents suffering from asthma (n = 423), cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 212) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (n = 296). S. pneumoniae detection and serotyping were performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and S. aureus detection was performed using the RIDAGENE MRSA system. Among asthmatic, CF and DM1 patients, both pathogens were identified in 65/423 (15.4%), 21/212 (9.9%) and 62/296 (20.9%) children, respectively; S. pneumoniae alone was identified in 127/434 (30.0%), 21/212 (9.9%) and 86/296 (29.1%), respectively; S. aureus alone was identified in 58/434 (13.7%), 78/212 (36.8%) and 49/296 (16.6%), respectively. S. pneumoniae colonisation rates were higher in younger children and declined with age, whereas the frequency of S. aureus colonisation was quite similar in the different age groups. Among asthmatic and CF patients aged 6-9 years, S. aureus carriage was significantly higher in children who were positive for S. pneumoniae (P <0.05). No significant association emerged between S. aureus carriage and carriage of S. pneumoniae serotypes included in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). This study shows for the first time that school-age children and adolescents with asthma, CF and DM1 are frequently colonised by S. pneumoniae and S. aureus and that no negative relationship seems to exist between these pathogens. Moreover, the supposed protection offered by PCV administration against S. aureus colonisation was not demonstrated. PMID:26395386

  9. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients. PMID:25812494

  10. Transfusion issues in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Federici, Augusto B; Vanelli, Chiara; Arrigoni, Luisa

    2012-04-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) therapy plays a major role in the case of patients with cancer. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are given for increased oxygen-carrying capacity, platelets concentrates (PC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for the cessation and prevention of bleeding due to thrombocytopenia and other defects of hemostasis associated with neoplasia. All these blood components can induce complications and/or adverse reactions in cancer patients including transfusion-associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD), transfusion transmitted diseases, alloimmunization to blood cell antigens, pulmonary decompensation, immunomodulation. Therefore, specific modifications such as leukocyte-reduction and irradiation of the blood components to be transfused in cancer patients should be introduced to reduce the risk of these complications. Patients undergoing hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation are a unique group and present complex concerns related to transfusion, including major and minor ABO incompatibility and chimeric blood cells. Therefore, transfusion for patients undergoing treatment with cellular therapies requires careful blood component selection. The process of HPC infusion itself carries many risks including DMSO toxicity and hemolytic reactions. In all areas of transfusion therapy, new advances such as pathogen inactivation and synthetic alternatives to blood components should help to increase the safety and tolerance of transfusion in cancer patients. PMID:22682136

  11. Mycobacterium arupense in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamal, Zainab; Jordan, Mary; Hachem, Ray Y.; Alawami, Hussain M.; Alburki, Abdussalam M.; Yousif, Ammar; Deshmukh, Poonam; Jiang, Ying; Chaftari, Ann-Marie; Raad, Issam I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mycobacterium arupense is a slow-growing, nonchromogenic, acid-fast bacillus. Its clinical spectrum, epidemiology, and frequency of colonization versus true infection remain unknown. We evaluated the clinical significance of M arupense and positive cultures from cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed records of all cancer patients treated at our institution between 2007 and 2014 to identify those who had positive cultures for M arupense. Mycobacterium arupense was identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. A total of 53patients had positive cultures, 100% of which were isolated from respiratory specimens. Of these, 7 patients met the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America criteria for a definitive diagnosis of M arupense infection, 14 cases were considered to be probable infections, and 29 cases were considered to be possible infections. Of the included patients, 13 received therapy for M arupense infection and 40 did not. The outcomes of treated and untreated patients did not differ significantly. No relapses of M arupense infection. In addition, there were no M arupense-related deaths in either group. In cancer patients, M arupense appears to be mostly a commensal organism rather than a pathogen. Patients who did or did not receive treatment had similar outcomes. Validation of these findings in a larger prospective trial is warranted. PMID:27057825

  12. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Vinicius Barbosa; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25742420

  13. Factors Interfering with Delineation on MRCP of Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction in Paediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shun-gen; Guo, Wan-liang; Wang, Jian; Sheng, Mao; Lan, Xing-hao; Fang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess factors for delineating the pancreaticobiliary junction in the presence of pediatric congenital choledochal cysts (CCC) using Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Methods Retrospective review of medical records for 48 patients with CCC was conducted, including demographics, biliary amylase and MRCP findings if available. With univariate and multivariate logistic regression, we measured significant factors affecting pancreaticobiliary maljunction(PBM) diagnoses by MRCP. Results Of the subjects enrolled with CCC. Twenty-eight cases had PBM according to MRCP. Univariate analysis confirmed that age, cyst diameter > 30 mm and cysts that descended to the introitus pelvis affected junctional delineation and detection of PBM (P<0.05). Stepwise logistic regression analysis confirmed large cysts in the introitus pelvis predicted pancreaticobiliary junctional delineation in MRCP and these data agreed with the literature. A correlation between cyst diameter and the length of the common channel was found as was cyst diameter and biliary amylase although there were no significant differences between them. Conclusions Age, cyst diameter >30 mm and descending cysts into the introitus pelvis affected junctional delineation of the pancreatic and bile duct in PBM with MRCP. Large cyst descension into the introitus pelvis was an independent factors affecting PBM detection. PMID:27104956

  14. Oral health-related quality of life of paediatric patients with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) exhibit impaired dental status, which can affect their quality of life. This study assessed the oral health-related quality of life of these patients and associated factors. Methods The "Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14", rating overall and domain-specific (oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional well being, and social well being) oral health-related quality of life (OHR-QoL) was completed by 88 children with AIDS assisted in the Child Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Parents or guardians provided behavioural and socio-demographic information. The clinical status was provided by hospital records. OHR-QoL covariates were assessed by Poisson regression analysis. Results The most affected OHR-QoL subscale concerned oral symptoms, whose rate was 23.9%. The direct answer for oral health and well being made up a rate of 47.7%. Brushing the teeth less than two times a day and viral load exceeding 10,000 HIV-RNA copies per millilitre of plasma were directly associated (p < 0.05) with a poorer oral health-related quality of life. Conclusions Children with more severe AIDS manifestations complained of poorer status of oral symptoms, functional limitations, emotional and social well being related to their oral health. Recognizing the factors that are associated with poorer OHR-QoL in children with AIDS may contribute to the planning of dental services for this population. PMID:21208437

  15. Chronic alveolar haemorrhage in a paediatric patient: a diagnostic and treatment challenge.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana; Senra, Virgílio; Marinho, António; Guedes, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary haemosiderosis is characterised by chronic alveolar haemorrhage, which can lead to serious cardiorespiratory complications. Although considered idiopathic in most patients, there are many possible aetiologies. We present a case of an 18-year-old woman with pulmonary haemosiderosis since 4 years of age, with an inconclusive initial study, who was treated with systemic corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine until the age of 12 years, and azathioprine since then. Multiple exacerbations led to interstitial lung disease with restrictive functional pattern. Unilateral cochlear deafness was diagnosed at the age of 12 years and occasional polyarthralgias were recorded. When she was 16 years of age the study revealed an atypical myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) pattern. Cyclophosphamide and rituximab were administered with resolution of respiratory insufficiency and functional disability, without new episodes of alveolar haemorrhage. This case of chronic pulmonary haemorrhage was revealed to be an ANCA vasculitis, the diagnosis of which was possible only after 12 years of symptoms, with clinical and functional improvement with the association of cyclophosphamide and rituximab. PMID:25899510

  16. Cytokine patterns in paediatric patients presenting serious gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Martínez, Monika; Rodríguez-Cruz, Leonor; Cortés-Bejar, Consuelo Del Carmen; Valencia-Chavarría, Fernando; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel; González-Torres, María Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the adaptive immune response, the types of cytokines produced define whether there is a cellular (T1) or a humoral (T2) response. Specifically, in the T1 response, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β) are produced, whereas in the T2 response, IL-4, IL-5, IL- 6, IL-10 and IL-13 are primarily produced. Cytokines are primarily involved in the regulation of immune system cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytokine patterns (Type 1/Type 2) and TNF-α expression levels in children with severe gastrointestinal and respiratory bacterial infections. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to identify the cytokines and the infectious agents. The results obtained demonstrated that, in general, children with bacterial infections experienced an increase in IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 concentrations and a decrease in TNF-α, IL-5 and IL-6 concentrations when compared to healthy children. Specifically, type 1 cytokines and an increased TNF-α concentration were found in children with gastrointestinal infections. However, patients with respiratory infections showed increased concentrations of both T2 (IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) and T1 (IL-2 and IFN-γ) components. Thus, it was concluded that children with gastrointestinal infections exclusively developed a T1 response, whereas children with respiratory infections developed a T1/T2 response to fight the infection. PMID:26155128

  17. [Confusion as a presentation symptom of pseudomigraine with pleocytosis in a paediatric patient].

    PubMed

    Soto-Insuga, V; López-Villanueva, L; Rodrigo, M; Mois Aroyo, I; Losada, R; Soriano-Guillén, L

    2014-06-01

    Transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytic pleocytosis (Handl) syndrome is a rare condition of unknown origin that is characterized by episodes of severe headache, transient neurological deficits that recur over less than 3 months, and lymphocytic pleocytosis in CSF. We report the case of a 14 year-old girl who presented with headache and vomiting that lasted 4 days, later combined with a clinical presentation of confusion, with a decrease in the level of consciousness, aphasia, peripheral facial paralysis, ataxia and fever for 24 hours. CSF analysis showed pleocytosis (110 cells/ml) and proteinorrachia (87 mg/dl). Electroencephalogram in the acute time showed generalized slowing, and later a focal slowing in the left hemisphere. She suffered 7 episodes of migraine (severe headache and vomiting) in the following two months, remaining asymptomatic thereafter. This is the first pediatric case published in the literature that presents with an agitated and/or confused state. This condition must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with headache and acute altered level of consciousness, in order to avoid prolonged treatments or unnecessary invasive testing. PMID:24286871

  18. Schwannoma of the tongue in a paediatric patient: a case report and 20-year review.

    PubMed

    Bhola, Nitin; Jadhav, Anendd; Borle, Rajiv; Khemka, Gaurav; Bhutekar, Umesh; Kumar, Sanatan

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas (Neurilemmomas) are benign, encapsulated, slow-growing, and usually solitary tumours originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath with uncertain etiology. Approximately 25-48% of cases are seen in the head and neck region, of which 1% appears in the oral cavity. Lingual schwannoma can affect all age groups with peak incidence between the third and sixth decade. We report a rare case of lingual schwannoma in a 14-year-old girl complaining of asymptomatic swelling over lateral border of tongue since two years. Clinical examination revealed a nodule 1.5 × 1 cm in size, rubbery, nontender, smooth at right lateral border of tongue covered by normal mucosa, with no cervical lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion was done under local anaesthesia. The histological sections spindle cells with thin wavy nuclei arranged as typical Antoni A (with Verocay bodies) and Antoni B areas. Nuclear palisading distribution (typical of a schwannoma) was readily identifiable. The patient was recurrence-free after one year. PMID:25126428

  19. Schwannoma of the Tongue in a Paediatric Patient: A Case Report and 20-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Nitin; Borle, Rajiv; Khemka, Gaurav; Kumar, Sanatan

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas (Neurilemmomas) are benign, encapsulated, slow-growing, and usually solitary tumours originating from Schwann cells of the peripheral nerve sheath with uncertain etiology. Approximately 25–48% of cases are seen in the head and neck region, of which 1% appears in the oral cavity. Lingual schwannoma can affect all age groups with peak incidence between the third and sixth decade. We report a rare case of lingual schwannoma in a 14-year-old girl complaining of asymptomatic swelling over lateral border of tongue since two years. Clinical examination revealed a nodule 1.5 × 1 cm in size, rubbery, nontender, smooth at right lateral border of tongue covered by normal mucosa, with no cervical lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of the lesion was done under local anaesthesia. The histological sections spindle cells with thin wavy nuclei arranged as typical Antoni A (with Verocay bodies) and Antoni B areas. Nuclear palisading distribution (typical of a schwannoma) was readily identifiable. The patient was recurrence-free after one year. PMID:25126428

  20. [Weight loss in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lordick, Florian; Hacker, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients are regularly affected by malnutrition which often leads to a worsened quality of life and activity in daily living, more side effects and complications during anticancer treatment and shorter survival times. The early diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition are therefore relevant components of oncological treatment. The assessment of the nutritional status and determination of the body-mass-index should be done in every patient with cancer. The clinical examination delivers important findings and indications for malnutrition. Bioimpedance analysis can deliver additional objective information. The treatment of malnutrition should start early and follows a step-wise escalation reaching from nutritional counseling to enteral nutritional support to parenteral nutrition. PMID:26886037

  1. Is there a need for ophthalmological examinations after a first seizure in paediatric patients?

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Matthias K; Gläser, Alexandra; Ulrich, Kathrin; Merkenschlager, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the recommendations of the International Liga against Epilepsy, many hospitals perform routinely complete ophthalmological examinations in children admitted after a first seizure. As there is no study available to date to prove the benefit of complete eye examinations in first seizure diagnosis, we conducted a study to analyse the value of a complete ophthalmological examination. All children aged 1 month to 18 years who were admitted to the children's university hospital of Leipzig with the clinical diagnosis of a first convulsive or non-convulsive afebrile seizure between 1999 and August 2005 were investigated. All children who had obtained a complete ophthalmological examination within 72 h after the seizure were included in the observational study. A total of 310 children were analysed in the study. Two hundred thirty patients had a tonic-clonic afebrile seizure, the others focal, complex-partial seizures or absences. Two hundred seven out of 310 children showed no ophthalmological pathologies. Eighty-three children had refraction anomalies or strabism, 18 children had optic atrophy, three had congenital eye muscle paresis, and three had malformations. A 16-year-old girl had a homonymous quadrantanopia due to an occipital glioglioma that caused the seizure. An 11-year-old girl had a retinal haemorrhage without any brain lesions after a fall caused by a first tonic-clonic seizure. None of the ophthalmological findings influenced directly the immediate clinical course of diagnosis and treatment of the seizure. Our data suggest that routine ophthalmological examination in all children does not have additional benefit in the first seizure diagnosis management. PMID:19271236

  2. Treatment strategy and long-term results in paediatric patients treated in consecutive UK AML trials.

    PubMed

    Gibson, B E S; Wheatley, K; Hann, I M; Stevens, R F; Webb, D; Hills, R K; De Graaf, S S N; Harrison, C J

    2005-12-01

    Between 1988 and 2002, 758 children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) were treated on Medical Research Council (MRC) AML 10 and AML 12. MRC AML 10 tested the role of bone marrow transplantation following four blocks of intensive chemotherapy and found that while both allogeneic bone marrow transplant (allo-BMT) and autologous bone marrow transplant (A-BMT) significantly reduced the relapse risk (RR), this did not translate into a significant improvement in overall survival (OS). A risk group stratification based on cytogenetics and response to the first course of chemotherapy derived from MRC AML 10 was used to deliver risk-directed therapy in MRC AML 12. Allo-BMT was limited to standard and poor risk patients and A-BMT was not employed. Instead, the benefit of an additional block of treatment was tested by randomising children to receive either four or five blocks of treatment in total. While the results of MRC AML 12 remain immature, there appears to be no survival advantage for a fifth course of treatment. The 5 year OS, disease-free survival (DFS), event-free survival (EFS) and RR in MRC AML 12 are 66, 61, 56 and 35%, respectively; at present superior to MRC AML 10, which had a 5-year OS, DFS, EFS and RR of 58, 53, 49 and 42%, respectively. MRC AML trials employ a short course of triple intrathecal chemotherapy alone for CNS-directed treatment and CNS relapse is uncommon. Improvements in supportive care have contributed to improved outcomes and the number of deaths in remission fell between trials. Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity remains a concern and the current MRC AML 15 trial tests the feasibility of reducing anthracycline dosage without compromising outcome by comparing standard MRC anthracycline-based consolidation with high-dose ara-C. MRC studies suggest that the role of allo-BMT is limited in 1st CR and that there may be a ceiling of benefit from current or conventional chemotherapy. PMID:16304572

  3. Hypogonadism in male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Burney, Basil O; Garcia, Jose M

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hypogonadism in men with cancer has been reported between 40% and 90%, which is significantly higher than in the general population. Hypogonadism is likely to affect the quality of life in these patients by contributing to non-specific symptoms, including decreased energy, anorexia, sarcopenia, weight loss, depression, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and sexual dysfunction. Pathogenesis of hypogonadism in cancer patients is thought to be multi-factorial. Inflammation may play an important role, but leptin, opioids, ghrelin, and high-dose chemotherapy through different mechanisms have all been implicated as the cause. Hypogonadism is also associated with poor survival in cancer patients. Data looking into the treatment of hypogonadal male cancer patients with testosterone are limited. However, improvements in body weight, muscle strength, lean body mass, and quality of life have been shown in hypogonadal men with other chronic diseases on testosterone replacement therapy. Prospective and interventional trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety of testosterone treatment in improving quality of life of these patients. PMID:22528986

  4. Evidence-based paediatric nursing: paediatric early warning systems.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Orsola

    2016-05-01

    In hospital cardiac arrest are rare events in paediatrics. Most children receive appropriate care without experiencing undetected severe clinical deterioration during hospital admission. Outcomes of paediatric cardiac arrests are however generally poor, with high mortality rates and neurological damage at survival. A review of child mortality in the UK showed that a high proportion of unexpected deaths were preventable ( Pearsons 2008 ). Several studies of patient records of children who suffered cardiac arrests showed the presence of clear signs of clinical deterioration up to 24 hours before (Tume 2006). Appropriate recognition of clinical deterioration could have led to timely intervention to stabilise the patient. Missed deterioration may be due to lack of staff situational awareness, communication failure among professionals or between staff and families and other human factors ( Brady 2014 ). PMID:27214413

  5. Paediatric autoimmune encephalopathies: clinical features, laboratory investigations and outcomes in patients with or without antibodies to known central nervous system autoantigens

    PubMed Central

    Hacohen, Yael; Wright, Sukhvir; Waters, Patrick; Agrawal, Shakti; Carr, Lucinda; Cross, Helen; De Sousa, Carlos; DeVile, Catherine; Fallon, Penny; Gupta, Rajat; Hedderly, Tammy; Hughes, Elaine; Kerr, Tim; Lascelles, Karine; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Philip, Sunny; Pohl, Keith; Prabahkar, Prab; Smith, Martin; Williams, Ruth; Clarke, Antonia; Hemingway, Cheryl; Wassmer, Evangeline; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical and investigative features of children with a clinical diagnosis of probable autoimmune encephalopathy, both with and without antibodies to central nervous system antigens. Method Patients with encephalopathy plus one or more of neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, movement disorder or cognitive dysfunction, were identified from 111 paediatric serum samples referred from five tertiary paediatric neurology centres to Oxford for antibody testing in 2007–2010. A blinded clinical review panel identified 48 patients with a diagnosis of probable autoimmune encephalitis whose features are described. All samples were tested/retested for antibodies to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), VGKC-complex, LGI1, CASPR2 and contactin-2, GlyR, D1R, D2R, AMPAR, GABA(B)R and glutamic acid decarboxylase. Results Seizures (83%), behavioural change (63%), confusion (50%), movement disorder (38%) and hallucinations (25%) were common. 52% required intensive care support for seizure control or profound encephalopathy. An acute infective organism (15%) or abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (32%), EEG (70%) or MRI (37%) abnormalities were found. One 14-year-old girl had an ovarian teratoma. Serum antibodies were detected in 21/48 (44%) patients: NMDAR 13/48 (27%), VGKC-complex 7/48(15%) and GlyR 1/48(2%). Antibody negative patients shared similar clinical features to those who had specific antibodies detected. 18/34 patients (52%) who received immunotherapy made a complete recovery compared to 4/14 (28%) who were not treated; reductions in modified Rankin Scale for children scores were more common following immunotherapies. Antibody status did not appear to influence the treatment effect. Conclusions Our study outlines the common clinical and paraclinical features of children and adolescents with probable autoimmune encephalopathies. These patients, irrespective of positivity for the known antibody targets, appeared to benefit from immunotherapies and further

  6. Gastric Cancer in Young Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhobi, Manzoor A.; Wani, Khursheed Alam; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Wani, Rouf A.; Peer, G. Q.; Abdullah, Safiya; Wani, Imtiyaz A.; Wani, Muneer A.; Shah, Mubashir A.; Thakur, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to see the clinical, pathological, and demographic profile of young patients with stomach carcinoma besides association with p53. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of young patients with stomach carcinoma from January 2005 to December 2009. A total of 50 patients with age less than 40 years were studied. Results. Male female ratio was 1 : 1.08 in young patients and 2.5 : 1 in older patients. A positive family history of stomach cancer in the first degree relatives was present in 10% of young patients. Resection was possible only in 50% young patients. 26% young patients underwent only palliative gastrojejunostomy. The most common operation was lower partial gastrectomy in 68%. Amongst the intraoperative findings peritoneal metastasis was seen in 17.4% in young patients. 50% young patients presented in stage IV as per AJCC classification (P value .004; sig.). None of the patients presented as stage 1 disease in young group. Conclusion. Early detection of stomach carcinoma is very important in all patients but in young patients it is of paramount importance. PMID:24381753

  7. Dissociative symptomatology in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Civilotti, Cristina; Castelli, Lorys; Binaschi, Luca; Cussino, Martina; Tesio, Valentina; Di Fini, Giulia; Veglia, Fabio; Torta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The utilization of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic spectrum is currently being debated to categorize psychological adjustment in cancer patients. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the presence of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology in a sample of cancer patients; (2) examine the correlation of cancer-related dissociation and sociodemographic and medical variables, anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology; (3) investigate the predictors of cancer-related dissociation. Methods: Ninety-two mixed cancer patients (mean age: 58.94, ds = 10.13) recruited from two hospitals in northern Italy were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the Karnofsky Scale to measure the level of patient activity and medical care requirements, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to evaluate the presence of anxiety and depression, the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R) to assess the severity of intrusion, avoidance, and hypervigilance, and the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) to quantify the traumatic dissociative symptomatology. Results: 31.5% of participants report a PDEQ score above the cutoff. The results indicated that dissociative symptomatology was positively correlated with HADS scores (HADS-Anxiety: r = 0.476, p < 0.001; HADS-Depression: r = 0.364, p < 0.001) and with IES-R scores (IES-R-Intrusion: r = 0.698, p < 0.001; IES-R-Avoidance: r = 0.619, p < 0.001; IES-R- Hypervigilance: r = 0.681, p < 0.001). A stepwise regression analysis was performed in order to find the predictors of cancer-related traumatic dissociative symptomatology. The results converged on a three predictor model revealing that IES-R-Intrusion, IES-R-Avoidance, and IES-R-Hyperarousal accounted for 53.9% of the explained variance. Conclusion: These findings allow us to hypothesize a specific psychological reaction which may be ascribed to the traumatic

  8. [Anal cancer in HIV patients].

    PubMed

    Quéro, Laurent; Duval, Xavier; Abramowitz, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Despite effective highly active antiretroviral treatment, anal cancer incidence has recently strongly increased in HIV-infected population. Treatment strategy in HIV-infected patients does not differ from general population. HIV-infected patients treated by chemo-radiotherapy are exposed to high-grade toxicities and should be closely monitored to deliver the optimal treatment. Close collaboration between oncologist and infectiologist is highly recommended to adjust antiretroviral therapy if necessary. PMID:25418596

  9. Neurodevelopmental and behavioural paediatrics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the notable shifts in Paediatrics across the last 50 years has been towards disorders that are chronic and qualitative in nature. In addition to physical health, these impact on childhood development, behaviour and wellbeing. Understanding and management of these problems extends the traditional biological toolkit of paediatrics into the complexities of uncertainties of psychological and social context. In Australasia, the profession has responded with the development of Community Paediatrics as a recognised sub-specialty, of which Neurodevelopmental and Behavioural Paediatrics is an important component. These developments are reviewed along with consideration of future challenges for this field of health care. PMID:25586854

  10. Diagnostic paediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.

  11. [Toxicology screening in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Cuadrado González, Ainoha; Falcon, María

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse in paediatric patients, from the neonatal period to adolescence, is not well established as most cases go unnoticed. Regardless of clinical cases of acute poisoning leading to visits to emergency room, the exposure is usually detected by a questionnaire to the parents or children. In the last few years, new validated analytical methodologies have been developed in order to detect parent drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrices. These biological matrices have different time windows for detection of the exposure: acute (i.e., urine, blood, oral fluid), and chronic (i.e., hair, meconium or teeth). The aim of this paper was to review the scenarios where the use of biological matrices is indicated for the detection of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse. PMID:26458521

  12. Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...

  13. Motivational Deficit in Depressed Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layne, Christopher; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested accuracy of motivational theory of depression for adjustment disorder with depressed mood in 48 patients with terminal and nonterminal cancer. Results supported motivational theory: cancer patients exhibited low expectations and low values; hence, they were unmotivated and depressed. (NRB)

  14. Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...

  15. Paediatric Blunt Torso Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Khalid M.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z. S.; Hamid, Rana S.; Al-Balushi, Zainab N.; Sankhla, Dilip K.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7%) male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0%) received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1%) were injured by falls, 12 (17.1%) during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7%) by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%), followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%). The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7%) and spleen (11.4%). The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9%) with a good outcome (74.3%). The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach. PMID:27226913

  16. Quality in paediatric emergency medicine: Measurement and reporting.

    PubMed

    Borland, Meredith L; Shepherd, Mike

    2016-02-01

    There is a clear demand for quality in the delivery of health care around the world; paediatric emergency medicine is no exception to this movement. It has been identified that gaps exist in the quality of acute care provided to children. Regulatory bodies in Australia and New Zealand are moving to mandate the implementation of quality targets and measures. Within the paediatric emergency department (ED), there is a lack of research into paediatric specific indicators. The existing literature regarding paediatric acute care quality measures has been recently summarised, and expert consensus has now been reported. It is clear that there is much work to be performed to generalise this work to ED. We review suggestions from the current literature relating to feasible indicators within the paediatric acute care setting. We propose options to develop a quality 'scorecard' that could be used to assist Australian and New Zealand EDs with quality measurement and benchmarking for their paediatric patients. PMID:27062615

  17. Factors influencing morbidity after paediatric tonsillectomy: a study of 18,712 patients in the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Elinder, Karolina; Söderman, Anne-Charlotte Hessén; Stalfors, Joacim; Knutsson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine factors affecting morbidity after tonsillectomy in children. Data from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden on 18,712 patients who underwent tonsillectomy with or without simultaneous adenoidectomy between 1 and 18 years of age were analysed. This register includes data on sex, gender, surgical indication, and the surgical and haemostasis techniques used for each patient, as well as patient-reported outcomes for haemorrhage, analgesic use and antibiotic use. Comparison of patients who underwent surgery for infection versus upper airway obstruction revealed a significant increase in haemorrhage complications in the infection group. However, no significant difference remained after the adjustments for confounders in multivariable regression analysis. Instead, the increased risk among patients who underwent surgery for infection was mainly attributable to the use of bipolar diathermy and increased patient age. Patients who received surgery for infection reported more days of analgesic use, as well as more unplanned contacts with a health care service provider due to pain, compared with those who underwent surgery for upper airway obstruction. These results remained significant in multivariate analysis. The use of bipolar diathermy for haemostasis resulted in an increased risk, while the use of cold steel surgical instruments, a younger patient age and female sex led to a decreased risk. The surgical and haemostasis techniques used are the most important factors that affect morbidity after tonsillectomy in the paediatric age group. The choice of surgical techniques is of utmost importance for decreasing morbidity in these patients. PMID:27020269

  18. Hot tonsillectomy for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Paula; Marzouk, Sherief Deya; Gerolympou, Margarita; Marais, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common presentation in paediatric ear, nose and tongue (ENT) outpatients. The use of sleep studies is controversial however once a diagnosis has been made, frequently treatment is surgery. Should these patients be operated on as urgent cases? A 5-year-old boy was admitted under the paediatric team with difficultly breathing and desaturations to 77%. The patient had previously been seen by ENT as an outpatient with an 8-month history of obstructive sleep apnoea and was listed for an adenotonsillectomy with the standard waiting time. During this admission he had an emergency adenotonsillectomy. The patient improved immediately with no large desaturations in recovery and normal observations throughout his stay. It is never ideal to do a paediatric emergency operation and we have reviewed the evidence base to answer the question: Should these patients be treated urgently when seen in outpatients? PMID:24907212

  19. [Detection of subtelomeric rearrangements due to MLPA in paediatric patients with refractory epilepsy in Colombia: the role of the CHL1 gene in pharmacoresistance].

    PubMed

    Maradei-Anaya, Silvia J; Espinosa, Eugenia; Izquierdo, Álvaro; Velasco-Parra, Harvy M

    2013-11-16

    INTRODUCTION. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterised by a predisposition to the recurrence of seizures of distinct causation and with variable clinical manifestations. Up to 40% of patients do not manage to control their seizures with the first anticonvulsive drug and the addition of a second pharmaceutical affords control in only another 11%. Given the aetiological heterogeneity of pharmacoresistance, it has been suggested that the presence of genomic disorders in patients with refractoriness could be elements worthy of analysis when it comes to estimating the alteration in the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profiles of these patients. AIM. To detect the presence of subtelomeric rearrangements in Colombian paediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was used to evaluate the presence of cytogenetically non-visible chromosome aberrations in subtelomeric regions of 113 patients diagnosed with refractory epilepsy from three national referral centres in Colombia. RESULTS. Subtelomeric chromosome aberrations were detected in 0.9% of patients corresponding to a duplication of locus 3p26.3 in gene CHL1. CONCLUSIONS. This study suggests the use of the MLPA methodology to detect subtelomeric rearrangements that may be associated with phenotypes of refractoriness in epileptic patients. PMID:24203666

  20. What's new in paediatric dentistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.

  1. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  2. Ovarian stimulation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Hakan; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2013-05-01

    The patients referred for fertility preservation owing to a malignant disease do not represent the typical population of subfertile patients treated in IVF units. Cancer may affect multiple tissues throughout the body and can result in a variety of complications during controlled ovarian stimulation. Determination of the controlled ovarian stimulation protocol and gonadotropin dose for oocyte/embryo cryopreservation requires an individualized assessment. This review highlights the new protocols that are emerging to reduce time constraints and emphasizes management considerations to decrease complications. PMID:23635348

  3. Episodic pain in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, Giovambattista; Ribeiro, Maria D C

    2002-01-01

    Episodic pain is a common problem for patients with advanced cancer and is often difficult to manage successfully. In this article, the daily variations in cancer-related episodic pain in a patient with metastatic lung cancer are described. The definition, etiology, prevalence, and pharmacological management of episodic pain are also reviewed PMID:12141792

  4. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  5. Disease Activity Measures in Paediatric Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in paediatric rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in paediatric rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in paediatric rheumatology. PMID:24089617

  6. Where should paediatric surgery be performed?

    PubMed

    Arul, G S; Spicer, R D

    1998-07-01

    evidence that all neonatal surgery and anaesthesia should be conducted only by specialists. The debate now centres around the number of complex surgical cases a unit should treat to maintain its specialist status. The NHS executive, in its guidelines on contracting for specialist services, emphasises that "Sensible contracting needs to take into account the optimum population size not only for the stability of contracted referrals but also to give sufficient 'critical mass' for clinical effectiveness." Achieving this balance has consequences, not just for the maintenance of surgical expertise, but for the essential ancilliary services. There is clear evidence in anaesthesia that anaesthetists doing small numbers of neonatal procedures had significantly worse results. The same seems to be true in the fields of oncology, radiology, pathology, and intensive care. The reasons why the results of management of certain paediatric conditions are better at specialist centres are open to speculation. Presumably greater exposure to rare complex cases, concentration of expertise, more peer review, and a trickle down effect of the multidisciplinary approach all help to keep health care workers up to date with current world practice. In addition, it allows for appropriate specialist on call rotas and dedicated junior staff. If insufficient numbers of specialist surgical cases are being treated at a centre then the whole multidisciplinary team suffers. The 1989 NCEPOD report states "that paediatricians and general surgeons must recognise that small babies differ from other patients not only in size, and that they pose quite separate problems of pathology and management." The need for large centres of paediatric surgical expertise is now accepted by the Royal College of Surgeons of England, the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, the Senate of Surgery of Great Britain and Ireland, the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, the Royal College of Anaesthetists, the Audit PMID

  7. Second, Unrelated Cancers Strike 1 in 12 Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159759.html Second, Unrelated Cancers Strike 1 in 12 Cancer Patients Unfortunately, they're often deadly To use ... in 12 -- already diagnosed with one form of cancer end up developing a second type of unrelated ...

  8. Access to Cancer Services for Rural Colorectal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…

  9. Second, Unrelated Cancers Strike 1 in 12 Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159759.html Second, Unrelated Cancers Strike 1 in 12 Cancer Patients Unfortunately, they're often deadly To use ... in 12 -- already diagnosed with one form of cancer end up developing a second type of unrelated ...

  10. Second primary cancers in patients with urothelial cancers

    PubMed Central

    Altok, Muammer; Akdeniz, Fırat; Yıldız, Güner; Divrik, Rauf Taner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the second primary cancers (SPCs) in patients with urothelial cancer (UC). Materials and Methods The records of 2,339 patients whose UC was diagnosed between January 1974 and December 2012 were reviewed. All data about characteristics of patients, of UC and, of SPC was, recorded digitally. We investigated the prevalence and the type of second or higher order cancers, and the factors associated with SPC. Results Total 260 patients (11.1%) had SPC, 14 had a third primary cancer and one had a fourth primary cancer. The most common SPC with UC was lung cancer (29.6%). Of all 260 with SPC, 64 (24.6%) had synchronous (within the 6 months) SPC, 120 (46.2%) had subsequent SPC and, 76 (29.2%) had antecedent SPC. The mean duration of SPC was 56 months in patients with subsequent SPC and 75.8 months in patients with antecedent SPC. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of UC was higher in patients with SPC. The ratio of male gender, body mass index, blood type, status of smoking and, occupational risk was similar in both groups. Total amount of smoking and the mean follow-up were higher in patients with SPC. Conclusions The majority of the patients with UC have long life expectancy. In patients with UC, the risk of having another cancer is quite higher than normal population. The physicians managing patients with UC should look for SPC.

  11. Improving cancer patient care: development of a generic cancer consumer quality index questionnaire for cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop a Consumer Quality Index (CQI) Cancer Care questionnaire for measuring experiences with hospital care of patients with different types of cancer. Methods We derived quality aspects from focus group discussions, existing questionnaires and literature. We developed an experience questionnaire and sent it to 1,498 Dutch cancer patients. Another questionnaire measuring the importance of the quality aspects was sent to 600 cancer patients. Data were psychometrically analysed. Results The response to the experience questionnaire was 50 percent. Psychometric analysis revealed 12 reliable scales. Patients rated rapid and adequate referral, rapid start of the treatment after diagnosis, enough information and confidence in the healthcare professionals as most important themes. Hospitals received high scores for skills and cooperation of healthcare professionals and a patient-centered approach by doctors; and low scores for psychosocial guidance and information at completion of the treatment. Conclusions The CQI Cancer Care questionnaire is a valuable tool for the evaluation of the quality of cancer care from the patient’s perspective. Large scale implementation is necessary to determine the discriminatory powers of the questionnaire and may enable healthcare providers to improve the quality of cancer care. Preliminary results indicate that hospitals could improve their psychosocial guidance and information provision. PMID:23617741

  12. Surgical outcomes of the endoscopic transsphenoidal route to pituitary tumours in paediatric patients >10 years of age: 5 years of experience at a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Rucai; Xu, Guangming; Wiebe, Timothy M; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for the management of pituitary adenomas in paediatric patients >10 years of age. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify 56 paediatric patients between 10 and 18 years of age who underwent an endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for the resection of a pituitary adenoma during the last 5 years. The age, sex, symptoms, tumour size, extent of tumour resection, clinical outcome and surgical complications of patients were reviewed. Results Total resection was achieved in 49 (87.5%) cases, subtotal resection was achieved in 7 (12.5%) cases and no patient had a partial or insufficient resection. Of the 35 patients who experienced preoperative deterioration of vision, 33 (94.2%) achieved visual remission with rates of 34.2% and 60% for normalisation and improvement, respectively. Endocrinological normalisation was achieved in 13 (31.7%) of 41 patients who had preoperative hyperhormonal levels; hormone levels decreased in 25 (61.0%) patients, and 3 (7.3%) patients had no change in hormone level. Two (3.5%) patients incurred postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage, which was resolved after lumbar drainage. Four (7.1%) patients developed hypopituitarism, which required hormone therapy. Post-surgery, five (8.9%) patients incurred transient diabetes insipidus (DI), of which one (1.7%) patient developed persistent DI and was administered Minirin. Meningitis occurred in one (1.7%) patient who was cured by the administration of a third-generation antibiotic. There were no cases of intracranial haematoma, reoperation or death. Conclusions EETA allows neurosurgeons to safely and effectively remove paediatric pituitary adenomas with low morbidity and mortality. PMID:26006173

  13. Nanomechanical analysis of cells from cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Sarah E.; Jin, Yu-Sheng; Rao, Jianyu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2007-12-01

    Change in cell stiffness is a new characteristic of cancer cells that affects the way they spread. Despite several studies on architectural changes in cultured cell lines, no ex vivo mechanical analyses of cancer cells obtained from patients have been reported. Using atomic force microscopy, we report the stiffness of live metastatic cancer cells taken from the body (pleural) fluids of patients with suspected lung, breast and pancreas cancer. Within the same sample, we find that the cell stiffness of metastatic cancer cells is more than 70% softer, with a standard deviation over five times narrower, than the benign cells that line the body cavity. Different cancer types were found to display a common stiffness. Our work shows that mechanical analysis can distinguish cancerous cells from normal ones even when they show similar shapes. These results show that nanomechanical analysis correlates well with immunohistochemical testing currently used for detecting cancer.

  14. Special needs require special attention: a pilot project implementing the paediatric pain profile for children with profound neurological impairment in an in-patient setting following surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katie A; Franck, Linda S

    2011-09-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the implementation of pain assessment tools for children with profound neurological impairment (PNI) in in-patient settings. This article describes a pilot project to evaluate the Paediatric Pain Profile (PPP) for children with PNI undergoing surgery. Five families of children 5 to 16 years of age with a primary diagnosis of cerebral palsy and admitted for surgical procedures were interviewed. Nineteen nurses completed questionnaires and children's pain management documentation was audited. The project identified issues in three areas of pain management: implementation process, individualised pain management and partnership. The PPP required pre-admission assessment and parental involvement, and was considered time-consuming by nurses. Individualised pain assessment and intervention was difficult to achieve, as was shared assessment and documentation among parents and nurses. Despite initial resistance to change, with greater use there was growing appreciation of the value of components of the PPP. Further exploration of the PPP tool in practice is required before its use can be widely recommended for children with PNI in in-patient settings. Future studies are required to determine which of the available pain assessment tools has the greatest accuracy and utility for assessment of post-operative pain in children with PNI. PMID:21828163

  15. Correlation of Notch1/Hes1 Genes Expression Levels in Egyptian Paediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed and Persistent Primary Immune(Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Gawdat, Rania Mohsen; Hammam, Amira Ahmed; Ezzat, Dina Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Notch signalling is involved in the development of several autoimmune diseases, one of such diseases is ITP. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the expression levels of Notch1 receptor and its target Hes1 gene in Egyptian paediatric ITP patients. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse the expression levels of Notch1 and Hes1 in 42 children with primary ITP (22 newly diagnosed and 20 persistent) cases. Twenty age and sex matched non-ITP controls were included. The expression levels of Notch1 were higher in newly diagnosed and persistent cases than controls with high statistical significant difference (P value < 0.001, P < 0.001) respectively, similarly as regards the expression levels of HES1 (P value < 0.001, P < 0.007) respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Notch1 and Hes1 expression levels in newly diagnosed cases (r = 0.587, P value = 0.004). There was an association between levels of both genes in most of ITP patients but Hes1 was markedly elevated than Notch1 in few cases. High expression levels of Notch1/Hes1 indicated the important role of Notch signalling in both newly diagnosed and persistent ITP. High expression levels of Hes1 than Notch1 may shed light on its value as a therapeutic target for future research in ITP. PMID:27429531

  16. Development and prevalence of femoroacetabular impingement-associated morphology in a paediatric and adolescent population: a CT study of 225 patients.

    PubMed

    Monazzam, S; Bomar, J D; Dwek, J R; Hosalkar, H S; Pennock, A T

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the development of CT-based bony radiological parameters associated with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in a paediatric and adolescent population with no known orthopaedic hip complaints. We retrospectively reformatted and reoriented 225 abdominal CTs into standardised CT pelvic images with neutral pelvic tilt and inclination (244 female and 206 male hips) in patients ranging from two to 19 years of age (mean 10.4 years). The Tönnis angle, acetabular depth ratio, lateral centre-edge angle, acetabular version and α-angle were assessed. Acetabular measurements demonstrated increased acetabular coverage with age and/or progressive ossification of the acetabulum. The α-angle decreased with age and/or progressive cortical bone development and resultant narrowing of the femoral neck. Cam and pincer morphology occurred as early as ten and 12 years of age, respectively, and their prevalence in the adolescent patient population is similar to that reported in the adult literature. Future aetiological studies of FAI will need to focus on the early adolescent population. PMID:23632667

  17. Antipsychotic treatment in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tahir; Clevenger, Charles V; Kaklamani, Virginia; Lauriello, John; Campbell, Austin; Malwitz, Kari; Kirkland, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Special consideration is required when prescribing antipsychotic drugs for patients with an existing diagnosis of breast cancer. The package inserts of all approved antipsychotics contain precautions regarding their administration in this patient group. These drugs are well known to elevate serum prolactin levels to varying degrees. Overexpression of the prolactin receptor is seen in more than 95% of human breast cancers. Many genes that are activated by the prolactin receptor are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer cell proliferation. The authors discuss the pathophysiology, clinical implications, and pertinent preclinical data and make specific recommendations regarding the use of antipsychotics in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24880509

  18. Cancer patient supportive care and pain management. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Infectious disease in cancer patients; Immunological aspects of supportive care of cancer patients; Nutritional evaluation and support of cancer patients; Pain management of cancer patients.

  19. SU-E-P-57: Radiation Doses Assessment to Paediatric Patients for Some Digital Diagnostic Radiology Examination in Emergency Department in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, I; Aly, A; Al Naemi, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation doses to pediatric patients undergoing standard radiographic examinations using Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) in Paediatric emergency center of Hamad General Hospital (HGH) in state of Qatar and compared with regional and international Dose Reference Levels (DRLs). Methods: Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) was measured for 2739 patients for two common X-ray examinations namely: Chest AP/PA, Abdomen. Exposure factors such as kV, mAs and Focal to Skin Distance (FSD) were recorded for each patient. Tube Output was measured for a range of selected kV values. ESD for each individual patient was calculated using the tube output and the technical exposure factors for each examination. The ESD values were compared with the some international Dose Reference Levels (DRL) for all types of examinations. Results: The most performed procedure during the time of this study was chest PA/PA (85%). The mean ESD values obtained from AP chest, PA chest and AP abdomen ranged 91–120, 80–84 and 209 – 659 µGy per radiograph for different age’s groups respectively. Two protocols have been used for chest AP and PA using different radiological parameters, and the different of ESD values for chest PA and were 41% for 1 years old child, 57% for 5 years old for chest AP. Conclusion: The mean ESD were compared with those found in literature and were found to be comparable. The radiation dose can be reduced more for Chest AP and PA examination by optimization of each investigation and hence more studies are required for this task. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving local reference doses for pediatric X-ray examinations in this local department and hence it can be applied in the whole Qatar.

  20. Developing paediatric medicines: identifying the needs and recognizing the challenges.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Terry B; Elder, David P; Martini, Luigi G; Roberts, Matthew; Ford, James L

    2007-08-01

    There is a significant need for research and development into paediatric medicines. Only a small fraction of the drugs marketed and utilized as therapeutic agents in children have been clinically evaluated. The majority of marketed drugs are either not labelled, or inadequately labelled, for use in paediatric patients. The absence of suitable medicines or critical safety and efficacy information poses significant risks to a particularly vulnerable patient population. However, there are many challenges associated with developing medicines for the paediatric population and this review paper is intended to highlight these. The paediatric population is made up of a wide range of individuals of substantially varied physical size, weight and stage of physiological development. Experimentation on children is considered by many to be unethical, resulting in difficulties in obtaining critical safety data. Clinical trials are subject to detailed scrutiny by the various regulatory bodies who have recently recognized the need for pharmaceutical companies to invest in paediatric medicines. The costs associated with paediatric product development could result in poor or negative return on investment and so incentives have been proposed by the EU and US regulatory bodies. Additionally, some commonly used excipients may be unsuitable for use in children; and some dosage forms may be undesirable to the paediatric population. PMID:17725846

  1. Sperm banking and the cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    The current concepts, recommendations, and principles of sperm banking as it pertains to the comprehensive care of young men of reproductive age with cancer are reviewed. Obstacles to sperm banking are addressed as well as future directions for fertility-preserving technologies. All cancer therapies—chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery—are potential threats to a man’s reproductive potential. In addition, cancer itself can impair spermatogenesis. Thus, sperm cryopreservation prior to initiating life-saving cancer treatment offers men and their families the best chance to father biologically related children and should be offered to all men with cancer before treatment. Better patient and provider education, as well as deliberate, coordinated strategies at comprehensive cancer care centers are necessary to make fertility preservation for male cancer patients a priority during pretreatment planning. PMID:21789080

  2. Why Cancer Patients Seek Islamic Healing.

    PubMed

    Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2016-10-01

    Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs. PMID:26391242

  3. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  4. Continuous low dose inhaled nitric oxide for treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery in paediatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Beghetti, M.; Habre, W.; Friedli, B.; Berner, M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on severe postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children after surgical repair of a congenital heart defect. DESIGN--A pilot study of NO administration to 7 consecutive children who required adrenergic support and in whom postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure was more than two thirds of mean systemic pressure and persisted despite alkalotic hyperventilation. SETTING--Routine care after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease in a multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit. METHODS--Continuous inhalation of NO, initially at 15 ppm. Therefore, daily attempts at complete weaning or at reducing NO to the lowest effective dose. RESULTS--In 6 of the 7 children NO inhalation selectively decreased mean (SD) pulmonary artery pressure from 51 (12) to 31 (9) mm Hg (P < 0.05) while mean systemic arterial pressure was unchanged (68 (10) v 71 (7) mm Hg) (NS) and the arteriovenous difference in oxygen content decreased from 6.7 (0.9) to 4.8 (0.8) vol% (P < 0.05). Concomitantly PaO2 increased from 158 (98) to 231 (79) mm Hg) (P < 0.05). The seventh child showed no response to NO up to 80 ppm, could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass, and died in the operating room. In responders, attempts at early weaning from NO inhalation always failed and NO at concentrations of less than 10 ppm was continuously administered for a median of 9.5 days (range 4 to 16 days) until complete weaning was possible from a mean dose of 3.9 (2.9) ppm. Methaemoglobinaemia remained below 2% and nitrogen dioxide concentrations usually ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 ppm. One child later died and five were discharged. A few months after surgery Doppler echocardiography (and catheterisation in one) showed evidence of regression of pulmonary hypertension in all 5. CONCLUSIONS--Inhalation of NO reduced pulmonary artery pressure in children with severe pulmonary hypertension after cardiac surgery and this effect was maintained over

  5. Nasal and perirectal colonization of vancomycin sensitive and resistant enterococci in patients of paediatrics ICU (PICU) of tertiary health care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterococci normally inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and are also a potential pathogen in causing nosocomial infections. The increase in antibiotic resistance and transfer of antibiotic resistance gene to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) due to co-colonization has increased its importance in research. The aim of the study was to evaluate local epidemiology of nasal and rectal colonization with Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) in patients of Paediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and correlation with clinical and socioeconomic factors. Methods The nasal and perirectal swab samples were collected from 110 patients admitted in PICUs of three tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi Medical College, Pakistan. The identification of enterococci was done by biochemical tests and by PCR for ddl, vanA and vanB genes. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion and MICs were determined for vancomycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and oxacillin only. Results Out of 220 nasal and perirectal samples, 09 vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and 76 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE), consisting of 40 E. faecalis and 45 E. faecium were isolated. PCR successfully identified both species with ddl primers and VRE with vanA primer. With disc diffusion method, all isolates were resistant to most of the antibiotics tested except linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. VRE showed resistance to teicoplanin and vancomycin both and none was resistant to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Generally, E. faecium isolates were more resistant than E. faecalis. MICs of vancomycin for nasal and perirectal VRE were 512 mg/L and 64 to 512 mg/L respectively. VRE were more in patients with prolonged hospitalization, from urban localities and those having pneumonia. Conclusion Present study reveals high colonization and antibiotic resistance in enterococcal isolates from nasal and

  6. Comprehensive screening for PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC and CLDN2 gene mutations in Chinese paediatric patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Xiao-Tian; Weng, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Dai-Zhan; Sun, Chang; Xia, Tian; Hu, Liang-Hao; Lai, Xiao-Wei; Ye, Bo; Liu, Mu-Yun; Jiang, Fei; Gao, Jun; Bo, Lu-Min; Liu, Yun; Liao, Zhuan; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genetic alterations may contribute to chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Chinese young patients. This study was designed to investigate mutations of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor or serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), chymotrypsin C (CTRC) and CLDN2 genes and the copy number variations (CNVs) of PRSS1 and asses associations with the development of idiopathic CP (ICP) in Chinese children. Design Retrospective. Setting A single center. Participants 75 ICP Chinese children (40 boys and 35 girls). Primary and secondary outcome measures Mutations of PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC and CLDN2 genes and CNVs. Results 7 patients had heterozygous mutations in PRSS1, that is, N29I (n=1), R122H or R122C (n=6). The CNVs of PRSS1 in five patients had abnormal copies (1 copy (n=4), five copies (n=1)). 43 patients had IVS3+2T>C (rs148954387) (10 homozygous and 33 heterozygous) in SPINK1. None of the PRSS1 mutation patients carried a SPINK1 mutation. Frequency of PRSS1 and SPINK1 mutations was 9.3% and 57.3%, respectively, with an overall frequency of 66.6% (50/75). In addition, one patient had a novel deletion of CFTR (GCTTCCTA from c.500 to c.508 leading to the shortened polypeptide molecule via a stop codon). Another patient had a novel missense in CLDN2 exon 2 (c.592A>C mutation). Clinically, patients with SPINK1 mutations had a higher rate of pancreatic duct stones, pancreatic pseudocyst and pancreatic calcification than those without SPINK1 mutations (p<0.05). Conclusions SPINK1 mutations were more commonly associated with Chinese children with ICP. SPINK1 IVS3+2T>C mutation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chinese paediatric ICP. However, further study is needed to confirm and to investigate the role of these genes in the development of Chinese ICP. PMID:24002981

  7. [Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Elderly Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Yokode, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Age-specific analyses of mortality rates in Japan show that cancer was the leading cause of death for the age group 40-89 years in the year 2013. Although the crude mortality rate from cancer has recently increased, the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate has shown a decreasing trend. This suggests that the increases in the crude mortality rate may have been caused by the aging of the population. Cancer patients who are old present many comorbidities and newly diagnosed geriatric problems. Several tools provide determinants of survival in cancer patients who are old (including the comprehensive geriatric assessment [CGA]) in order to improve the quality of cancer care in this population. PMID:27539034

  8. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  9. Management of Ventriculo-Peritoneal Shunts in the Paediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Low, David; Drake, James M; Seow, Wan Tew; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of hydrocephalus is a challenging one. The development of shunt devices have greatly improved the survival and quality of life of paediatric patients with hydrocephalus; however, shunt dysfunction is a common problem which represents a significant scope of work for paediatric neurosurgeons with shunt failures occuring in up to 40 to 50% of patients during the first two years after shunt surgery. Numerous pathologies ranging from congenital to acquired conditions can result in the development of hydrocephalus in the paediatric population. Obstruction of proximal or distal catheter ends, misplacement, infections and over drainage are some of the common problems accounting for shunt failures. We discussed some of the pertinent problems and nuances involved in treatment of paediatric hydrocephalus with VPS as well as to review the role of endoscopic procedures as an alternative to VPS. PMID:22028738

  10. Gene therapy for paediatric leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, R F; Bollard, C M; Heslop, H E

    2001-07-01

    Improvements in the chemotherapeutic and transplant regimens have had a significant impact in improving survival rates for paediatric leukaemia. However, there are still important problems to address including what options are available for patients with chemoresistant disease and what strategies are available to avoid the concerns regarding the toxicity associated with highly cytotoxic treatment regimens. Gene therapy and immunotherapy protocols hold great promise. Using gene transfer of a marker gene, a number of biological issues in the therapy of leukaemia have been addressed. For example, by gene marking autologous bone marrow grafts it has been possible to demonstrate that infused marrow contributes to relapse in acute and chronic myeloid leukaemias. In the allogeneic transplant setting, genetically modified T-cells have proven valuable for the prophylaxis and treatment of viral diseases and may have an important role in preventing or treating disease relapse. Gene transfer is also being used to modify tumour function, enhance immunogenicity, and confer drug-resistance to normal haematopoietic stem cells. With the continued scientific advancements in this field, gene therapy will almost certainly have a major impact on the treatment of paediatric leukaemia in the future. PMID:11727502

  11. [Touching cancer: shiatsu as complementary treatment to support cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Argash, Oz; Caspi, Opher

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the interest of cancer patients in receiving complementary medicine therapies as supportive measures to cure the disease. In response, medical units that combine conventional and complementary medicine (integrative medicine) have been established in leading cancer centers worldwide. In Israel, a special integrative medicine unit that combines mind-body, Chinese medicine, nutrition, herbs, supplements, and manual therapies (such as shiatsu) before, during and after conventional anti-cancer therapies has been established as an integral part of the Davidoff Comprehensive Cancer Center in 2006. Shiatsu represents a group of manual therapeutic techniques, including acupressure. Shiatsu offers cancer patients a non-pharmacologic method to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life throughout the course of illness. Research indicates that acupressure is relatively effective and safe for common cancer-related symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and insomnia. In our experience, shiatsu is also relatively effective and safe for other common symptoms such as fatigue, muscular pain and body image dissatisfaction. Yet, insufficient evidence exists to delineate the best means by which shiatsu and other manual therapies could or should be integrated into routine cancer care. The purpose of the present paper is to describe what is currently known about this topic in order to support decision-making that is based on facts, rather than on myths and misconceptions. We call for more research that examines the effectiveness and safety of shiatsu and other manual therapies in the care of cancer patients. PMID:18935760

  12. The concept of rehabilitation of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Body, J J; Lossignol, D; Ronson, A

    1997-07-01

    The scope of supportive care and cancer rehabilitation is very wide and heterogeneous. In this review we focus on nutritional aspects, sexual and gonadal function, psychological rehabilitation, treatment of cancer pain, and rehabilitation of patients with bone metastases. The anorexia-cachexia syndrome is a particularly frequent manifestation of cancer that profoundly affects body image and significantly impairs quality of life of cancer patients. However, enteral feeding through nasogastric tubes, gastrostomies, or jejunostomies is an efficient method for providing long-term enteral nutrition at home and for contributing to complete rehabilitation after cancer therapy. Recent effort has focused on nutritional pharmacology and on the optimalization of the use of appetite-stimulating drugs, such as progestational agents. The psychological components of cancer, anticancer therapy, and quality of life have now been widely recognized and studied. Effective pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions help patients and their family to better adjust to the chronic stress of cancer, but more specific determinants of psychological morbidity should be developed. In particular, the safe and efficient use of the most recent classes of antidepressants and anxiolytics should be urgently studied. More than 90% of cancer patients present one or more pain syndromes during their illness. The adequate use of drugs is the cornerstone of treatment. The development on new molecules and new routes of administration opens interesting perspectives for cancer pain control. Bone metastases are the source of considerable morbidity. Intravenous bisphosphonates have been successfully used for the treatment of the symptoms of metastatic bone disease, especially bone pain. Moreover, monthly pamidronate infusions in addition to chemotherapy reduce the mean skeletal morbidity rate by more than one third and contribute to the rehabilitation of cancer patients with bone metastases from breast

  13. Cancer Risk in Patients With Empyema

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Chung-Jen; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cancer risk and possible risk factors in patients diagnosed with empyema. A total of 31,636 patients with newly diagnosed empyema between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2010 were included in this study. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the cancer incidence in these empyema patients to that in the general population. Adjusted hazard ratios were also calculated to investigate whether characteristics increased cancer risk. During the 12-year study period, 2,654 cancers occurred in 31,636 patients with empyema, yielding an SIR of 2.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.57–2.78). We excluded cancer that occurred within 1 year to avoid surveillance bias. The cancer risk remained significantly increased (SIR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58). Specifically, patients with empyema had higher SIR of cancers of the head and neck (1.50, 95% CI 1.41–1.58), esophagus (2.56, 95% CI 1.92–3.33), stomach (1.49, 95% CI 1.16–1.89), liver and biliary tract (2.18, 95% CI 1.93–2.45), and lung and mediastinum (1.62, 95% CI 1.39–1.86). Age ≥ 60, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for cancer development. Our study demonstrates an increased incidence of cancer development in patients with empyema, and patients’ age ≥ 60, men, and those with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis showed a higher incidence of developing cancer compared to the general population. The association between such kind of infection and secondary malignancy may be elucidated by further study. PMID:26945399

  14. Towards evidence-based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET: Is CT thorax necessary to exclude significant injury in paediatric patients with blunt chest trauma?

    PubMed

    de la Morandiere, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    A shortcut review was carried out to establish if CXR had sufficient sensitivity to rule out significant thoracic injury in haemodynamically stable, paediatric patients with a significant mechanism of trauma. No studies were found that directly answered the three-part question, but 13 studies were found which were considered relevant. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. The clinical bottom line is that important thoracic injuries may not be clinically apparent and that CT scans have a significantly higher sensitivity than CXR in detecting such injuries. PMID:26195475

  15. Travelling for radiation cancer treatment: patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Margaret I; Gray, Ross E; Mcgowan, Tom; Brunskill, Ian; Steggles, Shawn; Sellick, Scott; Bezjak, Andrea; McLeese, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted for the purpose of describing cancer patients' satisfaction with their care when they had to travel unexpectedly away from home for treatment. Ontario initiated a rereferral program for cancer patients who needed radiation therapy when the waiting lists in southern Ontario became lengthy. Patients travelled to the United States or northern Ontario for their care. A standardized survey containing 25 items with five-point Likert scale responses was mailed to all patients who participated in the rereferral program, following completion of their treatment. Items covered patient experiences before leaving home, in preparing for travel, and staying at the cancer facilities away from home. A total of 466 (55.8%) patients returned the survey. Overall, patients were satisfied with their care. However, there were a number of areas identified by patients where improvements could be made. These areas included access to support prior to leaving home, access to information about supportive care services while away from home, and sensitivity to personal needs in making arrangements for travel. Provision of information and support are important to cancer patients having to travel for cancer treatment. PMID:15969333

  16. Psychiatric care for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Koh, K B

    1999-10-01

    Psychiatric management of patients with breast cancer, as well as women's emotional reactions to all phases of breast cancer, were reviewed. These patients face two major losses; one is the physical loss of part of the body and a threat to life, and the other is the loss of femininity. The patients are also likely to suffer from various psychiatric problems including anxiety and depression. Oncologists should be alert to each patient's emotional reactions and potential psychiatric problems, and if necessary, should refer them to a psychiatrist. A combination of psychotherapeutic, behavioural, and pharmacologic techniques is available for the care of patients with breast cancer. Psychotherapeutic modalities include individual therapy, family therapy, group therapy, and self-help treatment. The author divided individual therapy into general and specific treatment. General treatment deals with a crisis-intervention and cognitive-behavioral approach, whereas specific treatment deals with issues relevant to patients with breast cancer. Some of the therapeutic processes were illustrated in a case report. These guidelines will contribute to the relief and prevention of emotional suffering stemming from an encounter with the most common form of cancer in women. Also, proper and effective care for patients with breast cancer requires combined use of a variety of therapeutic modalities as well as a multi-disciplinary approach including psychiatric care. PMID:10565263

  17. A Model for Counselling Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jevne, Ronna F.; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl L.; Williamson, F. Helen A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a model for counseling cancer patients that integrates the unique features of the cancer experience within a basic counseling framework. It combines a nine-step problem-solving approach with a biopsychosocial perspective, placing greater emphasis on the person than the problem. Utilizes innovative questioning techniques and strategies.…

  18. Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies

    Cancer.gov

    Utilizing Data from Cancer Patient & Survivor Studies and Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2011 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  19. Architecture for an advanced biomedical collaboration domain for the European paediatric cancer research community (ABCD-4-E).

    PubMed

    Nitzlnader, Michael; Falgenhauer, Markus; Gossy, Christian; Schreier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Today, progress in biomedical research often depends on large, interdisciplinary research projects and tailored information and communication technology (ICT) support. In the context of the European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents (ENCCA) project the exchange of data between data source (Source Domain) and data consumer (Consumer Domain) systems in a distributed computing environment needs to be facilitated. This work presents the requirements and the corresponding solution architecture of the Advanced Biomedical Collaboration Domain for Europe (ABCD-4-E). The proposed concept utilises public as well as private cloud systems, the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) framework and web-based applications to provide the core capabilities in accordance with privacy and security needs. The utility of crucial parts of the concept was evaluated by prototypic implementation. A discussion of the design indicates that the requirements of ENCCA are fully met. A whole system demonstration is currently being prepared to verify that ABCD-4-E has the potential to evolve into a domain-bridging collaboration platform in the future. PMID:26063273

  20. [Nutrition management of the cancer patients: modern view on problem].

    PubMed

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Plotnikova, O A; Voznyĭ, E K

    2008-01-01

    In the review the current state of nutrition for patients with cancers is given. The role of nutrition in cancer etiology and prevention of cancers are discussed. Main principles of diet constriction in cancers are expounded. PMID:18669325

  1. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Handberg, C; Lomborg, K; Nielsen, C V; Oliffe, J L; Midtgaard, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: 'Fear of losing control' and 'Striving for normality'. While 'Fear of losing control' signified what the men believed rehabilitation would invoke: 'Reduced manliness', 'Sympathy and dependency' and 'Confrontation with death', 'Striving for normality' was based on what the men believed rehabilitation would hinder: 'Autonomy and purpose', 'Solidarity and fellowship' and 'Forget and move on'. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in rehabilitation. The findings can guide practice to develop research-based rehabilitation approaches focused on preserving control and normality. Further empirical evidence is needed to: (1) explore the conduct of health professionals' towards male cancer patients and (2) address gender inequalities in cancer rehabilitation. PMID:26223855

  2. Long-term Toxicity of Cancer Treatment in Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahrokni, Armin; Wu, Abraham J; Carter, Jeanne; Lichtman, Stuart M

    2016-02-01

    With earlier cancer diagnosis among older patients with cancer, the possibility of curing cancer increases. However, cancer treatment may have a long-lasting impact on older cancer survivors. It is vital to screen, diagnose, and properly manage the long-term toxicities of cancer treatment in order to maintain the quality of life of older cancer survivors. PMID:26614861

  3. Wound Healing in PatientsWith Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Wyatt G.; Naidu, Deepak K.; Wheeler, Chad K.; Barkoe, David; Mentis, Marni; Salas, R. Emerick; Smith, David J.; Robson, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of patients with cancer has advanced into a complex, multimodal approach incorporating surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Managing wounds in this population is complicated by tumor biology, the patient's disease state, and additional comorbidities, some of which may be iatrogenic. Radiation therapy, frequently employed for local-regional control of disease following surgical resection, has quantifiable negative healing effects due to local tissue fibrosis and vascular effects. Chemotherapeutic agents, either administered alone or as combination therapy with surgery and radiation, may have detrimental effects on the rapidly dividing tissues of healing wounds. Overall nutritional status, often diminished in patients with cancer, is an important aspect to the ability of patients to heal after surgical procedures and/or treatment regimens. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to gather pertinent information on the topic of wound healing in patients with cancer. The effects that surgical procedures, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and nutritional deficits play in wound healing in these patients were reviewed and collated. Results: The current knowledge and treatment of these aspects of wound healing in cancer patients are discussed, and observations and recommendations for optimal wound healing results are considered. Conclusion: Although wound healing may proceed in a relatively unimpeded manner for many patients with cancer, there is a potential for wound failure due to the nature and effects of the oncologic disease process and its treatments. PMID:18264518

  4. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  5. The elderly cancer patient: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Colussi, A M; Mazzer, L; Candotto, D; De Biasi, M; De Lorenzi, L; Pin, I; Pusiol, N; Romanin, C; Zamattio, V

    2001-09-01

    Since cancer incidence tends to increase with age, health professionals will encounter ever-greater numbers of older people with cancer. Elderly cancer patients present complex problems that need comprehensive physical and psychosocial support. In order to give specialised care to this segment of the population, a multidisciplinary approach must be used; only in this way can an individualised treatment program be provided. Oncology nurses are an important component of this team and can contribute significantly to the panorama of needs of this segment of the population, which include the prevention and early detection of cancer, the use of state-of-the-art treatments, patient education, care during and after hospitalisation and quality of life (QOL) issues. In this way, the older person with cancer can be treated in an optimal manner and survival can hopefully be improved in a meaningful way. PMID:11500265

  6. Overweight and Obesity Based on Four Reference Systems in 18,382 Paediatric Patients with Type 1 Diabetes from Germany and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Flechtner-Mors, M.; Schwab, K. O.; Fröhlich-Reiterer, E. E.; Kapellen, T. M.; Meissner, T.; Rosenbauer, J.; Stachow, R.; Holl, R. W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in paediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, based on four commonly used reference populations. Methods. Using WHO, IOTF, AGA (German pediatric obesity), and KiGGS (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) reference populations, prevalence of overweight (≥90th percentile) and obesity (≥97th percentile) and time trend between 2000 (n = 9,461) and 2013 (n = 18,382) were determined in 2–18-year-old T1D patients documented in the German/Austrian DPV database. Results. In 2000, the overweight prevalence was the highest according to IOTF (22.3%), followed by WHO (20.8%), AGA (15.5%), and KiGGS (9.4%). The respective rates in 2013 were IOTF (24.8%), WHO (22.9%), AGA (18.2%), and KiGGS (11.7%). Obesity prevalence in 2000 was the highest according to WHO (7.9%), followed by AGA (4.5%), IOTF (3.1%), and KiGGS (1.8%). In 2013, the respective rates were WHO (9.6%), AGA (6.2%), IOTF (4.5%), and KiGGS (2.6%). Overall, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased from 2000 to 2006 (p < 0.001) but showed stabilization thereafter in girls and overweight in boys. Conclusion. Overweight and obesity prevalence in T1D subjects differs significantly if it is assessed by four separate reference populations. More detailed assessment of each child is required to determine obesity-related risks. PMID:26125029

  7. Doing challenging research studies in a patient-centred way: a qualitative study to inform a randomised controlled trial in the paediatric emergency care setting

    PubMed Central

    Woolfall, Kerry; Young, Bridget; Frith, Lucy; Appleton, Richard; Iyer, Anand; Messahel, Shrouk; Hickey, Helen; Gamble, Carrol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To inform the design of a randomised controlled trial (called EcLiPSE) to improve the treatment of children with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). EcLiPSE requires the use of a controversial deferred consent process. Design Qualitative interview and focus group study. Setting 8 UK support groups for parents of children who have chronic or acute health conditions and experience of paediatric emergency care. Participants 17 parents, of whom 11 participated in telephone interviews (10 mothers, 1 father) and 6 in a focus group (5 mothers, 1 father). 6 parents (35%) were bereaved and 7 (41%) had children who had experienced seizures, including CSE. Results Most parents had not heard of deferred consent, yet they supported its use to enable the progress of emergency care research providing a child's safety was not compromised by the research. Parents were reassured by tailored explanation, which focused their attention on aspects of EcLiPSE that addressed their priorities and concerns. These aspects included the safety of the interventions under investigation and how both EcLiPSE interventions are used in routine clinical practice. Parents made recommendations about the appropriate timing of a recruitment discussion, the need to individualise approaches to recruiting bereaved parents and the use of clear written information. Conclusions Our study provided information to help ensure that a challenging trial was patient centred in its design. We will use our findings to help EcLiPSE practitioners to: discuss potentially threatening trial safety information with parents, use open-ended questions and prompts to identify their priorities and concerns and clarify related aspects of written trial information to assist understanding and decision-making. PMID:24833694

  8. Evaluation of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 genotype in patients with celiac disease hospitalised in 2012 at the Department of Paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Bąk-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Cywińska-Bernas, Agnieszka; Zeman, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent intolerance to gluten that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals and leads to small intestinal mucosa damage. According to ESPGHAN guidelines from 2012, CD can be diagnosed in a patient with characteristic clinical symptoms, in whom, anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (> 10 times the upper limit) are found, endomysial antibodies (EMA) is confirmed and a positive genetic test is obtained. In these conditions no small-bowel biopsies are required. Aim Evaluation of the presence of HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes in children with previously diagnosed CD, hospitalised in 2012 at the Department of Paediatrics and Immunology and/or the Gastroenterological Outpatient Clinic, and their relatives. Material and methods Blood samples of 22 subjects, including 9 children with CD diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, serological investigations and small-intestine biopsy, 7 diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and serological investigations, 2 with the suspicion of CD on the basis of clinical symptoms and 4 relatives of a child with CD. Methods: HLA-DQ2/DQ8 test, automatic evaluation by EUROArrayScan. Results The presence of HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 genotype was confirmed in 16 children with CD diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms and serological tests with/without intestinal biopsy, in 2 with the suspicion of CD and in 1 relative of a celiac child. Conclusions The evaluation of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 haplotype confirms the genetic predisposition to CD in subjects with the disease diagnosed previously on the basis of clinical symptoms, serological tests or intestinal biopsy. Genetic testing is particularly indicated for the diagnosis of CD in infants consuming gluten for a short time and in small amounts. PMID:24868296

  9. Fertility preservation in female cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Jeon, Gyun-Ho

    2012-01-01

    With improved survival rates among cancer patients, fertility preservation is now being recognized as an issue of great importance. There are currently several methods of fertility preservation available in female cancer patients and the options and techniques via assisted reproduction and cryopreservation are increasing, but some are still experimental and continues to be evaluated. The established means of preserving fertility include embryo cryopreservation, gonadal shielding during radiation therapy, ovarian transposition, conservative gynecologic surgery such as radical trachelectomy, donor embryos/oocytes, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The experimental methods include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation, in vitro maturation, and ovarian suppression. With advances in methods for the preservation of fertility, providing information about risk of infertility and possible options of fertility preservation to all young patients with cancer, and discussing future fertility with them should be also considered as one of the important parts of consultation at the time of cancer diagnosis. PMID:22462006

  10. Tracing Sydenham's chorea: historical documents from a British paediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Martino, D; Tanner, A; Defazio, G; Church, A J; Bhatia, K P; Giovannoni, G; Dale, R C

    2005-05-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) became a well defined nosological entity only during the second half of the nineteenth century. Such progress was promoted by the availability of large clinical series provided by newly founded paediatric hospitals. This paper analyses the demographic and clinical features of patients with chorea admitted to the first British paediatric hospital (the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London) between 1852 and 1936. The seasonal and demographic characteristics of SC during this time appear strikingly similar to those observed today, and witness the introduction of modern "statistically averaging" techniques in the approach to complex paediatric syndromes. Great Ormond Street (GOS) hospital case notes provide detailed descriptions of the "typical cases" of SC, and show that British physicians working in the early age of paediatric hospitals succeeded in recognising the most distinctive clinical features of this fascinating condition. PMID:15851434

  11. Paediatric obesity and renal transplantation: current challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Terrace, John D; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2016-04-01

    The increased incidence of obesity in the paediatric population poses significant challenges to renal transplantation. Whilst the body mass index appears to be widely used as a measure of obesity in adults, there are no standardised definitions in the paediatric population, making comparative analyses difficult. In the paediatric transplant population, obesity is associated with an increased incidence of surgical complications, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular morbidity, leading to diminished graft function and impacting patient and graft survival. Management of obesity in renal transplantation requires multiple interventions starting with life-style and behavioural modification combined with medical and possibly surgical therapies, representing a unique challenge in the childhood setting. In this review we discuss the current challenges of obesity and potential solutions in the setting of paediatric transplantation. PMID:26018121

  12. Paediatric suicidal burns: A growing concern.

    PubMed

    Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana

    2016-06-01

    An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of <18 years who had committed self-immolation. Demographic data, aetiology, burn severity, associated illnesses, treatment and outcomes of the patients were collected with preventive strategies. Of total 89 patients, 12 patients were below 12 years (children) and 77 between 12-18 years (adolescent) with female preponderance. Majority belonged to lower middle and upper lower class families. Most had deep partial thickness burns. Psychiatric and personality disorder were found in 24.03% and 31.46% patients respectively. Kerosene was the main agent chosen to inflict injury. The average length of hospital stay was 19.8 days. The crude mortality rate observed was 38.2%. With cultural and socio-economic changes children and adolescents are exposed to increased levels of stress and peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. PMID:26803366

  13. Organ dose and risk assessment in paediatric radiography using the PCXMC 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladia, A.; Messaris, G.; Delis, H.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2015-09-01

    Abdominal and chest radiographs are the most common examinations in paediatric radiology. X-ray examination of children attracts particular interest, mainly due to the increased risk for the expression of delayed radiogenic cancers as they have many years of expected life remaining. This study aims to calculate the organ dose and estimate the radiation Risk of Exposure Induced cancer Death (REID) to paediatric patients, using the PCXMC 2.0 Monte Carlo code.Patient data and exposure parameters were recorded during examinations of 240 patients, separated in four age groups undergoing chest or abdomen examinations.The organs received the highest dose in all patient groups were liver, lungs, stomach, thyroid, pancreas, breast, spleen in chest radiographs and liver, lungs, colon, stomach and ovaries, uterus (for girls) and prostate (for boys) in abdomen radiographs. The effective dosefor the chest was 0.49×10-2- 1.07×10-2 mSv, while for the abdomen 1.85×10-2- 3.02×10-2 mSv. The mean REID value was 1.254×10-5 for the abdomen and 0.645×10-5 for the chest.

  14. The use of nalbuphine in paediatric anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kubica-Cielińska, Anna; Zielińska, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Nalbuphine is an agonist-antagonist opioid. It causes analgesic and sedative effect and because of ceiling effect it does not cause a respiratory depression. In a perioperative therapy of paediatric patients it may be used for premedication, sedation during diagnostic procedures as well as for postoperative pain treatment. It reverses adverse reactions of other opioids such as itch or urinary retention, not significantly influencing its analgetic properties. After sevoflurane anaesthesia of small children, it reduces the incidences of emergence agitation. Nalbuphine is considered a safe drug, which causes nausea and vomiting less frequently than other opioids. Analgesic effect, the ability to provide moderate sedation and a large margin of safety make that analgesic often used for paediatric patients. PMID:26165241

  15. [New analgesics in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Avez-Couturier, Justine; Wood, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of different types of analgesics in paediatrics. They must be used in accordance with the situation, the type of pain and the characteristics of the child. In all cases, strict compliance with the posology and the instructions for use is essential to avoid any risk of error. Finally, pharmacological, physical and psychological treatments are employed in a complementary manner, for the biopsychosocial management of the child's care. PMID:27177483

  16. Quicker cancer care: reshaping patient pathways.

    PubMed

    Towler, Lucy

    2009-07-01

    A new pathway has been devised for patients with ovarian cancer who attend a day-care unit for chemotherapy. This pathway, which is provided by nurses and doctors, has reduced patients' waiting time for treatment. Its implementation shows, therefore, that good clinical leadership can effect positive change. PMID:19639906

  17. 23. Pain in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Vissers, Kris C P; Besse, Kees; Wagemans, Michel; Zuurmond, Wouter; Giezeman, Maurice J M M; Lataster, Arno; Mekhail, Nagy; Burton, Allen W; van Kleef, Maarten; Huygen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Pain in patients with cancer can be refractory to pharmacological treatment or intolerable side effects of pharmacological treatment may seriously disturb patients' quality of life. Specific interventional pain management techniques can be an effective alternative for those patients. The appropriate application of these interventional techniques provides better pain control, allows the reduction of analgesics and hence improves quality of life. Until recently, the majority of these techniques are considered to be a fourth consecutive step following the World Health Organization's pain treatment ladder. However, in cancer patients, earlier application of interventional pain management techniques can be recommended even before considering the use of strong opioids. Epidural and intrathecal medication administration allow the reduction of the daily oral or transdermal opioid dose, while maintaining or even improving the pain relief and reducing the side effects. Cervical cordotomy may be considered for patients suffering with unilateral pain at the level below the dermatome C5. This technique should only be applied in patients with a life expectancy of less than 1 year. Plexus coeliacus block or nervus splanchnicus block are recommended for the management of upper abdominal pain due to cancer. Pelvic pain due to cancer can be managed with plexus hypogastricus block and the saddle or lower end block may be a last resort for patients suffering with perineal pain. Back pain due to vertebral compression fractures with or without pathological tumor invasion may be managed with percutaneous vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty. All these interventional techniques should be a part of multidisciplinary patient program. PMID:21679293

  18. Determination of optimal vitamin D3 dosing regimens in HIV-infected paediatric patients using a population pharmacokinetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Foissac, Frantz; Meyzer, Candice; Frange, Pierre; Chappuy, Hélène; Benaboud, Sihem; Bouazza, Naïm; Friedlander, Gérard; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Urien, Saïk; Blanche, Stéphane; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] population pharmacokinetics in children and adolescents, to establish factors that influence 25(OH)D pharmacokinetics and to assess different vitamin D3 dosing schemes to reach sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations (>30 ng ml−1). Methods This monocentric prospective study included 91 young HIV-infected patients aged 3 to 24 years. Patients received a 100 000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation. A total of 171 25(OH)D concentrations were used to perform a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Results At baseline 28% of patients had 25(OH)D concentrations below 10 ng ml−1, 69% between 10 and 30 ng ml−1 and 3% above 30 ng ml−1. 25(OH)D pharmacokinetics were best described by a one compartment model with an additional production parameter reflecting the input from diet and sun exposure. The effects of skin phototype and bodyweight were significant on 25(OH)D production before any supplementation. The basal level was 27% lower in non-white skin phototype patients and was slightly decreased with bodyweight. No significant differences in 25(OH)D concentrations were related to antiretroviral drugs. To obtain concentrations between 30 and 80 ng ml−1, patients with baseline concentrations between 10 and 30 ng ml−1 should receive 100 000 IU per 3 months. However, vitamin D deficient patients (<10 ng ml−1) would need an intensive phase of 100 000 IU per 2 weeks (two times) followed 2 weeks later by a maintenance phase of 100 000 IU per 3 months. Conclusions Skin phototype and bodyweight had an influence on the basal production of 25(OH)D. According to 25(OH)D baseline concentrations, dosing schemes to reach sufficient concentrations are proposed. PMID:24902982

  19. A comparative proteomic study of sera in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients and in healthy controls using MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC MS–A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) exhibits an aggressive clinical phenotype with severe complications and overall poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyse differential expression of low molecular weight (LMW) serum protein molecules of pSLE patients with active disease in comparison to sera of healthy age matched controls. Further, some of the differential expressed spots were characterised and identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS). Methods 2D-PAGE was performed using pooled sera of active pSLE and age matched healthy controls. Gels were silver-stained and differentially expressed protein spots were detected by automated image master platinum 2D software. 79 ± 17 protein spots were detected for control gels and 78 ± 17 protein spots for patient gels. Of these eleven protein spots were selected randomly and characterized by MALDI-TOF MS (five protein spots) and LC MS (six protein spots) techniques. Results Out of the 11 protein spots, 5 protein spots were significantly upregulated viz., leiomodin 2 (LMOD2); epidermal cytokeratin 2; immunoglobulin kappa light chain variable region; keratin 1 and transthyretin (TTR). Three protein spots were significantly down regulated e.g., apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1); chain B human complement component C3c; campath antibody antigen complex. Two protein spots (complement component C3; retinol binding protein (RBP) were found to be expressed only in disease and one protein spot cyclohydrolase 2 was only expressed in controls. Conclusions We conclude that 2-D maps of patients with active pSLE and controls differ significantly. In this pilot study, using proteomic approach we have identified differential expressed proteins (of LMW) e.g., RBP, LMOD 2, TTR, Component C3c Chain B and APO A1. However, in future, further studies need to confirm the physiological and pathological role of these

  20. Fertility preservation for breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Oktay, Kutluk

    2009-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm in women and accounts for 26% (182,460) of all new cancer cases among women. With the use of screening mammography and advancement in other diagnostic modalities, many cases of breast cancer now can be diagnosed and treated at early stages of the disease. Unfortunately, adjuvant chemotherapy regimens commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer may cause premature ovarian failure due to their cytotoxic effects on the germ cells in the ovary. Therefore preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors at reproductive age has become an important quality of life issue. Fertility preservation is a recently emerged field of reproductive medicine that may help protect the reproductive capability of the cancer survivors and allow them to have children in the future. Embryo freezing is the most established fertility preservation strategy. But conventional ovarian stimulation protocols are contraindicated in breast cancer patients because of the rise of estrogen and its metabolites to supraphysiological levels. Recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide a safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen levels comparable with those achieved in the natural cycle. Oocyte freezing can be considered in single women and in those who do not wish donor sperm. Ovarian tissue freezing could also be an option in breast cancer patients who do not wish or have a time for an in vitro fertilization cycle, which requires 10 to 14 days of ovarian stimulation. PMID:19806518

  1. Campylobacter concisus and exotoxin 9 levels in paediatric patients with Crohn's disease and their association with the intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A; Leach, Steven T; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2014-01-01

    There is mounting evidence for a possible role for Campylobacter concisus in Crohn's disease (CD). However, the pathogenic potential of C. concisus remains disputed due to its presence in healthy subjects. It is documented that genetic diversity exists within this species, with some strains possessing putative virulence determinants such as exotoxin 9/DnaI that may enable them to persist intracellularly in host cells. In order to clarify this, we employed real-time PCR to determine C. concisus and exotoxin 9 levels within faecal samples of CD patients and healthy controls, and correlated these levels with abundances of microbial taxa identified in a subset of subjects. Both C. concisus and exotoxin 9 levels were found to be higher in CD patients than healthy controls, suggesting not only that CD patients had a greater abundance of C. concisus but also that their strains were likely to be more virulent. Moreover, C. concisus levels correlated with the exotoxin 9 levels in CD patients but not in healthy controls, indicating that healthy controls were colonized by non-virulent C. concisus strains. Correlations with the intestinal microbiota found C. concisus levels to correlate with Eubacterium, Subdoligranulum and Blautia, while exotoxin 9 levels correlated with Dialister, Oscillospira, Lachnospira and Prevotella. This suggests that either the composition of the intestinal microbial flora has the ability to influence levels of both virulent and non-virulent C. concisus strains, or infection with C. concisus may modulate the levels of specific bacterial taxa within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24105841

  2. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  3. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. RESULTS: There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p < 0.001). Individuals with higher levels of depression have lower levels of psychological resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  4. Treatment Modification in Young Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Scharl, Anton; Salterberg, Annette; Untch, Michael; Liedtke, Cornelia; Stickeler, Elmar; Papathemelis, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Patients not older than 40 years are referred to as young patients. These women benefit from chemo-, endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy to a similar degree as older women. Surgery and radiation therapy also follow the same recommendations. This manuscript deals with the following topics that need special consideration in young women: endocrine therapy and ovarian suppression; fertility protection and family planning; and genetic counselling. There is an on-going debate on whether tamoxifen is sufficient as an endocrine treatment in young patients with endocrine-responsive tumours or whether suppression of ovarian function in combination with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor should be preferred. Recent data suggest a benefit from ovarian suppression plus exemestane in women of 35 years or younger with high-risk breast cancer. However, increased side effects bear the risk of lesser compliance, which eventually results in higher mortality. Child bearing is nowadays frequently postponed to the 4th decade of life, thereby increasing the number of women who have not yet finished their reproductive desires when diagnosed with breast cancer. These patients are in urgent need of counselling for fertility protection. Breast cancer diagnosis at young age is an indication for a possible mutation in breast cancer susceptibility genes. This has an impact on the cancer risk of the whole family, especially the offspring. Drugs that are specifically targeted to cancer cells with genetic alterations that impair DNA repair are already entering the arsenal of oncologists. PMID:27031253

  5. Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Boon, H S

    1999-10-01

    More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador) commonly used by cancer patients are reviewed here and a list of recommended reference texts is provided. In addition, health care providers are encouraged to initiate discussions about complementary/alternative products and therapies with their patients so that they may help them make safe and informed decisions about these products. Not knowing what patients are taking is definitely a less desirable option. PMID:14528703

  6. [Guidelines for psychosocial care of cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Caminiti, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines for psychosocial care of cancer patients. The Italian Association of Medical Oncologists published in 2013 the update of the first edition of the Psychosocial Guidelines for the care of cancer patients. The guidelines, produced by a multidisciplinary group (medical doctors, nurses, oncologists, psychologists and patients) aim at recognizing the importance of psychosocial care in helping the patients and their relatives to overcome the effects of the diagnosis and the treatments on mental health and emotional wellbeing. In some cases the evidences available are not as hard as those supporting drug treatments: many outcomes such as the effectiveness of educational interventions, the patients' wellbeing, thrust, perception of support, for their nature and complexity require both quantitative and qualitative measurements. Lack of robust evidences such as those obtained from clinical trials, does not necessarily correspond to lack of effectiveness of the intervention nor should make us forget that patients' rights (to good care, information and support) should be guaranteed. PMID:24441468

  7. Neonatal circumcision revisited. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in providing guidance to parents regarding neonatal circumcision. OPTIONS: Whether to recommend the routine circumcision of newborn male infants. OUTCOMES: Costs and complications of neonatal circumcision, the incidence of urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases and cancer of the penis in circumcised and uncircumcised males, and of cervical cancer in their partners, and the costs of treating these diseases. EVIDENCE: The literature on circumcision was reviewed by the Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society. During extensive discussion at meetings of the committee over a 24-month period, the strength of the evidence was carefully weighed and the perspective of the committee developed. VALUES: The literature was assessed to determine whether neonatal circumcision improves the health of boys and men and is a cost-effective approach to preventing penile problems and associated urinary tract conditions. Religious and personal values were not included in the assessment. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The effect of neonatal circumcision on the incidence of urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted diseases, cancer of the penis, cervical cancer and penile problems; the complications of circumcision; and estimates of the costs of neonatal circumcision and of the treatment of later penile conditions, urinary tract infections and complications of circumcision. RECOMMENDATION: Circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed. VALIDATION: This recommendation is in keeping with previous statements on neonatal circumcision by the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The statement was reviewed by the Infectious Disease Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society. The Board of Directors of the Canadian Paediatric Society has reviewed its content and approved it for publication. SPONSOR: This is an official statement of the Canadian Paediatric Society. No external

  8. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gemma; Cooke, Richard; Cameron, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process. PMID:27417822

  9. Propofol extravasation in a breast cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, E J M; Baars, J W; Schutte, P F E; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H

    2008-12-01

    A breast cancer patient experienced an accidental propofol extravasation in the dorsum of her hand during a Port-A-Cath replacement. She had heavy pain which was treated with analgesics. The patient's hand was cooled and kept in an upright position. Three days later the patient received her last AC (adriamycin/cyclophosphamide) course without complications. Propofol extravasation did not result in tissue necrosis in this case. AC chemotherapy could be administered safely 3 days after propofol extravasation. PMID:18753182

  10. Ultramini nephrostomy tract combined with flexible ureterorenoscopy for the treatment of multiple renal calculi in paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen Zeng; Zhang, Yanqiao; An, Feng; Wei, Ruojing; Li, Yu; Zhang, Haisong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the safety and efficacy of an ultramini nephrostomy tract, which we were using for the first time, combined with flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) in the treatment of pediatric patients with multiple renal calculi. Materials and Methods Twenty pediatric patients (age, ≤6 years) underwent ultramini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) combined with flexible URS. The group had multiple renal calculi, which were bilateral in 3 cases and were located in a total of 23 sites. The calculi were located in 2 calyces in 10 cases, scattered in more than 2 calyces in 7 cases, and limited to 1 calyx in 3 cases. The average patient age was 37.35 months (range, 14-68 months). The average stone diameter was 2.0 cm (range, 1-3.0 cm). In all patients, an ultramini nephrostomy tract was established under ultrasound guidance (dilated to F10) with simultaneous sheath placement. The flexible URS was placed into the collecting system during holmium laser lithotripsy. Results When ultramini PCNL was combined with flexible ureterorenoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy, the complete stone-free rate was 87% (20/23). The average level of hemoglobin decreased to 1.0 g/dL after the operation. No blood transfusions were needed. Levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein were not significantly different before and after the operation. The average duration of hospitalization was approximately 4.85 days, and all cases were followed up for 6 to 12 months. No complications were found. Conclusions Ultramini PCNL combined with flexible ureterorenoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective treatment for children with multiple renal calculi. PMID:26175871