Sample records for pah diagnostic ratios

  1. Century-Long Source Apportionment of PAHs in Athabasca Oil Sands Region Lakes Using Diagnostic Ratios and Compound-Specific

    E-print Network

    Beaudoin, Georges

    Century-Long Source Apportionment of PAHs in Athabasca Oil Sands Region Lakes Using Diagnostic a century- long historical record of source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs PAHs in addition to retene, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and six alkylated groups were measured, and both

  2. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of the Rizhao coastal area (China) using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis with nonnegative constraints.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-yang; Teng, Yan-guo; Wang, Jin-sheng

    2012-01-01

    In this study, sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in surface sediments of the Rizhao coastal area (China) were apportioned using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC). Bivariate plots of selected diagnostic ratios showed that the sources of PAHs identified in surface sediments seemed to be mixed sources dominated by petroleum-related. Literature PAH source profiles were modified based on the first-order degradation reaction in the atmosphere and sediments, and were considered as comparison for source identification. Five significant factors were determined with the diagnostic tools including coefficient of determination, cumulative percent variance and Exner function. By visually comparing PAH patterns and from the sum of squares of differences between modeled and modified literature PAH profiles, the potential sources were apportioned with the FA-NNC. The main contribution sources of PAHs originated from diesel engine (27.22%), followed by traffic emission (25.03%), gasoline engine (18.95%), coal power plant (14.77%) and coal residential (14.03%). Energy consumption was the predominant reason for PAH pollution in that region. PMID:22115615

  3. Impact of oxidation and biodegradation on the most commonly used polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) diagnostic ratios: Implications for the source identifications.

    PubMed

    Biache, Coralie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Faure, Pierre

    2014-02-28

    Based on the isomer stability during their formation, PAH diagnostic ratios have been extensively used to determine PAH contamination origin. Nevertheless, it is known that these isomers do not present the same physicochemical properties and that reactions occurring during the transport from an atmospheric source induce changes in the diagnostic ratios. Yet, little is known about reactions occurring in soils contaminated by other sources such as coal tar and coal. Innovative batch experiments of abiotic oxidation and microbial incubations were performed to discriminate independently the influence of these two major processes occurring in soils on the diagnostic ratios of major PAH sources. Three samples were studied, a coking plant soil and two major PAH sources in this soil, namely coal and coal tar. The combustion signature of the coking plant soil showed the major influence of coal tar in the soil sample composition. Some of these ratios were drastically affected by oxidation and biodegradation processes inducing a change in the source signature. The coal tar signature changed to petrogenic source after oxidation with the anthracene/(anthracene+phenanthrene) ratio. According to this ratio, the initial petrogenic signature of the coal changed to a combustion signature after the biodegradation experiment. PMID:24413049

  4. PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B Yunker; Robie W Macdonald; Roxanne Vingarzan; Reginald H Mitchell; Darcy Goyette; Stephanie Sylvestre

    2002-01-01

    Parent and alkyl PAHs (51 compounds and alkyl homologues) have been quantified in suspended particulates and sediments (345 samples) from the Fraser River system, British Columbia, Canada. The best potential to distinguish natural and anthropogenic sources is exhibited by ratios of the principal mass 178, 202, 228 and 276 parent PAHs, 1,7\\/2,6+1,7-DMP (dimethylphenanthrene), the phenanthrene\\/anthracene and fluoranthene\\/pyrene alkyl PAH series

  5. Biomonitoring of PAHs by using Quercus ilex leaves: Source diagnostic and toxicity assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Claudia, Lancellotti; MariaVittoria, Prati; Giulia, Maisto; Anna, Alfani

    2011-03-01

    Quercus ilex L. leaves were sampled at nineteen urban sites and two remote sites in order to evaluate PAH contamination degree. One-, two- and three-year-old leaves were collected and leaf lipid content was measured to investigate the influence of leaf age and lipids in PAH accumulation. Some PAH diagnostic ratios, such as Ant/Ant + Phen, Flt/Flt + Pyr, B[a]A/B[a]A + Crys and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P, were calculated. The results suggest that Q. ilex leaves are effective biomonitors of PAH air contamination: in fact, a great PAH accumulation in leaves from the urban areas, until 30-time higher compared to those from the remote sites, has been observed. At each site, the similar total PAH concentrations in leaves of different age, probably due to a canopy effect, indicate an ability of all leaf age classes to monitor local PAH concentrations in air, remarking practical implications for air biomonitoring. The findings suggest that PAH adsorption in Q. ilex leaves does not result limited by leaf lipid content. Moreover, this study demonstrates the source-diagnostic potential of Q. ilex leaves, because, in particular, the Flt/Flt + Pyr and IP/IP + B[g,h,i]P ratios indicate vehicular traffic as the main source of PAHs in the urban areas and wood combustion in the remote areas. Moreover, to distinguish biomass combustion source, a promising tracer PAH as DB[a,h]A could be used. The high contribution of DB[a,h]A to total PAH concentrations at the remote sites determines a high carcinogenic potential in this area, similar to that calculated for the urban area where the carcinogenic PAH concentrations in absolute values are often higher.

  6. Optimal sampling ratios in comparative diagnostic trials

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ting; Tang, Liansheng Larry; Rosenberger, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A subjective sampling ratio between the case and the control groups is not always an efficient choice to maximize the power or to minimize the total required sample size in comparative diagnostic trials.We derive explicit expressions for an optimal sampling ratio based on a common variance structure shared by several existing summary statistics of the receiver operating characteristic curve. We propose a two-stage procedure to estimate adaptively the optimal ratio without pilot data. We investigate the properties of the proposed method through theoretical proofs, extensive simulation studies and a real example in cancer diagnostic studies. PMID:24948841

  7. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment of mud areas in the East China Sea using diagnostic ratios and factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Li, Xian Guo; Li, Sheng Yong; Ma, Yan Yan; Zhang, Da Hai

    2013-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) have been quantified for surface sediments collected from the East China Sea (ECS). Our results showed that relatively high levels of PAHs and AHs occurred in both the inner and outer mud areas, while their concentrations at the control site were much lower. AHs for all samples were dominated by the unresolved complex mixture (UCM). Results from diagnostic ratios revealed that sedimentary PAHs were mainly originated from mixed combustion residues of biomass, coal, and petroleum. Combustion residues of petroleum and oil were responsible for the presence of high AHs concentrations. We also conducted factor analysis (FA) to further characterize the PAH and AH sources. Four factors were identified based on the loading of components and attributed to coal and wood combustion (Factor 1), traffic-related sources (Factor 2), petrogenic source (Factor 3) and natural gas combustion (Factor 4). PMID:23541289

  8. Development of novel fuel ion ratio diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Korsholm, S. B.; Stejner, M.; Bindslev, H.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M. [Association EURATOM-Risoe DTU, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G. [Association EURATOM-VR, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Association EURATOM-ENEA CNR, 20125 Milano (Italy); Hellermann, M. von; Lischtschenko, O.; Delabie, E. [Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E. [Department of Applied Physics, Fusion Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    To overcome the challenge of measuring the fuel ion ratio in the core ({rho}<0.3) of ITER, a coordinated effort aiming at developing diagnostic techniques has been initiated. The investigated techniques are novel uses or further development of existing methods such as charge exchange recombination spectrometry, neutron spectrometry, and collective Thomson scattering. An overview of the work on the three diagnostic techniques is presented.

  9. The use of diagnostic ratios, biomarkers and 3-way Kohonen neural networks to monitor the temporal evolution of oil spills.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Varela, R; Gómez-Carracedo, M P; Ballabio, D; Andrade, J M

    2015-07-15

    Oil spill identification relies usually on a wealth of chromatographic data which requires advanced data treatment (chemometrics). A simple approach based on Kohonen neural networks to handle three-dimensional arrays is presented. A suite of 28 diagnostic ratios was considered to monitor six oils along four months. It was found that some traditional diagnostic ratios were not stable enough. In particular, alkylated PAHs (e.g. 1-methyldibenzothiophene, 4-methylpyrene, 27bbSTER and the TA21 and TA26 triaromatic steroids) seemed less resistant to medium-weathering than biomarkers. One (or two) ratios were found to differentiate each product: 30O, 28ab (and 25nor30ab), C3-dbt/C3-phe, 27Ts, TA26 and 29Ts characterized Ashtart, Brent, Maya, Sahara, IFO and Prestige oils, respectively. PMID:25935805

  10. Environmental stability of PAH source indices in pyrogenic tars

    SciTech Connect

    Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D. [New Fields Environmental Forensics Practice, Rockland, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of PAHs found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of PAH, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique PAH patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected PAH source ratios is based on the concept that PAHs with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight PAH ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The PAH ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in PAH residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.

  11. Line ratio diagnostics in helium and helium seeded argon plasmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R F Boivin; S D Loch; C P Ballance; D Branscomb; M S Pindzola

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the potential use of line ratio diagnostics to evaluate electron temperature in either helium or helium seeded argon plasmas. Plasmas are produced in a helicon plasma source. A rf compensated Langmuir probe is used to measure both the electron temperature and plasma density while a spectrometer is used to measure He I line intensities from the plasma. For

  12. Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest Photon Dominated Region of NGC 7023. III. Quantifying the Traditional Proxy for PAH Charge and Assessing its Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer/IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed. Here, results from fitting the 5.2–14.5 ?m spectrum at each pixel using exclusively PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb/) and observed PAH band strength ratios, determined after isolating the PAH bands, are combined. This enables the first quantitative and spectrally consistent calibration of PAH charge proxies. Calibration is straightforward because the 6.2/11.2 ?m PAH band strength ratio varies linearly with the ionized fraction (PAH ionization parameter) as determined from the intrinsic properties of the individual PAHs comprising the database. This, in turn, can be related to the local radiation field, electron density, and temperature. From these relations diagnostic templates are developed to deduce the PAH ionization fraction and astronomical environment in other objects. The commonly used 7.7/11.2 ?m PAH band strength ratio fails as a charge proxy over a significant fraction of the nebula. The 11.2/12.7 ?m PAH band strength ratio, commonly used as a PAH erosion indicator, is revealed to be a better tracer for PAH charge across NGC 7023. Attempting to calibrate the 12.7/11.2 ?m PAH band strength ratio against the PAH hydrogen adjacency ratio (duo+trio)/solo is, unexpectedly, anti-correlated. This work both validates and extends the results from Paper I and Paper II.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons study in atmospheric fine and coarse particles using diagnostic ratios and receptor model in urban/industrial region.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Elba Calesso; Mattiuzi, Camila Dalla Porta; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Garcia, Karine de Oliveira; Wiegand, Flavio

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric fine and coarse particles were collected in Teflon filters in three cities of the region of the Lower Sinos River Basin of Rio Grande do Sul in the year 2010. The filters were Soxhlet extracted, and 14 priority PAHs were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The principal emission sources of these compounds were assessed by using diagnostic ratios and receptor model: positive matrix factorization (PMF 3.0) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results of PAHs concentration for the studied year showed significant levels of high molecular weight (HMW) PAH, Ind, and BghiP, in PM2.5 in the winter season, showing the influence of mobile sources. The application of receptor model PMF 3.0 revealed that the main sources of PAHs were vehicle fleet (both diesel and gasoline), followed by coal combustion, wood combustion, and resuspension of dust. The results of the receptor modeling are in agreement with the data obtained by the ratio diagnostic. PMID:23824515

  14. Seasonal attributes of urban soil PAHs of the Brahmaputra Valley.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Karishma; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants, which are both toxic and carcinogenic. In the present study seasonally collected composite soil samples of Guwahati city of the Brahmaputra Valley were analysed for of PAHs by HPLC column. Black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) of soil samples were analysed by thermochemical oxidation method in a TOC analyzer. Mean concentrations of ?PAHs (USEPA 16) were found to be 5570168±7003, 9052±1292 and 19294±17827 ng g(-1) during monsoon, pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Two- and 4-ring PAHs dominated and the 2-ring PAHs were particularly abundant during post-monsoon period. The carcinogenic potentials of PAHs were calculated as BaP equivalents, which was found to be maximum (1167.064 ng Ba Pq g(-1)) at industrial site. Diagnostic ratios of marker species indicated for pyrogenic origins of PAHs. Sources were indentified and contribution of individual sources was quantified by multivariate hyphenated model - Principal Component Analysis-Multiple Linear Regression (PCA-MLR). Mobile sources like the vehicular traffic were found to have contributed ?63% to the PAHs load. The correlations of individual PAHs with BC or OC showed seasonal variations. High dependencies of PAHs on BC/OC ratios were found indicating that BC could be interfering with the association of PAHs and OC. However, such relationships showed seasonal bias and high positive dependencies were found during pre-monsoon period only. Strong relationships were found between PAHs and BC/OC during monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. PMID:25203734

  15. The diagnostic odds ratio: a single indicator of test performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Afina S. Glas; Jeroen G. Lijmer; Martin H. Prins; Gouke J. Bonsel; Patrick M. M. Bossuyt

    2003-01-01

    Diagnostic testing can be used to discriminate subjects with a target disorder from subjects without it. Several indicators of diagnostic performance have been proposed, such as sensitivity and specificity. Using paired indicators can be a disadvantage in comparing the performance of competing tests, especially if one test does not outperform the other on both indicators. Here we propose the use

  16. Sediment PAH: contrasting levels in the Caspian Sea and Anzali Wetland.

    PubMed

    Yancheshmeh, Rokhsareh Azimi; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Mortazavi, Samar; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

    2014-07-15

    A comparative study of 23 PAH congeners in sediment of the Caspian Sea coast and Anzali Wetland was conducted in 2010. Surface sediment was analyzed using chromatography and mass spectrometry. Total PAH concentrations ranged between 212 and 9009 ng g(-1) dw. Spatial distribution maps revealed that PAH levels were higher in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea where oil related activities have been common since 1800's. Diagnostic ratios analysis indicated that PAHs largely originated from petrogenic processes. PAH toxicity level was assessed using sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalent concentrations to determine toxic effects on marine organism. Based on these investigations, in our study areas, the probability of toxicity for benthic organisms is "low to medium". The toxic equivalent concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs varied between 11 and 231 ng TEQ/g; higher total toxic equivalent concentrations values were found in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea. PMID:24910181

  17. Application of binary diagnostic ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for identification of Tsunami 2004 backwash sediments in Khao Lak, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Tsunami deposits has long been a controversial issue among geologists. Although there are many identification criteria based on the sedimentary characteristics of unequivocal Tsunami deposits, the concept still remains ambiguous. Apart from relying on some conventional geological, sedimentological, and geoscientific records, geologists need some alternative "proxies" to identify the existence of Tsunami backwash in core sediments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of very stable organic molecules, which can usually be presented as complex mixtures of several hundred congeners; one can assume that the "Tsunami backwash deposits" possess different fingerprints of PAHs apart from those of "typical marine sediments." In this study, three-dimensional plots of PAH binary ratios successfully identify the Tsunami backwash deposits in comparison with those of global marine sediments. The applications of binary ratios of PAHs coupled with HCA are the basis for developing site-specific Tsunami deposit identification criteria that can be applied in paleotsunami deposits investigations. PMID:25170522

  18. Indoor and outdoor air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Xu, Renji; Wu, Guoping; Zhang, Qinghua; Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Jiyan; Jiang, Guibin; Wei, Fusheng

    2009-07-01

    Xuanwei and Fuyuan, located in the Yunnan province in southwest of China, are known to have a high incidence of lung cancer caused by indoor airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated during bituminous coal combustion for heating and cooking in unvented households. In this study, indoor and outdoor air was sampled at 38 sampling sites around these areas in January 2007. The concentrations of 16 PAHs were analyzed. The sources of PAHs in these two counties were also investigated. Quartz filters and polyurethane foam were used to collect particle-bound PAHs (p-PAHs) and gas-phase PAHs (g-PAHs), respectively. The concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene (Bap), the best index for PAHs carcinogenicity, were higher in indoor air than that in outdoor air. Bap levels in all the indoor air samples were higher than the national criteria (1.0 ng m(-3)) in China, but were much lower than those in previous studies in the same areas. Bap levels in 20 out of the 29 outdoor air samples were higher than the national criteria (10 ng m(-3)) of China. Significant differences in the gas/particle partition of PAHs were found between the indoor and the outdoor air samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) in combination with diagnostic ratios indicated that coal combustion was the predominant source for both indoor and outdoor PAHs pollution. PMID:20449226

  19. Stable carbon isotope ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment: validation of isolation and stable carbon isotope analysis methods 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Moon Koo

    2004-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, toxic contaminants that are released to the environment from various petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. In an effort to more clearly identify and trace sources of PAHs ...

  20. Distribution and characteristic of PAHs in sediments from the southwest Caspian Sea, Guilan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Varnosfaderany, Mohammad Nemati; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Gu, Zhaoyan; Chu, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the southwest Caspian Sea was assessed by examination of 45 sediment samples, collected from the coasts of the Guilan Province in 2012 and analyzed for 29 PAHs. The concentrations of PAHs were in the range of 232.1-1,014 ng g(-1) dry weight (mean 520 ± 246.4 ng g(-1)). The predominance of alkyl-substituted naphthalenes and phenanthrenes and the higher contributions of petrogenic compounds (NPD = 35.4-74.4%) compared to pyrogenic PAH compounds (COM = 18.1-47.4%) reveal a petrogenic source for PAHs with ubiquitous distribution in the study area. Offshore increase of total PAH concentrations was found to be correlated with increase of organic matter content of sediments, but no correlations with particle size fractions were found. The evaluation of ecotoxicological risk by sediment quality guidelines indicated that total PAH concentrations at all sites were below the effects range-low (ERL), but some individual petrogenic PAHs at some stations were significantly above their ERL and likely to adversely affect benthic biota. According to the diagnostic ratios used, most stations revealed the major source of the PAHs to be petrogenic, but some stations suggested a mixed petrogenic-pyrogenic source. PMID:26038922

  1. PAHs in Galaxies: their Properties and Evolution

    E-print Network

    F. Galliano

    2006-10-27

    I summarize the results of two recent studies, based on ISO and Spitzer mid-IR spectra of galaxies and Galactic regions, aimed at understanding the origins of the variations of the aromatic features among and inside galaxies. I show that the ratios between the most intense bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 microns) are principally sensitive to the charge of the molecules, and therefore represent a powerful diagnostic tool of the physical conditions inside the region where the emission is originating. Then, I show that the weakness of the aromatic bands, in low-metallicity environments, is a consequence of the delayed injection of their carriers, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), into the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. Indeed, PAHs are believed to form in the envelopes of post-AGB stars, several hundreds of million years after the beginning of the star formation, when the system is already chemically evolved.

  2. Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particle size in dated core sediments in Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zang, Shuying

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric particle associated with pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) poses serious threats to human health by inhalation exposure, especially in semiarid areas. Hence, the distributions of PAHs and particle size in two core sediments collected from Lake Lianhuan, Northeast China were studied. The sediments were dated radiometrically, and particle size distribution and PAH concentration were evaluated and potential human health risk was assessed. From 1980 to 2007, the dominant PAHs in the two cores were 2- and 3-ring PAHs, and the concentrations of 3-6 ring PAHs gradually increased from the early 1990s. Diagnostic ratios indicated that pyrogenic PAHs were the main sources of PAHs which changed over time from combustions of wood and coal to liquid fossil fuel sources. Fine particles (<65 ?m) were the predominant particle size (56-97%). Lacustrine source (with the peak towards 200-400 ?m) and eolian sources derived from short (2.0-10 and 30-65 ?m) and long (0.4-1.0 ?m) distance suspension were indentified from frequency distribution pattern of particle size. Significant correlations between 3-6 ring PAHs (especially carcinogenic 5-6 ring PAHs) and 10-35 ?m particulate fractions indicated that eolian particles played an important role in adsorbing pyrogenic PAHs. Petroleum source of PAHs was only identified during the 1980s in one core sediments, in which positive correlations between 2-ring PAHs and particulate fractions of >125 ?m were found. Future research should focus on the seven carcinogenic pyrogenic PAHs due to a rapidly increasing trend since 1995 based on the assessment of toxic equivalency factors. PMID:23727602

  3. The stability and utility of diagnostic ratio hydrocarbon fingerprinting for soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.S.; Sara McMillen

    1996-12-31

    In order to recover costs for oil spill cleanup and restoration regulatory agencies and trustees of natural resources are interested in identifying parties responsible for hydrocarbon releases, and for associated environmental damages. Chemical analyses of contaminated soil and groundwater samples are currently used to identify the sources of contamination in soil and groundwater systems. However, conventional hydrocarbon fingerprinting approaches such as EPA Method 8015, EPA Method 8270, and ASTM Method 3328-91 afford a low resolution fingerprint that is easily degraded in the environment. The challenge to the hydrocarbon chemist is to develop an analytical approach that minimizes the impact of environmental weathering and biodegradation on the oil signature and improves the accuracy of oil source identification. An advanced chemical fingerprinting strategy is presented that combines sensitive and hydrocarbon specific analytical methods with a detailed interpretive strategy designed to minimize the impacts of environmental weathering and biodegradation. Data will be presented from a series of oil biodegradation studies in soil that clearly demonstrate the utility and stability of source ratio analysis over a wide range of oil degradation states and oil types. Using principal component analysis, stable source ratios of C{sub 3}-dibenzothiophenes/C{sub 3}-phenanthrenes, and C{sub 2}-dibenzothiophenes/C{sub 2}-phenanthrenes were identified and evaluated. These source ratios retain their characteristic source ratio signature even after 95 percent of the PAH and dibenzothiophene target analytes and 70 percent of the total oil has been biodegraded.

  4. The stability and utility of diagnostic ratio hydrocarbon fingerprinting for soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, G.S.; Sara McMillen

    1996-01-01

    In order to recover costs for oil spill cleanup and restoration regulatory agencies and trustees of natural resources are interested in identifying parties responsible for hydrocarbon releases, and for associated environmental damages. Chemical analyses of contaminated soil and groundwater samples are currently used to identify the sources of contamination in soil and groundwater systems. However, conventional hydrocarbon fingerprinting approaches such as EPA Method 8015, EPA Method 8270, and ASTM Method 3328-91 afford a low resolution fingerprint that is easily degraded in the environment. The challenge to the hydrocarbon chemist is to develop an analytical approach that minimizes the impact of environmental weathering and biodegradation on the oil signature and improves the accuracy of oil source identification. An advanced chemical fingerprinting strategy is presented that combines sensitive and hydrocarbon specific analytical methods with a detailed interpretive strategy designed to minimize the impacts of environmental weathering and biodegradation. Data will be presented from a series of oil biodegradation studies in soil that clearly demonstrate the utility and stability of source ratio analysis over a wide range of oil degradation states and oil types. Using principal component analysis, stable source ratios of C[sub 3]-dibenzothiophenes/C[sub 3]-phenanthrenes, and C[sub 2]-dibenzothiophenes/C[sub 2]-phenanthrenes were identified and evaluated. These source ratios retain their characteristic source ratio signature even after 95 percent of the PAH and dibenzothiophene target analytes and 70 percent of the total oil has been biodegraded.

  5. Spatial distribution, potential risk assessment, and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Lake Chaohu, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaocan; Huo, Shouliang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Xi, Beidou; Zeng, Xiangying; Wu, Fengchang

    2014-10-01

    Twenty-nine sediment samples were collected from Lake Chaohu, a shallow eutrophic lake in Eastern China, and were analyzed for 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine the spatial distribution and exposure risks of PAHs. Three receptor models, the principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) model, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, and the Unmix model, were used in combination with the PAHs diagnostic ratios to investigate the potential source apportionment of PAHs. A clear gradient in the spatial distribution and the potential toxicity of PAHs was observed from west to east in the sediments of Lake Chaohu. ?15PAH concentrations and the TEQ were in the range of 80.82-30 365.01 ng g(-1) d.w. and 40.77-614.03, respectively. The highest values of the aforementioned variables were attributed to urban-industrial pollution sources in the west lake region, and the levels decreased away from the river inlets. The three different models yielded excellent correlation coefficients between the predicted and measured levels of the 15 PAH compounds. Similarly, source apportionment results were derived from the three receptor models and the PAH diagnostic ratios, suggesting that the highest contribution to the PAHs was from coal combustion and wood combustion, followed by vehicular emissions. The PMF model yielded the following contributions to the PAHs from gasoline combustion, diesel combustion, unburned petroleum emissions, and wood combustion: 34.49, 24.61, 16.11, 13.01, and 11.78 %, respectively. The PMF model produced more detailed source apportionment results for the PAHs than the PCA-MLR and Unmix models. PMID:24920262

  6. Using deuterated PAH amendments to validate chemical extraction methods to predict PAH bioavailability in soils.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L; Collins, Chris D; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-04-01

    Validating chemical methods to predict bioavailable fractions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by comparison with accumulation bioassays is problematic. Concentrations accumulated in soil organisms not only depend on the bioavailable fraction but also on contaminant properties. A historically contaminated soil was freshly spiked with deuterated PAHs (dPAHs). dPAHs have a similar fate to their respective undeuterated analogues, so chemical methods that give good indications of bioavailability should extract the fresh more readily available dPAHs and historic more recalcitrant PAHs in similar proportions to those in which they are accumulated in the tissues of test organisms. Cyclodextrin and butanol extractions predicted the bioavailable fraction for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and plants (Lolium multiflorum) better than the exhaustive extraction. The PAHs accumulated by earthworms had a larger dPAH:PAH ratio than that predicted by chemical methods. The isotope ratio method described here provides an effective way of evaluating other chemical methods to predict bioavailability. PMID:21236537

  7. Source seasonality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a subtropical city, Guangzhou, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Zhang, G; Li, X D; Qi, S H; Liu, G Q; Peng, X Z

    2006-02-15

    Mega-cities are large sources of air pollution on a regional base. Differences in energy structures, geographical settings and regional climate features lead to a large variety of air pollution sources from place to place. To understand the seasonality of air pollution sources is critical to precise emission inventories and a sound protection of human health. Based on a year-round dataset, the sources of PAHs in the air of Guangzhou were drawn by principal factor analysis (PCA) in combination with diagnostic ratios, and the seasonality of these sources were analyzed by PCA/MLR (multiple linear regressions) and discussed. The average total gaseous and particulate PAHs concentrations were 313 and 23.7 ng m(-3), respectively, with a higher concentration of vapor PAHs in summer and particulate PAHs in winter. In addition to vehicle exhaust, which contributed 69% of the particulate PAHs, coal combustion was still an important source and contributed 31% of the particulate PAHs. Relatively constant contribution from coal combustion was found through the year, implying that coal combustion in power plants was not a seasonally dependent source. Evaporation from contaminated ground may be an important source of light PAHs in summer, providing an average contribution of 68% to the total PAHs in this study. By comparing the PAH concentrations and meteorological parameters, we found that higher concentrations of particulate PAHs in winter resulted from enhanced vehicle exhaust under low temperature and accumulation of pollutants under decreased boundary layer, slower wind speed, and long-term dryness conditions. It is suggested that the typical subtropical monsoon climate in South China, cool and dry in winter, hot and humid in summer, may play a key role in controlling the source seasonality (by enhancing vehicle exhaust in winter, ground evaporation in summer), and hence the ambient concentrations of PAHs in the air. PMID:16137742

  8. NON-EQUILIBRIUM IONIZATION EFFECTS ON THE DENSITY LINE RATIO DIAGNOSTICS OF O IV

    SciTech Connect

    Olluri, K.; Gudiksen, B. V.; Hansteen, V. H., E-mail: kosovare.olluri@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-10

    The dynamic timescales in the solar atmosphere are shorter than the ionization and recombination times of many ions used for line ratio diagnostics of the transition region and corona. The long ionization and recombination times for these ions imply that they can be found far from their equilibrium temperatures, and spectroscopic investigations require more care before being trusted in giving correct information on local quantities, such as density and temperature. By solving the full time-dependent rate equations for an oxygen model atom in the three-dimensional numerical model of the solar atmosphere generated by the Bifrost code, we are able to construct synthetic intensity maps and study the emergent emission. We investigate the method of electron density diagnostics through line ratio analysis of the O IV 140.1 nm to the 140.4 nm ratio, the assumptions made in carrying out the diagnostics, and the different interpretations of the electron density. The results show big discrepancies between emission in statistical equilibrium and emission where non-equilibrium (NEQ) ionization is treated. Deduced electron densities are up to an order of magnitude higher when NEQ effects are accounted for. The inferred electron density is found to be a weighted mean average electron density along the line of sight and has no relation to the temperature of emission. This study shows that numerical modeling is essential for electron density diagnostics and is a valuable tool when the ions used for such studies are expected to be out of ionization equilibrium. Though this study has been performed on the O IV ion, similar results are also expected for other transition region ions.

  9. Unusual PAH Emission in Elliptical Galaxies

    E-print Network

    J. D. Bregman; J. N. Bregman; P. Temi

    2006-04-18

    In a sample of thirty normal elliptical galaxies observed with the Spitzer IRS, one galaxy, NGC4697, shows strong PAH emission, but with an apparently weak 7.7 micron feature. We find that the PAH emission is confined to the central regions of the galaxy and that once a quiescent elliptical galaxy spectrum is subtracted, the PAH feature ratios are normal. We show that the PAH spectrum resembles the diffuse ISM of our galaxy rather than an HII region, and is not indicative of a starburst galaxy. We suggest that the PAHs in NGC4697 are consistent with a recent but now past burst of star formation.

  10. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Wang, Zhendi; Yang, Chun; Brown, Carl; Landriault, Mike

    2014-01-01

    A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, ?-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (Ban) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches. PMID:24378307

  11. PAH Emission at the Bright Locations of PDRs: the grandPAH Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, H.; Boersma, C.; Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2015-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in PAH band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar PAH emission. We used the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived PAH populations. Our results show that PAH emission in the 5–15 ?m range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar PAH populations of neutral small to medium-sized PAHs (?50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual PAHs lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the PAH abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, PAH populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grandPAHs as a unique mixture of the most stable PAHs emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grandPAHs refer to the robust PAH population that results from the intense processing of PAHs at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the PAH population, the abundance of PAHs starts decreasing as we move toward the star.

  12. Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar PAH Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.

  13. Distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in forest soils from urban to rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-03-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0-20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban-suburban-rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  14. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  15. Diagnostic value of strain ratio measurement in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules coexisted with Hashimoto thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianhong; Li, Ping; Sun, Lingling; Sun, Yongmei; Fang, Shibao; Liu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the differential diagnostic potential of lesion stiffness assessed by the sonoelastographic strain index ratio (SR) for thyroid nodules coexist with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Methods: A total of 50 focal thyroid nodules from 36 patients with HT (mean age 38.4 years; range 19-77) scheduled for fine-needle aspiration or thyroid surgery were included. After a routine conventional ultrasound evaluation, real-time ultrasound elastography examinations were performed. Strain and area ratios of each lesion were calculated within the same machine. Histological diagnosis was used as the reference standard. The elastography images were scored according to the Asteria elasticity score. The area under the curve (AUC) and cut-off point were obtained by receiver operating curve (ROC). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were compared. Results: A total of 38 nodules were benign and 12 were malignant on pathology. The mean strain ratios of benign and malignant lesions were 2.89 and 7.83 respectively. When a cut-off point of 5.03 was used, SR had a sensitivity of 75.0%, a specificity of 92.1% and an accuracy of 84.0%. The AUC values were 0.836. The diagnostic accuracy of the SR was superior to that of elastographic score. Conclusion: Real-time elastography is a promising tool for differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules coexist with HT, and SR measurement could be an effective predictor. The best cut-off point for benign and malignant nodules in patients with HT was 5.03.

  16. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater from the Western Taiwan Strait, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Yong-Yu; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Seawater samples (including surface water and bottom water) were collected from the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) during June 24-25, 2009; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dissolved phase and particulate phase were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the total concentrations of PAHs in the dissolved phase and particulate phase were ranged from 12.3 to 58.0 ng L(-1), and 10.3-45.5 ng L(-1), which showed a low-middle contamination level in the China Seas. The spatial variability of PAHs may be related to the complicated currents of WTS, especially the Min-Zhe coastal current. PAHs diagnostic ratios suggested that PAHs mainly originated from the inputs of pyrolytic (combustion) sources, which might be contributed to land-based atmospheric deposition. The particle-water partition coefficients of individual PAH showed that partitions were not correlated with suspended particulate matter content, dissolved organic carbon or salinity, similar to the Yangtze coastal area. PMID:21440914

  17. Seasonal changes, identification and source apportionment of PAH in PM1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana Milena; Teixeira, Elba Calesso

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the seasonal variation of PAHs in PM1.0, as well as to identify and quantify the contributions of each source profile using the PMF receptor model. PM1.0 samples were collected on PTFE filters from August 2011 to July 2013 in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The samples were extracted using the EPA method TO-13A and 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a gaseous chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Also, the data discussed in this study were analyzed to identify the relations of the PAHs concentrations with NOx, NO, O3 and meteorological parameters (temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, relative humidity). The results showed that in winter, concentrations of total PAHs were significantly higher than in summer, thus showing their seasonal variation. The identification of emission sources by applying diagnostic ratios confirmed that PAHs in the study area originate from mobile sources, especially, from diesel and gasoline emissions. The analysis by PMF receptor model showed the contribution of these two main sources of emissions, too, followed by coal combustion, incomplete combustion/unburned petroleum and wood combustion. The toxic equivalent factors were calculated to characterize the risk of cancer from PAH exposure to PM1.0 samples, and BaP and DahA dominated BaPeq levels.

  18. Isotopic 32S/33S ratio as a diagnostic of presolar grains from novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, A.; Wimmer, K.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; José, J.; Wirth, H.-F.; Hinke, C.; Krücken, R.; Seiler, D.; Steiger, K.; Straub, K.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of sulphur isotopes in presolar grains can help to identify the astrophysical sites in which these grains were formed. A more precise thermonuclear rate of the 33S(p,?)34Cl reaction is required, however, to assess the diagnostic ability of sulphur isotopic ratios. We have studied the 33S(3He,d)34Cl proton-transfer reaction at 25 MeV using a high-resolution quadrupole-dipole-dipole-dipole magnetic spectrograph. Deuteron spectra were measured at ten scattering angles between 10° and 55°. Twenty-four levels in 34Cl over Ex=4.6-5.9 MeV were observed, including three levels for the first time. Proton spectroscopic factors were extracted for the first time for levels above the 33S + p threshold, spanning the energy range required for calculations of the thermonuclear 33S(p,?)34Cl rate in classical nova explosions. We have determined a new 33S(p,?)34Cl rate using a Monte Carlo method and have performed new hydrodynamic nova simulations to determine the impact on nova nucleosynthesis of remaining nuclear physics uncertainties in the reaction rate. We find that these uncertainties lead to a factor of ?5 variation in the 33S(p,?)34Cl rate over typical nova peak temperatures, and variation in the ejected nova yields of Ssbnd Ca isotopes by ?20%. In particular, the predicted 32S/33S ratio is 110-130 for the nova model considered, compared to 110-440 with previous rate uncertainties. As recent type II supernova models predict ratios of 130-200, the 32S/33S ratio may be used to distinguish between grains of nova and supernova origin.

  19. FE-XIII Infrared / FE-XIV Green Line Ratio Diagnostics (P55)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; et al.

    2006-11-01

    aks.astro.itbhu@gmail.com We consider the first 27-level atomic model of Fe XIII (5.9 < log Te < 6.4 K) to estimate its ground level populations, taking account of electron as well as proton collisional excitations and de-excitations, radiative cascades, radiative excitations and de-excitations. Radiative cascade is important but the effect of dilution factor is negligible at higher electron densities. The 3 P1-3P0 and 3P2-3P1 transitions in the ground configuration 3s2 3p2 of Fe XIII result in two forbidden coronal emission lines in the infrared region, namely 10747 Å and 10798 Å., while the 5303 Å green line is formed in the 3s2 3p 2 2 ground configuration of Fe XIV as a result of P3 / 2 - P1 / 2 magnetic dipole transition. The line-widths of appropriate pair of forbidden coronal emission lines observed simultaneously can be useful diagnostic tool to deduce temperature and non-thermal velocity in the large scale coronal structures using intensity ratios of the lines as the temperature signature, instead of assuming ion temperature to be equal to the electron temperature. Since the line intensity ratios IG5303/IIR10747 and IG5303/IIR10798 have very week density dependence, they are ideal monitors of temperature mapping in the solar corona.

  20. Multimedia model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart A

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of PAH contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of PAHs (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured PAH concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (?5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (?4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived PAH emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of PAHs and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates. PMID:25373871

  1. PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), nitro-PAHs, and hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments of southern Lake Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2014-07-15

    PAHs in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent PAHs, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes PAHs, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The ?PAH14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1,291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, PAH concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ?NPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ?Sterane6 and ?Hopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metrictons per year (t/yr) of ?PAH14, ?NPAH5, ?Sterane6 and ?Hopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of PAHs and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56 ± 18%), coal power plants (27 ± 14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16 ± 11%), and coke ovens (7 ± 12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAH levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for further work to assess potential risks to aquatic organisms. PMID:24784742

  2. PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), Nitro-PAHs, Hopanes and Steranes Biomarkers in Sediments of Southern Lake Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    PAHs in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent PAHs, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes PAHs, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The ?PAH14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, PAH concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ?NPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ?Sterane6 and ?Hopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metric tons per year (t/yr) of ?PAH14, ?NPAH5, ?Sterane6 and ?Hopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of PAHs and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56±18%), coal power plants (27±14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16±11%), and coke ovens (7±12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAHs levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for further work to assess potential risks to aquatic organisms. PMID:24784742

  3. Deuterated PAHs in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The cosmic deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) ratio is of key importance from a cosmological and stellar evolution perspective since deuterium originates from big-bang nucleosynthesis and is destroyed by stellar thermonuclear reactions. Further, from the interstellar perspective, the galactic distribution of deuterium and the D/H ratio among various molecular species also traces interstellar chemical evolution. Over the past few decades, radio observations have enabled the study of a handful of small, deuterated interstellar species. However, the number of deuterated species detected and environments probed are limited, raising issues of selection effects that hamper generalization and applications to other environments. Infrared spectroscopy of the interstellar medium offers a distinct advantage in this regard as the extent of deuteration of entire chemical families, rather than one species, can be probed. These observations require spaceborne telescopes because the molecular vibrations involving D which produce the strongest IR bands fall in spectral regions which are obscured by terrestrial CO2 absorption. Here we report the tentative detection of the C-D stretching vibration from deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Orion nebula. Since the PAH emission features are widespread and probe many different types of cosmic environments, follow up observations of deuterated PAHs will provide fundamental, far reaching new insight and perspective into galactic and extragalactic processes.

  4. Seasonal and site-specific variation in vapour and aerosol phase PAHs over Flanders (Belgium) and their relation with anthropogenic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Bencs, László; Wauters, Eric; de Hoog, Johan; Deutsch, Felix; Roekens, Edward; Bleux, Nico; Berghmans, Patrick; Van Grieken, René

    The concentrations of 16 US-EPA criteria polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored during various seasons at six different cities/locations in the northern part of Belgium. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used for the fast recovery of PAHs from quartz fibre filters (QFFs) and polyurethane foams (PUFs) in less than 30 min with minimum solvent consumption prior to their analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations of PAHs varied significantly at the studied sites and showed relation to different anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular emission (diesel/gasoline), incinerator, petroleum/oil burning, coke production, and wood/coal combustion. The annual average PAH concentration ranged from 17 (at a rural site) to 114 ng m -3 (near a petroleum harbour and industry). Most of the human carcinogenic PAHs were found to be associated with suspended particulate matter, which forms around ˜55% of the total PAH levels in aerosols. Relatively higher concentrations of PAHs were detected in aerosol samples during winter compared with other seasons, whereas no clear seasonal trend was observed for the vapour phase PAHs. This fraction is likely to be more local in origin; hence, it can be used as a site-specific characteristic. The site-specific concentrations of individual PAHs were also used in diagnostic ratio evaluations and in principal component analysis to find their relation with various anthropogenic activities. These results show that the vehicular emission is a major source of PAHs in Flanders, although other anthropogenic sources, as above, have also an impact on the total PAH levels.

  5. Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    This "homework help" lesson introduces students to ratios, ratio language, equivalent ratios, and allows students to practice with a set of problems at the end. The lesson is divided into four parts: First Glance, In Depth, Examples, and Workout.

  6. Distribution and bioaccumulation of PAHs in the UNESCO protected natural reserve of Urdaibai, Bay of Biscay.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, E; Bartolomé, L; Arrasate, S; Usobiaga, A; Raposo, J C; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2008-08-01

    Along 10 campaigns, from June 2002 to September 2004, the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in sediments and oysters (Crassostrea sp.) taken from four sites in the Unesco protected natural reserve of Urdaibai (Basque Country, Bay of Biscay). Total PAH concentration ranged from 0.7 to 140 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of sediments, and from 300 to 1400 microg kg(-1) (dw) in the case of oysters. During this study, the coast of the Bay of Biscay was severely affected by the Prestige oil spill (November 2002). Presumably, as a consequence of this accident, both spatial and temporal variations of the PAHs, as well as the sources of the PAHs were affected by the oil spill, and this effect was observed in the total concentrations and, especially, in several diagnostic ratios and in multivariate data analysis. Finally, both BAF (bioaccumulation factor) and BSAF (biota-sediment accumulation factor) parameters were calculated to conclude that particulate matter seems to be the most favourable uptake pathway of PAHs in oysters from this estuary. PMID:18597814

  7. SPITZER IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE TOOMRE SEQUENCE: SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH, GAS, AND DUST PROPERTIES IN NEARBY MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.; Armus, L.; Laine, S.; Surace, J. A.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Beirao, P.; Stierwalt, S. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Smith, J. D. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Schweizer, F.; Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Brandl, B. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Evans, A. S.; Hibbard, J. E. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Yun, M. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Jarrett, T. H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We have mapped the key mid-IR diagnostics in eight major merger systems of the Toomre sequence (NGC 4676, NGC 7592, NGC 6621, NGC 2623, NGC 6240, NGC 520, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252) using the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. With these maps, we explore the variation of the ionized-gas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and warm gas (H{sub 2}) properties across the sequence and within the galaxies. While the global PAH interband strength and ionized gas flux ratios ([Ne III]/[Ne II]) are similar to those of normal star-forming galaxies, the distribution of the spatially resolved PAH and fine structure line flux ratios is significantly different from one system to the other. Rather than a constant H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratio, we find that the relation between the H{sub 2} and PAH fluxes is characterized by a power law with a roughly constant exponent (0.61 {+-} 0.05) over all merger components and spatial scales. While following the same power law on local scales, three galaxies have a factor of 10 larger integrated (i.e., global) H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratio than the rest of the sample, even larger than what it is in most nearby active galactic nuclei. These findings suggest a common dominant excitation mechanism for H{sub 2} emission over a large range of global H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratios in major mergers. Early-merger systems show a different distribution between the cold (CO J = 1-0) and warm (H{sub 2}) molecular gas components, which is likely due to the merger interaction. Strong evidence for buried star formation in the overlap region of the merging galaxies is found in two merger systems (NGC 6621 and NGC 7592) as seen in the PAH, [Ne II], [Ne III], and warm gas line emission, but with no apparent corresponding CO (J = 1-0) emission. The minimum of the 11.3/7.7 {mu}m PAH interband strength ratio is typically located in the nuclei of galaxies, while the [Ne III/[Ne II] ratio increases with distance from the nucleus. Our findings also demonstrate that the variations of the physical conditions within a merger are much larger than any systematic trends along the Toomre sequence.

  8. Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-07-23

    This set of instructional materials and problems helps students understand ratios and proportions, starting with a simple review and progressing into the more advanced territory of similar triangles. The first three pages introduce ratios, proportions, and checking proportionality and the last four pages present mathematical and real-world problems for students to solve given their understanding of ratios and proportions.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air + particle phases) of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during July 2004 on three different sites (urban, sub-urban and rural

  10. Far-ir Pah Spectroscopy And The Identification Of An Individual Astronomical Pah Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Christiaan; Allamandola, L. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Sánchez de Armas, F.; Puerta Saborido, G.

    2010-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread across the Universe and influence many stages of the Galactic lifecycle. The presence of PAHs has been well established and the rich mid-IR PAH spectrum is now commonly used as a probe into inter(stellar) environments. With a new spectral window opening up in the far-IR, the quest for identifying a unique member of the interstellar PAH family has begun. To guide this search, the far-IR (> 20 ?m) spectra of different sets of PAHs are investigated using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database - a large coherent set (> 600 spectra) of laboratory measured and DFT computed infrared spectra of PAHs from C10H8 to C130H28. These sets explore the influence of size, shape, charge and composition on the far-IR PAH spectrum. The far-IR is the domain of the so- called `drumhead’ modes and other molecular vibrations involving low order bending vibrations of the carbon skeleton as a whole. As for drums, these modes are considered to be very molecule and shape specific and promise to be a key diagnostic for specific PAHs. Here, the sensitivity of these `drumhead’ modes to size and shape is assessed by comparing the frequencies of the lowest drumhead modes of a family of circular shaped (the coronene `family') and rhombus shaped (the pyrene `family') PAH molecules. From the study of the far-IR PAH spectra of different sets as well as from the analysis of the `drumhead’ modes, some suggestions for an observing strategy are made.

  11. Diurnal and nocturnal variations of PAHs in the Lhasa atmosphere, Tibetan Plateau: Implication for local sources and the impact of atmospheric degradation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Li, Jun; Lin, Tian; Liu, Di; Xu, Yue; Chaemfa, Chakra; Qi, Shihua; Liu, Fobang; Zhang, Gan

    2013-04-01

    Due to the unique characteristics, such as intensive radiation, high altitude and low humidity, plateau climate importantly affects the airborne organic contaminants' behavior in the environment. In this study, USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo[e]pyrene were detected in the air samples collected at two suburban sites in Lhasa city. The total concentrations of USEPA priority fifteen PAHs (except naphthalene) in the particulate phase ranged from 4.4 to 60 ng/m3, while in the gas phase from 79 to 350 ng/m3. Integrated results of the multiple diagnostic ratios indicated that the major potential sources of PAHs in Lhasa city were local incomplete combustion of wood and cow dung cake. Particulate and gaseous PAH levels in this study displayed two clear and different diurnal and nocturnal concentration patterns, however, no distinct diurnal and nocturnal variation was observed for the total suspended particles (TSP) concentrations. No significant correlation was found between TSP concentrations and particle-bound PAHs, meaning physicochemical processes play an important role in diurnal and nocturnal variations of PAHs in the atmosphere except emission sources in this study. Based on the diurnal and nocturnal changes of the percentage of particulate phase PAHs in total PAHs, it suggested that gas-particle partitioning driven by temperature makes a great contribution to the variations of PAHs concentrations. The most susceptible to transformation between gas and particle phase chemicals are PHE, ANT, FLA, PYR, BaA and CHR. In addition, our observation suggested that atmospheric reaction and photolytic degradation also exert an important impact on the variations of PAHs in both phases in the atmosphere of Lhasa city.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10 at a coal-based industrial city: Implication for PAH control at industrial agglomeration regions, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Zongshuang; Chen, Jianhua; Kong, Shaofei; Fu, Xiao; Deng, Hongbing; Shao, Guofan; Wu, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 and PM10 are identified and quantified at five sites of E'erduosi in 2005 by GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 are in the ranges of 0.58-145.01 ng m- 3 and 5.80-180.32 ng m- 3 for the five sites, decreasing as coal-chemical base site (ZGE) > heavy industrial site (QPJ) > residential site with heavy traffic (DS) > suburban site surrounded by grassland (HJQ) > background site (QGN) for both PM2.5 and PM10. PAH concentrations in the coal-chemical base site are 250 and 31.1 times of those in the background site. Flu, Pyr, Chr, BbF, BeP, IND and BghiP are abundant for the coal-chemical base site, totally accounting for 75% of the PAH concentrations. 4, 5 and 6 rings PAHs are dominant, accounting for 88.9-94.2% and 90.5-94.1% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Combustion-derived PAH concentrations cover 42%-84% and 75%-82% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating large amounts of combustion sources existed for them in E'erduosi. PAH compositions between PM2.5 and PM10 are quite different from each other for sites with few human activities (HJQ and QGN) by coefficient of divergence analysis. Results obtained from principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios indicate that coal combustion, vehicle emission, wood combustion and industrial processes are the main sources for PAHs in E'erduosi. According to BaP equivalent concentration, the potential health risk of PAHs in PM2.5 at the two industrial sites ZGE and QPJ are 537 and 460 times of those for the background site. And they are 4.3 and 3.7 times of those for the residential site. The potential PAH pollution in particles at other industrial agglomeration regions that occurred in China in recent years should be paid attention by the local government.

  13. PAHs and the Universe: A Symposium to Celebrate the 25th Anniversary of the PAH Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joblin, C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2011-06-01

    Driven by ground-based, airborne, and IRAS observations, the PAH hypothesis was first formulated in the mid-eighties: the widespread emission features in the 3-13 ?m range are due to UV-pumped, IR-fluorescence by large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules. These molecules are a ubiquitous component of the interstellar medium both in local galaxies as well as out to redshifts of ~3 and probably beyond, play an important role in its physical and chemical characteristics, and form a key link between small hydrocarbon species and large carbonaceous grains. This book gathers contributions that reflect the evolution of the field over the last 25 years, taking advantage of IR space missions - ISO, Spitzer and AKARI - and of dedicated experimental and quantum-chemical studies. We have now reached a stage where we can develop these mid-infrared features as diagnostic tools to study star formation processes, protoplanetary disks as well as galaxy assemblage in the early Universe. The current Herschel/Planck area opens the possibility to better characterize the mid-IR carriers through their contribution to the far-IR and mm emissions. Still, much effort is required before we will fully understand the formation and nature of interstellar PAHs and their role in the Universe. Physical chemists can play an important role in driving this field. This book aims at discussing the state-of-the-art of the PAH hypothesis and to chart the future in this interdisciplinary field. It highlights the various aspects of interstellar PAHs: - Rich IR spectra of interstellar PAHs - PAHs and star formation in the near and far Universe - The lifecycle of PAHs in space - PAHs in regions of planet formation - PAHs and carbonaceous grains & Solar system materials - The role of PAHs in the interstellar medium

  14. Conversion of the 6302 / 6301 Stokes V Line Ratio to the 5250 / 5247 Ratio for the Diagnostics of Quiet-Sun Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, M. L.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R.

    2014-10-01

    Observations in the "green" spectral lines Fe I 5247.06 and 5250.22 Å and in the "red" lines Fe I 6301.50 and 6302.50 Å are widely used to explore the properties of solar magnetic fields. The green line pair was introduced in 1973 as part of the line-ratio technique, which has been a powerful tool for investigations of intrinsic magnetic field properties at spatially unresolved scales (magnetic flux tubes with kG strengths). The red line pair has recently played a major role for magnetic-field diagnostics due to the large amount of high-quality data provided by the Hinode space observatory. These red lines however differ not only in the values of their Landé factors, but also in their line-formation properties, with the consequence that the magnetic-field information in their line ratio gets tangled up with thermodynamic effects. In contrast, as the green Fe I 5247.06 and 5250.22 Å lines differ only in their Landé factors, the magnetic field effects become cleanly separated from the thermodynamics, which allows the intrinsic magnetic field parameters to be extracted without ambiguties. The red and green line-ratio values are however statistically correlated. By determining the statistical regression function that relates them, it becomes possible to convert the "contaminated" and ambiguous red line ratio into the green line ratio, with which a reliable direct interpretation in terms of intrinsic field strengths is possible. To determine how the two line ratios are related we have made Stokesmeter observations in these four spectral lines with two solar instruments equipped with high-precision spectropolarimeters, ZIMPOL-3 at IRSOL (Locarno, Switzerland), and the STOP telescope at the Sayan Solar Observatory (Irkutsk, Russia). Most of the obtained results are based on IRSOL observations of quiet-sun magnetic fields. In the case of STOP the full-disk magnetograms of large-scale solar magnetic fields are analyzed. A major advantage at IRSOL is the possibility to observe the green and red line pairs simultaneously on the same CCD chip. We have determined how the two line ratios decrease with increasing Stokes V amplitude and increase with increasing distance from disk center. The relation that allows us to convert the observed values for the red line ratio into the corresponding values for the green line ratio has been found and given in analytical form.

  15. Limitations of the Odds Ratio in Gauging the Performance of a Diagnostic, Prognostic, or Screening Marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Sullivan Pepe; Holly Janes; Gary Longton; Wendy Leisenring; Polly Newcomb

    2004-01-01

    A marker strongly associated with outcome (or disease) is often assumed to be effective for classifying persons according to their current or future outcome. However, for this assumption to be true, the associated odds ratio must be of a magnitude rarely seen in epidemiologic studies. In this paper, an illustration of the relation between odds ratios and receiver operating characteristic

  16. Responses of bioaugmented ryegrass to PAH soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Li, J H; Yu, X Z; Wu, S C; Wang, X R; Wang, S H; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2011-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) to PAH induced stress in soils contaminated with phenanthrene and pyene were investigated, in the presence of PAH-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacteria junii) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi, Glomus mossae). The parameters monitored included chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, soluble-carbohydrate content, soluble-protein, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities. Ryegrass showed good resistance and acclimation to PAH stress in soil, however, PAH contamination resulted in adverse effects such as damage of photosynthetic function and acceleration of shoot senescence. At PAH level of 100 mg kg(-1), chlorophyll contents were 14% lower than control (no PAH). Activities of SOD and POD were more sensitive indicators of PAH stress as compared to other parameters. However, all parameters showed trends based on either the bioaugmentation of the plants or PAH treatment level. It was concluded that the inoculation of AMF and PAH-degrading bacteria, especially the former, have a positive effect on alleviation of PAH toxicity to ryegrass plants. Furthermore, the inoculation of AMF increased the shoot and biomass of ryegrass by 11-19% and 18-78%, respectively. Bioaugmented ryegrass plants show promise as a host plants in the phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:21598775

  17. Laboratory Studies of Interstellar PAH Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. PAHs are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. PAHs are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. PAHs are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, PAHs are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of PAHs under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial PAHs. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar PAHs will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.

  18. [Altitudinal Gradient Distribution and Source Analysis of PAHs Content of Topsoil in Jinfo Mountain, Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yang; Sun, Yu-chuan; Liang, Zuo-bing; Ren, Kun; Yuan, Dao-xian

    2015-04-01

    The condensation effect has made high mountains the storage vault of durable organic pollutants. This research measured the content and constitutes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 10 topsoil samples collected at different altitudes from the south slope of Chongqing Jinfo Mountain by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MC). And the pollution source of PAHs was analyzed by ratio method and principal component regression. The ecological risk of PAHs was evaluated using BaP toxic equivlants (TEQ(BaP)) The results showed that the concentrations of 16 priority PAHs in topsoil ranged from 240-2 121 ng x g(-1). The average value of PAHs was 849 ng x g(-1), and 2 to 3-ring PAHs were the dominant compounds. The concentrations of 7 carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 17.8% of total PAHs averagely. In the research area, various-ring PAHs and gross PAHs increased with the rise of altitude. The increase of low-ring PAHs was most obvious, and the volatility of high-ring PAHs was relatively high. But the ratio of different-ring PAHs in gross PAHs showed no regularity with the rise of altitude. The PAHs of soil in the research area mainly came from the oil sources, oil products, and combustion sources of coal and biomass. In the research area, the soil has been polluted to a certain extent, but the toxicity risk is relatively low. PMID:26164921

  19. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhang; Shucai Zhang; Chao Wan; Dapan Yue; Youbin Ye; Xuejun Wang

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified

  20. Diagnostics of the molecular component of photon-dominated regions with mechanical heating. II. Line intensities and ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjian, M. V.; Meijerink, R.; Pelupessy, I.; Israel, F. P.; Spaans, M.

    2015-02-01

    CO observations in active galactic nuclei and starbursts reveal high kinetic temperatures. Those environments are thought to be very turbulent due to dynamic phenomena, such as outflows and high supernova rates. We investigate the effect of mechanical heating on atomic fine-structure and molecular lines and on their ratios. We try to use those ratios as a diagnostic to constrain the amount of mechanical heating in an object and also study its significance on estimating the H2 mass. Equilibrium photodissociation models (PDRs hereafter) were used to compute the thermal and chemical balance for the clouds. The equilibria were solved for numerically using the optimized version of the Leiden PDR-XDR code. Large velocity-gradient calculations were done as post-processing on the output of the PDR models using RADEX. High-J CO line ratios are very sensitive to mechanical heating (?mech hereafter). These emission becomes at least one order of magnitude brighter in clouds with n ~ 105 cm-3 and a star formation rate of 1 M? yr-1 (corresponding to ?mech = 2 × 10-19 erg cm-3 s-1). The emission of low-J CO lines is not as sensitive to ?mech, but they do become brighter in response to ?mech. Generally, for all of the lines we considered, ?mech increases excitation temperatures and decreases the optical depth at the line centre. Hence line ratios are also affected, strongly in some cases. Ratios involving HCN are a good diagnostic for ?mech, where the HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) increases from 0.06 to 0.25, and the HCN(1-0)/HCO+(1-0) increase from 0.15 to 0.5 for amounts of ?mech that are equivalent to 5% of the surface heating rate. Both ratios increase to more than 1 for higher ?mech, as opposed to being much less than unity in pure PDRs. The first major conclusion is that low-J to high-J intensity ratios will yield a good estimate of the mechanical heating rate (as opposed to only low-J ratios). The second one is that the mechanical heating rate should be taken into account when determing AV or, equivalently, NH, and consequently the cloud mass. Ignoring ?mech will also lead to large errors in density and radiation field estimates. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe data used to generate all the grids are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A127

  1. Presence of PAHs in milk of industrial farms from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Ortiz, Rutilio; Pérez, José Jesús; Schettino, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cow's milk from industrial farms that are located near an industrial park in Hidalgo, Mexico. It was found that the concentrations of PAHs in the raw milk of cattle from industrial farms have increased in recent years. Composite samples were collected between 2008 and 2010 and analysis carried out according to 8100 EPA procedures and analyzed by gas chromatography with FID detection. The results show that combustion PAHs were mostly Ace, Acy, and Fla (0.25, 0.32, and 0.22 µg g(-1), respectively). Diagnostic ratios were used to show that the probable sources were grass and fuel combustion. The sum of concentrations of 16 individual PAHs did not breach permissible levels in milk (25 µg g(-1) according to the United States EPA), indicating a limited health risk to animals and humans in the study area. The industrial park has adequate pollutant emission regulations. PMID:25826099

  2. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of H/M ratio between early and delayed phases for Lewy body disease

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takayuki; Murakami, Kenji; Kumano, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performance of early-phase 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy with that of delayed-phase imaging in Lewy body disease (LBD). Methods A retrospective cohort study of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was carried out in 192 patients who were suspected of having LBD. Clinical diagnosis was obtained using the UK Parkinson’s Disease Brain Bank Criteria in some cases or the third report of the Dementia with Lewy bodies Consortium in others. The participants consisted of 81 patients with LBD and 111 nondiseased patients. An injection of 111?MBq of 123I-MIBG was used. Planar images were obtained in an early phase and again in a delayed phase and the heart to mediastinum count ratio was calculated for both phases. Diagnostic performance was compared using a receiver-operator characteristic analysis. The cutoff value was chosen to maximize the Youden index. The sensitivity and specificity of each phase were calculated from the optimal cutoff value. Results The heart to mediastinum ratio of the LBD group (median 1.8 and 1.45 for early and delayed phases, respectively) was significantly lower than that of the nondiseased group (median 2.93 and 3.18 for early and delayed phases, respectively). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was not significantly different between the early and delayed phases (0.871 vs. 0.893; P=0.0914). Sensitivity and specificity were 80.2 and 91% for early-phase imaging (cutoff value at 2.28) and 81.5 and 95.5% (cutoff value at 1.91) for delayed-phase imaging, respectively. Conclusion The diagnostic performance of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was not significantly different between early-phase and delayed-phase imaging. PMID:25714666

  3. Principles of microbial PAH-degradation in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders R. Johnsen; Lukas Y. Wick; Hauke Harms

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the biodegradation mechanisms and environmental fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is motivated by their ubiquitous distribution, their low bioavailability and high persistence in soil, and their potentially deleterious effect on human health. Due to high hydrophobicity and solid–water distribution ratios, PAHs tend to interact with non-aqueous phases and soil organic matter and, as a consequence, become potentially

  4. PAH Distributions in Sediments from High Mountain Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fernández; R. Vilanova; J. O. Grimalt

    1996-01-01

    The PAH distributions in sediment cores from eight remote lakes distributed over Europe have been investigated. All sites show a similar qualitative composition, being dominated by parent compounds from phenanthrene to coronene. Perylene, a diagenetically produced PAH, dominates the mixtures in deep sediment layers. The distribution and ratios of specific compounds indicate that these hydrocarbons are of pyrolitic origin, mainly

  5. Bioavailability of PAHs: Effects of Soot Carbon and PAH Source

    E-print Network

    Cope, W. Gregory

    Bioavailability of PAHs: Effects of Soot Carbon and PAH Source W A V E R L Y A . T H O R S E N of 38 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds was determined through calculation of biota-sediment-accumulation factors (BSAF). BSAF values were calculated from individual PAH

  6. A comparative study of two factor analytic models applied to PAH data from inhalable air particulate collected in an urban-industrial environment.

    PubMed

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M; Allan, Laurie M; McCarry, Brian E

    2010-02-01

    Two factor analysis (FA)-based receptor modeling methods were applied to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dataset from extracts of 75 PM(10) air particulate samples collected concurrently at 4 sampling sites proximate to the urban-industrial area in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The total PAH concentrations of 48 target compounds ranged from 0.23 to 172 ng m(-3). Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis were followed by multilinear regression analyses to identify and quantify PAH source contributions, together with spatial and temporal trends. The correlations between predicted and observed total PAH levels were excellent in both models (R(2) > 0.98). The PCA afforded large negative contributions in a number of samples, so further analysis was abandoned. The PMF analysis showed 3 factors which were identified as gasoline emissions, diesel emissions and coke oven emissions. Contributions of gasoline emissions and diesel emissions factors were surprisingly similar at all 4 sites indicative of a background of vehicle emissions across the city. The PMF coke oven emission factor showed the greatest variability in total loadings, consistent with the large PAH emissions from the steel industries and the large influence of wind direction on PAH concentrations. The highest coke oven contributions were observed at sites closest to the industrial area on days when these sites were downwind of the industries. The PMF coke oven impact factor showed good correlations with two commonly used PAH diagnostic ratios when the ratios were combined into a single ratio. This integrated approach allowed us to categorize >90% of the samples based on the wind direction of the impacting source. PMID:20145882

  7. DUST MASSES, PAH ABUNDANCES, AND STARLIGHT INTENSITIES IN THE SINGS GALAXY SAMPLE B. T. Draine,1

    E-print Network

    Draine, Bruce T.

    DUST MASSES, PAH ABUNDANCES, AND STARLIGHT INTENSITIES IN THE SINGS GALAXY SAMPLE B. T. Draine,1 D, (2) the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, and (3) the intensity of the starlight heating of the Milky Way, with similar dust-to-gas ratio and similar PAH abundance. The observed SEDs, including

  8. Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

    PubMed

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Kashani, Homa; Zare, Ahad; Niazi, Sadegh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Ghani, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-15

    In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHs (?PAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM. PMID:25958359

  9. Neutron spectroscopy as a fuel ion ratio diagnostic: Lessons from JET and prospects for ITERa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Cecconello, M.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Sangaroon, S.; Weiszflog, M.; Jet Efda Contributors

    2010-10-01

    The determination of the fuel ion ratio nt/nd in ITER is required at a precision of 20%, time resolution of 100 ms, spatial resolution of a/10, and over a range of 0.016 keV and for nT/nD<0.6. A crucial issue is the signal-to-background situation in the measurement of the weak 2.5 MeV emission from DD reactions in the presence of a background of scattered 14 MeV DT neutrons. Important experimental input and corroboration for this assessment are presented from the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer at JET where the presence of a strong component of backscattered neutrons is observed. Neutron emission components on ITER due to beam-thermal and tritium-tritium reactions can further enhance the prospects for NES.

  10. Neutron spectroscopy as a fuel ion ratio diagnostic: Lessons from JET and prospects for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Cecconello, M.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Sangaroon, S.; Weiszflog, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University (EURATOM-VR Association), SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    The determination of the fuel ion ratio n{sub t}/n{sub d} in ITER is required at a precision of 20%, time resolution of 100 ms, spatial resolution of a/10, and over a range of 0.016 keV and for n{sub T}/n{sub D}<0.6. A crucial issue is the signal-to-background situation in the measurement of the weak 2.5 MeV emission from DD reactions in the presence of a background of scattered 14 MeV DT neutrons. Important experimental input and corroboration for this assessment are presented from the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer at JET where the presence of a strong component of backscattered neutrons is observed. Neutron emission components on ITER due to beam-thermal and tritium-tritium reactions can further enhance the prospects for NES.

  11. VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of blue compact galaxies. I. Morphological properties, diagnostic emission-line ratios, and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairós, L. M.; Caon, N.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Blue compact galaxies (BCG) are gas-rich, low-luminosity, low-metallicity systems that undergo a violent burst of star formation. These galaxies offer us a unique opportunity to investigate collective star formation and its effects on galaxy evolution in a relatively simple environment. Spatially resolved spectrophotometric studies of BCGs are essential for a better understanding of the role of starburst-driven feedback processes on the kinematical and chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies near and far. Aims: We carry out an integral field spectroscopic study of a sample of BCGs, with the aim of probing the morphology, kinematics, dust extinction, and excitation mechanisms of their warm interstellar medium. Methods: Eight BCGs were observed with the VIMOS integral field unit at the Very Large Telescope using blue and orange grisms in high-resolution mode. At a spatial sampling of 0''&dotbelow;67 per spaxel, we covered about 30? × 30? on the sky, with a wavelength range of 4150...7400 Å. Emission lines were fitted with a single Gaussian profile to measure their wavelength, flux, and width. From these data we built two-dimensional maps of the continuum and the most prominent emission-lines, as well as diagnostic line ratios, extinction, and kinematic maps. Results: An atlas has been produced with the following: emission-line fluxes and continuum emission; ionization, interstellar extinction, and electron density maps from line ratios; velocity and velocity dispersion fields. From integrated spectroscopy, it includes tables of the extinction corrected line fluxes and equivalent widths, diagnostic-line ratios, physical parameters, and the abundances for the brightest star-forming knots and for the whole galaxy. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 079.B-0445.The reduced datacubes and their error maps (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A21

  12. Anomalously low PAH emission from low-luminosity galaxies

    E-print Network

    David W. Hogg; Christy A. Tremonti; Michael R. Blanton; Douglas P. Finkbeiner; Nikhil Padmanabhan; Alejandro D. Quintero; David J. Schlegel; Nicholas Wherry

    2004-08-23

    The Spitzer Space Telescope First Look Survey Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) near and mid-infrared imaging data partially overlaps the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with 313 visually selected (rPAH emission from the interstellar medium. As expected, we find a strong inverse correlation between [3.5]-[7.8] and visual color; galaxies red in visual colors (`red galaxies') tend to show very little dust and molecular emission (low `PAH-to-star' ratios), and galaxies blue in visual colors (`blue galaxies,' ie, star-forming galaxies) tend to show large PAH-to-star ratios. Red galaxies with high PAH-to-star ratios tend to be edge-on disks reddened by dust lanes. Simple, visually inferred attenuation corrections bring the visual colors of these galaxies in line with those of face-on disks; ie, PAH emission is closely related to attenuation-corrected, optically inferred star-formation rates. Blue galaxies with anomalously low PAH-to-star ratios are all low-luminosity star-forming galaxies. There is some weak evidence in this sample that the deficiency in PAH emission for these low-luminosity galaxies may be related to emission-line metallicity.

  13. An ISO survey of PAH features in Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-print Network

    D. Lutz; R. Genzel; D. Rigopoulou; H. W. W. Spoon; D. Tran; A. F. M. Moorwood

    1998-08-28

    We have obtained ISOPHOT-S low resolution mid-infrared spectra of a sample of 60 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). We use the strength of the `PAH' mid-infrared features as a discriminator between starburst and AGN activity, and to probe for evolutionary effects. We focus on the fact that observed ratios of PAH features in ULIRGs differ slightly from those in lower luminosity starbursts. We suggest that such PAH ratio changes relate to the conditions in the interstellar medium in these galaxies, and in particular to extinction.

  14. Occurrence and source apportionment of PAHs in highly vulnerable karst system.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yixian; Wang, Yanxin; Xu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiao; Jiang, Zhou; He, Shanshan; Qian, Kun

    2014-08-15

    The concentration and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in topsoil, groundwater and groundwater suspended solids (SS) at Guozhuang karst water system of northern China were investigated. The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 622 to 87,880 ng/g dry weight in topsoil, from 4739 to 59,314 ng/g dry weight in SS, and from 2137 to 9037 ng/L in groundwater, with mean values of 17,174 ng/g, 11,990 ng/g and 5020 ng/L, respectively. High concentrations of PAHs were mainly observed in the coal mining industrial area and the discharge area. The composition of PAHs indicated that low molecular weight PAHs were predominant in groundwater samples, the content of medium molecular weight PAHs was elevated in SS, and carcinogenic high molecular weight PAHs were frequently detected in topsoil. The high contents of low-medium molecular weight PAHs in groundwater and SS suggested relatively recent local sources of PAHs that were transported into the aquifer via leakage of contaminated surface water and/or infiltration of PAH-containing precipitation. The results of evaluating sources of PAHs using ratios of specific PAH compounds showed that PAHs mainly originated from coal and wood combustion. Furthermore, five sources were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, and the contribution to the total loadings of groundwater PAHs were: 2% for unburnt oil, 32% for coal combustion, 22% for vehicle emission, 27% for biomass combustion and 18% for coke production, respectively. Furthermore, strong correlations of total PAHs with total organic carbon (TOC) in topsoil indicated co-emission of PAHs and TOC. Poor correlations of PAHs with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater indicated that other factors exert stronger influences. Therefore, PAHs might have posed a major threat to the quality of potable groundwater in Guozhuang karst water system. PMID:24852613

  15. The UV to Near-IR Optical Properties of PAHs: A Semi-Empirical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features represent an important and unique diagnostic tool of the chemical and physical conditions throughout the universe. However, one challenge facing the widely accepted PAH emission model has been the detection of infrared features in regions of low UV flux. Utilizing recently published laboratory Near Infrared VIR) PAH ion absorption data measured in our laboratory, we build upon previous models for PAH ion absorption in the UV-Vis to extrapolate a new model which incorporates PAH ion absorption in the NIR. This model provides a basis for comparing the relative energy absorption of PAH ions in the UV-Vis and NIR regions for a wide variety of stellar types. This model demonstrates that the radiation from late-type stars can pump the mid-IR PAH features.

  16. Environmental aspects of PAH biodegradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay L. Shuttleworth; E. Cerniglia

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants, some of which are on the US Environmental Protection Agency\\u000a priority pollutant list. Consequently, timely clean-up of contaminated sites is important. The lower-mol-wt PAHs are amenable\\u000a to bioremediation; however, higher-mol-wt PAHs seem to be recalcitrant to microbial degradation. The rates of biodegradation\\u000a of PAHs are highly variable and are dependent not only on

  17. Accurate analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs homologs in crude oil for improving the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Hong, Bo; Fan, Yuqing; Wen, Mei; Han, Xue

    2014-02-01

    The common gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) approaches such as selective ion monitoring (SIM) or single ion extraction (SIE) from full scan data produce the error (over- or underestimation) estimates for the high level alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to rectify the error, the alkylated PAHs in the crude oil samples are quantified by deeply investigating the existing full scan data of 1D GC/MS, instead of resuming with the complex and inaccessible equipments (multidimensional gas chromatography or mass spectrometry). The aim of this study is to provide the detailed qualitative and quantitative basis data (confirming ions, relative abundance, retention indices, and area counts) of the high level alkylated PAHs by a comprehensive three-step method: (1) the potential confirming ions per isomer are selected by exploring the multiple fragment patterns formation mechanism; (2) the reasonable confirming ions are estimated by comparing extracted ion chromatography (EIC) of the potential confirming ions; (3) after deconvolution, composite chromatograms of the reasonable confirming ions illustrate the basis data by assigning peaks for target PAHs definitively. The validation data, resulting concentrations and diagnostic ratios for each homolog are compared with those obtained from SIM. The experimental data demonstrate that significant inaccurate identifications and concentration estimates are obtained when SIM mode is used for C4 Naphthalene (C4 N), C3 Phenanthrene (C3 P), C4 Phenanthrene (C4 P), C3 Dibenzothiophene (C3 D), C3 Fluorene (C3 F), C2-4 Chrysene (C2-4 C) and C1 Fluoranthene (C1 Flt). This study evaluates the usefulness of the previous fragmentation patterns, and confirms compound presence by GC/MS using the different spectral deconvolution software. This approach is developed as a broad screen for environmental samples (including petrol, diesel fuel and coal tar), with only the crude oil results being presented here. PMID:24229786

  18. Occurrence and Source Appraisal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Surface Waters of the Almendares River, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Santana, Jorge Luis; Massone, Carlos German; Valdés, Michel; Vazquez, Rene; Lima, Lázaro Antonio; Olivares-Rieumont, Susana

    2015-08-01

    In this work, 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) included in the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant priority list were analyzed in the surface water of the upper urbanized part of Almendares River, the most important water course in Havana, Cuba. Surface water from five sampling sites was collected at the end of dry season and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method after solid phase extraction procedure. Total PAHs concentrations varied from 836 to 15 811 ng L(-1) with a geometric mean value of 2512 ng L(-1). PAH typology was dominated by low molecular-weight PAHs (2- to 3-ring components). Pollutant source appraisal was determined by diagnostic ratios method in five sampling sites. Factor analysis of normalized samples was used to concentration identified two factors as the main significant pollutant sources and to cluster similar sampling sites corresponding to petrogenic and combustion inputs, respectively. Ecological risks were considered. For animal aquatic life, acute toxicity values exceed the permissible values in the more-polluted sampling sites. PMID:25736902

  19. PAH concentrations in the moss species Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from the Kielce area (south-central Poland).

    PubMed

    Do??gowska, Sabina; Migaszewski, Zdzis?aw M

    2011-09-01

    Forty eight samples of mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Kielce area (south-central Poland) were analyzed for seventeen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The PAH concentrations varied from 558.00 ?g/kg (ppb) to 4457.00 ?g/kg in H. splendens and from 643.00 to 3086.00 ?g/kg in P. schreberi. In both moss species phenanthrene (75.00-732.00 ?g/kg), fluoranthene (101.00-577.00 ?g/kg) and pyrene (68.00-568.00 ?g/kg) predominated, but H. splendens accumulated more PAHs than P. schreberi at eighteen different sites. The highest PAH concentrations were noted at sites located close to the housing estates (sites 1-10) and potential emission sources (e.g. heat and power generating plant "Kielce S.A.") (sites 19-21). The moss samples displayed the diverse ring sequence, but the most prevalent was four>five>three>six. The diagnostic ratios (three+four ring/total PAHs, Flu/Py, Phen/Ant, Phen/Phen+Ant, Flu/Flu+Py, IndPy/IndPy+BghiPe and BaA/BaA+Chr) indicated that coal and petroleum combustion was a principal PAH source in the study area. PMID:21652075

  20. 7, 1569315721, 2007 Particulate PAH

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 15693­15721, 2007 Particulate PAH spatial variability and aging in Mexico City D. A #12;ACPD 7, 15693­15721, 2007 Particulate PAH spatial variability and aging in Mexico City D. A in March 2006, we measured particu- late polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other gaseous species

  1. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi

    2002-05-01

    This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for PAHs (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total PAHs concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic PAHs contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total PAHs concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic PAHs. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where PAHs are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique PAHs source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic PAHs and pyrogenic PAHs. PAHs and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary PAHs. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil, fresh lubricating oil, asphalt, and tire-particles as major contributors. PMID:12026970

  2. PAH Clusters as Sources of Interstellar Infrared Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, J. E.; Ricca, A.

    2015-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or PAHs) have been the subject of astrochemical research for several decades as principal sources of the interstellar aromatic infrared emission bands. PAH clusters could possibly contribute to these emission bands, but a lack of data on their infrared properties has made this hypothesis difficult to evaluate. Here we investigate homogeneous neutral PAH clusters by measuring the mid-infrared absorption spectra of the five nonlinear PAH molecules phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, perylene, and benzo[ghi]perylene within solid argon ice at a fixed temperature of 5 K. We attribute observed spectral shifts in their principal absorption bands as a function of argon/PAH ratio to clustering of the PAH molecules within the argon matrix. These shifts are related to the cluster structures forming in the matrix and the topology of the monomer PAH molecule. We predict that interstellar PAH molecules that are relatively large (no fewer than 50 carbon atoms per molecule) and compact will have clusters that contribute to the asymmetrically red-shaded profile of the interstellar 11.2 ?m emission band.

  3. Discovery of PAHs in the Halo of NGC 5907

    E-print Network

    Judith A. Irwin; Suzanne C. Madden

    2005-09-23

    We have used sensitive archival data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) to make maps of the edge-on low SFR galaxy, NGC 5907, in 6 different MIR bands: LW2, LW5, LW6, LW7, LW8, and LW10, covering the spectrum from 6.5 to 15.0 microns and including several narrow bands that isolate the infrared aromatic spectral features commonly referred to as PAHs. Most of the MIR emission is dominated by PAHs and it is likely that emission from VSGs contribute only negligibly except in the broad IRAS-equivalent band. The flux ratios are typical of galaxies with low SFRs or quiesent regions within galaxies (e.g M~83) and a very high PAH/continuum ratio is observed. The PAH emission follows the CO distribution and also shows some correlation within the disk with the lambda 850 micron distribution. However, the PAH emission also reaches larger galactocentric radii than the CO and other correlations suggest that the PAHs are also more widespread. A significant new discovery is the presence of PAHs in the halo of the galaxy. In the narrow bands that isolate single PAH features, the emission shows structure similar to high latitude features seen in other galaxies in other tracers. The features extend as far as 6.5 kpc from the plane but scale heights of 3.5 kpc are more typical. The (lambda 11.3/lambda7.7) ratio also appears to increase with distance from the major axis. To our knowledge, this is the first time PAHs have been seen in the halo of an external galaxy. Just as significantly, they are seen in a low SFR galaxy, suggesting that strong SNe and winds are not necessary for these large molecules to reach high latitudes.

  4. Supplementary Information Investigating PAH Relative Reactivity using

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Summer Weybourne EROS (urban background) PQ / PHE 0.19 0.25 0.23 AQ / ANT 0.72 0.84 0.20 B(a)A-7,12 / B sampling campaigns. See Figure S1A and S1B for clusters. Winter Sampling Campaign (03-Feb-2010 to 25-Feb background sampling sites (EROS, see Alam et al., 2013) Quinone / parent-PAH Average Ratios Winter Weybourne

  5. Migration of PAHs in food industry sludge to the air during removal by UV and TiO2.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the evaporation ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the food industry treatment sludge. Five PAH compounds having different ring numbers were targeted. The effects of temperature, UV and TiO2 on PAH evaporation were also studied. All applications were performed in a specially designed apparatus. The air in the apparatus was vacuumed to collect the evaporated PAHs on the PUF cartridges. Then, these PUF cartridges were extracted for determination of PAHs. The PAH concentrations were measured by a gas-chromatography mass-spectrometer (GC-MS). 91% of the initial ?5 PAHs in the sludge was evaporated into the air at the end of the UV application. However, this value decreased to 21% when UV was not employed. Initial and final PAH levels in the sludge were measured to determine the removed PAHs which refer to the addition of degraded and evaporated PAHs. The results indicated that the UV-TiO2 application at high temperatures was considered an appropriate PAH removal method because it restricted the evaporation of PAHs while it removed high levels of PAHs. PAHs were mainly removed from the sludge by degradation rather than evaporation with this application. PMID:24726516

  6. Spitzer-IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars II. PAH emission features

    E-print Network

    V. C. Geers; J. -C. Augereau; K. M. Pontoppidan; C. P. Dullemond; R. Visser; J. E. Kessler-Silacci; N. J. Evans II; E. F. van Dishoeck; G. A. Blake; A. C. A. Boogert; J. M. Brown; F. Lahuis; B. Merin

    2006-09-06

    Aims: We search for PAH features towards T Tauri stars and compare them with surveys of Herbig Ae/Be stars. The presence and strength of the PAH features are interpreted with disk radiative transfer models exploring the PAH feature dependence on the incident UV radiation, PAH abundance and disk parameters. Methods: Spitzer Space Telescope 5-35 micron spectra of 54 pre-main sequence stars with disks were obtained, consisting of 38 T Tauri, 7 Herbig Ae/Be and 9 stars with unknown spectral type. Results: Compact PAH emission is detected towards at least 8 sources of which 5 are Herbig Ae/Be stars. The 11.2 micron PAH feature is detected in all of these sources, as is the 6.2 micron PAH feature where short wavelength data are available. However, the 7.7 and 8.6 micron features appear strongly in only 1 of these 4 sources. PAH emission is observed towards at least 3 T Tauri stars (8% detection rate). The lowest mass source with PAHs in our sample is T Cha (G8). All 4 sources in our sample with evidence for dust holes in their inner disk show PAH emission, increasing the feature/continuum ratio. Typical 11.2 micron line intensities are an order of magnitude lower than those observed for the more massive Herbig Ae/Be stars. Measured line fluxes indicate PAH abundances that are factors of 10-100 lower than standard interstellar values. Conversely, PAH features from disks exposed to stars with TeffPAH abundances. Disk modeling shows that the 6.2 and 11.2 micron features are the best PAH tracers for T Tauri stars, whereas the 7.7 and 8.6 micron bands have low feature over continuum ratios due to the strongly rising silicate emission.

  7. Particulate matter, gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban traffic tunnel of China: Emission from on-road vehicles and gas-particle partitioning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Gao, Yi; Yu, Na; Zhang, Chenkai; Wang, Siyao; Ma, Limin; Zhao, Jianfu; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    Traffic vehicles are a main source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in urban area. It is vital to understand PAH gas-particle partitioning in real traffic environment and assess PAH vehicular emission factors in developing China. Concentrations of particulate matter, carbonaceous products, gaseous and particulate PAHs were measured during 2011-2012 in a road tunnel of Shanghai, China. Time variation of them reflected basic traffic operation of the tunnel. PAHs approached equilibrium between gas and particle phases and the partitioning was predicted better by a dual sorption model combining absorption into organic matter and adsorption onto black carbon. The influence of black carbon adsorption on the partitioning behavior of PAHs was important. The difference in isomer ratios of gaseous and particulate PAHs was attributed to PAH contributions from different traffic-related PAHs sources. Real-world vehicle emission factors of gaseous and particulate PAHs were quantified based on fuel burned model and vehicle kilometer traveled model. PMID:25911047

  8. Advances in PAHs/nitro-PAHs fractioning Aurea Andrade-Eiroa,* Valerie Leroy and Philippe Dagaut

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Advances in PAHs/nitro-PAHs fractioning Aurea Andrade-Eiroa,* Valerie Leroy and Philippe Dagaut hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Unlike what usually occurs under (about 1 bar), dipole molecules (nitro-PAHs) elute much faster than non-polar organic molecules (PAHs

  9. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shucai; Wan, Chao; Yue, Dapan; Ye, Youbin; Wang, Xuejun

    2008-06-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing. PMID:17949873

  10. Isotopic Differences Between PAH Isomers in Murchison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C.

    1992-07-01

    Previous studies using compound-specific isotope analysis of aromatic fractions from the Orgueil and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites suggested that there may be variations in delta^13C values between different PAH (1). Although the Orgueil meteorite was found to be too heavily contaminated with terrestrial PAH to be of any value, strong evidence that the PAH in Murchison were indigenous came from their relatively heavy isotope compositions of between -8 and -11o/oo. Aromatic fractions were isolated from two new samples of Murchison using solvent extraction followed by column chromatography on silica gel. The compounds were tentantively identified using GCMS and positive confirmation obtained for some by running authentic standards. The carbon isotope compositions of individual PAH were measured by isotope ratio monitoring-GCMS (irm-GCMS) on a Finnigan-MAT Delta S/GC. The most striking feature in the distribution of PAH in Murchison is the overwhelming predominace of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, with the latter two compounds being the most abundant. Anthracene is present at about 50 times less than phenanthrene with most other higher molecular weight PAH present in similar or smaller quantities. The isotopic compositions of parental PAH (no side chains) are listed in the table. The carbon isotope compositions range from -6 to -22o/oo. The range is similar to the isotopic compositions observed in stepped combustion of Murchison macromolecular material where the bulk delta^13C is -17o/oo. In general the higher molecular weight PAH appear to be isotopically lighter; however, at first sight there is no systematic trend. For instance both phenanthrene and fluorathene have similar delta^13C values, as do pyrene and benzo(j)fluoranthene. However, there are apparently systematic differences between some isomers; for example, anthracene is 6.5o/oo heavier that phenanthrene, fluoranthene is 7o/oo heavier than pyrene, and benzo(j)fluoranthene is 7o/oo heavier than benzo(e)pyrene. A decrease in delta^13C with increasing number of aromatic rings would be consistent with an origin for the higher homologues by condensation reactions with each closure of a benzene ring resulting in a step down in delta^13C, assuming a kinetic isotope effect during the condensation reaction. The differences in isotope composition of PAH in Murchison may represent two distinct populations synthesized at different locations, e.g., on the parent body vs. in the solar nebula. The systematic difference of 7o/oo between isomers may provide one clue. Addition of benzene rings to fluoranthene and pyrene, the most abundant PAH, from a common source would preserve an isotopic difference between isomers containing a S-membered ring and those without as is seen with benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(j)fluoranthene. Compound...............Molecular weight...delta^13C (o/oo)PDB Phenanthrene...........178................-7.5 Anthracene.............178................-13.1 Fluoranthene...........202................-S.9 Pyrene.................202................-13.1 Chrysene+Triphenylene..228................-14.5 Benzo(ghi)fluoranthene.226................-14.2 Benzo(e)pyrene.........252................-22.3 Benzo(j)fluoranthene...252................-15.4 References 1. Gilmour et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 337-338

  11. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database and the far-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Ricca, A.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Sánchez de Armas, F.; Puerta Saborido, G.; Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2011-03-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread across the Universe and influence many stages of the Galactic lifecycle. The presence of PAHs has been well established and the rich mid-IR PAH spectrum is now commonly used as a probe into (inter)stellar environments. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database has been key to test and refine the "PAH hypothesis". This database is a large coherent set (>600 spectra) of laboratory measured and DFT computed infrared spectra of PAHs from C10H8 to C130H28 and has been made available on the web at ( http://www.astrochem.org/pahdb). With a new spectral window opening up; the far-IR, the study of PAH far-IR spectra and the quest for identifying a unique member of the interstellar PAH family has begun. To guide this research, the far-IR (>20 ?m) spectra of different sets of PAHs are investigated using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. These sets explore the influence of size, shape, charge and composition on the far-IR PAH spectrum. The far-IR is also the domain of the so-called "drumhead" modes and other molecular vibrations involving low order bending vibrations of the carbon skeleton as a whole. As with drums, these are molecule and shape specific and promise to be a key diagnostic for specific PAHs. Here, the sensitivity of these "drumhead" modes to size and shape is assessed by comparing the frequencies of the lowest drumhead modes of a family of circular shaped (the coronene "family") and rhombus shaped (the pyrene "family") PAH molecules. From this study, some consequences for an observing strategy are drawn.

  12. Source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples from the northern part of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Roozbeh; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Faghiri, Iraj; Abedi, Ehsan; Fakhri, Ali; Azimi, Ali; Zahed, Mohammad Ali

    2014-11-01

    Samples of surface sediments from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf were examined to determine the levels and sources of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were collected from 30 sampling sites and analyzed for PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 93 to 4,077 ng g(-1) dry weight. The PAH composition from 30 sampling sites was dominated by four-ring PAH compounds. Molecular indices based on the ratios of PAH concentrations were used to differentiate PAHs from pyrolitic to petrogenic and mixed origins. The results suggested that the main sources of PAHs in sediments from the studied region were mixed pyrolitic and petrogenic. Furthermore, benthic organisms in most of the investigated areas were not at ecotoxicological risk, according to the results from the effects range low (ERL)/effects range median (ERM) techniques suggested by the US Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). PMID:25023748

  13. X-ray Spectroscopy of the Radiation-Driven Winds of Massive Stars: Line Profile and Line Ratio Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Cohen; David H

    2009-01-01

    Massive stars drive powerful, supersonic winds via the radiative momentum associated with the thermal UV emission from their photospheres. Shock phenomena are ubiquitous in these winds, heating them to millions, and sometimes tens of millions, of degrees. The emission line spectra from the shock-heated plasma provide powerful diagnostics of the winds' physical conditions, which in turn provide constraints on models

  14. X-ray Spectroscopy of the Radiation-Driven Winds of Massive Stars: Line Profile and Line Ratio Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Massive stars drive powerful, supersonic winds via the radiative momentum associated with the thermal UV emission from their photospheres. Shock phenomena are ubiquitous in these winds, heating them to millions, and sometimes tens of millions, of degrees. The emission line spectra from the shock-heated plasma provide powerful diagnostics of the winds’ physical conditions, which in turn provide constraints on models

  15. Particle size distribution of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in urban and industrial aerosol of Algiers, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Ladji, R; Yassaa, N; Balducci, C; Cecinato, A

    2014-02-01

    The distribution of ambient air n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated to particles with aerodynamic diameters lesser than 10 ?m (PM(10)) into six fractions (five stages and a backup filter) was studied for the first time in Algeria. Investigation took place during September of 2007 at an urban and industrial site of Algiers. Size-resolved samples (<0.49, 0.49-0.95, 0.95-1.5, 1.5-3.0, 3.0-7.2, and 7.2-10 ?m) were concurrently collected at the two sampling sites using five-stage high-volume cascade impactors. Most of n-alkanes (~72 %) and PAHs (~90 %) were associated with fine particles ? 1.5 ?m in both urban and industrial atmosphere. In both cases, the n-alkane contents exhibited bimodal or weakly bimodal distribution peaking at the 0.95-1.5-?m size range within the fine mode and at 7.3-10 ?m in the coarse mode. Low molecular weight PAHs displayed bimodal patterns peaking at 0.49-0.95 and 7.3-10 ?m, while high molecular weight PAHs exhibited mono-modal distribution with maximum in the <0.49-?m fraction. While the mass mean diameter of total n-alkanes in the urban and industrial sites was 0.70 and 0.84 ?m, respectively, it did not exceed 0.49 ?m for PAHs. Carbon preference index (~1.1), wax% (10.1-12.8), and the diagnostic ratios for PAHs all revealed that vehicular emission was the major source of these organic compounds in PM(10) during the study periods and that the contribution of epicuticular waxes emitted by terrestrial plants was minor. According to benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power rates, ca. 90 % of overall PAH toxicity across PM(10) was found in particles ? 0.95 ?m in diameter which could induce adverse health effects to the population living in these areas. PMID:23982823

  16. Vertical distribution and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in southwest of the Caspian Sea: most petrogenic events during the late Little Ice Age.

    PubMed

    Varnosfaderany, Mohammad Nemati; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Gu, Zhaoyan; Chu, Guoqiang

    2014-10-15

    In this study, 75 samples of two (210)Pb-dated cores from the southwest of the Caspian Sea were analysed for 30 compounds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The TPAH29 flux of the last six centuries ranged from 16.3 to 177.3 and 22.3 to 426.2 ng cm(-2)y(-1) in the Rezvanshahr and Anzali core sediments, respectively. Prior to 1840, four distinct maxima in PAH fluxes (61-426.2 ng cm(-2)y(-1)) with a low weathered petrogenic pattern were found in each of the core sediments. Simultaneity of distinct peaks of PAH fluxes before 1840 and Caspian Sea level high-stands during the Little Ice Age (LIA), revealed the high importance of this phenomenon in washing and transport of land-based oil pollution into the Caspian Sea. An overall increase in some diagnostic ratios (Flu/202, IP/276 and BaA/228), especially after 1940, indicated increase of pyrogenic PAHs as a result of industrial development in the catchment area. PMID:25131419

  17. Mid-Infrared Diagnostics of LINERs

    E-print Network

    E. Sturm; D. Rupke; A. Contursi; D. -C. Kim; D. Lutz; H. Netzer; S. Veilleux; R. Genzel; M. Lehnert; L. J. Tacconi; D. Maoz; J. Mazzarella; S. Lord; D. Sanders; A. Sternberg

    2006-10-26

    We report results from the first mid-infrared spectroscopic study of a comprehensive sample of 33 LINERs, observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We compare the properties of two different LINER populations: infrared-faint LINERs, with LINER emission arising mostly in compact nuclear regions, and infrared-luminous LINERs, which often show spatially extended (non-AGN) LINER emission. We show that these two populations can be easily distinguished by their mid-infrared spectra in three different ways: (i) their mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), (ii) the emission features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and (iii) various combinations of IR fine-structure line ratios. IR-luminous LINERs show mid-IR SEDs typical of starburst galaxies, while the mid-IR SEDs of IR-faint LINERs are much bluer. PAH flux ratios are significantly different in the two groups. Fine structure emission lines from highly excited gas, such as [O IV], are detected in both populations, suggesting the presence of an additional AGN also in a large fraction of IR-bright LINERs, which contributes little to the combined mid-IR light. The two LINER groups occupy different regions of mid-infrared emission-line excitation diagrams. The positions of the various LINER types in our diagnostic diagrams provide important clues regarding the power source of each LINER type. Most of these mid-infrared diagnostics can be applied at low spectral resolution, making AGN- and starburst-excited LINERs distinguishable also at high redshifts.

  18. X-ray Spectroscopy of the Radiation-Driven Winds of Massive Stars: Line Profile and Line Ratio Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David H. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Massive stars drive powerful, supersonic winds via the radiative momentum\\u000aassociated with the thermal UV emission from their photospheres. Shock\\u000aphenomena are ubiquitous in these winds, heating them to millions, and\\u000asometimes tens of millions, of degrees. The emission line spectra from the\\u000ashock-heated plasma provide powerful diagnostics of the winds' physical\\u000aconditions, which in turn provide constraints on models

  19. A Survey of 3.3 Micron PAH Emission in Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    Erin C. D. Smith; Ian S. McLean

    2007-12-05

    Results are presented from a pilot survey of 3.3 micron PAH emission from planetary nebulae using FLITECAM, an instrument intended for airborne astronomy with SOFIA. The observations were made during ground-based commissioning of FLITECAM's spectroscopic mode at the 3-m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory. Direct-ruled KRS-5 grisms were used to give a resolving power (R)~1,700. Targets were selected from IRAS, KAO and ISO sources with previously observed PAH emission at longer wavelengths. AGB stars and PN with C/O ratios PAH detection thresholds. In all, 20 objects were observed. PAH emission was detected in 11 out of 20 observed targets.

  20. Isotopic evidence from an Antarctic carbonaceous chondrite for two reaction pathways of extraterrestrial PAH formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naraoka, Hiroshi; Shimoyama, Akira; Harada, Kaoru

    2000-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most ubiquitous organic compounds in the universe. PAHs are sometimes used as a molecular marker for biological activity, however, they are also formed by abiogenic processes. Carbon isotopic compositions of individual PAHs have important clues to clarify their origins and formation mechanisms for the better understanding in organic cosmogeochemistry of PAHs. In the Asuka-881458 carbonaceous chondrite which was recovered from Antarctica in 1989, more than 70 PAHs were identified from naphthalene to benzo(ghi)perylene, where fluoranthene and pyrene are the most abundant. Carbon isotopic compositions of individual PAHs range from -26 to 8‰ (relative to PDB). More condensed PAHs are more depleted in 13C as the H/C ratio decreases. The carbon isotope distribution of PAHs containing more than three rings is similar to that from the Murchison meteorite, but clearly different from that of the terrestrial PAHs. The isotope distribution suggests that the PAHs in carbonaceous chondrites are formed under kinetic control rather than by thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, two reaction pathways ('pyrene series' and 'fluoranthene series') can be distinguished assuming kinetic control. The relatively large isotopic fractionation could occur during cyclization and/or carbon addition in the interstellar or meteorite parent body environment.

  1. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated sewage sludge by different composting processes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Qi-Tang; Zeng, Qiao-Yun; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Férard, Jean-François

    2007-04-01

    The efficiency of four different composting processes to bioremediate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated sewage sludge was investigated. Prior to composting, sewage sludge coming from the Datansha wastewater treatment plant, Guangzhou, China, was mixed with rice straw to obtain a C/N ratio of 13:1. After 56 days of composting, the total concentrations of 16 PAHs (Sigma(PAHs)) ranged from 1.8 to 10.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, decreasing in order of inoculated-manual turned compost (IMTC)>manual turned compost (MTC)>continuous aerated compost (CAC)>intermittent aerated compost (IAC), exhibiting removal rates of 64%, 70%, 85% and 94%, respectively. Individual PAHs were generally removed in similar rates. IAC treatment showed a higher removal rate of high molecular weight PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs comparing to the other composting processes. PMID:17029776

  2. A terminal of PAH evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Saito, M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolved stars supply first organic materials into space. The organic materials evolve and alter to form more complex organic molecules before incorporation into the star formation stage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are most plausible molecules abundantly produced within the gas ejected from evolved stars. A single aromatic ring, benzene, can be made from acetylene molecules (Woods et al. 2002; Woods et al. 2003). Benzene grows to larger PAHs by the abstraction of ring hydrogen and further interaction with acetylene (Bittner & Howard 1981; Frenklach et al. 1984). During the growth of PAH molecules, and as they move away from the central star, larger PAHs coagulate to form PAH grains (Rapacioli et al. 2005). The progression of organic materials after PAH grains has been unknown. We performed simulation experiments to find their evolutional process after PAH grains and demonstrate the possible formation site, process, and starting material. Condensation experiments are involved exposing a vapor phase to plasma to form carbonaceous grains, a situation that exists ubiquitously in space. Benzene was introduced into the He plasma. After the experiment, brown- to yellowish-colored materials were obtained by the decomposition of benzene due to polymerization. After transmission electron microscope observation, we found formation of organic grains with cavity in their center. The hollow interior could be formed by coagulation of atomic vacancies, produced by electronic excitation and/or knock-out of carbon atoms following irradiation by plasma particles. Similar extraterrestrial organic grains, called organic globules, have been found abundantly in several carbonaceous chondrites, which often have a cavity in their center (Nakamura-Messenger et al. 2006). The result suggests that organic globules are possibly the final products in the evolution of carbonaceous matter from acetylene, benzene to PAH in ejecta gas from evolved stars, i.e., abundant PAH molecules around evolved stars may connect to the organic globules.

  3. Distribution of PAHs in tissues of wetland plants and the surrounding sediments in the Chongming wetland, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Yang, Yi; Li, Tao; Liu, Min

    2012-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were determined in sediments and three types of wetland plants collected from the intertidal flats in the Chongming wetland. The concentration of total PAHs in sediments ranged from 38.7 to 136.2 ngg(-1). Surface sediment concentrations were higher in regions with plant cover than in bare regions. Rhizome-layer sediments (56.8-102.4 ngg(-1)) contained less PAHs than surface sediments (0-5 cm). Concentrations of PAHs in plant tissues ranged from 51.9 to 181.2 ngg(-1), with highest concentrations in the leaves of Scirpus. Most of the PAHs in the leaves and other plant tissues were low molecular weight compounds (LMW, 2-4 rings), and a similar distribution pattern of PAHs in different types of plants was also observed. Source analysis indicated that plants and sediments both came from pyrogenic sources, but plants had additional petroleum contamination. The low ratio of benzo[a]anthracene over chrysene suggests that the wetland PAHs came mainly from long-distance atmospheric transportation. Significant bioaccumulation of PAHs from the sediments into plants was not observed for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW, 5-6 rings) in Chongming wetland. The small RCFs (root concentration factor from sediments) for HMW PAHs and large RCFs for LMW PAHs suggested that roots accumulated LMW PAHs selectively from sediments in Chongming wetland. PMID:22578517

  4. Distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web of Nansi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Wang, Xiaoming; Mo, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in water, sediment, and biota (aquatic plant, shrimp, and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of total PAHs were 27.54-55.04 ng L(-1) in water, 80.31-639.23 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 20.92-192.78 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants, and 67.3-533.9 ng g(-1) dw in fish and shrimp muscles. The ratios of phenanthrene to anthracene (Ph/An), fluoranthene to pyrene (Flu/Pyr), and low molecular weight to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW) in sediment indicated that the sources of the PAHs were a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic contamination at most sampling sites in Nansi Lake. The composition profile of PAHs in plants was similar to that in water and animals with 2-3 ring PAHs being dominant. The 4-6 ring PAHs were the dominant PAH compounds in sediment. There is a positive correlation between sediment and aquatic plants, but their PAH composition profiles were different, implying that aquatic plant absorption of PAHs from sediment is selective and the accumulation of PAHs in aquatic plants is different. The concentration of PAHs in fish showed a positive correlation with plants, reflecting that the PAHs in fish are mainly absorbed from aquatic plants rather than directly from the water. Bioaccumulation of LMW PAHs in aquatic biota was higher than HMW PAHs. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of total PAHs in the plants Potamogeton lucens Linn and Ceratophyllum demersum Linn were higher than that in most animals. The BSAF values of total PAHs in animals were in the following order: Cyprinus carpio>Macrobrachium nipponense>Carassius auratus>Channa argus. There was no significant relationship between PAH bioaccumulation and trophic levels in Nansi Lake. Risk assessment of PAHs in water, sediment, and animals indicated that the water environment of Nansi Lake is safe at present. It is worthwhile to note that benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), indeno [1,2,3-cd] pyrene (InP), dibenz [a, h] anthracene (DBA), and benzo [ghi] perylene (BghiP) were detected in sediment, plants, and animals at all sampling sites, and they have potential carcinogenicity to the organisms of Nansi Lake. PMID:25762425

  5. Graz Endocrine Causes of Hypertension (GECOH) study: a diagnostic accuracy study of aldosterone to active renin ratio in screening for primary aldosteronism

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Stepan, Vinzenz; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Schweighofer, Natascha; Portugaller, Horst R; Sourij, Harald; Dobnig, Harald; Meinitzer, Andreas; Pieber, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Background Primary aldosteronism (PA) affects approximately 5 to 10% of all patients with arterial hypertension and is associated with an excess rate of cardiovascular complications that can be significantly reduced by a targeted treatment. There exists a general consensus that the aldosterone to renin ratio should be used as a screening tool but valid data about the accuracy of the aldosterone to renin ratio in screening for PA are sparse. In the Graz endocrine causes of hypertension (GECOH) study we aim to prospectively evaluate diagnostic procedures for PA. Methods and design In this single center, diagnostic accuracy study we will enrol 400 patients that are routinely referred to our tertiary care center for screening for endocrine hypertension. We will determine the aldosterone to active renin ratio (AARR) as a screening test. In addition, all study participants will have a second determination of the AARR and will undergo a saline infusion test (SIT) as a confirmatory test. PA will be diagnosed in patients with at least one AARR of ? 5.7 ng/dL/ng/L (including an aldosterone concentration of ? 9 ng/dL) who have an aldosterone level of ? 10 ng/dL after the saline infusion test. As a primary outcome we will calculate the receiver operating characteristic curve of the AARR in diagnosing PA. Secondary outcomes include the test characteristics of the saline infusion test involving a comparison with 24 hours urine aldosterone levels and the accuracy of the aldosterone to renin activity ratio in diagnosing PA. In addition we will evaluate whether the use of beta-blockers significantly alters the accuracy of the AARR and we will validate our laboratory methods for aldosterone and renin. Conclusion Screening for PA with subsequent targeted treatment is of great potential benefit for hypertensive patients. In the GECOH study we will evaluate a standardised procedure for screening and diagnosing of this disease. PMID:19351411

  6. Empirical derivation of the reference region for computing diagnostic sensitive fluorodeoxyglucose ratios in Alzheimer's disease based on the ADNI sample,

    E-print Network

    Kruggel, Frithjof

    fluorodeoxyglucose ratios in Alzheimer's disease based on the ADNI sample, Jerod M. Rasmussen a, , Anita Lakatos a , Steven G. Potkin a for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative a Department of Psychiatry on the dataset collected by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Candidate reference

  7. X-ray Spectroscopy of the Radiation-Driven Winds of Massive Stars: Line Profile and Line Ratio Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, David H. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 500 College Ave., Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2009-09-10

    Massive stars drive powerful, supersonic winds via the radiative momentum associated with the thermal UV emission from their photospheres. Shock phenomena are ubiquitous in these winds, heating them to millions, and sometimes tens of millions, of degrees. The emission line spectra from the shock-heated plasma provide powerful diagnostics of the winds' physical conditions, which in turn provide constraints on models of wind shock heating. Here I show how x-ray line transfer is affected by photoelectric absorption in the partially ionized component of the wind and how it can be modeled to determine the astrophysically important mass-loss rates of these stellar winds. I also discuss how photoexcitation out of metastable excited levels of helium-like ions can provide critical information about the location of the hot plasma in magnetically channeled massive star winds.

  8. Pollution assessment, distribution and sources of PAHs in agricultural soils of Pearl River Delta--the biggest manufacturing Base in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Li, Fangbai; Zhang, Tianbin; Yang, Guoyi; Chen, Junjian; Wan, Hongfu

    2007-11-01

    A large scale of soil survey was performed to determine the contents, distributions and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 231 agricultural soils under 3 land-use types from 5 regions of the subtropical Pearl River Delta (PRD). The average sum of 16 PAHs in all soil samples is 316.5 micro g.kg(-1), with range from ND to 4079 micro g.kg(-1). Three- and 4-ring PAHs are the most abundant PAHs that contribute to 73.0% of total contents. The most abundant components are phenanthrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and fluoranthene. ANOVA and principal component analyses (PCA) indicate that soil samples from Dongguan and Zhongshan contain greater PAHs than other regions. More abundant carcinogenic and higher molecular weight PAHs accumulated in soils from Dongguan and Zhongshan, while higher low molecular weight PAHs were in soils from Guanghzou, Huizhou and Shunde. Soil PAHs from 3 land uses are not statistically different. Additionally, 5 PAH compound ratios suggest that soil PAHs in PRD derived from mixture of pyrogenic and petrogenic sources, but the majorities are pyrogenic sources. PAHs were further identified as mixture of petroleum combustion and grass, wood, and coal combustion. Some soil PAHs were revealed vehicle emission, coal soot and petroleum sources. The 5 regions showed different PAHs sources according to some compound ratios, but no marked distinction between regions from 2 banks of the Pearl River because of major wind direction, distribution of riverway and industry. PMID:17990160

  9. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database V 2.0 - Spectroscopic Fitting Tools and More

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Christiaan; Allamandola, L. J.; Bauschlicher, C.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Sanchez, F.; Puerta, G.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), omnipresent across the Universe, play an intrinsic part in the formation of stars, planets and possibly even life itself. While PAH infrared (IR) emission features are now routinely used as tracers of star formation and redshift indicators for distant, dust obscured, galaxies, there is a wealth of information in the PAH spectra that remains untapped. This information reveals subtle details about the PAH population within an object, details which, in turn, probe local conditions in the object. We continue to develop the experimental and computational PAH spectra collected at NASA Ames into such diagnostics. This coherent, large (some 700) collection of IR spectra from the single ring aromatic molecule benzene to PAHs containing 386 carbon atoms is now part of the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (PAHdb). PAHdb can be accessed at www.astrochemistry.org/pahdb, where its contents can be browsed and/or downloaded along with advanced on- and off-line tools that allow astronomers to work with the spectroscopic data. Since it's initial release in 2010, new spectra have been added, the website has been improved and the tools expanded. It is now possible to upload astronomical spectra to the website in several common formats e.g., fits and VOTable, and fit them with the spectra in PAHdb, several PAH emission models are also available with which one can compute the emission expected from complex PAH mixtures, animations of the molecular vibrations corresponding to individual modes are available, etc. These newly added tools, together with the enlarged set of PAH spectra, allow astronomers to analyze and probe the conditions in a multitude of very different astronomical objects in new ways. This talk summarizes the updated contents of PAHdb, the improved website with its expanded tools and demonstrates fitting an astronomical spectrum. If time allows, using these spectral fitting techniques to analyze the Spitzer-IRS map of the reflection nebula NGC7023 will be demonstrated, showcasing the variations in PAH subpopulations.

  10. Atmospheric carbon diooxide mixing ratios from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory cooperative flask sampling network, 1967-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, T.J.; Tans, P.P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); BBoden, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-02-01

    This data report documents monthly atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and measurements obtained by analyzing individual flask air samples for the NOAA/CMDL global cooperative flask sampling network. Measurements include land-based sampling sites and shipboard measurements covering 14 latitude bands in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. Analysis of the NOAA/CMDL flask CO{sub 2} database shows a long-term increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios since the late 1960s. This report describes how the samples are collected and analyzed and how the data are processed, defines limitations, and restrictions of the data, describes the contents and format of the data files, and provides tabular listings of the monthly carbon dioxide records.

  11. Empirical derivation of the reference region for computing diagnostic sensitive ¹?fluorodeoxyglucose ratios in Alzheimer's disease based on the ADNI sample.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Jerod M; Lakatos, Anita; van Erp, Theo G M; Kruggel, Frithjof; Keator, David B; Fallon, James T; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-03-01

    Careful selection of the reference region for non-quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) analyses is critically important for Region of Interest (ROI) data analyses. We introduce an empirical method of deriving the most suitable reference region for computing neurodegeneration sensitive (18)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET ratios based on the dataset collected by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Candidate reference regions are selected based on a heat map of the difference in coefficients of variation (COVs) of FDG ratios over time for each of the Automatic Anatomical Labeling (AAL) atlas regions normalized by all other AAL regions. Visual inspection of the heat map suggests that the portion of the cerebellum and vermis superior to the horizontal fissure is the most sensitive reference region. Analyses of FDG ratio data show increases in significance on the order of ten-fold when using the superior portion of the cerebellum as compared with the traditionally used full cerebellum. The approach to reference region selection in this paper can be generalized to other radiopharmaceuticals and radioligands as well as to other disorders where brain changes over time are hypothesized and longitudinal data is available. Based on the empirical evidence presented in this study, we demonstrate the usefulness of the COV heat map method and conclude that intensity normalization based on the superior portion of the cerebellum may be most sensitive to measuring change when performing longitudinal analyses of FDG-PET ratios as well as group comparisons in Alzheimer's disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease. PMID:21958592

  12. PAH composition and potential sources for sediment samples from the Beaufort and Barents Seas

    SciTech Connect

    Yunker, M.B.; Macdonald, R.W.; Snowdon, L.R.; Smith, J.N.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment grabs and cores have been analyzed for parent and alkyl PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and time horizons have been determined using radionuclide distributions. PAH concentrations are significantly higher (2 to 20 times) in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea than in sediment from the Barents Sea. Concentrations exhibit little change between the Mackenzie River and shelf, but decrease slightly at the shelf edge. Barents Sea sediments have the highest concentrations in the southeast (near the major rivers), are slightly lower in the north and west of the sea, and are lowest near Novaya Zemlya. In most cases there is little change in PAH composition between surface layers and deeper sediments (10--20 cm) that contain no detectable bomb radionuclides. PAH profiles and principal components analysis (PCA) clearly distinguish PAH sources for the Arctic. Barents Sea sediments are most similar to Arctic atmospheric aerosols in their PAH molecular-mass ratios and PCA projections. Samples from the west and north sides of the Barents Sea are consistent with a petroleum source, while samples from other areas have combustion sources. Anthropogenic combustion inputs are particularly important in the southern Barents Sea, whereas natural inputs are important to the Beaufort Sea. The uniformity and the relatively high concentration of Beaufort Sea PAHs reflects a river dominated input of natural PAHs which tends to overwhelm any anthropogenic sources. Despite the greater anthropogenic influence in the Barents Sea, PAH concentrations in Barents Sea sediments are generally lower than in Beaufort Sea sediments.

  13. The infrared spectra of very large, compact, highly symmetric, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-print Network

    Charles W. Bauschlicher, Jr.; Els Peeters; Louis J. Allamandola

    2008-02-07

    The mid-infrared spectra of large PAHs ranging from C54H18 to C130H28 are determined computationally using Density Functional Theory. Trends in the band positions and intensities as a function of PAH size, charge and geometry are discussed. Regarding the 3.3, 6.3 and 11.2 micron bands similar conclusions hold as with small PAHs. This does not hold for the other features. The larger PAH cations and anions produce bands at 7.8 micron and, as PAH sizes increases, a band near 8.5 micron becomes prominent and shifts slightly to the red. In addition, the average anion peak falls slightly to the red of the average cation peak. The similarity in behavior of the 7.8 and 8.6 micron bands with the astronomical observations suggests that they arise from large, cationic and anionic PAHs, with the specific peak position and profile reflecting the PAH cation to anion concentration ratio and relative intensities of PAH size. Hence, the broad astronomical 7.7 micron band is produced by a mixture of small and large PAH cations and anions, with small and large PAHs contributing more to the 7.6 and 7.8 micron component respectively. For the CH out-of-plane vibrations, the duo hydrogens couple with the solo vibrations and produce bands that fall at wavelengths slightly different than their counterparts in smaller PAHs. As a consequence, previously deduced PAH structures are altered in favor of more compact and symmetric forms. In addition, the overlap between the duo and trio bands may reproduce the blue-shaded 12.8 micron profile.

  14. Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 ?g/kg d.w., with an average of 41 ?g/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10?6). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052±73) ?g/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10?5 to 2×10?4 with an average of 1.66×10?4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10?4). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  15. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 ?g/kg d.w., with an average of 41 ?g/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6)). The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73) ?g/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4) with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4), which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4)). The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782

  16. Source, profile, and carcinogenic risk assessment for cohorts occupationally exposed to dust-bound PAHs in Lahore and Rawalpindi cities (Punjab province, Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the occurrence and concentrations of PAHs in dust samples, which were collected from the traffic police cabins/working spots, located on the main busy roads of Lahore (TP-L) and Rawalpindi (TP-R) cities (Punjab province, Pakistan) and from the public transport vehicles in the same cities (named as AM-L and AM-R, respectively) were determined. The mean and median concentrations of ?PAHs were observed in the following descending order: AM-L (1340 and 774 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively), TP-L (866 and 854 ng g(-1) d.w.), TP-R (504 and 379 ng g(-1) d.w.), and AM-R (393 and 290 ng g(-1) d.w. Source apportionment of the soil/dust-bound PAHs was also performed. In all the sampling areas, the diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) followed by multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis indicated signatures of mixed sources of PAHs (including vehicular exhaust emission, gasoline/diesel, and coal/wood combustion). Estimated results of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that the traffic policemen and drivers, especially those in the urban area of Lahore, were at high risk of cancer via routes of dust ingestion and dermal contact. The results of this research could be very useful for the local Government in order to control the exposure and promote actions to alleviate PAH contamination and to manage health both at work places in the big cities of Pakistan. PMID:25739839

  17. Line absorption of He-like triplet lines by Li-like ions. Caveats of using line ratios of triplets for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdipour, M.; Kaastra, J. S.; Raassen, A. J. J.

    2015-07-01

    He-like ions produce distinctive series of triplet lines under various astrophysical conditions. However, this emission can be affected by line absorption from Li-like ions in the same medium. We investigate this absorption of He-like triplets and present the implications for diagnostics of plasmas in photoionisation equilibrium using the line ratios of the triplets. Our computations were carried out for the O vi and Fe xxiv absorption of the O vii and Fe xxv triplet emission lines, respectively. The fluorescent emission by the Li-like ions and continuum absorption of the He-like ion triplet lines are also investigated. We determine the absorption of the triplet lines as a function of Li-like ion column density and velocity dispersion of the emitting and absorbing medium. We find O vi line absorption can significantly alter the O vii triplet line ratios in optically-thin plasmas, by primarily absorbing the intercombination lines, and to a lesser extent, the forbidden line. Because of intrinsic line absorption by O vi inside a photoionised plasma, the predicted ratio of forbidden to intercombination line intensity for the O vii triplet increases from 4 up to an upper limit of 16. This process can explain the triplet line ratios that are higher than expected and that are seen in some X-ray observations of photoionised plasmas. For the Fe xxv triplet, line absorption by Fe xxiv becomes less apparent owing to significant fluorescent emission by Fe xxiv. Without taking the associated Li-like ion line absorption into account, the density diagnosis of photoionised plasmas using the observed line ratios of the He-like ion triplet emission lines can be unreliable, especially for low-Z ions.

  18. Removal of PAHs with surfactant-enhanced soil washing: Influencing factors and removal effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng Peng; Wei Wu; Jiajun Chen

    2011-01-01

    PAH removal with surfactant enhanced washing was investigated through a series of laboratory tests to examine the effect of stirring speed, washing time, surfactant concentration, liquid\\/solid ratio, temperature, and on-and-off mode. The first four factors show significant influence on the PAH removal while the latter two do not. Total removal ratio and a new proposed parameter, solubilization percentage, are used

  19. Compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system for quantifying intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio in brain cancer diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quan; Grant, Gerald; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Fangyao; Li, Shuqin; Wilson, Christy; Chen, Kui; Bigner, Darell; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a compact point-detection fluorescence spectroscopy system and two data analysis methods to quantify the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio and diagnose brain cancer in an orthotopic brain tumor rat model. Our system employs one compact cw diode laser (407 nm) to excite two primary endogenous fluorophores, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. The spectra were first analyzed using a spectral filtering modulation method developed previously to derive the intrinsic fluorescence redox ratio, which has the advantages of insensitivty to optical coupling and rapid data acquisition and analysis. This method represents a convenient and rapid alternative for achieving intrinsic fluorescence-based redox measurements as compared to those complicated model-based methods. It is worth noting that the method can also extract total hemoglobin concentration at the same time but only if the emission path length of fluorescence light, which depends on the illumination and collection geometry of the optical probe, is long enough so that the effect of absorption on fluorescence intensity due to hemoglobin is significant. Then a multivariate method was used to statistically classify normal tissues and tumors. Although the first method offers quantitative tissue metabolism information, the second method provides high overall classification accuracy. The two methods provide complementary capabilities for understanding cancer development and noninvasively diagnosing brain cancer. The results of our study suggest that this portable system can be potentially used to demarcate the elusive boundary between a brain tumor and the surrounding normal tissue during surgical resection. PMID:21456877

  20. The diagnostic significance of the immunoglobulin A to M and A to total ratios in the pancreatoduodenal fluid of patients with benign and malignant pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bramis, J P; Messer, J; Nacchiero, M; Dreiling, D A

    1978-05-01

    Immunoglobulins A, M and G in the pancreato-duodenal fluid (PDF) of 35 pancreatic disease-free individuals and 48 patients with chronic pancreatitis (25), hypersecretory disorders (10), renal transplanted (4) and with pancreatic cancer (9), were determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Although a trend of immunoglobulin hypersecretion in benign diseases and hyposecretion in malignancies was present, individual levels of Ig-A and Ig-M differed statistically only between cancer and other groups. Calculating the ratios of Ig-A to Ig-M (A/M) and Ig-A to total immunoglobulin contents (A/T) in the PDF of patients with chronic pancreatitis or cancer, however, a significantly higher or lower ratio, respectively, was found compared to control group. Differences in A/M ratios could not be detected between patients with benign diseases, but were constantly present when these patients were compared to pancreatic cancer. The underlying mechanism(s) of the disturbed immunosecretory system in pancreatic diseases remains speculative. Nevertheless, immunoglobulin measurements in the PDF of patients with pancreatic diseases offer a simple diagnostic aid in clinical differentiation of pancreatic pathology. PMID:356594

  1. Hybrid time dependent/independent solution for the He I line ratio temperature and density diagnostic for a thermal helium beam with applications in the scrape-off layer-edge regions in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Burgos, J. M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Schmitz, O. [Institute fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Spectroscopic studies of line emission intensities and ratios offer an attractive option in the development of non-invasive plasma diagnostics. Evaluating ratios of selected He I line emission profiles from the singlet and triplet neutral helium spin systems allows for simultaneous measurement of electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}) profiles. Typically, this powerful diagnostic tool is limited by the relatively long relaxation times of the {sup 3}S metastable term of helium that populates the triplet spin system, and on which electron temperature sensitive lines are based. By developing a time dependent analytical solution, we model the time evolution of the two spin systems. We present a hybrid time dependent/independent line ratio solution that improves the range of application of this diagnostic technique in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and edge plasma regions when comparing it against the current equilibrium line ratio helium model used at TEXTOR.

  2. Toxicokinetics of PAHs in Hexagenia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, Guy R.; Landrum, Peter F.; Henry, Mary G.; Klemm, C.

    1990-01-01

    The accumulation kinetics of two waterborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) and phenanthrene (PHE), were studied in the mayfly nymph (Hexagenia limbata). The uptake clearance decreased while the bioconcentration of BAP increased with an increase in weight of the H. limbata nymph. The relationship between uptake clearance and bioconcentration for PHE was variable, and bioconcentration was greater for the heavier animals. Two kinetic models were used to evaluate the effect of nymph weight on disposition of PAHs: (a) the amount-uptake clearance model, similar to models most frequently used in environmental toxicology; and (b) a clearance-volume model, similar to models used in clinical pharmacology. The two models gave similar predictive results but were different in a few cases. These differences in common parameter estimation probably resulted from methodologies used and high data variability rather than the models themselves, since they are mathematically equal. Some of the parameters are unique to each of the models and are defined and described. The clearance of oxygen from water is inversely and linearly related to the weight of the mayfly nymphs, but oxygen clearances were always much less than the uptake clearances of the PAHs. The high PAH uptake clearance compared to oxygen clearance implies a greater surface area or efficiency for PAH accumulation from water.

  3. PAHs in circumstellar disks around T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geers, Vincent C.; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Visser, Ruud; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; C2d Irs Team

    We have begun to investigate the emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons seen toward circumstellar disks around young low mass pre-main-sequence (T Tauri) stars, observed as part of our Spitzer Legacy program "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (Evans et al. 2003). In this poster we will present some of our first Spitzer spectra of PAH features in T Tauri stars and discuss these features in the context of the disk structure and the UV radiation field needed to excite the PAH molecules. Laboratory measurements show that PAH molecules are strongly heated/excited when they absorb a single UV photon, and that they re-radiate the energy through C-H and C-C stretch and C-H bending mode transitions, in the form of infrared photons. These give rise to characteristic PAH features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.8 microns. These emission features have now been observed toward about 60% of intermediate mass Herbig Ae/Be stars with the ISO satellite (Acke & van den Ancker 2004) and for a few of these sources, ground-based spatially resolved spectroscopy has confirmed that the emission originates from the inner ~100-150 AU region around the star (Geers et al. 2004, van Boekel et al. 2004, Habart et al. 2004), so typically on the scale of circumstellar disks. Our investigation of PAHs in disks around young stars takes two approaches. On the one hand, we address the question how the PAH abundance evolves in these disks during this period of planet formation and how their presence can have an impact on the circumstellar environment. The observed PAH emission is believed to originate from the surface layers of the disk, where the large molecules / small grains are mixed with the gas. The high opacity of PAHs to FUV radiation can significantly reduce the stellar UV field in the inner parts of the disk, while at the same time, through the photo-electric effect, PAHs can provide an important heating mechanism for the gas in the surrounding environment through photo-ionization and thereby influence the temperature and chemistry in the surface layers of the disks. On the other hand, the presence of PAHs can provide observers with important diagnostics for both the structure of the disk as well as the size of dust grains in the disk. Detections of PAH features provide diagnostics of the presence of small grains in the surface layer and can thus be used to address questions such as: do PAHs, as being the smallest "solid" particles, disappear at the same time as the silicate/carbon dust grains or do they have a longer timescale for settling and/or growth? If the timescales are different, how does this relate to the stability of the PAH to the UV field versus the PAH destruction in the inner region? These type of studies have, until recently, been restricted mostly to Herbig Ae/Be stars, which are relatively bright compared to T Tauri stars. With the arrival of the Spitzer Space Telescope we can now extend the studies of PAHs in disks to fainter low mass young stars. A key difference with the previously studied Herbig Ae/Be stars, is that for these sources of spectral type G and later, the stellar UV field is orders of magnitude weaker than for Herbig Ae/Be stars, which will directly affect the PAH excitation and emission. However, for these low mass sources accretion luminosity from the accretion of material onto the surface of the star can contribute significantly to the UV radiation and is expected to dominate the radiation field at wavelengths shorter than 0.55 microns, that is seen by the (inner regions of the) circumstellar disk (van Zadelhoff et al. 2003, Bergin et al. 2003). Our first results from the Spitzer spectra confirm this, since we observe much stronger PAH line fluxes than expected when the central star is assumed to be the main source of UV radiation. For the interpretation of the PAH features in disks around low mass stars, a PAH chemistry and emission model (Visser et al. in preparation) was recently coupled to 3D axi-symmetric radiative transfer models of circumstellar disks (Dulle

  4. Investigating PAH relative reactivity using congener profiles, quinone measurements and back trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Stark, C.; Harrison, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    Vapour and particle-associated concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 11 PAH quinones have been measured in winter and summer campaigns at the rural site, Weybourne in eastern England. Concentrations of individual PAH are 20-140 times smaller than average concentrations at an English urban site. The concentrations of PAH are greatest in air masses originating from southern England relative to those from Scandinavia and the North Atlantic, while quinone to parent PAH ratios show an inverse behaviour, being highest in the more aged North Atlantic polar air masses. While concentration of 1,2-naphthoquinone decline from summer to winter, those of 1,4-naphthoquinone and anthraquinone increase suggesting a photochemical formation pathway. A comparison of congener concentration profiles measured at Weybourne with those from an urban source area (Birmingham) reveals differential losses at the rural site, especially evident in fluoranthene: pyrene ratios and consistent with the known rates of vapour phase reactions of 3 and 4 ring compounds with hydroxyl radical. The ratios of quinones to their parent PAH at Weybourne are greater than those in the urban source area indicating either more rapid loss processes for PAH, or formation of quinones during advection of the air mass, or probably both.

  5. Investigating PAH relative reactivity using congener profiles, quinone measurements and back trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Stark, C.; Harrison, R. M.

    2014-03-01

    Vapour and particle-associated concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and 11 PAH quinones have been measured in winter and summer campaigns at the rural site, Weybourne in eastern England. Concentrations of individual PAH are relatively smaller than average concentrations measured previously at urban sites in the UK. The concentrations of PAH of the air masses originating from southern England and mainland UK are significantly larger than those from Eastern Europe and the North Atlantic, while quinone to parent PAH ratios show an inverse behaviour, being highest in the more aged North Atlantic polar air masses. While concentrations of 1,2-naphthoquinone decline from winter to summer, those of 1,4-naphthoquinone and anthraquinone increase suggesting a photochemical formation pathway. A comparison of congener concentration profiles measured at Weybourne with those from an urban source area (Birmingham) reveals differential losses at the rural site, especially evident in fluoranthene : pyrene ratios and consistent with the known rates of vapour phase reactions of 3 and 4 ring compounds with hydroxyl radical. The ratios of quinones to their parent PAH at Weybourne are greater than those in the urban source area indicating either more rapid loss processes for PAH, or formation of quinones during advection of the air mass, or probably both.

  6. Protective role of fine silts for PAH in a former industrial soil.

    PubMed

    Pernot, Audrey; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leglize, Pierre; Faure, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    An original combined organic geochemistry and soil science approach was used to elucidate PAH availability controlling factors in a multi-contaminated industrial soil. Water granulodensimetric fractionation was applied to obtain five water-stable material fractions. These were characterized by elemental, molecular and mineral analysis, and microscopic observations. Among the different fractions, fine silts distinguished themselves by higher carbon and nitrogen contents, lower C/N ratio, an enrichment in total PAH and especially high molecular weight compounds, a coal tar signature and the lowest PAH availability. This fine silt fraction seemed to play a protective role for PAH that might be explained by its size and/or its specific reactivity. The mineral phases present in this fraction were proposed to explain the protection of organic matter. This led to a specific molecular signature of OM, having higher sorption properties both processes (sorption and mineral-bound protection) resulting in a lower PAH availability. PMID:23665618

  7. 8, 23592380, 2008 PAH gradient over

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an important environmental reservoir for semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) because of high surface. An analysis of vertical profiles and gas/particle partitioning of the PAHs showed that gaseous PAHs

  8. Line-absorption of He-like triplet lines by Li-like ions: Caveats of using line ratios of triplets for plasma diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Mehdipour, M; Raassen, A J J

    2015-01-01

    He-like ions produce distinctive series of triplet lines under various astrophysical conditions. However, this emission can be affected by line-absorption from Li-like ions in the same medium. We investigate this absorption of He-like triplets and present the implications for diagnostics of plasmas in photoionisation equilibrium using the line ratios of the triplets. Our computations are carried out for the O VI and Fe XXIV absorption of the O VII and Fe XXV triplet emission lines, respectively. The fluorescent emission by the Li-like ions and continuum absorption of the He-like ion triplet lines are also investigated. We determine the absorption of the triplet lines as a function of Li-like ion column density and velocity dispersion of the emitting/absorbing medium. We find O VI line-absorption can significantly alter the O VII triplet line ratios in optically-thin plasmas, by primarily absorbing the intercombination lines and to lesser extent the forbidden line. Due to intrinsic line-absorption by O VI insi...

  9. Biota: sediment partitioning of aluminium smelter related PAHs and pulp mill related diterpenes by intertidal clams at Kitimat, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yunker, Mark B; Lachmuth, Cara L; Cretney, Walter J; Fowler, Brian R; Dangerfield, Neil; White, Linda; Ross, Peter S

    2011-09-01

    The question of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability and its relationship to specific PAH sources with different PAH binding characteristics is an important one, because bioavailability drives PAH accumulation in biota and ultimately the biochemical responses to the PAH contaminants. The industrial harbour at Kitimat (British Columbia, Canada) provides an ideal location to study the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment hydrocarbons to low trophic level biota. Samples of soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) and intertidal sediment collected from multiple sites over six years at various distances from an aluminium smelter and a pulp and paper mill were analysed for 106 PAHs, plant diterpenes and other aromatic fraction hydrocarbons. Interpretation using PAH source ratios and multivariate data analysis reveals six principal hydrocarbon sources: PAHs in coke, pitch and emissions from anode combustion from the aluminium smelter, vascular plant terpenes and aromatised terpenes from the pulp and paper mill, petroleum PAHs from shipping and other anthropogenic activities and PAHs from natural plant detritus. Harbour sediments predominantly contain either pitch or pyrogenic PAHs from the smelter, while clams predominantly contain plant derived PAHs and diterpenes from the adjacent pulp mill. PAHs from the smelter have low bioavailability to clams (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors; BSAFs <1 for pitch and coke; <10 for anode combustion, decreasing to ?0.1 for the mass 300 and 302 PAHs), possibly due to binding to pitch or soot carbon matrices. Decreases in PAH isomer ratios between sediments and clams likely reflect a combination of variation in uptake kinetics of petroleum PAHs and compound specific metabolism, with the importance of petroleum PAHs decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Plant derived compounds exhibit little natural bioaccumulation at reference sites, but unsaturated and aromatised diterpenes released from resins by industrial pulping processes are readily accumulated by the clams (BSAFs >500). Thus while most of the smelter associated PAHs in sediments may not be bioavailable to benthic organisms, the plant terpenes (including retene, totarol, ferruginol, manool, dehydroabietane and other plant terpenes that form the chemical defence mechanism of conifers) released by pulp mills are bioavailable and possess demonstrated toxic properties. The large scale release of plant terpenes by some of the many pulp mills located in British Columbia and elsewhere represents a largely undocumented risk to aquatic biota. PMID:21788067

  10. Accumulation of policyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface litter and soils in four forests in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrist, D.; Perlinger, J. A.; Zielinska, B.

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic environmental pollutants originating from the incomplete combustion of organic material, both from natural or anthropogenic sources. Once emitted, they can be transported across thousands of kilometers impacting remote environments. Here, we characterize the distribution of 23 PAHs and 9 oxygenated PAHs (?32PAH) in litter and soils in four remote forests in the United States. Concentrations of ?32PAH in fresh surface litter (Oi layers) showed very low levels in three of the four forests (mixed coniferous forest in Maine, deciduous blue oak forest in California, and a coniferous forest in Washington State), with PAHs levels much lower than those reported in previous studies from Europe. The analysis showed that PAHs represented a mix of regional background sources. Highest PAH levels were observed in a coniferous forest floor in Florida, attributable to frequent prescribed burning of understory vegetation at this site, and supported by high contributions of retene (>7%; compared to <1% at other sites). ?32PAH increased in deeper, more decomposed organic litter layers, increasing from 57±19 ng g-1 (in Oi layer) to 511± 285 ng g-1 in decomposed, humidified litter layers (Oe and Oa horizons). In mineral soils, ?32PAH were over an order of magnitude lower (average 37±8 ng g-1), which was attributed to higher bulk densities of mineral soils. However, standardized per unit of organic carbon (OC), ?32PAH:OC ratios in mineral soils also were below levels observed in overlying litter, indicating a strong sorption capacity of organic horizons for atmospheric deposition. Within mineral soils, ?32PAH:OC ratios increased with depth (Ah horizons: 750±198 ng g-1; B horizons: 1,202±97 ng g-1), indicating that vertical transfer in mineral soils leads to significant accumulation of PAH in subsoils. ?PAH:OC increases observed in deeper soil layers may be attributed to slower mineralization rates of PAHs compared to OC, plus vertical transport as indicated by preferential enrichment of PAHs with low Kow (i.e., more water-soluble PAHs). Finally, percentage of potentially biologically produced PAH (? Naph+Phen+Pery) were low and consistent across the litter/soil horizons, suggesting that biological production is minor or absent at our sites.

  11. Phase Stability of Multicomponent NAPLs Containing PAHs

    E-print Network

    Peters, Catherine A.

    Phase Stability of Multicomponent NAPLs Containing PAHs C A T H E R I N E A . P E T E R aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), most of which are solids in pure form at ambient temperatures. Because any PAH-NAPL phase stability. Uncertainty in melting temperature and entropy of fusion is a significant

  12. The 15-21 um PAH plateau

    E-print Network

    E. Peeters; A. L. Mattioda; F. Kemper; D. M. Hudgins; L. J. Allamandola

    2005-06-30

    We present 14--21 um emission spectra of star forming regions and compare them with the PAH spectra from the Ames PAH database. We show that while the emission in this region can be quite variable, the bulk of these variations can be accommodated by variations in the IS PAH population.

  13. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Robinson; T. R. Anthony; S. R. Littau; P. Herckes; X. Nelson; G. S. Poplin; J. L. Burgess

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aro- matic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to eval- uate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the mariculture zones of China's northern Yellow Sea.

    PubMed

    Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Na, Guangshui; Huo, Chuanlin; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2014-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total PAH concentrations ranged from 110.8 ng/L to 997.2 ng/L and 142.2 ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2 ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various PAH compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding PAH behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the PAHs in sediment indicated that the source of the PAHs in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of PAHs ranged from 7 ng TEQ/gdw to 92 ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual PAH concentrations. PMID:24952456

  15. Pyroelectric array horizon sensor (PAHS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Vasey; Chris Clark

    1990-01-01

    A linear pyroelectric detector array has been chosen for the application of an inexpensive earth sensor in the 14- to 16-micron range. The PAHS makes use of a modular design to allow flexibility in spacecraft mounting and mission profiles. The simplicity of the earth radiance measurement allows a variety of pitch and roll computation algorithms. These computations may be performed

  16. Isolation of adherent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria using PAH-sorbing carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEEN BASTIAENS; DIRK SPRINGAEL; PIERRE WATTIAU; HAUKE HARMS; RUPERT DEWACHTER; HUBERT VERACHTERT; LUDO DIELS

    2000-01-01

    Two different procedures were compared to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-utilizing bacteria from PAH-contaminated soil and sludge samples, i.e., (i) shaken enrichment cultures in liquid mineral medium in which PAHs were supplied as crystals and (ii) a new method in which PAH degraders were enriched on and recovered from hydrophobic membranes containing sorbed PAHs. Both techniques were successful, but selected

  17. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) in organic and mineral soil horizons from four U.S. remote forests.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Zielinska, Barbara; Perlinger, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    We characterized distributions of 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?23PAH) and nine oxygenated PAHs (?9OPAH) in four remote forests. We observed highest ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations in a coniferous forest in Florida, particularly in organic layers which we attributed to frequent prescribed burning. Across sites, ?23PAH and ?9OPAH concentrations strongly increased from surface to humidified organic layers (+1626%) where concentrations reached up to 584ngg(-1). Concentrations in mineral soils were lower (average 37±8ngg(-1)); but when standardized per unit organic carbon (OC), PAH/OC and OPAH/OC ratios were at or above levels observed in organic layers. Accumulation in litter and soils (i.e., enrichment factors with depth) negatively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) and therefore was linked to water solubility of compounds. Concentrations of ?9OPAHs ranged from 6±6ngg(-1) to 39±25ngg(-1) in organic layers, and from 3±1ngg(-1) to 11±3ngg(-1) in mineral soils, and were significantly and positively correlated to ?23PAHs concentrations (r(2) of 0.90) across sites and horizons. While OPAH concentrations generally decreased from organic layers to mineral soil horizons, OPAH/OC ratios increased more strongly with depth compared to PAHs, in particular for anthrone, anthraquinone, fluorenone, and acenaphthenequinone. The strong vertical accumulation of OPAH relative to OC was exponentially and negatively correlated to C/N ratios (r(2)=0.67), a measure that often is used for tissue age. In fact, C/N ratios alone explained two-thirds of the variability in OPAH/OC ratios suggesting particularly high retention, sorption, and persistency of OPAHs in old, decomposed carbon fractions. PMID:25929871

  18. Occupational PAH exposures during prescribed pile burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M S; Anthony, T R; Littau, S R; Herckes, P; Nelson, X; Poplin, G S; Burgess, J L

    2008-08-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 microg m(-3). The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 +/- 0.15) than ignition (0.55 +/- 0.04 microg mg(-1)). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  19. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler. PMID:10502602

  20. A computer program for fast non-LTE analysis of interstellar line spectra. With diagnostic plots to interpret observed line intensity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Black, J. H.; Schöier, F. L.; Jansen, D. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:The large quantity and high quality of modern radio and infrared line observations require efficient modeling techniques to infer physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, density, and molecular abundances. Methods: We present a computer program to calculate the intensities of atomic and molecular lines produced in a uniform medium, based on statistical equilibrium calculations involving collisional and radiative processes and including radiation from background sources. Optical depth effects are treated with an escape probability method. The program is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.sron.rug.nl/~vdtak/radex/index.shtml. The program makes use of molecular data files maintained in the Leiden Atomic and Molecular Database (LAMDA), which will continue to be improved and expanded. Results: The performance of the program is compared with more approximate and with more sophisticated methods. An Appendix provides diagnostic plots to estimate physical parameters from line intensity ratios of commonly observed molecules. Conclusions: This program should form an important tool in analyzing observations from current and future radio and infrared telescopes. Appendices A-D, are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Oxidative biodegradation pathways of PAHs

    SciTech Connect

    Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a class of hazardous organic chemical consisting of three of more fused benzene rings in linear, angular and cluster arrangements. PAHs mostly occur as a result of fossil fuel combustion, as by-product of industrial processing and during the cooking of foods. A catabolically diverse microbial community, consisting of bacteria, fungi and algae, metabolizes aromatic compounds. Molecular oxygen is essential for the initial hydroxylation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microorganisms. In contrast to bacteria, filamentous fungi use hydroxylation as a prelude to detoxification rather than to catabolism and assimilation. The biochemical principles underlying the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons will be discussed. The oxidative pathways of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon catabolism will be discussed. Studies will be presented on the relationship between the chemical structure of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the rate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm) of solid-state polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, M. R. M.; Applin, D. M.; Norman, L.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds based on fused aromatic rings, and are formed in a variety of astrophysical, solar nebula and planetary processes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known or suspected to occur in a wide variety of planetary settings including icy satellites, Titan’s hazes, carbonaceous meteorites, comet nuclei, ring particles; and terrestrial organic-rich lithologies such as coals, asphaltites, and bituminous sands. Relatively few measurements of the visible and near-infrared spectra of PAHs exist, yet this wavelength region (350-2500 nm) is widely used for remote sensing. This study presents detailed analyses of the 350-2500 nm reflectance spectra of 47 fine-grained powders of different high-purity solid-state PAHs. Spectral properties of PAHs change with variations in the number and connectivity of linked aromatic rings and the presence and type of side-groups and heterocycles. PAH spectra are characterized by three strong features near ?880 nm, ?1145 nm, and ?1687 nm due to overtones of ?CH fundamental stretching vibrations. Some PAHs are amenable to remote detection due to the presence of diagnostic spectral features, including: Nsbnd H stretching overtones at 1490-1515 nm in NH- and NH2-bearing PAHs, aliphatic or saturated bond Csbnd H overtone vibrations at ?1180-1280 nm and ?1700-1860 nm; a broad asymmetric feature between ?1450 nm and ?1900 nm due to Osbnd H stretching overtones in aromatic alcohols, Csbnd H and Cdbnd O combinations near ?2000-2010 nm and ?2060-2270 nm in acetyl and carboxyl-bearing PAHs. Other substituents such as sulphonyl, thioether ether and carboxyl heterocycles, or cyano, nitrate, and aromatic side groups, do not produce well-resolved diagnostic spectral features but do cause shifts in the positions of the aromatic Csbnd H vibrational overtone features. Fluorescence is commonly suppressed by the presence of heterocycles, side-groups and in many non-alternant PAHs. The spectral characteristics of PAHs offer the potential, under suitable circumstances, for remote characterization of the classes of PAH present and in some cases, identification of particular heterocyclic or side-group substituents.

  3. A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Michael J; Depree, Craig V

    2010-12-01

    Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments. Total PAH (?(28)PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ("binder"), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200,000 mgkg(-1) (10,000 mgkg(-1) in binder+aggregate). Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower ?(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene); benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene); and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. Moreover, pavement data for one isomer ratio (e.g. benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene+benzo(e)pyrene) were highly correlated with those of another isomer ratio (e.g. benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene+chrysene) and were bounded at their lower and higher extremes by the characteristics of pure bitumen and coal tar, respectively, suggesting that PAH composition of a given pavement sample could be accounted for by conservative mixing between coal tar and bitumen as source materials. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered. PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments (> 15 mgkg(-1) dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments. PMID:20843538

  4. Particle-Bound PAH Emission from the Exhaust of Combustion Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asgari Lamjiri, M.; Medrano, Y. S.; Guillaume, D. W.; Khachikian, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are harmful, semi-volatile organic compounds which are generated due to the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs are of concern as a pollutant because some of these compounds are carcinogenic and mutagenic even at low levels. Most of the PAHs are recalcitrant and persistent in the environment. The PAHs carcinogenic potential can be increased by the adsorption onto small size particles (< 1?m) which can easily get into the bronchioles and alveoli of the lungs. PAHs associated with sub-micron particles are mostly generated from high temperature sources like combustion chambers. In this current study, the presence of 16 priority PAHs (listed by United States Environmental Protection Agency) which are attached to the particulates emitted from the exhaust of the jet engine are evaluated. The engine was operated at different swirl numbers (S; the ratio of tangential air flow to axial air flow) to investigate the effect of this parameter on the effluent of combustion chamber. The samples were collected using two instruments simultaneously: a particle analyzer and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposited Impactor (MOUDI). Particle analyzer was used to count the number of particles in different sizes and MOUDI was used to collect particles with respect to their size as they were emitted from the exhaust. The MOUDI's aluminum substrates were weighed before and after the experiment in order to measure the mass of particles that were collected during the sampling period. The concentration of PAHs associated with the particles was measured by extracting the particles with dichloromethane followed by analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In general, lower molecular weight PAHs emitted from the exhaust of combustion chamber are mostly in gas phase while PAHs of higher molecular weight are adsorbed onto particles. Preliminary results from GC/MS confirm the presence of higher molecular weight PAHs like Benzo[a]pyrene in most of the samples. Better recirculation between air and fuel in higher swirl numbers results in better combustion. In higher swirl numbers, the temperature of the combustion process increases which leads to a more complete combustion. Another result of higher swirl number is a longer residence time which allows the organic substances in the fuel to remain in the reaction longer and also leads to a more complete combustion. The preliminary results from particle analyzer show that the abundance ratio of smaller particles to larger particles increases at higher swirl numbers. For example, at swirl 86, the abundance ratio of 0.3 micron particles to 0.7 micron particles was 400 while at swirl 0, this ratio was 35. Smaller particles have higher specific surface area which allows for more PAH adsorption. The preliminary results show that operating the jet engine at higher swirl numbers can have positive or negative effects on particle-bound PAH emissions. Higher temperature and residence time as well as better mixture of fuel and air can reduce PAH emission while generating more small size particles can increase surface available for PAH adsorption and, as a result, increases PAH emission. In future experiments, particle-bound PAHs of different swirl numbers will be compared in order to find a swirl number range which generates fewer Particle-bound PAHs.

  5. Phenols and hydroxy-PAHs (arylphenols) as tracers for coal smoke particulate matter: source tests and ambient aerosol assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Bernd R.T. Simoneit; Xinhui Bi; Daniel R. Oros; Patricia M. Medeiros; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Sciences Program

    2007-11-01

    Source tests were conducted to analyze and characterize diagnostic key tracers for emissions from burning of coals with various ranks. Coal samples included lignite from Germany, semibituminous coal from Arizona, USA, bituminous coal from Wales, UK and sample from briquettes of semibituminous coal, bituminous coal and anthracite from China. Ambient aerosol particulate matter was also collected in three areas of China and a background area in Corvallis, OR (U.S.) to confirm the presence of tracers specific for coal smoke. The results showed a series of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, including PAHs and hydroxy-PAHs as the major tracers, as well as a significant unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of compounds. The tracers that were found characteristic of coal combustion processes included hydroxy-PAHs and PAHs. Atmospheric ambient samples from Beijing and Taiyuan, cities where coal is burned in northern China, revealed that the hydroxy-PAH tracers were present during the wintertime, but not in cities where coal is not commonly used (e.g., Guangzhou, South China). Thus, the mass of hydroxy-PAHs can be apportioned to coal smoke and the source strength modeled by summing the proportional contents of EC (elemental carbon), PAHs, UCM and alkanes with the hydroxy-PAHs. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Impact of natural gas extraction on PAH levels in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Paulik, L Blair; Donald, Carey E; Smith, Brian W; Tidwell, Lane G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Kincl, Laurel; Haynes, Erin N; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-04-21

    Natural gas extraction, often referred to as "fracking," has increased rapidly in the U.S. in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. PAH levels were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. Additionally, PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were an order of magnitude higher than levels previously reported in rural areas. Sourcing ratios indicate that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that elevated PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. Closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 2.9 in 10?000, which is above the U.S. EPA's acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest. This work suggests that natural gas extraction may be contributing significantly to PAHs in air, at levels that are relevant to human health. PMID:25810398

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indoor Dusts of Guizhou, Southwest of China: Status, Sources and Potential Human Health Risk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ?18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 ?g•g-1 to 14.20 ?g•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 ?g•g-1. The highest ?18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of ?18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4–6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ?18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10?6, 5.00×10?6, 3.08×10?6, 6.02×10?6 for children and 5.92×10?6, 4.83×10?6, 2.97×10?6, 5.81×10?6 for adults, respectively. PMID:25719362

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dusts of Guizhou, southwest of China: status, sources and potential human health risk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Chen, Huaguo; Li, Baizhan

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed for 136 indoor dust samples collected from Guizhou province, southwest of China. The ?18PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.18 ?g•g-1 to 14.20 ?g•g-1 with the mean value of 6.78 ?g•g-1. The highest ?18PAHs concentration was found in dust samples from orefields, followed by city, town and village. Moreover, the mean concentration of ?18PAHs in indoor dust was at least 10% higher than that of outdoors. The 4-6 rings PAHs, contributing more than 70% of ?18PAHs, were the dominant species. PAHs ratios, principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) were applied to evaluate the possible sources. Two major origins of PAHs in indoor dust were identified as vehicle emissions and coal combustion. The mean incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) due to human exposure to indoor dust PAHs in city, town, village and orefield of Guizhou province, China was 6.14×10-6, 5.00×10-6, 3.08×10-6, 6.02×10-6 for children and 5.92×10-6, 4.83×10-6, 2.97×10-6, 5.81×10-6 for adults, respectively. PMID:25719362

  9. PAH emission from various industrial stacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Wen-Jhy Lee; Shui-Jen Chen; Soon-Onn Lai

    1998-01-01

    The emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from various industrial stacks (blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace, coke oven, electric arc furnace, heavy oil plant, power plant and cement plant) in southern Taiwan were investigated. PAH concentrations (?g\\/N m3) and PAH emission factors (?g\\/kg feedstock) were determined. In addition to these eight stationary industrial stacks, an industrial waste incinerator, a diesel

  10. PAH Degradation Capacity of Soil Microbial Communities—Does It Depend on PAH Exposure?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders R. Johnsen; Ulrich Karlson

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants of the environment. But is their microbial degradation equally\\u000a wide in distribution? We estimated the PAH degradation capacity of 13 soils ranging from pristine locations (total PAHs ?\\u000a 0.1 mg kg?1) to heavily polluted industrial sites (total PAHs ? 400 mg kg?1). The size of the pyrene- and phenanthrene-degrading bacterial populations was determined by most

  11. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and oxygenated PAHs) and trace metals in fish species from Ghana (West Africa): bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Bigalke, Moritz; Boamah, Linda; Nyarko, Elvis; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    We report the concentrations of 28 PAHs, 15 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and 11 trace metals/metalloids (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in muscle and gut+gill tissues of demersal fishes (Drapane africana, Cynoglossus senegalensis and Pomadasys peroteti) from three locations along the coast of the Gulf of Guinea (Ghana). The concentrations of ?28PAHs in muscle tissues averaged 192ngg(-1) dw (range: 71-481ngg(-1) dw) and were not statistically different between locations. The concentrations of ?28 PAHs were higher in guts+gills than in muscles. The PAH composition pattern was dominated by low molecular weight compounds (naphthalene, alkyl-naphthalenes and phenanthrene). All fish tissues had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations lower than the EU limit for food safety. Excess cancer risk from consumption of some fish was higher than the guideline value of 1×10(-6). The concentrations of ?15 OPAHs in fish muscles averaged 422ngg(-1) dw (range: 28-1715ngg(-1)dw). The ?15 OPAHs/?16 US-EPA PAHs concentration ratio was >1 in 68% of the fish muscles and 100% of guts+gills. The log-transformed concentrations of PAHs and OPAHs in muscles, guts+gills were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with their octanol-water partitioning coefficients, strongly suggesting that equilibrium partitioning from water/sediment into fish tissue was the main mechanism of bioaccumulation. The trace metal concentrations in the fish tissues were in the medium range when compared to fish from other parts of the world. The concentrations of some trace metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) were higher in guts+gills than in muscle tissues. The target hazard quotients for metals were<1 and did not indicate a danger to the local population. We conclude that the health risk arising from the consumption of the studied fish (due to their PAHs and trace metals content) is minimal. PMID:24486971

  12. Temporal variability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a receptor site of the Puebla-Tlaxcala Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Z. V.; Torres, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    This contribution documents the presence and possible origin of PAHs, their temporal concentration patterns and correlations with other air pollutants in the so-called Puebla-Tlaxcala valley. This valley is located to the east of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and is a very populated region which suffers of air pollution problems. Emission sources of PAHs include open burning, industrial boilers, automobiles and trucks, but vehicle emissions vary significantly depending on the use of: fuel, engine type and catalytic converter. An important emission source in the Puebla-Tlaxcala region is wood burning for cooking. Therefore, it is expected to have contributions of PAHS from this type of sources. PAHs measurements were performed in an air pollution semi-rural receptor site (Chipilo) southwest the City of Puebla, using an aerosol photoelectric sensor (PAS 2000 CE) to measure the concentration of PAHs and a diffuser charger (DC 2000 CE) to evaluate the active surface (DC) of the particles. The measuring period included March and April of 2012 during the ozne season in central Mexico. The use of these two sensors in parallel has been identified as a fingerprint technique to identify different types of particles from several combustion processes and is a useful tool to identify quantitatively the major source of emissions, as well as to describe thephysical and chemical characteristics of the particles. Correlations between PAHs and DC, with NOx and CO, together with an analysis of atmospheric transport may approximate the possible origin of these particles. The coefficient PAHs / DC associated with backward trajectory analysis represents a tool to identify potential areas of emission. The correlation between PAHs and NOx emissions reflects association with diesel combustion, while the correlation between PAHs and CO, the combustion of gasoline. The results show that vehicle emissions are the major source of PAHs with an associated increase in the concentration of PAHs in the morning, when there is more vehicular traffic. The time series of PAHs also exhibit synchronized peaks of PAHs and DC that correspond to hours of traffic which shows the relationship of PAHs with DC. However, correlations of PAHs with DC show a relatively strong scattering suggesting that aerosols are a mixture of particles of different sources and different ages. Throughout the day is observed the aging of primary combustion particles due to the secondary aerosols coating. This coating may prolong the life time of the PAHs in the atmosphere. Also occurs a decrease in the ratio PAHs / DC during the day. Low ratios indicate the abundance of large particles, whereas high ratios indicate abundance dominated by small particle emissions from diesel engines. The resulting correlations show a significant linear trend evolution of PAHs with NOx, indicating that the PAHs are associated with the combustion of diesel, and a linear trend of PAHs with DC for each type of aerosol combustion, while the correlation of PAHs with CO results in an exponential trend which implies that PAHs are related to the combustion of diesel.

  13. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cladosporium sphaerospermum isolated from an aged PAH contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Potin; Etienne Veignie; Catherine Rafin

    2004-01-01

    The ability of a Deuteromycete fungus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, previously isolated from soil of an aged gas manufacturing plant, to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was investigated. This strain was able to degrade PAHs in non-sterile soils (average 23%), including high molecular weight PAHs, after 4 weeks of incubation. In a microcosm experiment, PAH depletion was clearly correlated to fungal establishment. In

  14. PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Nasrin R.; Scheff, Peter A.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    To evaluate the chemical composition (source fingerprint) of the major sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chicago metropolitan area, a study of major PAH sources was conducted during 1990-1992. In this study, a modified high-volume sampling method (PS-1 sampler) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. Hewlett Packard 5890 gas chromatographs equipped with the flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors (GC/FID and GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The sources sampled were: coke ovens, highway vehicles, heavy-duty diesel engines, gasoline engines and wood combustion. Results of this study showed that two and three ring PAHs were responsible for 98, 76, 92, 73 and 80% of the total concentration of measured 20 PAHs for coke ovens, diesel engines, highway tunnels, gasoline engines and wood combustion samples, respectively. Six ring PAHs such as indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene and benzo( ghi)perylene were mostly below the detection limit of this study and only detected in the highway tunnel, diesel and gasoline engine samples. The source fingerprints were obtained by averaging the ratios of individual PAH concentrations to the total concentration of categorical pollutants including: (a) total measured mass of PAHs with retention times between naphthalene and coronene, (b) the mass of the 20 PAHs measured in this study, (c) total VOCs, and (d) total PM10. Since concentrations of the above categorical pollutants were different for individual samples and different sources, the chemical composition patterns obtained for each categorical pollutant were different. The source fingerprints have been developed for use in chemical mass balance receptor modeling calculations.

  15. PAH emission variations within the resolved starbursts of NGC253 and NGC1808

    E-print Network

    L. E. Tacconi-Garman; E. Sturm; M. Lehnert; D. Lutz; R. I. Davies; A. F. M. Moorwood

    2004-11-10

    (ABRIDGED) We have undertaken a programme of 3 micron narrowband imaging of a sample of nearby template galaxies covering a wide range of metallicity, star formation activity, and nuclear activity. In the present paper we present first results: high spatial resolution images of PAH emission and the adjacent continuum emission from the central regions of the nearby starburst galaxies NGC253 and NGC1808. Globally, the PAH emission is seen to peak on the central starburst regions of both sources. On smaller scales, however, we see no general spatial correlation or anti-correlation between the PAH emission and the location of sites of recent star formation, suggesting that the degree to which PAH emission traces starburst activity is more complicated than previously hypothesized based on results from data with lower spatial resolution. We do find spatial correlations, though, when we consider the PAH-to-continuum ratio, which is low at the positions of known super star clusters in NGC1808 as well as at the position of the IR peak in NGC253. We take this to imply a decrease in the efficiency of PAH emission induced by the star formation, caused by mechanical energy input into the ISM or photoionisation or photodissociation of the PAH molecules. All three hypotheses are discussed. In addition, for the first time we present observations of PAH emission in the superwind of a starbursting system (NGC253), providing strong support that winds are heavily mass-loaded and entrain substantial amounts of ambient ISM. We have also found a plausible connection between observed NaD absorption, H2, and PAHs above the plane of NGC253. This observation has important implications for enriching galaxy halos and possibly the intergalactic medium with small dust grains.

  16. Characterization and sources of PAHs in an urban river system in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q; Wang, K Y; Zhang, W; Zhang, S C; Wang, X J

    2009-08-01

    Water samples from 20 locations on rivers in the Tongzhou District of Beijing were collected four times from July 2005 to March 2006. In addition, sediment samples were collected in July 2005. All samples were analyzed for 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutants polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The concentration, distribution, seasonal variation, and sources of the 16 PAH compounds identified in the water samples, suspended particles, and surface sediments were then evaluated. The concentrations of PAHs in the water and suspended particle and surface sediment samples ranged from 87.3 to 1,890 ng l(-1), 1,330 to 27,700 ng g(-1), and 156 to 8,650 ng g(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated that rivers in the Tongzhou District of Beijing had a high level of PAH pollution, especially in the suspended particles. The highest and lowest concentrations of PAHs in the water samples were observed in summer and spring. However, the seasonal variations in the concentration of PAHs in the suspended particles were more complicated. The dominant compounds in the water, suspended particle, and surface sediment samples were two-, three- and four-ring PAH compounds, respectively. Ratio analysis illustrated that fuel-burning was the primary source of PAHs in the study area. Gasoline, diesel, coal, and coke oven sources were identified and the contributions of the different fuel-burning sources were then calculated using factor analysis and multiple linear regression. These analyses revealed that coal combustion, gasoline combustion plus coke oven emission, and diesel combustion accounted for 38.8%, 38.5%, and 22.7% of the PAHs in suspended particles, respectively. PMID:18648991

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the Marseilles area (South of France): concentrations and sources.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Alexandre; Leoz-Garziandia, Eva; Budzinski, Hélène; Viilenave, Eric

    2007-10-01

    Ambient measurements (gas+particle phases) of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during July 2004 on three different sites (urban, sub-urban and rural) in the region of Marseilles (South of France). Atmospheric concentrations of these classes of polyaromatics are great of interest because of their high potential mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. OPAH concentrations were of the same order of magnitude as those of PAHs while NPAH concentrations were one to two orders lower. 9-Fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for about 60% and 20% of the total OPAH concentration. Respectively 1-and 2-nitronaphthalene were the most abundant NPAHs and were accounting for about 30-50% and 15-30% of the total NPAH concentration. NPAHs and OPAHs concentration levels were consistent with the characteristics of the sampling sites. Study of source specific ratios (2-nitrofluoranthene/1-nitropyrene) clearly showed those primary NPAH sources influence the urban and sub-urban sites whereas production of secondary NPAHs by gas phase reactions was prevalent at the rural site. The study of NPAH and OPAH sources suggested that gasoline engines were an important source of such compounds Whereas the dominant source of 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, 6-nitrochrysene and benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione seems to be diesel vehicles. Finally, 9,10-anthraquinone presents a double origin: primary diesel emission and photochemical processes. Formation of 9,10-anthraquinone from anthracene ozonation was shown at the rural site. Further investigations will be necessary in order to discriminate when (before or during the sampling) the OPAHs are formed. PMID:17590415

  18. Effects of PAH isomerizations on mutagenicity of combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, J.B.; Longwell, J.P.; Marr, J.A.; Pope, C.J.; Busby, W.F. Jr.; Lafleur, A.L.; Taghizadeh, K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Most of the mutagenicity of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mixtures found in combustion exhaust gases is contributed by a relatively small number of the many PAH present. Since PAB mutagenicity is structure and hence isomer sensitive. changes in the distribution of isomers can change the mutagenicity of the mixture. Whether isomerization reactions in combustion play a significant role in determining the distributions of PAH isomers and the mutagenicity of product mixtures is assessed here for the following pairs of isomers: (1) fluoranthene-pyrene; (2) fluoranthene-acephenanthrylene; (3) cyclopental[cd]pyrene-benzol[ghi]fluoranthene; and (4) benzol[k]fluoranthene-benzo[a]pyrene. Concentration ratios of the isomer pairs were measured in ethylene combustion with naphthalene injection using a plug flow reactor at equivalence ratios of 1.2 and 2.2 and temperatures of 1520, 1620, and 1705 K, and compared with equilibrium ratios based on proper-ties computed from molecular mechanics and semiempirical quantum mechanical programs. Bacterial mutagenicity was measured by a forward mutation assay using Salmonella in the presence of rat liver supernatant, and found to vary significantly among the above compounds. The measured concentration ratios for isomer pairs (2) and (3) are near the equilibrium values and becoming more so as temperature increases, but the measured ratios for isomer pairs (1) and (4) are far from the equilibrium values at all the temperatures. From kinetics estimations, the characteristic isomerization time for isomer pairs (2) and (3) at 1705 K and perhaps at 1620 K is less than the experimental residence times, while the only isomerization mechanisms envisioned for isomer pairs (1) and (4) would not be kinetically viable at these temperatures.

  19. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research by the USGS has identified coal-tar-based pavement sealants as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the environment. Coal-tar-based sealcoat is commonly used to coat parking lots and driveways and is typically is 20-35 percent coal tar pitch, a known human carcinogen. Several PAHs are suspected mutagens, carcinogens, and (or) teratogens. In the central and eastern U.S. where the coal-tar-based sealants dominate use, sum-PAH concentration in dust particles from sealcoated pavement is about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S. where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent. Source apportionment modeling indicates that particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recent lake sediment in 35 U.S. urban lakes and are the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in many of these lakes. Mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealcoat are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. In a recently completed study, volatilization fluxes of PAHs from sealcoated pavement were estimated to be about 60 times fluxes from unsealed pavement. Using a wide variety of methods, the author and colleagues have shown that coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major source of PAHs to the urban environment and might pose risks to aquatic life and human health.

  20. PAH Emission from Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-print Network

    V. Desai; L. Armus; H. W. W. Spoon; V. Charmandaris; J. Bernard-Salas; B. R. Brandl; D. Farrah; B. T. Soifer; H. I. Teplitz; P. M. Ogle; D. Devost; S. J. U. Higdon; J. A. Marshall; J. R. Houck

    2007-07-27

    We explore the relationships between the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) feature strengths, mid-infrared continuum luminosities, far-infrared spectral slopes, optical spectroscopic classifications, and silicate optical depths within a sample of 107 ULIRGs observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The detected 6.2 micron PAH equivalent widths (EQWs) in the sample span more than two orders of magnitude (0.006-0.8 micron), and ULIRGs with HII-like optical spectra or steep far-infrared spectral slopes (S_{25} / S_{60} PAH EQWs that are half that of lower-luminosity starbursts. A significant fraction (~40-60%) of HII-like, LINER-like, and cold ULIRGs have very weak PAH EQWs. Many of these ULIRGs also have large (tau_{9.7} > 2.3) silicate optical depths. The far-infrared spectral slope is strongly correlated with PAH EQW, but not with silicate optical depth. In addition, the PAH EQW decreases with increasing rest-frame 24 micron luminosity. We argue that this trend results primarily from dilution of the PAH EQW by continuum emission from dust heated by a compact central source, probably an AGN. High luminosity, high-redshift sources studied with Spitzer appear to have a much larger range in PAH EQW than seen in local ULIRGs, which is consistent with extremely luminous starburst systems being absent at low redshift, but present at early epochs.

  1. Airborne and laboratory studies of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of the observations which have led to the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are the carriers of the widespread interstellar emission features near 3050, 1615, '1300' and 890 cm(exp -1) (3.29, 6.2, '7.7', and 11.2 mu m) is presented. The central role of airborne spectroscopy is stressed. The principal reason for the assignment to PAH's was the resemblance of the interstellar emission spectrum to the laboratory absorption spectra of PAH's and PAH-like materials. Since precious little information was available on the properties of PAH's in the forms that are thought to exist under interstellar conditions -isolated and ionized in the emission zones, with the smallest PAH's being dehydrogenated- there was a need for a spectral data base on PAH's taken in these states. Here, the relevant infrared spectroscopic properties of PAH's will be reviewed. These laboratory spectra show that relative band intensities are severely altered and that band frequencies shift. It is shown that these new data alleviate several of the spectroscopic criticisms previously leveled at the hypothesis.

  2. Influence and interactions of multi-factors on the bioavailability of PAHs in compost amended contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guozhong; Li, Xingang; Kechavarzi, Cédric; Sakrabani, Ruben; Sui, Hong; Coulon, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    Compost amendment to contaminated soils is a potential approach for waste recycling and soil remediation. The relative importance and interactions of multiple factors on PAH bioavailability in soils were investigated using conjoint analysis and five-way analysis of variance. Results indicated that soil type and contact time were the two most significant factors influencing the PAH bioavailability in amended soils. The other two factors (compost type and ratio of compost addition) were less important but their interactions with other factors were significant. Specifically the 4-factor interactions showed that compost addition stimulated the degradation of high molecular PAHs at the initial stage (3 month) by enhancing the competitive sorption within PAH groups. Such findings suggest that a realistic decision-making towards hydrocarbon bioavailability assessment should consider interactions among various factors. Further to this, this study demonstrated that compost amendment can enhance the removal of recalcitrant hydrocarbons such as PAHs in contaminated soils. PMID:24875869

  3. Are PAH molecules the carriers of Unidentified Infrared Emission bands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Sun; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are widely considered as the preferred candidate for the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission bands observed in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes. In this paper we report the result of fitting a variety of non-PAH spectra (silicates, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, coal and even artificial spectra) using the theoretical infrared spectra of PAHs from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. We show that these non-PAH spectra can be well fitted by PAH mixtures. This suggest that a general match between astronomical spectra and those of PAH mixtures does not necessarily provide definitive support for the PAH hypothesis.

  4. Infrared fluorescence from PAHs in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherchneff, Isabelle; Barker, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Several celestial objects, including UV rich regions of planetary and reflection nebulae, stars, H II regions, and extragalactic sources, are characterized by the unidentified infrared emission bands (UIR bands). A few years ago, it was proposed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species (PAHs) are responsible for most of the UIR bands. This hypothesis is based on a spectrum analysis of the observed features. Comparisons of observed IR spectra with lab absorption spectra of PAHs support the PAH hypothesis. An example spectrum is represented, where the Orion Bar 3.3 micron spectrum is compared with the absorption frequencies of the PAHs Chrysene, Pyrene, and Coronene. The laser excited 3.3 micron emission spectrum is presented from a gas phase PAH (azulen). The infrared fluorescence theory (IRF) is briefly explained, followed by a description of the experimental apparatus, a report of the results, and discussion.

  5. PAHs and nitrated PAHs in air of five European countries determined using SPMDs as passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderström, Hanna; Hajšlová, Jana; Kocourek, Vladimir; Siegmund, Barbara; Kocan, Anton; Obiedzinski, Mieczys?aw W.; Tysklind, Mats; Bergqvist, Per-Anders

    The gas phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in the atmosphere of five European countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Sweden) were measured simultaneously during two 21-day passive sampling campaigns using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). SPMD samplers, consisting of a pair of SPMDs covered by a metal umbrella, were deployed at 40 locations ranging from remote and rural to urban and industrial, at a similar time during each of the two sampling campaigns (autumn 1999, except in Poland, winter 1999, and summer 2000). The total amounts of PAHs and nitro-PAHs found in the SPMDs ranged between 5.0-1.2×10 3 and 1.1×10 -3-4.0 ng SPMD -1 day -1, respectively. The measured environmental sampling conditions were similar between sites and, thus, the variations in the SPMD data reflected the spatial differences in gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs within and between countries. The gas phase concentrations of nitro-PAHs and PAHs found in East Europe (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland 1999) were 10 times higher than those measured in Sweden, Austria and Poland in 2000. In each country, the levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs differed by one-three orders of magnitudes amongst sampling sites. The highest within-country spatial differences were found in Poland where levels of PAHs and nitro-PAHs were about one and two orders of magnitudes, respectively, higher in winter 1999 than in summer 2000, probably due to increasing emissions of coal combustion for residential heating. Differences in PAH-patterns between sites were visualized by the multivariate projection method, principal component analysis (PCA). However, no specific source patterns were found, probably since imissions rather than emissions were measured, so the PAHs detected at many sites originated from multiple sources.

  6. Theoretical evaluation of PAH dications properties

    E-print Network

    G. Malloci; C. Joblin; G. Mulas

    2006-09-25

    Aims. We present a systematic theoretical study on 40 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dications (PAHs++) containing up to 66 carbon atoms. Methods. We performed our calculations using well established quantum-chemical techniques in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) to obtain the electronic ground-state properties, and of the time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) to evaluate the excited\\textendash state properties. Results. For each PAH++ considered we computed the absolute visible-UV photo-absorption cross-section up to about 30 eV. We also evaluated their vibrational properties and compared them to those of the corresponding neutral and singly-ionised species. We estimated the adiabatic and vertical second ionisation energy DeltaI through total energy differences. Conclusions. The DeltaI values obtained fall in the energy range 8-13 eV, confirming that PAHs could reach the doubly-ionised state in HI regions. The total integrated IR absorption cross-sections show a marked increase upon ionization, being on the average about two and five times larger for PAHs++ than for PAHs+ and PAHs, respectively. The visible-UV photo-absorption cross-sections for the 0, +1 and +2 charge-states show comparable features but PAHs++ are found to absorb slightly less than their parent neutrals and singly ionized species between ~7 and ~12 eV. Combining these pieces of information we found that PAHs++ should actually be more stable against photodissociation than PAHs and PAHs+,_if_ dissociation tresholds are nearly unchanged by ionization.

  7. Concentration and photochemistry of PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs and toxicity of PM2.5 during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Jariyasopit, Narumol; Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling; Tao, Shu; Yu, Tian-Wei; Dashwood, Roderick H; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2011-08-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter with diameter <2.5 um (PM(2.5)) was collected at Peking University (PKU) in Beijing, China before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics and analyzed for black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), lower molecular weight (MW < 300) and MW302 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs). In addition, the direct and indirect acting mutagenicity of the PM(2.5) and the potential for DNA damage to human lung cells were also measured. Significant reductions in BC (45%), OC (31%), MW< 300 PAH (26-73%), MW 302 PAH (22-77%), NPAH (15-68%), and OPAH (25-53%) concentrations were measured during the source control and Olympic periods. However, the mutagenicity of the PM(2.5) was significantly reduced only during the Olympic period. The PAH, NPAH, and OPAH composition of the PM(2.5) was similar throughout the study, suggesting similar sources during the different periods. During the source control period, the parent PAH concentrations were correlated with NO, CO, and SO(2) concentrations, indicating that these PAHs were associated with both local and regional emissions. However, the NPAH and OPAH concentrations were only correlated with the NO concentrations, indicating that the NPAH and OPAH were primarily associated with local emissions. The relatively high 2-nitrofluoranthene/1-nitropyrene ratio (25-46) and 2-nitrofluoranthene/2-nitropyrene ratio (3.4-4.8), suggested a predominance of photochemical formation of NPAHs through OH-radical-initiated reactions in the atmosphere. On average, the ?NPAH and ?OPAH concentrations were 8% of the parent PAH concentrations, while the direct-acting mutagenicity (due to the NPAH and OPAH) was 200% higher than the indirect-acting mutagenicity (due to the PAH). This suggests that NPAH and OPAH make up a significant portion of the overall mutagenicity of PM(2.5) in Beijing. PMID:21766847

  8. Composition, sources, and potential toxicology of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils in Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiu Feng; Liu, Miao; Song, Yu Fang; Ackland, M Leigh

    2013-03-01

    Surface soil (0-20 cm) samples (n?=?143) were collected from vegetable, maize, and paddy farmland used for commercial crops in Liaoning, China. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed in US Environmental Protection Agency were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The soil concentrations of the 16 PAH ranged from 50 to 3,309 ng/g with a mean of 388 ng/g. The highest concentration of total PAHs found in soil of the vegetable farmland was 448 ng/g in average, followed by maize and paddy with total PAHs of 391 and 331 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the low molecular weight PAHs were more predominant than the high molecular weight PAHs in most of the soils. The evaluation of soil PAH contamination based on the Canadian criterion indicated that only naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were over the target values in several sampling sites. Isomer pair ratios and principal component analysis indicated that biomass and coal combustion were the main sources of PAHs in this area. And the average value of total B[a]Peq concentration in vegetable soils was higher than paddy and maize soils. We suggest that biomass burning should be abolished and commercial farming should be carried out far from the highways to ensure the safety of food products derived from commercial farming. PMID:22707148

  9. PAH Emission Within Lyman Alpha Blobs

    E-print Network

    Colbert, James W; Teplitz, Harry; Francis, Paul; Palunas, Povilas; Williger, Gerard M; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of Lya Blobs (LAB) at z=2.38-3.09. The mid-infrared ratios (4.5/8um and 8/24um) indicate that ~60% of LAB infrared counterparts are cool, consistent with their infrared output being dominated by star formation and not active galactic nuclei (AGN). The rest have a substantial hot dust component that one would expect from an AGN or an extreme starburst. Comparing the mid-infrared to submillimeter fluxes (~850um or rest frame far infrared) also indicates a large percentage (~2/3) of the LAB counterparts have total bolometric energy output dominated by star formation, although the number of sources with sub-mm detections or meaningful upper limits remains small (~10). We obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 6 infrared-bright sources associated with LABs. Four of these sources have measurable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, indicative of significant star formation, while the remaining two show a featureless continuum, indicative of infrared energy...

  10. PAHs in the Halo of NGC 5529

    E-print Network

    J. A. Irwin; H. Kennedy; T. Parkin; S. Madden

    2007-08-28

    We present sensitive ISO $\\lambda 6.7 \\mu$m observations of the edge-on galaxy, NGC 5529, finding an extensive MIR halo around NGC 5529. The emission is dominated by PAHs in this band. The PAH halo has an exponential scale height of 3.7 kpc but can still be detected as far as $\\approx 10$ kpc from the plane to the limits of the high dynamic range (1770/1) data. This is the most extensive PAH halo yet detected in a normal galaxy. This halo shows substructure and the PAHs likely originate from some type of disk outflow. PAHs are long-lived in a halo environment and therefore continuous replenishment from the disk is not required (unless halo PAHs are also being destroyed or removed), consistent with the current low SFR of the galaxy. The PAHs correlate spatially with halo H$\\alpha$ emission, previously observed by Miller & Veilleux (2003); both components are likely excited/ionized by in-disk photons that are leaking into the halo. The presence of halo gas may be related to the environment of NGC 5529 which contains at least 17 galaxies in a small group of which NGC 5529 is the dominant member. Of these, we have identified two new companions from the SDSS.

  11. SOA Formation from Photooxidation of Individual PAHs and Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. L.; Kacarab, M.; Tang, P.; Cocker, D. R., III

    2014-12-01

    Individual SOA experiments on PAHs such as naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes were conducted at the UCR CE-CERT environmental chamber. Measurements were made with a suite of instrumentation that includes HR-ToF-AMS, VTDMA, and APM-SMPS to comprehensively understand the chemical composition characteristics, volatility and density of particles. Our results indicated that the SOA yield from PAHs is large and the elemental and chemical composition analysis of HR-ToF-AMS revealed that oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) increases with oxidation time and also suggested that the SOA from these three PAHs are mostly low volatility OOA. The density of aerosol formed from 1-methylnaphthalene photooxidation under high NOx condition was observed to decrease from 1.5 g/cm3 to 0.7 g/cm3 during the course of experiment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of 1-methylnaphthalene SOA showed that the SOA coagulated after 5~6 hours photooxidation to form fractal-like particles. The sensitivity of SOA formation to varying HC mixtures is further explored. Serial mixtures of PAHs photooxidation experiments were conducted, including naphthalene, 1-methylnapthalene, 2-methylnaphtalene with m-xylene, and/or the surrogate mixture used to develop the Carter O3 reactivity scales. Preliminary results show that the SOA formation from m-xylene and naphthalene mixture photooxidation was found to be suppressed by m-xylene, and the volatility measured as volume remaining fraction (VRF) of the m-xylene and naphthalene mixture increases from 0.2 to 0.4, which indicates the volatility of mixture SOA is dominated by m-xylene SOA.

  12. Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest Photon Dominated Region of NGC 7023. II. Traditional PAH Analysis Using k-means as a Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2014-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is analyzed using the "traditional" approach in which the PAH bands and plateaus between 5.2-19.5 ?m are isolated by subtracting the underlying continuum and removing H2 emission lines. The spectra are organized into seven spectroscopic bins by using k-means clustering. Each cluster corresponds to, and reveals, a morphological zone within NGC 7023. The zones self-organize parallel to the well-defined PDR front that coincides with an increase in intensity of the H2 emission lines. PAH band profiles and integrated strengths are measured, classified, and mapped. The morphological zones revealed by the k-means clustering provides deeper insight into the conditions that drive variations in band strength ratios and evolution of the PAH population that otherwise would be lost. For example, certain band-band relations are bifurcated, revealing two limiting cases; one associated with the PDR, the other with the diffuse medium. Traditionally, PAH band strength ratios are used to gain insight into the properties of the emitting PAH population, i.e., charge, size, structure, and composition. Insights inferred from this work are compared and contrasted to those from Boersma et al. (first paper in this series), where the PAH emission in NGC 7023 is decomposed exclusively using the PAH spectra and tools made available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database.

  13. The PAH Emission Deficit In Low-Metallicity Galaxies - A Spitzer View

    E-print Network

    B. O'Halloran; S. Satyapal; R. P. Dudik

    2005-12-15

    Archival observations of 18 starburst galaxies that span a wide range in metallicity reveal for the first time a correlation between the ratio of emission line fluxes of [FeII] at 26 microns and [NeII] at 12.8 microns and the 7.7 micron PAH strength, with the [FeII]/[NeII] flux ratio decreasing with increasing PAH strength. We also find a strong correlation between the [FeII]/[NeII] flux ratio and the host galaxy metallicity, with the flux ratio decreasing with increasing metallicity. Since [FeII] emission has been linked primarily to supernova shocks, we attribute the high [FeII]/[NeII] ratios in low-metallicity galaxies to enhanced supernova activity. We consider this to be a dominant mechanism for PAH destruction, rather than grain destruction in photoionized regions surrounding young massive stars. We also consider whether the extreme youth of the low-metallicity galaxies is responsible for the lack of PAH emission.

  14. Tracing PAHs and Warm Dust Emission in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    E-print Network

    Justin H. Howell; Joseph M. Mazzarella; Ben H. P. Chan; Steven Lord; Jason A. Surace; David T. Frayer; P. N. Appleton; Lee Armus; Aaron S. Evans; Greg Bothun; Catherine M. Ishida; Dong-Chan Kim; Joseph B. Jensen; Barry F. Madore; David B. Sanders; Bernhard Schulz; Tatjana Vavilkin; Sylvain Veilleux; Kevin Xu

    2007-07-23

    We present a study of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 using mid- and far- infrared data acquired with the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The images show extensive 8 um and 24 um emission coinciding with star formation in the inner spiral approximately 15" (1 kpc) from the nucleus, and a bright complex of star formation 47" (3 kpc) SW of the nucleus. The brightest 8 um PAH emission regions coincide remarkably well with knots observed in an Halpha image. Strong PAH features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 um are detected in IRS spectra measured at numerous locations inside, within, and outside the inner spiral. The IRAC colors and IRS spectra of these regions rule out dust heated by the AGN as the primary emission source; the SEDs are dominated by starlight and PAH emission. The equivalent widths and flux ratios of the PAH features in the inner spiral are generally consistent with conditions in a typical spiral galaxy ISM. Interior to the inner spiral, the influence of the AGN on the ISM is evident via PAH flux ratios indicative of a higher ionization parameter and a significantly smaller mean equivalent width than observed in the inner spiral. The brightest 8 and 24 um emission peaks in the disk of the galaxy, even at distances beyond the inner spiral, are located within the ionization cones traced by [O III]/Hbeta, and they are also remarkably well aligned with the axis of the radio jets. Although it is possible that radiation from the AGN may directly enhance PAH excitation or trigger the formation of OB stars that subsequently excite PAH emission at these locations in the inner spiral, the orientation of collimated radiation from the AGN and star formation knots in the inner spiral could be coincidental. (abridged)

  15. PAHs in the Ría de Arousa (NW Spain): A consideration of PAHs sources and abundance.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Begoña; Viñas, Lucía; Franco, M Ángeles; Bargiela, Jesica

    2015-06-15

    Analysis of 35 parental and alkylated homologues of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) was carried out in eleven marine sediment samples collected along a central transect in the biggest Galician ría. The samples were collected using a box-core dredge and, after freeze-drying, were kept frozen until analysis. The sediments were extracted by PLE (Pressurized Liquid Extraction) procedure and the quantification of PAHs was performed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with the aid of deuterated PAH internal standards. The total concentration of studied PAHs (?35PAHs) ranged from 44.8 to 7901ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.). The highest PAH concentrations were found in sediments collected near the harbour (7901ngg(-1)) and the cleanest positions were located in the outer zone of the ría. To date, these results are the first data presented in the area so they could be used for regular monitoring and control of future pollution episodes. PMID:25960270

  16. Decision Making for Borderline Cases in Pass/Fail Clinical Anatomy Courses: The Practical Value of the Standard Error of Measurement and Likelihood Ratio in a Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severo, Milton; Silva-Pereira, Fernanda; Ferreira, Maria Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the standard error of measurement (SEM) can be used as an additional “safety net” to reduce the frequency of false-positive or false-negative student grading classifications. Practical examinations in clinical anatomy are often used as diagnostic tests to admit students to course final examinations. The aim of this…

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subcutaneous biopsies of Mediterranean cetaceans

    E-print Network

    Hahn, Mark E.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in subcutaneous biopsies of Mediterranean cetaceans Letizia Abstract The aim of the present study was to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in free. A ®ngerprint of 14 PAHs was obtained for both species. In whales, the median value of total PAHs was 1970 ppb

  18. Isolation of adherent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria using PAH-sorbing carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Bastiaens, L.; Springael, D.; Wattiau, P.; Harms, H.; DeWachter, R.; Verachtert, H.; Diels, L.

    2000-05-01

    Two different procedures were compared to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-utilizing bacteria from PAH-contaminated soil and sludge samples, i.e., (i) shaken enrichment cultures in liquid mineral medium in which PAHs were supplied as crystals and (ii) a new method in which PAH degraders were enriched on and recovered from hydrophobic membranes containing sorbed PAHs. Both techniques were successful, but selected from the same source different bacterial strains able to grow on PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy. The liquid enrichment mainly selected for Sphingomonas spp., whereas the membrane method exclusively led to the selection of Mycobacterium spp. Furthermore, in separate membrane enrichment set-ups with different membrane types, three repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR-related Mycobacterium strains were recovered. The new Mycobactereium isolates were strongly hydrophobic and displayed the capacity to adhere strongly to different surfaces. One strain, Mycobacterium sp. LB501T, displayed an unusual combination of high adhesion efficiency and an extremely high negative charge. This strain may represent a new bacterial species as suggested by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These results indicate that the provision of hydrophobic sorbents containing sorbed PAHs in the enrichment procedure discriminated in favor of certain bacterial characteristics. The new isolation method is appropriate to select for adherent PAH-degrading bacteria, which might be useful to biodegrade sorbed PAHs in soils and sludge.

  19. Metabolomic analysis to define and compare the effects of PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Elie, Marc R; Choi, Jaewoo; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M; Gonnerman, Gregory D; Stevens, Jan F; Tanguay, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives are ubiquitously present in diesel exhaust, atmospheric particulate matter and soils sampled in urban areas. Therefore, inhalation or non-dietary ingestion of both PAHs and oxy-PAHs are major routes of exposure for people; especially young children living in these localities. While there has been extensive research on the parent PAHs, limited studies exist on the biological effects of oxy-PAHs which have been shown to be more soluble and more mobile in the environment. Additionally, investigations comparing the metabolic responses resulting from parent PAHs and oxy-PAHs exposures have not been reported. To address these current gaps, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted to examine the in vivo metabolomic profiles of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 4µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and pathway analyses, a total of 63 metabolites were significantly altered after 5 days of exposure. The marked perturbations revealed that both BAA and BAQ affect protein biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, neural development, vascular development and cardiac function. Our previous transcriptomic and genomic data were incorporated in this metabolomics study to provide a more comprehensive view of the relationship between PAH and oxy-PAH exposures on vertebrate development. PMID:26001975

  20. PAH in the laboratory and interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The theory that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a constituent of the interstellar medium, and a source of the IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns is being studied using PAH containing acid insoluble residue of the Orgueil CI meteorite and coal tar. FTIR spectra of Orgueil PAH material that has undergone thermal treatment, and a solvent insoluble fraction of coal tar that has been exposed to hydrogen plasma are presented. The UV excided luminescence spectrum of a solvent soluble coal tar film is also shown. Comparison of the lab measurements with observations appears to support the interstellar PAH theory, and shows the process of dehydrogenation expected to take place in the interstellar medium.

  1. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (...

  2. Supplementary Material for1 "PAH Concentrations Simulated with AURAMS-PAH over Canada and the USA"3

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary Material for1 2 "PAH Concentrations Simulated with AURAMS-PAH over Canada and the USA.galarneau@ec.gc.ca, Telephone: 1-416-739-443110 11 12 13 Table of Contents14 15 1. AURAMS-PAH Model Parameters16 17 2. Network and Station Information for Measurement Data Sources18 19 3. Maps of Modelled Annual Average PAH

  3. PAH Emission in the Orion Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Sloan, G. C.

    1996-01-01

    The emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the Orion Bar region is investigated using a combination of narrow-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. The goal was to study how the strength of the PAH bands vary with spatial position in this edge-on photo-dissociation region. The specific focus here is how these variations constrain the carrier of the 3.4 micron band.

  4. Mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. BIIATT; T. Cajthaml; V. Šašek

    2002-01-01

    Out of a number of white-rot fungal cultures, strains ofIrpex lacteus andPleurotus ostreatus were selected for degradation of 7 three- and four-ring unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in two contaminated industrial\\u000a soils. Respective data for removal of PAH in the two industrial soils byI. lacteus were: fluorene (41 and 67%), phenanthrene (20 and 56%), anthracene (29 and 49%), fluoranthene (29 and

  5. Mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, M; Cajthaml, T; Sasek, V

    2002-01-01

    Out of a number of white-rot fungal cultures, strains of Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus were selected for degradation of 7 three- and four-ring unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in two contaminated industrial soils. Respective data for removal of PAH in the two industrial soils by I. lacteus were: fluorene (41 and 67%), phenanthrene (20 and 56%), anthracene (29 and 49%), fluoranthene (29 and 57%), pyrene (24 and 42%), chrysene (16 and 32%) and benzo[a]anthracene (13 and 20%). In the same two industrial soils P. ostreatus degraded the PAH with respective removal figures of fluorene (26 and 35%), phenanthrene (0 and 20%), anthracene (19 and 53%), fluoranthene (29 and 31%), pyrene (22 and 42%), chrysene (0 and 42%) and benzo[a]anthracene (0 and 13%). The degradation of PAH was determined against concentration of PAH in non-treated contaminated soils after 14 weeks of incubation. The fungal degradation of PAH in soil was studied simultaneously with ecotoxicity evaluation of fungal treated and non-treated contaminated soils. Compared to non-treated contaminated soil, fungus-treated soil samples indicated decrease in inhibition of bioluminescence in luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischerii) and increase in germinated mustard (Brassica alba) seeds. PMID:12094734

  6. Computational Study of the Thermodynamics of Atmospheric Nitration of PAHs via OH-Radical-Initiated Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jariyasopit, N.; Cheong, P.; Simonich, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are an important class of PAH derivatives that are more toxic than their parent PAHs (1) and are emitted from direct emission and secondary emission to the atmosphere. The secondary emissions, particularly the OH-radical initiated and NO3-radical-initiated reactions, have been shown to influence the NPAH concentrations in the atmosphere. Gas-phase reactions are thought to be the major sources of NPAHs containing four or fewer rings (2). Besides NPAHs, PAHs lead to a number of other products including oxygenated, hydroxy substituted and ring-opened PAH derivatives (3). For some PAHs, the OH-initiated and NO3-initiated reactions result in the formation of different NPAH isomers, allowing the ratio of these isomers to be used in the determination of direct or secondary emission sources. Previous studies have shown that the PAH gas-phase reactions with OH radical is initiated by the addition of OH radical to the aromatic ring to form hydroxycyclohexadienyl radicals (4). In the presence of NO2, these reactive intermediates readily nitrate with the elimination of water (4). The hydroxycyclohexadienyl-type radical intermediates are also prone to react with other species in the atmosphere or revert back to the original compound (3). The objective of this study was to investigate the thermodynamics of PAH nitration through day-time OH-radical-initiated reactions. The theoretical investigation were carried out using Density Functioanl Theory (B3LYP) and the 6-31G(d) basis set, as implemented in Gaussian03. A number of different PAHs were studied including fluoranthene, pyrene, as well as the molecular weight 302 PAHs such as dibenzo[a,l]pyrene. Computations were also used to predict unknown NPAHs formed by OH-radical-initiated reaction. All intermediates for the OH-radical addition and the following nitration were computed. We have discovered that the thermodynamic stability of the intermediates involved in the PAH oxygenation and nitration pathways are critical in explaining the atmospheric abundances of NPAHs. Specifically, we have found that the experimentally most abundant species had the most stable intermediates. Interestingly, the overall free energy of reaction was not a factor in determining the relative abundances of NPAHs.

  7. Source apportionment and source/sink relationships of PAHs in the coastal atmosphere of Chicago and Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcik, Matt F.; Eisenreich, Steven J.; Lioy, Paul J.

    Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate source apportionment and source/sink relationships for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban and adjacent coastal atmosphere of Chicago/Lake Michigan in 1994-1995. The PAH signatures for the atmospheric particle phase, surface water particle phase and sediments indicate that atmospheric deposition is the major source of PAHs to the sediments and water column particulate phase of Lake Michigan. The PAH signature for the atmospheric gas phase and water dissolved phase indicate an intimate linkage between the lake and its overlying atmosphere. A modified factor analysis-multiple regression model was successfully applied to the source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs (gas+particle). Coal combustion accounted for 48±5% of the ?PAH concentration in both the urban and adjacent coastal atmosphere, natural gas combustion accounted for 26±2%, coke ovens accounted for 14±3%, and vehicle emissions (gas+diesel) accounted for 9±4%. Each is an identified source category for the region. These results are consistent with the mix of fossil fuel combustion sources and ratios of indicator PAHs.

  8. Nitro-PAH compounds in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilia, R.; Cecinato, A.; Tomasi Scianò, M. C.; Vasconcellos, P.; Carvalho, L.; Mathos, L.; Franco, L.

    2003-04-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) are the chemical class with potent mutagenic compounds. These species are emitted from a wide range of combustion sources. Some compounds can be formed photo chemically via reactions of their parents PAH with OH or NO_3 radicals (in the presence of NO_2) in the gas phase as well as N_2O_5 or HNO_3 when parent PAH is associated with aerosols. In the tropics, an important source of particulate PAH and nitro-PAH is biomass burning used for clearings in forest and for making easier the harvesting of sugar cane. Brazil owns 25% of global sugar cane and is the major producer in the world. This burning produces soot, which remains for along time in the air and can cause respiratory diseases. This study was conducted in 3 cities in São Paulo State during sugar cane burning episodes. Back trajectories were calculated by University of São Paulo Trajectory Model for determination of air parcel trajectories over the sites. Atmospheric samples were collected on quartz fiber filters for 24 hours in high-volume sampler during one week. A Soxhlet apparatus filled with methylene chloride was used for extracting the filters. This residue was submitted to HPLC separation and the 3 obtained fractions (n-alkanes, PAH and nitro-PAH) were analyzed by both gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection. The isomers 2-, 3-, 8-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene were identified and results show large differences between the sites. 2-nitropyrene/2-nitrofluoranthene ratios were calculated indicating the daytime reactions promoted by OH radicals.

  9. PAHs And Parking Lots: A Field Study on PAHs Exported From Sealed and Unsealed Parking

    E-print Network

    PAHs And Parking Lots: A Field Study on PAHs Exported From Sealed and Unsealed Parking Lots higher near sealed lots ­ guilt by association? Barton Springs, Austin Tx #12;Current Status Coal tar experiment Lot C - No sealant (9 acres) Lot A - Sealed (0.3 acre) Primary UNHSC Field Site Lot B - Sealed (0

  10. PAHs And Parking Lots: A Field Study on PAHs Exported From Sealed and Unsealed Parking

    E-print Network

    PAHs And Parking Lots: A Field Study on PAHs Exported From Sealed and Unsealed Parking Lots. Concentrations in creek Higher near sealed lots ­ guilt by association? Barton Springs, Austin Tx #12;Current Lot C - No sealant (9 acres) Lot A - Sealed (0.3 acre) Primary UNHSC Field Site Lot B - Sealed (0

  11. HELIOS: A helium line-ratio spectral-monitoring diagnostic used to generate high resolution profiles near the ion cyclotron resonant heating antenna on TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Unterberg, E. A.; Fehling, D. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Hillis, D. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Schmitz, O. [Insitut fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Stoschus, H. [Insitut fuer Energieforschung-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52428 Juelich (Germany); Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-0117 (United States); Munoz-Burgos, J. M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-0117 (United States); Van Wassenhove, G. [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association EURATOM-Belgian State, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Radial profiles of electron temperature and density are measured at high spatial ({approx}1 mm) and temporal ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 10 {mu}s) resolution using a thermal supersonic helium jet. A highly accurate detection system is applied to well-developed collisional-radiative model codes to produce the profiles. Agreement between this measurement and an edge Thomson scattering measurement is found to be within the error bars ( Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 20%). The diagnostic is being used to give profiles near the ion cyclotron resonant heating antenna on TEXTOR to better understand RF coupling to the core.

  12. Loading and removal of PAHs in a wastewater treatment plant in a separated sewer system.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Kojima, Keisuke; Kindaichi, Tomonori

    2015-09-01

    The loading and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured and estimated in a wastewater treatment plant in a separated sewer system in a suburban area of Japan. The influent 16 PAHs concentration was 219 ± 210 ng L(-1), whereas the effluent concentration was 43.5 ± 42.5 ng L(-1) (mean ± sd). No clear diurnal or weekly fluctuation was observed. However, evaluation of long-term changes revealed PAH fluctuations continuing for more than 1 week. Half of the PAHs (63%) were biologically or chemically transformed, or vaporized in the treatment plant, while the remainder were discharged with effluent (28%) and excess sludge (9%). Measurement of the per capita loading of the treatment plant revealed values of 142 ± 53 and 28 ± 11 ?g person(-1)day(-1) (mean ± 95% confidence interval) for influent and effluent, respectively. Isomer ratio analysis revealed that the PAHs originated from a mixture of petroleum, petroleum combustion, and burning of biomass residues. PMID:26026633

  13. Abundances of Neutral and Ionized PAH Along The Lines-of-Sight of Diffuse and Translucent Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, Gazinur; Krewloski, Jacek; Biennier, Ludovic; Beletsky, Yuri; Song, In-Ok

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with a set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of neutral PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of the laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic jet expansion with discharge plasma and cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual PAH molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of the laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear conclusions regarding the expected abundances for PAHs in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized PAHs in the optical range open the way for quantitative searches of PAHs and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.

  14. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension: modern diagnostics and therapy--Part 1].

    PubMed

    Betkier-Lipi?ska, Katarzyna; Ryczek, Robert; Kwasiborski, Przemys?aw; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) belongs to the group of rare diseases and the morbidity rate is 15 to 50 people per million per year. Before the era of specific treatment of PAH, the prognosis was poor. The average life expectancy of the patients was 2.8 years. However, in the last years there has been a breakthrough in treating the patients with PAH. The introduction of this specific treatment has prolonged the life and improved the quality of it within the group of the patients with PAH. In Poland, since 2008 the therapy has been organized by the Pulmonary Hypertension Therapeutic Program. PAH is a recognition done by excluding more probable causes of pulmonary hypertension (PH) such as: PH due to left heart disease and lung disease, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and PH with multifactorial mechanisms. The clinical symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are non-specific, they develop for a several months and they are mainly caused by progressive right ventricular failure. The base of PAH recognition is echocardiography, which indirectly estimates the pulmonary artery systolic pressure. However, the golden standard of PAH diagnostics is right heart catheterization (RHC) with measurements of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), right atrial pressure (RAP), right ventricular pressure and pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP). The early PAH recognition and the correct classification of patients to the treatment organized by the Pulmonary Hypertension Therapeutic Program give them a chance for longer and more comfortable life. PMID:23882936

  15. Critical Soil Zinc Deficiency Concentration and Tissue Iron: Zinc Ratio as a Diagnostic Tool for Prediction of Zinc Deficiency in Corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zare; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Norouzi; R. Schulin

    2009-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) fertilizer application is most economic if based on soil test and plant analysis information. The aim of this study was to determine the soil test [diethylenetrinitrilopentaacetate (DTPA) and ethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (EDTA) extractable] Zn-critical levels and tissue Fe\\/Zn ratio for corn (Zea mays L.). A greenhouse experiment with 12 soil series and two Zn fertilizer treatments (0 and 15

  16. [Delivery and release of sediment PAHs during resuspension].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Bi, Chun-Juan; Han, Jing-Chao

    2014-06-01

    The resuspension of sediment after being disturbed is simulated by particle entrainment simulator (PES). The conclusions came out as follows. Sediment nature like granulometric composition and sediment PAHs richness markedly affected the release of PAHs. During the resuspension experiment, the total suspended solids (TSS) content of the overlying water showed significant correlation with particulate PAHs. The influence of the shear stress on the release of PAHs was reflected on two aspects. On one hand, its increase was accompanied with the increase of particulate PAHs. On the other hand, the PAHs enrichment effect of TSS decreased with the increase in the shear stress, since the stronger shear stress could draw more coarse particles with fewer PAHs into overlying water. The total PAHs in the overlying water continued to raise before stabilization at 120 min or 240 min. The particulate PAHs and dissolved PAHs answered each other very well. The release behavior among PAHs of different weight varied significantly. Due to the hydrophobic property of heavy weight PAHs, PAHs detected in overlying water were mostly 3-ring or 4-ring. PMID:25158494

  17. On the driving force of PAH production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, Michael

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic factors affecting the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in high-temperature pyrolysis and combustion environments are analyzed. A lumped kinetic model representing polymerization-type growth by one irreversible step and two reversible steps is considered. It is shown that at high temperatures, PAH growth is controlled by the superequilibrium of hydrogen atoms; at low temperatures and low H2 concentrations, the PAH growth rate is proportional to the rate of the H-abstraction of a hydrogen atom from aromatic molecules; while at low temperatures and high H2 concentrations, it is controlled by the thermodynamics of the H-abstraction and the kinetics of acetylene addition to aromatic radicals. The presence of oxygen mainly affects the small-molecule reactions during the induction period.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (alkyl-PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-PAHs, 15 oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ?29PAHs, ?4AZAs, ?15OPAHs, and ?11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885ngg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118ngg(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192gmol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived PAHs and retene, etc.), indicated that PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an. PMID:25543159

  19. Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical soil profile. Results of this study highlight advantages and limitations of CSIA of PAHs in environmental forensics studies and confirm the potential of this technique for deciphering new degradation pathways of lighter PAHs.

  20. Exposure and Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    St. Helen, Gideon; Goniewicz, Maciej L.; Dempsey, Delia; Wilson, Margaret; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2012-01-01

    Study objectives were (1) to investigate the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites for tobacco smoke exposure, and (2) to determine half-lives of PAH metabolites in smokers. There were 622 participants from the United States (US) and Poland, and of these 70% were smokers. All subjects provided spot urine samples and 125 smokers provided blood samples. Urinary PAH metabolite half-lives were determined in 8 smokers. In controlled hospital studies of 18 smokers, the associations between various measures of nicotine intake and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites were investigated. Plasma nicotine was measured by GC. LC-MS/MS was used to measure the plasma levels of cotinine and trans-3?-hydroxycotinine, and urine levels of nicotine and its metabolites, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 1-, 2- and 3-hydroxyfluorenes, 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes, and 1-hydroxypyrene). Regardless of smoking status, PAH metabolite excretion was higher in Polish subjects than in US subjects (p-values<0.001). 1-Hydroxyfluorene exhibited the greatest difference between smokers and non-smokers, with a 5-fold difference in Polish subjects and a 25-fold difference in US subjects, followed by 3- and 2-hydroxyfluorenes, 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. The differences for hydroxyphenanthrenes were small or non-significant. 1-Hydroxyfluorene had the highest correlation with urine nicotine equivalents (r=0.77) and urine NNAL (r=0.64). While the half-lives of PAH metabolites were <10 h in smokers, 1-hydroxyfluorene had the largest ratio of initial to terminal urine concentration (58.4±38.6, mean±SD) after smoking. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis of PAHs among Polish and US subjects further showed that hydroxyfluorenes are most highly discriminative of smokers from nonsmokers followed by 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene. In conclusion, hydroxyfluorenes, particularly 1-hydroxyfluorene, and 2-naphthol are more selective of tobacco smoke than 1-hydroxypyrene and hydroxyphenanthrenes. Characterization of hydroxyfluorene and 2-naphthol metabolites in urine may improve the characterization of PAHs from tobacco smoke and related disease risks among smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:22428611

  1. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  2. Secondary effects of catalytic diesel particulate filters: conversion of PAHs versus formation of nitro-PAHs.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Gujer, Erika; Zennegg, Markus; Wenger, Daniela; Wichser, Adrian; Ulrich, Andrea; Gfeller, Urs; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Petermann, Jean-Luc; Czerwinski, Jan; Mosimann, Thomas; Kasper, Markus; Mayer, Andreas

    2008-05-15

    Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are a promising technology to detoxify diesel exhaust. However, the secondary combustion of diesel soot and associated compounds may also induce the formation of new pollutants. Diesel soot is rated as carcinogenic to humans and also acts as a carrier for a variety of genotoxic compounds such as certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs). Furthermore, diesel exhaust contains considerable amounts of nitric oxide (NO), which can be converted to more powerful nitrating species like nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), and others. This mix of compounds may support nitration reactions in DPFs. Herein we report effects of two cordierite-based, monolithic, wall-flow DPFs on emissions of genotoxic PAHs and nitro-PAHs and compare these findings with those of a reporter gene bioassay sensitive to aryl hydrocarbons (AHs). Soot combustion was either catalyzed with an iron- or a copper/iron-based fuel additive (fuel-borne catalysts). A heavy duty diesel engine, operated according to the 8-stage ISO 8178/4 C1 cycle, was used as test platform. Emissions of all investigated 4- to 6-ring PAHs were reduced by about 40-90%, including those rated as carcinogenic. Emissions of 1- and 2-nitronaphthalene increased by about 20-100%. Among the 3-ring nitro-PAHs, emissions of 3-nitrophenanthrene decreased by about 30%, whereas 9-nitrophenanthrene and 9-nitroanthracene were found only after DPFs. In case of 4-ring nitro-PAHs, emissions of 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1-nitropyrene, and 4-nitropyrene decreased by about 40-60% with DPFs. Total AH-receptor (AHR) agonist concentrations of diesel exhaust were lowered by 80-90%, when using the iron- and copper-based DPFs. The tested PAHs accounted for < 1% of the total AHR-mediated response, indicating that considerable amounts of other aryl hydrocarbons must be present in filtered and unfiltered exhaust. We conclude that both DPFs detoxified diesel exhaust with respect to total aryl hydrocarbons, including the investigated carcinogenic PAHs, but we also noticed a secondary formation of selected nitro-PAHs. Nitration reactions were found to be stereoselective with a preferential substitution of hydrogen atoms at peri-positions. The stereoisomers obtained are related to combustion chemistry, but differ from those formed upon atmospheric nitration of PAHs. PMID:18546721

  3. Effect of sorption and substrate pattern on PAH degradability

    SciTech Connect

    Ressler, B.P.; Kaempf, C.; Winter, J. [Univ. Karlsruehe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The effect of sorption and the substrate pattern on the degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during bioremediation of PAH-contaminated silt in a slurry reactor was investigated. Biological degradation of high-molecular-weight PAH compounds sorbed to silt and clay particles was enhanced in the presence of low-molecular-weight PAHs. In soil suspensions containing silt contaminated with PAH compounds of different molecular weights, PAHs containing four aromatic rings were degraded more readily in the presence of naphthalene. Bioavailability of PAHs was correlated to the water solubility of different compounds; a significant limitation of bacterial growth and activity due to sorption of PAHs to the fine particles could not be observed.

  4. Thrombosis, platelets, microparticles, and PAH: More than clot

    PubMed Central

    Lannan, Katie L.; Phipps, Richard P.; White, R. James

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease that involves pathological remodeling, vasoconstriction, and thrombosis. Alterations in hemostasis, coagulation, and platelet activation are consistently observed in PAH patients. Microparticles derived from platelets, inflammatory cells, and the endothelium are an increasingly well-recognized signal in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including PAH. This review will focus on the role of coagulation, thrombosis, platelet activation, and microparticles in the pathology and progression of PAH. PMID:24747560

  5. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-07-15

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions. PMID:20307928

  6. Biodegradation aspects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Haritash; C. P. Kaushik

    2009-01-01

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical

  7. Distributed Sequestration and Release of PAHs in Weathered

    E-print Network

    Rockne, Karl J.

    Distributed Sequestration and Release of PAHs in Weathered Sediment: The Role of Sediment Structure of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated. The fractionated sediments were characterized for carbon content, pore structure, surface area, and PAH

  8. Supplementary material for: Source apportionment of elevated wintertime PAHs by

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary material for: Source apportionment of elevated wintertime PAHs by compound Contents: 5 pages Table S1. Scheme of harvested PAH from GFF and PUF extracts combined for CSRA. Table S2. PAH concentrations (ng m-3 ) in the particulate (GFF) and gas (PUF) Phases measured in Lycksele

  9. Cross-sections for Electron Capture by Interstellar PAH Cations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ballester; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2000-01-01

    There is significant evidence for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in interstellar space. They have been suggested as carriers of diffuse interstellar bands and could also play a significant role in heating the interstellar gas. Some theoretical models which incorporate PAHs must consider the charge state as an important variable. In order to help address the PAH charge

  10. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiel Cuypers; Tim Grotenhuis; Jan Joziasse; Wim Rulkens

    2000-01-01

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to residual PAH concentrations after 21 days of biodegradation. Persulfate oxidation of samples that had first been subjected to

  11. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric PAHs and OCPs in a suburban paddy field, South China: Impacts of meteorological parameters and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Qilu; Wang, Shaorui; Wang, Yujie; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-07-01

    The atmospheric contaminations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and DDTs have been extensively monitored for decades, but contaminations in agricultural paddy fields have rarely been reported. We measured the atmospheric PAH, HCH, and DDT constituents during different rice growth stages in a suburban paddy field in South China. Diurnal variations were found in the atmospheric concentrations of PAHs and HCHs, but not for DDTs. Additional nocturnal emissions and meteorological conditions, such as low nocturnal stable atmospheric boundary layers, may be mainly responsible for the higher PAH and HCH levels at night, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of PAH, HCH, and DDT constituents varied with rice growth stage, but no regular seasonal variation was found, suggesting that rice growth has no significant influence on the atmospheric concentrations of these chemicals. A correlation analysis suggested that meteorological parameters, such as temperature, precipitation, mixing layer height, or wind speed, may directly or indirectly affect the air concentrations of PAHs, HCHs, and DDTs. Source apportionment showed that atmospheric PAHs, HCHs, and DDTs in the paddy field originated from mixed sources, and the contribution of each source varied with time. The isomer ratio of fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene) may result in an invalid diagnosis of PAHs.

  12. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of selected PAH`s in sediments near a petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.R.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along a gradient from a petroleum refinery`s wastewater diffuser. These data were used to calculate the potential risk to aquatic organisms using probabilistic modeling and Monte Carlo sampling procedures. Sediment chemistry data were used in conjunction with estimates of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors and Non-Polar Narcosis Theory to predict potential risk to bivalves. Bivalves were the receptors of choice because of their lack of a well-developed enzymatic system for metabolizing PAHs. Thus, they represent a species of higher inherent risk of adverse impact. PAHs considered in this paper span a broad range of octanol-water partition coefficients. Results indicate negligible risk of narcotic effects from PAHs existing near the refinery wastewater discharge.

  13. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cladosporium sphaerospermum isolated from an aged PAH contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Potin, Olivier; Veignie, Etienne; Rafin, Catherine

    2004-12-27

    The ability of a Deuteromycete fungus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, previously isolated from soil of an aged gas manufacturing plant, to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was investigated. This strain was able to degrade PAHs in non-sterile soils (average 23%), including high molecular weight PAHs, after 4 weeks of incubation. In a microcosm experiment, PAH depletion was clearly correlated to fungal establishment. In liquid culture, this strain degraded rapidly benzo(a)pyrene during its early exponential phase of growth (18% after 4 days of incubation). Among extracellular ligninolytic enzyme activities tested, only laccase activity was detected in liquid culture in the absence or in presence of benzo(a)pyrene. C. sphaerospermum might be a potential candidate for an effective bioremediation of aged PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:16329856

  14. PAH EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposures to 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 9 children, ages 2-5 yr, were measured over 48 hr at day care and at home. Sampled media included indoor and outdoor air, floor dust, outdoor play area soil, hand surface, and solid and liquid food. Urine samples ...

  15. PAHs And Parking Lots: A Field Study on PAHs Exported From Sealed and Unsealed Parking

    E-print Network

    PAHs And Parking Lots: A Field Study on PAHs Exported From Sealed and Unsealed Parking Lots - No sealant (9 acres) Lot A - Sealed (0.3 acre) Primary UNHSC Field Site Lot B - Sealed (0.25 acre) #12 2010 3.08 51.2 58.3 27.8 1.58 95.7 89.6 9.96 #12;10 4% of surface sealed 109-162 mg/kg (Gravel Wetland

  16. Isomer distributions of molecular weight 247 and 273 nitro-PAHs in ambient samples, NIST diesel SRM, and from radical-initiated chamber reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Kathryn; Atkinson, Roger; Arey, Janet; Kojima, Yuki; Inazu, Koji

    2012-08-01

    Molecular weight (mw) 247 nitrofluoranthenes and nitropyrenes and mw 273 nitrotriphenylenes (NTPs), nitrobenz[a]anthracenes, and nitrochrysenes were quantified in ambient particles collected in Riverside, CA, Tokyo, Japan, and Mexico City, Mexico. 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL) was the most abundant nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) in Riverside and Mexico City, and the mw 273 nitro-PAHs were observed in lower concentrations. However, in Tokyo concentrations of 1- + 2-NTP were more similar to that of 2-NFL. NIST SRM 1975 diesel extract standard reference material was also analyzed to examine nitro-PAH isomer distributions, and 12-nitrobenz[a]anthracene was identified for the first time. The atmospheric formation pathways of nitro-PAHs were studied from chamber reactions of fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene with OH and NO3 radicals at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with the PAH concentrations being controlled by their vapor pressures. Sampling media were spiked with deuterated PAH to examine heterogeneous nitration. Comparing specific nitro-PAH ratios in ambient and diesel particles with those from our chamber experiments suggests that the low 2-NFL/NTPs ratios in Tokyo particulate matter are not a result of gas-phase radical-initiated chemistry since both gas-phase OH and NO3 radical-initiated reactions result in high 2-NFL/NTPs ratios. Comparisons of the relative formation of deuterated nitro-PAHs on the sampling media suggest that heterogeneous reactions with N2O5 on ambient particle surfaces also do not explain the nitro-PAH profiles of Tokyo particles. Thus, the source of NTPs in Tokyo remains unidentified.

  17. Conserved Themes in Target Recognition by the PAH1 and PAH2 Domains of the Sin3 Transcriptional Corepressor

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sarata C.; Swanson, Kurt A.; Kang, Richard S.; Huang, Kai; Brubaker, Kurt; Ratcliff, Kathleen; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar

    2008-01-01

    Summary The recruitment of chromatin-modifying coregulator complexes by transcription factors to specific sites of the genome constitutes an important step in many eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory pathways. The histone deacetylase-associated Sin3 corepressor complex is recruited by a large and diverse array of transcription factors through direct interactions with the N-terminal PAH domains of Sin3. Here we describe the solution structures of the mSin3A PAH1 domain in the apo-form and when bound to SAP25, a component of the corepressor complex. Unlike the apo-mSin3A PAH2 domain, the apo-PAH1 domain is conformationally pure and is largely, but not completely, folded. Portions of the interacting segments of both mSin3A PAH1 and SAP25 undergo folding upon complex formation. SAP25 binds through an amphipathic helix to a predominantly hydrophobic cleft on the surface of PAH1. Remarkably, the orientation of the helix is reversed compared to that adopted by NRSF, a transcription factor unrelated to SAP25, upon binding to the mSin3B PAH1 domain. The reversal in helical orientations is correlated with a reversal in the underlying PAH1-interaction motifs, echoing a theme previously described for the mSin3A PAH2 domain. The definition of these so-called type I and type II PAH1-interaction motifs has allowed us to predict the precise location of these motifs within previously experimentally-characterized PAH1 binders. Finally, we explore the specificity determinants of protein-protein interactions involving the PAH1 and PAH2 domains. These studies reveal that even conservative replacements of PAH2 residues with equivalent PAH1 residues are sufficient to dramatically alter the affinity and specificity of these protein-protein interactions. PMID:18089292

  18. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuypers, C.; Grotenhuis, T.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.

    2000-05-15

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to residual PAH concentrations after 21 days of biodegradation. Persulfate oxidation of samples that had first been subjected to biodegradation yielded only limited additional PAH oxidation. This implies that oxidation and biodegradation removed approximately the same PAH fraction. Persulfate oxidation thus provides a good and rapid method for the prediction of PAH bioavailability. Thermogravimetric analysis of oxidized and untreated samples showed that persulfate oxidation primarily affected expanded organic matter. The results indicate that this expanded organic matter contained mainly readily bioavailable PAHs.

  19. A novel approach to investigating indoor/outdoor pollution links: Combined magnetic and PAH measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsall, C. J.; Maher, B. A.; Karloukovski, V. V.; Shah, P.; Watkins, S. J.

    In a preliminary study, paired indoor and outdoor air sampling was conducted at three locations around the city of Lancaster, UK to examine the influence of combustion sources on air quality by measuring particulate concentrations, particulate magnetic properties and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). With one exception (an indoor suburban air sample), outdoor air samples had higher total suspended particulates (TSP), particle-bound PAH concentrations and magnetic remanence (IRM) values. IRM values were highest for the week-day, outdoor city centre samples and then declined in the sequence: Sunday, city centre > suburban/residential > Lancaster University campus. These data indicate traffic as the major particle-bound PAH, particulates and magnetic source, particularly as sampling was conducted during July in the absence of any space heating. The indoor air samples revealed a wide variation in pollutant concentrations, characterised by higher vapour levels of 2-3 ring PAHs, variable TSP concentrations and variable but generally low IRMs. The differences in PAH concentrations, TSP and IRMs between outdoor and indoor environments indicate limited ingress of outdoor air pollutants to the indoor environment in this study. Our combined PAH and magnetic data identify specific and distinctive indoor pollution signals for each of our sampled sites, reflecting distinct sources. One site, the suburban house, has anomalously high IRM, TSP and particle-bound PAHs. A possible source for these is a cast-iron, wood-burning stove (even though not lit). The city centre indoor site is characterised by high TSP and very low IRMs but high values of the magnetic ratio of anhysteretic remanence:saturation remanence, indicative of ultrafine (sub-micrometre) magnetic grain sizes. The source for this city centre indoor signature is unidentified but may reflect the occupant smoking and/or lighting candles. The indoor campus sample was affected by loss-on-ignition procedures carried out in a teaching laboratory. The combined PAH and magnetic analyses thus provide a sensitive and discriminatory means of identifying outdoor, traffic-derived pollution, and of discriminating between different types of indoor pollution.

  20. The CH out-of-plane bending modes of PAH molecules in astrophysical environments

    E-print Network

    S. Hony; C. Van Kerckhoven; E. Peeters; A. G. G. M. Tielens; D. M. Hudgins; L. J. Allamandola

    2001-03-02

    We present 10-15 micron spectra of a sample of H II regions, YSOs and evolved stars that show strong unidentified infrared emission features, obtained with the ISO/SWS spectrograph on-board ISO. These spectra reveal a plethora of emission features with bands at 11.0, 11.2, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5 and 14.2 micron. These features are observed to vary considerably in relative strength to each-other from source to source. In particular, the 10-15 micron spectra of the evolved stars are dominated by the 11.2 micron band while for H II regions the 12.7 is typically as strong as the 11.2 micron band. Analysing the ISO data we find a good correlation between the 11.2 micron band and the 3.3 micron band, and between the 12.7 micron and the 6.2 micron band. There is also a correlation between the ratio of the UIR bands to the total dust emission and the 12.7 over 11.2 micron ratio. Bands in the 10-15 micron spectral region are due to CH out-of-plane (OOP) bending modes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We summarise existing laboratory data and theoretical quantum chemical calculations of these modes for neutral and cationic PAHs. Due to mode coupling, the exact peak position of these bands depends on the number of adjacent CH groups and hence the observed interstellar 10-15 micron spectra can be used to determine the molecular structure of the interstellar PAHs emitting in the different regions. We conclude that evolved stars predominantly inject compact ~100-200 C-atom PAHs into the ISM where they are subsequently processed, resulting in more open and uneven PAH structures.

  1. UNUSUAL PAH EMISSION IN NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: A SIGNATURE OF AN INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, O.; Bressan, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdos. Postales 51 y 216, C.P. 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Panuzzo, P. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rampazzo, R.; Clemens, M.; Buson, L. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy); Granato, G. L.; Silva, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Zeilinger, W. W., E-mail: ovega@inaoep.m [Institut fur Astronomie, Universitat Wien, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria)

    2010-10-01

    We present the analysis of Spitzer-IRS spectra of four early-type galaxies (ETGs), NGC 1297, NGC 5044, NGC 6868, and NGC 7079, all classified as LINERs in the optical bands. Their IRS spectra present the full series of H{sub 2} rotational emission lines in the range 5-38 {mu}m, atomic lines, and prominent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features. We investigate the nature and origin of the PAH emission, characterized by unusually low 6-9/11.3 {mu}m interband ratios. After the subtraction of a passive ETG template, we find that the 7-9 {mu}m spectral region requires dust features not normally present in star-forming galaxies. Each spectrum is then analyzed with the aim of identifying their components and origin. In contrast to normal star-forming galaxies, where cationic PAH emission prevails, our 6-14 {mu}m spectra seem to be dominated by large and neutral PAH emission, responsible for the low 6-9/11.3 {mu}m ratios, plus two broad dust emission features peaking at 8.2 {mu}m and 12 {mu}m. These broad components, observed until now mainly in evolved carbon stars and usually attributed to pristine material, contribute approximately 30%-50% of the total PAH flux in the 6-14 {mu}m region. We propose that the PAH molecules in our ETGs arise from fresh carbonaceous material that is continuously released by a population of carbon stars, formed in a rejuvenation episode that occurred within the last few Gyr. The analysis of the MIR spectra allows us to infer that, in order to maintain the peculiar size and charge distributions biased to large and neutral PAHs, this material must be shocked and excited by the weak UV interstellar radiation field of our ETGs.

  2. PAHs, NITRO-PAHs, HOPANES, AND STERANES IN LAKE TROUT FROM LAKE MICHIGAN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines concentrations and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), steranes, and hopanes in lake trout collected in Lake Michigan. A total of 74 fish were collected in 2 seasons at 3 offshore sites. The total PAH concentration (?9PAH) in whole fish ranged from 223 pg/g to 1704 pg/g wet weight, and PAH concentrations and profiles were similar across season, site, and sex. The total NPAH (?9NPAH) concentrations ranged from 0.2 pg/g to 31 pg/g wet weight, and carcinogenic compounds, including 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene, were detected. In the fall, NPAH concentrations were low at the Illinois site (0.2–0.5 pg/g wet wt), and site profiles differed considerably; in the spring, concentrations and profiles were similar across sites, possibly reflecting changes in fish behavior. In the fall, the total sterane (?5Sterane) and total hopane (?2Hopane) levels reached 808 pg/g and 141 pg/g wet weight, respectively, but concentrations in the spring were 10 times lower. Concentrations in eggs (fall only) were on the same order of magnitude as those in whole fish. These results demonstrate the presence of target semivolatile organic compounds in a top predator fish, and are consistent with PAH biodilution observed previously. Using the available toxicity information for PAHs and NPAHs, the expected cancer risk from consumption of lake trout sampled are low. However, NPAHs contributed a significant portion of the toxic equivalencies in some samples. The present study provides the first measurements of NPAHs in freshwater fish, and results suggest that additional assessment is warranted. PMID:24764175

  3. PAH Strength and the Interstellar Radiation Field around the Massive Young Cluster NGC3603

    E-print Network

    V. Lebouteiller; B. Brandl; J. Bernard-Salas; D. Devost; J. R. Houck

    2007-04-18

    We present spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ionized gas within the Galactic giant HII region NGC3603. Using the IRS instrument on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we study in particular the PAH emission features at ~5.7, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3um, and the [ArII] 6.99um, [NeII] 12.81um, [ArIII] 8.99um, and [SIV] 10.51um forbidden emission lines. The observations probe both ionized regions and photodissociation regions. Silicate emission is detected close to the central cluster while silicate absorption is seen further away. We find no significant variation of the PAH ionization fraction across the whole region. The emission of very small grains lies closer to the central stellar cluster than emission of PAHs. The PAH/VSG ratio anticorrelates with the hardness of the interstellar radiation field suggesting a destruction mechanism of the molecules within the ionized gas, as shown for low-metallicity galaxies by Madden et al. (2006).

  4. [PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  5. Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban treatment sludge to the air during PAH removal applications.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Gizem; Cindoruk, S Siddik; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the amounts of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) penetrating into air during PAH removal applications from the urban treatment sludge were investigated. The effects of the temperature, photocatalyst type, and dose on the PAH removal efficiencies and PAH evaporation were explained. The sludge samples were taken from an urban wastewater treatment plant located in the city of Bursa, with 585,000 equivalent population. The ultraviolet C (UV-C) light of 254 nm wavelength was used within the UV applications performed on a specially designed setup. Internal air of the setup was vacuumed through polyurethane foam (PUF) columns in order to collect the evaporated PAHs from the sludge during the PAH removal applications. All experiments were performed with three repetitions. The PAH concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that the amounts of PAHs penetrating into the air were increased with increase of temperature, and more than 80% of PAHs migrated to the air consisted of 3-ring compounds during the UV and UV-diethylamine (DEA) experiments at 38 and 53 degrees C. It was determined that 40% decrease was ensured in sigma12 (total of 12) PAH amounts with UV application and 13% of PAHs in sludge penetrated into the air. In the UV-TiO2 applications, a maximum 80% of sigma12 PAH removal was obtained by adding 0.5% TiO2 of dry weight of sludge. The quantity of PAH penetrating into air did not exceed 15%. UV-TiO2 applications ensured high levels of PAH removal in the sludge and also reduced the quantity of PAH penetrating into the air. Within the scope of the samples added with DEA, there was no increase in PAH removal efficiencies and the penetration of PAHs into air was not decreased. In light of these data, it was concluded that UV-TiO2 application is the most suitable PAH removal alternative that restricts the convection of PAH pollution. PMID:24941705

  6. Integrated helmet system for PAH2\\/AVT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Dieter V. Boehm; Peter Behrmann; K.-H. Stenner

    1995-01-01

    The German Government selected Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) to coordinate the development of a new 40 degree(s) Integrated Helmet System (IHS) for the PAH2 (Panzer Abwehr Hubschrauber 2. Gen) helicopter. ECD were tasked with integrating the IHS into the BK117\\/AVT (Ausrustungs-Versuchs-Trager) for flight trials. A contract was placed in 1992 with GEC-Marconi Avionics of the UK for the IHS. This IHS

  7. Carbon in The Universe: PAHs and Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saykally, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    Following the initial demonstration of this new technique (Science 265 1686 (1994)) and its application to a series of neutral PAHs which have been proposed as condidates for the UIRs (Nature 380, 227 (1996)), we have concentrated on two major aspects of this project. 1. Developing a detailed model for infrared emission spectra of a collection of highly excited PAH molecules, in which experimental bandshapes and temperature-dependent redshifts are used in conjunction with ab initio vibrational frequencies and intensities to simulate the UIR bands. This shows that a collection of nine different cations (as large as ovalene) reproduce the UIR features better than do a collection of the corresponding neutrals, but a detailed match with the UIRs is not obtained. 2. Construction of SPIRES apparatus for the study of PAH ion emission spectra. The design of this experiment is shown and described. Unfortunately a disasterous accident occurred just as we were preparing to start the testing of the ion apparatus. A vacuum implosion occurred, destroying the liquid He cooled monochromator. It has taken us nearly one full year to reconstruct this, and we arc only now in the final testing of the new system. We expect to try the ion experiments by the end of summer.

  8. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies to be carried out in this project include: (1) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (2) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of PAHs and PAH derivatives (especially nitro-PAHs) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (3) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with PAHs and PAH derivatives; (4) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of surface roughness'' of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of PAHs sorbed on coal ash particles; (5) Identification of the major products of chemical transformation of PAHs on coal ash particles, and examination of any effects that may exist of the nature of the coal ash surface on the identities of PAH transformation products; and (6) Studies of the influence of other sorbed species on the chemical behavior of PAHs and PAH derivatives on fly ash surfaces. PAHs are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which PAHs are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.

  9. Integrated helmet system for PAH2/AVT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Hans-Dieter V.; Behrmann, Peter; Stenner, K.-H.

    1995-05-01

    The German Government selected Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) to coordinate the development of a new 40 degree(s) Integrated Helmet System (IHS) for the PAH2 (Panzer Abwehr Hubschrauber 2. Gen) helicopter. ECD were tasked with integrating the IHS into the BK117/AVT (Ausrustungs-Versuchs-Trager) for flight trials. A contract was placed in 1992 with GEC-Marconi Avionics of the UK for the IHS. This IHS consists of a new light weight helmet shell equipped with an individual form fit liner, intercom and a removable Optical Module which includes two Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT), two Image Intensifier Tubes (I2T), two see-through combiners and a Helmet Mounted Sight (HMS) Receiver. An A- model helmet with a 35 degree(s) Field of View (FOV) was tested on the BK117-AVT, with flight symbology during Nap of the Earth flights in early 1994. A similar helmet was assessed during 1990/91 on a PAH1 in Celle. In this version, no HMS was installed in the HC. An A/B-model helmet (a B-model helmet with an A-model electronics) with 40 degree(s) FOV was received at the end of 1994 and tested in the ECD Visionics laboratory. The flight trials started on a PAH1 in Manching January 1995 and in the new moon phase of February/March 1995 in Buckeburg. The wearing comfort of the helmet and the night channel were evaluated. The new IHS has been specially designed for PAH2. In C-model configuration the IHS shall have a total helmet weight of 2.2 kg, an optimized Centre of Gravity, exit pupils with > 15 mm, IITs with > 50 Lp/mm and gain in excess of 2000, CRTS with high resolution and high brightness for daytime application. There is a requirement for the HMS to have an accuracy of 0.2 degree(s) in a large Head Motion Box. This HMS steers a nose mounted FLIR platform and has the task of aiming precise weapon systems on targets. The paper presents the results of IHS assessment in the laboratory and flight trial assessments with the IHS on a PAH1.

  10. Absolute evaporation rates of non-rotating neutral PAH clusters

    E-print Network

    Montillaud, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as candidates for evaporating very small grains, which are thought to be precursors of free-flying PAHs. Evaporation rates have been calculated so far only for species containing up to a few 100 C atoms, whereas interstellar PAH clusters could contain up to ~1000 C atoms. We present a method that generalises the calculation of the statistical evaporation rate of large PAH clusters and provides rates for species containing up to ~1000 C-atoms. The evaporation of non-rotating neutral homo-molecular PAH clusters containing up to 12 molecules from a family of highly symmetric compact PAHs is studied. Statistical calculations were performed and completed with molecular dynamics simulations at high internal energies to provide absolute values for the evaporation rate and distributions of kinetic energy released. The calculations used explicit atom-atom Lennard-Jones potentials in the rigid molecule approximation. A new method is proposed to take...

  11. Warm Dust and Spatially Variable PAH Emission in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 1705

    E-print Network

    John M. Cannon; John-David T. Smith; Fabian Walter; George J. Bendo; Daniela Calzetti; Daniel A. Dale; Bruce T. Draine; Charles W. Engelbracht; Karl D. Gordon; George Helou; Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr.; Claus Leitherer; Lee Armus; Brent A. Buckalew; David J. Hollenbach; Thomas H. Jarrett; Aigen Li; Martin J. Meyer; Eric J. Murphy; Michael W. Regan; George H. Rieke; Marcia J. Rieke; Helene Roussel; Kartik Sheth; Michele D. Thornley

    2006-04-28

    We present Spitzer observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1705 obtained as part of SINGS. The galaxy morphology is very different shortward and longward of ~5 microns: short-wavelength imaging shows an underlying red stellar population, with the central super star cluster (SSC) dominating the luminosity; longer-wavelength data reveals warm dust emission arising from two off-nuclear regions offset by ~250 pc from the SSC. These regions show little extinction at optical wavelengths. The galaxy has a relatively low global dust mass (~2E5 solar masses, implying a global dust-to-gas mass ratio ~2--4 times lower than the Milky Way average). The off-nuclear dust emission appears to be powered by photons from the same stellar population responsible for the excitation of the observed H Alpha emission; these photons are unassociated with the SSC (though a contribution from embedded sources to the IR luminosity of the off-nuclear regions cannot be ruled out). Low-resolution IRS spectroscopy shows moderate-strength PAH emission in the 11.3 micron band in the eastern peak; no PAH emission is detected in the SSC or the western dust emission complex. There is significant diffuse 8 micron emission after scaling and subtracting shorter wavelength data; the spatially variable PAH emission strengths revealed by the IRS data suggest caution in the interpretation of diffuse 8 micron emission as arising from PAH carriers alone. The metallicity of NGC 1705 falls at the transition level of 35% solar found by Engelbracht and collaborators; the fact that a system at this metallicity shows spatially variable PAH emission demonstrates the complexity of interpreting diffuse 8 micron emission. A radio continuum non-detection, NGC 1705 deviates significantly from the canonical far-IR vs. radio correlation. (Abridged)

  12. Predicting pore water EPA-34 PAH concentrations and toxicity in pyrogenic-impacted sediments using pyrene content.

    PubMed

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Azzolina, Nicholas A; Cornelissen, Gerard; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2011-06-15

    Sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of 34 alkyl and parent PAHs (EPA-34) were measured in 335 sediment samples from 19 different sites impacted by manufactured gas plants, aluminum smelters and other pyrogenic sources. The total EPA-34 freely dissolved pore water concentration, C(pw,EPA-34), expressed as toxic units (TU) is currently considered one of the most accurate measures to assess risk at such sites; however, it is very seldom measured. With this data set, we address how accurately C(pw,EPA-34) can be estimated using limited 16 parent PAH data (EPA-16) commonly available for such sites. An exhaustive statistical analysis of the obtained data validated earlier observations that PAHs with more than 3 rings are present in similar relative abundances and their partitioning behavior typically follows Raoult's law and models developed for coal tar. As a result, sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of pyrene and other 3- and 4-ring PAHs exhibit good log-log correlations (r² > 0.8) to most individual EPA-34 PAHs and also to C(pw,EPA-34). Correlations improve further by including the ratio of high to low molecular weight PAHs, as 2-ring PAHs exhibit the most variability in terms of their relative abundance. The most practical result of the current work is that log C(pw,EPA-34) estimated by the recommended pyrene-based estimation techniques was similarly well correlated to % survival of the benthic amphipods Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosus as directly measured log C(pw,EPA-34) values (n = 211). Incorporation of the presented C(pw,EPA-34) estimation techniques could substantially improve risk assessments and guidelines for sediments impacted by pyrogenic residues, especially when limited data are available, without requiring any extra data or measurement costs. PMID:21595462

  13. Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis to evaluate the contribution of Peace River floodings to the PAH background in the Peace-Athabasca Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jautzy, J. J.; Ahad, J. M.; Hall, R. I.; Wiklund, J. A.; Gobeil, C.; Savard, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The oil sands of Northern Alberta, Canada are one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the world. The rapid growth of the bitumen exploitation in this region involves large scale mining infrastructure, raising questions about the environmental impact of these operations. One of the main issues is the emission of hazardous organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs, which are found naturally in petroleum, are also produced through incomplete combustion and diagenesis of organic matter. The complex nature of the surrounding geology (natural levels of bitumen) requires tools able to discriminate sources of pollutants. The establishment of the PAH background is crucial in order to investigate the impacts of oil sands mining in the Athabasca region. Here we present a new approach to discriminate the sources of alkylated PAHs (fossil or modern biomass) and their relative contributions. Using a dated sediment sequence from a lake situated in the Peace-Athabasca Delta periodically flooded by the Peace River, 6 different groups of parent and alkylated PAHs were extracted and collected by preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) for natural abundance radiocarbon (14C) measurement. Three grouped layers each comprising approximately 10 years of sedimentation and spanning the period of mining operations (i.e., the past 40 years) were analyzed. We report here the first use of 14C measurements on alkylated PAHs extracted from lake sediments. Our results showed low radiocarbon content for all alkylated and parent PAHs analyzed in the three sediment layers. However, a slight trend toward a more modern PAH input can be seen up-core. PAH isomers ratios pointed to a major influence of petroleum input in the entire lake sequence, supporting the predominance of a fossil carbon source as indicated by the low radiocarbon contents. As the Peace River cuts through the Peace oil sands formation, our results can be explained by the main contribution of PAHs originating from periodic flooding events as previously documented for this lake. We further interpret the modern proportion of alkylated PAHs as being contributed from forest fires. These results provide greater insight into the variability of the alkylated PAH sources, and highlight the potential of this isotopic technique for source apportionment of airborne PAHs in lakes from the Athabasca oil sands region.

  14. Recombination Rates of Electrons with Interstellar PAH Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballester, Jorge (Cartographer)

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a general model for the recombination of electrons with PAH molecules in an interstellar environment. The model is being developed such that it can be applied to a small number of families of PAHs without reference to specific molecular structures. Special attention will be focused on modeling the approximately circular compact PAHs in a way that only depends on the number of carbon atoms.

  15. New PAH mode at 16.4 microns

    E-print Network

    C. Moutou; L. Verstraete; A. Leger; K. Sellgren; W. Schmidt

    1999-12-30

    The detection of a new 16.4 micron emission feature in the ISO-SWS spectra of NGC 7023, M17, and the Orion Bar is reported. Previous laboratory experiments measured a mode near this wavelength in spectra of PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), and so we suggest the new interstellar 16.4 micron feature could be assigned to low-frequency vibrations of PAHs. The best carrier candidates seem to be PAH molecules containing pentagonal rings.

  16. PAH emission from the incineration of three plastic wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Teh Li; Huan-Kai Zhuang; Lien-Te Hsieh; Wen-Jhy Lee; Meng-Chun Tsao

    2001-01-01

    A batch-type, controlled-air incinerator was used for the treatment of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and polypropylene (PP) plastic wastes. The concentration and composition of 21 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the raw wastes, flue gas (gas and particle phases), and ash were determined. Stack flue-gas samples were collected by a PAH stack-sampling system. Twenty-one individual PAHs were

  17. UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy of jet-cooled PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouillé, G.; Arold, M.; Huisken, F.; Henning, Th.

    2007-12-01

    We use cavity ring-down laser absorption spectroscopy to probe supersonic expansions of rare gases seeded with PAHs. The principal means of transferring solid PAH samples to the gas phase is heating, which we have applied to study rather light PAHs like anthracene (C14H10), but also the larger benzo[g,h,i]perylene (C22H12). As heating is expected to become less effective for vaporizing increasingly larger PAHs, laser vaporization is being explored for this purpose. Results are discussed within the framework of the search for carriers of diffuse interstellar bands.

  18. Diagnostic interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ileana Calinoiu; Jon McClellan

    2004-01-01

    This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents.\\u000a Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating\\u000a biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based)\\u000a measures use a set script and record subject’s responses without

  19. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  20. PAH refractory index as a source discriminant of hydrocarbon input from crude oil and coal in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.Geochemical correlation and differentiation of hydrocarbons from crude oils and coals is difficult. The complex mixture of the hydrocarbon constituents and the dynamic nature of these constituents in the environment as they weather contribute to this difficulty. A new parameter, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refractory index, is defined here to help in this correlation. The PAH refractory index is a ratio of two of the most refractory constituents of most crude oils, namely triaromatic steranes and monomethylchrysenes. These are among the most persistent compounds in oil after deposition in the environment and thus retain reliably the signature of the original petroleum input. This index is utilized in Prince William Sound (PWS) to differentiate three different oils, as well as to provide evidence that coal, not oil, is the dominant source of the PAHs which are prominent constituents of marine sediments from PWS and the Gulf of Alaska.

  1. Enhanced dissipation of PAHs from soil using mycorrhizal ryegrass and PAH-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yu, X Z; Wu, S C; Wu, F Y; Wong, M H

    2011-02-28

    The major aim of this experiment was to test the effects of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae) for cleaning up PAHs contaminated soil. Higher dissipation rates were observed in combination treatments: i.e., bacteria+ryegrass (BR), mycorrhizae+ryegrass (MR), and bacteria+mycorrhizae+ryegrass (BMR); than bacteria (B) and ryegrass (R) alone. The growth of ryegrass significantly (p<0.05) increased soil peroxidase activities, leading to enhanced dissipation of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) from soil. Interactions between ryegrass with the two microbes further enhanced the dissipation of PHE and PYR. Mycorrhizal ryegrass (MR) significantly enhanced the dissipation of PYR from soil, PYR accumulation by ryegrass roots and soil peroxidase activities under lower PHE and PYR levels (0 and 50+50 mg kg(-1)). The present results highlighted the contribution of mycorrhiza and PAH-degrading bacteria in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soil, however more detailed studies are needed. PMID:21176862

  2. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) AND OXYGENATED PAH IN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    /particule partitioning and the different size fractions of these compounds. A dilution tunnel, with a diesel car % of the particle phase consists of organic compounds extractable by solvents. These extracts include PAH and many organic compounds. This can provoke respiratory problems as well as mutagenic or genotoxic effects

  3. PAH emission from Nova Cen 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, A. R. Harry; Mcgregor, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of broad emission features between 3.2 and 3.6 microns were reported in the spectrum of Nova Cen 1986 (V842 Cen) some 300 days following outburst and remaining prominent for several months. The general characteristics of these features are similar to those attributed to polycyclic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in other dusty sources, although the relative strengths are different, and these observations provide the first clear evidence for molecular constituents other than graphite particles in the ejecta of novae.

  4. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Laccase in Rhamnolipid Reversed Micellar System.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xin; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Liu, Huan; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Hong

    2015-05-01

    Rhamnolipid was applied to degrade anthracene and pyrene in reversed micelles. The parameters in degradation were optimized for the purpose of improving degradation rates. The proper amount of rhamnolipid (RL) used for degrading anthracene was 0.065 mM, while 0.075 mM for pyrene. However, reaction time for degrading both anthracene and pyrene was 48 h. The optimum water content, pH, laccase concentration, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) initial concentration, and volume ratio of n-hexanol to isooctane for both were found out. The highest degradation rates of anthracene and pyrene were 37.52 and 25.58 %, respectively. Although the degradation rates were not higher than the results previous literatures reported, this method was of novelty and provided guidance in application in degrading PAHs by reversed micellar system, especially for biosurfactant-based reversed micelles. PMID:25637508

  5. Interstellar PAH Analogs in the Laboratory: Comparison with Astronomical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAHs are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, PAHs are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrophysics is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that exist in the emission and/or absorption interstellar zones. An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to assess the physical and chemical properties of PAHs in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. In particular, laboratory experiments provide measurements of the spectral characteristics of interstellar PAH analogs from the ultraviolet and visible range to the infrared range for comparison with astronomical data. This paper will focus on the recent progress made in the laboratory to measure the direct absorption spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs in the near-UV and visible range. Intrinsic band profiles and band positions of cold gas-phase PAHs can now be measured with high-sensitivity spectroscopy and directly compared to the astronomical data. Preliminary conclusions from the comparison of the laboratory data with astronomical observations will also be presented.

  6. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90ng/L, which ranged from 2.30ng/L for DbA to 295.38ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. PMID:25967478

  7. PAH chemistry and IR emission from circumstellar disks

    E-print Network

    R. Visser; V. C. Geers; C. P. Dullemond; J. -C. Augereau; K. M. Pontoppidan; E. F. van Dishoeck

    2007-01-22

    Aims. The chemistry of, and infrared (IR) emission from, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in disks around Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars are investigated. The equilibrium distribution of the PAHs over all accessible charge/hydrogenation states depends on the size and shape of the PAHs and on the physical properties of the star and surrounding disk. Methods. A chemistry model is created to calculate this equilibrium distribution. Destruction of PAHs by ultraviolet (UV) photons, possibly in multi-photon absorption events, is taken into account. The chemistry model is coupled to a radiative transfer code to provide the physical parameters and to combine the PAH emission with the spectral energy distribution (SED) from the star+disk system. Results. Normally hydrogenated PAHs in Herbig Ae/Be disks account for most of the observed PAH emission, with neutral and positively ionized species contributing in roughly equal amounts. Close to the midplane, the PAHs are more strongly hydrogenated and negatively ionized, but these species do not contribute to the overall emission because of the low UV/optical flux deep inside the disk. PAHs of 50 carbon atoms are destroyed out to 100 AU in the disk's surface layer, and the resulting spatial extent of the emission does not agree well with observations. Rather, PAHs of about 100 carbon atoms or more are predicted to cause most of the observed emission. The emission is extended on a scale similar to that of the size of the disk. Furthermore, the emission from T Tauri disks is much weaker and concentrated more towards the central star than that from Herbig Ae/Be disks. Positively ionized PAHs are predicted to be largely absent in T Tauri disks because of the weaker radiation field.

  8. Composition and Integrity of PAHs, Nitro-PAHs, Hopanes and Steranes In Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter contains many semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of environmental and health significance. This study investigates the composition, emission rates, and integrity of 25 SVOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and diesel biomarkers hopanes and steranes. Diesel engine particulate matter (PM), generated using an engine test bench, three engine conditions, and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), was collected on borosilicate glass fiber filters. Under high engine load, the PM emission rate was 0.102 g/kWh, and emission rate of ?PAHs (10 compounds), ?NPAHs (6 compounds), ?hopanes (2 compounds), and ?steranes (2 compounds) were 2.52, 0.351, 0.02 ~ 2 and 1?g/kWh, respectively. Storage losses were evaluated for three cases: conditioning filters in clean air at 25 °C and 33% relative humidity (RH) for 24 h; storing filter samples (without extraction) wrapped in aluminum foil at 4 °C for up to one month; and storing filter extracts in glass vials capped with Teflon crimp seals at 4 °C for up to six months. After conditioning filters for 24 h, 30% of the more volatile PAHs were lost, but lower volatility NPAHs, hopanes and steranes showed negligible changes. Storing wrapped filters and extracts at 4 °C for up to one month did not lead to significant losses, but storing extracts for five months led to significant losses of PAHs and NPAHs; hopanes and steranes demonstrated greater integrity. These results suggest that even relatively brief filter conditioning periods, needed for gravimetric measurements of PM mass, and extended storage of filter extracts can lead to underestimates of SVOC concentrations. Thus, SVOC sampling and analysis protocols should utilize stringent criteria and performance checks to identify and limit possible biases occurring during filter and extract processing. PMID:24363468

  9. Composition and Integrity of PAHs, Nitro-PAHs, Hopanes and Steranes In Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A

    2013-08-01

    Diesel exhaust particulate matter contains many semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of environmental and health significance. This study investigates the composition, emission rates, and integrity of 25 SVOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (NPAHs), and diesel biomarkers hopanes and steranes. Diesel engine particulate matter (PM), generated using an engine test bench, three engine conditions, and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), was collected on borosilicate glass fiber filters. Under high engine load, the PM emission rate was 0.102 g/kWh, and emission rate of ?PAHs (10 compounds), ?NPAHs (6 compounds), ?hopanes (2 compounds), and ?steranes (2 compounds) were 2.52, 0.351, 0.02 ~ 2 and 1?g/kWh, respectively. Storage losses were evaluated for three cases: conditioning filters in clean air at 25 °C and 33% relative humidity (RH) for 24 h; storing filter samples (without extraction) wrapped in aluminum foil at 4 °C for up to one month; and storing filter extracts in glass vials capped with Teflon crimp seals at 4 °C for up to six months. After conditioning filters for 24 h, 30% of the more volatile PAHs were lost, but lower volatility NPAHs, hopanes and steranes showed negligible changes. Storing wrapped filters and extracts at 4 °C for up to one month did not lead to significant losses, but storing extracts for five months led to significant losses of PAHs and NPAHs; hopanes and steranes demonstrated greater integrity. These results suggest that even relatively brief filter conditioning periods, needed for gravimetric measurements of PM mass, and extended storage of filter extracts can lead to underestimates of SVOC concentrations. Thus, SVOC sampling and analysis protocols should utilize stringent criteria and performance checks to identify and limit possible biases occurring during filter and extract processing. PMID:24363468

  10. Lipid-content-normalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the xylem of conifers can indicate historical changes in regional airborne PAHs.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuan-wen; Li, Jiong; Hou, En-qing

    2015-01-01

    The temporal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations as well as the lipid content in the xylem of Masson pine trees sampled from the same site were determined and compared with the days of haze occurrence and with the historical PAHs reported in sedimentary cores. The patterns of the lipid content as well as the PAH concentrations based on the xylem dry weight (PAHs-DW) decreased from the heartwood to the sapwood. The trajectories of PAHs normalized by xylem lipid content (PAHs-LC) coincided well with the number of haze-occurred days and were partly similar with the historical changes in airborne PAHs recorded in the sedimentary cores. The results indicated that PAHs-LC in the xylem of conifers might reliably reflect the historical changes in airborne PAHs at a regional scale. The species-specificity should be addressed in the utility and application of dendrochemical monitoring on historical and comparative studies of airborne PAHs. PMID:25299794

  11. Diagnostic interviews.

    PubMed

    Calinoiu, Ileana; McClellan, Jon

    2004-04-01

    This review addresses issues related to the use of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in children and adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews improve the diagnostic process by better organizing the collection of clinical data and eliminating biases when applying diagnostic criteria. Available interviews generally fall into two categories. Highly structured (or respondent-based) measures use a set script and record subject's responses without interpretation. Thus, they are useful for epidemiologic surveys or other settings in which nonclinical interviewers are used. Semistructured (or interviewer-based) tools allow clinical interpretation of responses as well as the incorporation of other sources of information, thereby making them more relevant for clinicians. Structured diagnostic instruments are currently most often used in research settings, but potentially are useful for clinical settings as well. This review also addresses challenges in psychiatric diagnosis, a brief history of diagnostic standards, and the potential limitations/advantages of using structured diagnostic interviews. PMID:15038910

  12. PAHs in Stockholm window films: Evaluation of the utility of window film content as indicator of PAHs in urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Maria; Gustafsson, Örjan

    The thin organic film that builds up on the exterior surface of windows has been proposed as a ubiquitously available passive sampler for semi-volatile organic contaminants (SOCs) in urban air. Readily available school windows were sampled in Stockholm city centre and suburban locations in both winter and summer season to evaluate the putative usefulness of this matrix for assessing the integrated load of urban air pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The window-area normalised concentrations indicated more PAH contamination in the winter than in the summer in both the city centre and suburban locations, with highest concentrations in the city centre in the winter (?PAH 43 451-467 ng m -2). However, normalising the PAH load to the amount of fatty window film, as measured by extractable organic matter (EOM), gave a more homogeneous picture with the EOM-normalised PAH load being inseparable both between summer and winter and between city centre and suburban locations. To evaluate the possibility of quantitatively employing urban window films as a means to provide predicted environmental concentrations of PAHs in air (PEC air), window film-air partition coefficients of PAHs were estimated using a set of coupled linear free energy relationships and physico-chemical properties of PAHs. Assuming dynamic equilibria between PAHs in air and dissolved in the window film, the obtained PEC air from the window films were consistently overestimating the urban vapour-phase PAH concentrations by factors 4-135. This discrepancy is quantitatively consistent with a strong and overwhelming association with black carbon aerosol particles accumulated in the window film. For SOCs that have a lower tendency to associate with black carbon, bulk window film concentrations may work better than for PAHs to estimate their vapour-phase concentrations in urban air.

  13. Solubilization, Solution Equilibria, and Biodegradation of PAH's under Thermophilic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Viamajala, S.; Peyton, B. M.; Richards, L. A.; Petersen, J. N.

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of PAHs are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by PAH solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 C, 40 C and 60 C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the PAH dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these PAHs, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 C and degraded the PAH more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of PAHs are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of PAHs under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates.

  14. Are Urinary PAHs Biomarkers of Controlled Exposure to Diesel Exhaust?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after ex...

  15. Imaging of the PAH Emission Bands in the Orion Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Harker, David; Rank, David; Temi, Pasqiale; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The infrared spectrum of many planetary nebulae, HII regions, galactic nuclei, reflection nebulae, and WC stars are dominated by a set of narrow and broad features which for many years were called the "unidentified infrared bands". These bands have been attributed to several carbon-rich molecular species which all contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms, and fall into the class of PAH molecules or are conglomerates of PAH skeletons. If these bands are from PAHs, then PAHs contain 1-10% of the interstellar carbon, making them the most abundant molecular species in the interstellar medium after CO. From ground based telescopes, we have studied the emission bands assigned to C-H bond vibrations in PAHs (3.3, 11.3 microns) in the Orion Bar region, and showed that their distribution and intensities are consistent with a quantitative PAH model. We have recently obtained spectral images of the Orion Bar from the KAO at 6.2 and 7.7 microns using a 128 x 128 Si:Ga array camera in order to study the C-C modes of the PAH molecules. We will show these new data along with our existing C-H mode data set, and make a quantitative comparison of the data with the existing PAH model.

  16. The PAH and organic content of sediment particle size fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Evans; R. A. Gill; P. W. J. Robotham

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of nine Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with organic matter present in various river sediment size fractions, from 63 µm to 1.0 to 2.0 mm, has been investigated. It is suggested that the PAH and organic matter content have bimodal distributions through the sediment size fractions which may be explained by the presence of two types of organic material

  17. Profiles of PAH emission from steel and iron industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsi-Hsien Yang; Soon-Onn Lai; Lien-Te Hsieh; Hung-Junt Hsueh; Tze-Wen Chi

    2002-01-01

    In order to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission from steel and iron industries, this study measured the stack emission of twelve steel and iron plants in southern Taiwan to construct a set of source fingerprints. The study sampled the emissions by the USEPA's sampling method 5 with the modification of Graseby for the gas and particulate phase PAH

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in seawater around England and Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Law; V. J. Dawes; R. J. Woodhead; P. Matthiessen

    1997-01-01

    Surface seawater samples collected during the period 1993–1995 from 177 stations around England and Wales have been analysed for 15 individual parent PAH compounds, using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The sampling sites included 50 of the stations designated under the UK National Monitoring Programme, and comprised estuarine, coastal and offshore locations. PAH concentrations at offshore sites were generally

  19. Groundwater risk assessment for a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2001-53 Groundwater risk assessment for a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated site to simulate a contamination of soils and groundwaters by PAH at a disused coke plant site were compared applying a risk assessment approach to contaminated sites, of primary importance is the evaluation

  20. PAH Measurements in Air in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Harner, Tom; Li, Henrik; Fellin, Phil

    2015-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) measurements were conducted by Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) at four community ambient Air quality Monitoring Stations (AMS) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The 2012 and 2013 mean concentrations of a subset of the 22 PAH species were 9.5, 8.4, 8.8, and 32 ng m(-3) at AMS 1 (Fort McKay), AMS 6 (residential Fort McMurray), AMS 7 (downtown Fort McMurray), and AMS 14 (Anzac), respectively. The average PAH concentrations in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray were in the range of rural and semirural areas, but peak values reflect an industrial emission influence. At these stations, PAHs were generally associated with NO, NO2, PM2.5, and SO2, indicating the emissions were from the combustion sources such as industrial stacks, vehicles, residential heating, and forest fires, whereas the PAH concentrations at AMS 14 (?35 km south of Fort McMurray) were more characteristic of urban areas with a unique pattern: eight of the lower molecular weight PAHs exhibited strong seasonality with higher levels during the warmer months. Enthalpies calculated from Clausius-Clapeyron plots for these eight PAHs suggest that atmospheric emissions were dominated by temperature-dependent processes such as volatilization at warm temperatures. These findings point to the potential importance of localized water-air and/or surface-air transfer on observed PAH concentrations in air. PMID:25844542

  1. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during woodworking operations

    PubMed Central

    Bruschweiler, Evin D.; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common wood working operations, PAH concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAH concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24–7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal PAH exposures were between 37.5–119.8 ng m?3 during wood working operations. Our results suggest that PAH exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure. PMID:23087908

  2. ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PAH IN REPLICATES ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Replicates/PAH database contains the analytical results of PAH concentrations in replicate samples. The samples were analyzed as part of the QA/QC protocols of the NHEXAS project. The class of analytes consist of 24 seperate compounds including the BAP series. The NHEXAS p...

  3. CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been frequently detected at children's homes and day care centers and may pose health concerns due to their carcinogenicity. Most PAHs have been persistent indoors and outdoors, therefore, children may be exposed to chronic low level...

  4. Determination of PAHs in particulate air by micellar liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Kayali, M.N.; Rubio-Barroso, S.; Polo-Diez, L.M. (Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    An acetonitrile/0.20M SDS mobile phase was used to determine PAHs by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Because the peak area is greater the method is more sensitive than using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The method was applied to determine PAHs in particulate air samples and the results are in good agreement with those found by GC.

  5. On the Viability of the PAH Model as an Explanation of the Unidentified Infrared Emission Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are widely considered the preferred candidate for the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission bands observed in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes. In this paper, we report the results of fitting a variety of non-PAH spectra (silicates, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, coal, and even artificial spectra) using the theoretical infrared spectra of PAHs from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. We show that these non-PAH spectra can be well fitted by PAH mixtures. This suggests that a general match between astronomical spectra and those of PAH mixtures does not necessarily provide definitive support for the PAH hypothesis.

  6. On the viability of the PAH model as an explanation of the unidentified infrared emission features

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules are widely considered as the preferred candidate for the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission bands observed in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes. In this paper we report the result of fitting a variety of non-PAH spectra (silicates, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, coal and even artificial spectra) using the theoretical infrared spectra of PAHs from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. We show that these non-PAH spectra can be well fitted by PAH mixtures. This suggest that a general match between astronomical spectra and those of PAH mixtures does not necessarily provide definitive support for the PAH hypothesis.

  7. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Environmentally Relevant Oxygenated PAHs

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, Andrea; Goodale, Britton; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael; Swanson, Annika; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban air, dust and in the soil of most industrial coal gassification, coal burning, coke production and wood preservation sites (Howsam and Jones 1998). It is widely recognized that PAHs pose risks to human health,having been associated with increased risks of systemic inflammation (Delfino et al. 2010), cardiopulmonary mortality (Lee et al. 2011; Lewtas 2007) and lung cancer mortality (Grant 2009; Hoshuyama et al. 2006). The potential risks may be especially acute for the developing fetus and infant where PAH exposures have been linked to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, in-utero mortality and lower intelligence (Dejmek et al. 1999; Dejmek et al. 2000; Perera et al. 1999; Perera et al. 2009; Perera et al. 2006; Perera et al. 1998; Wu et al. 2010). Despite the more than two decades of intensive study devoted to parent PAHs, they are only part of the hazard spectrum from PAH contamination.

  8. SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES: DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION AND CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL INFRARED LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Heath V.; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Rieke, George H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Moustakas, John, E-mail: heath.shipley@tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We use mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study the nature of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion for a sample of 65 IR-luminous galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.6 with F(24 {mu}m) > 1.2 mJy. The MIR spectra cover wavelengths 5-38 {mu}m, spanning the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features and important atomic diagnostic lines. Our sample of galaxies corresponds to a range of total IR luminosity, L{sub IR} = L(8-1000 {mu}m) = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} (median L{sub IR} of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }). We divide our sample into a subsample of galaxies with Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6-8.0 {mu}m colors indicative of warm dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN; IRAGN) and those galaxies whose colors indicate star-formation processes (non-IRAGN). Compared to the non-IRAGN, the IRAGN show smaller PAH emission equivalent widths, which we attribute to an increase in mid-IR continuum from the AGN. We find that in both the IRAGN and star-forming samples, the luminosity in the PAH features correlates strongly with [Ne II] {lambda}12.8 {mu}m emission line, from which we conclude that the PAH luminosity directly traces the instantaneous star-formation rate (SFR) in both the IRAGN and star-forming galaxies. We compare the ratio of PAH luminosity to the total IR luminosity, and we show that for most IRAGN star-formation accounts for 10%-50% of the total IR luminosity. We also find no measurable difference between the PAH luminosity ratios of L{sub 11.3}/L{sub 7.7} and L{sub 6.2}/L{sub 7.7} for the IRAGN and non-IRAGN, suggesting that AGN do not significantly excite or destroy PAH molecules on galaxy-wide scales. Interestingly, a small subset of galaxies (8 of 65 galaxies) show a strong excess of [O IV] {lambda}25.9 {mu}m emission compared to their PAH emission, which indicates the presence of heavily-obscured AGN, including 3 galaxies that are not otherwise selected as IRAGN. The low PAH emission and low [Ne II] emission of the IRAGN and [O IV]-excess objects imply the IR luminosity of these objects is dominated by processes associated with the AGN. Because these galaxies lie in the ''green valley'' of the optical color-magnitude relation and have low implied SFRs, we argue their hosts have declining SFRs and these objects will transition to the red sequence unless some process restarts their star-formation.

  9. Unusual PAH Emission in Nearby Early-Type Galaxies: A Signature of an Intermediate Age Stellar Population?

    E-print Network

    Vega, O; Panuzzo, P; Rampazzo, R; Clemens, M; Granato, G L; Buson, L; Silva, L; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    We present the analysis of Spitzer-IRS spectra of four early-type galaxies, NGC 1297, NGC 5044, NGC 6868, and NGC 7079, all classified as LINERs in the optical bands. Their IRS spectra present the full series of H2 rotational emission lines in the range 5--38 microns, atomic lines, and prominent PAH features. We investigate the nature and origin of the PAH emission, characterized by unusually low 6 -- 9/11.3 microns inter-band ratios. After the subtraction of a passive early type galaxy template, we find that the 7 -- 9 microns spectral region requires dust features not normally present in star forming galaxies. Each spectrum is then analyzed with the aim of identifying their components and origin. In contrast to normal star forming galaxies, where cationic PAH emission prevails, our 6--14 microns spectra seem to be dominated by large and neutral PAH emission, responsible for the low 6 -- 9/11.3 microns ratios, plus two broad dust emission features peaking at 8.2 microns and 12 microns. Theses broad component...

  10. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in South and Southeast Asian mussels.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Takada, Hideshige; Kanai, Miki; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Isobe, Kei O; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi

    2007-12-01

    A comprehensive monitoring survey for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) utilizing mussels as sentinel organisms was conducted in South and Southeast Asia as a part of the Asian Mussel Watch project. Green mussel (Perna viridis) samples collected from a total of 48 locations in India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the Philippines during 1994-1999 were analyzed for PAHs, EDCs including nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and bisphenol A (BPA), and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as molecular markers for sewage. Concentrations of NP ranged from 18 to 643 ng/g-dry tissue. The highest levels of NP in Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Indonesia were comparable to those observed in Tokyo Bay. Elevated concentrations of EDCs were not observed in Vietnam and Cambodia, probably due to the lower extent of industrialization in these regions. No consistent relationship between concentrations of phenolic EDCs and LABs were found, suggesting that sewage is not a major source of EDCs. Concentrations of PAHs ranged from 11 to 1,133 ng/g-dry, which were categorized as "low to moderate" levels of pollution. The ratio of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P ratio) was >1.0 in 20 out of 25 locations, indicating extensive input of petrogenic PAHs. This study provides a bench-mark for data on the distribution of anthropogenic contaminants in this region, which is essential in evaluating temporal and spatial variation and effect of future regulatory measures. PMID:17370135

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and oxygenated PAH (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both PAHs and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum PAH and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. PAH and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual PAHs were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest PAH volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the PAH with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353

  12. Photoinduced Toxicity of PAHs and Alkylated PAHs to a Marine Infaunal Amphipod ( Rhepoxynius abronius )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Boese; J. O. Lamberson; R. C. Swartz; R. Ozretich; F. Cole

    1998-01-01

    .   The marine infaunal amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius was exposed in standard 10-day toxicity tests to sediments contaminated with parent or alkylated PAHs. After exposures, mortalities\\u000a (LC50 values) and the ability to rebury in control sediment (EC50 values) were determined. Survivors of these initial toxicity tests were then exposed to UV radiation in an environmental\\u000a growth chamber for 1 h. The

  13. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH Catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Huang, Meng; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23162467

  14. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. During the past year the following specific aspects of this broad problem area have been investigated: (a) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (b) The use of gas-solid chromatography to measure heats of sorption of PAHS, and PAH derivatives, on coal fly ashes and ash fractions. (c) Identification of the major photoproduct(s) of the photodecomposition of one PAH (benz[a]anthracene) sorbed on model adsorbents; (d) Estimation of fractal dimensions'' of coal fly ash particles by use of specific surface area measurements, with an ultimate objective of using these measurements to assess the importance of inner-filter effects'' on the photodecomposition of PAHs sorbed on fly ash particles. (e) The photochemical transformation of a representative nitro-PAH derivative (1-nitropyrene) sorbed on fly ash. (f) Development of techniques for studying the nonphotochemical reactions of hydroxyl radicals (and other atmospheric constituents) with PAHs sorbed on fly ash. Progress achieved, and problems encountered, in each of these major areas of emphasis is described below.

  15. Occurrence and fate of organochlorinated pesticides and PAH in agricultural soils from the Ebro River basin.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Alain; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2009-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the presence and fate of 22 organochlorinated pesticides (OCHs) and their degradation products and 16 Environmental Protection Agency-priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of the Ebro River basin (NE Spain) during a 3-year period. The study site is characterized by a long and active agricultural history where pesticides have largely been used. Soils were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This procedure was optimized in terms of multiresidue analysis and effective cleanup and proved to have excellent analytical performance (recoveries ranging between 71% and 133%, standard deviation <14%, and a method detection limit from 0.19 to 7.38 microg/kg). Soils form the Ebro basin showed a prevalence of 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDE, found in 53% and 88% of the soil samples between 0.13 and 58.17 microg/kg-dw (dry weight), respectively, indicating a slight decreasing trend of DDT within time. PAHs were detected in all soil samples at concentrations up to 465 microg/kg-dw, and the phenanthrene/anthracene (<10) and fluoranthene/pyrene (>1) ratios indicated combustion processes as the main source attributing to the burning of weeds and vegetable wastes after harvesting. No traces of any of the OCHs and PAHs were detected in groundwater, indicating that leaching for agricultural fields is not an important process of transport for these compounds. Overall, we propose the need to perform a monitoring program to evaluate the temporal tendencies and potential impact of pesticides and PAH in soils. PMID:19052798

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Astrophysics: The State of the Pah Model and a Possible Tracer of Nitrogen in Carbon-Rich Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role aromatic materials play in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the possible existence of an abundant population of large, carbon-rich molecules in the ISM was unthinkable. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) - shockingly large molecules by the standards of traditional interstellar chemistry - are recognized throughout the Universe. In this paper, we will examine the current state of the interstellar PAH model and its utility as a diagnostic tool to derive insight into the nature of the interstellar PAH population. As an example of this application, we will examine the results of our recent spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs)-PAHs with an atom of nitrogen substituted into the aromatic skeleton-and discuss a possible tracer of such species amongst the interstellar PAH emission bands in the latest observational data.

  17. PAH concentrations simulated with the AURAMS-PAH chemical transport model over Canada and the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galarneau, E.; Makar, P. A.; Zheng, Q.; Narayan, J.; Zhang, J.; Moran, M. D.; Bari, M. A.; Pathela, S.; Chen, A.; Chlumsky, R.

    2014-04-01

    The offline Eulerian AURAMS (A Unified Regional Air quality Modelling System) chemical transport model was adapted to simulate airborne concentrations of seven PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons): phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene + triphenylene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The model was then run for the year 2002 with hourly output on a grid covering southern Canada and the continental USA with 42 km horizontal grid spacing. Model predictions were compared to ~5000 24 h-average PAH measurements from 45 sites, most of which were located in urban or industrial areas. Eight of the measurement sites also provided data on particle/gas partitioning which had been modelled using two alternative schemes. This is the first known regional modelling study for PAHs over a North American domain and the first modelling study at any scale to compare alternative particle/gas partitioning schemes against paired field measurements. The goal of the study was to provide output concentration maps of use to assessing human inhalation exposure to PAHs in ambient air. Annual average modelled total (gas + particle) concentrations were statistically indistinguishable from measured values for fluoranthene, pyrene and benz[a]anthracene whereas the model underestimated concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene and chrysene + triphenylene. Significance for benzo[a]pyrene performance was close to the statistical threshold and depended on the particle/gas partitioning scheme employed. On a day-to-day basis, the model simulated total PAH concentrations to the correct order of magnitude the majority of the time. The model showed seasonal differences in prediction quality for volatile species which suggests that a missing emission source such as air-surface exchange should be included in future versions. Model performance differed substantially between measurement locations and the limited available evidence suggests that the model's spatial resolution was too coarse to capture the distribution of concentrations in densely populated areas. A more detailed analysis of the factors influencing modelled particle/gas partitioning is warranted based on the findings in this study.

  18. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ?200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

  19. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (PAH) EXPOSURE OF 257 PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure of 257 preschool children and their adult caregivers in their everyday environments. Participants were recruited randomly from eligible homes and daycare centers within six North Carolina (NC) and six Ohio (OH) c...

  20. Assessment of PAH Levels in Atmospheric Particulates from

    E-print Network

    and deposition rates to an urban watershed. Weekly samples were collected using a high volume polyurethane foam of total PAHs is expected to enter the Brunette River watershed in the form of dry atmospheric deposition

  1. DISSIPATION OF PAHs IN SATURATED, DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A FIELD TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sediments dredged from navigable rivers often contain elevated concentrations of recalcitrant, potentially toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The presence of these compounds often requires that the sediments be stored in fully conta...

  2. PAH formation in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Frenklach, Michael

    1989-01-01

    While there is growing observational evidence that some fraction of interstellar carbon is in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), the mechanisms by which these molecules might be formed have not been extensively studied. A detailed investigation of PAH production in the outflowing molecular envelopes of carbon-rich red giant star is presented. The gasphase kinetics of a chemical reaction mechanism developed to study soot production in hydrocarbon flames is modified to apply in circumstellar environments. It was found that astrophysically significant quantities of PAH's can be formed in carbon star envelopes provided the gas is sufficiently dense and resides for a long time in the temperature range of 900 to 1100 k. The precise yield of PAH's is very sensitive to astronomical parameters of the envelope (e.g., mass loss rate, outflow velocity, and acetylene abundance) and certain poorly determined chemical reaction rates.

  3. Electronic Spectroscopy of VUV Irradiated PAH Containing Interstellar Water Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, J.; Linnartz, H.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be present in space and to play a key role in inter- and circumstellar reaction schemes. Their presence is evidenced by characteristic infrared emission features following UV excitation, but unambiguous identifications have not been possible mainly because of spectral congestion and overlap. Here we present a new laboratory experiment that provides optical fingerprint spectra of PAHs in water ice. As the technique is fast - with a subsecond time resolution - also reactions in the ice following energetic processing can be monitored at astrophysically relevant temperatures (10 to 300 K). For this, the ice is irradiated with a special VUV source that produces Lyman-? radiation to simulate the interstellar radiation field. Spectral changes show that PAH-ions and reaction products involving dissociation products from the water matrix (PAH-OH and its ions) are readily formed. The technique is demonstrated on the example of pyrene (C_{16}H_{10}) in water ice.

  4. Bioremediation of coal tar PAH in soils using biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L T; Jones, D M

    2001-08-01

    The addition of biodiesel together with nitrate and phosphate to soil containing coal tar, in laboratory and field experiments, resulted in degradation of coal tar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that was not apparent when the nutrients alone were added. The addition of motor diesel fuel instead of biodiesel was also tested. Over the 55 days of the field and laboratory experiments, the biodiesel resulted in an increased degradation of naphthalene in the coal tar by 52% and 85%, respectively, and motor diesel resulted in increased depletions of 85% and 96%, respectively. Other PAH containing up to four rings were depleted to lesser extents. The increases in PAH biodegradation by the diesel treatments were ascribed to tar solubilisation and dispersion thereby increasing the PAH bioavailability. The ready biodegradability and low phytotoxicity of biodiesel suggest that it may be suitable as a novel treatment for the bioremediation of coal tar contaminated soils. PMID:11513400

  5. Effects of PAHs on the feeding activity of tubificid worms

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Sediment collected from a clean site in LA was sieved through a 125{mu}m screen and contaminated with individual PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and dibenzofuran) at increasing concentrations using spiking procedure and with a mixture of the 3 PAHs at a single concentration by shell coating. Feeding activity was estimated by defecation rate. Groups of 15 worms were assigned to defecation chambers in 4 replicates per treatment. Feces were collected daily for 10 days, filtered through a 8{mu}m membrane filter and dry weight measured. Results obtained with phenanthrene and mixture of 3 PAHs indicate that PHA bulk concentration of 100 mg/dry kg and higher significantly reduce tubificid ingestion of sediment. Total recovery to control levels occurred when worms exposed to high concentration of PAH were transferred to clean sediment. Total OC was determined to be 3.2 %.

  6. Deuterium Enrichment of PAHs by VUV Irradiation of Interstellar Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory results demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rapidly exchange their hydrogen atoms with those of nearby molecules when they are frozen into low-temperature ices and exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. As a result, PAHs quickly become deuterium-enriched when VUV irradiated in D-containing ices. This mechanism has important consequences for several astrophysical issues owing to the ubiquitous nature of PAHs in the interstellar medium. For example, this process may explain the deuterium enrichments found in PAHs in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These results also provide general predictions about the molecular siting of the deuterium on aromatic materials in meteorites if this process produced a significant fraction of their D-enrichment.

  7. Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures 

    E-print Network

    Desai, Anuradha M.

    2007-04-25

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

  8. Bacteria-mediated PAH degradation in soil and sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Ying Lu; Tong Zhang; Herbert Han-Ping Fang

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the natural environment and easily accumulate in soil and sediment\\u000a due to their low solubility and high hydrophobicity, rendering them less available for biological degradation. However, microbial\\u000a degradation is a promising mechanism which is responsible for the ecological recovery of PAH-contaminated soil and sediment\\u000a for removing these recalcitrant compounds compared with chemical degradation

  9. Photolysis degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on surface sandy soil.

    PubMed

    El-Saeid, Mohamed H; Al-Turki, Ali M; Nadeem, Mahmoud E A; Hassanin, Ashraf S; Al-Wabel, Mohamed I

    2015-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent environmental pollutants, and some of them have been identified as carcinogenic and mutagenic. To advance the knowledge of the environmental fate of PAHs, we systematically investigated the influence of different UV wavelengths irradiation on photolysis of PAHs on sandy soil under tow wavelengths (254 and 306 nm) UV irradiation for six PAHs. In addition, kinetic model and influence of several parameters on PAHs photolysis have been studied. The results obtained indicated that UV radiation with a wavelength of 306 nm was more efficient in the photolysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results showed that fluoranthene (Flt) was the fastest in decomposition, has the greatest value for the coefficient of photolysis (7.4?×?10(-3) h(-1)), and has less half-life, reaching 94 h when using a wavelength of 254 nm. The results indicated that the pyrene (Pyr) was more resistant to photolysis in comparison with indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene (IP) and fluoranthene (Flt). The results indicate that photolysis is a successful way to remediate the six studied PAHs compounds. PMID:25586619

  10. Steps Toward Identifying PAHs: A Child's Garden of Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.

    2005-01-01

    Based on over two decades of experimental, observational and theoretical studies by scientists around the world. It is now widely accepted that the composite emission of mixtures of vibrationally-excited PAHs and PAH ions can accommodate the general pattern of band positions, intensities, and profiles observed in the discreet IR emission features of carbon-rich interstellar dust, as well as the variations in those characteristics. These variations provide insight into the detailed nature of the emitting PAH population and reflect conditions within the emitting regions giving the population enormous potential as probes of astrophysical environments. Moreover, the ubiquity and abundance of this material has impacts that extend well beyond the IR. In this presentation we will examine recent, combined experimental, theoretical, and observational studies that indicate that nitrogen-substituted PAHs represent an important component of the interstellar dust population, and we will go on to explore some of the ramifications of this result. We will also explore the results of recent experimental studies of the strong, low-lying electronic transitions of ionized PAH ions in the Near-IR (0.7 - 2.5 microns) and explore the role that these transitions might play in pumping the PAH IR emission in regions of low-excitation.

  11. PAHs in dated sediments of Ashtabula River, Ohio, USA.

    PubMed

    Li, K; Christensen, E R; Van Camp, R P; Imamoglu, I

    2001-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dated sediments from Ashtabula River, Ohio, were determined, and a chemical mass balance (CMB) model was used to apportion sources. Three cores (AR-1,AR-2,AR-3) were dated by correlating uranium-supported 210Pb peaks with 1964, 1972, 1977, and 1979 maxima in the discharge record for Ashtabula River. These cores had sedimentation rates between 7.1 and 4.4 cm/year, while a fourth (AR-4) exhibited a much higher rate of 27.8 +/- 18 cm/year. The highest PAH concentration was 11,500 ng/g found in layer 6 of AR-1 (1986), and the lowest was 621 ng/g found in layer 8 of AR-2 (1982). The source contributions to the total PAH concentrations estimated by the CMB model are 0.1-2.2%, 16.8-22.8%, and 78.1-83.8% for wood burning (WB), coke oven (CO), and highway dust (HWY), respectively. Petroleum generated PAHs have maximal contribution during 1977-79, and wood burning PAHs show minimal emissions during 1975-77 in accordance with U.S. consumption records and other studies. Among six PAH markers, only phenanthrene may be subjected to aerobic biodegradation or photolysis with an apparent half-life of 0.005-0.025 year. No anaerobic degradation was observed based on the CMB model. The model works well for the nonmarker compounds, fluoranthene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene/benzo[k]fluoranthene. PMID:11478240

  12. Hydrogenation of PAH molecules through interaction with hydrogenated carbonaceous grains.

    PubMed

    Thrower, John D; Friis, Emil E; Skov, Anders L; Jørgensen, Bjarke; Hornekær, Liv

    2014-02-28

    Carbonaceous materials contribute to a significant proportion of the interstellar dust inventory. Reactions on such grain surfaces are thought to play important roles in interstellar chemical networks. Of particular importance are reactions involving hydrogen atoms, and pathways to the formation of the most abundant molecular species, H2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an additional carbon reservoir, accounting for around 10% of the galactic carbon budget. Using thermal desorption and mass spectrometric techniques, we have investigated the interaction between PAH molecules and carbonaceous grain surfaces. We demonstrate that deuterium atoms adsorbed on graphite can react with adsorbed PAH molecules, forming superhydrogenated PAH species. Furthermore, by considering the number of D-atoms remaining bound to the graphite surface and the additional D-atoms in the observed superhydrogenated species, we see evidence for a significant release of deuterium from the graphite surface. We suggest that further reactive processes may be responsible for part of this deuterium loss, indicating that PAHs adsorbed on hydrogenated carbonaceous grains in warm interstellar environments may serve as a route to release H2 as well as forming superhydrogenated PAH species. PMID:24270708

  13. Surface chemistry but not aspect ratio mediates the biological toxicity of gold nanorods in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jiali; Wang, Jia-Hong; Liu, Ting; Xie, Zhixiong; Yu, Xue-Feng; Li, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanorods are a promising nanoscale material in clinical diagnosis and treatment. The physicochemical properties of GNRs, including size, shape and surface features, are crucial factors affecting their cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of different aspect ratios and surface modifications on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of GNRs in cultured cells and in mice. The results indicated that the surface chemistry but not the aspect ratio of GNRs mediates their biological toxicity. CTAB-GNRs with various aspect ratios had similar abilities to induce cell apoptosis and autophagy by damaging mitochondria and activating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, GNRs coated with CTAB/PSS, CTAB/PAH, CTAB/PSS/PAH or CTAB/PAH/PSS displayed low toxicity and did not induce cell death. CTAB/PAH-coated GNRs caused minimally abnormal cell morphology compared with CTAB/PSS and CTAB/PSS/PAH coated GNRs. Moreover, the intravenous injection of CTAB/PAH GNRs enabled the GNRs to reach tumor tissues through blood circulation in animals and remained stable, with a longer half-life compared to the other GNRs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that further coating can prevent cytotoxicity and cell death upon CTAB-coated GNR administration, similar to changing the GNR aspect ratio and CTAB/PAH coated GNRs show superior biological properties with better biocompatibility and minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:26096816

  14. Surface chemistry but not aspect ratio mediates the biological toxicity of gold nanorods in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiali; Wang, Jia-Hong; Liu, Ting; Xie, Zhixiong; Yu, Xue-Feng; Li, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanorods are a promising nanoscale material in clinical diagnosis and treatment. The physicochemical properties of GNRs, including size, shape and surface features, are crucial factors affecting their cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of different aspect ratios and surface modifications on the cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of GNRs in cultured cells and in mice. The results indicated that the surface chemistry but not the aspect ratio of GNRs mediates their biological toxicity. CTAB-GNRs with various aspect ratios had similar abilities to induce cell apoptosis and autophagy by damaging mitochondria and activating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, GNRs coated with CTAB/PSS, CTAB/PAH, CTAB/PSS/PAH or CTAB/PAH/PSS displayed low toxicity and did not induce cell death. CTAB/PAH-coated GNRs caused minimally abnormal cell morphology compared with CTAB/PSS and CTAB/PSS/PAH coated GNRs. Moreover, the intravenous injection of CTAB/PAH GNRs enabled the GNRs to reach tumor tissues through blood circulation in animals and remained stable, with a longer half-life compared to the other GNRs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that further coating can prevent cytotoxicity and cell death upon CTAB-coated GNR administration, similar to changing the GNR aspect ratio and CTAB/PAH coated GNRs show superior biological properties with better biocompatibility and minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:26096816

  15. Hemodynamics in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): do they explain long-term clinical outcomes with PAH-specific therapy?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has witnessed dramatic treatment advances over the past decade. However, with the exception of epoprostenol, data from short-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not shown a benefit of these drugs on survival. There remains a need to differentiate between available therapies and current endpoint responses which in turn, could be used to guide treatment selection and provide long-term prognostic information for patients. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for RCTs of PAH-specific therapy published between January 1980 and May 2009. Articles were selected if they contained a placebo comparator and described hemodynamic changes from baseline. We applied the weighted mean change in hemodynamic variables to the equation developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Registry to estimate long-term survival with each therapy. Results Ten RCTs involving 1,635 patients met the inclusion criteria. Suitable hemodynamic data were identified for bosentan, sitaxentan, sildenafil, epoprostenol, beraprost and treprostinil. 77.6% of patients were female and the mean (SD) age was 46.5 ± 4.9 years. 55.5% of patients had idiopathic PAH (iPAH), 23.9% PAH related to connective tissue disease, and 18.2% PAH related to congenital heart disease. Based on the effects observed in short-term trials and, relative to placebo, all analyzed therapies improved survival. The estimated 1-year survival was 78.4%, 77.8%, 76.1%, 75.8%, 75.2%, and 74.1% for epoprostenol, bosentan, treprostinil, sitaxentan, sildenafil, and beraprost, respectively. These estimates are considerably lower than the 1-year observed survival reported in several open-label and registry studies with PAH-specific therapies: 88% - 97%. Conclusion When applied to the NIH Registry equation, hemodynamic changes from baseline appear to underestimate the survival benefits observed with long-term PAH therapy. PMID:20170553

  16. Unlike PAHs from Exxon Valdez crude oil, PAHs from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable

    SciTech Connect

    Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN (United States). Department of Chemistry

    2009-08-15

    In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the PAHs. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying PAH contents. Even for coals with high PAH content (4000 ppm total PAHs), a PAH-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Correlations between PAH bioavailability, degrading bacteria, and soil characteristics during PAH biodegradation in five diffusely contaminated dissimilar soils.

    PubMed

    Crampon, M; Bureau, F; Akpa-Vinceslas, M; Bodilis, J; Machour, N; Le Derf, F; Portet-Koltalo, F

    2014-01-01

    The natural biodegradation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by native microorganisms was studied in five soils from Normandy (France) from diffusely polluted areas, which can also pose a problem in terms of surfaces and amounts of contaminated soils. Bioavailability tests using cyclodextrin-based extractions were performed. The natural degradation of low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs was not strongly correlated to their bioavailability due to their sorption to geosorbents. Conversely, the very low degradation of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs was partly correlated to their poor availability, due to their sorption on complexes of organic matter and kaolinites or smectites. A principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish between the respective degradation behaviors of LMW and HMW PAHs. LMW PAHs were degraded in less than 2-3 months and were strongly influenced by the relative percentage of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria over total bacteria in soils. HMW PAHs were not significantly degraded, not only because they were less bioavailable but also because of a lack of degrading microorganisms. Benzo[a]pyrene stood apart since it was partly degraded in acidic soils, probably because of a catabolic cooperation between bacteria and fungi. PMID:24671402

  18. Interspecies and interregional comparisons of the chemistry of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migaszewski, Zdzis?aw M.; Ga?uszka, Agnieszka; Crock, James G.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Do??gowska, Sabina

    Comparative biogeochemical studies performed on the same plant species in remote areas enable pinpointing interspecies and interregional differences of chemical composition. This report presents baseline concentrations of PAHs and trace elements in moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) (HCM) and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Total PAH concentrations in the mosses of HCM were in the range of 473-2970 ?g kg -1 (dry weight basis; DW), whereas those in the same species of Alaska were 80-3390 ?g kg -1 DW. Nearly all the moss samples displayed the similar ring sequence: 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 for the PAHs. The 3 + 4 ring/total PAH ratios show statistically significant differences between HCM (0.73) and Alaska (0.91). The elevated concentrations of PAHs observed in some sampling locations of the Alaskan parks were linked to local combustion of wood, with a component of vehicle particle- and vapor-phase emissions. In HCM, the principal source of PAH emissions has been linked to residential and industrial combustion of coal and vehicle traffic. In contrast to HCM, the Alaskan mosses were distinctly elevated in most of the trace elements, bearing a signature of the underlying geology. H. splendens and P. schreberi showed diverse bioaccumulative capabilities of PAHs in all three study areas.

  19. Interspecies and interregional comparisons of the chemistry of PAHs and trace elements in mosses Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. from Poland and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Galuszka, A.; Crock, J.G.; Lamothe, P.J.; Dolegowska, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative biogeochemical studies performed on the same plant species in remote areas enable pinpointing interspecies and interregional differences of chemical composition. This report presents baseline concentrations of PAHs and trace elements in moss species Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi from the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland) (HCM) and Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park and Preserve (Alaska) and Denali National Park and Preserve (Alaska). Total PAH concentrations in the mosses of HCM were in the range of 473-2970 ??g kg-1 (dry weight basis; DW), whereas those in the same species of Alaska were 80-3390 ??g kg-1 DW. Nearly all the moss samples displayed the similar ring sequence: 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 for the PAHs. The 3 + 4 ring/total PAH ratios show statistically significant differences between HCM (0.73) and Alaska (0.91). The elevated concentrations of PAHs observed in some sampling locations of the Alaskan parks were linked to local combustion of wood, with a component of vehicle particle- and vapor-phase emissions. In HCM, the principal source of PAH emissions has been linked to residential and industrial combustion of coal and vehicle traffic. In contrast to HCM, the Alaskan mosses were distinctly elevated in most of the trace elements, bearing a signature of??the underlying geology. H.??splendens and P. schreberi showed diverse bioaccumulative capabilities of PAHs in all three study areas. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into Central Park Lake, New York City, over a century of deposition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F; Abrajano, Teofilo A; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N

    2014-05-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion-derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur-content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  1. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  2. Rod Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2013-01-01

    This activity builds student knowledge of ratios by using Cuisenaire rods to determine proportion and form equivalent ratios. Students may use the Cuisenaire rod environment embedded in this resource or they may use actual Cuisenaire rods depending on preference/ability/accessibility. This resource includes teacher notes, solution, and suggestions for questioning.

  3. Lightning Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Using satellites and ground-based detection instruments, researchers have now mapped out lightning ratios for the continental United States. The Lightning Ratios site, from Space Science News (NASA), provides recent data in the form of a vibrant color map (.pdf or .jpg) of cloud-to-cloud lightning to cloud-to-ground lightning over the continental United States.

  4. Behavior of PAHs from sewage sludge incinerators in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Min; Lee, Sang Bo; Kim, Jin Pil; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Oh Sang; Jung, Dong Il

    2009-02-01

    Although production of sewage sludge increases every year, its proper treatment has only been recently raised as a new issue, as current landfill and ocean dumping arrangements are expected to become increasingly difficult to manage in the future. The Korean Ministry of Environment plans to diversify its processing facilities and expand its processing systems by 2011, with the purpose of processing all sludge produced in Korea. According to this plan, incineration (including incineration of municipal wastes) will process 30% of the entire sewage sludge throughout the country in 2011. This study reviews the characteristics of PAH, which is one of the organic substances found in sewage sludge during the incinerating process. The total amount of PAH produced from sewage sludge incineration was found to be 6.103 mg/kg on average, and investigation performed on 16 PAHs of inlets and outlets of the air control devices at five full-scale incineration facilities showed that concentrations of the PAHs on the inlet and on the outlet ranged from 3.926 to 925.748 microg/m(3) and from 1.153 to 189.449 microg/m(3), respectively. In the case of the incineration facility fed with municipal waste (95%) and sewage sludge (5%), the total of the PAH emissions concentration was higher than that found at the incineration facilities used exclusively to treat sewage. The combustion of waste vinyl and plastics contained in municipal waste fed into the facility might contribute to the high levels of PAHs in the stack gas. However more investigation is needed on the production mechanism of PAHs at different operating conditions of the incineration facilities, such as the types of waste, and other relevant factors. PMID:18951779

  5. Screening and Diagnostic Modalities for Connective Tissue Dieases-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gladue, Heather; Altorok, Nezam; Townsend, Whitney; McLaughlin, Vallerie; Khanna, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a frequent complication in connective tissue diseases (CTD), especially in systemic sclerosis (SSc), and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. We undertook a systematic review for the screening tests for CTD-PAH. Methods A systematic literature search of PAH in CTD was performed in available databases through June 2012. Our evaluation of diagnostic tests was focused on patients with PAH confirmed by right heart catheterization (RHC). Results The search resulted in 2805 titles and 838 abstracts. Our final inclusion encompassed 21 manuscripts – 6 of which were case control studies and 15 were cohort studies. Twelve studies assessed the tricuspid regurgitation velocity (VTR) or equivalent right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) using transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) as a threshold for RHC in patients suspected as having PAH. The screening threshold for RHC was VTR from >2.73 to >3.16 m/s without symptoms or 2.5 to 3.0 m/s with symptoms and resulted in 20–67% of patients having RHC proven PAH. Three studies looked at pulmonary function tests and found that a low lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (45–70% of predicted) is associated with a 5.6–7.4% development of PAH, and a decline in DLCO% is associated with an increase in the specificity (for DLCO?60% spec= 45%, and for DLCO?50% spec=90%) for PAH. Five studies assessed N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) where a cut-off >239pg/ml has a sensitivity of 90–100%. Conclusions Our systematic review revealed that most evidence exists for TTE, pulmonary function tests, and NT-ProBNP for screening and diagnosis of SSc-PAH, however more robust studies are needed. PMID:24012044

  6. Biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in Soils and Sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Tindall, J. A.; Zhang, W.

    2002-12-01

    Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for PAHs and PCBs biodegradation are evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in a soil/water system, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals at remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration. Model responses were validated by a favorable match to measurements of biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in a land treatment unit operated by Aluminum Corporation of America Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (SRA) reduces to zero (i.e., undetectable), with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (SIA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (SIA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, PAHs and PCBs will leach only slightly, if at all from the treatment site and thus, they constitute no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of PAHs and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight PAHs and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large Kd, i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the PAHs degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity, K (as described by Monod kinetics parameters), regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential active-passive biotreatment can be a cost-effective approach for remediation of highly hydrophobic organic contaminants. The mathematical model proposed here should be useful in the design and operation of such organic chemical biodegradation processes on remediation sites. Keywords: PAHs; PCBs; Biodegradation; land treatment; Mathematical model and application

  7. PAH Formation in O-rich Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    Guzman-Ramirez, L; Jones, D; Zijlstra, A A; Gesicki, K

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae towards the Galactic Bulge. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around such objects. We recently proposed that PAHs could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. In this work, using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the PAH bands and ionised emission from the [SIV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, PAHs are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionised material is mostly present in the inner parts of these tori, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of PAHs in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation o...

  8. Monitoring the occurrence of PAHs in Irish wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lisa; Kinsella, Brian; Furey, Ambrose; Regan, Fiona

    2012-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are commonly occurring environmental pollutants, 8 of which have been chosen from the list of priority substances in the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The levels of PAHs in the environment are affected by a number of emission factors including anthropogenic activities, population equivalents, and weather, all of which must be taken into account when monitoring levels of PAHs being released into the environment via waste water treatment plant effluent. Effluent samples have been collected from nine different wastewater treatment plants in 2 areas of Ireland (Dublin and Cork) over a period of 3 years (2009-2011), including several weeks of high intensity sampling. Solid phase extraction is used in the sample preparation process with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GCMS). All samples analysed contained the priority PAHs in this study; however levels detected do not exceed environmental quality standards (EQSs). Herein these results are related to a number of key emission factors affecting the levels of PAHs present in wastewater treatment plant effluent. This study aims to complement storm water studies and inform future targeted priority substance monitoring programmes. PMID:23034654

  9. diagnostics Cataglyphis

    E-print Network

    Baddeley, Adrian

    Residuals and diagnostics for spatial point processes Adrian Baddeley Joint work with Martin arkk a (1993). #12; #12; Copper deposits (Ã?) and lineaments (|) in a geological survey . Berman) #17; #21; inhomogeneous Poisson, intensity function #21;(u): #21;(u; x) = #21;(u) Strauss process

  10. Interstellar PAH Emission in the 11-14 micron Region: New Insights and a Tracer of Ionized PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Ames infrared spectral database of isolated, neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) shows that aromatic CH out-of-plane bending frequencies are significantly shifted upon ionization. For non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH groups, the shift is pronounced and consistently toward higher frequencies. The non-adjacent modes are blueshifted by an average of 27 per cm and the doubly-adjacent modes by an average of 17 per cm. For triply- and quadruply-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes the ionization shifts are more erratic and typically more modest. As a result of these ionization shifts, both the non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes move out of the regions classically associated with their respective vibrations in neutral PAHs. The doubly-adjacent modes of ionized PAHs tend to fall into the frequency range traditionally associated with the non-adjacent modes, while the non-adjacent modes are shifted to frequencies above those normally attributed to out-of-plane bending vibrations. Consequently, the origin of the interstellar infrared emission feature near 11.2 microns, traditionally attributed to the out-of-plane bending of non-adjacent CH groups on PAHs is rendered ambiguous. Instead, this feature likely reflects contributions from both non-adjacent CH units in neutral PAHs and doubly-adjacent CH units in PAH cations, the dominant charge state in the most energetic emission regions. This greatly relieves the structural constraints placed on the interstellar PAH population by the dominance of the 11.2 micron band in this region and eliminates the necessity to invoke extensive dehydrogenation of the emitting species. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emission between 926 and 904 per cm (10.8 and 11.1 microns) observed in many sources can be unambiguously attributed to the non-adjacent CH out-of-plane bending modes of moderately-sized (fewer than 50 carbon atom) PAH cations making this emission an unequivocal tracer of ionized interstellar PAHs.

  11. Enhanced sorption of PAHs in natural-fire-impacted sediments from Oriole Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Julia; Bollinger, Kevyn; Caprio, Anthony; Cantwell, Mark; Appleby, Peter; King, John; Ligouis, Bertrand; Lohmann, Rainer

    2011-04-01

    Surface sediment cores from Oriole Lake (CA) were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), and their ?(13)C isotope ratios. Sediments displayed high OC (20-25%) and increasing BC concentrations from ?0.40% (in 1800 C.E.) to ?0.60% dry weight (in 2000 C.E.). Petrographic analysis confirmed the presence of fire-derived carbonaceous particles/BC at ?2% of total OC. Natural fires were the most likely cause of both elevated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and enhanced sorption in Oriole Lake sediments prior to 1850, consistent with their tree-ring-based fire history. In contrast to other PAHs, retene and perylene displayed decreasing concentrations during periods with natural fires, questioning their use as fire tracers. The occurrence of natural fires, however, did not result in elevated concentrations of black carbon or chars in the sediments. Only the 1912-2007 sediment layer contained anthropogenic particles, such as soot BC. In this layer, combining OC absorption with adsorption to soot BC (using a Freundlich coefficient n = 0.7) explained the observed sorption well. In the older layers, n needed to be 0.3 and 0.5 to explain the enhanced sorption to the sediments, indicating the importance of natural chars/inertinites in sorbing PAHs. For phenanthrene, values of n differed significantly between sorption to natural chars (0.1-0.4) and sorption to anthropogenic black carbon (>0.5), suggesting it could serve as an in situ probe of sorbents. PMID:21405084

  12. Experimental study on the removal of PAHs using in-duct activated carbon injection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Cang; Zhong, Zhao-Ping; Jin, Bao-Sheng; Huang, Ya-Ji; Xiao, Rui

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the incineration tests of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a fluidized bed and the adsorption of activated carbon (AC) on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). An extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was used to analyze the concentrations of the 16 US EPA specified PAHs contained in raw MSW, flue gas, fly ash, and bottom ash. The aim of this work was to decide the influence of AC on the distribution of PAHs during the incineration of MSW. Experimental researches show that there were a few PAHs in MSW and bottom ash. With the increase of AC feeding rate, the concentrations of three- to six-ring PAHs in fly ash increased, and the concentration of two-ring PAH decreased. The total-PAHs in flue gas were dominated by three-, and four-ring PAHs, but a few two-, five-ring PAHs and no six-ring PAHs were found. PAHs could be removed effectively from flue gas by using in-duct AC injection and the removal efficiencies of PAHs were about 76-91%. In addition, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of PAH in raw MSW, bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas were 1.24 mg TEQ kg-1, 0.25 mg TEQ kg-1, 6.89-9.67 mg TEQ kg-1, and 0.36-1.50 microg TEQ Nm-3, respectively. PMID:15811415

  13. Sediment-porewater partitioning of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Maruya, K.A.; Risebrough, R.W.; Horne, A.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Quantifying the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds between contaminated sediment and interstitial water is key to understanding their fate and effects in aquatic ecosystems. Sampling during the wet and dry-seasons in San Francisco Bay has revealed that the extent of partitioning, measured as the apparent sediment organic carbon-porewater distribution coefficient (K{sub oc}{prime}), was positively correlated with the octanol-water distribution coefficient (K{sub ow}) for a suite of pyrogenically-derived, 2-6 ring PAHs. In addition, sediment PAHs (organic carbon basis) were associated with the silt fraction and organic carbon content. Moreover, K{sub oc}{prime} decreased along an intertidal gradient and was an order of magnitude higher during the wet season when runoff into the Bay was high. Our results provide evidence that substrate heterogeneity, a factor not accounted for in simple equilibrium models, can significantly alter the distribution of PAHs in this environment.

  14. Spitzer Observations of Extraplanar PAH Emission from Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, N.; Howk, J.

    We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from interstellar material in the thick disks of normal spiral galaxies. These data show PAHs to be a common constituent of extraplanar material in spirals. The processes that displace this material from the interstellar disks of these systems do not destroy these very small grains. The dust emission features are present far above the galactic planes, extended up to about 2-4 kpc above the midplanes of the galaxies presented in this work. The total extent for which dust can be traced is about half the extent of the DIG. If it is not a sensitivity effect, this suggests that PAHs may be associated with a cold neutral medium that can not be supported at high z.

  15. Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

    1997-01-01

    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies. PMID:11541329

  16. Laboratory Studies on the Role of PAHs as DIB Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisken, F.; Rouillé, G.; Steglich, M.; Carpentier, Y.; Jäger, C.; Henning, Th.

    2014-02-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules has been studied in the laboratory at low temperatures using both molecular beam and matrix isolation spectroscopy techniques. While molecular beam spectra can be readily compared to astronomical observations, the band positions measured in Ne and Ar matrices are extrapolated to obtain rather good estimates for the same transitions in the gas phase. Absolute absorption cross sections are determined for gas-phase and matrix spectra by comparing them with calibrated solution spectra. All laboratory results are analyzed and discussed in view of the role that PAHs can play as carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Our studies suggest that regular neutral PAHs are not responsible for any of the known strong DIBs.

  17. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    PubMed

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

  18. DETECTIONS OF WATER ICE, HYDROCARBONS, AND 3.3 {mu}m PAH IN z {approx} 2 ULIRGs

    SciTech Connect

    Sajina, Anna [Physics and Astronomy Department, Haverford College, Haverford, PA, 19041 (United States); Spoon, Henrik [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Yan Lin [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Imanishi, Masatoshi [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fadda, Dario [NASAHerschel Space Telescope Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Elitzur, Moshe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2009-09-20

    We present the first detections of the 3 {mu}m water ice and 3.4 {mu}m amorphous hydrocarbon (HAC) absorption features in z {approx} 2 ULIRGs. These are based on deep rest-frame 2-8 {mu}m Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 11 sources selected for their appreciable silicate absorption. The HAC-to-silicate ratio for our z {approx} 2 sources is typically higher by a factor of 2-5 than that observed in the Milky Way. This HAC 'excess' suggests compact nuclei with steep temperature gradients as opposed to predominantly host obscuration. Beside the above molecular absorption features, we detect the 3.3 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature in one of our sources with three more individual spectra showing evidence for it. Stacking analysis suggests that water ice, hydrocarbons, and PAH are likely present in the bulk of this sample even when not individually detected. The most unexpected result of our study is the lack of clear detections of the 4.67 {mu}m CO gas absorption feature. Only three of the sources show tentative signs of this feature at significantly lower levels than has been observed in local ULIRGs. Overall we find that the closest local analogs to our sources, in terms of 3-4 {mu}m color, HAC-to-silicate and ice-to-silicate ratios, as well as low PAH equivalent widths, are sources dominated by deeply obscured nuclei. Such sources form only a small fraction of ULIRGs locally and are commonly believed to be dominated by buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample suggests that, in an absolute number, such buried AGNs are at least an order of magnitude more common at z {approx} 2 than today. The presence of PAH suggests that significant levels of star formation are present even if the obscured AGNs typically dominate the power budget.

  19. Global time trends in PAH emissions from motor vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual PAHs for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of PAHs (EFPAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EFPAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of PAHs from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EFPAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EFPAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EFPAH and subsequently PAH emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of PAHs is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030. PMID:24198716

  20. Global time trends in PAH emissions from motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang

    2011-04-01

    Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual PAHs for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of PAHs (EFPAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EFPAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of PAHs from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EFPAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EFPAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EFPAH and subsequently PAH emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of PAHs is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030. PMID:24198716

  1. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND EMISSION LINE RATIOS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R., E-mail: dinalva.aires@ufrgs.b, E-mail: pastoriza@ufrgs.b, E-mail: riffel@ufrgs.b [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-12-10

    We study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, ionic emission lines, and mid-infrared continuum properties in a sample of 171 emission line galaxies taken from the literature plus 15 new active galactic nucleus (AGN) Spitzer spectra. We normalize the spectra at {lambda} = 23 {mu}m and grouped them according to the type of nuclear activity. The continuum shape steeply rises for longer wavelengths and can be fitted with a warm blackbody distribution of T {approx} 150-300 K. The brightest PAH spectral bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 {mu}m) and the forbidden emission lines of [Si II] 34.8 {mu}m, [Ar II] 6.9 {mu}m, [S III] 18.7 and 33.4 {mu}m were detected in all the starbursts and in {approx}80% of the Seyfert 2. Taking under consideration only the PAH bands at 7.7 {mu}m, 11.3 {mu}m, and 12.7 {mu}m, we find that they are present in {approx}80% of the Seyfert 1, while only half of this type of activity show the 6.2 {mu}m and 8.6 {mu}m PAH bands. The observed intensity ratios for neutral and ionized PAHs (6.2 {mu}m/7.7 {mu}m x 11.3 {mu}m/7.7 {mu}m) were compared to theoretical intensity ratios, showing that AGNs have higher ionization fraction and larger PAH molecules ({>=}180 carbon atoms) than SB galaxies. The ratio between the ionized (7.7 {mu}m) and the neutral PAH bands (8.6 {mu}m and 11.3 {mu}m) are distributed over different ranges for AGNs and SB galaxies, suggesting that these ratios could depend on the ionization fraction, as well as on the hardness of the radiation field. The ratio between the 7.7 {mu}m and 11.3 {mu}m bands is nearly constant with the increase of [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m, indicating that the fraction of ionized to neutral PAH bands does not depend on the hardness of the radiation field. The equivalent width of both PAH features show the same dependence (strongly decreasing) with [Ne III]/[Ne II], suggesting that the PAH molecules, emitting either ionized (7.7 {mu}m) or neutral (11.3 {mu}m) bands, may be destroyed with the increase of the hardness of the radiation field.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF NITRO-SUBSTITUTED CYCLOPENTA-FUSED PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    PAH containing a peripherally fused cyclopenta ring are genotoxically active in Salmonella and mammalian cells and have been identified in combustion emissions. Since the cyclopenta ring is predicted to be susceptible to electrophilic attack, nitrosubstituted cyclopenta-fused PAH...

  3. ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR PHOTO-ACTIVATED TOXICITY OF PAHS IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants introduced through combustion processes and from release of petroleum and petroleum products. Assessing the ecological risk from PAHs is complicated by several factors, including their occurrence a...

  4. Metabolism of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Cunninghamella elegans

    E-print Network

    Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

    2007-04-25

    was also seen to affect metabolism in mixtures and the possible creation of toxicity effects during mixture metabolism. PAH concentration changed over time with faster change during single PAH metabolism followed by ternary mixture metabolism and finally...

  5. RISKS TO FISH AND OTHER AQUATIC ORGANISMS FROM PAHS IN NATURAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the risks of PAHs to aquatic organisms requires consideration of several factors. First, environmental PAH concentrations must be characterized, including chemical partitioning information important to bioavailability. Second, UV radiation exposures must be evaluated re...

  6. Interactions between soil fractions and PAH compounds in thermal desorption of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, A.K.; Svrcek, W.Y. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Maguire, V. [Amoco Canada Petroleum Co., Ltd., Calgary (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Results are reported for the interactions between three fractions of a soil, namely fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA) and humic/inorganic fractions, and three polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Prepared PAH+soil fraction mixtures, with 0.8-7.0 mass% PAH, were tested using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) over a temperature range of 20-390{degrees}C. The DSC results for the PAH+HA mixtures showed distinctly different characteristics than the other two soil fractions, where the endothermic peak for the vaporization of the PAH was absent. With the aid of flash calculations, the absence of the vaporization peak is interpreted to be due to the liquid-phase miscibility of the PAHs and the HA fraction. The miscible behavior of HA+PAHs implies that the temperature necessary for complete removal of a PAH would be higher than its boiling point temperature. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  7. ASSAYING PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM ARCHIVED PM2.5 FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne particulate matter contains numerous organic species, including several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are known or suspected carcinogens. Existing methods for measuring airborne PAHs are complex and costly, primarily because they are designed to collect...

  8. A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF PAH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight PAHs are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...

  9. Increased zooplankton PAH concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-06-15

    The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand PAHs pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of PAHs in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of PAHs ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest PAHs levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton PAHs in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that PAHs are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of PAHs in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities. PMID:24775063

  10. Paper Diagnostics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, focuses on diagnostic methods of investigation looking at the issue of HIV/AIDS. In this activity, students will explore "the societal impacts of engineering and science, specifically as it relates to the AIDS epidemic in developing countries. A series of videos and accompanying questions help students explore how engineers and scientists can contribute to various solutions related to diagnosing and preventing the spread of disease. The activity highlights the development of low-cost paper diagnostics for rapid and private diagnosis of AIDS and diseases  related to AIDS (TB, other sexually transmitted diseases, etc.)." This activity will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. A Teacher Preparation Guide, Next Generation Science Standards for this lesson, and a link to George Whitesides video used in lesson video from the NY Times are included.

  11. NSTX Diagnostics and Operation: Status and Plans

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; and the NSTX Research Team

    2001-08-30

    The low aspect ratio and low magnetic field of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) create many challenges for plasma diagnostics and control, as well as opportunities for studying new plasma phenomena. This paper describes the diagnostics now installed for studies of confinement, stability and edge plasma phenomena, and some of the diagnostic developments planned for the near future. The design of the plasma control system and plans for its development are also presented.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the urban topsoils of Shenyang, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuebing Sun; Guohong Sun; Qixing Zhou; Yingming Xu; Lin Wang; Xuefeng Liang; Yang Sun; Xu Qin

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface urban soils of Shenyang in Northeastern China were investigated. The total concentration of the PAHs ranged from 0.09 to 8.35 mg kg, with an average value of 1.51 ± 1.64 mg kg. 3–5-ring PAHs accounted for 90% of total PAHs. The functional areas, such as the industrial regions (4.95 mg kg) and main roads (1.56 mg kg),

  13. Deepwater Horizon Data Validation Report PAH & Alkylated Homologs by GC/MS-SIM

    E-print Network

    Deepwater Horizon ­ Data Validation Report PAH & Alkylated Homologs by GC/MS-SIM 1005013_Alk-PAH Table: MC252-PAH, Rev. 0 Date of Report: July 23, 2010 Approved for Release: Refer to the SAMPLE INDEX=lbohannon@ecochem.net, c=US 2010.07.23 10:00:38 -07'00' #12;1005013_Alk-PAH Page 2 of 5 EcoChem, Inc. Data Package

  14. Genome-to-function characterization of novel fungal P450 monooxygenases oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Lam, Ying Wai; Yadav, Jagjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Fungi, particularly the white rot basidiomycetes, have an extraordinary capability to degrade and/or mineralize (to CO2) the recalcitrant fused-ring high molecular weight (? 4 aromatic-rings) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs). Despite over 30 years of research demonstrating involvement of P450 monooxygenation reactions in fungal metabolism of HMW PAHs, specific P450 monooxygenases responsible for oxidation of these compounds are not yet known. Here we report the first comprehensive identification and functional characterization of P450 monooxygenases capable of oxidizing different ring-size PAHs in the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium using a successful genome-to-function strategy. In a genome-wide P450 microarray screen, we identified six PAH-responsive P450 genes (Pc-pah1 - Pc-pah6) inducible by PAHs of varying ring size, namely naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Using a co-expression strategy, cDNAs of the six Pc-Pah P450s were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris in conjunction with the homologous P450 oxidoreductase (Pc-POR). Each of the six recombinant P450 monooxygenases showed PAH-oxidizing activity albeit with varying substrate specificity towards PAHs (3–5 rings). All six P450s oxidized pyrene (4-ring) into two monohydroxylated products. Pc-Pah1 and Pc-Pah3 oxidized BaP (5-ring) to 3-hydroxyBaP whereas Pc-Pah4 and Pc-Pah6 oxidized phenanthrene (3-ring) to 3-, 4-, and 9-phenanthrol. These PAH-oxidizing P450s (493 – 547 aa) are structurally diverse and novel considering their low overall homology (12–23%) to mammalian counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on specific fungal P450 monooxygenases with catalytic activity toward environmentally persistent and highly toxic HMW PAHs. PMID:20674550

  15. Genome-to-function characterization of novel fungal P450 monooxygenases oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    PubMed

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Lam, Ying Wai; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2010-09-01

    Fungi, particularly the white rot basidiomycetes, have an extraordinary capability to degrade and/or mineralize (to CO(2)) the recalcitrant fused-ring high molecular weight (4 aromatic-rings) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs). Despite over 30years of research demonstrating involvement of P450 monooxygenation reactions in fungal metabolism of HMW PAHs, specific P450 monooxygenases responsible for oxidation of these compounds are not yet known. Here we report the first comprehensive identification and functional characterization of P450 monooxygenases capable of oxidizing different ring-size PAHs in the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium using a successful genome-to-function strategy. In a genome-wide P450 microarray screen, we identified six PAH-responsive P450 genes (Pc-pah1-Pc-pah6) inducible by PAHs of varying ring size, namely naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Using a co-expression strategy, cDNAs of the six Pc-Pah P450s were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris in conjunction with the homologous P450 oxidoreductase (Pc-POR). Each of the six recombinant P450 monooxygenases showed PAH-oxidizing activity albeit with varying substrate specificity towards PAHs (3-5 rings). All six P450s oxidized pyrene (4-ring) into two monohydroxylated products. Pc-Pah1 and Pc-Pah3 oxidized BaP (5-ring) to 3-hydroxyBaP whereas Pc-Pah4 and Pc-Pah6 oxidized phenanthrene (3-ring) to 3-, 4-, and 9-phenanthrol. These PAH-oxidizing P450s (493-547 aa) are structurally diverse and novel considering their low overall homology (12-23%) to mammalian counterparts. To our knowledge, this is the first report on specific fungal P450 monooxygenases with catalytic activity toward environmentally persistent and highly toxic HMW PAHs. PMID:20674550

  16. PAH depositional history and sources in recent sediment core from Ukwa Ibom Lake, S. E. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyo-Ita, O E; Oyo-Ita, I O

    2013-04-01

    Analyses of recent sediment core from the Ukwa Ibom Lake show evidence of aquatic production, terrigenous, combustion and petroleum inputs. Total organic carbon/total nitrogen values (>10) for the sediments indicate greater wash-in of land-plant organic matter relative to algal production. The characteristic combustion ratios, fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene (>0.50), anthracene/anthracene + phenanthrene (>0.10), benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene (>0.35) as well as 1,7/1,7 + 2,6-dimethylphenanthrene (>0.70) were observed for the top section only. These results coincided with the most recent pave-road extension exercise involving tree logging and burning of bush. The highest total PAH concentration (91.13 ng/g dry weight (dw)) observed for the bottom section coincided with the period of inhabitation of the lake catchments (~5 decades ago) when discharge to the Lake water of domestic sewage and mill waste water were prevalent. The regular decline in total PAH concentrations upcore is a reflection of the ban placed on indiscriminate dumping of wastes following relocation of the inhabitants of the catchments. Besides the local depositional history, the irregular decrease in unresolved complex mixture (UCM) profiles suggests regional contaminant influx from the adjacent upper Cross River estuary, especially during intense rainfall event. The non-uniformity in methylphenanthrene indices (MPI-1 and MPI-2) shows evidence of importation and utilization of petroleum products of different thermal maturity histories into the Nigerian economy. PMID:22821212

  17. Current and historical deposition of PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to Rocky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Sascha; Landers, Dixon H; Appleby, Peter G; Simonich, Staci L

    2007-11-01

    An analytical method was developed for the trace analysis of 98 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in remote, high-elevation lake sediment. Sediment cores from Lone Pine Lake (west of the Continental Divide) and Mills Lake (east of the Continental Divide) in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides, phosphorothioate pesticides, thiocarbamate pesticides, amide herbicides, triazine herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using this method. SOC deposition profiles were reconstructed, and deposition half-lives and doubling times were calculated, for U.S. historic-use pesticides (HUPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) as well as PBDEs, PCBs, and PAHs. Sediment records indicate that the deposition of CUPs has increased in recent years, while the deposition of HUPs has decreased since U.S. restriction, but has not been eliminated. This is likely due to the revolatilization of HUPs from regional soils, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Differences in the magnitude of SOC sediment fluxes, flux profiles, time trends within those profiles, and isomeric ratios suggest that SOC deposition in high-elevation ecosystems is dependent on regional upslope wind directions and site location with respect to regional sources and topographic barriers. PMID:18044494

  18. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePLUS

    Diagnostic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for genetic conditions Diagnostic testing Testing for genetic conditions Carrier ... help you make the decision. What Is Diagnostic Testing? Diagnostic genetic testing can usually work out if ...

  19. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  20. Climate Change and Emissions Impacts on Atmospheric PAH Transport to the Arctic*

    E-print Network

    Climate Change and Emissions Impacts on Atmospheric PAH Transport to the Arctic* Carey L. Friedman Change and Emissions Impacts on Atmospheric PAH Transport to the Arctic Carey L. Friedman,*, Yanxu Zhang on the atmospheric transport of three polycyclic aromatic hydro- carbons (PAHs): phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR

  1. Environmental Research 105 (2007) 101118 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Research 105 (2007) 101­118 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread contaminants in the San Francisco Bay. Several exceedances of water quality criteria raise the possibility that PAH may be impacting aquatic biota. The Regional Monitoring Program

  2. Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) from G3MP2B3 Calculations

    E-print Network

    Pitsch, Heinz

    Thermochemical Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) from G3MP2B3 Calculations database of thermodynamic properties for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These large aromatic. PAH are commonly assumed to be the intermediates leading to soot formation. Therefore, accurate

  3. Natural attenuation of PAHs under anaerobic conditions C.Rollin (V, T. Heidi2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Natural attenuation of PAHs under anaerobic conditions C.Rollin (V, T. Heidi2 ), J. Laversanne (V and transport modelling. Taking into account the low mobility of PAH's, simulations are carried out for large out to check whether natural attenuation of PAH's (mainly sorption and biodégradation) could occur

  4. PAHs and the Universe C. Joblin and A.G.G.M. Tielens (eds)

    E-print Network

    Draine, Bruce T.

    PAHs and the Universe C. Joblin and A.G.G.M. Tielens (eds) EAS Publications Series, 46 (2011) 29-42 www.eas.org ASTRONOMICAL MODELS OF PAHS AND DUST B.T. Draine1 Abstract. Physical dust models which include a PAH component are quite successful in reproducing the measured extinction vs. wavelength

  5. Interfacial effects in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor: degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    E-print Network

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a hydrophobic Mycobacterium Carolan T. MacLeod, Andrew J. Daugulis* Department 18 June 2004 Abstract The growth of Mycobacterium PYR-1 on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs-organic interface. Results showed that agitation rate affected cell growth and PAH degradation rates, while

  6. Bioaccumulation and critical body residue of PAHs in the amphipod, Diporeia spp.: additional evidence to

    E-print Network

    Bioaccumulation and critical body residue of PAHs in the amphipod, Diporeia spp.: additional evidence to support toxicity additivity for PAH mixtures Peter F. Landrum a,*, Guilherme R. Lotufo b 2002; accepted 15 December 2002 Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to act

  7. hal-00258891,version1-25Feb2008 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) in dense cloud

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hal-00258891,version1-25Feb2008 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) in dense cloud chemistry V aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). This omission is unfortunate because from the few studies that have been done on the sub- ject, it is known that the inclusion of PAH's can affect the gas-phase chemistry

  8. Effect of protonation on the electronic structure of PAH molecules Ivan Alata1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Effect of protonation on the electronic structure of PAH molecules Ivan Alata1 , Reza Omidyan1 The electronic absorption spectra of isolated protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules, (PAH detection of the electronic spectrum of protonated naphthalene, the simplest (PAH)H+ , in the 500 nm region

  9. Update to Chapter 77: Hyperphenylalaninemia: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency The Population Genetics of PAH

    E-print Network

    Kidd, Kenneth

    Genetics of PAH Authors: Judith R. Kidd, Kenneth K. Kidd Preface When clinical geneticists think about phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), they think about mutations in the gene causing phenylketonuria (PKU. When biochemical geneticists think about PAH, they think about metabolic pathways, enzyme activity

  10. PAHs and crystalline silicates in the bipolar post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757 12

    E-print Network

    Zijlstra, Albert

    PAHs and crystalline silicates in the bipolar post-AGB star IRAS 16279-4757 12 M. Matsuura1 , A. Koike8 , L.P. Keller10 ABSTRACT IRAS 16279-4757 belongs to a group of post-AGB stars showing both PAH with PAHs and crystalline silicates. A two-component model and images suggest a dense oxygen-rich torus

  11. In situ biomonitoring of PAH-contaminated sediments using juvenile coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary C. Barbee; John Barich; Bruce Duncan; John W. Bickham; Cole W. Matson; Christopher J. Hintze; Robin L. Autenrieth; Guo-Dong Zhou; Thomas J. McDonald; Leslie Cizmas; Dale Norton; Kirby C. Donnelly

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous marine and freshwater sediment contaminants. Extensive data exist to confirm that PAHs are toxic to aquatic receptors. However, limited information is available regarding the bioavailability and genotoxicity of sediment PAHs to aquatic organisms. This study investigated an integrated biomonitoring approach using chemical analyses and biomarkers to characterize the bioavailability and genotoxicity of a complex

  12. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by soil particles: influence on biodegradability and biotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter D. Weissenfels; Hans-Jiirgen Klewer; Joseph Langhoff

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation was investigated in contaminated soils from two different industrial sites under simulated land treatment conditions. Soil samples from a former impregnation plant (soil A) showed high degradation rates of PAHs by the autochthonous microorganisms, whereas PAHs in material of a closed-down coking plant (soil B) were not degraded even after inoculation with bacteria known to

  13. Assessment of Factors Governing Biodegradability of PAHs in Three Soils Aged Under Field Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hildegard Aichberger; Andreas P. Loibner; Rafael Celis; Rudolf Braun; Franz Ottner; Helmut Rost

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants of great environmental concern due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. This study correlates soil characteristics (i.e. soil organic matter, particle- and pore-size distribution) with extractability and toxicity data (LUMIStox, Ostracod) to investigate factors that govern biodegradability of PAHs in three historically contaminated soils. Desorption of PAHs occurred most readily from soil

  14. Evaluating Human Risk from Exposure to Alkylated PAHs in an Aquatic System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra J. S. Baird; Elisabeth A. Bailey; Donna J. Vorhees

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large class of organic chemicals typically found as mixtures in the aquatic environment from natural, petrogenic, and pyrogenic sources. People can be exposed to PAHs through ingestion or dermal contact with contaminated sediments or through ingestion of finfish and shellfish exposed to contaminated sediments. Although more than 100 PAHs have been identified, human exposure

  15. MULTIMEDIA CONCENTRATIONS OF PAH IN SEVERAL DAY CARE CENTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in nine day care centers in the spring of 1997. Indoor and outdoor air, food and beverages, indoor dust, and outdoor play area soil were sampled. The mean sums of 20 target PAH concentrations were 265 and 199 ng...

  16. Characterizing the infrared spectra of small, neutral, fully dehydrogenated PAHs

    E-print Network

    Mackie, C J; Bauschlicher, C W; Cami, J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a computational study to investigate the infrared spectroscopic properties of a large number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and their fully dehydrogenated counterparts. We constructed a database of fully optimized geometries for PAHs that is complete for eight or fewer fused benzene rings, thus containing 1550 PAHs and 805 fully dehydrogenated aromatics. A large fraction of the species in our database have clearly non-planar or curved geometries. For each species, we determined the frequencies and intensities of their normal modes using density functional theory calculations. Whereas most PAH spectra are fairly similar, the spectra of fully dehydrogenated aromatics are much more diverse. Nevertheless, these fully dehydrogenated species show characteristic emission features at 5.2$\\mu$m, 5.5$\\mu$m and 10.6$\\mu$m; at longer wavelengths, there is a forest of emission features in the 16--30$\\mu$m range that appears as a structured continuum, but with a clear peak cent...

  17. Electronic Spectroscopy of VUV Irradiated PAH Containing Interstellar Water Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bouwman; H. Linnartz; L. J. Allamandola

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be present in space and to play a key role in inter- and circumstellar reaction schemes. Their presence is evidenced by characteristic infrared emission features following UV excitation, but unambiguous identifications have not been possible mainly because of spectral congestion and overlap. Here we present a new laboratory experiment that provides optical fingerprint

  18. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  19. LAND TREATMENT OF TWO PLATEAU MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH PAHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to evaluate several treatments for their ability to enhance the biological removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil and sediment. Previously land-treated material was used to test the treatments in a 13 week bench scale stu...

  20. Understanding the Complexity and Strategic Evolution in PAH Remediation Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biswanath Mahanty; Kannan Pakshirajan; Veeranki Venkata Dasu

    2011-01-01

    The development and improvement of society through industrialization and urbanization comes with the cost of consistent deterioration and degradation of the natural environment through generation of toxic and hazardous pollutants. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) are a major class of such persistent organic pollutants, posing serous threat to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems due to their intrinsic low aqueous solubility, higher binding

  1. PAHs molecules and heating of the interstellar gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verstraete, Laurent; Leger, Alain; Dhendecourt, Louis B.; Dutuit, O.; Defourneau, D.

    1989-01-01

    Until now it has remained difficult to account for the rather high temperatures seen in many diffuse interstellar clouds. Various heating mechanisms have been considered: photoionization of minor species, ionization of H by cosmic rays, and photoelectric effect on small grains. Yet all these processes are either too weak or efficient under too restricting conditions to balance the observed cooling rates. A major heat source is thus still missing in the thermal balance of the diffuse gas. Using photoionization cross sections measured in the lab, it was shown that in order to balance the observed cooling rates in cold diffuse clouds (T approx. 80 K) the PAHs would have to contain 15 percent of the cosmic abundance of carbon. This value does not contradict the former estimation of 6 percent deduced from the IR emission bands since this latter is to be taken as a lower limit. Further, it was estimated that the contribution to the heating rate due to PAH's in a warm HI cloud, assuming the same PAH abundance as for a cold HI cloud, would represent a significant fraction of the value required to keep the medium in thermal balance. Thus, photoionization of PAHs might well be a major heat source for the cold and warm HI media.

  2. Angular motion of a PAH molecule in interstellar environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouan, D.; Leger, Alain; Omont, A.; Giard, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have recently been proposed as an important and hitherto undetected component of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). The theory was based on an explanation of the Unidentified IR Emission Bands by Leger et al. It has already led to a verified prediction on extended galactic and extragalactic emissions measured by IRAS, or by a recent balloon borne experiment. The physics that rules the motion of such molecules in the ISM was studied, taking into account their coupling with the ambient gas, the radiation field (absorption and emission) and the static magnetic field. This is important for many implications of the PAH theory such as the radio emission by these molecules or the expected polarization of their IR emission. A reflection nebulae is considered where the situation is rather well known. Every day life of a mean PAH molecule in such a region is as follows: every 3 hrs a UV photon is absorbed heating the molecule to a thousand degs; the temperature decay due to cooling by IR emission follows then within a few seconds. A collision with a molecule of gas occurs typically once a week, while an H atom is ejected or captured at the same rate. A typical cooling cycle after a heat impulse is given. The PAH molecules studied as representative of the family has typically 50 atoms, a radius of 4.5 A, is circular and has a molecular mass of M = 300; its permanent dipole moment is 3 Debye.

  3. A PAH fate model for San Francisco Bay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben K. Greenfield; Jay A. Davis

    2005-01-01

    A mass balance model was applied to simulate the long-term fate of PAHs in San Francisco Bay. The model treats the Bay as a single box with interacting water and sediment compartments, and includes loading, volatilization, outflow to the ocean, degradation, and burial in deep sediment. The estimated time required for loss of one-half of the mass in the Bay

  4. Plasma processing of interstellar PAHs into solar system kerogen.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, T J; Lee, W; Cronin, J; Beegle, L W; Robinson, M S

    1995-01-01

    Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of investigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the precursor PAH naphthalene, a new material having an IR absorption spectrum (Lee, W. and Wdowiak, T.J., Astrophys. J. 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J.R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for PAH species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula, where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of PAHs into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of PAH species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene. PMID:11540308

  5. Plasma processing of interstellar PAHs into solar system kerogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Lee, Wei; Cronin, John; Beegle, Luther W.; Robinson, Michael S.

    1995-02-01

    Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of im-estigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama Lit Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the. precursor PAH naphthalene, a new material having an I R absorption spectrum (Lee. W. and Wdowiak, T. J., Astrophys. J., 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J. R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for PAH species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula. where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of PAHs into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of PAH species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.

  6. The profiles of the 3 to 12 $?$m PAH features

    E-print Network

    B. van Diedenhoven; E. Peeters; C. Van Kerckhoven; S. Hony; D. M. Hudgins; L. J. Allamandola; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2004-05-05

    We present spectra of the 3.3 $\\mu$m and 11.2 $\\mu$m PAH features of a large number of (extra-) galactic sources, obtained with ISO-SWS. Clear variations are present in the profiles of these features. The sources are classified independently based on the 3.3 and 11.2 $\\mu$m feature profiles and peak positions. Correlations between these classes and those based on the 6--9 $\\mu$m features (Peeters et al. 2002) are found. Also, these classifications depend on the type of object. The observed pronounced contrast in the spectral variations for the CH modes (3.3 and 11.2 $\\mu$m bands) versus the CC modes (6.2, 7.7 and 8.6 $\\mu$m bands) is striking : the peak wavelengths of the features attributed to CC modes vary by $\\sim$15--80 cm$^{-1}$, while for the CH modes the variations are $\\sim$4--6.5 cm$^{-1}$. We summarize existing laboratory data and theoretical calculations of PAH molecules and complexes. In contrast to the 6.2 and 7.7 $\\mu$m components which are attributed to PAH cations, the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature appears to originate in neutral and/or negatively charged PAHs. We attribute the variations in peak position and profile of these features to the composition of the PAH family. The variations in FWHM of the 3.3 $\\mu$m feature remains an enigma while those of the 11.2 $\\mu$m can be explained by anharmonicity and molecular structure. The possible origin of the observed contrast in profile variations between the CH modes and the CC modes is highlighted.

  7. The rich 6 to 9 um spectrum of interstellar PAHs

    E-print Network

    E. Peeters; S. Hony; C. Van Kerckhoven; A. G. G. M. Tielens; L. J. Allamandola; D. M. Hudgins; C. W. Bauschlicher

    2002-05-23

    Here, we present 6-9 um spectra of a sample of RNe, HII regions, YSOs, evolved stars and galaxies that show strong unidentified infrared bands, obtained with the ISO-SWS. The IR emission features show pronounced variations. 1) The 6.2 um feature shifts and clearly shows profile variations. 2) The 7.7 um complex is comprised of at least two subpeaks peaking at 7.6 and one longwards of 7.7 um. In some cases the main peak can apparently shift up to 8 um. Two sources do not exhibit a 7.7 um complex but instead show a broad emission feature at 8.22 um. 3) The 8.6 um feature has a symmetric profile in all sources and some sources exhibit this band at slightly longer wavelengths. For the 6.2, 7.7 and 8.6 um features, the sources have been classified independently based on their profile and peak position. The classes derived for these features are directly linked with each other. Furthermore, the observed 6--9 um spectrum depends on the type of object. We attribute the observed 6.2 um profile and peak position to the combined effect of a PAH family and anharmonicity with pure PAHs representing the 6.3 um component and substituted/complexed PAHs representing the 6.2 um component. The 7.6 um component is well reproduced by both pure and substituted/complexed PAHs but the 7.8 um component remains an enigma. In addition, the exact identification of the 8.22 um feature remains unknown. The observed variations in the characteristics of the IR emission bands are linked to the local physical conditions. Possible formation and evolution processes that may influence the interstellar PAH class are highlighted.

  8. Particulate PAHs observed in the surrounding of a municipal incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besombes, Jean-Luc; Ma??tre, Anne; Patissier, Olivier; Marchand, Nicolas; Chevron, Nathalie; Stoklov, Muriel; Masclet, Pierre

    An intensive sampling campaign was undertaken in the surroundings of a municipal waste incinerator located in a French great urban centre in order to evaluate the impact of particles emissions on the ambient air and to estimate the exposure levels to toxic or carcinogenic compounds for a population living in the neighbourhood of this incinerator. To minimise the effect of industrial and road activities, sampling was performed during the 2 days of a weekend and on Monday morning. Different operating modes of the incinerator were investigated: (i) normal incinerator functioning and (ii) maintenance activity of the combustion chamber corresponding to the stop and cooling furnace periods. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total particulate carbon concentrations were determined in three sites situated, respectively, close to the incinerator, 2 km downwind and 1 km upwind of the plant. In normal operating mode similar concentrations were observed in the three sites. During the furnace stop an increase of total PAH concentrations was observed in the sampling site close to the incinerator. The concentration was 3 times higher than those measured in the other two sampling sites. But this increase was limited in time and in space since this phenomenon is only observed in the vicinity of the incinerator. The study of PAH profiles indicated that Pyrene and Retene showed the highest enhancement of their relative concentrations. The influence of incinerator functioning parameters on the PAHs concentrations is discussed. The furnace temperature and the mode of exhaust fumes seem to be deciding parameters to explain the increase of PAH level in the incinerator site. However, the incinerator emissions remained a minor part of the atmospheric pollution in the urban area.

  9. Photochemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cosmic Water Ice: The Role of PAH Ionization and Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Amanda M.; Ricca, Alessandra; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Bouwman, Jordy; Roser, Joseph; Linnartz, Harold; Bregman, Jonathan; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H2O, pyrene:H2O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H2O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated PAH:H2O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H2O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and PAH cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [PAH(OH) n ] and quinones [PAH(O) n ] for all PAH:H2O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati & Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent PAH is the dominant photochemical reaction, but PAH erosion to smaller PAHs (producing CO2 and H2CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of PAH-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 ?m. The case is made that PAH cations are important contributors to the C2 component and PAH(OH) n and PAH(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized PAHs, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ~2%-4% level relative to H2O. PAHs, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.

  10. Modeling the Infrared Emission Spectra of Specific PAH Molecules in Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    2007-05-01

    The 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 micron emission features ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic objects, are generally attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. Although the PAH hypothesis is quite successful in explaining the general pattern of the observed emission spectra, so far there is no actual precise identification of a single specific PAH molecule in interstellar space. Therefore, when modeling the observed PAH emission spectra, astronomers usually take an empirical approach by constructing 'astro-PAHs' which do not represent any specific material, but approximate the actual absorption properties of the PAH mixture in astrophysical regions. We propose a Spitzer Theory Program to study the photoexcitation of specific PAH molecules and their ions in interstellar space, taking a statistical-mechanical (instead of thermal) approach. For most of the specific PAH molecules selected for this research (with a small number of vibrational degrees of freedom), thermal approximation is not valid. Using available laboratory and quantum-chemical data (e.g. vibrational frequencies, UV/visible/IR absorption cross sections), we will calculate the emission spectra of 21 representative specific PAH molecules and their ions, ranging from naphthalene to circumcoronene, illuminated by interstellar radiation fields of a wide range of intensities. This program will create a web-based 'library' of the emission spectra of 21 specific PAH molecules and their ions as a function of starlight intensities. This 'library' will be made publicly available by October 2008 on the internet at http://www.missouri.edu/~lia/. By comparing observed PAH spectra with model spectra produced by co-adding the emission spectra of different PAH molecules available in this 'library' (with different weights for different species), one will be able to estimate the total PAH mass and relative abundances of each PAH species, using real PAH properties.

  11. Nitration of particle-associated PAHs and their derivatives (nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy-PAHs) with NO 3 radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Yang, Bo; Gan, Jie; Liu, Changgeng; Shu, Xi; Shu, Jinian

    2011-05-01

    The heterogeneous reactions of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy-PAHs) adsorbed on azelaic acid particles with NO 3 radicals are investigated using a flow-tube reactor coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The mono-nitro-, di-nitro-, and poly-nitro-products from successive nitro-substitution reactions of PAHs and their derivatives are observed in real time with VUV-ATOFMS. 9-Nitroanthracene, anthraquinone, anthrone, 9,10-dinitroanthracene, 2-, 4-, and 9-nitrophenanthrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrene, 7-nitrobenzo[ a]anthracene, and benzo[ a]anthracene-7,12-dione are identified by GC/MS analysis of the reaction products of PAHs and their derivatives coated on the inner bottom surface of the conical flasks with NO 3 radicals. Other oxygenated products are tentatively assigned. 1-Nitropyrene is the only mono-nitrated product detected in the reaction of surface-bound pyrene with gas-phase NO 3 radicals. This phenomenon is different from what has been observed in previous studies of the gas-phase pyrene nitration, showing that 2-nitropyrene is the sole nitration product. The experimental results may reveal the discrepancies between the heterogeneous and homogeneous nitrations of pyrene.

  12. Luminal transport step of para -aminohippurate (PAH): transport from PAH-loaded proximal tubular cells into the tubular lumen of the rat kidney in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Ullrich; Gerhard Rumrich

    1997-01-01

    Proximal tubular cells were loaded for 10 s with [3H]para-aminohippurate ([3H]PAH) by microperfusing the peritubular capillaries with Ringer solution containing 0.05 mmol\\/l PAH. Immediately thereafter\\u000a [3H]PAH influx from cells into a column of equilibrium solution injected into the oil-filled tubular lumen was measured by re-aspirating\\u000a the fluid after 1–10 s of contact time. The rise of luminal PAH concentration within

  13. Distribution, partition and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during coking wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; An, Guanfeng

    2015-05-12

    In this study, we report the performance of a full-scale conventional activated sludge (A-O1-O2) treatment in eliminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Both aqueous and solid phases along with the coking wastewater treatment processes were analyzed for the presence of 18 PAHs. It was found that the target compounds occurred widely in raw coking wastewater, treated effluent and sludge samples. In the coking wastewater treatment system, 4-5 ring PAHs were the dominant compounds, while 4 rings PAHs predominated in the sludge samples. Over 98% of the PAH removal was achieved in the coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with the total concentration of PAHs being 21.3 ± 1.9 ?g L(-1) in the final effluent. During the coking wastewater treatment processes, the association of the lower molecular weight PAH with suspended solids was generally less than 60%, while the association of higher molecular weight PAHs was greater than 90%. High distribution efficiencies (Kdp and Kds) were found, suggesting that adsorption was the potential removal pathway of PAHs. Finally, the mass balances of PAHs in various stages of the coking WWTP were obtained, and the results indicated that adsorption to sludge was the main removal pathway for PAHs in the coking wastewater treatment processes. PMID:25865172

  14. Vegetative cover and PAHs accumulation in soils of urban green space.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Jiao, Wentao

    2012-02-01

    We investigated how urban land uses influence soil accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the urban green spaces composed of different vegetative cover. How did soil properties, urbanization history, and population density affect the outcomes were also considered. Soils examined were obtained at 97 green spaces inside the Beijing metropolis. PAH contents of the soils were influenced most significantly by their proximity to point source of industries such as the coal combustion installations. Beyond the influence circle of industrial emissions, land use classifications had no significant effect on the extent of PAH accumulation in soils. Instead, the nature of vegetative covers affected PAH contents of the soils. Tree-shrub-herb and woodland settings trapped more airborne PAH and soils under these vegetative patterns accumulated more PAHs than those of the grassland. Urbanization history, population density and soil properties had no apparent impact on PAHs accumulations in soils of urban green space. PMID:22230065

  15. Impacts of UV radiation and photomodification on the toxicity of PAHs to the higher plant Lemna gibba (duckweed)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Dong Huang; D. George Dixon; Bruce M. Greenberg

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be enhanced by both biotic and abiotic processes. This is exemplified by light, which, by virtue of the extensive [pi]-orbital systems of PAHs, can be a major factor in PAH toxicity. Light activation of PAHs is known to occur via photosensitization reactions and potentially by photomodification of the chemicals to more toxic

  16. NMR Studies of PAH/PSS Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Adsorbed onto Rashida N. Smith, Mark McCormick, Christopher J. Barrett,*,

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Christopher

    NMR Studies of PAH/PSS Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Adsorbed onto Silica Rashida N. Smith, Mark Mc- chloride (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), are pH dependent with their degree of ionization depending of a colloidal silica substrate and the polyelectrolytes PAH and PSS (Figure 1). The weak polycation PAH, having

  17. Photo-induced toxicity of PAHs to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans: effects of mixtures and behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Hatch; G. A. Burton

    1999-01-01

    In the aquatic environment, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination can result from several anthropogenic sources such as petroleum runoff, industrial processes, and petroleum spills. When ultraviolet light (UV) is present at sufficient intensity, the acute toxicity of some PAHs to aquatic biota is greatly enhanced. This photo-induced toxicity of PAHs is directly influenced by the amount of PAH and by

  18. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-05-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2-3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (?1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  19. PAH volatilization following application of coal-tar-based pavement sealant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Foreman, William T.; Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Burbank, Teresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Coal-tar-based pavement sealants, a major source of PAHs to urban water bodies, have recently been identified as a source of volatile PAHs to the atmosphere. We tracked the volatilization of PAHs for 1 year after application of a coal-tar-based pavement sealant by measuring gas-phase PAH concentrations above the pavement surface and solid-phase PAH concentrations in sealant scraped from the surface. Gas-phase concentrations at two heights (0.03 and 1.28 m) and wind speed were used to estimate volatilization flux. The sum of the concentrations of eight frequently detected PAHs (?PAH8) in the 0.03-m sample 1.6 h after application (297,000 ng m-3) was about 5000 times greater than that previously reported for the same height above unsealed parking lots (66 ng m-3). Flux at 1.6 h after application was estimated at 45,000 ?g m-2 h-1 and decreased rapidly during the 45 days after application to 160 ?g m-2 h-1. Loss of PAHs from the adhered sealant also was rapid, with about a 50% decrease in solid-phase ?PAH8 concentration over the 45 days after application. There was general agreement, given the uncertainties, in the estimated mass of ?PAH8 lost to the atmosphere on the basis of air sampling (2–3 g m-2) and adhered sealant sampling (6 g m-2) during the first 16 days after application, translating to a loss to the atmosphere of one-quarter to one-half of the PAHs in the sealcoat product. Combining the estimated mass of ?PAH8 released to the atmosphere with a national-use estimate of coal-tar-based sealant suggests that PAH emissions from new coal-tar-based sealcoat applications each year (~1000 Mg) are larger than annual vehicle emissions of PAHs for the United States.

  20. Ca2+ promoted the low transformation efficiency of plasmid DNA exposed to PAH contaminants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fuxing; Wang, Hong; Gao, Yanzheng; Long, Jian; Wang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to PAHs. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative PAHs to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after PAH exposure and to determine the role of Ca(2+) during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test PAHs demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of PAHs, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72-3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg · L(-1). The addition of Ca(2+) enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAHs. Based on the co-sorption of Ca(2+) and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the mechanisms involved in PAH-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar PAHs. Added Ca(2+) formed strong electrovalent bonds with "-POO(-)-" groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between PAHs and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of PAHs to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from PAHs and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to PAH contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace PAHs on DNA transfer in natural environments. PMID:23484001

  1. Lung cancer risk from PAHs emitted from biomass combustion.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, Dimosthenis ?; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Zikopoulos, Dimitrios; Nikolaki, Spyridoula; Kermenidou, Marianthi

    2015-02-01

    This study deals with the assessment of the cancer risk attributable to PAH exposure, attributable to the increased use of biomass for space heating in Greece in the winter of 2012-2013. Three fractions of particulates (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) were measured in two sampling sites (urban/residential and traffic-influenced) followed by chemical analysis of 19 PAHs and levoglucosan (used as a biomarker tracer). PAH-induced lung cancer risk was estimated by a comprehensive methodology that incorporated human respiratory tract deposition modelling in order to estimate the toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) at each target tissue. This allowed us to further differentiate internal exposure and risk by age groups. Results showed that all PM fractions are higher in Greece during the cold months of the year, mainly due to biomass use for space heating. PAH and levoglucosan levels were highly correlated, indicating that particles emitted from biomass combustion are more toxic than PM emitted from other sources. The estimated lung cancer risk was non-negligible for residents close to the urban background monitoring site. Higher risk was estimated for infants and children, due to the higher bodyweight normalized dose and the human respiratory tract (HRT) physiology. HRT structure and physiology in youngsters favor deposition of particles that are smaller and more toxic per unit mass. In all cases, the estimated risk (5.7E-07 and 1.4E-06 for the urban background site and 1.4E-07 to 5.0E-07 for the traffic site) was lower to the one estimated by the conventional methodology (2.8E-06 and 9.7E-07 for the urban background and the traffic site respectively) that is based on Inhalation Unit Risk; the latter assumes that all PAHs adsorbed on particles are taken up by humans. With the methodology proposed herein, the estimated risk presents a 5-7 times difference between the two sampling sites (depending on the age group). These differences could not have been identified had we relied only on conventional risk assessment method. Consequently, the actual cancer risk attributable to PAHs on PM emitted from biomass burning would have been significantly underestimated. PMID:25543545

  2. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer decision support for optimal maintenance.

  3. New Knowledge about the Impact of Environmental Exposure to PAHs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radim šrám; Blanka Binkova; Jan Dejmek; Irena Chvatalova; Alena Milcova; Ivo Solansky; Zdena Lnenickova; Jan Topinka

    Organic compounds adsorbed to air particles (PM10) induced DNA adducts and embryotoxicity in in vitro and in vivo studies. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs) induced 45-50% of all DNA adducts caused by organic matter bound to PM10. Placental bulky DNA adducts were affected by air pollution, smoking, genotypes and vitamin C. Higher DNA adduct levels were observed in nonsmoking mothers

  4. Pilot scale ex-situ bioremediation of heavily PAHs-contaminated soil by indigenous microorganisms and bioaugmentation by a PAHs-degrading and bioemulsifier-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Dong; Xu, Yang; Jin, Jing-Hua; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Luo, Mu; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2012-09-30

    This study aims at the remediation of heavily PAH-contaminated soil containing 375 mg of total PAHs per kilogram dry soil. Pilot scale bioremediation experiments were carried out by three approaches with contaminated soil from abandoned sites of Beijing Coking Plant using outdoor pot trials. The first approach was bioaugmentation with a bacterial strain which degrades PAH and produces bioemulsifier, the second approach comprised of biostimulation of indigenous microorganisms with supplementing nutrients and the last approach involved the combination of both biostimulation and bioaugmentation. An on-site land farming group was set as a control in which the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 23.4% and 10.1%, respectively after 175 days. Meanwhile, in the first approach group, the total PAHs and 4-6 ring-PAHs were reduced by 26.82% and 35.36%, respectively; in the second approach group both percentages were 33.9% and 11.0%, respectively; while in the third approach group, these pollutants were reduced by 43.9% and 55.0%, respectively. The results obtained suggested that biostimulation and bioaugmentation combined could significantly enhance the removal of PAHs in the contaminated soil. PMID:22819481

  5. Measurement of the recombination of photoproduced PAH ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, O.; Sivaraman, B.; Rebrion-Rowe, C.; Travers, D.; Mitchell, J. B. A.; Rowe, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    A new technique, Flowing Afterglow with Photo Ions - FLAPI, has been developed for measuring the rate coefficient for the recombination of complex ions with electrons. The method is based on the FALP-MS apparatus at the Université de Rennes I. A helium plasma is generated by a microwave discharge in a He buffer gas and downstream a small amount of argon gas is injected to get rid of helium metastables. A very small amount of neutral PAH molecules is added to the afterglow plasma by evaporation from a plate coated with the PAH to be studied. PAH ions are then produced by photoionization of the parent molecule using a pulsed UV laser (157 nm). The laser beam is oriented along the flow-tube and so a constant spatial concentration of photoions is obtained. The electron concentration along the flow-tube is measured by means of a movable Langmuir probe. The decay of the ion concentration in time is measured at a fixed position using a quadrupole mass spectrometer which is triggered by the laser pulse. Anthracene ion recombination has been studied using this technique and we have obtained the preliminary recombination rate coefficient (1.1 +/- 0.5) × 10-6 cm3 s-1.

  6. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: echochen327@163.com [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhao, Rongzhi [Civil and Environmental Engineering School, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xue, Jun [National Center of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100029 (China); Li, Jinhui, E-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ? More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ? The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ? Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ? There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ.

  7. [Atmospheric deposition of PAHs in Dashiwei Karst Tiankeng Group in Leye, Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Sheng; Qi, Shi-Hua; Huang, Bao-Jian; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Jie

    2012-03-01

    In order to understand atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons impact on ecological environment of Dashiwei Karst Tiankeng Group in Leye County, Guangxi (National Geological Park), the dry and wet deposition samples around Dashiwei Tiankeng were collected by season for a year, and were analyzed utilizing GC-MS for 16 EPA PAHs. The results showed that PAH depositional fluxes ranged from 132.36-1 655.27 ng x (m2 x d)(-1), with an average value of 855.00 ng x (m2 x d)(-1). Weight of PAHs which deposited into Dashiwei Tiankeng was 51.98 g x a(-1), and the dominant PAH compounds are benzo[b] fluoranthene, chrysene, benzo[a] pryene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, anthracene, phenanthrene and naphthalene. Spatial distribution of PAHs around Dashiwei Tiankeng was: the east valley entrance > the south valley entrance > the north valley entrance > the west peak; seasonal variability of PAH depositional fluxes was: spring > summer > autumn > winter. Deposition fluxes of PAHs were 4.6 times higher in spring and summer than those in autumn and winter. The dominant PAH compounds were 4-6 rings PAHs in spring and summer, but the dominant PAH compounds were 2-3 rings PAHs in autumn and winter. PAH depositional fluxes in this study area were closely related with precipitation, wind direction, temperature, wind speed and location of pollution sources. PAHs increased in spring and summer in Dashiwei Karst Tiankeng Group, this could be transported by atmospheric movement from higher air temperature and lower elevation areas where industry developed in Guangxi. PMID:22624364

  8. Lack of PAH emission toward low-mass embedded young stellar objects

    E-print Network

    V. C. Geers; E. F. van Dishoeck; K. M. Pontoppidan; F. Lahuis; A. Crapsi; C. P. Dullemond; G. A. Blake

    2008-12-18

    PAHs have been detected toward molecular clouds and some young stars with disks, but have not yet been associated with embedded young stars. We present a sensitive mid-IR spectroscopic survey of PAH features toward a sample of low-mass embedded YSOs. The aim is to put constraints on the PAH abundance in the embedded phase of star formation using radiative transfer modeling. VLT-ISAAC L-band spectra for 39 sources and Spitzer IRS spectra for 53 sources are presented. Line intensities are compared to recent surveys of Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri stars. The radiative transfer codes RADMC and RADICAL are used to model the PAH emission from embedded YSOs consisting of a PMS star with a circumstellar disk embedded in an envelope. The dependence of the PAH feature on PAH abundance, stellar radiation field, inclination and the extinction by the surrounding envelope is studied. The 3.3 micron PAH feature is undetected for the majority of the sample (97%), with typical upper limits of 5E-16 W/m^2. Compact 11.2 micron PAH emission is seen directly towards 1 out of the 53 Spitzer Short-High spectra, for a source that is borderline embedded. For all 12 sources with both VLT and Spitzer spectra, no PAH features are detected in either. In total, PAH features are detected toward at most 1 out of 63 (candidate) embedded protostars (PAHs emission is most likely explained by the absence of emitting carriers through a PAH abundance at least an order of magnitude lower than in molecular clouds but similar to that found in disks. Thus, most PAHs likely enter the protoplanetary disks frozen out in icy layers on dust grains and/or in coagulated form.

  9. Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Turf Disease Diagnostic Form Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana State the pattern of disease problem in the turf ____________________ County ___________________ #12;Pesticides used Please check: Yes or No (give name and rate if possible

  10. Laboratory and Ambient Studies of the Products of Gas-Phase Hydroxyl and Nitrate Ion Radical-Initiated Reactions with Selected PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Kathryn Jean

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (nitro-PAH) product distributions from the gas-phase hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO3) radical-initiated reactions with selected PAHs, as well as the heterogeneous reactions of surface-bound PAHs with N2O5 and HNO3, were investigated. Chapter 2 presents formation yields of nitro-PAHs from the gas-phase OH radical-initiated reactions of 1,7- and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as a function of NO 2 concentration over the range 0.04-0.14 ppmv. The measured formation yields of dimethylnitronaphthalenes (DMNNs) under conditions that the OH-DMN adducts reacted solely with NO2 were 0.252 ± 0.094% for ?1,7-DMNNs and 0.010 ± 0.005% for ?2,7-DMNNs. 1,7-dimethyl-5-nitronaphthalene (1,7DM5NN) was the major nitro-isomer formed, with a limiting high-NO 2 concentration yield of 0.212 ± 0.080% and with equal reactions of the 1,7-DMN-OH adduct with NO2 and O2 occurring in air at 60 ± 39 ppbv of NO2, indicating that the OH-DMN adduct reaction with NO2 can be important at NO2 concentrations commonly found in urban atmospheres. Although the yields of the DMNNs are low, ?0.3%, the DMNN (and ethylnitronaphthalene) profiles from chamber experiments match well with those observed in polluted urban areas under conditions where OH radical-initiated chemistry is dominant, such as Mexico City, Mexico. Chapter 3 examines the nitro-PAH products of gas-phase OH and NO 3 radicals and heterogeneous N2O5 reactions with fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and triphenylene. Analysis of nitro-PAHs in the NIST diesel particulate SRM (1975) and selected ambient samples are also presented. 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL) was the most abundant nitro-PAH in Riverside, CA and Mexico City, and the mw 273 nitro-PAHs were observed in lower concentrations. However, in Tokyo, Japan, concentrations of 1- + 2-nitrotriphenylene (NTP) were more similar to those of 2-NFL. Comparing specific nitro-PAH ratios in ambient particulate samples from Tokyo, Mexico City, and Riverside, and in diesel particles with those from chamber experiments confirms the atmospheric formation of 2-NFL and 2-nitropyrene (2-NPY) via gas-phase radical-initiated reactions. Heterogeneous nitration of ambient particle-bound PAHs is investigated in Chapter 4. Ambient particulate samples collected in Beijing, China, and from four sites within the Los Angeles air basin (Los Angeles, Azusa, Riverside, and Banning), along with filter-bound deuterated PAHs, were exposed to a gas-phase equilibrium mixture of N2O5, NO3 radicals, and NO2 in an environmental chamber at ambient pressure and temperature. For the majority of these reactions 1-nitropyrene was the nitro-PAH formed in the greatest amount and was determined to occur heterogeneously (and not in the gas-phase) by using isomer distribution patterns of deuterated nitro-PAHs either formed on filter surfaces or collected from the chamber in the gas-phase. Chapter 5 investigates the contributions of atmospheric formation (OH versus NO3 chemistry) and direct emissions (electrophilic nitration products) to ambient gas-phase and particulate nitro-PAHs sampled in the Los Angeles air basin and Mexico City, Mexico, over several sampling campaigns using a combination of several marker ratios of volatile and semi-volatile nitro-PAHs. Ratios of 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFL)/2-nitropyrene (2-NPY), 2-methyl-4-nitronaphthalene (2M4NN)/1-methyl-5-nitronaphthalene (1M5NN), and 2,7-dimethyl-4-nitronaphthalene (2,7DM4NN)/1,7-dimethyl-5-nitronaphthalene (1,7DM5NN) were used to assess the contribution of OH radical chemistry versus NO3 radical chemistry to ambient nitro-PAHs from 50 particle-phase and gas-phase samples. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. AKARI infrared camera observations of the 3.3 ?m PAH feature in Swift/BAT AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Angel; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Shirahata, Mai; Ichikawa, Kohei; Oyabu, Shinki; Clark, David M.; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2014-12-01

    We explore the relationships between the 3.3 ?m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) feature and active galactic nucleus (AGN) properties of a sample of 54 hard X-ray selected bright AGNs, including both Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 type objects, using the InfraRed Camera (IRC) on board the infrared astronomical satellite AKARI. The sample is selected from the nine-month Swift/BAT survey in the 14-195 keV band and all of them have measured X-ray spectra at E ? 10 keV. These X-ray spectra provide measurements of the neutral hydrogen column density (NH) towards the AGNs. We use the 3.3 ?m PAH luminosity (L3.3?m) as a proxy for star-formation activity and hard X-ray luminosity (L14-195 keV) as an indicator of the AGN activity. We search for possible differences in star-formation activity between type 1 (unabsorbed) and type 2 (absorbed) AGNs. We have made several statistical analyses taking the upper limits of the PAH lines into account utilizing survival analysis methods. The results of our log (L14-195 keV) versus log (L3.3 ?m) regression show a positive correlation and the slope for the type 1/unobscured AGNs is steeper than that of type 2/obscured AGNs at a 3 ? level. Our analysis also shows that the circumnuclear star formation is more enhanced in type 2/absorbed AGNs than type 1/unabsorbed AGNs for low X-ray luminosity/low Eddington ratio AGNs, while there is no significant dependence of star-formation activities on the AGN type in the high X-ray luminosities/Eddington ratios.

  12. PAH Concentrations Decline Following 2006 Ban on Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealants in Austin, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants (CT sealants) are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in non-industrial urban settings in the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of CT sealants. We evaluated PAH concentrations following the ban by analyzing sediment cores collected from Lady Bird Lake in 2012; Lady Bird Lake impounds the Colorado River in central Austin and receives runoff from much of the greater Austin area. The mean sum concentration of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant PAHs (?PAH16) in one of two 2012 sediment cores analyzed for PAHs declined 75% from before 2006 (mean of 4 samples=8,090 ?g kg-1) to 2012 (mean of 2 samples=2,030 ?g kg-1), reversing a 40-year (1959-1999) upward trend in PAH concentrations that was previously documented. The downward trend in PAH concentrations in the seven uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals in the first 2012 core was statistically significant (r=0.93, p-value=0.002). Post-2008 PAH trends in the second 2012 core were similar (significant downward trend in the six uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals and mean 2012 ?PAH16 of 2,390 ?g kg-1); however, pre-2007 sediment did not appear to have been preserved in this core likely because of the effects of flooding on sediment deposition and mixing at this site--the largest flood on the Colorado River in Austin in 20 years was in 2007. On the basis of a comparison of lake-sediment PAH profiles to 22 PAH source profiles, the PAH loading to lake sediment continues to be dominated by CT sealants. The continued dominance of proportional PAH loading by CT sealants in spite of decreased concentrations since 2006 might be because legacy CT sealant and contaminated soils and sediments continue to yield PAHs to runoff. A previous study using source-receptor modeling concluded that CT sealants were the largest PAH source to 40 urban lakes studied in the U.S. (including Lady Bird Lake) and were the primary cause of increasing PAH trends in recent decades. The results presented here are the first direct evidence that removing this source can lead to a substantial reduction in PAH concentrations in receiving water bodies. CT sealants are sprayed or painted on asphalt parking lots and driveways. The sealant abrades into fine particles that can be washed into streams and lakes and tracked into homes.

  13. Impact of soil amendments and the plant rhizosphere on PAH behaviour in soil.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis; Karlson, Ulrich G

    2014-05-01

    Carbonaceous amendments reduce PAH dissolved concentrations (Cfree), limiting their uptake and toxicity. A soil contaminated with PAHs was mixed with activated carbon (AC), charcoal or compost and planted with radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and Cfree, chemical activities and diffusive uptake of the PAHs measured over 2 months. For AC, Cfree and diffusive uptake were decreased by up to 94% compared to the unamended soil within one week. In addition, the sum chemical activity of the PAHs remained below the threshold for baseline toxicity. In contrast, charcoal and compost only led to modest reductions in Cfree and diffusive uptake, with sum chemical activities that could potentially result in baseline toxicity being observed. Furthermore, both Cfree and diffusive uptake were lower in the planted compared to unplanted soils. Therefore, only AC successfully reduced PAH acute toxicity in the soil, but plant-promoted microbial degradation may also play an important role in PAH attenuation. PMID:24583710

  14. PAHs with armchair edges and the 12.7 {\\mu}m band

    E-print Network

    Candian, A; Tielens, A G G M

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter we report the results of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations on medium-sized neutral Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules with armchair edges. These PAH molecules possess strong C-H stretching and bending modes around 3 {\\mu}m and in the fingerprint region (10-15 {\\mu}m), and also strong ring deformation modes around 12.7 {\\mu}m. Perusal of the entries in the NASA Ames PAHs Database (Bauschlicher et al. 2010) shows that ring deformation modes of PAHs are common - although generally weak. We then propose that armchair PAHs with NC >65 are responsible for the 12.7 {\\mu}m Aromatic Infrared Band in HII regions and discuss astrophysical implications in the context of the PAH life-cycle.

  15. Concentrative PAH transport by rabbit kidney slices in the absence of metabolic energy.

    PubMed

    Podevin, R A; Boumendil-Podevin, E F; Priol, C

    1978-10-01

    Characteristics of para-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in the absence of intracellular metabolism were studied with Na+, K+-depleted and ouabain-poisoned rabbit kidney cortex slices. The imposition of a NaCl gradient (out to in) resulted in specific stimulation of PAH uptake. PAH accumulated against its concentration gradient when cell [Na+] was less than medium [Na+]. Conversely, renal cells extruded PAH when cell [Na+] exceeded medium [Na+]. Membrane potential measured with triphenylmethylphosphonium revealed that conditions which created an interior-positive membrane potential inhibited the Na+-dependent transport of PAH but caused stimulation of the Na+-independent component. Characteristics of the Na+-dependent PAH transport system in ouabain-poisoned slices were similar to those previously described in metabolically active tissues. PMID:696868

  16. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PAHs in surficial sediments of the Yangtze Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Baohua; Feng, Chenghong; Li, Xue; Chen, Yaxin; Niu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2012-03-01

    Spatial distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary, especially the North Branch, have been fully investigated. PAH concentrations increased with the descending distance from the inner estuary to the adjacent sea, and varied significantly in various estuarine regions. Water currents (e.g., river runoff and ocean current) greatly affected the distribution pattern. In addition, ambient sewage and traffic also contributed to the PAH pollution in the estuary. In the adjacent sea, PAH values along the -20m isobath were higher than those along the -10m isobath due to the "marginal filter" phenomenon formed by different water currents. In most sites, PAHs had poor correlations with sediment size, but had positive correlations with total organic carbon. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis results, PAH sources were proved to be mainly from a mixture of petroleum combustion, biomass, and coal combustion. PMID:22245436

  17. Stabilization of sewage sludge by different biochars towards reducing freely dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Zieli?ska, Anna; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the effect of various biochars on the content of freely dissolved (Cfree) PAHs in sewage sludge. Apart from the evaluation of biochars obtained from various materials, the study also included the determination of the effects of biochar particle sizes and biochar production temperature on their ability to bind PAHs in sewage sludge. Increase in biochar dose caused a gradual reduction of Cfree PAHs content, but only up to the biochar dose of 5%. Depending on the kind of initial material from which the biochar was produced, the reduction of Cfree PAHs content in sewage sludge varied from 17.4% to 58.0%. Both the temperature and the particle size of biochar had an effect on PAH free concentration reduction. Biochars characterised by a low polarity index (O/C or (O+N)/C) reduced the level of Cfree PAHs better than biochars with a higher polarity index value. PMID:24495539

  18. Formation of nitro-PAHs from the heterogeneous reaction of ambient particle-bound PAHs with NO3/N2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Jariyasopit, N.; Simonich, S. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-PAHs) have been shown to be mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian assays and are classified as probable human carcinogens. Semi-volatile PAHs partition between the gas and particulate phases, depending on their liquid-phase vapor pressures and ambient temperatures. These PAHs have been extensively measured in ambient particulate matter and can ultimately undergo long-range transport from source regions (e.g., China to the western USA) (1). During transport these particle-bound PAHs may undergo reaction with NO3/N2O5 to form nitro-PAH derivatives. Previous studies of heterogeneous nitration of PAHs have used particles composed of graphite, diesel soot, and wood smoke (2-4). This study investigates the heterogeneous formation of nitro-PAHs from ambient particle-bound PAHs from Beijing, China and sites located within the Los Angeles air basin. These ambient particle samples, along with filters coated with isotopically labeled PAHs, were exposed to a mix of NO2/NO3/N2O5 in a 7000 L Teflon chamber, with analysis focused on the heterogeneous formation of molecular weight 247 and 273 nitro-PAHs. The heterogeneous formation of certain nitro-PAHs (including1-nitropyrene and 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene) was observed for some, but not all, ambient samples. Formation of nitro-PAHs typically formed through gas-phase reactions (2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene) was not observed. The effect of particle age and local photochemical conditions during sampling on the degree of nitration in environmental chamber reactions, as well as ambient implications, will be presented. 1. Primbs, T.; Simonich, S.; Schmedding, D.; Wilson, G.; Jaffe, D.; Takami, A.; Kato, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Kajii, Y. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 3551-3558. 2. Esteve, W.; Budzinski, H.; Villenave, E. Atmospheric Environment 2004, 38, 6063-6072. 3. Nguyen, M.; Bedjanian, Y.; Guilloteau, A. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2009, 62, 139-150. 4. Kamens, R. M.; Zhi-Hua, F.; Yao, Y.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.; Vartiainen, M. Chemosphere 1994, 28, 1623-1632.

  19. Toward the Oxidation of the Phenyl Radical and Prevention of PAH Formation in Combustion Systems.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dorian S N; Kaiser, Ralf I; Troy, Tyler P; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Mebel, Alexander M

    2015-07-16

    The reaction of the phenyl radical (C6H5) with molecular oxygen (O2) plays a central role in the degradation of poly- and monocyclic aromatic radicals in combustion systems which would otherwise react with fuel components to form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eventually soot. Despite intense theoretical and experimental scrutiny over half a century, the overall reaction channels have not all been experimentally identified. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization in conjunction with a combustion simulating chemical reactor uniquely provides the complete isomer specific product spectrum and branching ratios of this prototype reaction. In the reaction of phenyl radicals and molecular oxygen at 873 K and 1003 K, ortho-benzoquinone (o-C6H4O2), the phenoxy radical (C6H5O), and cyclopentadienyl radical (C5H5) were identified as primary products formed through emission of atomic hydrogen, atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide. Furan (C4H4O), acrolein (C3H4O), and ketene (C2H2O) were also identified as primary products formed through ring opening and fragmentation of the 7-membered ring 2-oxepinoxy radical. Secondary reaction products para-benzoquinone (p-C6H4O2), phenol (C6H5OH), cyclopentadiene (C5H6), 2,4-cyclopentadienone (C5H4O), vinylacetylene (C4H4), and acetylene (C2H2) were also identified. The pyranyl radical (C5H5O) was not detected; however, electronic structure calculations show that it is formed and isomerizes to 2,4-cyclopentadienone through atomic hydrogen emission. In combustion systems, barrierless phenyl-type radical oxidation reactions could even degrade more complex aromatic radicals. An understanding of these elementary processes is expected to lead to a better understanding toward the elimination of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and environmentally hazardous byproducts of combustion systems such as PAHs. PMID:25354358

  20. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use. PMID:25534968

  1. [Advances in studies on the effect of surfactant on bioavailability of polycylcic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Jing, Xin; Gao, Xuesheng; Ou, Ziqing

    2002-09-01

    The solubility and adsorption/desorption equilibrium of PAHs in soil and their interaction with soil bacterium can be altered by surfactants, which lead to the alternation of PAHs bioavailability. The bioavailability of PAHs can be enhanced by the decrease of interface tension between soil and water, the increasement of PAHs' solubility, and the transportation facilitation of PAHs in the presence of surfactants. It also can be inhibited by the surfactant toxicity to the bacteria or by the competitive ultilization between non-toxicitic surfactants and PAHs by the bacteria. In addition, the effects of surfactants on the PAHs of different existence-forms in soils are different. The bioavailability of PAHs can be affected by the type and concentrion of surfactants, PAHs and soil microorganisms, and also by soil physi-chemical characteristics. PMID:12561188

  2. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (p<0.05) with the bacteria count (0.9×107-14.2×107 CFU/mL), catalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF ?g/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  3. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Indigenous Mixed and Pure Cultures Isolated from Coastal Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahasin G. Tadros; Joseph B. Hughes

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to quantify and characterize microorganisms (bacteria) in sediment samples contaminated with polycyclic\\u000a aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: fluorene and naphthalene). The isolated organisms were evaluated for their ability to degrade\\u000a PAHs compounds. The results indicated that the total number of recovered heterotrophic colony forming units was higher than\\u000a zone forming units produced by the PAHs compounds.

  4. Insight into the Modulation of Dissolved Organic Matter on Microbial Remediation of PAH-Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Mei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Microorganisms play a key role in degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environments. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can enhance microbial degradation of PAHs in soils. However, it is not clear how will the soil microbial community respond to addition of DOM during bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this study, DOMs derived from various agricultural wastes were applied to remediate the aging PAH-contaminated soils in a 90-day microcosm experiment. Results showed that the addition of DOMs offered a more efficient and persistent elimination of soil PAHs compared to the control which had no DOM addition. PAH removal effects were different among treatments with various DOMs; the addition of DOMs with high proportion of hydrophobic fraction could remove PAHs more efficiently from the soil. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs were more easily eliminated than that with high-molecular-weight (HMW). Addition of DOMs significantly increased abundance of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), pdo1, nah, and C12O genes and obviously changed community compositions of nah and C12O genes in different ways in the PAH-contaminated soil. Phylogenetic analyses of clone libraries exhibited that all of nah sequences and most of C12O sequences were affiliated into Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. These results suggested that external stimuli produced by DOMs could enhance the microbial degradation of PAHs in soils through not only solubilizing PAHs but also altering abundance and composition of indigenous microbial degraders. Our results reinforce the understanding of role of DOMs in mediating degradation of PAHs by microorganims in soils. PMID:25707714

  5. Yeast Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase is regulated by proteasome-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Florencia; Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Soto-Cardalda, Aníbal; Carman, George M

    2014-04-01

    Yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase is the enzyme responsible for the production of the diacylglycerol used for the synthesis of triacylglycerol that accumulates in the stationary phase of growth. Paradoxically, the growth phase-mediated inductions of PAH1 and phosphatidate phosphatase activity do not correlate with the amount of Pah1p; enzyme abundance declined in a growth phase-dependent manner. Pah1p from exponential phase cells was a relatively stable protein, and its abundance was not affected by incubation with an extract from stationary phase cells. Recombinant Pah1p was degraded upon incubation with the 100,000 × g pellet fraction of stationary phase cells, although the enzyme was stable when incubated with the same fraction of exponential phase cells. MG132, an inhibitor of proteasome function, prevented degradation of the recombinant enzyme. Endogenously expressed and plasmid-mediated overexpressed levels of Pah1p were more abundant in the stationary phase of cells treated with MG132. Pah1p was stabilized in mutants with impaired proteasome (rpn4?, blm10?, ump1?, and pre1 pre2) and ubiquitination (hrd1?, ubc4?, ubc7?, ubc8?, and doa4?) functions. The pre1 pre2 mutations that eliminate nearly all chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20 S proteasome had the greatest stabilizing effect on enzyme levels. Taken together, these results supported the conclusion that Pah1p is subject to proteasome-mediated degradation in the stationary phase. That Pah1p abundance was stabilized in pah1? mutant cells expressing catalytically inactive forms of Pah1p and dgk1? mutant cells with induced expression of DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase indicated that alteration in phosphatidate and/or diacylglycerol levels might be the signal that triggers Pah1p degradation. PMID:24563465

  6. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in floodplain soils of the Mosel and Saar River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Pies; Yi Yang; Thilo Hofmann

    2007-01-01

    Background, Aim and Scope  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have gained serious attention in the scientific community due to their persistence\\u000a and toxic potential in the environment. PAHs may pose a risk to ecosystem health. Along the Mosel River\\/Germany, a tributary\\u000a of the river Rhine, PAHs were found at significantly high concentrations (> 20 mg kg?1, German national guideline value Z2, LAGA

  7. The physico-chemical speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Readman; R. F. C. Mantoura; M. M. Rhead

    1984-01-01

    \\u000a Zusammenfassung  Die „physikalisch-chemische Speziation“ wird dargestellt zur Beschreibung der Umweltchemie organischer Verbindungen in aquatischen\\u000a Systemen. Dabei dienen die PAH als Beispiel. Es werden Meßergebnisse und experimentelle Befunde gegeben, die die Anwesenheit\\u000a verschiedener physikalisch-chemischer Spezien von PAH in der Mündung des Tamar-Flusses (UK) demonstrieren. Es wird gezeigt,\\u000a daß der Grad und damit der Chemismus der Teilchenbindung von PAH im Tamarfluß nicht den

  8. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions in the Seine River and its estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Fernandes; M.-A. Sicre; A. Boireau; J. Tronczynski

    1997-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate PAHs were quantified throughout the Seine River and its estuary. Samples were collected in October 1993, covering a salinity gradient of 0.2‰ to 34.8‰. Two mooring stations were occupied at the river mouth to ascertain the influence of tidal cycles on the dispersal of riverborne PAHs. Total particulate PAH concentrations ranged from 2 to 687 ng l?1

  9. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF VERY LARGE, COMPACT, HIGHLY SYMMETRIC, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs)

    E-print Network

    (PAHs) Charles W. Bauschlicher, Jr.,1 Els Peeters,2,3,4 and Louis J. Allamandola5 Received 2007 October 26; accepted 2008 January 21 ABSTRACT The mid-infrared spectra of large PAHs ranging from C54H18 to C and intensities as a function of PAH size, charge, and geometry are discussed. Regarding the 3.3, 6.3, and 11.2 m

  10. Ruminal disappearance of PAHs in contaminated grass using the nylon bag technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrián Costera; Guido Rychen; Cyril Feidt; Claire Soligot; Stefan Jurjanz

    2010-01-01

    Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are deposited on agricultural grasses. In turn, PAHs enter the food chain\\u000a through animals eating grasses. However, the risk of food contamination, e.g. of milk, is unknown because mechanisms ruling\\u000a the fate of PAHs during digestion by cows are not understood, especially in the rumen. Here, we studied the disappearance\\u000a rate of phenanthrene, pyrene and

  11. Enhancing the release and plant uptake of PAHs with a water-soluble purine alkaloid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald R. Navarro; Hiroyasu Ichikawa; Kengo Morimoto; Kenji Tatsumi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of a common plant alkaloid, caffeine, on the release and plant uptake of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils was investigated. Cucurbita pepo (ssp. pepo cv. Gold Rush) was grown in PAH-spiked media in the presence and absence of caffeine. Solubility tests initially confirmed the ability of caffeine to dissolve PAHs mixtures of anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene

  12. Biomonitoring of PAH pollution in high-altitude mountain lakes through the analysis of fish bile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Escartin; Cinta Porte

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure of fish in high-altitude mountain lakes was assessed by measuring bile PAH metabolites. Trout were caught in several regions in Europe, and hydrolyzed bile samples were analyzed by (a) HPLC fluorescence at the excitation\\/emission wavelength pairs of naphthol and pyrenol and (b) gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry for the determination of individual PAHs. The obtained results showed

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments of the White Sea, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir M Savinov; Tatiana N Savinova; JoLynn Carroll; Gennady G Matishov; Salve Dahle; Kristoffer Næs

    2000-01-01

    The extent of environmental contamination and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds to sediments of the White Sea are evaluated and compared with previously published results for adjacent Arctic Sea areas. Concentrations of two- to six-ring PAHs of molecular mass 128–278 including perylene and sediment characteristics are considered in this investigation. Mean ?PAH concentration was 61±34 ng\\/g dw (n=11)

  14. The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database: A Demo of its Contents and Web Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Christiaan; Sánchez de Armas, F.; Ricca, A.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Mattioda, A. L.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2009-01-01

    The features formerly known as the Unidentified Infrared (UIR) Emission Bands are now generally attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exploitation of these features as astrophysical and astrochemical probes requires the IR properties of PAHs under interstellar conditions. To fulfill this need, we experimentally measured and theoretically computed the 2-2000 µm spectra of many PAHs over the past 18 years at NASA's Ames Research Center. Today's collection comprises about 600 theoretically computed and 60 laboratory measured spectra of PAHs in different forms. The molecules in the collection range in size from C10H8 to C130H28. For most of these, spectra are available for PAHs in their neutral and singly charged (+/-) states. In some cases, IR spectra of multiply charged species were also computed. The database includes pure PAHs; PAHs containing nitrogen (PANHs), oxygen, and silicon; PAHs with side groups; PAHs with extra hydrogens; and PAHs complexed with iron and magnesium. This collection of PAH spectra from 2 - 2000 µm has been assembled into a uniform database, which we will make publicly available on the web in early 2009. A WebGUI interface has been developed that can effectively interrogate the database using a variety of queries, such as formula, molecular name, charge, specific number of atoms, etc. Several molecules can be selected in such a process and one can obtain their 3-D structures, plot and co-add their spectra, adjust parameters such as the bandwidth, download their data and print graphs. The database can also be downloaded as a whole and IDL-routines are provided to interrogate it. This talk will present an overview of the contents and the web-GUI tools of the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. Hands-on demonstrations will be available at the SOFIA Booth.

  15. Sources, fate, and effects of PAHs in shallow water environments: a review with special reference to small watercraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons with two to seven fused carbon (benzene) rings that can have substituted groups attached. Shallow coastal, estuarine, lake, and river environments receive PAHs from treated wastewater, stormwater runoff, petroleum spills and natural seeps, recreational and commercial boats, natural fires, volcanoes, and atmospheric deposition of combustion products. Abiotic degradation of PAHs is caused by photooxidation, photolysis in water, and chemical oxidation. Many aquatic microbes, plants, and animals can metabolize and excrete ingested PAHs; accumulation is associated with poor metabolic capabilities, high lipid content, and activity patterns or distributions that coincide with high concentrations of PAHs. Resistance to biological transformation increases with increasing number of carbon rings. Four- to seven-ring PAHs are the most difficult to metabolize and the most likely to accumulate in sediments. Disturbance by boating activity of sediments, shorelines, and the surface microlayer of water causes water column re-entry of recently deposited or concentrated PAHs. Residence time for PAHs in undisturbed sediment exceeds several decades. Toxicity of PAHs causes lethal and sublethal effects in plants and animals, whereas some substituted PAHs and metabolites of some PAHs cause mutations, developmental malformations, tumors, and cancer. Environmental concentrations of PAHs in water are usually several orders of magnitude below levels that are acutely toxic, but concentrations can be much higher in sediment. The best evidence for a link between environmental PAHs and induction of cancerous neoplasms is for demersal fish in areas with high concentrations of PAHs in the sediment.

  16. Mutation analysis of PAH gene in patients with PKU in western Iran and its association with polymorphisms: identification of four novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Alibakhshi, Reza; Moradi, Keyvan; Mohebbi, Zahra; Ghadiri, Keyghobad

    2014-03-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Untreated PKU can lead to mental retardation, seizures, and other serious medical problems. This study was designed to investigate the status of molecular defects in the PAH gene and their association with polymorphisms in Kurdish patients with PKU in the Kermanshah province, western Iran. The study was conducted on 27 unrelated patients with PKU over a 2-year period (from 2010 to 2012). All 13 exons plus exon-intron boundaries of the PAH gene were analyzed and we identified 15 different mutations, including two novel mutations, in 51 of the 54 mutant alleles (diagnostic efficiency of 94.4 %). IVS4 + 1G > C (c.441 + 1G > C) and IVS7 - 5 T > C (c.843 - 5 T > C) are novel mutations that have not been reported in the academic literature or the PAH locus database ( http://www.pahdb.mcgill.ca ); therefore, they may be specific to the Kurdish population. IVS2 + 5G > C and IVS9 + 5G > A were the two most prevalent mutations in our sample, with frequencies of 26 % and 17 %, respectively. The second most common mutations were p.R261X, IVS10 - 11G > A, p.K363 > Nfs and IVS7 - 5 T > C, with each showing a relative frequency of 7.4 %. All other detected mutations, including p.F55 > Lfs, p.R176X, p.R243Q, p.V230I, p.R243X, p.R261Q, IVS8 - 7A > G and p.E390G had frequencies of less than 4 %. The present study showed that there is a distinct difference in the characteristics of PAH mutations between the Kermanshah province and other parts of Iran, suggesting that Kermanshah may have a unique population distribution of PAH gene mutations. Iran lies on the route of major ancient movements of the Caucasian people toward the Mediterranean basin, and Kermanshah has previously been called the gateway to Asia. Most of the mutations identified in this study are common in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, our findings are consistent with the historical and geographical links between the Iranian population and the populations of Mediterranean region. PMID:24048906

  17. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal evaluation after a diesel spill in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Coria, L; Amezcua-Allieri, M A; Tenorio-Torres, M; González-Macías, C

    2007-10-01

    Pollution in the marine environment due to a diesel spill takes days to months to complete natural remediation owing to its low volatility. Metal and PAH contamination caused by an accidental diesel spill were studied. V, Ni and Hg levels increased immediately after the spill, while PAH levels decreased after 1 month (79.4-7.6 microg kg(-1)). At the diesel spill point, fluoranthene exceeded acute and chronic levels, although most of the PAHs were within the range of low effects. In fish body burden, the highest bioaccumulation factor (2.63 for naphthalene) was related to the lower molecular weight PAHs. PMID:17712506

  18. A survey for PAH emission in H II regions, planetary and proto-planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuizon, M.; Cox, P.; Lequeux, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a systematic investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in H II regions, planetary nebulae (PN), and proto-planetary nebulae (PNN), are reported. Data is obtained from the low resolution spectra (LRS) of IRAS. The results show that: PAHs are formed in carbon rich objects; and PAH emission is ubiquitous in general interstellar medium and requires the presence of ultraviolet photons, in planetary and proto-planetary nebulae, PAH emission is seen only where an ionizing flux is present and in carbon rich objects.

  19. Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAHs in the Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR PAH bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of PAHs, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.

  20. The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yulong; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Chun; Li, Guanlong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs. PMID:24963507

  1. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash. Technical progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Specific investigations directed toward this overall objective include: (a) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (b) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of PAHs and PAH derivatives (especially nitro-PAHs) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (c) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with PAHs and PAH derivatives; (d) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of {open_quotes}surface roughness{close_quotes} of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of PAHs sorbed on coal ash particles. PAHs are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which PAHs are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.

  2. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 PAH compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant PAH compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual PAH compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured PAH concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.

  3. Concentrations and possible sources of PAHs in sediments from Bohai Bay and adjacent shelf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ningjing Hu; Xuefa Shi; Jihua Liu; Peng Huang; Yanguang Liu; Ying Liu

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations, spatial distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the United States\\u000a Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants were investigated in surface sediments of Bohai Bay, North China. Total\\u000a concentrations of PAHs were in the range of 140.6–300.7 ng\\/g (dry wt), with an average of 188.0 ng\\/g. The three predominant\\u000a PAHs were phenanthrene, acenaphthene and naphthalene. Sedimentary PAH

  4. Photodestruction of PAHs in the interstellar medium. II. Influence of the states of ionization and hydrogenation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, T.; Leach, S.; Sedlmayr, E.

    1996-01-01

    We have extended the model for interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of Allain et al. (1995) in order to describe ionized and partially dehydrogenated PAHs and hence provide a more realistic description of these species in the interstellar medium (ISM). When ionized and partially dehydrogenated, PAHs are less stable against photodestruction than their parent molecules. For instance, an ovalene cation with 32 carbon atoms has photodissociation rates 4 times greater than the corresponding molecule, whereas the corresponding totally dehydrogenated molecule has photodissociation rates 3 orders of magnitude greater. However, in the regions where the unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands have been observed (reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, HII regions, active galactic nuclei...) only PAHs with less than 50 carbon atoms may be considerably dehydrogenated. In contrast, the fraction of ionized PAHs is quite similar for all molecular sizes of PAHs but its value largely depends on the physical properties of the considered medium. A low ionization fraction is always found to be associated with relatively high hydrogen coverage of small PAHs. After taking into account these ionization and hydrogenation states we conclude that PAHs with more than 50 carbon atoms may survive the UV radiation field in the regions of the ISM where the UIR bands are observed. The smaller PAHs are all destroyed within some years in the media of high UV field which exhibit the UIR bands.

  5. Sediment-porewater partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Xu, Jian; Wang, Ping; Sun, Hongwen; Dai, Shugui

    2009-06-15

    Pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic environment has drawn much attention around the world. The occurrence of 16 priority PAHs in the sediments and corresponding porewaters in Lanzhou Reach of Yellow River, China, and their partitioning behavior between the two phases were investigated. The results demonstrated that the total PAH levels in the sediments were positively correlated with the sediment clay contents (R(2)=0.756). Concentrations of total PAHs in porewaters ranged from 48.2 to 206 microg/L, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (InP) was the most abundant compound measured in the porewater samples with a mean value of 42.9 microg/L. The compositions of PAHs in porewaters were dominated by their compositions in the sediment samples. The in situ organic carbon normalized partition coefficients logK(oc)(') of the PAHs between sediments and porewaters were significantly correlated with their octanol-water partition coefficients (logK(ow)) when logK(ow) values were less than 5.5 (naphthalene (Nap) excluded). logK(oc)(') values of 14 PAHs were lower than those predicted by the Karickhoff relationship. This discrepancy was largest for InP, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA), and benzo[ghi]perylene (BgP). The results in present study showed the tendency of PAHs release from sediment to porewater, indicating that PAHs sequestered in the sediments may be a pollution source to aquatic ecosystem. PMID:19059717

  6. Determination of octanol-air partition coefficients and supercooled liquid vapor pressures of PAHs as a function of temperature: Application to gas-particle partitioning in an urban atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Cetin, Eylem; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    Octanol-air partition coefficients ( KOA) for 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined as a function of temperature using the gas chromatographic retention time method. log KOA values at 25° ranged over six orders of magnitude, between 6.34 (acenaphthylene) and 12.59 (dibenz[ a,h]anthracene). The determined KOA values were within factor of 0.7 (dibenz[ a,h]anthracene) to 15.1 (benz[ a]anthracene) of values calculated as the ratio of octanol-water partition coefficient to dimensionless Henry's law constant. Supercooled liquid vapor pressures ( PL) of 13 PAHs were also determined using the gas chromatographic retention time technique. Activity coefficients in octanol calculated using KOA and PL ranged between 3.2 and 6.2 indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Atmospheric concentrations measured in this study in Izmir, Turkey were used to investigate the partitioning of PAHs between particle and gas-phases. Experimental gas-particle partition coefficients ( Kp) were compared to the predictions of KOA absorption and KSA (soot-air partition coefficient) models. Octanol-based absorptive partitioning model predicted lower partition coefficients especially for relatively volatile PAHs. Ratios of measured/modeled partition coefficients ranged between 1.1 and 15.5 (4.5±6.0, average±SD) for KOA model. KSA model predictions were relatively better and measured to modeled ratios ranged between 0.6 and 5.6 (2.3±2.7, average±SD).

  7. Comparative study for determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ‘PAHs' by a new spectrophotometric method and multivariate calibration coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El Kosasy, A. M.; El-Sayed Okeil, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    A modified dispersive liquid-liquid extraction (DLLE) procedure coupled with spectrophotometric techniques was adopted for simultaneous determination of naphthalene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, alpha-naphthol and beta-naphthol in water samples. Two different methods were used, partial least-squares (PLS) method and a new derivative ratio method, namely extended derivative ratio (EDR). A PLS-2 model was established for simultaneous determination of the studied pollutants in methanol, by using twenty mixtures as calibration set and five mixtures as validation set. Also, in methanol a novel (EDR) method was developed for determination of the studied pollutants, where each component in the mixture of the five PAHs was determined by using a mixture of the other four components as divisor. Chemometric and EDR methods could be also adopted for determination of the studied PAH in water samples after transferring them from aqueous medium to the organic one by utilizing dispersive liquid-liquid extraction technique, where different parameters were investigated using a full factorial design. Both methods were compared and the proposed method was validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully applied to determine these PAHs simultaneously in spiked water samples, where satisfactory results were obtained. All the results obtained agreed with those of published methods, where no significant difference was observed.

  8. Multi-factors on biodegradation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Sphingomonas sp. a bacterial strain isolated from mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianlin; Wong, M H; Wong, Y S; Tam, Nora F Y

    2008-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated sediment is an attractive remediation technique and its success depends on biodegradation kinetics, and the optimal condition for the PAH-degrading isolates; however, information on this aspect is still scarce. The effects of multi-factors on biodegradation of phenanthrene, a 3-ring model PAH, in contaminated sediment slurry by Sphingomonas sp. a bacterial strain isolated from surface mangrove sediment, were investigated using the orthogonal experimental design (form L(16)(4(5))). The most significant factors were salinity and inoculum size, while the effects of phenanthrene concentrations, nutrient addition and temperatures were insignificant. The optimal biodegradation condition in contaminated mangrove sediment slurry was 30 degrees C, 15 ppt salinity, a carbon/nitrogen ratio of 100:1 (the background ratio in sediment) and an inoculum size of 10(6) most probable number g(-1) sediment. The phenanthrene biodegradation could be best described by the first order rate model, C=C(0)e(-kt), where k (the rate constant) is equaled to 0.1185, under the optimal condition. The kinetic model was verified and its validity in predicting biodegradation by Sphingomonas sp. at various phenanthrene concentrations was proved by experimental data. PMID:18433800

  9. Concentration, distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from Lijiang River, South China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Baoming; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Jinlian; Leng, Bing; Huang, Wenyu; Chen, Zhenghua

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations, distributions and sources of PAHs were investigated in surface sediments from Lijiang River, South China. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 160 to 602 ng g(-1) dry weight.The total PAHs concentrations from different area descended in the order: middle reach > upper reach > down reach. Based on the PAHs indicators and the surrounding along Lijiang River, PAHs were mainly derived from the burning of coal. The ecological risk assessment suggested that the probability of negative toxic effective caused by PAHs in Lijiang River was lower than 25 %. PMID:23299952

  10. Bacterial communities and enzyme activities of PAHs polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, V; Cavalca, L; Rao, M A; Nocerino, G; Bernasconi, S; Dell'Amico, E; Colombo, M; Gianfreda, L

    2004-11-01

    Three soils (i.e. a Belgian soil, B-BT, a German soil, G, and an Italian agricultural soil, I-BT) with different properties and hydrocarbon-pollution history with regard to their potential to degrade phenanthrene were investigated. A chemical and microbiological evaluation of soils was done using measurements of routine chemical properties, bacterial counts and several enzyme activities. The three soils showed different levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), being their contamination strictly associated to their pollution history. High values of enzyme activities and culturable heterotrophic bacteria were detected in the soil with no or negligible presence of organic pollutants. Genetic diversity of soil samples and enrichment cultures was measured as bands on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified 16S rDNA sequences from the soil and enrichment community DNAs. When analysed by Shannon index (H'), the highest genetic biodiversity (H'=2.87) was found in the Belgian soil B-BT with a medium-term exposition to PAHs and the poorest biodiversity (H'=0.85) in the German soil with a long-term exposition to alkanes and PAHs and where absence, or lower levels of enzyme activities were measured. For the Italian agricultural soil I-BT, containing negligible amounts of organic pollutants but the highest Cu content, a Shannon index=2.13 was found. The enrichment of four mixed cultures capable of degrading solid phenanthrene in batch liquid systems was also studied. Phenanthrene degradation rates in batch systems were culture-dependent, and simple (one-slope) and complex (two-slope) kinetic behaviours were observed. The presence of common bands of microbial species in the cultures and in the native soil DNA indicated that those strains could be potential in situ phenanthrene degraders. Consistent with this assumption are the decrease of PAH and phenanthrene contents of Belgian soil B-BT and the isolation of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria. From the fastest phenanthrene-degrading culture C(B-BT), representative strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (100%), Methylobacterium sp. (99%), Rhizobium galegae (99%), Rhodococcus aetherovorans (100%), Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (100%), Alcaligenes sp. (99%) and Aquamicrobium defluvium (100%). DGGE-profiles of culture C(B-BT) showed bands attributable to Rhodococcus, Achromobacter, Methylobacterium rhizobium, Alcaligenes and Aquamicrobium. The isolation of Rhodococcus aetherovorans and Methylobacterium sp. can be consistent with the hypothesis that different phenanthrene-degrading strategies, cell surface properties, or the presence of xenobiotic-specific membrane carriers could play a role in the uptake/degradation of solid phenanthrene. PMID:15331267

  11. Standard PAH therapy improves long term survival in CTEPH patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Juergen Seyfarth; Michael Halank; Heinrike Wilkens; Hans-Joachim Schäfers; Ralf Ewert; Martin Riedel; Ernst Schuster; Hans Pankau; Stefan Hammerschmidt; Hubert Wirtz

    2010-01-01

    Background  Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), subsequent to pulmonary embolism is a relatively frequent cause of\\u000a pulmonary hypertension. Similar to patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), CTEPH carries a poor prognosis. There\\u000a is no hard evidence for any other therapy except pulmonary endarterectomy and none for those patients that are not eligible\\u000a for this procedure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  Fifty patients with confirmed,

  12. The PAH level, distribution and composition in surface sediments from a Mediterranean lagoon: the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Acquavita, Alessandro; Falomo, Jari; Predonzani, Sergio; Tamberlich, Francesco; Bettoso, Nicola; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-04-15

    The Marano and Grado Lagoon is one of the best conserved transitional environment in the whole Mediterranean area. On the other hand, it suffers from industrial, agricultural and fisheries activities, which could have an important impact on its environmental quality. With the application of the WFD, the sediment chemical status was investigated. In this work, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included by the US EPA within the priority pollutants were considered. PAHs values ranged from non-detectable to 1056 ng g(-1) showing the highest contamination close to the Aussa-Corno River mouth, which received the industrial inputs. The contamination level was comparable to that observed in low contaminated sites of the Mediterranean region, and lower than the adjacent Gulf of Trieste. The ratios of selected PAHs congeners pointed out the prevalence of pyrolitic sources. Moreover, the application of the ERL/ERM displayed an environment, which should not have a potential biological impact. PMID:24492154

  13. Effect of Substrate Character on Heterogeneous Ozone Reaction Rate with Individual PAHs and Their Reaction Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmen, B. A.; Stevens, T.

    2009-12-01

    Vehicle exhaust contains many unregulated chemical compounds that are harmful to human health and the natural environment, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a class of organic compounds derived from fuel combustion that can be carcinogenic and mutagenic. PAHs have been quantified in vehicle-derived ultrafine particles (Dp<100nm), which are more toxic than larger particles and are linked to adverse health problems, including respiratory and cardiac disease. Once emitted into the atmosphere, particle-bound PAHs can undergo “aging” reactions with oxidants, such as ozone, to form more polar species. These polar reaction products include species such as quinones that can be more toxic than the parent PAH compounds. Here, 0.4ppm ozone was reacted over a 24-hour period with the 16 EPA priority PAHs plus coronene adsorbed to (i) a quartz fiber filter and (ii) NIST diesel PM. The difference in the PAH/O3 heterogeneous reaction rate resulting from the two substrates will be discussed. The experiments were completed by spiking a known PAH mixture to the solid, reacting the samples with gas-phase ozone, and determining both PAH loss over time and products formed, using thermal-desorption gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). The individual PAHs anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, adsorbed to a QFF were also separately reacted with 0.4 ppm ozone. A volatilization control and the collection of volatilized PAHs using a Tenax-packed thermal desorption vial completed the mass balance and aided determination parent-product relationships. Heterogeneous reaction products analyzed directly without derivatization indicate the formation of 9,10-anthracenedione, 9H-fluoren-9-one, and (1,1’-biphenyl)-2,2’-dicarboxaldehyde from the reaction of ozone with the PAH mix on a QFF, but only 9,10-anthracenedione was detected for the diesel PM reaction. The implications of these results for aging of diesel particulate in urban environments will be discussed.

  14. Association of Plasma IL-6 and Hsp70 with HRV at Different Levels of PAHs Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaosheng; Feng, Yingying; Yang, Liangle; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Deng, Qifei; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV), a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is not well understood. Objectives We hypothesized that PAHs might induce systemic inflammation and stress response, contributing to altered cardiac autonomic function. Methods HRV indices were measured using a 3-channel digital Holter monitor in 800 coke oven workers. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were determined using ELISA. Twelve urinary PAHs metabolites (OH-PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results We found that significant dose-dependent relationships between four urinary OH-PAHs and IL-6 (all Ptrend<0.05); and an increase in quartiles of IL-6 was significantly associated with a decrease in total power (TP) and low frequency (LF) (Ptrend?=?0.014 and 0.006, respectively). In particular, elevated IL-6 was associated in a dose-dependent manner with decreased TP and LF in the high-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05), but not in the low-PAHs metabolites groups. No significant association between Hsp70 and HRV in total population was found after multivariate adjustment. However, increased Hsp70 was significantly associated with elevated standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), TP and LF in the low-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05). We also observed that both IL-6 and Hsp70 significantly interacted with multiple PAHs metabolites in relation to HRV. Conclusions In coke oven workers, increased IL-6 was associated with a dose-response decreased HRV in the high-PAHs metabolites groups, whereas increase of Hsp70 can result in significant dose-related increase in HRV in the low-PAHs metabolites groups. PMID:24722336

  15. The levels of PAHs and aryl hydrocarbon receptor effects in sediments of Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bingli; Kang, Jia; Wang, Xuetong; Yu, Yingxin; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wen, Yu; Wang, Yipei

    2014-05-01

    A total of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples from Taihu Lake were analyzed by instruments, and sediment extracts were assayed for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) induction using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The cause-effect relationship between the observed EROD activity and chemical concentrations of PAHs was examined. Our results showed that sediment extracts could induce significant AhR effects, and the bioassay-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of raw extracts (TEQ(bio)s) ranged from 2.7 to 39.8 pg g(-1) dw. Chemical analysis showed that 16 PAHs were all detected in all samples, and their total concentrations (?16PAHs) ranged from 179.8 to 1,669.4 ng g(-1) dw. The abundance of sedimentary PAHs in the three regions (Meiliang Bay, Gonghu Bay, and Xukou Bay) showed a decreasing trend from the inflow region to the outflow region. Chemical analysis-derived TEQs (TEQ(cal)s) contributed by PAHs ranged from 1.6 to 20.7 pg g(-1) dw. The mean contribution rates (CRs) of PAHs to TEQ(bio)s were 48.9%. In Meiliang Bay, EROD effects of 60% samples were caused by PAHs whose CRs were more than 60%, while in most sampling sites of Gonghu Bay and Xukou Bay, the CRs of PAHs to TEQ(bio)s were basically below 40%. In addition, preliminary ecological risk assessment found that PAHs in sediments have very low ecological impact based on the chemical data of PAHs, while the sediments might pose an unacceptable risk to aquatic organisms and their predators based on the data of TEQ(bio). These findings showed that EROD effects of sediment extracts from Taihu Lake were also caused by other compounds, such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, etc., together. PMID:24497304

  16. Rapid collection, detection, and assessment of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J. [National Biological Service, Columbia, MO (United States); Butorin, A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Borok (Russian Federation). Biological Inst. of Inland Waters

    1995-12-31

    PAHs, an important class of environmental chemical contaminants found primarily in petroleum and coal products, frequently are the most numerous and ubiquitous organic pollutants recovered in sediment residues. PAHs are considered hazardous in water and soil because many are acutely toxic and have the potential for genotoxic activity. Selected EPA priority pollutants (2, 3, 4, and 5-ring PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures (crude oil, gasoline, and recycled motor oil) were collected and concentrated from water and sediment with semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDs) that contain a thin film of triolein. Analytes were extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis in hexane or directly by rinsing with acetone DMSO, concentrated in the carrier solvent DMSO, and detected with the luminescent bacterial assays Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign}. High SPMD-water concentration factors of PAHs appeared to correspond closely to the occurrence of PAHs in sediments previously reported in the literature; for example, pyrene had the highest SPMD concentration factor and was the most commonly found PAH in sediment residues. Mutatox{reg_sign} with rat hepatic S9 activation detected all PAHs tested. The PAH`s molecular weight and number of rings appeared to directly influence acute toxicity (EC50, {micro}g/mL); for example, two-ring naphthalene had an EC50 value of 0.78 whereas five-ring benzo(a)pyrene had an EC50 value of 15.0, about a twenty-fold difference, Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign}, in combination with SPMDs were able to rapidly (< 24h) assess the bioavailability, toxicity, and genotoxicity of these environmental PAHs.

  17. Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and DNA binding of PAHs in feral eel (Anguilla anguilla) exposed to polluted sediments: A field survey

    SciTech Connect

    Oost, R. Van Der; Heida, H.; Satumalay, K. (OMEGAM Environmental Research Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Schooten, F.J. Van (Univ. of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology); Ariese, F.; Vermeulen, N.P.E. (Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-06-01

    Samples of sediment and eel taken from six sites in Amsterdam with different levels of water pollution were analyzed for 16 parental PAHs. In addition, biliary PAH metabolites and hepatic PAH-DNA adducts were determined in the eel to evaluate biomonitoring techniques for PAH exposure. There was a clear difference between PAH profiles in sediments and eel. Mainly two- and three-ring PAHs were detected in eel, whereas four-ring PAHs predominated in the sediments. Because PAH bioaccumulation was highest in eel from the reference sites, tissue levels of the parental PAH are probably not the most accurate monitor of PAH exposure in fish. An elevated excretion of 1-OH pyrene (determined by synchronous scan fluorescence) was observed in the bile of fish from three of the four polluted sites, indicating that this parameter may be used as a biomarker for PAH exposure. A significant increase in PAH-DNA adduct levels was observed in the liver of eel from all polluted sites. Therefore, this parameter seems to be a sensitive biomarker for exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic PAHs.

  18. Comparative study on the growth mechanisms of PAHs

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo [Department of Chemical System Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    The efficiencies of recently proposed, phenyl addition/cyclization (PAC), methyl addition/cyclization (MAC) and a popular hydrogen abstraction/acetylene addition (HACA) mechanisms have been examined experimentally by detecting the gas phase reaction products of pyrolysis of toluene with/without addition of benzene + acetylene by using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) single photon ionization (SPI) time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Besides the observation of verities of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), intense mass peaks of indene, phenylacetylene and propyne confirmed a remarkable quenching of the major active species, benzyl, phenyl and methyl radicals by acetylene. In spite of quenching, only benzyl contributed products were diminished while phenyl and methyl contributed products were enhanced. Uniquely observed symmetrical PAHs; corrannulene/coronene; formed by the active involvement of PAC, HACA and/or MAC mechanisms, reflects the interdependencies of these mechanisms. Individually, PAC was found highly efficient for endless growth, HACA for filling triple fusing site and MAC for expanding cyclotetra/pentafused into benzenoid structure, respectively. (author)

  19. Degradation of PAHs in soil by indigenous and inoculated bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Aamand, J. [Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bruntse, G.; Jepsen, M.; Joergensen, C.; Jensen, B.K. [VKI Water Quality Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    In soil heavily polluted by coal tar, the inherent mineralization of radio-labeled phenanthrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was relatively slow, and a stimulation of degradation was observed by inoculation with a mixed population of PAH-degrading bacteria. A much faster inherent mineralization of phenanthrene was observed in soil slightly polluted by coal tar, and inoculation of this soil had no effect. Several phenanthrene-degrading bacteria were isolated from different soils. Two strains were further characterized as an Arthrobacter sp. and a Pseudomonas sp. In an organic medium without phenanthrene, growth rates of 0.52 h{sup {minus}1} and 0.71 h{sup {minus}1} were measured for the Arthrobacter sp. and the Pseudomonas sp., respectively. Most isolates grown in the phenanthrene-free medium, including the Arthrobacter sp., rapidly adapted to phenanthrene degradation following transfer to a phenanthrene-containing medium. In contrast, the phenanthrene-degrading capability of other strains, including the Pseudomonas sp., was lost during growth in the phenanthrene-free medium. Growth in an organic medium without phenanthrene of strains that retain the ability to degrade phenanthrene could prove to be a useful technique for production of PAH-degrading bacteria on a larger scale for soil inoculation.

  20. Learning About Ratios

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hadley

    2005-06-17

    Ratios appear in everyday life, but what exactly is a ratio. This lesson will help you understand what is a ratio and what to do with a ratio. What is a ratio? Dr. Math gives a pretty good explanation on these sites What is a ratio? Ratios as Fractions Figuring Ratios Writing Ratios Ratios Use this site to explore ratios using pictures All About Ratios Now that you have a little understanding here are some in-class activities that your teacher can help you with ...

  1. Bioremediation of Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)Contaminated Soil by Composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine Loick; Phil J. Hobbs; Mike D. C. Hale; Davey L. Jones

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil

  2. Biliary PAH metabolites and the hepatosomatic index of brown bullheads from Lake Erie tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, X.; Baumann, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    In studies designed to investigate the environmental exposure of fish in Lake Erie tributaries, a benthic fish, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), was collected from the industrially contaminated Detroit River, Ottawa River, Black River, Cuyahoga River-harbor and -upstream, Ashtabula River, Buffalo River, and Niagara River, and the non-industrialized Old Woman Creek during 1997-2000. Biliary benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)- and naphthalene (NAPH)-type metabolites and the hepatosomatic index (HSI) were measured in fish and compared between different sites. Fish from all of the contaminated sites except Niagara River had significantly higher concentrations of both types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites than fish from the Old Woman Creek. Concentrations of PAH metabolites in bile of fish were positively associated with concentrations of PAHs in sediments, supporting the use of bile metabolites as a measure of PAH exposure. Relatively low concentrations of PAHs detected in fish bile and sediments of the Niagara River, which had undergone extensive remediation, suggested a lowered PAH exposure for fish at this site. No apparent trend was observed in HSI between the industrialized and non-industrialized sites. This study demonstrates that biliary PAH metabolites are an effective indicator of exposure of fish to PAHs. However, because factors other than contamination could also affect the liver size of wild fish, HSI alone may be not a reliable biomarker for assessing contaminant stress. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major PAH source to urban stream sediments.

    PubMed

    Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B

    2014-02-01

    We used land-use analysis, PAH concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment PAH sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as PAH sources. Urban PAH concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar PAH assemblages, and correlation analysis compared PAH sediment assemblages to common PAH sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban PAH source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use. PMID:24215941

  4. Source apportionment of sediment PAHs in Lake Calumet, Chicago: application of factor analysis with nonnegative constraints.

    PubMed

    Bzdusek, Philip A; Christensen, Erik R; Li, An; Zou, Qimeng

    2004-01-01

    A factor analysis model with nonnegative constraints (FA) was used to apportion the sources of PAHs found in sediments of Lake Calumet and surrounding wetlands in southeast Chicago. Source profiles and contributions, with uncertainties, are determined with no prior knowledge of sources. The model includes scaling and backscaling of data with average PAH concentrations without sample normalization. This work is a follow-up to a study that used a chemical mass balance (CMB8.2) model to apportion sources to the same data set. Literature source profiles, modified based on gas/particle partitioning of individual PAHs, from eight PAH sources were considered for comparison. FA results for a two-source solution indicate coke oven (45%) and traffic (55%) are the primary PAH sources to Lake Calumet sediments. A six-source FA solution indicates that coke oven (47%) and traffic (45%) related sources are major PAH sources and wood burning-coal residential (2.3%) is a minor PAH source. From the six-source solution, two coke oven profiles are observed, a standard coke oven profile (33%), and a degraded or second coke oven profile (14%) low in phenanthrene and pyrene. Observed traffic related sources include gasoline engine (36%) exhaust and traffic tunnel air (9.3%). This work supports the previous study of Lake Calumet PAHs by CMB model. In addition, FA provides new insights since wood burning and secondary coke oven profiles were not recognized in the CMB model. PMID:14740723

  5. Microcosm studies of subsurface PAH-degrading bacteria from a former manufactured gas plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal D. Durant; Liza P. Wilson; Edward J. Bouwer

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for natural in situ biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the subsurface at the site of a former manufactured gas plant. Fifty-seven samples of unconsolidated subsurface sediments were aseptically obtained from five boreholes across the site. Bacteria capable of aerobically degrading PAH's without an acclimation period were detected throughout shallow (2.7

  6. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-phase associations in Washington coastal sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fredrick G. Prahl; Roy Carpenter

    1983-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions, organic carbon, nitrogen and lignin contents were determined in whole, unfractionated sediment from the Washington continental shelf and in discrete sediment fractions separated by particle size and density. At least 20 to 25% of perylene and PAH derived from pyrolytic processes and 50% of the retene measured in whole sediment are contained within

  8. Haplotypes and Linkage Disequilibrium at the Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Locus, PAH, in a Global Representation of Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith R. Kidd; Andrew J. Pakstis; Hongyu Zhao; Ru-Band Lu; Friday E. Okonofua; Adekunle Odunsi; Elena Grigorenko; Batsheva Bonne-Tamir; Jonathan Friedlaender; Leslie O. Schulz; Josef Parnas; Kenneth K. Kidd

    2000-01-01

    Because defects in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) cause phenylketonuria (PKU), PAH was studied for normal polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium soon after the gene was cloned. Studies in the 1980s concentrated on European populations in which PKU was common and showed that haplotype-frequency variation exists between some regions of the world. In European populations, linkage disequilibrium generally was found not

  9. Levels of PAHs in soil and vegetation samples from Tarragona County, Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nadal; M. Schuhmacher; J. L. Domingo

    2004-01-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 24 soil and 12 wild chard samples collected in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), an area with an important number of chemical and petrochemical industries. Samples were also collected in urban\\/residential zones and in presumably unpolluted sites (control samples). In soils, the sum of the 16 PAHs ranged between 1002

  10. In situ biomonitoring of PAH-contaminated sediments using juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).

    PubMed

    Barbee, Gary C; Barich, John; Duncan, Bruce; Bickham, John W; Matson, Cole W; Hintze, Christopher J; Autenrieth, Robin L; Zhou, Guo-Dong; McDonald, Thomas J; Cizmas, Leslie; Norton, Dale; Donnelly, Kirby C

    2008-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous marine and freshwater sediment contaminants. Extensive data exist to confirm that PAHs are toxic to aquatic receptors. However, limited information is available regarding the bioavailability and genotoxicity of sediment PAHs to aquatic organisms. This study investigated an integrated biomonitoring approach using chemical analyses and biomarkers to characterize the bioavailability and genotoxicity of a complex PAH mixture in freshwater lake sediments associated with a former manufactured gas plant (MGP). Sediment PAH genotoxicity was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), DNA adduct (32)P-postlabeling, and erythrocyte micronuclei in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) caged in the water column. Significant PAH-induced genotoxicity was observed with FCM and (32)P-postlabeling, but not with erythrocyte micronuclei. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood and hepatic DNA adducts correlated with sediment, but not water column PAH concentrations. Total hepatic DNA adducts in salmon caged nearest the former MGP facility was 39+/-6.5 (RALx10(9)), while salmon caged in a reference lake had 28+/-2.3 total hepatic DNA adducts per 10(9) nucleotides. These results indicate that in situ biomonitoring using biomarkers and caged fish can be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic PAHs in sediments. PMID:18304636

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Daya Bay, South China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wen; Chi, Jisong; Wang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Weixia; Zhang, Gan

    2009-06-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in Daya Bay, China. The total concentration of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs in surface sediments ranged from 42.5 to 158.2 ng/g dry weight with a mean concentration of 126.2 ng/g. The spatial distribution of PAHs was site-specific and combustion processes were the main source of PAHs in the surface sediments. Total 16 priority PAH concentration in the cores 8 and 10 ranged from 77.4 to 305.7 ng/g and from 118.1 to 319.9 ng/g respectively. The variation of the 16 PAH concentrations in both cores followed the economic development in China very well and was also influenced by input pathways. Some of the PAHs were petrogenic in core 8 while pyrolytic source was dominant in core 10. In addition, pyrolytic PAHs in both cores were mainly from the coal and/or grass and wood combustion. PMID:19251344

  12. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PAHS IN FOOD ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Food data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 19 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 86 samples over 86 households. Each sample was collected as a duplicate of the solid food consumed by the primary respondent within a single 24-hour...

  13. Measurement of gaseous PAHs with an innovative passive sampler in community exposure studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sensitive, simple, and cost-effective passive sampling methodology was developed to quantify gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in personal, indoor and outdoor air. A Fan-Lioy passive PAH sampler (FL-PPS) is constructed from four 80 sections of 1 cm long SPB-5 GC c...

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--PAHS IN DERMAL WIPES ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Dermal Wipe Samples data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 11 PAHs in 40 dermal wipe samples over 40 households. Each sample was collected from the primary respondent within each household. The sampling period occurred on the last day of each...

  15. PAHs in Road Dust: Ubiquity, Fate, and Summary of Available Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepanjan Majumdar; Bhargavi Rajaram; Shweta Meshram; C. V. Chalapati Rao

    2012-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous in environment and are also present in road dust in urban and rural locations worldwide due to the mere presence of even a weak primary source and the dynamic interconnection among all environmental segments. Although monitoring and assessment of PAHs in road dust have been undertaken in several countries, compilation of information on the dynamics

  16. PAHs in Road Dust: Ubiquity, Fate and Summary of Available Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepanjan Majumdar; Bhargavi Rajaram; Shweta Meshram; C. V. Chalapati Rao

    2011-01-01

    Poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous in environment and are also present in road dust in urban and rural locations worldwide due to the mere presence of even a weak primary source and the dynamic interconnection amongst all environmental segments. Although monitoring and assessment of PAHs in road dust have been undertaken in several countries, compilation of information on dynamics

  17. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PAHS IN DUST ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Dust data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 21 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 91 dust samples over 91 households. Samples were taken by collecting dust from the indoor floor areas from the main room and in the bedroom of the p...

  18. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PAHS IN SOIL ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Soil data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 19 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 91 soil samples over 91 households. Samples were collected 10 feet perpendicular to the foundation of the home. The sample consists of an aliquot ...

  19. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PAHS IN AIR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Air data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 22 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air samples taken indoors and outdoors. The information is for 172 samples for 86 households. Active samples were taken by pumping standardized air ...

  20. REMOVAL OF PAHs BY SORBENT FROM FLUE GAS DURING MSW INCINERATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Cang Zhou; Zhao-Ping Zhong; Bao-Sheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Ya-ji Huang

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by sorbent injection from the flue gas during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. For this purpose, the incineration tests of MSW were performed in a fluidized bed incinerator and the influence of sorbent on PAHs was studied. The samples analyzed were taken from the raw

  1. PAH oxidation in aged and spiked soils investigated by column experiments.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Julien; Laurent, Fabien; Leyval, Corinne; Schwartz, Christophe; Buès, Michel; Simonnot, Marie-Odile

    2013-04-01

    Soils of former steel-making or coking plants have been contaminated for decades by PAHs. These soils could be cleaned up by In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) but the low PAH availability may be a drawback. The objective of the present contribution was to study the efficiency of PAH oxidation in two aged soils compared to a spiked soil in dynamic conditions. Column experiments were performed with two oxidants: hydrogen peroxide used in modified Fenton's reaction and activated persulfate. The oxidant doses were moderate to ensure the feasibility of process upscaling. Besides, the availability of PAHs in these soils was measured by extraction with a cyclodextrin. Our results showed that oxidation was limited: the higher PAH degradation rate was 30% with the aged soils and 55% with the spiked one. PAH availability was a parameter explaining these results but no direct correlation was found between PAH extractability by the cyclodextrin and oxidation efficiency. Other parameters were also involved, such as the organic carbon content, the calcite content and the pH. This study was a first achievement before studying the influence of a number of parameters on the efficiency of PAH oxidation in aged soils. PMID:23290942

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in commonly consumed Nigerian smoked\\/grilled fish and meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. O. E. Akpambang; G. Purcaro; L. Lajide; I. A. Amoo; L. S. Conte; S. Moret

    2009-01-01

    Smoking and\\/or grilling, when carried out with traditional methods involving direct contact with wood combustion fumes, is responsible for high contamination levels with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim of this work was to investigate the PAH content of different smoked or grilled meat and fish products commonly consumed in Nigeria. A rapid method involving microwave-assisted saponification and simultaneous

  3. BILIARY PAH METABOLITES AS A BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR OF FISH EXPOSURE IN TRIBUTARIES OF LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) metabolites have been studied as a biological indicator of fish exposure to PAHs since the mid 1980's. Brown bullheads were collected from the following Lake Erie tributaries: Buffalo River (BUF), Niagara River at Love Canal (NIA)...

  4. MEASURING AIRBORNE PAHS FROM THE NEW YORK WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in ambient air, are suspected human carcinogens, and have been linked to genotoxic and mutagenic effects. Although there are no specific monitoring programs for PAHs in ambient air in the United States, there is a national...

  5. Occurrence and Fate of PAHs from Road Runoff in the South Drainage Basin of Annecy Lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Naffrechoux; E. Combet; B. Fanget; L. Paturel; F. Berthier

    2000-01-01

    The nature and concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from main road runoff were evaluated in several potential deposition areas close to Annecy Lake. Investigations were conducted on sediments from road lining ditches, surface sediments, surface water of the lake, Eau Morte river, stagnant water from a natural reserve. Sixteen common PAHs were studied and the concentration determined monthly from

  6. Investigation of the release of PAHs from artificially contaminated sediments using cyclolipopeptidic biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Portet-Koltalo, F; Ammami, M T; Benamar, A; Wang, H; Le Derf, F; Duclairoir-Poc, C

    2013-10-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be preponderant in contaminated sediments and understanding how they are sorbed in the different mineral and organic fractions of the sediment is critical for effective removal strategies. For this purpose, a mixture of seven PAHs was studied at the sediment/water interface and sorption isotherms were obtained. The influence of various factors on the sorption behavior of PAHs was evaluated, such as the nature of minerals, pH, ionic strength and amount of organic matter. Afterwards, the release of PAHs from the sediment by surfactants was investigated. The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was compared to natural biosurfactants, of cyclolipopeptidic type (amphisin and viscosin-like mixture), produced by two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. The desorption of PAHs (from naphthalene to pyrene), from the highly retentive kaolinite fraction, could be favored by adding SDS or amphisin, but viscosin-like biosurfactants were only effective for 2-3 ring PAHs desorption (naphthalene to phenanthrene). Moreover, while SDS favors the release of all the target PAHs from a model sediment containing organic matter, the two biosurfactants tested were only effective to desorb the lowest molecular weight PAHs (naphthalene to fluorene). PMID:23995556

  7. Paleolimnological evidence of variations in deposition of atmosphere-borne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, B; Taylor, D

    2009-11-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, principally from the incomplete combustion of organic matter. Levels of emissions of PAHs from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased rapidly over the last ca. 200 years. As PAHs have detrimental environmental and human health impacts, assessing spatial and temporal variations in environmental loadings has become a pressing issue in many industrialised and industrializing countries. The current paper reports spatial and temporal variations in levels of atmospheric deposition of PAHs recorded in sediment cores from three lakes in Ireland, the locations of which were selected on the basis of known geographic differences in the deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Thirteen PAH compounds were analysed for in samples of lake sediment that were assumed to represent contemporary/recent and historical (possibly reference) levels of deposition. A third sample was selected from each core on the basis of measured levels of spheroidal carbonaceous particles, which are regarded as a direct indicator of depositions from the industrial-level combustion of fossil fuels. Chronological control was provided by the (210)Pb dating technique which also allowed for the calculation of PAH flux. For the most part, and when compared with the limited published data, measured levels of PAH depositions were relatively low. However, levels of deposition of PAHs in the west of Ireland are higher now than previously, which is in contrast to a general trend of decreasing levels in Europe. PMID:19819521

  8. Effect of the site of infusion of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) on portal blood flow

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of the site of infusion of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) on portal blood flow LM Zeoula C requirements of animals. In this context, the determination of portal blood flow is critical. When dilution techniques are used for such measurements, eg using PAH, a homogeneous mixing of the marker in the blood

  9. Health Implications of PAH Release from Coated Cast Iron Drinking Water Distribution Systems in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Bianca M.; de Jongh, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coal tar and bitumen have been historically used to coat the insides of cast iron drinking water mains. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may leach from these coatings into the drinking water and form a potential health risk for humans. Objective: We estimated the potential human cancer risk from PAHs in coated cast iron water mains. Method: In a Dutch nationwide study, we collected drinking water samples at 120 locations over a period of 17 days under various operational conditions, such as undisturbed operation, during flushing of pipes, and after a mains repair, and analyzed these samples for PAHs. We then estimated the health risk associated with an exposure scenario over a lifetime. Results: During flushing, PAH levels frequently exceeded drinking water quality standards; after flushing, these levels dropped rapidly. After the repair of cast iron water mains, PAH levels exceeded the drinking water standards for up to 40 days in some locations. Conclusions: The estimated margin of exposure for PAH exposure through drinking water was > 10,000 for all 120 measurement locations, which suggests that PAH exposure through drinking water is of low concern for consumer health. However, factors that differ among water systems, such as the use of chlorination for disinfection, may influence PAH levels in other locations. PMID:23425894

  10. Spatial variation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the Yangtze Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Shen, Chanchan; Shen, Zhenyao; Zhang, Di; Crittenden, John C

    2015-07-01

    The spatial distributions and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the Yangtze Estuary were systematically analyzed. The results indicated significant spatial variations. The mean of ?PAHs in different sampling times in a year varied from 128.5 ± 51.4 to 307.8 ± 108.9 ng g(-1). Samples collected during the flood season showed higher PAH concentrations and larger PAH fluctuations compared with those collected during the dry season. This variation was mainly ascribed to the change in the river flow rate. Higher values of ?PAHs were observed in the inner estuary than the adjacent coastal area over a year because of diffusion and degradation effects. Analysis of PAH abundance revealed a predominant proportion of light PAHs with two to three rings, with phenanthrene being the most abundant. Based on principal component analysis, vehicular emissions, coal and biomass combustion were the main sources of PAHs. PMID:26115517

  11. Determination of parent and hydroxy PAHs in personal PM?.? and urine samples collected during Native American fish smoking activities.

    PubMed

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Stone, David; Kile, Molly; Sudakin, Daniel; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2015-02-01

    A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM?.?) using GC-MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker's Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker's Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM?.? samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with ?-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34 OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC-MS. The personal PM?.? samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM?.? samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM?.?, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m(3) for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m(3) for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6h of fish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder. PMID:25461072

  12. Identification and analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-biodegrading bacterial strains from refinery soil of India.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Priyanka; Sahay, Harmesh; Sharma, Richa; Pandey, Alok Kumar; Singh, Shashi Bala; Saxena, A K; Nain, Lata

    2015-06-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) utilizing bacteria were isolated from soils of seven sites of Mathura refinery, India. Twenty-six bacterial strains with different morphotypes were isolated. These strains were acclimatized to utilize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e., anthracene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, each at 50 mg/L concentration as sole carbon source. Out of total isolates, 15 potent isolates were subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing and identified as a member of diverse genera, i.e., Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces. Consortium of four promising isolates (Acinetobacter, Brevibacterium, Serratia, and Streptomyces) were also investigated for bioremediation of PAH mixture. This consortium was proved to be efficient PAH degrader resulting in 40-70 % degradation of PAH within 7 days. Results of this study indicated that these genera may play an active role in bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26026847

  13. The IR emission features - Emission from PAH molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Given the current understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the spectroscopic data suggest that are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: (1) free molecule-sized PAHs producing the narrow features and (2) amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily composed of an irregular 'lattice' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the IR fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules demonstrates that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. It is concluded that, since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is required along with an observational program focusing on the spatial characteristics of the spectra.

  14. Partitioning of PAHs in pore water from mangrove wetlands in Shantou, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qi min; Wang, Hua; Qin, Jian qiao; Chen, Gui zhu; Zhang, Yong bei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the trend of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) partitioning, fifteen pore water samples collected from the sediments of three mangrove wetlands were analyzed, and the partition coefficients and the partition model for the PAHs were determined by the correlation between K(oc) and octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)). The results revealed that the mean Kp values in inner mangrove wetlands were between 143 and 1031 L /Kg; the particulate organic carbon (POC) could strongly adsorb low-ring PAHs; the PAHs partitioning was on a obvious trend transported to particle phase. We suggest that the classic equilibrium model of organic carbon normalized (K(p)=K(oc)f(oc)) may be used to predict the trend of the selected PAHs partitioning. PMID:25450913

  15. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

  16. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g(-1) to 3631 ng g(-1) during the period of 1978-2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. PMID:25489746

  17. Sorption effects interfering with the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Kalbe, Ute; Meißner, Kerstin; Sobottka, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are severe environmental pollutants that are analyzed frequently. The risk assessment of PAH impact to groundwater can be performed using leaching tests. Therby a liquid-solid separation step including centrifugation may be required, which in turn might lead to loss of analytes due to sorption on the equipment. Thus we determined the PAH recoveries from various container materials (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polytetraflourethylene (PTFE), stainless steel (ES), and perflouroalkoxy (PFA)) and compared them to selected PAH properties. We found the best recoveries for PFA (68%) and PTFE (65%) containers. We found good negative correlations (-0.93 and better) between PAH recovery and log partition coefficient organic carbon-water (logKOC) for PFA, PTFE, and ES containers. PMID:24720977

  18. Constant-Energy Synchronous Scan and Excitation Emission Matrix Shpol'skii Spectroscopy for Characterization of PAHs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Hofstraat; U. P. Wild

    1998-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a vast class of organic compounds. Many PAHs show carcinogenic effects, which in general are strongly dependent on their molecular structure. Hence, some, even structurally strongly related, PAHs may show a large difference in carcinogenicity. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of PAHs embedded in a polycrystalline n-alkane matrix (or Shpol'skii matrix) is a powerful technique to identify

  19. H2 formation on PAHs in photodissociation regions: a high-temperature pathway to molecular hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschman, L.; Cazaux, S.; Spaans, M.; Hoekstra, R.; Schlathölter, T.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: Molecular hydrogen is the most abundant molecule in the Universe. It is thought that a large portion of H2 forms by association of hydrogen atoms to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We model the influence of PAHs on total H2 formation rates in photodissociation regions (PDRs) and assess the effect of these formation rates on the total cloud structure. Methods: We set up a chemical kinetic model at steady state in a PDR environment and included radiative transfer to calculate the chemistry at different depths in the PDR. This model includes known dust grain chemistry for the formation of H2 and a H2 formation mechanism on PAHs. Since H2 formation on PAHs is impeded by thermal barriers, this pathway is only efficient at higher temperatures (T> 200 K). At these temperatures the conventional route of H2 formation via H atoms physisorbed on dust grains is no longer feasible, so the PAH mechanism enlarges the region where H2 formation is possible. Results: We find that PAHs have a significant influence on the structure of PDRs. The extinction at which the transition from atomic to molecular hydrogen occurs strongly depends on the presence of PAHs, especially for PDRs with a strong external radiation field. A sharp spatial transition between fully dehydrogenated PAHs on the outside of the cloud and normally hydrogenated PAHs on the inside is found. As a proof of concept, we use coronene to show that H2 forms very efficiently on PAHs, and that this process can reproduce the high H2 formation rates derived in several PDRs. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Spectroscopy of neutral and ionized PAHs. From laboratory studies to astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAHs are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, PAHs are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrochemistry is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that are associated with the emission and absorption interstellar zones. An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to assess the physical and chemical properties of PAHs in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. PAHs, neutrals and ions, are expanded through a pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). These laboratory experiments provide unique information on the spectra of free, cold large carbon molecules and ions in the gas phase from the ultraviolet and visible range to the near-infrared range. Intrinsic band profiles and band positions of cold gas-phase PAHs can now be measured with high-sensitivity spectroscopy and directly compared to the astronomical data. Preliminary conclusions from the comparison of the laboratory data with astronomical observations of interstellar and circumstellar environments will also be discussed.

  1. Impact of vehicular traffic emissions on particulate-bound PAHs: Levels and associated health risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, Klara; Castro, Dionísia; Delerue–Matos, Cristina; Alvim–Ferraz, Maria da Conceição; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    Considering vehicular transport as one of the most health-relevant emission sources of urban air, and with aim to further understand its negative impact on human health, the objective of this work was to study its influence on levels of particulate-bound PAHs and to evaluate associated health risks. The 16 PAHs considered by USEPA as priority pollutants, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene associated with fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were determined. The samples were collected at one urban site, as well as at a reference place for comparison. The results showed that the air of the urban site was more seriously polluted than at the reference one, with total concentrations of 17 PAHs being 2240% and 640% higher for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively; vehicular traffic was the major emission source at the urban site. PAHs were predominantly associated with PM2.5 (83% to 94% of ?PAHs at urban and reference site, respectively) with 5 rings PAHs being the most abundant groups of compounds at both sites. The risks associated with exposure to particulate PAHs were evaluated using the TEF approach. The estimated value of lifetime lung cancer risks exceeded the health-based guideline levels, thus demonstrating that exposure to PM2.5-bound PAHs at levels found at urban site might cause potential health risks. Furthermore, the results showed that evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene (regarded as a marker of the genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs) alone would probably underestimate the carcinogenic potential of the studied PAH mixtures.

  2. A statistical approach to develop a detailed soot growth model using PAH characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, Abhijeet; Celnik, Matthew; Shirley, Raphael; Sander, Markus; Patterson, Robert; West, Richard; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge University, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    A detailed PAH growth model is developed, which is solved using a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm. The model describes the structure and growth of planar PAH molecules, and is referred to as the kinetic Monte Carlo-aromatic site (KMC-ARS) model. A detailed PAH growth mechanism based on reactions at radical sites available in the literature, and additional reactions obtained from quantum chemistry calculations are used to model the PAH growth processes. New rates for the reactions involved in the cyclodehydrogenation process for the formation of 6-member rings on PAHs are calculated in this work based on density functional theory simulations. The KMC-ARS model is validated by comparing experimentally observed ensembles on PAHs with the computed ensembles for a C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and a C{sub 6}H{sub 6} flame at different heights above the burner. The motivation for this model is the development of a detailed soot particle population balance model which describes the evolution of an ensemble of soot particles based on their PAH structure. However, at present incorporating such a detailed model into a population balance is computationally unfeasible. Therefore, a simpler model referred to as the site-counting model has been developed, which replaces the structural information of the PAH molecules by their functional groups augmented with statistical closure expressions. This closure is obtained from the KMC-ARS model, which is used to develop correlations and statistics in different flame environments which describe such PAH structural information. These correlations and statistics are implemented in the site-counting model, and results from the site-counting model and the KMC-ARS model are in good agreement. Additionally the effect of steric hindrance in large PAH structures is investigated and correlations for sites unavailable for reaction are presented. (author)

  3. Chemical Oxidation of Complex PAH Mixtures by Base-activated Sodium Persulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Miller, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is an attractive approach for the remediation of recalcitrant soil and groundwater contaminants. One oxidant that has received significant recent attention is sodium persulfate, which has several advantages, including a relatively long lifetime in porous media, the ability to destroy a wide-range of chemical contaminants, and a high oxidation potential. In this study, we investigated the chemical mechanisms associated with base-activated persulfate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and assessed the applicability of persulfate to the remediation of porous media contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) PAH mixtures. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the oxidation kinetics for individual PAH compounds, synthetic PAH mixtures, and manufactured gas plant (MGP) tars. Additional experiments were conducted with added surfactants (Triton X-100, Triton X-45, and Tween 80) to increase PAH mass transfer from the NAPL to the aqueous phase, and with radical scavengers (ethanol and tert-butyl alcohol) to identify the reactive species responsible for degradation. Degradation of total PAHs in the NAPL experiments was as high as 70%. The addition of surfactant increased initial PAH degradation rates, but also greatly increased the rate of base consumption, thereby reducing the overall fraction degraded. The degradation of individual PAHs within the NAPLs varied significantly, with the masses of some compounds remaining largely unchanged. The results of the radical scavenger and single PAH experiments suggest that the observed pattern of degradation in PAH mixtures is the result of a combination of mass transfer considerations and competition for radical species.

  4. METABOLIC ACTIVATION PATHWAYS OF CYCLOPENTA-FUSED PAH (POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS) AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO GENETIC AND CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused PAH are a novel class of environmental PAH of which the most well known example is cyclopenta(cd)pyrene. The fusion of an unsaturated cyclopenta-ring on a PAH in general, markedly enhances its activity as a gene mutagen in bacteria and cultured mammalian cells, a...

  5. Differences in Sediment Organic Matter Composition and PAH Weathering between Non-Vegetated and Recently Vegetated Fuel Oiled Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel T. Gregory III; Elizabeth Guthrie Nichols

    2008-01-01

    We examined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation in contaminated field sediments after only 2 years of plant growth. We collected sediments from vegetated and non-vegetated areas at the Indiana Harbor Canal (IHC), an industrialized area with historic petroleum contamination of soils and sediments. PAH concentrations, PAH weathering indices, and organic matter composition in sediments colonized by Phragmites, cattails, or willow

  6. Single Photon Infrared Emission Spectroscopy: A Study of IR Emission from UV Laser Excited PAHs between 3 and 15 m

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Single Photon Infrared Emission Spectroscopy: A Study of IR Emission from UV Laser Excited PAHs (SPIRES) has been used to measure emission spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs PAHs. Lorentzian band shapes were convoluted with the monochromator- slit function in order

  7. INFRARED EMISSION FROM INTERSTELLAR DUST. IV. THE SILICATE-GRAPHITE-PAH MODEL IN THE POST-SPITZER ERA

    E-print Network

    Draine, Bruce T.

    INFRARED EMISSION FROM INTERSTELLAR DUST. IV. THE SILICATE-GRAPHITE-PAH MODEL IN THE POST by starlight, for mixtures of amorphous silicate and graphitic grains, including varying amounts of PAH. The calculations include the effects of single-photon heating. Updated IR absorption properties for the PAHs

  8. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--PAHS IN AIR--REAL TIME SENSOR ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This PAHs in Air data set contains 516 readings detecting the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 86 households in the Arizona Border Study using a photo ionization device (PID). Keywords: air; PAHs, real time. The U.S.-Mexico Border Program is sponsored by...

  9. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--QA ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR PAHS IN SPIKE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Spikes data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 26 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 11 control samples (spikes) of indoor air and food over 8 households of PAHs concentrations in spike samples. Measurements were made in spiked sam...

  10. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--QA ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR PAHS IN BLANK SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PAHs in Blanks data set contains the analytical results for measurements of up to 26 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 27 blank samples of indoor air, outdoor air, and food. The PAHs of interest include Anthracene (CAS # 120-12-7), Benzo(ghi)pyrelene (CAS# 191-24-2...

  11. ATTRIBUTION OF PARTICLE EXPOSURE AND RISK TO COMBUSTION SOURCE EMISSIONS BASED ON PERSONAL PAH EXPOSURE AND URINARY METABOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal airborne exposures to carcinogenic particulate PAH have been significantly correlated with exposure to respirable fine particle mass (PM 2.5) in several studies. All combustion sources emit PAH, however the relative concentrations of different PAH and other organic tr...

  12. Ionization cross-section measurements for two PAH molecules - Implications for the heating of diffuse interstellar gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Verstraete; A. Leger; L. D'Hendecourt; D. Defourneau; O. Dutuit

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that photoionization of PAH molecules could be a very efficient heating process for the diffuse interstellar medium. To estimate this heat input, measurements of photoionization cross-sections were performed for two PAH molecules, coronene and pyrene. It is found that the PAH heating rate could be dominant for the cold diffuse clouds and provide a significant fraction

  13. Unravelling airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in southern China using tree-rings of 100-yr old Pinus Kwangtungensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y. W.; Huang, Z. H.; Wen, D. Z.; Li, J.; Huang, L. B.

    2011-10-01

    Reliable perennial biomonitoring of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is urgently necessary to detect long-term impacts of anthropogenic emission, in response to industrial policies and combustion technology adoption. One hundred records of airborne PAHs were novelly demonstrated by analyzing the tree-rings of Kwangtung pine (Pinus kwangtungensis) formed from 1883 to 2007 at Naling Mountains of southern China. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs) detected in the tree xylem did not progressively increase against the time. Temporal increase of high molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs) coincided well to the historical-socioeconomic status in China, suggesting HMW-PAHs in old trees growing at high mountains were more indicative of regionally historical changes in airborne PAHs compared with ∑PAHs. Compositional analysis indicated airborne PAHs absorbed and accumulated in tree tissues were pyrogenic origination. Principal component analysis revealed PAHs inputs were quite historically diversiform and unevenly distributed in the atmosphere of Nanling Mountains of southern China. Dendroanalysis of old trees grown at geographically sink locations could be a useful biomonitoring technique for unravelling historical changes in PAHs composition and intensity in the atmosphere, in relation to regional industrial development and fuel consumptions.

  14. Physically constrained source apportionment (PCSA) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon using the Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Rong; Shi, Guo-Liang; Tian, Ying-Ze; Wang, Yi-Nan; Zhang, Cai-Yan; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2015-01-01

    An improved physically constrained source apportionment (PCSA) technology using the Multilinear Engine 2-species ratios (ME2-SR) method was proposed and applied to quantify the sources of PM10- and PM2.5-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Chengdu in winter time. Sixteen priority PAH compounds were detected with mean ?PAH concentrations (sum of 16 PAHs) ranging from 70.65 ng/m(3) to 209.58 ng/m(3) and from 59.17 ng/m(3) to 170.64 ng/m(3) for the PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. The ME2-SR and positive matrix factorization (PMF) models were employed to estimate the source contributions of PAHs, and these estimates agreed with the experimental results. For the PMF model, the highest contributor to the ?PAHs was vehicular emission (81.69% for PM10, 82.06% for PM2.5), followed by coal combustion (12.68%, 12.11%), wood combustion (5.65%, 4.45%) and oil combustion (0.72%, 0.88%). For the ME2-SR method, the highest contributions were from diesel (43.19% for PM10, 47.17% for PM2.5) and gasoline exhaust (34.94%, 32.44%), followed by wood combustion (8.79%, 6.37%), coal combustion (12.46%, 12.37%) and oil combustion (0.80%, 1.22%). However, the PAH ratios calculated for the factors extracted by ME2-SR were closer to the values from actual source profiles, implying that the results obtained from ME2-SR might be physically constrained and satisfactory. PMID:25240101

  15. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. Hutchinson

    1987-01-01

    Principles of Plasma Diagnostics provides a detailed derivation and discussion of the plasma physics principles on which diagnostics are base, including magnetic measurements, electric probes, refractive index, radiation emission and scattering, and ionic processes. The text is based on first-principles development of the required concepts and includes examples of diagnostics in action taken from fusion research.

  16. Obtaining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration ratios and molecular markers for residential wood combustion: Temuco, a case study.

    PubMed

    Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Fadic, Ximena; Llanos, Ana L; Dominguez, Ana María; Guevara, Juan L; Vidal, Víctor; Díaz-Robles, Luis A; Schiappacasse, L Nicolás; Etcharren, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    It is known that residential wood combustion (RWC) is an important source of fine particle emissions. The purpose of this work was to characterize the chemical composition of the particulate matter present in the Temuco urban atmosphere during winter, specifically the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profile, because PAHs are considered to be among the key compounds in particulate matter toxicity. During the 2008 winter monitoring campaign, samples of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of < or = 10 (PM10) and < or = 2.5 (PM2.5) microm were taken on days with contamination episodes. Sixteen U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) PAH compounds were extracted with toluene and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that phenantrene was the predominant compound associated with particulate matter at a concentration range between 300 and 600 ng m(-3), 18 times higher than the second most abundant PAH compound. High-molecular-mass compounds such as dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3,c,d]pyrene were also found, but they were minorities in the set. It was recognized from the PAH concentration ratios of the Temuco atmospheric aerosol that the main contamination source was in fact residential wood combustion; although not all the concentration ratios evaluated match the reported reference values, probably due to the kind of biomass used, the characteristics of Chilean heating appliances and climate. PMID:22393809

  17. Are PAHs precursors of small hydrocarbons in Photo--Dissociation Regions? The Horsehead case

    E-print Network

    J. Pety; D. Teyssier; D. Fosse; M. Gerin; E. Roueff; A. Abergel; E. Habart; J. Cernicharo

    2005-01-17

    We present maps at high spatial and spectral resolution in emission lines of C2H, c-C3H2, C4H, 12CO and C18O of the edge of the Horsehead nebula obtained with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). The edge of the Horsehead nebula is a one-dimensional Photo--Dissociation Region (PDR) viewed almost edge-on. All hydrocarbons are detected at high signal--to--noise ratio in the PDR where intense emission is seen both in the H2 ro-vibrational lines and in the PAH mid--infrared bands. C18O peaks farther away from the cloud edge. Our observations demonstrate that C2H, cC3H2 and C4H are present in UV--irradiated molecular gas, with abundances nearly as high as in dense, well shielded molecular cores. PDR models i) need a large density gradient at the PDR edge to correctly reproduce the offset between the hydrocarbons and H2 peaks and ii) fail to reproduce the hydrocarbon abundances. We propose that a new formation path of carbon chains, in addition to gas phase chemistry, should be considered in PDRs: because of intense UV--irradiation, large aromatic molecules and small carbon grains may fragment and feed the interstellar medium with small carbon clusters and molecules in significant amount.

  18. Are PAHs precursors of small hydrocarbons in photo-dissociation regions? The Horsehead case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pety, J.; Teyssier, D.; Fossé, D.; Gerin, M.; Roueff, E.; Abergel, A.; Habart, E.; Cernicharo, J.

    2005-06-01

    We present maps at high spatial and spectral resolution in emission lines of CCH, c-C3H2, C4H, 12CO and C18O of the edge of the Horsehead nebula obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). The edge of the Horsehead nebula is a one-dimensional Photo-Dissociation Region (PDR) viewed almost edge-on. All hydrocarbons are detected at high signal-to-noise ratio in the PDR where intense emission is seen both in the H2 ro-vibrational lines and in the PAH mid-infrared bands. C18O peaks farther away from the cloud edge. Our observations demonstrate that CCH, c-C3H2 and C4H are present in UV-irradiated molecular gas, with abundances nearly as high as in dense, well-shielded molecular cores. PDR models i) need a large density gradient at the PDR edge to correctly reproduce the offset between the hydrocarbons and H2 peaks; and ii) fail to reproduce the hydrocarbon abundances. We propose that a new formation path of carbon chains, in addition to gas phase chemistry, should be considered in PDRs: because of intense UV-irradiation, large aromatic molecules and small carbon grains may fragment and feed the interstellar medium with small carbon clusters and molecules in significant amounts.

  19. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon)

    SciTech Connect

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm/sup -1/ (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the liquid injection incineration of petrochemical industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, I-Ching; Chang, Juu-En; Lai, Soon-Onn; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from stack flue gas and air pollution control device (APCD) effluent of the liquid injection incinerator (LII) disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater, and PAH removal efficiencies of wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) and wet scrubber (WSB). The PAH carcinogenic potency were investigated with the benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration (BaP(eq)). The remarkably high total-BaP(eq) concentration (220 microgNm(-3)) in the stack flue gas was much higher than those of several published emission sources, and indicated the possible influence on its surrounding environment. The total-PAH emission factors of the WESP, WSB and stack flue gas were 78.9, 95.7 and 30,900 microgL(-1) wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiencies of total-PAHs were 0.254, 0.309 and 0.563% for WESP, WSB and overall, respectively, suggesting that the use of both WESP and WSB shows insignificant PAH removal efficiencies, and 99.4% of total-PAHs was directly emitted to the ambient air through the stack flue gas. This finding suggested that the better incineration efficiencies, and APCD removal efficiencies for disposing the petrochemical industrial wastewater are necessary in future. PMID:17368715