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Sample records for pain complaints prevalence

  1. Prevalence of discomfort/pain complaints and related factors in dental professionals of the public health service in Araucária, Paraná state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bitencourt, Rosimeire Sedrez; Ricardo, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents a study about the influence of gender related factors, age, body weight, time of service in the profession and practice of physical exercise on the prevalence of discomfort/pain complaints in dental professionals. The scope of this study was limited to 123 subjects, 84.24% of professionals in the public dental clinics, who answered the multidimensional analytical work questionnaire. The data suggest that the lack postural awareness can contribute to the maintenance of painful conditions and also the low commitment to self-care can perpetuate the state of musculoskeletal discomfort/pain, justifying the application of the ergonomics concepts in the workplace and systematic guidance to professionals to adopt a healthy lifestyle. PMID:22317662

  2. Analysis of complaints to a tertiary care pain clinic over a nine-year period

    PubMed Central

    Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Nicholson, Keith; Chaparro, Luis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study is the result of an internal audit and examines the profiles of complainants and the sources and nature of complaints toward the staff in a tertiary care pain clinic, the Comprehensive Pain Program of the Toronto Western Hospital in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: All sources of complaints over a nine-year period were reviewed, which included the following: Toronto Western Hospital Patient Relations (PR) records, with a subset of the files qualitatively analyzed in depth regarding the nature of complaints and complainants; complaints that bypassed PR and were addressed directly to the program director against members of the staff; complaints to the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario; and complaints recorded anonymously at rateMDs.com. RESULTS: Although the prevalence of PR complaints was very low (1.73 complaints per 1000 visits), several other sources of complaints were identified. The typical complainant was a Canadian-born woman acting on her behalf or on behalf of a family member. More than one-half of the complaints were directed against the physicians regarding their opinion of psychological factors augmenting the patient’s presentation and/or inappropriate use of opioids. Defensive techniques instituted by the Comprehensive Pain Program staff in reaction to the complaints are discussed, and pertinent literature is reviewed. CONCLUSION: The present study is the first to examine the nature of complaints and complainants from a Canadian pain clinic. Further studies are needed to explore the complex issues of patient and staff interactions, and complaints in the era of ‘patient-centred care’. PMID:20195554

  3. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among women in Tijuana, Mexico: sociodemographic and occupational risk factors.

    PubMed

    Harlow, S D; Becerril, L A; Scholten, J N; Sánchez Monroy, D; Sánchez, R A

    1999-01-01

    The authors interviewed an age- and occupation-stratified sample of 466 women, aged 18-40, from 12 Tijuana neighborhoods, about sociodemographic characteristics, work and reproductive history, and musculoskeletal complaints. A total of 29.8% reported experiencing aches or pain in the low back, 38.3% in the upper back, 26.4% in the neck/shoulders, 18.2% in the hand/wrist, and 28.3% in the legs in the preceding year. Both sociodemographic and occupational factors were associated with these complaints. Very low educational attainment, having substandard housing, being the head of household, and being a migrant were each associated with an increased prevalence of one or more musculoskeletal complaints. In general, working outside the home increased the risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Compared with women who had not worked in the preceding 30-month period, those working in the maquiladora had 40-90% higher risks of upper back, neck/shoulder, and hand/wrist pain. Compared with women working outside the maquiladora, maquiladora women workers had 20% higher risks of low back, upper back, and neck/shoulder complaints. More detailed studies of the incidences of musculoskeletal disorders and of specific etiologic risk factors within the maquiladora industry are warranted. Future studies should concurrently evaluate sociodemographic risk factors. PMID:10633243

  4. Pain Complaints in Latino Adults of Mexican Origin With and Without Major Depressive Episode: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dilsaver, Steven C.; Benazzi, Franco; Manning, J. Sloan; Akiskal, Kareen K.; Akiskal, Hagop S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of 5 pain complaints among Latino adults of Mexican origin meeting the criteria for major depressive episode (MDE). Method: In a mental health clinic for the indigent, consecutively evaluated Latino adults of Mexican origin received structured diagnostic psychiatric interviews based on modules extracted from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version. All were specifically asked whether they had experienced headache, backache, abdominal pain, myalgia, or arthralgia “in the last week.” Patients meeting the criteria for MDE were compared to patients without MDE from the same clinic. Associations and statistical significance of the differences between groups were determined using logistic regression models. The data were collected between August 2003 and November 2004. Results: Two hundred ten patients had an MDE, and 35 individuals without an MDE comprised the comparison group. Eighty-eight percent of the patients with MDE versus 53% of the controls had at least 1 pain complaint (p < .0001). Patients with MDE were 8.3 times more likely to have 1 or more pain complaints than the comparison patients (p < .0001). The significant relationship between depression and pain applied when we examined those with ≥ 2, ≥ 3, and ≥ 4 pain complaints. Twenty-eight percent of the MDE subjects had all 5 pain complaints compared to 3% of subjects without MDE (p = .013). Conclusions: The method of assessment of the presence of pain led to the detection of a remarkably high prevalence of pain complaints. The findings presented have important implications not only for the practice of those who are widely recognized as being primary care physicians but also for practitioners of all clinical disciplines. PMID:18615171

  5. Neuropathic orofacial pain part 1--prevalence and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Vickers, E R; Cousins, M J

    2000-04-01

    Neuropathic pain is defined as "pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system". Neuropathic orofacial pain has previously been known as "atypical odontalgia" (AO) and "phantom tooth pain". The patient afflicted with neuropathic oral/orofacial pain may present to the dentist with a persistent, severe pain, yet there are no clearly identifiable clinical or radiographic abnormalities. Accordingly, multiple endodontic procedures may be instigated to remove the likely anatomical source of the pain, yet the pain persists. There have been few studies and limited patient numbers investigating the condition. Two retrospective studies revealed the incidence of persistent pain following endodontic treatment to be 3-6% and 5% of patients; one author with wide experience in assessing the condition estimated its prevalence at 125,000 individuals in the USA alone. In one study, 50% of neuropathic orofacial pain patients reported persistent pain specifically following endodontic treatment. Patients predisposed to the condition may include those suffering from recurrent cluster or migraine headaches. Neuropathic pain states include postherpetic neuralgia (shingles) and phantom limb/stump pain. The aberrant developmental neurobiology leading to this pain state is complex. Neuropathic pain serves no protective function, in contrast to physiological pain that warns of noxious stimuli likely to result in tissue damage. The relevant clinical features of neuropathic pain include: (i) precipitating factors such as trauma or disease (infection), and often a delay in onset after initial injury (days-months), (ii) typical complaints such as dysaesthesias (abnormal unpleasant sensations), pain that may include burning, and paroxysmal, lancinating or sharp qualities, and pain in an area of sensory deficit, (iii) on physical examination there may be hyperalgesia, allodynia and sympathetic hyperfunction, and (iv) the pathophysiology includes deafferentation

  6. Prevalence of Symptoms of Depression, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Workers With Upper Extremity Complaints.

    PubMed

    Degen, Ryan M; MacDermid, Joy C; Grewal, Ruby; Drosdowech, Darren S; Faber, Kenneth J; Athwal, George S

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Background Symptoms of depression, panic disorder (PD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been associated with musculoskeletal complaints and could represent barriers to recovery in injured workers. Objectives To determine the prevalence of symptoms of depression, PD, and PTSD utilizing the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in a cohort of patients presenting to an upper extremity injured-worker clinic; secondarily, to identify any relationships between patients screening positive and patient-reported outcome measures. Methods In 2010, 418 patients completed the PHQ during their initial evaluation. Patients with PHQ scores exceeding threshold values for symptoms of depression, PD, or PTSD were compared based on patient-reported outcome scores, including the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The prevalence of symptoms, and their relationship with presenting complaints and patient-reported outcomes, were calculated. Results Thirty-one percent of patients scored above thresholds for symptoms of at least 1 mental health disorder. Of those who screened positive, 67% screened positive for depression, 44% for PTSD, and 50% for PD, with 43% of patients positive for multiple symptoms. Patients experiencing neck pain had significantly higher screening rates of depressive symptoms (62.5% versus 20.1%, P = .004) and PD (37.5% versus 12.9%, P = .044) compared with other presenting complaints. Similarly, patients with chronic pain had higher rates of depression (54.5% versus 20.1%, P = .006), PD (63.6% versus 12%, P<.001), and PTSD (36.4% versus 14.8%, P = .05) compared with other presenting complaints. Patients endorsing depressive symptoms had significantly lower SF-36 mental component summary scores (26.3 ± 10.7 versus 37.6 ± 9.9, P<.001) and higher shortened-version DASH (72.3 ± 16.7 versus 61.5 ± 11.1, P = .003) and

  7. Physical therapists versus nurses in a rehabilitation hospital: comparing prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal complaints and working conditions.

    PubMed

    Alperovitch-Najenson, D; Treger, I; Kalichman, L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and work avoidance of work-related musculoskeletal complaints and to compare patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors of physical therapists (PTs) and nurses in a rehabilitation hospital. Cross-sectional observational study was carried out using questionnaires relating to basic demographics, prevalence of musculoskeletal morbidity, workload, and job satisfaction. Comparing 26 PTs and 54 nurses, all females, lower back pain was significantly more prevalent in PTs, even after adjusting for the confounding demographic factors; PTs performed full and partial manual patient transfer, as well as trunk bending and walking assistance more frequently than the nurses and were significantly more satisfied. Unique physical load could be the main factor for the high prevalence of lower back pain in PTs. They should urgently initiate a "no-lift policy" in treatment. PMID:23930794

  8. Prevalence of cold-related complaints, symptoms and injuries in the general population: the FINRISK 2002 cold substudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2007-05-01

    The prevalence of cold-related complaints and symptoms in the general population has remained unknown. As part of the nationwide FINRISK 2002 health survey performed in Finland, 8,723 people aged 25 64 years filled in a questionnaire asking about the number of hours spent weekly in cold air, their sensations during cold exposure, cold-related complaints, symptoms of diseases, and degradation of performance. Cold thermal sensations at +5°C to -5°C were reported by 35% of men and 46% of women. Almost all subjects reported at least some cold-related complaints, most commonly musculoskeletal pain (men 30%, women 27%), followed by respiratory (25% / 29%), white finger (15% / 18%) and episodic peripheral circulation symptoms (12% / 15%). Decreased mental or physical performance in cold was reported by 75% of men and 70% of women, most commonly impairing manual dexterity and tactile sense. With declining temperature, the first symptom to emerge was pain in the elbow or the forearm (at -3°C), followed by increased excretion of mucus from the lungs (-5°C), while most other symptoms appeared only at lower temperatures of -15°C to -20°C. Most symptoms showed little or no association with the weekly duration of exposure, with the exception of cold-induced pain at most sites. Although, in general, Finns are well adapted to the cold climate, the high prevalence of cold-related complaints poses a challenge to the health care system in terms of decreased performance and the possibility that such symptoms predict more serious health effects, such as increased mortality.

  9. Chest pain prevalence, causes, and disposition in the emergency department of a regional hospital in Pretoria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Chest pain is a common clinical syndrome. However, there is a paucity of African studies describing the causes, prevalence, aetiology, and disposition of patients with chest pain presenting in the emergency department (ED). Aim The aim of this retrospective descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, demographics, and disposition of all adult patients with the main complaint of chest pain presenting at the ED of a regional hospital in South Africa. Methods Records of all patients 18 years and older presenting with the complaint of chest pain from 1 December 2011 through 10 April 2012 were assessed. A data collection sheet capturing patient demographics and disposition from the ED was used. The diagnosis was subdivided into groups: cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, psychiatric/psychogenic, other, and unknown. Results Of the 312 patients presenting with chest pain, 210 patient files were retrieved. The prevalence of non-traumatic chest pain was 1.66%. Respiratory disease was the most common cause (36.19%), with pneumonia the most common diagnosis (24.40%). Logistic regression showed diagnoses of acute cardiovascular disease or respiratory disease, older age, and transport by ambulance as being associated with admission. Conclusion The main cause of acute chest pain was found to be respiratory disease, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. In the African context, the aetiology of acute chest pain differs from that in first world countries. Health workers should therefore pay special attention to respiratory conditions during diagnosis and management in African patients with acute chest pain. PMID:27380782

  10. Bullying Victimization Prevalence and Its Effects on Psychosomatic Complaints: Can Sense of Coherence Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. Methods: A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N =…

  11. A comparative study on the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among musicians and non-musicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research comparing the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians. Methods A cross-sectional study in 3215 students from three music academies (n = 345) and one medical school (n = 2870) in The Netherlands was performed, using an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, use of music instruments and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in six body regions. Questions were related to musculoskeletal complaints over the last twelve months and at the time of the questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparison between the two groups. The association between musculoskeletal complaints and possible predictors was analyzed using a logistic and Poisson regression. Results Eighty-seven music academy students and 503 medical students returned the questionnaire, of which respectively eighty-three and 494 were included in the study. Seventy-four music academy students (89.2%) reported one or more musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months, compared to 384 (77.9%) medical students (p = 0.019). Moreover 52 music academy students (62.7%) and 211 medical students (42.7%) reported current musculoskeletal complaints (p = 0.001). The Odds ratio (OR) for the development of musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months in music academy students versus medical students is 2.33 (95% CI 1.61–3.05, p = 0.022). The OR at the time of the questionnaire is 2.25 (95% CI 1.77–2.73, p = 0.001). The total number of complaints have been modeled by employing a Poisson regression; the results show that non-musicians have on average less complaints than musicians (p = 0.01). The adjusted means are 2.90 (95% CI 2.18–3.63) and 1.83 (95% CI 1.63–2.04) respectively for musicians and non

  12. Optimizing deep hyperthermia treatments: are locations of patient pain complaints correlated with modelled SAR peak locations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canters, R. A. M.; Franckena, M.; van der Zee, J.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    During deep hyperthermia treatment, patient pain complaints due to heating are common when maximizing power. Hence, there exists a good rationale to investigate whether the locations of predicted SAR peaks by hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) are correlated with the locations of patient pain during treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed, using the treatment reports of 35 patients treated with deep hyperthermia controlled by extensive treatment planning. For various SAR indicators, the average distance from a SAR peak to a patient discomfort location was calculated, for each complaint. The investigated V0.1 closest (i.e. the part of the 0.1th SAR percentile closest to the patient complaint) performed the best, and leads to an average distance between the SAR peak and the complaint location of 3.9 cm. Other SAR indicators produced average distances that were all above 10 cm. Further, the predicted SAR peak location with V0.1 provides a 77% match with the region of complaint. The current study demonstrates that HTP is able to provide a global indication of the regions where hotspots during treatment will most likely occur. Further development of this technology is necessary in order to use HTP as a valuable toll for objective and advanced SAR steering. The latter is especially valid for applications that enable 3D SAR steering.

  13. Cervical Spine pain as a presenting complaint in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Emily; Buchtel, Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    A 48 year-old female presented to her primary care physician with a two-month history of neck pain with negative cervical spine x-rays. During that office visit, the patient was noted to be tachycardic with EKG revealing ST depressions, which led to hospital admission. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out, however, persistent neck pain warranted inpatient MRI of the cervical spine, which revealed a cervical spine lesion. Extensive investigation and biopsy ultimately confirmed stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to the bone, liver, and likely lung. In the literature, the findings of a primary metastatic site being bone is rare with only a few case reports showing vertebral or sternal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of pancreatic cancer. The uniqueness of this case lies in the only presenting complaint being cervical spine pain in the setting of extensive metastases to the liver, bone, and likely lung. PMID:26890294

  14. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Rodrigo Dalke; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Faria, Neice Muller Xavier

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex. RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%. CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level. PMID:26487293

  15. Chronic orofacial pain among Korean elders: prevalence, and impact using the graded chronic pain scale.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jin Woo; Kim, Jae Hong; Kim, Hyun Duck; Kho, Hong Seop; Kim, Young Ku; Chung, Sung Chang

    2004-11-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms in the Korean elderly population, and to evaluate factors associated with orofacial pain and graded chronic pain. Of 4,342 Korean elders from the cohort of Korean National Interview Survey of Oral Health Status in 2000, telephone interviews were conducted on a stratified random sample of 1,032 people aged 55 years or older. Prevalence of five orofacial pain symptoms (jaw joint pain, face pain, toothache, oral sores, and burning mouth) in the past 6 months along with questions from the graded chronic pain scale were assessed by telephone using a structured questionnaire. The results suggested that the 6-month prevalence of joint pain (15.5%), face pain (9.3%), toothache (26.8%), oral sores (26.2%), and burning mouth (14.2%) in Korean elders were higher than in studies on Caucasian populations. Painful oral sores and burning mouth had higher prevalence for females than for males. Subjects with joint pain, burning mouth or toothache pain were more likely to report high levels of a pain-related disability compared with subjects not reporting those symptoms. There were no age group differences in pain intensity, but the older age group reported a higher number of disability days because of their pain. Chronic orofacial pain is a substantial health problem in the elderly population. PMID:15494197

  16. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, McKee J.; Wallendal, Maggie S.; Hyde, Trevor F.; Larsen, Janet D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  17. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  18. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  19. Pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Michele; Müller, Monika; Ashraf, Aroosiah; Neziri, Alban Y; Streitberger, Konrad; Andersen, Ole K; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Hypersensitivity of pain pathways is considered a relevant determinant of symptoms in chronic pain patients, but data on its prevalence are very limited. To our knowledge, no data on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity are available. We studied the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in 961 consecutive patients with various chronic pain conditions. Pain threshold and nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold to electrical stimulation were used to assess pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity, respectively. Using 10th percentile cutoff of previously determined reference values, the prevalence of pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity (95% confidence interval) was 71.2 (68.3-74.0) and 80.0 (77.0-82.6), respectively. As a secondary aim, we analyzed demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics as factors potentially associated with pain hypersensitivity and spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity using logistic regression models. Both hypersensitivity parameters were unaffected by most factors analyzed. Depression, catastrophizing, pain-related sleep interference, and average pain intensity were significantly associated with hypersensitivity. However, none of them was significant for both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Furthermore, the odds ratios were very low, indicating modest quantitative impact. To our knowledge, this is the largest prevalence study on central hypersensitivity and the first one on the prevalence of spinal nociceptive hypersensitivity in chronic pain patients. The results revealed an impressively high prevalence, supporting a high clinical relevance of this phenomenon. Electrical pain thresholds and nociceptive withdrawal reflex explore aspects of pain processing that are mostly independent of sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical pain-related characteristics. PMID:26172555

  20. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  1. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ava Elizabeth; Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  2. Ocular pain and discomfort after advanced surface ablation: an ignored complaint

    PubMed Central

    Sobas, Eva M; Videla, Sebastián; Maldonado, Miguel J; Pastor, Jose C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Laser vision correction is one of the most commonly performed elective surgical procedures in ophthalmology. Generally, discomfort besides pain (photophobia, burning sensation, tearing, and foreign body sensation) after these procedures is not taken into consideration in the clinical practice. The objective is to provide data on these symptoms and their relevance after advanced surface ablation (ASA). Methods Single-center survey study based on a structured questionnaire relative to the patients’ perceived symptoms after ASA. Inclusion criteria were: ≥18 years old, no ocular disease, with myopia (0.75 to 9 D) or hyperopia (0.25 to 5 D) with or without astigmatism, receiving ASA on at least one eye. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. A descriptive analysis was performed. Results Seventy-three consecutive patients (34 men and 39 women) were included in the study. The median (range) of age was 33 (19–64) years. Sixty-nine patients had surgery done on both eyes. Postoperative pain was the most frequent comorbidity (97% [95% confidence interval {CI}: 90–100]) with a median (range) of intensity (verbal numerical rating scale) score of 7 (2–10). Photophobia: 85% (95% CI: 75–92); burning sensation: 62% (95% CI: 50–73); tearing: 59% (95% CI: 47–70); and foreign body sensation: 48% (95% CI: 36–60) were also prevalent postoperative symptoms. Pain during ASA was reported for 44% (95% CI: 32–56) of patients. Conclusion Comorbidities such as pain, photophobia, burning sensation, tearing, and foreign body sensation are prevalent after ASA procedure. Postoperative pain should be taken into consideration due to its prevalence and intensity. A new and more efficient postoperative analgesic protocol should be established. PMID:26379419

  3. Trends in Clinically Significant Pain Prevalence Among Hospitalized Cancer Patients at an Academic Hospital in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Yun; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Liang, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Clinically significant pain (CSP) is one of the most common complaints among cancer patients during repeated hospitalizations, and the prevalence ranges from 24% to 86%. This study aimed to characterize the trends in CSP among cancer patients and examine the differences in the prevalence of CSP across repeated hospitalizations. A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic hospital. Patient-reported pain intensity was assessed and recorded in a nursing information system. We examined the differences in the prevalence of worst pain intensity (WPI) and last evaluated pain intensity (LPI) of ≥4 or ≥7 points among cancer inpatients from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. Linear mixed models were used to determine the significant difference in the WPI and LPI (≥4 or ≥7 points) at each hospitalization. We examined 88,133 pain scores from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization among cancer patients. The prevalence of the 4 CSP types showed a trend toward a reduction from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. There was a robust reduction in the CSP prevalence from the 1st to the 5th hospitalization, except in the case of LPI ≥ 7 points. The prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points was significantly higher (0.240-fold increase) during the 1st hospitalization than during the 5th hospitalization. For the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hospitalizations, there was a significantly higher prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points compared with the 5th hospitalization. We also observed significant reductions in the prevalence of a WPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 4th hospitalizations, an LPI ≥ 4 points during the 1st to the 3rd hospitalizations, and an LPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 2nd hospitalization. Although the prevalence of the 4 CSP types decreased gradually, it is impossible to state the causative factors on the basis of this observational and descriptive study. The next step will examine the factors that determine the CSP prevalence among

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of orofacial pain in university students.

    PubMed

    Smiljic, Sonja; Savic, Sladjana; Stevanovic, Jasmina; Kostic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the characteristics and prevalence of orofacial pain, and its associations with sociodemographic characteristics, in 319 university students: 188 second-year students in the Medical Faculty and 131 students in the Faculty of Technical Sciences at the University of Kosovska Mitrovica. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence and characteristics of pain. Among the 319 students, 101 (32%) reported previous orofacial pain, and pain was more frequent among women (P < 0.05). Logistic regression revealed that gender was an important predictor of pain and that the risk for pain development among women was 1.8 times that among men. Place of residence and relationship status were not associated with frequency of orofacial pain. The regions with the highest pain prevalences were the temporal region (7%; 95% confidence interval, 4-10%) and the region around the eye (6%; 95% confidence interval, 4-9%). The first episode of orofacial pain was less than 3 months previously in 59% of the participants, and 39% of students had sought professional medical help. (J Oral Sci 58, 7-13, 2016). PMID:27021534

  5. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D

    2004-01-01

    Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% – 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% – 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% – 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% – 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% – 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% – 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain. PMID:15169547

  6. Prevalence of Dementia and Cognitive Complaints in the Context of High Cognitive Reserve: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Perquin, Magali; Diederich, Nico; Pastore, Jessica; Lair, Marie-Lise; Stranges, Saverio; Vaillant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of dementia and cognitive complaints in a cross-sectional sample of Luxembourg seniors, and to discuss the results in the societal context of high cognitive reserve resulting from multilingualism. Methods A population sample of 1,377 people representative of Luxembourg residents aged over 64 years was initially identified via the national social insurance register. There were three different levels of contribution: full participation in the study, partial participation, and non-participation. We examined the profiles of these three different samples so that we could infer the prevalence estimates in the Luxembourgish senior population as a whole using the prevalence estimates obtained in this study. Results After careful attention to the potential bias and of the possibility of underestimation, we considered the obtained prevalence estimates of 3.8% for dementia (with corresponding 95% confidence limits (CL) of 2.8% and 4.8%) and 26.1% for cognitive complaints (CL = [17.8–34.3]) as trustworthy. Conclusion Based on these findings, we postulate that high cognitive reserve may result in surprisingly low prevalence estimates of cognitive complaints and dementia in adults over the age of 64 years, which thereby corroborates the longer disability-free life expectancy observed in the Luxembourg population. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report such Luxembourgish public health data. PMID:26390288

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Pain in Korean Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Min, David; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of musculoskeletal pain (MSK) pain in Korean farmers using initial survey data of Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related MSK pain (FARM) study. Methods Farmers (534 females and 479 males; mean age 57.2±7.5 years) who owned or rented a farm and belonged to an agricultural cooperative unit were recruited. Presence of pain for each body part (neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand/finger, low back, leg/foot), and characteristics of MSK pain (prevalence, location, duration, severity, and frequency) during the last year was assessed. Additionally, demographic data such as farming duration, history of prior injury, and workload (low, moderate, somewhat hard, or hard) were collected using structured questionnaires. Results Almost all subjects (n=925; 91.3%) complained of pain in more than one body part. The frequency order was low back (63.8%), leg/foot (43.3%), shoulder (42.9%), wrist/hand/finger (26.6%), arm/elbow (25.3%), and neck (21.8%). Low back pain was more frequent in those with over 30 years of farming experience (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.81). MSK pain was related to history of prior injury (OR, 2.18–5.24; p<0.05) in all body parts except for leg/foot, and very hard workload was associated with low back, leg/foot, neck, shoulder, and wrist/hand/finger pain (OR, 2.88–10.83; p<0.05). Conclusion Most Korean farmers experience MSK pain; furthermore, there is a significant association between pain, history of prior injury, and workload, suggestive of the necessity of coping and preventive strategies to reduce injury or workload. PMID:26949663

  8. Prevalence of Chronic Axial Pain, Inflammatory Back Pain, and Spondyloarthritis in Diagnosed Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Nicole; Ritchlin, Christopher T.; Zhang, Xiao; Reveille, John; Weisman, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide prevalence estimates for inflammatory back pain (IBP) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) in those subjects with psoriasis using 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Methods In the NHANES 2009–2010 sample set, 6,684 persons ages 20–69 years were screened for participation, and 5,103 answered questions regarding onset of back pain, location of pain, and functional limitations. Data set assembly and statistical analysis were performed using SASTM and SUDAAN software. SEs were estimated by Taylor series linearization. The equality of the prevalence estimates for selected variables was tested (univariately) at an alpha level of 0.05 using 2-sided Student’s t-test with appropriate degrees of freedom. Results A total of 148 persons had self-reported medically diagnosed psoriasis. The psoriasis group versus the nonpsoriasis group had a significantly higher prevalence of axial pain using the 3-month duration criterion (31.1% versus 18.9%; P = 0.04) and alternating buttock pain (7.2% versus 2.4%; P = 0.03) and more frequently met IBP criteria from Berlin criteria 7b and 8a (P = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). The prevalence of SpA was significantly higher in the psoriasis group versus the nonpsoriasis group when using Amor or European Spondyloarthritis Study Group criteria (14.3% versus 1.5%; P < 0.001). Sudden onset of axial pain was significantly higher in the psoriasis group (23.3% versus 13.0%; P = 0.01). Conclusion There is a higher prevalence of lower axial pain, IBP, SpA, and alternating buttock pain associated with a prior diagnosis of psoriasis. These data may influence the way psoriasis patients are approached in primary care and specialty clinics. PMID:25469666

  9. Prevalence of voice complaints, risk factors and impact of voice problems in female student teachers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; de Jong, Felix I C R S; Cremers, Cor W R J; Kooijman, Piet G C

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was done among 457 female student teachers and 144 females in the general population. The conclusions are based on the opinions of student teachers and the general population. The results of this study show that 39.6% of the student teachers and 32.6% of the general population reported voice complaints at the moment and/or over the past year (p=0.198). The association between various risk factors (vocal loading factors, physical factors, environmental factors and psycho-emotional factors) and voice complaints were examined. Vocal load was reported in both the student teachers and the general population (p=0.322). Among the subjects with voice complaints, the student teachers were significantly more of the opinion than the general population that environmental irritants in the classroom (p=0.001) and the composition of the group they communicate with (p=0.033) have a negative influence on their voice. In the groups with voice complaints, the student teachers reported significantly less than the general population that stress (p=0.004) and the deterioration of their general physical condition (p=0.003) have a negative influence on their voice. Remarkably, over a third of the student teachers and one fifth of the general population with voice complaints were of the opinion that decrease of hearing has a negative influence on their voices (p=0.113). There was no significant difference in Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores (p=0.284) and impact of voice complaints among student teachers and the general population. Over 15% of the student teachers and the general population with voice complaints reported being or having been disabled due to the voice problem, probably reflecting the severity of the voice problem (p=0.838). The groups reporting voice complaints and disability in relation to their voice complaints have significantly higher VHI scores than those without voice complaints and disability, which indicates a higher

  10. Chronic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults. Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain (pain resulting ... Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Low Back Pain Fact Sheet Back Pain information sheet compiled by ...

  11. Somatic complaints in frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Landqvist Waldö, Maria; Santillo, Alexander Frizell; Gustafson, Lars; Englund, Elisabet; Passant, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is associated with a broad spectrum of clinical characteristics. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of unexplained somatic complaints in neuropathologically verified FTD. We also examined whether the somatic presentations correlated with protein pathology or regional brain pathology and if the patients with these somatic features showed more depressive traits. Ninety-seven consecutively neuropathologically verified FTLD patients were selected. All 97 patients were part of a longitudinal study of FTD and all medical records were systematically reviewed. The somatic complaints focused on were headache, musculoskeletal, gastro/urogenital and abnormal pain response. Symptoms of somatic character (either somatic complaints and/or abnormal pain response) were found in 40.2%. These patients did not differ from the total group with regard to gender, age at onset or duration. Six patients showed exaggerated reactions to sensory stimuli, whereas three patients showed reduced response to pain. Depressive traits were present in 38% and did not correlate with somatic complaints. Suicidal behavior was present in 17 patients, in 10 of these suicidal behavior was concurrent with somatic complaints. No clear correlation between somatic complaints and brain protein pathology, regional pathology or asymmetric hemispherical atrophy was found. Our results show that many FTD patients suffer from unexplained somatic complaints before and/or during dementia where no clear correlation can be found with protein pathology or regional degeneration. Somatic complaints are not covered by current diagnostic criteria for FTD, but need to be considered in diagnostics and care. The need for prospective studies with neuropathological follow up must be stressed as these phenomena remain unexplained, misinterpreted, bizarre and, in many cases, excruciating. PMID:25232513

  12. The Prevalence of Fibromyalgia in Other Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Muhammad B.

    2012-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSS) include fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, restless legs syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and other similar chronic painful conditions that are based on central sensitization (CS). CSS are mutually associated. In this paper, prevalence of FMS among other members of CSS has been described. An important recent recognition is an increased prevalence of FMS in other chronic pain conditions with structural pathology, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and inflammatory bowel disease. Diagnosis and proper management of FMS among these diseases are of crucial importance so that unwarranted use of such medications as corticosteroids can be avoided, since FMS often occurs when RA or SLE is relatively mild. PMID:22191024

  13. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain in Radiotherapy Oncology Units

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, Ana; Monroy, Jose Luis; Ramos, Avelino Alia; Cano, Carmen; Lopez-Gomez, Vanessa; Masramon, Xavier; Perez, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: Neuropathic pain (NP) in cancer patients severely impacts quality of life. Radiotherapy (RT) may cause NP, and at the same time, cancer patients visit RT units for pain relief. NP prevalence at these sites and current analgesic treatment should be assessed to improve management. Methods and Materials: This epidemiological, prospective, multicenter study was undertaken to assess NP prevalence, according to Douleur Neuropathique 4 questions questtionaire (DN4) test results, and analgesic management in cancer pain patients visiting RT oncologic units. Secondary analyses assessed NP etiology and pain intensity (using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form) and impact (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Outcomes Study [MOS] for Sleep, and the Health Survey Short Form-12). Results: A total of 1,098 patients with any kind of pain were registered. NP prevalence was 31.1% (95% confidence interval, 28.4%--33.9%); 291 NP patients (mean age, 62.2 {+-}12.5 years and 57.7% men) were eligible for study; 49% of patients were overweight. The most frequent tumors were those of breast and lung, and stage IIIB was the most common cancer stage. The tumors caused 75% of NP cases. Anxiety, sleepiness, and depression were common. At 8 weeks, pain intensity and interference with daily activities decreased significantly for 50.8% of responders. Depression and anxiety (p < 0.0001) scores on the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary measures (p < 0.0001) and all MOS-Sleep subscales, except for snoring, improved significantly. The percentage of satisfied patients increased from 13.8% to 87.4% (p < 0.0001) with the current analgesic treatment, which meant a 1.2- and 6-fold increase (p < 0.0001) in narcotic analgesics and anticonvulsants, respectively, compared to previous treatment. Conclusions: NP is highly prevalent at RT oncology units, with sleepiness, anxiety, and depression as frequent comorbidities. There is a need to improve

  14. Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization among US Adolescents: Prevalence, Patterns, and Associations with Health Complaints and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Wang, Jing; Barbieri, Brittney; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This research identified conceptually cohesive latent classes of youth dating violence (DV) and examined associations between covariates and classes by gender. Methods A nationally representative sample of 2,203 tenth-grade students completed assessments of physical and verbal DV victimization and perpetration, depressive symptoms, health complaints, and substance use. A Factor Mixture Model was used to identify patterns of DV. Gender differences among classes were examined for depressive symptoms, health complaints, and substance use. Results Prevalence of DV victimization was 35% and perpetration was 31%. A three-class model fit adequately and provided conceptual cohesion: Class 1) non-involved (65%); Class 2) victims/perpetrators of verbal DV (30%); and Class 3) victims/perpetrators of verbal and physical DV (5%). Compared to Class 1 adolescents, those in Classes 2 and 3 were more likely to report depressive symptoms, psychological complaints, and alcohol use. Females in Classes 2 and 3 were also more likely to report physical complaints, cigarette use, and marijuana use. Among females involved in DV, those in Class 3 compared to Class 2 reported more depressive symptoms, physical and psychological complaints, and cigarette and marijuana use. Conclusions The three-class model distinguished involvement in verbal acts from involvement in verbal and physical acts. Adolescents involved in DV had similar probabilities of reporting perpetration and victimization suggesting violence within relationships may be mutual. Involvement in DV was associated with more health issues and concurrent problem behaviors. For females in particular, the increased involvement in DV was associated with other health indicators. PMID:23664626

  15. Prevalence, Practice Patterns and Evidence for Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Adam P.; Freburger, Janet; Carey, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objective The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of chronic neck pain in North Carolina, to describe health care use (providers, treatments and diagnostic testing) for chronic neck pain and to correlate health care use with current best evidence. Methods A cross-sectional, telephone survey of a representative sample of North Carolina households in 2006. Five thousand three hundred fifty seven households were contacted in 2006 to identify 141 non-institutionalized adults 21 years and older with chronic neck pain and no chronic low back pain. Subjects were interviewed about their health and health care use (i.e., provider, tests, and treatments). Patterns of health care use were compared to current systematic reviews. Results The estimated prevalence of chronic neck pain in 2006 among non-institutionalized individuals for the state of North Carolina was 2.2% (95% CI 1.7 – 2.6). Individuals with chronic neck pain were middle- aged (mean age 48.9 years and a majority were female (56%) and non-Hispanic White (81%). Subjects saw a mean of 5.21 (95% CI 4.8 – 5.6) provider types and had a mean of 21 visits. The types of treatments subjects reported varied with treatments such as electrotherapy stimulation (30.3%), corsets or braces (20.9%), massage (28.1%), ultrasound (27.3%), heat (57.0%) and cold (47.4%) having unclear or little benefit based on current best available reviews. Conclusion Based on current evidence for best practice, our findings indicate over utilization of diagnostic testing, narcotics and modalities, and the under utilization of effective treatments such as therapeutic exercise. PMID:20521306

  16. Subjective health complaints are more prevalent in Maasais than in Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Ingvard; Mulindi, Sobbie; Sankok, David; Wilhelmsen, Ane B; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this observational, population-based study was to compare subjective health complaints (SHC) in Norwegians, living in a Western welfare society, and Maasai people, living in rural Kenya under primitive conditions. An interview-based version of SHC inventory was used. Data from 320 Maasais were compared to data from 1243 Norwegians. The Maasais had significantly higher score than the Norwegians on 23 of 28 items, involving musculoskeletal, "pseudo-neurological" and gastrointestinal complaints. The Maasais, living under primitive conditions, close to nature, seems to have more SHC than Norwegians, living in a modern, highly developed and industrialized country. PMID:17763124

  17. Trends in Clinically Significant Pain Prevalence Among Hospitalized Cancer Patients at an Academic Hospital in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Yun; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Liang, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Clinically significant pain (CSP) is one of the most common complaints among cancer patients during repeated hospitalizations, and the prevalence ranges from 24% to 86%. This study aimed to characterize the trends in CSP among cancer patients and examine the differences in the prevalence of CSP across repeated hospitalizations. A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic hospital. Patient-reported pain intensity was assessed and recorded in a nursing information system. We examined the differences in the prevalence of worst pain intensity (WPI) and last evaluated pain intensity (LPI) of ≥ 4 or ≥ 7 points among cancer inpatients from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. Linear mixed models were used to determine the significant difference in the WPI and LPI (≥ 4 or ≥ 7 points) at each hospitalization. We examined 88,133 pain scores from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization among cancer patients. The prevalence of the 4 CSP types showed a trend toward a reduction from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. There was a robust reduction in the CSP prevalence from the 1st to the 5th hospitalization, except in the case of LPI ≥ 7 points. The prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points was significantly higher (0.240-fold increase) during the 1st hospitalization than during the 5th hospitalization. For the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hospitalizations, there was a significantly higher prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points compared with the 5th hospitalization. We also observed significant reductions in the prevalence of a WPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 4th hospitalizations, an LPI ≥ 4 points during the 1st to the 3rd hospitalizations, and an LPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 2nd hospitalization. Although the prevalence of the 4 CSP types decreased gradually, it is impossible to state the causative factors on the basis of this observational and descriptive study. The next step will examine the factors that determine the CSP prevalence among cancer

  18. Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

  19. Abdominal Lymphatic Malformation Presenting as Acute Abdominal Pain: A Common Pediatric Complaint, but an Unusual Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Christopher I; Farrell, Caitlin A; Nelson, Kyle A; Levy, Jason A

    2016-05-01

    We present the clinical and radiological findings involving a mesenteric lymphatic malformation causing volvulus in a toddler presenting with acute abdominal pain, as well as its treatment options. PMID:27139293

  20. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Pain in Critically Ill Cancer Patients: A Prospective Nonrandomized Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Sahi, Malvinder Singh; Bhargava, AK; Talwar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pain is a distressing symptom common to all stages and ubiquitous at all levels of care in cancer patients. However, there is a lack of scientific literature on prevalence, severity, predictors, and the quality of pain in cancer patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Objectives: To elucidate the prevalence of pain, moderate to severe pain, neuropathic pain, chronic pain, and pain as the most distressing symptom in critically ill-cancer patients at the time of ICU admission. Methods: We prospectively interviewed 126 patients within first 24 h of admission to a medical ICU. The patients were assessed for the presence of pain, its severity, sites, duration, nature, and its impact as a distressing symptom. Numerical Rating Scale and self-report version of Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Signs and Symptoms were used to elucidate intensity of pain and neuropathic pain, respectively. Demographic characteristics such as age and sex, primary site, and stage of cancer were considered for a possible correlation with the prevalence of pain. Results: Of 126 patients included in the study 95 (75.40%), 79 (62.70%), 34 (26.98%), and 17 (13.49%) patients had pain, moderate-severe, chronic, and neuropathic pain, respectively. The average duration of pain was 171.16 ± 716.50 days. Totally, 58 (46.03%) and 42 (42.01%) patients had at least one and more than equal to 2 neuropathic pain symptoms, respectively. The primary malignancies associated with the highest prevalence of pain were genitourinary, hematological, and head and neck whereas breast and lung cancers were associated with the highest prevalence of neuropathic and chronic pain, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of pain among critically ill-cancer patients is high. Assessment for pain at the time of ICU admission would ensure appropriate assessment for the presence, type, severity, and the significance imparted to it. PMID:26600692

  1. Prevalence of heroin markers in urine for pain management patients.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julie; Puet, Brandi L; DePriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Hild, Cheryl; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2014-10-01

    Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Opiates were analyzed following hydrolysis using LC-MS-MS. The prevalence of heroin use was 0.31%, as 2871 were positive for one or more heroin-specific markers including DAM, 6AM, or 6AC (a known contaminant of illicit heroin). Of these, 1884 were additionally tested for the following markers of illicit drug use: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine (MAMP), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetracannabinol (THCCOOH), and benzoylecgonine (BZE); 654 (34.7%) had positive findings for one or more of these analytes. The overall prevalence of heroin markers were as follows: DAM 1203 (41.9%), 6AM 2570 (89.5%), 6AC 1082 (37.7%). MOR was present in 2194 (76.4%) and absent (Prevalence of combinations for specimens containing MOR were as follows: DAM only 13 (0.59%), 6AM only 1140 (52.0%), 6AC only 24 (1.1%), DAM/6AM/6AC 710 (32.4%), 6AM/6AC 188 (8.6%), DAM/6AM 113 (5.2%), DAM/6AC 6 (0.27%). Importantly, the prevalence of combinations for specimens without MOR were as follows: DAM only 161 (23.8%), 6AM only 217 (32.1%), 6AC only 92 (13.6%), DAM/6AM/6AC 50 (7.4%), 6AM/6AC 7 (1.0%), DAM/6AM 145 (21.4%), DAM/6AC 5 (0.74%). Unexpected patterns of excretion were observed, such as the presence of DAM and 6AC in the absence of 6AM and MOR; therefore, multiple heroin markers may be useful to assess for

  2. The prevalence of pain at pressure areas and pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with pressure ulcers (PUs) report that pain is their most distressing symptom, but there are few PU pain prevalence studies. We sought to estimate the prevalence of unattributed pressure area related pain (UPAR pain) which was defined as pain, soreness or discomfort reported by patients, on an “at risk” or PU skin site, reported at a patient level. Methods We undertook pain prevalence surveys in 2 large UK teaching hospital NHS Trusts (6 hospitals) and a district general hospital NHS Trust (3 hospitals) during their routine annual PU prevalence audits. The hospitals provide secondary and tertiary care beds in acute and elective surgery, trauma and orthopaedics, burns, medicine, elderly medicine, oncology and rehabilitation. Anonymised individual patient data were recorded by the ward nurse and PU prevalence team. The analysis of this prevalence survey included data summaries; no inferential statistical testing was planned or undertaken. Percentages were calculated using the total number of patients from the relevant population as the denominator (i.e. including all patients with missing data for that variable). Results A total of 3,397 patients in 9 acute hospitals were included in routine PU prevalence audits and, of these, 2010 (59.2%) patients participated in the pain prevalence study. UPAR pain prevalence was 16.3% (327/2010). 1769 patients had no PUs and of these 223 patients reported UPAR pain, a prevalence of 12.6%. Of the 241 people with pressure ulcers, 104 patients reported pain, a UPAR pain prevalence of 43.2% (104/241). Conclusion One in six people in acute hospitals experience UPAR pain on ‘at risk’ or PU skin sites; one in every 8 people without PUs and, more than 2 out of every five people with PUs. The results provide a clear indication that all patients should be asked if they have pain at pressure areas even when they do not have a PU. PMID:23902583

  3. Prevalence and Pharmacologic Treatment of Patients with Low Back Pain Treated at Kosovo Energetic Corporation

    PubMed Central

    Ibraimi, Zana; Murtezani, Ardiana; Haxhiu, Bekim; Mustafa, Aziz; Martinaj, Merita

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint among the general population with a subgroup developing chronic and disabling symptoms generating large societal costs. Recurrences and functional limitations can be minimized with appropriate conservative management, including medications, physical therapy modalities, exercise and patient education. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of low back complaints in industrial workers, to investigate whether individual risk factors involved in the occurrence of LBP, and to determine the most frequent used drug in LBP treatment. Materials and Methods: Data for this study were provided from Kosovo Energetic Corporation. A cross-sectional study design was utilized. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 228 industrial workers. Patient with LBP underwent a comprehensive clinical, radiological and biochemical evaluation. Results: showed that LBP occurred in 63.5% of workers. Individual factors did not show significant associations with LBP. Age (OR=0.99/95% Cl 0.95-1.03), weight (OR=1.13/95% Cl 0.99-1.06), height (OR=0.97/95% Cl 0.91-1.02), and work experience (OR=1.01/95% Cl 0.97-1.05) increase odds for LBP but not significantly. The most frequently used drugs in patients included in this study are NSAIDs. In 33 (55.0%) patients for the treatment of LBP two types of drugs are administered. Conclusion: Increased physical activity, health promotion and reduced body weight can prevent morbidity from LBP. A continuous consultation with the Clinical Pharmacist demonstrates effective way of dosage and drug re-evaluation for the patients with LBP. PMID:25568510

  4. [The prevalence of intestinal parasites in children brought to the Kars Maternal and Children's Hospital with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms].

    PubMed

    Arslan, Mükremin Ozkan; Sari, Bariş; Kulu, Bahar; Mor, Neriman

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 2-6 year-old children who were brought to Kars Maternal and Children's Hospital with complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms during March-June 2007. Fecal samples were taken from children and brought to the parasitology laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine to be examined for intestinal parasites. Fecal samples were examined by centrifugal formalin ether, zinc-sulphate floatation, and modified acid fast techniques. Lugol solution was used during microscopic examination and suspected samples were also examined by the Giemsa dye technique. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in children was found to be 36.2% (50/138). Protozoan and helminth parasites were found to be 34.1% (47/138) and 2.9% (4/138) in the fecal samples examined, respectively. Giardia intestinalis (10.9%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%), Entamoeba coli (8%), Blastocystis hominis (6.5%), Endolimax nana (4.3%), Chilomastix mesnili (1.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.7%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.7%) were identified from the feces of children of Kars and vicinity. No Cryptosporidium spp. was detected. PMID:18985583

  5. Education and the Prevalence of Pain. NBER Working Paper No. 14964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlas, Steven J.; Skinner, Jonathan S.

    2009-01-01

    Many Americans report chronic and disabling pain, even in the absence of identifiable clinical disorders. We first examine the prevalence of pain in the older U.S. population using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Among 50-59 year females, for example, pain rates ranged from 26 percent for college graduates to 55 percent for those without a…

  6. Prevalence of Referred Pain with Pulpal Origin in the Head, Face and Neck Region

    PubMed Central

    Mardani, Siamak; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Baharvand, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of referred pain with pulpal source in the head, face and neck region among patients referred to Dental School of Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran, Iran in 2004. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 100 patients (55 males and 45 females) referred to oral medicine department of Shahid Beheshti Dental School evaluated via clinical and radiographic examination to seek their pain sources and sites. Inclusion criteria were report of pain and a dental clinician accomplished detection of pain origin. Exclusion criteria were non-odontogenic painful diseases, advanced periodontal disease, and substantial carious lesions. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to score pain intensity; meanwhile the patients were asked to mark the painful sites on an illustrated head and neck mannequin. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of patients reported pain in sites which diagnostically differed from the pain source. According to statistical analysis, duration (P<0.01), spontaneity (P<0.001) and quality (P<0.01) of pain influenced its referral nature, while sex and age of patients, kind of stimulus, throbbing and intensity of pain had no considerable effect on pain referral (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of referred pain with pulpal origin in the head, face and neck region is moderately high which requires precise diagnosis by dental practitioners. Some hallmarks of irreversible pulpitis (e.g. spontaneous and persistent pain after elimination of stimulus) are related to pain referral. PMID:24171013

  7. Prevalence and Experience of Chronic Pain in Suburban Drug Injectors

    PubMed Central

    Heimer, Robert; Zhan, Weihai; Grau, Lauretta E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To explore the relationship between chronic pain and characteristics, behaviors, and psychological status of suburban Connecticut injection drug users. Methods Cross-sectional study with quantitative interview and serological testing for HIV and hepatitis B and C in 456 individuals who injected drugs in the past month were dichotomized into those reporting current chronic pain of at least six months duration and all others. The interview covered (i) sociodemographics, (ii) injection drug use, (iii) interactions with drug treatment, criminal justice, and harm reduction, (iv) screening for alcohol use, chronic pain, anxiety, and depression, and (v) knowledge regarding HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), and opioid overdose. Serological testing for HIV, HBV, and HCV was conducted. Results One-third (n=143) reported chronic pain. These individuals differed significantly from those not reporting chronic pain on characteristics that included older age, lower educational achievement, and injection of pharmaceutical opioids. They also reported experiencing more psychological and family problems on the ASI and higher levels of depression and anxiety. Four of five individuals with chronic pain (117 of 148 providing chronology data) reported non-medical opioid use prior to the onset of chronic pain. Conclusions Chronic pain is common among drug injectors in our study population although it was unusual for chronic pain to have preceded non-medical opioid use. Psychological problems in injectors with co-occurring chronic pain are likely pose significant complications to successful treatment for substance abuse, pain, or infectious disease treatment. PMID:25841984

  8. Obesity in older adults is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of pain.

    PubMed

    Heim, Noor; Snijder, Marieke B; Deeg, Dorly J H; Seidell, Jaap C; Visser, Marjolein

    2008-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between BMI and pain. This prospective study investigated the associations of measured BMI and waist circumference with prevalent and incident pain in older adults. The study included participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, aged 55-85 years at baseline (1992-1993). Pain was assessed using a subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile at baseline (N = 2,000), after 3 years (N = 1,478) and 6 years (N = 1,271) of follow-up. The overall prevalence of pain was 32.7% at baseline and increased significantly with higher quartiles of BMI or waist circumference. After adjustment for age, education, depression, smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases, multiple logistic regression analyses showed odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval)) for prevalent pain of 2.16 (1.32-3.54) in men and 1.93 (1.26-2.95) in women comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of BMI. Of the participants without pain at baseline, those in the highest quartile of BMI had a twofold increased odds for incident pain after 3 years of follow-up. After 6 years of follow-up, ORs for incident pain were 2.34 (1.17-4.72) in men and 2.78 (1.36-5.70) in women. Additional adjustment for weight change did not change these associations. Similar results were found for the associations between waist circumference and pain. Exploring the reversed causal relation, analyses showed no significant associations between prevalent pain and weight gain. In conclusion, the prevalence of pain is higher among obese older men and women compared to their normal-weight peers. Furthermore, obese older adults are at increased odds to develop pain. PMID:18787527

  9. Prevalence of pain among residents in Japanese nursing homes: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Takai, Yukari; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Chiba, Yumi; Nishikawa, Yuri; Sugai, Yuichi; Hayashi, Kunihiko

    2013-06-01

    It is often observed that pain causes substantial problems for nursing home residents. However, there has been little research about the prevalence of pain for nursing home residents in Japan. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of pain in older adults living in nursing homes in Japan by using self-reporting and the Abbey Pain Scale-Japanese version (APS-J) and to explore factors related to pain. This is a descriptive study. Residents in two Special Nursing Homes for the Elderly in Tokyo, Japan, were asked to participate in this study, with the exclusion of short-term temporary residents. Data collected from participating residents included their demographics and the results from the Barthel Index, the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, the APS-J, and the Verbal Descriptor Scale for pain. The residents were divided into two groups: residents able to report their pain (self-report group) and residents not able to report their pain. The second group was assessed by using the APS-J (APS-J group). The Mann-Whitney U test, the χ2 test, and logistic analyses were performed to derive factors related to pain prevalence. Data were obtained from 171 residents. The prevalence of pain in the self-report group (n = 96) was 41.7%. For the 75 residents unable to report their pain, 52.0% were assessed by the APS-J to have pain. The overall pain prevalence of all residents was 46.2%. Age, Barthel Index score, and length of time of institutionalization were significantly associated with residents' pain in the APS-J group. Logistic regression analysis showed that contracture (odds ratio 3.8) and previous injury (odds ratio 3.4) were associated with residents' pain in the self-report group, whereas only the length of nursing home stay (odds ratio 1.03) was a predictor for pain in the APS-J group. Nearly one-half of residents had pain when they moved or were moved. Pain assessment and management is needed for residents. PMID:23688366

  10. Treatment efficacy for pain complaints in women with endometriosis of the lesser pelvis after laparoscopic electroablation vs. CO2 laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Posadzka, Ewa; Jach, Robert; Pityński, Kazimierz; Jablonski, Marcin Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease affecting mainly women of the reproductive age. Its most common manifestations include impaired fecundity, pelvic pain, and dyschezia. Laparoscopic removal of endometriotic foci remains to be the gold standard for the treatment of endometriosis. More effective techniques of endoscopic approach-among others, laser application-are continually being developed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic treatment with the use of CO2 laser ablation vs. electroablation with regard to pain complaints in the affected patients. The study included 48 women (aged 22-42) with varying degrees of endometriosis of the lesser pelvis. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain intensity before the surgery in all patients, followed by either laser ablation or electroablation of the endometriotic foci. The results of the laparoscopic treatment were monitored after 3 and 6 months postoperatively. p value of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Patients from both groups reported less intensive pain before/during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) 6 months postoperatively, with more distinct tendency in the electroablation group (p = 0.004) as compared to the laser ablation group (p = 0.025). Despite the initial improvement reported at the 3-month checkup (p = 0.008), 6 months postoperatively, a statistically significant increase in pain intensity was noted in both groups (p = 0.016 and p = 0.032 for CO2 laser ablation and electroablation, respectively). Both surgical methods seem to be effective only in the treatment of endometriosis-related dysmenorrhea, whereas the intensity of other pain complaints (dyspareunia, dysuria, dyschezia, pelvic pain syndrome (PPS)) has remained on the same level. PMID:25053520

  11. Patellar maltracking is prevalent among patellofemoral pain subjects with patella alta: an upright, weightbearing MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saikat; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if patellar maltracking is more prevalent among patellofemoral (PF) pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height. We imaged 37 PF pain and 15 pain free subjects in an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they stood in a weightbearing posture. We measured patella height using the Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, Insall-Salvati, Modified Insall-Salvati, and Patellotrochlear indices, and classified the subjects into patella alta and normal patella height groups. We measured patella tilt and bisect offset from oblique-axial plane images, and classified the subjects into maltracking and normal tracking groups. Patellar maltracking was more prevalent among PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to PF pain subjects with normal patella height (two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.050). Using the Caton-Deschamps index, 67% (8/12) of PF pain subjects with patella alta were maltrackers, whereas only 16% (4/25) of PF pain subjects with normal patella height were maltrackers. Patellofemoral pain subjects classified as maltrackers displayed a greater patella height compared to the pain free and PF pain subjects classified as normal trackers (two-tailed unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.017). This study adds to our understanding of PF pain in two ways - 1) we demonstrate that patellar maltracking is more prevalent in PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height; and 2) we show greater patella height in PF pain subjects compared to pain free subjects using four indices commonly used in clinics. PMID:23165335

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain and Pain Treatment in a Western Kenya Referral Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Owino, Claudio; Gramelspacher, Gregory P.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Tabbey, Rebeka; Hagembe, Mildred; Strother, Robert M.; Njuguna, Festus; Vreeman, Rachel C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Pain is often inadequately evaluated and treated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Objective We sought to assess pain levels and pain treatment in 400 hospitalized patients at a national referral hospital in western Kenya, and to identify factors associated with pain and pain treatment. Design Using face-validated Kiswahili versions of two single-item pain assessment tools, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Faces Pain Scale–Revised (FPS-R), we determined patients' pain levels. Additional data collected included patient demographics, prescribed analgesics, and administered analgesics. We calculated mean pain ratings and pain management index (PMI) scores. Results Averaged between the NRS and FPS-R, 80.5% of patients endorsed a nonzero level of pain and 30% of patients reported moderate to severe pain. Older patients, patients with HIV, and cancer patients had higher pain ratings. Sixty-six percent of patients had been prescribed analgesics at some point during their hospitalization, the majority of which were nonopioids. A majority of patients (66%) had undertreated pain (negative scores on the PMI). Conclusion This study shows that hospitalized patients in Kenya are experiencing pain and that this pain is often undertreated. PMID:24032753

  13. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  14. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorder pain in Chinese adolescents compared to an age-matched Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17 015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample. PMID:26538188

  15. Head and Neck Cancer Pain: Systematic Review of Prevalence and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Tanja; Ranasinghe, Sriyani; Ah-See, Kim W.; Renny, Nick; Hurman, David

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Pain is a major symptom in patients with cancer; however information on head and neck cancer related pain is limited. The aim of this review was to investigate the prevalence of pain and associated factors among patients with HNC. Material and Methods The systematic review used search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases to December 2011. Cancers of the oral mucosa, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx were included in this review with pain as main outcome. The review was restricted to full research reports of observational studies published in English. A checklist was used to assess the quality of selected studies. Results There were 82 studies included in the review and most of them (84%) were conducted in the past ten years. Studies were relatively small, with a median of 80 patients (IQR 44, 154). The quality of reporting was variable. Most studies (77%) used self-administered quality of life questionnaires, where pain was a component of the overall scale. Only 33 studies reported pain prevalence in HNC patients (combined estimate from meta-analysis before (57%, 95% CI 43% - 70%) and after (42%, 95% CI 33% - 50%) treatment. Only 49 studies (60%) considered associated factors, mostly tumour- or treatment-related. Conclusions The study has shown high levels of pain prevalence and some factors associated with higher levels of pain. There is a need for higher quality studies in a priority area for the care of patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:24422003

  16. Prevalence of low back pain and associated factors among farmers during the rice transplanting process

    PubMed Central

    Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Swangnetr, Manida; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Settheetham, Dariwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro; Boucaut, Rose

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of low back pain and associated factors in Thai rice farmers during the rice transplanting process. [Subjects and Methods] Three hundred and forty-four farmers, aged 20–59 years old, were asked to answer a questionnaire modified from the Standard Nordic Questionnaire (Thai version). The questionnaire sought demographic, back-related, and psychosocial data. [Results] The results showed that the prevalence of low back pain was 83.1%. Farmers younger than 45 years old who worked in the field fewer than six days were more likely to experience low back pain than those who worked for at least six days. Farmers with high stress levels were more likely to have low back pain. [Conclusion] In the rice transplanting process, the low back pain experienced by the farmers was associated with the weekly work duration and stress. PMID:26311961

  17. Over-indebtedness and its association with the prevalence of back pain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Over-indebtedness is an increasing phenomenon worldwide. Massive financial strain, as found in over-indebted persons, might influence the occurrence of back pain. In this explorative study we examined the prevalence of back pain in over-indebted persons in Germany for the first time ever and compared it to the prevalence of back pain in the German general population. Methods A cross sectional study comprising 949 participants (52.6% women) was conducted to collect data on the point prevalence of back pain in an over-indebted collective. A representative sample of the German general population (N = 8318, 53.4% women) was used as non-indebted reference group. Results The point prevalence of back pain was 80% in the over-indebted collective, compared to 20% in the general population. The influence of socioeconomic factors on the prevalence of back pain differed partially between the general population and the over-indebted collective. Being over-indebted was identified as an independent effect modifier and was associated with an eleven times increased probability to suffer from back pain (aOR: 10.92, 95%CI: 8.96 - 13.46). Conclusion Until now, only little is known about the effects of intense financial strain like over-indebtedness on health. Our study suggests that over-indebted persons represent a risk group for back pain and that it might be sensible to take financial strain into account when taking a medical history on back pain. Over-indebtedness and private bankruptcy is of increasing importance in industrialized countries, therefore more research on the subject seems to be necessary. PMID:19961624

  18. [Study of prevalence of pain at the Juan Canalejo Hospital in La Coruña].

    PubMed

    Valero, J; Palacios, P; Vazquez-Barro, A; Lopez-Suso, E; Carpintero, D

    1995-12-01

    A study of prevalence of pain conducted in 812 patients admitted in the Juan Canalejo Hospital in La Coruña (Spain). This is primarily an adult hospital. Of the 650 patients whose replies were deemed valid, 35.69% were suffering pain. Other findings were that the sociocultural level of the patients affected their assessment of pain and that 46.12% of those who were suffering pain were not receiving analgesics at that time. Magnesium dipyrone, a combination of paracetamol and codeine and morphine were the most commonly used drugs, although there was clearunderuse of analgesic. PMID:8679800

  19. Postmastectomy Pain: A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence, Pain Characteristics, and Effects on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. Methods: This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Results: Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0–83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0–10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0–5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0–8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). Conclusions: PMPS seriously impacts patients’ emotional situation, daily activities, and social

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of breakthrough pain in cancer patients admitted to a hospice.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, G; O'Doherty, C A; Collins, S

    2000-08-01

    A prospective survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence and characteristics of breakthrough pain in cancer patients admitted to a hospice. Of 414 consecutive admissions, 33 patients were confused or too unwell to take part and 136 were pain-free. The remaining 245 reported 404 pains (range 1-5 per patient); of these patients, 218 (89%) had breakthrough pain and identified 361 pains (range 1-5 per patient). Breakthrough pain was classified as somatic (46%) visceral (30%), neuropathic (10%) or mixed etiology (16%). Thirty-eight percent of pains were severe or excruciating. The average number of daily breakthrough pain episodes was 4 [corrected] (range 1-14); 49% occurred suddenly. Most (59%) were unpredictable, and 72% lasted less than 30 minutes. Seventy-five percent of patients were dissatisfied with their pain control. Breakthrough pain is common among patients admitted to our hospice. It is frequent, short lasting, often unpredictable and not necessarily related to chronic pain making treatment difficult. PMID:10989246

  1. Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and painful peripheral neuropathy in Turkish diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Erbas, Tomris; Ertas, Mustafa; Yucel, Aysen; Keskinaslan, Abdulkadir; Senocak, Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and neuropathic pain in diabetic patients attending university outpatient clinics in Turkey. In this multicenter cross-sectional study, neurologic examinations and nerve conduction studies along with clinical diabetic neuropathy score, and Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale were performed on 1,113 patients (46.2% male) from 14 centers. Prevalence of DPN determined only by clinical examination was 40.4% and increased to 62.2%, by combining nerve conduction studies with clinical examination. According to Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs scores, neuropathic pain prevalence was 16.0% in those who reported pain. Poor glycemic control, retinopathy, microalbuminuria, hyperlipidemia, diabetic foot, and foot amputation were more commonly observed in patients with DPN. Clinical DPN affected 40.4% of diabetic patients, and neuropathic pain prevalence in diabetic patient population was 14.0%. Clinical examinations and nerve conduction studies are important components for early detection and accurate diagnosis of DPN and painful DPN. PMID:21221008

  2. Subjective health complaints in patients with lumbar radicular pain and disc herniation are associated with a sex - OPRM1 A118G polymorphism interaction: a prospective 1-year observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Earlier observations show that development of persistent pain may be associated with the genetic variability in the gene encoding for the μ-opioid receptor 1, the OPRM1 A118G (rs1799971). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPRM1 genotype and subjective health complaints in patients with radicular pain and disc herniation. Methods A prospective, 1-year observational study was conducted at a hospital back clinic, including 118 Caucasian patients with lumbar radicular pain and MRI confirmed disc herniation. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping regarding the OPRM1 A118G was performed. The data of individuals with AA versus AG or GG were analysed separately by linear mixed models. The Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (0-81) including 27 common complaints experienced the previous month on a scale from not at all (0) to severe (3) was used as outcome. Pain, prior duration of leg pain, age, smoking status, and lumbar disc surgery were considered as covariates. Results In total 23 of 118 patients were carriers of the OPRM1 G-allele. All patients except female carriers of the G-allele reported a decrease in pain from baseline to 1 year. Female carriers of the G-allele reported significantly higher subjective health complaints score during the study time span than male carriers of the G-allele when controlling for pain and pain duration. Conclusion The present data indicate that, when controlling for pain intensity and duration, subjective health complaints are associated with a sex - OPRM1 A118G polymorphism interaction in patients with radicular pain. PMID:24884878

  3. Contextual and individual assessment of dental pain period prevalence in adolescents: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that health and disease occur in social contexts, the vast majority of studies addressing dental pain exclusively assessed information gathered at individual level. Objectives To assess the association between dental pain and contextual and individual characteristics in Brazilian adolescents. In addition, we aimed to test whether contextual Human Development Index is independently associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio-demographics and dental characteristics. Methods The study used data from an oral health survey carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, which included dental pain, dental exams, individual socioeconomic and demographic conditions, and Human Development Index at area level of 4,249 12-year-old and 1,566 15-year-old schoolchildren. The Poisson multilevel analysis was performed. Results Dental pain was found among 25.6% (95%CI = 24.5-26.7) of the adolescents and was 33% less prevalent among those living in more developed areas of the city than among those living in less developed areas. Girls, blacks, those whose parents earn low income and have low schooling, those studying at public schools, and those with dental treatment needs presented higher dental-pain prevalence than their counterparts. Area HDI remained associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio demographic and dental characteristics. Conclusions Girls, students whose parents have low schooling, those with low per capita income, those classified as having black skin color and those with dental treatment needs had higher dental pain prevalence than their counterparts. Students from areas with low Human Development Index had higher prevalence of dental pain than those from the more developed areas regardless of individual characteristics. PMID:20707920

  4. Prevalence of low back pain among peasant farmers in a rural community in South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, A A; Aba, S O; Odunaiya, N A

    2005-09-01

    This study is a survey conducted in Iju-Odo rural community of Ondo State in South West Nigeria to determine the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain amongst peasant farmers. Five hundred peasant farmers were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. A questionnaire was administered which sought information on demographic characteristics, presence of low back pain in the last 12 months prior to the time of the study and the duration, severity of low back pain and its effect on farming activity. The five hundred peasant farmers that participated in this study were 276 men (55.2%) and 224 women (44.8%). Three hundred and sixty two peasant farmers (72.4% of the population) had low back pain in the last 12 months prior to the time of this study, of which two hundred and three (73.5%) were males and one hundred and fifty nine (71.0%) were females peasant farmers having low back pain. The nature of onset of low back pain was that of gradual onset in 57.5%. One hundred and eighty-eight (51.9%) respondents indicated that low back pain reduced their farming workload, while one hundred and twenty four (34.3%) respondents were prevented from going to farm because they could not walk, resulting in 675 work days being lost by one hundred and twenty one (24.2%) peasant farmers in the last one-year with a mean of 5.6 days lost. This study concluded that low back pain prevalence is high among peasant farmers, with higher prevalence in males compared with females (P<0.05). The prevalence also increased with age (P<0.05). Years of farming was found to have a significant influence on the prevalence of low back pain (P<0.05) with prevalence of low back pain increasing as years of farming increases. Low back pain was found to be a cause of work absenteeism in this working population. PMID:16749358

  5. Chronic Pain in the Japanese Community—Prevalence, Characteristics and Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Fumio; Nishihara, Makoto; Arai, Young-Chang P.; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Kawai, Takashi; Inoue, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Ushida, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is recognized as a public health problem that affects the general population physically, psychologically, and socially. However, there is little knowledge about the associated factors of chronic pain, such as the influence of weather, family structure, daily exercise, and work status. Objectives This survey had three aims: 1) to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Japan, 2) to analyze these associated factors, and 3) to evaluate the social burden due to chronic pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional postal survey in a sample of 6000 adults aged ≥20 years. The response rate was 43.8%. Results The mean age of the respondents was 57.7 years (range 20–99 years); 39.3% met the criteria for chronic pain (lasting ≥3 months). Approximately a quarter of the respondents reported that their chronic pain was adversely influenced by bad weather and also oncoming bad weather. Risk factors for chronic pain, as determined by a logistic regression model, included being an older female, being unemployed, living alone, and no daily exercise. Individuals with chronic pain showed significantly lower quality of life and significantly higher psychological distress scores than those without chronic pain. The mean annual duration of absence from work of working-age respondents was 9.6 days (range 1–365 days). Conclusions Our findings revealed that high prevalence and severity of chronic pain, associated factors, and significant impact on quality of life in the adult Japanese population. A detailed understanding of factors associated with chronic pain is essential for establishing a management strategy for primary care. PMID:26076135

  6. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  7. Depression in patients with chronic pain attending a specialised pain treatment centre: prevalence and impact on health care costs

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, Lauren; Hotopf, Matthew; Petkova, Hristina; Matcham, Faith; Simpson, Anna; McCracken, Lance M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and impact of depression on health care costs in patients with complex chronic pain. The sample included 1204 patients attending a tertiary pain management service for people with chronic disabling pain, unresponsive to medical treatment. As part of routine care, patients completed a web-based questionnaire assessing mental and physical health, functioning, and service use in the preceding 3 months. Depression was assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Self-report health care utilisation was measured across 4 domains: general practitioner contacts, contacts with secondary/tertiary care doctors, accident and emergency department visits, and days hospitalised. The participation rate was 89%. Seven hundred and thirty-two patients (60.8%; 95% CI 58.0-63.6) met criteria for probable depression, and 407 (33.8%) met the threshold for severe depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be unable to work because of ill health and reported greater work absence, greater pain-related interference with functioning, lower pain acceptance, and more generalised pain. Mean total health care costs per 3-month period were £731 (95% CI £646-£817) for patients with depression, compared with £448 (95% CI £366-£530) for patients without depression. A positive association between severe depression and total health care costs persisted after controlling for key demographic, functional, and clinical covariates using multiple linear regression models. These findings reveal the extent, severity, and impact of depression in patients with chronic pain and make evident a need for action. Effective treatment of depression may improve patient health and functioning and reduce the burden of chronic pain on health care services. PMID:26963849

  8. Neck/shoulder pain and low back pain among school teachers in China, prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) and low back pain (LBP). Epidemiological data on NSP and LBP in Chinese teachers are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for NSP and LBP among primary, secondary and high school teachers. Methods In a cross-sectional study of teachers from 7 schools, information on participant demographics, work characteristics, occupational factors and musculoskeletal symptoms and pain were collected. Results Among 893 teachers, the prevalence of NSP and LBP was 48.7% and 45.6% respectively. There was significant association between the level and prevalence of NSP and LBP among teachers in different schools. The prevalence of NSP among female teachers was much higher than that for males. Self-reported NSP was associated with physical exercise (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.86), prolonged standing (1.74, 1.03 to 2.95), sitting (1.76, 1.23 to 2.52) and static posture (2.25, 1.56 to 3.24), and uncomfortable back support (1.77, 1.23 to 2.55). LBP was more consistently associated with twisting posture (1.93, 1.30 to 2.87), uncomfortable back support (1.62, 1.13 to 2.32) and prolonged sitting (1.42, 1.00 to 2.02) and static posture (1.60, 1.11 to 2.31). Conclusions NSP and LBP are common among teachers. There were strong associations with different individual, ergonomic, and occupational factors. PMID:22978655

  9. [Etiology and prevalence of chronic pain in adults: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Latina, Roberto; Sansoni, Julita; D'Angelo, Daniela; Di Biagio, Ettore; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Tarsitani, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    The chronic nonmalignant pain is an underestimated epidemiologic health problem. It is a disease in its own right. It is one of the major reasons because patients use health service. The magnitude of chronic pain is in terms of human suffering and costs to society. The aim of this review is to identify the diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmalignant chronic pain in the adults. We have done a review of the literature from 1998 to 2012 using the virtual newspaper libraries starting from data bases (Pub-Med, CINAHL, Cochrane). We have made a narrative review of the articles obtained. Excluding topics of headache, pain for pediatric and geriatric groups, cancer pain and disease-specific items. Studies were classified for year, author sample, methods, age groups and definition of pain. We have obtained 7 articles. These epidemiological studies conducted in different part of the world, reported prevalence rates of chronic pain ranging from 16-53%. They shows a high heterogeneity of results concerning diagnosis and methods. Although limited the number of articles, show the high complexity of the phenomenon. PMID:24083495

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Low Back Pain Among Professional Drivers in Kano, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Rufa'i, Adamu Ahmad; Sa'idu, Isma'ila Adamu; Ahmad, Rufa'i Yusuf; Elmi, Omar Salad; Aliyu, Salamatu Umar; Jajere, Abdurrahman Mohammed; Digil, Abbas Abdullahi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of low back pain (LBP) among professional drivers in Nigeria. Two hundred male drivers aged 19-64 years were recruited in the study. Data regarding prevalence, individual risk factors, and impact of LBP were obtained. The prevalence rate of LBP was 73.5%, and LBP have affected the driving performance of up to 74% drivers. After adjustment for age, LBP prevalence was associated with driving for >15 hours/day (odds ratio [OR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]): (0.04; 0.01, 0.20), driving car (5.52; 1.55, 19.64), and driving bus (10.49; 2.63, 41.82). No association was found between LBP prevalence and years spent driving. The study found that high prevalence of LBP affected the performance of a substantial percentage of the participants. PMID:24219691

  11. Facts and Figures on Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... adults. Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain (pain resulting ... Institute of Health Statistics survey indicated that low back pain was the most common (27%), followed by severe ...

  12. Pain prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical features in patients with chronic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Elaine Aparecida Rocha; Cavalcanti, Marianna Carvalho E Souza Leão; Costa, Paula Cristina Pereira da; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Monteiro, Inês; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa

    2016-08-01

    Chronic wounds are considered a worldwide epidemic and pain is the most frequently symptom referred by the patients who have this type of wound. The aim was to assess the prevalence of pain in chronic wounds and relate socio-demographic and clinical variables to pain. This is an analytical cross-sectional study, carried out in Basic Health Units (BHU), Family Health Strategy (ESF) and in a university hospital in two cities of Minas Gerais. 200 individuals who had chronic ulcers of different etiologies participated. Data collection took place between October 2012 and January 2013. The majority of participants (69%) reported they were in pain during the interview. Subjects with higher education had more pain. Patients with venous ulcers had less severe pain, and arterial ulcers were responsible for scoring the highest value of pain. It was found that most patients with chronic wounds feel pain; its intensity depends on the type of wound and this symptom should be recognized while caring for these patients. PMID:27133961

  13. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Undergraduate Physiotherapy Students in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace O; Nweze, Ejiofor; Kachalla Gujba, Fatima; Ali Masta, Mamman; Usman Ali, Mohammad; Alhaji Modu, Ali; Umeonwuka, Chuka

    2016-01-01

    Background. Low back pain (LBP) is a major cause of disability and the most common work-related musculoskeletal disorder among physiotherapists. This study examined the prevalence of low back pain among students undergoing training to become physiotherapists. Methods. Participants were 207 undergraduate clinical physiotherapy students at three universities in Nigeria. A modified version of a questionnaire used in a previous study was utilized to obtain demographic, educational activities, and LBP data. Prevalence of LBP was examined with descriptive statistics while factors associated with prevalence were explored using chi-square statistics. Results. More male students (53.1%) and those in the penultimate year of study (53.1%) participated in the study. Lifetime, 12-month, 1-month, and 7-day prevalence of LBP were 45.5%, 32.5%, 17.7%, and 11.5%, respectively. Prevalence of LBP was not significantly associated with any of the demographic variables. Educational activities, namely, "having techniques practiced on self for ≤10 hours" and "treating patients for ≥30 hours," a month prior to the study were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with higher 1-month and 7-day LBP prevalence, respectively. Conclusions. Although the prevalence of LBP was comparatively low, its association with educational activities emphasizes the need to incorporate effective LBP preventive strategies in the training of physiotherapy students. PMID:26955486

  14. Prevalence of low back pain among handloom weavers in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Durlov, Santu; Chakrabarty, Sabarni; Chatterjee, Arijit; Das, Tamal; Dev, Samrat; Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Haldar, Prasun; Maity, Santi Gopal; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Handloom is one of the oldest industries in India, particularly in West Bengal, where a considerable number of rural people are engaged in weaving. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low back pain among the handloom weavers in India. Methods: A modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire along with a body part discomfort scale were administered to handloom weavers (n = 175). Working posture of the participants was assessed using the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). Results: Sixty eight per cent of the participants reported suffering from low back pain, making it the most prevalent disorder in our sample. Analysis of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire data revealed that among those with low back pain (n = 119), 2% had severe disabilities, 46% had moderate disabilities, and 52% had minimal disabilities. Statistical analyses revealed a positive significant association between the intensity of pain in the lower back and an increased number of years of work experience (P<0.05). Conclusions: The study underlines the need for further research regarding the postural strain of weavers and also suggests the implementation of ergonomic design into weaver workstations to minimize the adverse effect of their current working postures. Improving upon the weaver’s work-posture could improve their quality of life. PMID:25224808

  15. Influence of work-related psychosocial factors on the prevalence of chronic pain and quality of life in patients with chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Working is a common cause of chronic pain for workers. However, most of them need to continue working despite the pain in order to make a living unless they get a sick leave or retirement. We hypothesised that the therapeutic effect of vocational rehabilitation may depend on psychosocial factors related to the workplace. To test this hypothesis, we examined the association of work-related psychosocial factors with the prevalence of chronic pain or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among workers with chronic pain. Methods We examined 1764 workers aged 20–59 years in the pain-associated cross-sectional epidemiological survey in Japan. The outcomes were (1) chronic pain prevalence among all workers and (2) low Euro QoL (EQ-5D <0.76; mean value of the current study) prevalence among workers with chronic pain according to the degree of workplace social support and job satisfaction. Workplace social support and job satisfaction were measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression model including age, sex, smoking, exercise, sleep time, work hours, body mass index, personal consumption expenditure, intensity of pain and the presence of severe depressive symptoms. Results Chronic pain prevalence was higher among males reporting job dissatisfaction compared with those reporting job satisfaction. No difference was observed among women. Chronic pain prevalence did not differ between workers of either sex reporting poor workplace social support compared with those reporting sufficient support. Among workers with chronic pain, low HRQoL was more frequent in those reporting job dissatisfaction. Similarly, low HRQoL was more frequent in patients with chronic pain reporting poor social support from supervisors or co-workers compared with patients reporting sufficient support. Conclusions Work-related psychosocial factors are critical for HRQoL in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27113235

  16. A Prevalence and Management Study of Acute Pain in Children Attending Emergency Departments by Ambulance.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Adrian; McCoy, Siobhan; O'Reilly, Kay; Fogarty, Eoin; Dietz, Jason; Crispino, Gloria; Wakai, Abel; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Pain is the most common symptom in the emergency setting and remains one of the most challenging problems for emergency care providers, particularly in the pediatric population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute pain in children attending emergency departments (EDs) in Ireland by ambulance. In addition, this study sought to describe the prehospital and initial ED management of pain in this population, with specific reference to etiology of pain, frequency of pain assessment, pain severity, and pharmacological analgesic interventions. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken over a 12-month period of all pediatric patients transported by emergency ambulance to four tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. All children (<16 years) who had pain as a symptom (regardless of cause) at any stage during the prehospital phase of care were included in this study. Over the study period, 6,371 children attended the four EDs by emergency ambulance, of which 2,635 (41.4%, 95% confidence interval 40.2-42.3%) had pain as a documented symptom on the ambulance patient care report (PCR) form. Overall 32% (n = 856) of children who complained of pain were subject to a formal pain assessment during the prehospital phase of care. Younger age, short transfer time to the ED, and emergency calls between midnight and 6 am were independently associated with decreased likelihood of having a documented assessment of pain intensity during the prehospital phase of care. Of the 2,635 children who had documented pain on the ambulance PCR, 26% (n = 689) received some form of analgesic agent prior to ED arrival. Upon ED arrival 54% (n = 1,422) of children had a documented pain assessment and some form of analgesic agent was administered to 50% (n = 1,324). Approximately 41% of children who attend EDs in Ireland by ambulance have pain documented as their primary symptom. This study suggests that the management of acute pain in children transferred by

  17. The immediate effects of thoracic transverse mobilization in patients with the primary complaint of mechanical neck pain: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, CIndy; Boyles, Robert; Murahashi, Laura; Sena, Tanya; Yarnall, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Posterior-to-anterior (PA) vertebral mobilization to the thoracic spine has been studied as an intervention for neck pain. Our purpose was to explore effects of a different mobilization technique, transverse vertebral pressure, on cervical range of motion (ROM) and pain when applied to the thoracic spine among participants with neck pain. Methods: A single-blinded quasi-experimental study with a one-group pretest–posttest design. A transverse group consisted of 21 participants whose neck pain increased with active movements. A non-intervention group of 20 asymptomatic participants was included simply to ensure rater blinding. The treatment group received Grades IV to IV+ transverse mobilizations at T1 through T4 bilaterally. Measurements taken immediately after intervention included pre/post cervical ROM, distant pressure pain threshold (PPT), and a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS). Analysis utilized t-tests and ordinal counterparts. Results: The transverse group demonstrated significant gains in extension and bilateral rotation (P≤0.005) but not flexion or side-bend. A total of 57% of mobilized participants reported clinically meaningful decreased pain (P<0.001). Seven participants exceeded the PPT MDC95 of 0.36 kg/cm2. The non-intervention group had no significant changes in ROM or NPRS scores. Discussion: After 8 minutes of transverse mobilization to the upper thoracic spine, significant gains in cervical extension and bilateral rotation, and decreased pain scores were found. There were no adverse effects. Unlike other mobilization studies, PPT changes at a remote site were statistically but not clinically meaningful. Findings suggest that transverse mobilization would be a productive topic for controlled clinical trials. PMID:25395827

  18. Evaluation of the prevalence and severity of pain in patients with stable chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Udeoji, Dioma U; Shah, Ankit B; Bharadwaj, Parag; Katsiyiannis, Peter; Schwarz, Ernst R

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of pain in patients with chronic stable heart failure (HF) in an outpatient clinic setting. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study evaluating symptoms of generalized or specific pain in patients with chronic stable heart failure. A standardized questionnaire (Edmonton Symptom Assessment System) was administered during a routine outpatient clinic visit. The severity of pain and other symptoms were assessed on a 10 point scale with 10 being the worst and 0 representing no symptoms. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients [age 56 ± 13 years, 51 males, 11 females, mean ejection fraction (EF) 33% ± 17%] completed the assessment. Thirty-two patients (52%) reported any pain of various character and location such as chest, back, abdomen or the extremities, with a mean pain score of 2.5 ± 3.1. Patients with an EF less than 40% (n = 45, 73%) reported higher pain scores than patients with an EF greater than 40% (n = 17, 27%), scores were 3.1 ± 3.3 vs 1.2 ± 1.9, P < 0.001. Most frequent symptoms were tiredness (in 75% of patients), decreased wellbeing (84%), shortness of breath (SOB, 76%), and drowsiness (70%). The most severe symptom was tiredness with a score of 4.0 ± 2.8, followed by decreased wellbeing (3.7 ± 2.7), SOB (3.6 ± 2.8), and drowsiness (2.8 ± 2.8). CONCLUSION: Pain appears to be prevalent and significantly affects quality of life in HF patients. Adequate pain assessment and management should be an integral part of chronic heart failure management. PMID:22953022

  19. Self-perceived burden in chronic pain: Relevance, prevalence, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, John; Wilson, Keith G.; McWilliams, Lachlan A.; Péloquin, Katherine; Duong, David

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition that can impact various facets of interpersonal functioning. Although some studies have examined the extent to which family members are affected by an individual’s chronic pain, none have examined patients’ perceptions of feeling that they have become a burden to others. Research on self-perceived burden in different medical populations, such as cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke, has shown that it is associated with physical symptoms and, more robustly, with psychological difficulties and concerns. The present study examined the prevalence and predictors of self-perceived burden in a tertiary chronic pain sample. Participants were consecutive patients (N=238) admitted to an outpatient, interdisciplinary, chronic pain management program at a rehabilitation hospital. At admission, participants completed a battery of psychometric questionnaires assessing self-perceived burden, as well as a number of clinically-relevant constructs. Their significant others (n=80) also completed a measure of caregiver burden. Self-perceived burden was a commonly reported experience among chronic pain patients, with over 70% of participants endorsing clinically-elevated levels. It was significantly correlated with pain intensity ratings, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, attachment anxiety, pain self-efficacy, and caregiver burden. Self-perceived burden was also correlated with an item assessing suicidal ideation. In a hierarchical regression model, depressive symptoms, pain self-efficacy, and adult attachment significantly predicted self-perceived burden after controlling for demographic and pain-related variables. In conclusion, self-perceived burden is a clinically-relevant and commonly reported interpersonal experience in patients with longstanding pain. PMID:22703692

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of breakthrough pain in patients with non-malignant terminal disease admitted to a hospice.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, G; O'Doherty, C A; Collins, S

    2001-05-01

    A prospective survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence and characteristics of breakthrough pain in patients with non-malignant terminal disease admitted to a hospice. Of the 78 admissions surveyed, 10 patients were confused or too unwell to take part and 25 were pain-free. The remaining 43 reported 86 pains (range 1-6 per patient); of these patients, 27 (63%) had breakthrough pain and identified 52 pains (range 1-5 per patient). Breakthrough pain was classified as somatic (46%) visceral (14%), neuropathic (25%) or mixed aetiology (15%); 60% of pains were severe or excruciating. The mean number of daily breakthrough pain episodes was five (range 1-13), 54% of which occurred suddenly. Most pains (56%) were unpredictable; 75% lasted less than 30 min. These findings suggest that breakthrough pain is common in patients with non-malignant terminal disease; it is frequent, short lasting and often unpredictable, thus making treatment difficult. PMID:11407195

  1. Increase of chronic low back pain prevalence in a medium-sized city of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly disabling morbidity with high social, economic and individual effects. Demographic, occupational and behavioral changes that took place in Brazil over the last decade are related with an increasing burden of chronic conditions. Despite these changes, comparison studies on CLBP prevalence and associated factors, over time are scarce in the literature in general, and unknown in Brazil. The present study compared the CLBP prevalence in a medium sized city in Brazil between the years 2002 and 2010 and examined factors associated with prevalence in 2010. Methods Two cross-sectional studies with similar methodology were conducted in a medium-sized city in southern Brazil, in 2002 and 2010. 3182 individuals were interviewed in the first study and 2732 in the second one, all adults aged twenty years or more. Those who reported pain for seven weeks or more in the last three months in the lumbar region where considered cases of CLBP. Results The CLBP prevalence increased from 4.2% to 9.6% in 8 years. In most of the studied subgroups the CLBP prevalence has at least doubled and the increase was even larger among younger individuals with more years of education and higher economic status. Conclusions Increase in CLBP prevalence is worrisome because it is a condition responsible for substantial social impact, besides being an important source of demand for health services. PMID:23634830

  2. The prevalence of pain in a general population. The results of a postal survey in a county of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brattberg, G; Thorslund, M; Wikman, A

    1989-05-01

    In a postal survey, we asked 1009 randomly chosen individuals, age 18-84, about their pain problems. The pain prevalence depended on what types of questions were asked. Any pain or discomfort, including even a problem of short duration, was reported by 66% of those questioned. Forty percent reported 'obvious pain' (pain which affected them 'to quite a high degree' or more and was 'like being stiff after exercise' or worse) lasting more than 6 months. Pain problems of more than 6 months duration were reported far more often than short-lasting problems. Continuous or nearly continuous pain problems were reported as frequently as problems recurring regularly or irregularly. Pains in the neck, shoulders, arms, lower back and legs were most frequent. The prevalence of 'obvious pain' in these localizations was 15-20%. Pain was reported most frequently in the age group 45-64, where the prevalence of 'obvious pain' was 50% among males as well as females. Over 65 years of age the prevalence was less. PMID:2748195

  3. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders in postmenopausal women and relationship with pain and HRT.

    PubMed

    Lora, Victor Ricardo Manuel Muñoz; Canales, Giancarlo De la Torre; Gonçalves, Leticia Machado; Meloto, Carolina Beraldo; Barbosa, Celia Marisa Rizzatti

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is higher in females, reaching their high peak during reproductive years, probably because of the action of some female hormones, which alter pain threshold. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of TMD in postmenopausal women and its relationship with pain and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). In total, 284 patients were evaluated and classified using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Pain was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and patients were also asked about the use of HRT. All data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square test. In total, 155 subjects did not have TMD and 129 had TMD; TMD group patients were classified according to RDC/TMD axis I classification as follows: muscle disorder group (1.6%), disk displacement group (72.87%), and arthralgia, osteoarthritis, and osteoarthrosis group (37.98%). Pain was registered in 35 patients who belonged to the TMD group, while 48 patients reported the use of HRT. There was a similar percentage of TMD and non TMD patients; moreover, the use of exogenous hormones was no associated with TMD, suggesting that there is no influence on the pain threshold. PMID:27556676

  4. Prevalence of chronic pain in the UK: a systematic review and meta-analysis of population studies

    PubMed Central

    Fayaz, A; Croft, P; Langford, R M; Donaldson, L J; Jones, G T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little consensus regarding the burden of pain in the UK. The purpose of this review was to synthesise existing data on the prevalence of various chronic pain phenotypes in order to produce accurate and contemporary national estimates. Design Major electronic databases were searched for articles published after 1990, reporting population-based prevalence estimates of chronic pain (pain lasting >3 months), chronic widespread pain, fibromyalgia and chronic neuropathic pain. Pooled prevalence estimates were calculated for chronic pain and chronic widespread pain. Results Of the 1737 articles generated through our searches, 19 studies matched our inclusion criteria, presenting data from 139 933 adult residents of the UK. The prevalence of chronic pain, derived from 7 studies, ranged from 35.0% to 51.3% (pooled estimate 43.5%, 95% CIs 38.4% to 48.6%). The prevalence of moderate-severely disabling chronic pain (Von Korff grades III/IV), based on 4 studies, ranged from 10.4% to 14.3%. 12 studies stratified chronic pain prevalence by age group, demonstrating a trend towards increasing prevalence with increasing age from 14.3% in 18–25 years old, to 62% in the over 75 age group, although the prevalence of chronic pain in young people (18–39 years old) may be as high as 30%. Reported prevalence estimates were summarised for chronic widespread pain (pooled estimate 14.2%, 95% CI 12.3% to 16.1%; 5 studies), chronic neuropathic pain (8.2% to 8.9%; 2 studies) and fibromyalgia (5.4%; 1 study). Chronic pain was more common in female than male participants, across all measured phenotypes. Conclusions Chronic pain affects between one-third and one-half of the population of the UK, corresponding to just under 28 million adults, based on data from the best available published studies. This figure is likely to increase further in line with an ageing population. PMID:27324708

  5. Prevalence and Incidence of Memory Complaints in Employed Compared to Non-Employed Aged 55–64 Years and the Role of Employment Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC) in 55–64-year-olds. Methods Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525) and employment characteristics (n = 1071) with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline). Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526) and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain) with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up). Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits). Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population. Results At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC. Conclusions Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55–64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work. PMID:25742133

  6. [Marked similarity between the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement guideline 'Aspecific low back pain complaints' and the Dutch College of General Practitioners guideline 'Low back pain'].

    PubMed

    Mazel, J A

    2004-02-14

    The Dutch Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (CBO) guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of aspecific, acute and chronic, low back complaints corresponds in general to the Dutch College of General Practitioners' guideline with regard to the following topics: time-contingent treatment, restricted use of X-ray examination, and the options for non-medical treatment. A noteworthy exception in the CBO-guideline is the suggestion of manipulation of the spine as a possible treatment although there is no mention of proof of effectiveness. PMID:15015244

  7. Prevalence and type of pain during conventional and self-ligating orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Tecco, Simona; D'Attilio, Michele; Tetè, Stefano; Festa, Felice

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of pain experienced during orthodontic treatment in 30 subjects (12 males, 18 females, aged 12-18 years) with crowding. Fifteen patients were treated with conventional brackets (Victory Series) and 15 with self-ligating brackets (Damon SL II). The first archwire for all patients was a 0.014 inch nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire with a force of approximately 100 g. Conventional brackets were ligated with elastomeric modules. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used daily to assess the intensity of pain; the use of pain medication was also reported in a specially designed daybook for a total period of 3 months. Pearson's chi-square was used to investigate the difference between groups in the frequency of pain experience, its nature, and the use of analgesia. Non-parametric statistics (Mann-Whitney U-test) were computed to compare pain intensity between the groups. To investigate reported pain assessments, Friedman's two-way analysis of variance was used and the differences were estimated using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. The results showed that pain was reported for a period of 9 days after archwire insertion. Patients treated with self-ligating brackets reported the highest pain intensity on the day following placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 42.6), while those treated with conventional brackets experienced the greatest pain intensity at placement of the first archwire (VAS mean = 52) and after the second orthodontic appointment (VAS mean = 59.6). Analgesics were used by 16.5 per cent of patients treated with self-ligating brackets and by 10 per cent of those treated with conventional brackets, most often during the first 2 days after archwire placement. Patients treated with conventional brackets reported significantly more 'constant' pain than those treated with self-ligating brackets who complained of 'chewing/biting' pain. Pain appears to be common during orthodontic treatment but perhaps less intense when

  8. Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center.

    PubMed

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário Dos Santos, Patrícia

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0 years; interquartile range, 26.8-34.5 years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer. PMID:24764635

  9. Assessment and Treatment of Recurrent Abdominal Pain: Guidelines for the School Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Colleen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that somatic complaints without clear organic origin are also primary indicators for both anxiety and depression in childhood and adolescence. Review of literature provides school psychologists with basic information regarding prevalence, assessment, and treatment of one of most common types of somatic complaints: recurrent abdominal pain.…

  10. Feasibility of Applied Gaming During Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Patients With Complex Chronic Pain and Fatigue Complaints: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Joosen, Margot C W; van Bergen, Alfonsus H M M; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2016-01-01

    Background Applied gaming holds potential as a convenient and engaging means for the delivery of behavioral interventions. For developing and evaluating feasible computer-based interventions, policy makers and designers rely on limited knowledge about what causes variation in usage. Objective In this study, we looked closely at why and by whom an applied game (LAKA) is demanded and whether it is feasible (with respect to acceptability, demand, practicality, implementation, and efficacy) and devised a complementary intervention during an interdisciplinary rehabilitation program (IRP) for patients with complex chronic pain and fatigue complaints. Methods A mixed-methods design was used. Quantitative process analyses and assessments of feasibility were carried out with patients of a Dutch rehabilitation center who received access to LAKA without professional support during a 16-week interdisciplinary outpatient program. The quantitative data included records of routinely collected baseline variables (t0), additional surveys to measure technology acceptance before (t1) and after 8 weeks of access to LAKA (t2), and automatic log files of usage behavior (frequency, length, and progress). Subsequently, semistructured interviews were held with purposively selected patients. Interview codes triangulated and illustrated explanations of usage and supplemented quantitative findings on other feasibility domains. Results Of the 410 eligible patients who started an IRP during the study period, 116 patients participated in additional data collections (108 with problematic fatigue and 47 with moderate or severe pain). Qualitative data verified that hedonic motivation was the most important factor for behavioral intentions to use LAKA (P<.001). Moreover, quotes illustrated a positive association between usage intentions (t1) and baseline level (t0) coping by active engagement (Spearman ρ=0.25; P=.008) and why patients who often respond by seeking social support were represented in

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for low back pain among professional cooks working in school lunch services

    PubMed Central

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2007-01-01

    Background The prevalence of self-reported low back pain among professional cooks was estimated to examine the effects of daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors on this disorder. Methods Data was collected using a mailed self-administered questionnaire. Results Of 7100 cooks, 5835 (82%) replied to the questionnaire, including 1010 men and 4825 women. The mean age was 41.4 for men and 47.5 for women. The prevalence of low back pain during a 1-month period was 72.2% among men and 74.7% among women, with no significant differences between groups. By logistic regression analyses, factors significantly associated with the prevalence of low back pain in 1 month were female gender (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03–1.68), current smoking (PR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.24–1.98), and past smoking (PR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01–1.79). As for job-related factors, the number of cooked lunches per person (PR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05–1.56), breaks in the morning session (PR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.13–1.56), kitchen environment (PR 1.09; 95%, CI, 1.03–1.15), and height of cooking equipment (PR 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08–1.19) were associated with the prevalence of low back pain. As for psychological factors, job satisfaction (PR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03–1.45), stress at work (PR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.42–1.99), financial constraints (PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03–1.47), health-related stress (PR 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08–1.59) and worries about the future (PR 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01–1.52) were similarly associated. Conclusion Daily life conditions, job-related factors, and psychological factors are associated with the occurrence of low back pain. It is important to take comprehensive preventive measures to address a range of work and life conditions that can be improved to decrease the incidence of low back pain for professional cooks. PMID:17650300

  12. Pain description and severity of chronic orofacial pain conditions.

    PubMed

    Vickers, E R; Cousins, M J; Woodhouse, A

    1998-12-01

    A multidisciplinary pain centre study of 120 consecutive chronic orofacial pain patients assessed pain description and intensity ratings, gender differences, prevalence of concurrent conditions, and interinstrument relationships of the McGill Pain Questionnaire and visual analogue scale. Pain words chosen by patients to describe conditions were predominantly sensory words, and patients with concurrent conditions often listed words indicating a substantial affective component. Results showed pain intensity ratings of chronic orofacial pain conditions have similar or higher pain ratings when compared with other medical chronic pain conditions such as back pain, cancer pain and arthritis. There was a significantly higher female: male ratio (88:32) with gender playing an important but poorly understood causal role. The most frequent condition diagnosed was atypical facial pain (n = 40), followed by temporomandibular disorder (n = 32), atypical odontalgia (n = 29) and pathology of the orofacial region (n = 19). Temporomandibular disorder was present in 75 of the 120 subjects, as the sole pain complaint (n = 32) or as an associated secondary condition (n = 43), indicating concurrent pain conditions exist and may be related. There were significantly higher total pain scores of the McGill Pain Questionnaire in patients with multiple conditions compared with patients with a single condition. The visual analogue scale showed a significant correlation to the number of words chosen index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire for orofacial pain. PMID:9973710

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for persistent postoperative nonanginal pain after cardiac surgery: a 2-year prospective multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Choinière, Manon; Watt-Watson, Judy; Victor, J. Charles; Baskett, Roger J.F.; Bussières, Jean S.; Carrier, Michel; Cogan, Jennifer; Costello, Judy; Feindel, Christopher; Guertin, Marie-Claude; Racine, Mélanie; Taillefer, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent postoperative pain continues to be an underrecognized complication. We examined the prevalence of and risk factors for this type of pain after cardiac surgery. Methods: We enrolled patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement, or both, from Feb. 8, 2005, to Sept. 1, 2009. Validated measures were used to assess (a) preoperative anxiety and depression, tendency to catastrophize in the face of pain, health-related quality of life and presence of persistent pain; (b) pain intensity and interference in the first postoperative week; and (c) presence and intensity of persistent postoperative pain at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the presence of persistent postoperative pain during 24 months of follow-up. Results: A total of 1247 patients completed the preoperative assessment. Follow-up retention rates at 3 and 24 months were 84% and 78%, respectively. The prevalence of persistent postoperative pain decreased significantly over time, from 40.1% at 3 months to 22.1% at 6 months, 16.5% at 12 months and 9.5% at 24 months; the pain was rated as moderate to severe in 3.6% at 24 months. Acute postoperative pain predicted both the presence and severity of persistent postoperative pain. The more intense the pain during the first week after surgery and the more it interfered with functioning, the more likely the patients were to report persistent postoperative pain. Pre-existing persistent pain and increased preoperative anxiety also predicted the presence of persistent postoperative pain. Interpretation: Persistent postoperative pain of nonanginal origin after cardiac surgery affected a substantial proportion of the study population. Future research is needed to determine whether interventions to modify certain risk factors, such as preoperative anxiety and the severity of pain before and immediately after surgery, may help to minimize or prevent persistent postoperative pain. PMID:24566643

  14. Prevalence of abdominal migraine and recurrent abdominal pain in a Japanese clinic.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence of abdominal migraine (AM) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was evaluated in patients who visited Hikita Pediatric Clinic between May 2010 and April 2015. Patient data were collected prospectively using a questionnaire. Out of a total of 3611 cases, observed prevalence was 2.44% for repeated abdominal pain over a period of ≥3 months, 1.47% for RAP, and 0.19% for AM. Duration of abdominal pain was longer for AM than for non-AM RAP. Certain clinical features were significantly different between AM and non-AM RAP. No correlations were found among age at onset, frequency of attack, and duration of attack for various types of RAP. It was difficult to determine useful diagnostic criteria for distinguishing between AM and non-AM RAP. They did not appear to be separate disease entities but, instead, lie on a disease spectrum. The present prevalence of AM (0.19%) was lower than that in many previous studies from countries other than Japan. PMID:27460403

  15. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Approximately 5.1% of the cohort (n=68) reported having a physician-diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder before interview. Compared with women without a psychiatric diagnosis, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) for short sleep duration in early pregnancy (≤6 hours) were 1.95 (1.03-3.69). The corresponding OR (95%CI) for long sleep duration (≥9 hours) during early pregnancy was 1.13 (0.63-2.03). Women with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR=2.41; 95%CI 1.46-4.00) and elevated perceived stress (OR=3.33; 95%CI 1.89-5.88). Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight/obese women. Conclusions Women with a psychiatric disorder were more likely to report short sleep durations, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent mood/anxiety-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women. PMID:23031583

  16. The Prevalence of low back pain in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Quinette A; Morris, Linzette D; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition and one the most common causes of disability in the developed nations. Anecdotally, there is a general assumption that LBP prevalence in Africa is comparatively lower than in developed countries. The aim of this review was to systematically appraise the published prevalence studies conducted on the African continent to establish the prevalence of LBP in Africa. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted in April 2006. The following databases PEDro, Psychinfo, Science Direct, SportsDiscus, PubMed, CINAHL, Biblioline Pro-African Wide NiPAD and SA ePublications were individually searched using specifically developed search strategies for epidemiological research conducted on LBP amongst the African population. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the studies reviewed. Results A total of 27 eligible epidemiological studies were included in this review. The majority of the studies (63%) were conducted in South Africa (37%) and Nigeria (26%). The most common population group involved workers (48%), while scholars comprised 15% of the population. 67% of the studies were found to be methodologically sound, and the LBP prevalence of these were analyzed. The mean LBP point prevalence among the adolescents was 12% and among adults was 32%. The average one year prevalence of LBP among adolescents was 33% and among adults was 50%. The average lifetime prevalence of LBP among the adolescents was 36% and among adults was 62%. Conclusion The findings support the global burden of disease of LBP, in addition to suggesting that LBP prevalence among Africans is rising and is of concern. Further research into the most effective strategies to prevent and manage LBP in Africa is warranted. PMID:17976240

  17. A longitudinal study of the prevalence and characteristics of pain in the first 5 years following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Philip J; McClelland, Joan M; Rutkowski, Susan B; Cousins, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    A longitudinal cohort study of 100 people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) was performed to determine the prevalence and severity of different types of pain (musculoskeletal, visceral, neuropathic at-level, neuropathic below-level) at 5 years following SCI. Prospective data on the characteristics of pain up to 6 months following injury had been collected previously and allowed comparisons between the presence of pain at different time points. In addition, we sought to determine the relationship between the presence of pain and physical factors related to the injury such as level of lesion, completeness and clinical SCI syndrome. We also obtained information regarding mood, global self-rated health and the impact of pain on function. Of the 100 subjects in the original cohort, 73 were available for follow up. When all types of pain were included, 59 of the 73 subjects (81%) reported the presence of pain. Musculoskeletal pain was the most common type of pain experienced and was present in 43 subjects (59%), at-level neuropathic pain was present in 30 subjects (41%), below-level neuropathic pain was present in 25 subjects (34%) and visceral pain was present in four subjects (5%). Overall, 58% reported their pain as severe or excruciating and those with visceral pain were most likely to rate their pain in these categories. There was no relationship between the presence of pain overall and level or completeness of lesion, or type of injury. However, tetraplegics were more likely to report below-level neuropathic pain. This study prospectively demonstrates the differing time courses of different types of pain over the first 5 years following SCI. There was a strong correlation between the presence of both types of neuropathic pain at 5 years and earlier time points but both visceral pain and musculoskeletal pain demonstrated a poor correlation between time points. Chronic visceral pain occurs in a small percentage of patients and does not correlate with the

  18. Prevalence of low back pain in adolescent athletes - an epidemiological investigation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C P; Zwingenberger, S; Walther, A; Reuter, U; Kasten, P; Seifert, J; Günther, K-P; Stiehler, M

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common symptom in the populations of western countries, and adolescent athletes seem to be prone to LBP. The main objective of this study was to analyze the point (LBP within the last 48 h), 1-year (LBP within the last 12 months) and lifetime (LBP within the entire life) prevalence rates of LBP in adolescent athletes participating in various sports. We also assessed the characteristics of LBP and its association with potential risk factors. To this end, 272 competitive adolescent athletes involved in 31 different sports (158 males, 113 females, 15.4 ± 2.0 years, body mass index [BMI] 20.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) were enrolled in a 10-month prospective clinical trial that included a questionnaire and physical examination. We found a point prevalence of 14%, a 1-year prevalence of 57%, and a lifetime prevalence of 66% for LBP. The mean age of first appearance of LBP was 13.1 ± 2.0 years. The lifetime prevalence was significantly higher in volleyball than in biathletes (74.3 vs. 45.7%, p = 0.015). Our findings confirm that LBP is a common symptom in adolescent athletes; LBP prevalence correlates with sports participation and individual competitive level. Adolescent athletes with LBP should receive a thorough diagnostic work-up and adapt training and technique correspondingly when indicated. PMID:24424960

  19. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR < 0.79), whereas feeling lonely in the previous year, obesity, and ethnicity exhibited the highest prevalence ratio (PR > 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables. PMID:26938456

  20. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index—HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14–20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR < 0.79), whereas feeling lonely in the previous year, obesity, and ethnicity exhibited the highest prevalence ratio (PR > 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables. PMID:26938456

  1. Prevalence and Pattern of Pain Presentation among Patients Attending a Tertiary Dental Center in a Southern Region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Gbenga Omitola, Olufemi; Olabisi Arigbede, Abiodun

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Orofacial pain is one of the most common reasons for attendance at the dental clinic. The prevalence and the sources of orofacial pain vary from place to place and patients’ response to pain also differs. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of orofacial pain as well as the factors influencing patients’ response to orofacial pain among patients presenting for dental treatment in our center. Materials and methods Consecutive patients presenting with orofacial pain at the Dental Center, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital during the one-year period of the study were recruited into the study. Patients’ demographic data were collected and recorded in special forms. Patients were later examined to confirm the specific cause of pain. This was also recorded. Data generated were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Results Four hundred and forty-eight patients out of the 2,426 patients seen during the study period had orofacial pain, yielding a prevalence rate of 18.5%. There were 255 females and 193 males with most patients in the 17-27-year age group (49.1%). Lower jaw was commonly affected. Most patients presented after a period of at least one month, with severe and spontaneous pain. Most patients had drug therapy before presentation. Caries was the most common source of orofacial pain. Conclusion Orofacial pain was not uncommon in our center and it accounted for about 20% of patients’ attendance in the center. Dental caries and periodontal diseases were the most common sources of orofacial pain while temporomandibu-lar joint pain and atypical facial pain were not common in our center. Young adults and females were most commonly affected. PMID:22991595

  2. Prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent hemodialysis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brkovic, Tonci; Burilovic, Eliana; Puljak, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Understanding the epidemiology of pain in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is crucial for further improvement in managing pain. The aim of this study was to systematically review available evidence on the prevalence and severity of pain in adult end-stage renal disease patients on chronic intermittent HD. Materials and methods We carried out a systematic review of the literature and developed a comprehensive search strategy based on search terms on pain and HD. We searched the databases MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from the earliest date of each database to July 24, 2014. Manuscripts in all languages were taken into consideration. Two authors performed each step independently, and all disagreements were resolved after discussion with the third author. The quality of studies was estimated using the STROBE checklist and Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results We included 52 studies with 6,917 participants. The prevalence of acute and chronic pain in HD patients was up to 82% and 92%, respectively. A considerable number of patients suffered from severe pain. Various locations and causes of pain were described, with most of the studies reporting pain in general, pain related to arteriovenous access, headache, and musculoskeletal pain. Conclusion The findings of this systematic review indicate high prevalence of pain in HD patients and considerable gaps and limitations in the available evidence. Pain in this population should be recognized as a considerable health concern, and the nephrology community should promote pain management in HD patients as a clinical and research priority to improve patients’ quality of life and pain-related disability. PMID:27382261

  3. Prevalence and severity of insomnia in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Bahouq, H; Allali, F; Rkain, H; Hmamouchi, I; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and severity of insomnia in participants diagnosed with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to identify factors associated with this insomnia. One hundred CLBP consenting participants were recruited. Sociodemographic, CLBP features and sleep characteristics were collected. Patients answered validated measures of insomnia severity and fatigue. Statistical analysis examined the relationship between insomnia, sociodemographic characteristics of patients and CLBP parameters. Seventy-eight percent of patients suffered from insomnia. Insomnia due to back pain was reported in 64 % of cases. Insomnia was early, middle and late in, respectively, 39, 60 and 41 % of patients. Insomnia was sub-threshold, moderate and severe in, respectively, 34, 42 and 2 % of patients. ISI Global score was at 18.07 ± 7.3. ISI correlated significantly with pain intensity (r = 0.587; p < 0.0001), fatigue level (r = 0.495; p < 0.0001) and body mass index (r = -0.209; p = 0.03). Multiple linear regression models have revealed that pain intensity (β = 1.984; 95 % CI (1.517-2.451); p < 0.0001) and fatigue (β = 0.284; 95 % CI (0.192-0.377); p < 0.0001) were the strongest determinants for predicting insomnia in CLBP patients. Our study suggests that the prevalence of insomnia is important in CLBP patients, occurring especially at the middle of sleep. Insomnia was essentially sub-threshold or moderate. Back pain and fatigue experienced by patients were the strongest factors associated with this insomnia. PMID:23124732

  4. Prevalence of chronic non-cancer pain in a UK prison environment.

    PubMed

    Croft, Michael; Mayhew, Rachel

    2015-05-01

    Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is significant global health issue, accounting for a substantial increase in prescription analgesics worldwide, in recent decades. This clinical burden is evident in the UK prison population, where the prevalence of CNCP has never previously been determined. This study, conducted in June/July 2013, used prescribing data and a systematic review of clinical records from two UK prison establishments to derive a figure for point-prevalence of CNCP. Results showed that 20% of the total aggregated prisoner rolls (N = 1944) described CNCP and had been in receipt of treatment with daily analgesia, for a period of at least 3 months prior to observation date. This prevalence of CNCP was related to increasing age group (Spearman's rank correlation 0.94). Of those on continuous analgesic therapy (CAT), 44% were taking continuous opioid therapy (COT) of any sort. Prisoners with a diagnosis of opioid-type drug dependence (OTDD) were more than twice as likely to complain of CNCP and be on continuous medication for it (odds ratio 2.3). The issues relating to CNCP in prisons are discussed. Further research is recommended, identifying factors influencing CNCP prevalence in prisons, and enabling comparisons to CNCP prevalence in the UK general population. PMID:26516564

  5. Prevalence of chronic non-cancer pain in a UK prison environment

    PubMed Central

    Mayhew, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) is significant global health issue, accounting for a substantial increase in prescription analgesics worldwide, in recent decades. This clinical burden is evident in the UK prison population, where the prevalence of CNCP has never previously been determined. This study, conducted in June/July 2013, used prescribing data and a systematic review of clinical records from two UK prison establishments to derive a figure for point-prevalence of CNCP. Results showed that 20% of the total aggregated prisoner rolls (N = 1944) described CNCP and had been in receipt of treatment with daily analgesia, for a period of at least 3 months prior to observation date. This prevalence of CNCP was related to increasing age group (Spearman’s rank correlation 0.94). Of those on continuous analgesic therapy (CAT), 44% were taking continuous opioid therapy (COT) of any sort. Prisoners with a diagnosis of opioid-type drug dependence (OTDD) were more than twice as likely to complain of CNCP and be on continuous medication for it (odds ratio 2.3). The issues relating to CNCP in prisons are discussed. Further research is recommended, identifying factors influencing CNCP prevalence in prisons, and enabling comparisons to CNCP prevalence in the UK general population. PMID:26516564

  6. Unexplained Painful Physical Symptoms in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Prevalence, Pathophysiology and Management.

    PubMed

    Jaracz, Jan; Gattner, Karolina; Jaracz, Krystyna; Górna, Krystyna

    2016-04-01

    Patients with major depression often report pain. In this article, we review the current literature regarding the prevalence and consequences, as well as the pathophysiology, of unexplained painful physical symptoms (UPPS) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). UPPS are experienced by approximately two-thirds of depressed patients. The presence of UPPS makes a correct diagnosis of depression more difficult. Moreover, UPPS are a predictor of a poor response to treatment and a more chronic course of depression. Pain, in the course of depression, also has a negative impact on functioning and quality of life. Frequent comorbidity of depression and UPPS has inspired the formulation of an hypothesis regarding a shared neurobiological mechanism of both conditions. Evidence from neuroimaging studies has shown that frontal-limbic dysfunction in depression may explain abnormal pain processing, leading to the presence of UPPS. Increased levels of proinflamatory cytokines and substance P in patients with MDD may also clarify the pathophysiology of UPPS. Finally, dysfunction of the descending serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways that normally suppress ascending sensations has been proposed as a core mechanism of UPPS. Psychological factors such as catastrophizing also play a role in both depression and chronic pain. Therefore, pharmacological treatment and/or cognitive therapy are recommended in the treatment of depression with UPPS. Some data suggest that serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are more effective than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the alleviation of depression and UPPS. However, the pooled analysis of eight randomised clinical trials showed similar efficacy of duloxetine (an SNRI) and paroxetine (an SSRI) in reducing UPPS in depression. Further integrative studies examining genetic factors (e.g. polymorphisms of genes for interleukins, serotonin transporter and receptors), molecular factors (e.g. cytokines

  7. Neuropathic Pain and Psychological Morbidity in Patients with Treated Leprosy: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Lasry-Levy, Estrella; Hietaharju, Aki; Pai, Vivek; Ganapati, Ramaswamy; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. Conclusions/Significance One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity. PMID:21408111

  8. Association of locomotor complaints and disability in the Rotterdam study.

    PubMed Central

    Odding, E; Valkenburg, H A; Algra, D; Vandenouweland, F A; Grobbee, D E; Hofman, A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the association between joint complaints and locomotor disability. METHODS--During a home interview survey 1901 men and 3135 women aged 55 years and over (the Rotterdam Study) were asked about joint pain and morning stiffness in the past month, and locomotor disability was assessed by six questions from the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). RESULTS--The prevalence of locomotor disability was 24.5% for men and 40.5% for women. The prevalence of joint pain in men was 0.7% for pain in the hips, knees, and feet simultaneously, 3.7% for pain at two joint sites, 16.0% for pain at one joint site, and 20.4% for pain in the hips and/or knees and/or feet (any joint site); the corresponding estimates for women were 1.9%, 9.0%, 23.7%, and 34.5%, respectively. The prevalence of generalised morning stiffness was 4.9% for men and 10.4% for women. The age adjusted odds ratios for locomotor disability in men ranged from 2.4 of pain at one joint site to 8.8 of pain at all three joint sites; for women these odds ratios varied between 2.5 and 5.7, respectively. The age adjusted odds ratios of generalised morning stiffness were 8.0 for men and 7.3 for women. CONCLUSION--There is a strong and independent association between locomotor disability and age, joint pain, and generalised morning stiffness in people aged 55 years and over. The odds for locomotor disability increase onefold for every year increase in age, while the presence of generalised morning stiffness is of greater influence than the presence of joint pain. PMID:7495342

  9. Radiating low back pain in general practice: Incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, and long-term clinical course of illness

    PubMed Central

    Groenhof, Feikje; Winters, Jan C.; van Wijhe, Marten; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence and prevalence of radiating low back pain, to explore the long-term clinical course of radiating low back pain including the influence of radiculopathy (in a subsample of the study population) and non-radiating low back pain thereon, and to describe general practitioners’ (GPs’) treatment strategies for radiating low back pain. Design. A historic prospective cohort study. Setting. Dutch general practice. Subjects. Patients over 18 years of age with a first episode of radiating low back pain, registered by the ICPC code L86. Main outcome measures. Incidence and prevalence, clinical course of illness, initial diagnoses established by the GPs, and treatment strategies. Results. Mean incidence was 9.4 and mean prevalence was 17.2 per 1000 person years. In total, 390 patients had 1193 contacts with their GPs; 50% had only one contact with their GP. Consultation rates were higher in patients with a history of non-radiating low back pain and in patients with a diagnosis of radiculopathy in the first five years. In this study's subsample of 103 patients, L86 episodes represented radiculopathy in 50% of cases. Medication was prescribed to 64% of patients, mostly NSAIDs. Some 53% of patients were referred, mainly to physiotherapists and neurologists; 9% of patients underwent surgery. Conclusion. Watchful waiting seems to be sufficient general practice care in most cases of radiating low back pain. Further research should be focused on clarifying the relationship between radicular radiating low back pain, non-radicular radiating low back pain, and non-radiating low back pain. PMID:25693788

  10. Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12 months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Conclusion Chronic pain stages, but also disease

  11. Chronic pain in a sample of nursing home residents: prevalence, characteristics, influence on quality of life (QoL).

    PubMed

    Zanocchi, Mauro; Maero, Barbara; Nicola, Elena; Martinelli, Elisa; Luppino, Angela; Gonella, Mafalda; Gariglio, Federico; Fissore, Laura; Bardelli, Benedetta; Obialero, Rossella; Molaschi, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain is common in the elderly, but it is often under-estimated and under-treated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in nursing home residents and to analyze its influence on patient's QoL and functional status. We studied 105 patients (mean age 82.2+/-9 years), living in two nursing homes in Torino, Italy. The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ), the Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) and the Face Pain Scale (FPS) were used to test pain. Depression, functional and cognitive status were also evaluated by using specific instruments, such as the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments were documented. It was found that chronic pain was present in 82.9% of the sample; it lasted over 24 months and it was persistent in half of them (49.4%). We observed that chronic pain in the elderly has a strong affective component and its intensity influences older patients' mood, nutrition, sleep and QoL. Our study showed that chronic pain was under-treated. We conclude that chronic pain in institutionalized elderly is common and worsens patients' QoL. It is important to assess and manage pain as a relevant problem in particular for the population at increased risk for under-recognition and under-treatment. PMID:18006088

  12. Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... realize you have a medical problem that needs treatment. Once you take care of the problem, pain ... Fortunately, there are many ways to treat pain. Treatment varies depending on the cause of pain. Pain ...

  13. Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two interventions was compared. Ergonomic modification consisted of correcting the arrangement of workstation and changing some equipment; workplace exercises included stretching exercises focusing on neck, shoulders, low back, and hand and wrist. Musculoskeletal complaints were assessed and compared before and after 1 month interventions. Results: The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints was high before the study. Both interventions significantly reduced complaints in a similar manner except for low back pain which was reduced in exercise group more than the other group. Conclusion: In this study we found a beneficial short-term effect for both ergonomic modifications and stretching work-place exercises on reducing musculoskeletal pain in office workers. PMID:25405134

  14. Pain in Parkinson´s Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study of Its Prevalence, Types, and Relationship to Depression and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Singliarova, Helena; Harsany, Jan; Hanakova, Marta; Martinkova, Jana; Benetin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Pain is an important and distressing symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of pain, its various types and characteristics, as well as its impact on depression and quality of life (QoL) in patients with PD. How pain differs in early- and advanced-stage PD and male and female PD patients was of special interest. One hundred PD patients on dopaminergic medications had a neurological examination and participated in a structured interview on pain characteristics and completed standardized questionnaires. A total of 76% of the patients had pain. The following types of pain were present: musculoskeletal pain accounted for 41% of the total pain, dystonic pain for 17%, central neuropathic pain for 22%, radicular pain for 27%, and other pains (non-radicular low back pain, arthritic, and visceral pain) made up 24%. One type of pain affected 29% of all the subjects, two types 35%, three types 10%, and four types of pain were reported by 2%. All types of pain were more prevalent in advanced-stage PD subjects than in early-stage PD subjects, except for arthritic pain (subclassified under”other pain”). The frequency and intensity of actual, average, and worst experienced pain were significantly more severe in advanced-stage subjects. PD subjects with general pain and in advanced stages were more depressed and had poorer QoL. Depression correlated with worst pain in the last 24 hours and with pain periodicity (the worst depression score in patients with constant pain). QoL correlated with average pain in the last 7 days. Pain is a frequent problem in PD patients, and it worsens during the course of the disease. PMID:26309254

  15. WHO systematic review of prevalence of chronic pelvic pain: a neglected reproductive health morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Latthe, Pallavi; Latthe, Manish; Say, Lale; Gülmezoglu, Metin; Khan, Khalid S

    2006-01-01

    Background Health care planning for chronic pelvic pain (CPP), an important cause of morbidity amongst women is hampered due to lack of clear collated summaries of its basic epidemiological data. We systematically reviewed worldwide literature on the prevalence of different types of CPP to assess the geographical distribution of data, and to explore sources of variation in its estimates. Methods We identified data available from Medline (1966 to 2004), Embase (1980 to 2004), PsycINFO (1887 to 2003), LILACS (1982 to 2004), Science Citation index, CINAHL (January 1980 to 2004) and hand searching of reference lists. Two reviewers extracted data independently, using a piloted form, on participants' characteristics, study quality and rates of CPP. We considered a study to be of high quality (valid) if had at least three of the following features: prospective design, validated measurement tool, adequate sampling method, sample size estimation and response rate >80%. We performed both univariate and multivariate meta-regression analysis to explore heterogeneity of results across studies. Results There were 178 studies (459975 participants) in 148 articles. Of these, 106 studies were (124259 participants) on dysmenorrhoea, 54 (35973 participants) on dyspareunia and 18 (301756 participants) on noncyclical pain. There were only 19/95 (20%) less developed and 1/45 (2.2%) least developed countries with relevant data in contrast to 22/43 (51.2%) developed countries. Meta-regression analysis showed that rates of pain varied according to study quality features. There were 40 (22.5%) high quality studies with representative samples. Amongst them, the rate of dysmenorrhoea was 16.8 to 81%, that of dyspareunia was 8 to 21.8%, and that for noncyclical pain was 2.1 to 24%. Conclusion There were few valid population based estimates of disease burden due to CPP from less developed countries. The variation in rates of CPP worldwide was due to variable study quality. Where valid data were

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Kathryn E.; Sim, Julius; Jordan, Joanne L.; Jordan, Kelvin P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common and associated with poor general health. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of CWP or assess how this is influenced by sociodemographic factors. This study therefore aimed to determine, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence of CWP in the adult general population and explore variation in prevalence by age, sex, geographical location, and criteria used to define CWP. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and AMED were searched using a search strategy combining key words and related database-specific subject terms to identify relevant cohort or cross-sectional studies published since 1990. Included articles were assessed for risk of bias. Prevalence figures for CWP (American College of Rheumatology criteria) were stratified according to geographical location, age, and sex. Potential sources of variation were investigated using subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Twenty-five articles met the eligibility criteria. Estimates for CWP prevalence ranged from 0% to 24%, with most estimates between 10% and 15%. The random-effects pooled prevalence was 10.6% (95% confidence intervals: 8.6-12.9). When only studies at low risk of bias were considered pooled, prevalence increased to 11.8% (95% confidence intervals: 10.3-13.3), with reduced but still high heterogeneity. Prevalence was higher in women and in those aged more than 40 years. There was some limited evidence of geographic variation and cultural differences. One in 10 adults in the general population report chronic widespread pain with possible sociocultural variation. The possibility of cultural differences in pain reporting should be considered in future research and the clinical assessment of painful conditions. PMID:26270591

  17. Prevalence of low back pain in employees of a pharmaceutical company.

    PubMed

    Rotgoltz, J; Derazne, E; Froom, P; Grushecky, E; Ribak, J

    1992-01-01

    The association of low back pain (LBP) with mechanical factors at the workplace is uncertain. Most of the studies on this subject did not examine multiple levels of symptoms and did not take into account both the type of work and the primary activity during work. We studied the annual prevalence, severity and duration of attacks of LBP recorded on a physician-administered questionnaire in 208 workers in a pharmaceutical factory. Symptoms were then cross-tabulated with job type, location, work requirements, gender, and years at the factory. LBP was reported by 138 (66.3%) of the workers. Although over 75% of jobs in the packing department, laboratories and offices required prolonged sitting, LBP was most prevalent among workers in the packing department, where the chairs were found to be ergonomically unfit (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.1, P = 0.003). Logistic regression demonstrated a highly significant and independent association between LBP and work in the packing or production department (odds ratio 2.03), sitting or lifting (odds ratio 1.97) and 6 years seniority (odds ratio 1.64). Gender was not a significant variable. We conclude that among these pharmaceutical company employees, prolonged sitting and work in the packing or production departments were independently associated with LBP. Prospective studies are warranted to substantiate our findings. PMID:1428819

  18. The Prevalence of Autoantibodies in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Marco W. J.; de Mos, Marissa; Stronks, Dirk L.; Huygen, Frank J. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity has been suggested as one of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may underlie complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Screening for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is one of the diagnostic tests, which is usually performed if a person is suspected to have a systemic autoimmune disease. Antineuronal antibodies are autoantibodies directed against antigens in the central and/or peripheral nervous system. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of these antibodies in CRPS patients with the normal values of those antibodies in the healthy population. Twenty seven (33%) of the 82 CRPS patients of whom serum was available showed a positive ANA test. This prevalence is significantly higher than in the general population. Six patients (7.3%) showed a positive result for typical antineuronal antibodies. This proportion, however, does not deviate from that in the general population. Our findings suggest that autoantibodies may be associated with the pathophysiology of CRPS, at least in a subset of patients. Further research is needed into defining this subset and into the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of CRPS. PMID:25741131

  19. Musculoskeletal pain and limitations in work ability in Swedish marines: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Andreas; Larsson, Helena; Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Brodin, Lars-Åke; Äng, Björn O

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of self-rated musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability in Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) marines, and to study factors potentially associated with pain limiting work ability for the most prevalent pain regions reported. Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey. Participants There were 272 SAF marines from the main marine battalion in Sweden included in the study. Outcomes Self-assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting the marines' work ability within a 6-month period, as obtained from structured questionnaires. The association of individual, health and work-related factors with musculoskeletal pain limiting work ability was systematically regressed with multiple logistic models, estimating OR and 95% CI. Results Musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability were most common in the back, at 46% and 20%, and lower extremities at 51% and 29%, respectively. Physical training ≤1 day/week (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.8); body height ≤1.80 m (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 15.1) and ≥1.86 m (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 14.1); computer work 1/4 of the working day (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 10.0) and ≥1/2 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.1) of the working day were independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. None of the studied variables emerged significantly associated with such pain for the lower extremities. Conclusions Our findings show that musculoskeletal pain and resultant limitations in work ability are common in SAF marines. Low frequency of physical training emerged independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. This suggests that marines performing physical training 1 day per week or less are suitable candidates for further medical evaluation and secondary preventive actions. While also associated, body height and computer work need further exploration as underlying mechanisms for back pain limiting work ability. Further prospective studies are necessary to clarify the direction

  20. A School-Based Survey of Recurrent Non-Specific Low-Back Pain Prevalence and Consequences in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. A.; Stratton, G.; Reilly, T.; Unnithan, V. B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to provide evidence of the prevalence and consequences of recurrent low-back pain in children from Northwest England. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving a standardized questionnaire with established reliability and validity. A cross-sectional sample of 500 boys (n = 249) and girls (n = 251) aged…

  1. Prevalence, onset, and risk of psychiatric disorders in men with chronic low back pain: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J H; Slater, M A; Patterson, T L; Grant, I; Garfin, S R

    1991-05-01

    This study used structured diagnostic interviews and DSM-III criteria to assess lifetime prevalence and pre-morbid risk of psychiatric disorder in a sample of men with long-standing chronic back pain (CLPB) attending a primary care clinic. A control group of age and demographically matched men without history of back pain was also studied. Compared to controls, men with CLBP had significantly higher lifetime rates of major depression (32% vs. 16%), alcohol use disorder (64.9% vs. 38.8%), and a major anxiety disorder (30.9% vs. 14.3%). Almost all CLBP men ever experiencing a mood disorder reported recurrent, not single, episodes. The 6 month point prevalence of major depression, but not other disorders, was also significantly elevated for men with CLBP. In CLBP, the first episode of major depression generally (58.1%) followed pain onset. While the initial major depressive episode usually commenced within the first 2 years of established pain, late onset mood disorder was also common. By comparison in most cases (81%) onset of alcohol use disorders considerably preceded pain. When an age-matching procedure was used to gauge relative vulnerability to psychiatric illness in patients and controls, CLBP patients had significantly higher pre-pain rates of alcohol use disorder but not depression. After age of pain onset, CLBP subjects had over 9 times the risk of developing major depression, but had similar rates of developing alcoholism. We conclude that (1) alcohol use disorders rather than depression may increase risk of developing CLBP, and (2) risk of new onset and recurrent major depression remains high for men throughout their pain career. This suggests that psychological adaptation to long-standing pain may be less successful than previously thought, especially with regard to recurrent mood disorder. PMID:1831555

  2. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain related functional impairment. Methods This is a cross-sectional study based on The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study; a school-based survey responded by 4,881 10th grade students (RR: 83%) in North Norway, in 2003–2005. 10% were indigenous Sami. Musculoskeletal pain was based on reported pain in the head, shoulder/neck, back and/or arm/knee/leg, measured by the number of pain sites. Linear multiple regression was used for the multivariable analyses. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high, and significantly higher in females. In total, 22.4% reported 3–4 pain sites. We found a strong association between musculoskeletal pain sites and psychosocial problems, with a higher explained variance in those reporting pain related functional impairment and in females. There were no major differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Sami and non-Sami, however the associating factors differed somewhat between the indigenous and non-indigenous group. The final multivariable model, for the total sample, explained 21.2% of the variance of musculoskeletal pain. Anxiety/depression symptoms was the dominant factor associated with musculoskeletal pain followed by negative life events and school-related stress. Conclusions Anxiety/depression, negative life events, and school-related stress were the most important factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, especially in those reporting pain related functional impairment. The most important sociocultural aspect

  3. Ethnic differences in pain and pain management

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Claudia M; Edwards, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Considerable evidence demonstrates substantial ethnic disparities in the prevalence, treatment, progression and outcomes of pain-related conditions. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these group differences is of crucial importance in reducing and eliminating disparities in the pain experience. Over recent years, accumulating evidence has identified a variety of processes, from neurophysiological factors to structural elements of the healthcare system, that may contribute to shaping individual differences in pain. For example, the experience of pain differentially activates stress-related physiological responses across various ethnic groups, members of different ethnic groups appear to use differing coping strategies in managing pain complaints, providers’ treatment decisions vary as a function of patient ethnicity and pharmacies in predominantly minority neighborhoods are far less likely to stock potent analgesics. These diverse factors, and others may all play a role in facilitating elevated levels of pain-related suffering among individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Here, we present a brief, nonexhaustive review of the recent literature and potential physiological and sociocultural mechanisms underlying these ethnic group disparities in pain outcomes. PMID:23687518

  4. Association between Hypertension and the Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans. Methods A total 17,128 participants (age ≥20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70–0.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70–0.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.68–0.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63–0.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively). Conclusions Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association. PMID:26393797

  5. Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Chronic Postsurgical Pain and Global Surgical Recovery 1 Year After Outpatient Knee Arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hoofwijk, Daisy M.N.; Fiddelers, Audrey A.A.; Emans, Peter J.; Joosten, Elbert A.; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A.E.; Buhre, Wolfgang F.F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Outpatient knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Previous research has demonstrated that chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after outpatient surgery is prevalent. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of CPSP and Global Surgical Recovery (GSR) 1 year after knee arthroscopy. A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed. Patients were included during an 18-month period. Data were collected by using 3 questionnaires: at 1 week preoperatively, 4 days postoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. A value of >3 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) was defined as moderate to severe pain. A score of ≤80% on the Global Surgical Recovery Index was defined as poor GSR. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables were predictors for CPSP and poor GSR. The prevalence of moderate to severe preoperative pain in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy (n = 104) was 71.2%, of acute postsurgical pain 37.5%, and of CPSP 32.7%. Risk factors for CPSP were the presence of preoperative pain and preoperative analgesic use, with odds ratios of 6.31 (1.25–31.74) and 4.36 (1.58–12.07), respectively. The prevalence of poor GSR 1 year after outpatient knee arthrosocpy was 50.0%. Poor GSR 4 days after the surgery was a risk factor with an odds ratio of 8.38 (0.92–76.58) and quality of life 4 days after surgery was a protective factor with and odds ratio of 0.10 (0.02–0.64). Both CPSP and poor GSR are common 1 year after knee arthroscopy. Patients at risk for CPSP can be identified during the preoperative phase. Prediction of poor GSR 1 year after surgery is mainly related to early postoperative recovery. PMID:26559300

  6. Prevalence and individual risk factors associated with clinical lumbar instability in rice farmers with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Yodchaisarn, Wantanee; Emasithi, Alongkot; Keawduangdee, Petcharat; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Clinical lumbar instability (CLI) is one of the subgroups of chronic non-specific low back pain. Thai rice farmers often have poor sustained postures during a rice planting process and start their farming at an early age. However, individual associated factors of CLI are not known and have rarely been diagnosed in low back pain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and individual associated factors of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 Thai rice farmers in a rural area of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the 13-item Delphi criteria questionnaire, after which an objective examination was performed using aberrant movement sign, painful catch sign, and prone instability test to obtain information. Individual factors such as sex, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, smoking, and number of years of farming experience, were recorded during the face-to-face interview. Results The prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers calculated by the method described in this study was 13% (age 44±10 years). Number of years of farming experience was found to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of CLI (adjusted odds ratio =2.02, 95% confidence interval =1.03–3.98, P<0.05). Conclusion This study provides prevalence of CLI in Thai rice farmers. Those with long-term farming experience of at least 30 years have a greater risk of CLI. PMID:25565778

  7. The association between prevalent neck pain and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Carroll, Linda

    2008-01-01

    from the comorbidity model (mean difference = −4.4/100; 95% CI = −6.9, −1.9). This suggests that comorbid conditions account for most of the association between neck pain and PCS score. It was concluded that prevalent neck pain is weakly associated with physical HRQoL, and that it is not associated with mental HRQoL. Our cross-sectional analysis suggests that most of the observed association between prevalent neck pain and HRQoL is attributable to comorbidities. PMID:19020905

  8. Relationship between Comorbid Health Problems and Musculoskeletal Disorders Resulting in Musculoskeletal Complaints and Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence among Employees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hye; Kim, Young Sun; Yi, Kwan Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and comorbid health problems, including depression/anxiety disorder, insomnia/sleep disorder, fatigue, and injury by accident, and to determine whether certain physical and psychological factors reduce comorbid health problems. Methods In total, 29,711 employees were selected from respondents of the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey and categorized into two groups: Musculoskeletal Complaints or Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence. Four self-reported health indicators (overall fatigue, depression/anxiety, insomnia/sleep disorder, and injury by accident) were selected as outcomes, based on their high prevalence in Korea. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship between comorbid health problems, musculoskeletal complaints, and sickness absence. Results The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and musculoskeletal sickness absence due to muscular pain was 32.26% and 0.59%, respectively. Compared to the reference group, depression/anxiety disorder and overall fatigue were 5.2–6.1 times more prevalent in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group and insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were 7.6–11.0 times more prevalent in the Sickness Absence Group. When adjusted for individual and work-related physical factors, prevalence of all four comorbid health problems were slightly decreased in both groups. Conclusion Increases in overall fatigue and depression/anxiety disorder were observed in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group, while increases in insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were observed in the Sickness Absence Group. For management of musculoskeletal complaints and sickness absence in the workplace, differences in health problems between employees with musculoskeletal complaints and those with sickness absence as well as the physical and psychological risk factors should be considered. PMID:26106512

  9. A closer look at hand and wrist complaints.

    PubMed

    Zychowicz, Michael E

    2013-03-10

    Hand or wrist pain is a common complaint in primary care. This pain can be very disabling and can significantly impair a person's quality of life. With the appropriate clinical knowledge and skills, nurse practitioners can effectively evaluate, diagnose, and treat many of the common hand and wrist complaints seen in primary care. PMID:23416341

  10. Prevalence of and risk factors for different measures of low back pain among female nursing aides in Taiwanese nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chao-Kang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang

    2007-01-01

    Background Although low back pain (LBP) among nursing staff, especially in nursing aides (NAs), has been a major health problem around the world, there is limited information on its prevalence in Taiwan. In addition, various measurements have been used to determine LBP; understanding the risk factors for each measurement of LBP is essential for prevention. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for different measures of LBP among NAs in Taiwan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 244 female NAs from 31 nursing homes in central Taiwan. A self-administered questionnaire, including the Nordic questionnaire and the Karasek's job content questionnaire, was used to collect data regarding five different measures of LBP and about demographic, physical and psychosocial factors. Also, on-site observation at the workplace was conducted to measure the frequency of five high risk patient-handling tasks. Results Based on the subjects' reports on the previous twelve months, the prevalence rates for pain lasting for at least one day, seeking of medical care, intense pain, sick leave, and chronic pain were 66.0%, 43.9%, 38.1%, 10.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. While multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the risk factors varied with different measures of LBP, at least one high risk patient-handling task and one psychosocial factor were observed to be associated each LBP related measure. Three risk factors, including manual transfer of patients between bed/wheelchair and bath cart, perceived physical exertion, and psychological demands, were consistently associated with different measures of LBP. Besides, age was found to be associated with an increased risk of only chronic pain. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP among NAs in Taiwan is high and should be actively addressed. Certain manual patient-transfer tasks and psychological demands seemed to play more important roles in severe LBP (such as care seeking, intense pain, and sick

  11. Construction Workers Struggle with a High Prevalence of Mental Distress and this is Associated with Their Pain and Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Henrik Borsting; Caban-Martinez, Alberto; Onyebeke, Lynn C.; Sorensen, Glorian; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Reme, Silje Endresen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to investigate how mental distress was associated with pain and injuries in a convenience sample of construction workers. Methods A cross-sectional, mental health assessment was conducted in a convenience sample of construction workers (N=172). A subsample participated in a clinical interview (N=10). We used a cut-off (≥1.50) on HSCL-25 to determine substantial mental distress and determined associations with pain and injury outcomes. Results The prevalence of substantial mental distress was 16 % in the workers. This was supported by follow-up clinical interviews where nine out of ten workers fulfilled the criteria for a mental disorder. Substantial mental distress was associated with both injury rate and self-reported pain. Conclusion This pilot study strongly suggests the need for rigorous studies on construction worker mental health, and how it affects their work and wellbeing. PMID:24064778

  12. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain and self-perceived health among elderly people: a population-based study1

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lilian Varanda; de Vasconcelos, Patrícia Pereira; Souza, Layz Alves Ferreira; Pereira, Gilberto de Araújo; Nakatani, Adélia Yaeko Kyosen; Bachion, Maria Márcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and intensity of chronic pain among elderly people of the community and to analyze associations with the self-perceived health status. METHOD: cross-sectional study with a populational sample (n=934), conducted through household interviews in the city of Goiânia, Brazil. The intensity of chronic pain (existing for 6 months or more) was measured using a numerical scale (0-10) and the self-perceived health through a verbal scale (very good, good, fair, poor, very poor). For the statistical analysis, the absolute frequency and percentage, CI (95%), Chi-square test, Odds ratio, and regression analysis were used. Significance of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of chronic pain was 52.8% [CI (95%):49.4-56.1]; most frequently located in the lower limbs (34.5%) and lumbar region (29.5%); with high or the worst possible intensity for 54.6% of the elderly people. The occurrence of chronic pain was associated with (p<0.0001) a worse self-perception of health (OR=4.2:2.5-7.0), a greater number of chronic diseases (OR=1.8:1.2-2.7), joint disease (OR=3.5:2.4-5.1) and the female gender (OR=2.3:1.7-3.0). A lower intensity of chronic pain was associated with a better self-perception of health (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: the majority of the elderly people of the community reported chronic pain, of a severe intensity, and located in areas related to movement activities, thus influencing the morbidity and mortality of this population. PMID:25296151

  13. Spinal pain in adolescents: prevalence, incidence, and course: a school-based two-year prospective cohort study in 1,300 Danes aged 11–13

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). Methods This study was a school-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11–13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. Results The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain was 86% and 89% at baseline and follow-up, respectively. A group of 13.6% (95% CI: 11.8, 15.6) at baseline and 19.5% (95% CI: 17.1, 22.0) at follow-up reported that they had pain frequently. The frequency of pain was strongly associated with the intensity of pain, i.e., the majority of the participants reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from infrequent to more frequent was common over the two-year period. Conclusions Spinal pain is common at the age of 11–15 years, but some have more pain than others. The pain is likely to progress, i.e., to more locations, higher frequency, and higher pain intensity over a two-year period. PMID:24885549

  14. Diastasis recti abdominis during pregnancy and 12 months after childbirth: prevalence, risk factors and report of lumbopelvic pain

    PubMed Central

    Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Hilde, Gunvor; Ellström-Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is defined as a separation of the 2 muscle bellies of rectus abdominis. To date there is scant knowledge on prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of the condition. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DRA during pregnancy and post partum, presence of possible risk factors, and the occurrence of lumbopelvic pain among women with and without DRA. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 300 first-time pregnant women from pregnancy till 12 months post partum. Data were collected by electronic questionnaire and clinical examinations. DRA was defined as a palpated separation of ≥2 fingerbreadths either 4.5 cm above, at or 4.5 cm below the umbilicus. Women with and without DRA were compared with independent samples Student's t-test and χ2/Fisher exact test, and OR with significance level >0.05. Results Prevalence of DRA was 33.1%, 60.0%, 45.4%, and 32.6% at gestation week 21, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months post partum, respectively. No difference in risk factors was found when comparing women with and without DRA. OR showed a greater likelihood for DRA among women reporting heavy lifting ≥20 times weekly (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.05 to 4.52). There was no difference in reported lumbopelvic pain (p=0.10) in women with and without DRA. Conclusions Prevalence of mild DRA was high both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Women with and without DRA reported the same amount of lumbopelvic pain 12 months post partum. PMID:27324871

  15. Prevalence and Impact of Pain among Older Adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States (US). Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7,601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the US. Pain did not vary across age groups (P=0.21) and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy-responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P<0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain [adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.72 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.56–1.90)]. Participants with 1, 2, 3, and >4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other confounders (P<0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the US in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

  16. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  17. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain of the neck, upper extremities and lower back among dental practitioners working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; AlShaalan, Nouf S; Al-Bani, Waad M; Masuadi, Emad M; Almodaimegh, Hind S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies have shown that dentists have a higher incidence of work-related musculoskeletal (MSK) pain than those in other occupations. The risk factors contributing to MSK pain among Saudi dentists has not been fully studied so this study aims to estimate the prevalence of MSK pain and investigate its associated risk factors among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Setting and participants A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the capital city Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using random cluster sampling. 224 surveys were distributed among dentists with a 91.1% response rate (101 women and 103 men). Outcomes The prevalence of MSK pain and its associated risk factors were investigated. Results 184 (90.2%) respondents reported having MSK pain. Lower back pain was the most commonly reported MSK pain (68.1%). Gender and age were reported to be predictors for at least one type of MSK pain. Older age was associated with lower back pain (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.50) and women had double the risk of shoulder pain (OR 2.52; 95% CI 1.12 to 5.68). In addition, lower back pain was related to the time the dentist spent with patients (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.54), while shoulder pain (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.06) and lower back pain (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.10) were significantly related to years of experience. Conclusions MSK pain is common among older and female Saudi dentists. Research on the impact of exercise and the ergonomics of the workplace on the intensity of MSK pain and the timing of its onset is required. PMID:27324712

  18. EULAR report on the use of ultrasonography in painful knee osteoarthritis. Part 1: Prevalence of inflammation in osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, M; Conaghan, P; Le Bars, M; Baron, G; Grassi, W; Martin-Mola, E; Wakefield, R; Brasseur, J; So, A; Backhaus, M; Malaise, M; Burmester, G; Schmidely, N; Ravaud, P; Dougados, M; Emery, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of inflammation in subjects with chronic painful knee osteoarthritis (OA), as determined by the presence of synovitis or joint effusion at ultrasonography (US); and to evaluate the correlation between synovitis, effusion, and clinical parameters. Methods: A cross sectional, multicentre, European study was conducted under the umbrella of EULAR-ESCISIT. Subjects had primary chronic knee OA (ACR criteria) with pain during physical activity ⩾30 mm for at least 48 hours. Clinical parameters were collected by a rheumatologist and an US examination of the painful knee was performed by a radiologist or rheumatologist within 72 hours of the clinical examination. Ultrasonographic synovitis was defined as synovial thickness ⩾4 mm and diffuse or nodular appearance, and a joint effusion was defined as effusion depth ⩾4 mm. Results: 600 patients with painful knee OA were analysed. At US 16 (2.7%) had synovitis alone, 85 (14.2%) had both synovitis and effusion, 177 (29.5%) had joint effusion alone, and 322 (53.7%) had no inflammation according to the definitions employed. Multivariate analysis showed that inflammation seen by US correlated statistically with advanced radiographic disease (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ⩾3; odds ratio (OR) = 2.20 and 1.91 for synovitis and joint effusion, respectively), and with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of an inflammatory "flare", such as joint effusion on clinical examination (OR = 1.97 and 2.70 for synovitis and joint effusion, respectively) or sudden aggravation of knee pain (OR = 1.77 for joint effusion). Conclusion: US can detect synovial inflammation and effusion in painful knee OA, which correlate significantly with knee synovitis, effusion, and clinical parameters suggestive of an inflammatory "flare". PMID:15878903

  19. Work related risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in the spinning industry in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Gamperiene, M.; Stigum, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal complaints in the back, arms or neck, and legs among workers in the spinning industry, and to investigate the relations between these complaints and work related variables. METHODS: An interview based questionnaire survey was carried out in two spinning industry factories in Lithuania. RESULTS: The study group consisted of all workers in production (n = 363). Symptoms of the legs were the musculoskeletal symptom reported most often (61%). Many subjects had arms or neck (55%) or back problems (28%). 20% had experienced pain from all three sites. Almost 25% had had musculoskeletal pain every day and 16% had experienced constant pain during previous year. Packers had the highest risk of arms or neck problems whereas spinners had the highest risk of back or leg problems. Working in a strained posture (bending, work with arms raised up above shoulder level, and repetitive movements of the fingers) was associated with all three complaints. Only arms or neck complaints were associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal disorders are a common problem among workers producing gobelin or synthetic thread in Lithuania and working in a strained posture is a risk factor for developing musculoskeletal disorders in three body sites: legs, arms or neck, and back. To better understand the different aspects of physical load as risk factors, a more detailed study of the frequency of postural changes as well as an observation of individually adopted postures would be necessary. This applies to intervention studies in factories of the spinning industry to prevent complaints of the legs and shoulders.   PMID:10474538

  20. The impact of pain on quality of life and the unmet needs of pain management: results from pain sufferers and physicians participating in an Internet survey.

    PubMed

    McCarberg, Bill H; Nicholson, Bruce D; Todd, Knox H; Palmer, Trish; Penles, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Pain is one of the most common medical complaints, but despite its prevalence, many individuals still suffer with unrelieved or undertreated pain. This marketing research survey was designed to determine the physical, psychological, and economic impact pain has on the lives of individuals suffering with pain and to identify the unmet needs of patients who have taken opioid medications to treat their pain. In addition, the survey sought to address the challenges physicians face when treating patients with pain. Pain sufferers were recruited through e-mail invitation to an Internet survey; 173,854 invitations were sent out, 22,018 people responded (12.7%), and 606 met the criteria for inclusion in the survey as pain sufferers. Of these, 359 people had moderate to moderately severe chronic pain and 247 people had moderate to moderately severe acute pain. Additionally, physicians currently treating pain were recruited through e-mail and postal mail invitations and 492 met eligibility criteria: 241 specialists (orthopedic or general surgeons, pain specialists or anesthesiologists), 125 primary care, and 126 emergency medicine physicians. Results of this survey supported what many physicians observe in their practice and hear from their patients, that pain has a negative impact on daily activities in the majority of pain sufferers. Many chronic pain sufferers reported that pain had deleterious effects on their mental health, employment status, sleep, and personal relationships. The impact of pain on patient quality of life and the unmet needs in pain management were recognized by the majority of physicians surveyed, with inadequate pain control, end-of-dose pain, and side effects associated with increased dosing reported as negative factors influencing their choice of pain medication. In conclusion, effective communication between physicians and patients is encouraged to not only improve overall pain management but also to establish shared treatment goals with functional

  1. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3

  2. A prospective study of shoulder pain in primary care: Prevalence of imaged pathology and response to guided diagnostic blocks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of imaged pathology in primary care has received little attention and the relevance of identified pathology to symptoms remains unclear. This paper reports the prevalence of imaged pathology and the association between pathology and response to diagnostic blocks into the subacromial bursa (SAB), acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and glenohumeral joint (GHJ). Methods Consecutive patients with shoulder pain recruited from primary care underwent standardised x-ray, diagnostic ultrasound scan and diagnostic injections of local anaesthetic into the SAB and ACJ. Subjects who reported less than 80% reduction in pain following either of these injections were referred for a magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) and GHJ diagnostic block. Differences in proportions of positive and negative imaging findings in the anaesthetic response groups were assessed using Fishers test and odds ratios were calculated a for positive anaesthetic response (PAR) to diagnostic blocks. Results In the 208 subjects recruited, the rotator cuff and SAB displayed the highest prevalence of pathology on both ultrasound (50% and 31% respectively) and MRA (65% and 76% respectively). The prevalence of PAR following SAB injection was 34% and ACJ injection 14%. Of the 59% reporting a negative anaesthetic response (NAR) for both of these injections, 16% demonstrated a PAR to GHJ injection. A full thickness tear of supraspinatus on ultrasound was associated with PAR to SAB injection (OR 5.02; p < 0.05). Ultrasound evidence of a biceps tendon sheath effusion (OR 8.0; p < 0.01) and an intact rotator cuff (OR 1.3; p < 0.05) were associated with PAR to GHJ injection. No imaging findings were strongly associated with PAR to ACJ injection (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Rotator cuff and SAB pathology were the most common findings on ultrasound and MRA. Evidence of a full thickness supraspinatus tear was associated with symptoms arising from the subacromial region, and a biceps tendon sheath effusion

  3. Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Nurses: Predisposing Factors and Role of Work Place Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Maryam; Ghasemi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ergonomic factors predispose nurses to low back pain (LBP). Few studies have clarified the role of workplace violence in LBP occurrence. Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate acute and chronic LBP in Iranian nurses and its association with exposure to physical violence as well as its personal and ergonomic risk factors. Materials and Methods: In this analytic cross sectional study, the rate of acute and chronic LBP and contributing factors were investigated among 1246 nurses using a validated questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by chi square, student t-test, and logistic regression, to determine the association between independent variables and LBP. Results: In total, 1246 nurses, consisting of 576 (46.23%) males and 670 (53.77%) females, were included. The mean age and the mean years of employment were 31.23 ± 5.33 and 16.18 ± 7.05, respectively. Both acute low back pain (ALBP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) were associated with physical violence experience. Moreover, acute and chronic LBP were predicted by positive past history of LBP as well as two ergonomic factors, frequent bending and frequent carrying of patients. Conclusions: Besides a history of low back pain and ergonomic factors, physical violence may be considered a contributing factor for acute low back injuries. Special attention to all personal, occupational, and psychological risk factors is recommended. PMID:25717449

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Triki, Moez; Koubaa, Abdessalem; Masmoudi, Liwa; Fellmann, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower) spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5–24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%). The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p<0.001) in females (17.6%) than in males (12.5%). LBP prevalence did not differ by body mass index or smoking habit (p>0.05). The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP. PMID:25758252

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Triki, Moez; Koubaa, Abdessalem; Masmoudi, Liwa; Fellmann, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower) spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim : To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods : A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5-24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results : LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%). The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p<0.001) in females (17.6%) than in males (12.5%). LBP prevalence did not differ by body mass index or smoking habit (p>0.05). The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion : LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP. PMID:25758252

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0), and Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain. PMID:27445628

  7. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3

  8. Pain Management: Post-Amputation Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... common complaints heard by the staff of the Amputee Coalition, and how to manage the pain is ... one of the frequent topics of conversation at amputee support group meetings and on amputee discussion list ...

  9. Restless legs syndrome and pain disorders: what's in common?

    PubMed

    Goulart, Leonardo Ierardi; Delgado Rodrigues, Raimundo Nonato; Prieto Peres, Mario Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Between 10 % and 30 % of the population report chronic pain. More than half of these also have sleep complaints. From considering these data, it can be inferred there is a significant overlapping between these conditions. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is characterized by complaints of an "urge to move" frequently associated with dysesthesias. From that perspective, these sensations can also have painful characteristics. By the same token, the presence of comorbid diseases as predicted by a higher prevalence RLS/WED, have many of them with pain as an important complaint. Pain is a multidimensional response involving several levels of expression ranging from somatosensory to emotional. The potential shared mechanisms between RLS/WED and pain may involve sleep deprivation/fragmentation effect, inducing an increase in markers of inflammation and reduction in pain thresholds. These are modulated by several different settings of neurotransmitters with a huge participation of monoaminergic dysfunctional circuits. A thorough comprehension of these mechanisms is of utmost importance for the correct approach and treatment choices. PMID:25249423

  10. Patterns of shoulder pain during a 14-year follow-up: results from a longitudinal population study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Grotle, Margreth; Natvig, Bård

    2014-01-01

    Background Population studies have reported that shoulder pain is the third most frequently reported musculoskeletal pain. Long duration, pain intensity and high level of disability predict persistent complaints. The present study aimed to describe the prevalence of shoulder pain in a general population and follow this over a long period (1990 to 2004). The objective was also to describe the stability of shoulder pain and patterns of co-occurrence with neck and upper back pain. Methods Data were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire in a population in Ullensaker muncipality, north-east of Oslo. The Standard Nordic Questionnaire was sent in 1990, 1994 and 2004 to inhabitants belonging to six birth cohorts from 1918–20 to 1968–70. Results The 1-year prevalence of shoulder pain was 46.7% (95% CI, 44.9% to 48.6%) in 1990, 48.7% (95% CI, 46.8% to 50.5%) in 1994, and 55.2% (95% CI, 53.5% to 56.9%) in 2004. Approximately three-quarters of the persons with shoulder pain at one given time also reported shoulder pain at the next follow-up. Conclusions Prevalence of shoulder pain during a 14-year period was high and slightly increasing. Shoulder pain was reported most frequently in co-occurrence with neck pain. Classification models should include neck pain as well as other co-occurring pain sites.

  11. Musculoskeletal pain and the reproductive life stage in women: is there a relationship?

    PubMed

    Frange, C; Hirotsu, C; Hachul, H; Pires, J S; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between reproductive life stage, pain perception and musculoskeletal pain complaint in a representative sample of women from São Paulo, Brazil. Methods A population-based survey was carried out with 574 women who were classified as being in the premenopausal or postmenopausal stage. They answered questions about pain perception and musculoskeletal pain. Follicle stimulating hormone was collected to confirm menopausal condition along with clinical evaluation. Results In the whole sample, we found a prevalence of 56% for pain perception and 20.2% for complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Regarding the topography of musculoskeletal pain, the distributions were similar among the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. No significant association was found between reproductive life stage and pain perception, as 58.1% of the premenopausal group and 52.0% of the postmenopausal group reported pain. Similarly, there was no significant association between menopausal stage and musculoskeletal pain, as 19.5% and 21.6% of the premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, complained of musculoskeletal pain. There was no significant association of postmenopausal stage (early or late) with pain perception or musculoskeletal pain. The use of analgesics was significantly higher in postmenopausal compared to premenopausal women (p < 0.001). Conclusion A high prevalence of pain was found in women from the city of São Paulo. However, neither the presence of musculoskeletal pain nor pain perception were associated with the reproductive life stage, showing that both parameters was independent from the menopausal status in the studied women. PMID:27095066

  12. Prevalence and use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Abercrombie, Priscilla D.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Gregorich, Steven E.; Learman, Lee A.; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of and factors associated with use of complementary health approaches among women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Design We analyzed data from the Study of Pelvic Problems, Hysterectomy and Intervention Alternatives (SOPHIA), a prospective cohort study of women seeking care for noncancerous pelvic problems with intact uteri at enrollment. Among a subset of 699 participants who reported having CPP, we analyzed the prevalence of complementary health approaches used and associated patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life, attitudes and beliefs, and conventional health care practices. Results At baseline, slightly over one-half (51%) of women with CPP used at least one complementary health approach in the past year, including acupuncture (8%), special foods or diets (22%), herbs (27%), and vitamins and minerals (29%). During follow-up surveys conducted annually for four years, a substantial proportion of women (44.8%) used complementary health approaches at more than half of the assessments. Users of complementary health approaches were more likely to undergo a hysterectomy or oophorectomy or to use gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or opioids during the study compared with non-users. Women with CPP who used complementary health approaches also had more optimal health-related quality of life measured by the Pelvic Problem Impact Questionnaire (31.6 vs. 25.6, p<0.001). Conclusion(s) Many women with CPP consistently use complementary health approaches. The substantial interest in and high prevalence of complementary health approaches used alongside conventional medical approaches highlights the need for better understanding of multimodal approaches to address the complex condition of CPP. PMID:25279935

  13. Determining zolpidem compliance: urinary metabolite detection and prevalence in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Schwope, David M; DePriest, Anne; Black, David L; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J; Heltsley, Rebecca

    2014-10-01

    Zolpidem (Ambien(®)) is the most prescribed insomnia treatment in the USA; however, little is known about zolpidem metabolite excretion in chronic pain patients. As zolpidem is extensively metabolized in vivo to zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA), metabolite detection may provide improved accuracy for compliance determinations, thereby improving clinical decisions. Zolpidem and ZCA were extracted from 1 mL human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS-MS using positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring mode employed for detection and quantification. Gradient chromatographic separation was achieved with a reversed-phase column in a rapid 1.8 min analysis. The assay was linear from 4 to 1,000 µg/L for zolpidem and 4 to 10,000 µg/L for ZCA. Interday recovery (bias) and imprecision (n = 20) were 100-107% of target and 2.4-3.7% relative standard deviation, respectively. Extraction efficiencies were 78-90%. Pain compliance samples (n = 3,142) were de-identified and analyzed for zolpidem and ZCA. Zolpidem was detected greater than limit of quantification in 720 specimens (22.9%), while ZCA was detected in 1,579 specimens (50.3%). Only five specimens contained zolpidem alone. ZCA was observed without parent zolpidem in 864 specimens, thereby increasing population detection rates by 27.5%. Addition of a zolpidem metabolite to compliance determinations substantially improved detection for zolpidem intake and also should prove useful in clinical and forensic settings. PMID:25217539

  14. Spinal alignment, mobility of the hip and thoracic spine and prevalence of low back pain in young elite cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Alricsson, Marie; Björklund, Glenn; Cronholm, Martin; Olsson, Oscar; Viklund, Peter; Svantesson, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between spinal alignment, mobility of the hips and the thoracic spine and low back pain in adolescent cross-country skiers. Cohort of 51 elite cross-country skiers from a cross-country skiing high school in Sweden participated in the study. Sagittal spinal alignment, active range of motion in flexion, extension and rotation of the thoracic spine as well as passive and active extension of the hips were measured. The participants also completed a questionnaire regarding training, competition, skiing technique and occurrence of low back pain. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict pain score based on thoraco-lumbar relation, with a significant (P<0.05) regression equation of y=−0.069x+2.280 (standard error of estimate, 0.034). Participants with greater lordosis than kyphosis were more likely to suffer from low back pain than subjects without this offset. Thoracic mobility and passive or active hip extension showed no correlation with low back pain. Sagittal spinal alignment seems to be related with low back pain among young elite cross-country skiers. This study shows that range of motion of the thoracic spine and hips do not have an effect on the prevalence of low back pain in this population. PMID:26933656

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF MUSCULOSKELETAL PAIN AND ASSOCIATED DISABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Coggon, David

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to the physical determinants of common musculoskeletal complaints such as back and arm pain, research points to a stronger influence of psychological factors. Multiple studies have implicated poor mental health and somatisation (a tendency to worry about common somatic symptoms) in the incidence and chronicity of musculoskeletal pain and associated disability. Also important are adverse beliefs about the prognosis of such disorders, and about the role of physical activity in their development and persistence. Differences in societal beliefs may have contributed to major variation in the prevalence of disabling musculoskeletal pain that has been observed between countries and in the same countries over time. Psychosocial aspects of work have also been linked with musculoskeletal pain, although relative risks have generally been smaller. There is a need to take account of psychological factors in the clinical management of patients with back, neck and arm pain. PMID:26612236

  16. Prevalence of the Fibromyalgia Phenotype in Spine Pain Patients Presenting to a Tertiary Care Pain Clinic and the Potential Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Chad M.; Goesling, Jenna; Tsodikov, Alex; Meraj, Taha S.; Wasserman, Ronald A.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Hassett, Afton L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Injections for spinal pain have high failure rates, emphasizing the importance of patient selection. It is possible that detecting the presence of a fibromyalgia-like phenotype could aid in prediction, because in these individuals a peripheral injection would not address pain due to alterations in central neurotransmission. We hypothesized that spine pain patients meeting survey criteria for fibromyalgia would be phenotypically distinct from those who do not meet criteria. Methods 548 patients with a primary spine pain diagnosis were studied. All patients completed validated self-report questionnaires, including the Brief Pain Inventory, PainDETECT, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, measures of physical function, and the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Results 42% met survey criteria for fibromyalgia (FM+). When compared with criteria negative patients, FM+ patients were more likely to be younger, unemployed, receiving compensation, have greater pain intensity, pain interference and neuropathic pain descriptors, as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety, and lower level of physical function (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Gender, neuropathic pain, pain interference, physical function, and anxiety were independently predictive of fibromyalgia status in a multivariate analysis (p < 0.01, all variables). ROC analysis showed the strength of association of 0.81 as measured by the cross-validated C-statistic. Conclusion Using the survey criteria for fibromyalgia, we demonstrated profound phenotypic differences in a spine pain population. Although centralized pain cannot be confirmed with a survey alone, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia may help explain a portion of the variability of responses to spine interventions. PMID:24022710

  17. High prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in women in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and direct association with abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Gonçalves da Silva, Gabriela Pagano; do Nascimento, Anderson Luís; Michelazzo, Daniela; Junior, Fernando Filardi Alves; Rocha, Marcelo Gondim; Rosa-e-Silva, Júlio César; Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco José; Nogueira, Antonio Alberto; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain is a disease that directly affects the social and professional lives of women. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of this clinical condition and to identify independent factors associated with it in women living in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. METHODS: A one-year cross-sectional study was conducted in a population sample of 1,278 women over the age of 14 years. The target population was predominantly composed of women who are treated by the public health system. The questionnaire was administered by interviewers who were not linked to the city health care programs. The prevalence of the morbidity was estimated. First, we identified the significant variables associated with pelvic pain (p<0.10) and then we attributed values of 0 or 1 to the absence or presence of these variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify and estimate the simultaneous impact of the independent variables. The results were expressed by odds ratio and their 95% confidence interval with p<0.05. RESULTS: The disease was found in 11.5% (147/1,278) of the sample. The independent predictors were dyspareunia, previous abdominal surgery, depression, dysmenorrhea, anxiety, current sexual activity, low back pain, constipation, urinary symptoms, and low educational level. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain in Ribeirão Preto is high and is associated with conditions that can usually be prevented, controlled, or resolved by improvement of public health policies and public education. PMID:21915476

  18. Prevalence and Predictive Factors of Chronic Postsurgical Pain and Global Surgical Recovery 1 Year After Outpatient Knee Arthroscopy: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hoofwijk, Daisy M N; Fiddelers, Audrey A A; Emans, Peter J; Joosten, Elbert A; Gramke, Hans-Fritz; Marcus, Marco A E; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A

    2015-11-01

    Outpatient knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures. Previous research has demonstrated that chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) after outpatient surgery is prevalent. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictive factors of CPSP and Global Surgical Recovery (GSR) 1 year after knee arthroscopy.A prospective longitudinal cohort study was performed. Patients were included during an 18-month period. Data were collected by using 3 questionnaires: at 1 week preoperatively, 4 days postoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. A value of >3 on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) was defined as moderate to severe pain. A score of ≤80% on the Global Surgical Recovery Index was defined as poor GSR. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which variables were predictors for CPSP and poor GSR.The prevalence of moderate to severe preoperative pain in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy (n = 104) was 71.2%, of acute postsurgical pain 37.5%, and of CPSP 32.7%. Risk factors for CPSP were the presence of preoperative pain and preoperative analgesic use, with odds ratios of 6.31 (1.25-31.74) and 4.36 (1.58-12.07), respectively. The prevalence of poor GSR 1 year after outpatient knee arthrosocpy was 50.0%. Poor GSR 4 days after the surgery was a risk factor with an odds ratio of 8.38 (0.92-76.58) and quality of life 4 days after surgery was a protective factor with and odds ratio of 0.10 (0.02-0.64).Both CPSP and poor GSR are common 1 year after knee arthroscopy. Patients at risk for CPSP can be identified during the preoperative phase. Prediction of poor GSR 1 year after surgery is mainly related to early postoperative recovery. PMID:26559300

  19. The prevalence of inflammatory back pain: population-based estimates from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–10

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Michael H; Witter, James P; Reveille, John D

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the current US inflammatory back pain (IBP) prevalence using four published case definitions. Methods Analysis of an IBP data collection instrument specifically designed for the 2009–10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Subjects were 5103 US adults ages 20–69 with complete data. IBP prevalence as determined by Calin et al criteria, European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria, and Berlin criteria 8a and 7b. Results Age-adjusted US prevalence of IBP by Calin criteria was 5.0% (95% CI 4.2% to 5.8%). Prevalence of IBP was 5.6% (95% CI 4.7% to 6.5%) by ESSG criteria, and 5.8% (95% CI 5.2% to 6.4%) and 6.0% (95% CI 4.9% to 7.1%) by Berlin Criteria 8a and 7b, respectively. IBP prevalence did not differ significantly by age groups or between men and women. IBP prevalence was significantly lower among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white persons for the Calin and ESSG IBP criteria. For the ESSG and Berlin 7b criteria, non-Hispanic white persons had significantly higher IBP prevalences compared with Mexican Americans. Conclusions IBP is associated with spondyloarthritis. Awareness of the prevalence of IBP may be useful for planning future epidemiological studies as well as development and validation of diagnostic and classification criteria for specific clinically defined diseases. PMID:22791746

  20. Exploring the prevalence of and factors associated with pain: a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Barry, Heather E; Parsons, Carole; Passmore, A Peter; Hughes, Carmel M

    2016-05-01

    Few pain studies have made community-dwelling people with dementia (PWD) their focus. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pain among this patient population and to explore medication use. Moreover, we sought to investigate patient and caregiver variables associated with the presence of pain. Community-dwelling PWD and their caregivers were recruited between May 2009 and July 2012 from outpatient memory clinics in Northern Ireland to take part in a face-to-face structured interview with a researcher. Patients' cognitive status and presence of depression were established. A full medication history was taken. Both patients and caregivers were asked to rate patients' pain, at the time of the interview and on an average day, using a 7-point verbal descriptor scale. From the 206 patients who were eligible to take part, 75 patient-caregiver dyads participated in the study (participation rate = 36.4%). The majority of patients (92.0%) had dementia classed as mild or moderate. Pain was commonly reported among the sample, with 57.3% of patients and 70.7% of caregivers reporting patient pain on an average day. Significant differences were found between patients' and caregivers' reports of pain. Two-fifths of patients (40.0%) were prescribed analgesia. Antipsychotic, hypnotic and anxiolytic drug use was low, whereas antidepressant drugs were prescribed more commonly. Presence of pain was unaffected by dementia severity; however, the use of prescribed analgesic medication was a significant predictor of the presence of pain in these patients, whether reported by the patient or their caregiver 'right now' or 'on an average day' (P < 0.001). Patient and caregiver recruitment was challenging, and remains a barrier to research in this area in the future. PMID:25708056

  1. Is a history of work-related low back injury associated with prevalent low back pain and depression in the general population?

    PubMed Central

    Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42), with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76), and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01). No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30). Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury may be an important risk

  2. Prevalence of nonspecific lumbar pain and associated factors among adolescents in Uruguaiana, state of Rio Grande do Sul☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Graup, Susane; de Araújo Bergmann, Mauren Lúcia; Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of nonspecific lumbar pain and associated factors among adolescents in Uruguaiana, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods This was a cross-sectional school-based study conducted among adolescents aged 10–17 years who were enrolled in the day shift of the municipal and state educational systems of Uruguaiana. This study evaluated 1455 adolescents. The data-gathering procedures involved two stages. Firstly, a questionnaire on sociodemographic indicators, behavioral patterns and habits of the daily routine and history of nonspecific lumbar pain was applied. Subsequently, height, body mass, flexibility and abdominal strength/resistance measurements were evaluated. To analyze the data, univariate, bivariate and multivariable methods were used and the significance level was taken to be 5% for all the tests. Results The prevalence of lumbar pain among the adolescents evaluated was 16.1%. Grouped according to sex, the prevalence among males was 10.5% and among females, 21.6%. The variables of sex, body mass index, abdominal strength/resistance and physical activity level presented statistically significant associations with nonspecific lumbar pain. In the adjusted analysis, sex (OR = 2.36; p < 0.001), age (OR = 1.14; p < 0.001) and body mass index (OR = 1.44; p = 0.029) maintained significance in the final model. Conclusions Female adolescents of older age and who presented overweight or obesity had higher chances of developing nonspecific lumbar pain. PMID:26229878

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of diastasis recti abdominis from late pregnancy to 6 months postpartum, and relationship with lumbo-pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Mota, Patrícia Gonçalves; Pascoal, Augusto Gil Brites Andrade; Carita, Ana Isabel Andrade Dinis; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is an impairment characterized by a midline separation of the rectus abdominis muscles along the linea alba. It has its onset during pregnancy and the first weeks following childbirth. There is scant knowledge on both prevalence and risk factors for development of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of DRA at gestational week 35 and three timepoints postpartum, possible risk factors, and the relationship between DRA and lumbo-pelvic pain. Ultrasound images of inter rectus distance (IRD) were recorded in 84 healthy primiparous women, at three locations on the linea alba. The IRD was measured at: gestational week 35 and 6-8, 12-14, and 24-26 weeks postpartum. Diagnosis of DRA was defined as 16 mm at 2 cm below the umbilicus. Independent sample t-test and binary logistic regression was used to assess differences and risk factors in women with and without DRA and women with and without lumbo-pelvic pain. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of DRA decreased from 100% at gestational week 35-39% at 6 months postpartum. No statistically significant differences were found in prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, baby's birth weight or abdominal circumference between women with and without DRA at 6 months postpartum. Women with DRA at 6 months postpartum were not more likely to report lumbo-pelvic pain than women without DRA. DRA is prevalent at 6 months postpartum, but is not linked with lumbo-pelvic pain. PMID:25282439

  4. Complaints against Nursing Homes: Comparing Two Sources of Complaint Information and Predictors of Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; Sause, Wendy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Two consumer-derived measures of nursing home quality that have been underutilized by researchers are consumer complaints to the state certification agency between inspections and complaints to the Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program. This article describes these complaints, considers facility-level predictors of complaints, and…

  5. Prevalence of illicit drug use among individuals with chronic pain in the Commonwealth of Kentucky: an evaluation of patterns and trends.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Fellows, Bert; Damron, Kim S; Pampati, Vidyasagar; McManus, Carla D

    2005-02-01

    The abuse of prescription-controlled substances is a common phenomenon, associated with illicit drug use, in patients suffering with chronic pain and receiving controlled substances for the management of pain. Prescription drug abuse in Kentucky has led to an increase in Medicare and Medicaid fraud, as well as physician indictments for unscrupulous practices and increased vigilance and prosecution by the authorities. This study was undertaken to evaluate 400 consecutive patients receiving controlled substances in an interventional pain management practice in Western Kentucky to evaluate the prevalence of illicit drug use and opioid abuse and noncompliance with opioid therapy. Results indicated that patients covered by third-party insurance showed 17% (95% CI, 10%-24%) prevalence of illicit drug use, with patients on Medicare, with or without third-party insurance, showing 10% (95% CI, 4%-6%) prevalence, compared to patients on Medicare and Medicaid with 24% (95% CI, 16%-32%) prevalence, and patients with only Medicaid with 39% (95% CI, 29%-49%) prevalence of illicit drug use. In addition, combined use of illicit drugs and misuse of prescription drugs was also seen in a substantially greater proportion of patients in Groups III and IV, with the highest (60%) in Group IV with Medicaid only, followed by Group III with Medicaid supplementation of Medicare insurance in 40% of the patients. Overall illicit drug use, opioid abuse, and noncompliance of opioids is significant in patients in Western Kentucky receiving Medicaid as a primary insurance or as a supplemental insurance to Medicare, despite extensive monitoring, written agreement, and education. PMID:15751456

  6. Assessment of musculoskeletal and other health complaints in female hospital staff.

    PubMed

    Bru, E; Mykletun, R J; Svebak, S

    1994-04-01

    Musculoskeletal and other health complaints were investigated in a sample of 586 female hospital staff. Health complaints, including musculoskeletal pain, were assessed by the Ursin Health Inventory (UHI). Factor analyses of the UHI favoured a seven-factor solution in which musculoskeletal pain emerged as an independent factor of complaints. Other complaint factors could be labelled lower digestive, upper digestive, cardiorespiratory, allergy, cold/influenza and headache. Factor analyses of the extended version of the Nordic Questionnaire (NQ-EV), which focuses specifically on musculoskeletal pain from nine body areas, favoured a three-factor solution in which complaints from the upper back, low back and extremities emerged as the independent factors. Product-moment coefficients of correlation between factor-based sum scores in the two survey measures stated that the UHI factor 'musculoskeletal pain' and the NQ-EV factor 'upper back' were significantly correlated. This indicated an orientation of the UHI 'musculoskeletal pain' factor to pain in the upper part of the back. Only very moderate coefficients of correlation emerged between the NQ-EV factor scores and the remaining UHI scores. The results support the assumption that musculoskeletal complaints are not closely related to other types of health complaints, and that musculoskeletal complaints among female hospital staff should be assessed with separate items for upper back (neck/shoulders), low back and the extremities. PMID:15676956

  7. Chronic Pain Without Clear Etiology in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Tracy; Thomas, Sarah; Stabile, Victoria; Han, Xue; Shotwell, Matthew; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2016-06-01

    Globally, 8 of the top 12 disabling conditions are related either to chronic pain or to the psychological conditions strongly associated with persistent pain. In this narrative review, we explore the demographic and psychosocial associations with chronic pain exclusively from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and compare them with current global data. One hundred nineteen publications in 28 LMICs were identified for review; associations with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, insomnia, disability, gender, age, rural/urban location, education level, income, and additional sites of pain were analyzed for each type of chronic pain without clear etiology. Of the 119 publications reviewed, pain was described in association with disability in 50 publications, female gender in 40 publications, older age in 34 publications, depression in 36 publications, anxiety in 19 publications, and multiple somatic complaints in 13 publications. Women, elderly patients, and workers, especially in low-income and low-education subgroups, were more likely to have pain in multiple sites, mood disorders, and disabilities. In high-income countries, multisite pain without etiology, female gender, and association with mood disturbance and disability may be suggestive of a central sensitization syndrome (CSS). Because each type of prevalent chronic pain without known etiology reviewed had similar associations in LMICs, strategies for assessment and treatment of chronic pain worldwide should consider the possibility of prevalent CSS. Recognition is especially critical in resource-poor areas, because treatment of CSS is vastly different than localized chronic pain. PMID:27195643

  8. Relationship between complaints presented by emergency patients and the final outcome 1

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Helisamara Mota; Souza, Kesia Meiriele; Lima, Patrícia de Oliveira; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to relate complaints presented by emergency room patients, classified using the Manchester Triage System, with the final outcome (discharge/death/transfer). Methods: prospective cohort study, involving 509 patients who were admitted to the emergency room and remained there for more than 24 hours after admission, being monitored to the final outcome. Data were analyzed with a statistical program using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: the mean age of the patients was 59.1 years and 59.3% were male. The main complaints were unwell adult (130 - 22.5%), shortness of breath in adults (81 - 14.0%), abdominal pain in adults (58 - 10.0%) and behaving strangely (34 - 5.9%), with 87% of the patients being discharged. More deaths were found in the patients classified in the severe colors, with 42.8% classified as red, 17.0% as orange and 8.9% as yellow. Among the patients classified as green, 9.6% died. Conclusion: in the various colors of the Manchester Triage System, death prevailed in patients that presented the complaints of unwell adult, shortness of breath, head injury, major trauma, diarrhea and vomiting. The higher the clinical priority the greater the prevalence of death. PMID:26444159

  9. Persistent of Neck/Shoulder Pain among Computer Office Workers with Specific Attention to Pain Expectation, Somatization Tendency, and Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Farideh; Raei, Mehdi; Amiri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neck and shoulder pains are the prevalent complaints among computer office workers. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of somatization tendency, expectation of pain, mental health and beliefs about causation of pain with persistence of neck/shoulder pains among computer office workers. Methods: This research is a kind of prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. It has done among all eligible computer office workers of Shahroud universities (n = 182) in 2008-2009 and 1-year later. Data were collected using the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data through SPSS (P < 0.05). Results: At the baseline 100 (54.9%) of participants reported neck/shoulder pains and at follow-up 34.3% of them reported persistence pains. Significant relationships were found between persistence of neck/shoulder pains and negative expectation about pain in next 1-year P = 0.002, (odds ratio [OR] =8.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-32.9) and somatization tendency P = 0.01, (OR = 6.5, 95% CI: 1.6-27.4). Conclusions: Pain expectation and somatization tendency recognized as associated risk factors of persistent neck/shoulder pain among computer operators. This confirmed some other similar studies on work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Europe countries in recent years. PMID:25317301

  10. Vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic change): a systematic literature review of prevalence and association with non-specific low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Karppinen, Jaro; Sorensen, Joan S.; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of “vertebral endplate signal changes” (VESC) and its association with low back pain (LBP) varies greatly between studies. This wide range in reported prevalence rates and associations with LBP could be explained by differences in the definitions of VESC, LBP, or study sample. The objectives of this systematic critical review were to investigate the current literature in relation to the prevalence of VESC (including Modic changes) and the association with non-specific low back pain (LBP). The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SveMED databases were searched for the period 1984 to November 2007. Included were the articles that reported the prevalence of VESC in non-LBP, general, working, and clinical populations. Included were also articles that investigated the association between VESC and LBP. Articles on specific LBP conditions were excluded. A checklist including items related to the research questions and overall quality of the articles was used for data collection and quality assessment. The reported prevalence rates were studied in relation to mean age, gender, study sample, year of publication, country of study, and quality score. To estimate the association between VESC and LBP, 2 × 2 tables were created to calculate the exact odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Eighty-two study samples from 77 original articles were identified and included in the analysis. The median of the reported prevalence rates for any type of VESC was 43% in patients with non-specific LBP and/or sciatica and 6% in non-clinical populations. The prevalence was positively associated with age and was negatively associated with the overall quality of the studies. A positive association between VESC and non-specific LBP was found in seven of ten studies from the general, working, and clinical populations with ORs from 2.0 to 19.9. This systematic review shows that VESC is a common MRI-finding in patients with non-specific LBP and is associated with pain. However, it

  11. Musicians' illness perceptions of musculoskeletal complaints.

    PubMed

    Kok, Laura M; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; Fiocco, Marta; Kaptein, Ad A; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the views of people about their illness, i.e., illness perceptions, determine coping strategies, and outcome. Previous research suggests a higher prevalence and a different perception of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. The aim of this study is to compare illness perceptions related to musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and nonmusicians. In this cross-sectional study, students from three music academies (n = 345) and one university medical center (n = 2,870) in the Netherlands received an electronic questionnaire concerning questions on sociodemographic characteristics, use of musical instruments, occurrence and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints in the past year, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Baseline and B-IPQ scores were compared between the samples by means of t tests, chi-square tests, and regression models to adjust for differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Eighty-three music academy students and 494 medical students completed the questionnaire (response rates, 25.5 and 17.6 %, respectively). Seventy-four (89 %) persons in the musician group and 382 (78 %) persons in the nonmusician group reported occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints during the last 12 months. Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, the B-IPQ scores of the domains consequences (my illness is a serious condition), concern (I am extremely concerned about my illness), and emotions (my illness makes me scared) were significantly higher among musicians, whereas personal control (there is little I can do to improve my illness), identity (number of symptoms patient sees as part of illness) were not significantly different. Music academy students had a significant more positive score on treatment control. Music academy students report more negative perceptions of their musculoskeletal complaints compared to medical students. Although some selection bias is

  12. Pain-related and Psychological Symptoms in Adolescents With Musculoskeletal and Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sue; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Two-thirds of adolescents with chronic musculoskeletal pain report a concurrent sleep problem. Both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems can have deleterious effects on physiological and psychological well-being. We explored the prevalence of sleep problems and musculoskeletal pain, using data on 3568 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive battery of questionnaires was administered to derive clinical phenotypes of musculoskeletal pain. Adolescents with single symptoms were compared with those reporting both musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to compare groups on pain-related variables and psychological complaints. The association between sociodemographic variables and comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Over half the sample was female (n=2076, 58.2%) and the majority of European ancestry (n=3174, 97.7%). Only 5.5% (n=196) of participants were identified as having a pain condition, while 21.2% (n=749) reported a significant sleep problem, and 2.8% (n=99) reported comorbid musculoskeletal pain and sleep problems. Adolescents with comorbid problems experienced greater pain intensity and pain-related anxiety. Other psychological complaints were also higher in those who experienced concurrent problems, including depression, fatigue, concentration, and overall severity of psychological symptoms. Discussion: Comorbid sleep and pain problems were associated with a higher incidence of pain-related and psychological symptoms. Sleep problems may therefore be an important modifiable risk factor for alleviating distress in adolescents with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:25974623

  13. Prevalence and correlates of pain interference in older adults: Why treating the whole body and mind is necessary

    PubMed Central

    Przekop, Peter; Haviland, Mark G.; Oda, Keiji; Morton, Kelly R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Our study presents pain-related interference rates in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and determines factors associated with these restrictions. Participants were 9506 respondents to the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (66.8% female and 33.2% male; average age = 62.3 years). In this sample, 48.2% reported no pain-related interference, whereas 37.7% reported moderate and 14.1% reported severe interference. As hypothesized, older age, female gender, lower education, financial strain, traumatic experiences, worse health, increased body mass index, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms all were associated with higher pain interference ratings (ordered logistic regression/three-level pain criterion; odds ratios p < 0.05). Our findings are similar to those from younger adults, and they suggest enduring effects of trauma on health and reveal the complexity of chronic pain in community-dwelling, older adults. PMID:25892375

  14. Prevalence and correlates of pain interference in older adults: why treating the whole body and mind is necessary.

    PubMed

    Przekop, Peter; Haviland, Mark G; Oda, Keiji; Morton, Kelly R

    2015-04-01

    Our study presents pain-related interference rates in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and determines factors associated with these restrictions. Participants were 9506 respondents to the Biopsychosocial Religion and Health Study (66.8% female and 33.2% male; average age = 62.3 years). In this sample, 48.2% reported no pain-related interference, whereas 37.7% reported moderate and 14.1% reported severe interference. As hypothesized, older age, female gender, lower education, financial strain, traumatic experiences, worse health, increased body mass index, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms all were associated with higher pain interference ratings (ordered logistic regression/three-level pain criterion; odds ratios p < 0.05). Our findings are similar to those from younger adults, and they suggest enduring effects of trauma on health and reveal the complexity of chronic pain in community-dwelling, older adults. PMID:25892375

  15. Investigation of the relationship between carrying school bags (handbags and backpacks) and the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among 12-15 year old students in Shiraz.

    PubMed

    Arghavani, Farshad; Zamanian, Zahra; Ghanbary, Ali; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2014-04-01

    Inappropriate school bags put students at risk of musculoskeletal problems and early fatigue. Heavy bags can change the body posture and the musculoskeletal system must react appropriately in order to compensate for this stress. It is recommended that the weight of a school bag must not be more than 10% of the student's body weight and the weight must be placed on both shoulders. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders by comparing the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains among the students. The present descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in different educational districts of Shiraz. The study samples were selected using cluster sampling method. In this study, 800 students marked their painful areas on body maps and the SPSS statistical software (v. 11.5) was used to analyze the data. The results showed that among the students who used backpacks, 48.9% carried the weight on both shoulders, 40.4% carried the weight on their right shoulders, and 10.6% used their left shoulders. Besides, 68.02% of the students carrying handbags often used their right shoulders, while 31.98% used their left shoulders. The study results showed that similar to other countries, Iranian students also mostly made use of backpacks. Moreover, the musculoskeletal pains were most prevalent in the shoulders, which is in line with many other studies conducted on the issue. PMID:25911845

  16. Neuropathic Pain Components in Patients with Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    An, Howard S; Moon, Seong Hwan; Lee, Hwan Mo; Suh, Seung Woo; Chen, Ding; Jeon, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and characteristics of neuropathic pain (NP) in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) according to subgroup analysis of symptoms. Materials and Methods We prospectively enrolled subjects with LSS (n=86) who were scheduled to undergo spinal surgery. The patients were divided into two groups according to a chief complaint of radicular pain or neurogenic claudication. We measured patient's pain score using the visual analog scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Leads Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS). According to LANSS value, the prevalence of NP component pain in patients with LSS was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed to find the relationship between LANSS scores and the other scores. Results From our sample of 86 patients, 31 (36.0%) had a NP component, with 24 (63.4%) in the radicular pain group having NP. However, only seven patients (15.6%) in the neurogenic claudication group had NP. The LANSS pain score was not significantly correlated with VAS scores for back pain, but did correlate with VAS scores for leg pain (R=0.73, p<0.001) and with ODI back pain scores (R=0.54, p<0.01). Conclusion One-third of the patients with LSS had a NP component. The presence of radicular pain correlated strongly with NP. The severity of leg pain and ODI score were also closely related to a NP component. This data may prove useful to understanding the pain characteristics of LSS and in better designing clinical trials for NP treatment in patients with LSS. PMID:26069129

  17. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects. PMID:26483918

  18. Sagittal plane blockage of the foot, ankle and hallux and foot alignment-prevalence and association with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Brantingham, James W.; Lee Gilbert, Joanne; Shaik, Junaid; Globe, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Some practitioners believe mechanical low back pain may be caused or aggravated by a stiff ankle, stiff great toe or flat feet. This study investigates subjects with and without mechanical low back pain and measures ankle and great toe range of motion and flattening of the medial longitudinal arch in both groups. Methods The study was a blinded, 2-arm, non- randomized clinical study involving 100 subjects with chronic or recurrent mechanical low back pain (intervention group) and 104 subjects without chronic mechanical low back pain (control group) between the ages of 18 and 45. A blind assessor performed weight-bearing goniometry of the ankle and big toe and the navicular drop test on all subjects in both groups. Results An independent t-test (inter-group) revealed a statistically significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain. The independent t-test suggested individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain have a significantly smaller navicular drop and higher arches (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study supports previous reports suggesting decreased ankle dorsiflexion may be a factor in chronic mechanical low-back pain. Further research and replication of this study is necessary before firm conclusions or recommendations can be made. PMID:19674683

  19. Systematic Review of Prevalence, Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain in Patients with Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Gritzner, Susan; Lewis, Lynsey; Oldham, Robert; Turk, Dennis C.; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among chronic pain patients. However, limited data are available to guide treatment for chronic pain patients with SUD. Recent data suggest that comorbid substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients; however, prevalence rates vary across studies and findings are limited regarding treatment options for CNCP patients with comorbid SUD. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the prevalence, associated demographic and clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes for CNCP patients with comorbid SUD. We conducted searches from Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMED from 1950 through February 2010 and retrieved the references. Thirty-eight studies met inclusion criteria and provided data that addressed our key questions. Three to forty-eight percent of CNCP patients have a current SUD. There are no demographic or clinical factors that consistently differentiate CNCP patients with comorbid SUD from patients without SUD, though SUD patients appear to be at greater risk for aberrant medication-related behaviors. CNCP patients with SUD are more likely to be prescribed opioid medications and at higher doses than CNCP patients without a history of SUD. CNCP patients with comorbid SUD do not significantly differ in their responses to treatment compared to CNCP patients without SUD, though the quality of this evidence is low. Limited data are available to identify predictors of treatment outcome. Although clinical experience and research suggests that SUDs are common among CNCP patients, only limited data are available to guide clinicians who treat this population. Research is needed to increase understanding of the prevalence, correlates, and responses to treatment of CNCP patients with comorbid SUDs. PMID:21185119

  20. School-Related Stress, School Support, and Somatic Complaints: A General Population Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsheim, Torbjorn; Wold, Bente

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between school-related stress, social support, and somatic complaints among Norwegian adolescents. Found that students with high levels of school-related stress had a higher odds ratio for weekly headache, abdominal pain, backache, dizziness, and coexisting somatic complaints. For social support, associations were weaker, but…

  1. Epidemiology of Back Pain in Children and Youth Aged 10–19 from the Area of the Southeast of Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kędra, Agnieszka; Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work was to define the prevalence of back pain in children and youth aged 10–19 from the southeast of Poland. Material and Methods. The cross-sectional study included 1089 students (547 girls and 542 boys) aged 10–19. The prevalence of back pain, its intensity, location, and situations in which it occurred were assessed with a questionnaire. Results. Among 1089 respondents, 830 (76.2%) admitted that they had experienced back pain at various frequencies within the year preceding the study. Back pain was located mainly in the lumbar segment (74.8%). Mild pains were dominant, which was declared by 44.7% of the respondents. Girls experienced back pain significantly more frequently than boys (52.2% versus 47.8%, P < 0.05). Conclusions. The research revealed that back pain is a common phenomenon. The prevalence of back pain in children and youth living in southeast Poland is similar to the frequency of occurrence of such complaints occurring in peers in other countries. It seems significant to monitor the remaining regions of Poland in order to define the scale of the problem and to look for the risk factors of back pain in children and youth to undertake efficient prophylactic actions. PMID:23984375

  2. Prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in Latin-American indigenous groups: a census study based on COPCORD methodology and syndrome-specific diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Goñi, Mario; Julián-Santiago, Flor; García-García, Conrado; Quintana, Rosana; Silvestre, Adriana M R; García-Olivera, Imelda; Mathern, Nora A; Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Conti, Silvana; Sanabria, Alvaro J; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the overall and specific prevalence of the main rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) in four Latin-American indigenous groups. A Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology-based census study was performed in 4240 adults (participation rate: 78.88 %) in four indigenous groups: Chontal (Oaxaca, Mexico, n = 124), Mixteco (Oaxaca, Mexico; n = 937), Maya-Yucateco (Yucatán, Mexico; n = 1523), and Qom (Rosario, Argentina; n = 1656). Subjects with musculoskeletal pain were identified using a cross-cultural, validated COPCORD questionnaire administered by bilingual personnel, and reviewed by general practitioners or rheumatologists using standardized case definitions for the 12 most frequent RRPS. The overall prevalence of RRPS was confirmed in 239 cases (5.64 %, 95 % CI: 4.98-6.37). The prevalence in each group was Chontal n = 19 (15.32 %, 95 % CI: 10.03-22.69); Maya-Yucateco n = 165 (10.83 %, 95 % CI: 9.37-12.49); Qom n = 48 (2.90 %, 95 % CI: 2.19-3.82); and Mixteco n = 7 (0.75 %, 95 % CI: 0.36-1.53). In the whole sample, the syndrome-specific prevalence was rotator cuff tendinopathy: 1.98 % (95 % CI: 1.60-2.45); lateral epicondylalgia: 0.83 % (95 % CI: 0.59-1.15); medial epicondylalgia: 0.73 % (95 % CI: 0.52-1.04); biceps tendinopathy: 0.71 % (95 % CI: 0.50-1.01); anserine syndrome: 0.64 % (95 % CI: 0.44-0.92); inferior heel pain: 0.61 % (95 % CI: 0.42-0.90); trochanteric syndrome: 0.49 % (95 % CI: 0.25-0.64); de Quervain's tendinopathy: 0.45 % (95 % CI: 0.29-0.70); trigger finger: 0.42 % (95 % CI: 0.27-0.67); carpal tunnel syndrome: 0.28 % (95 % CI: 0.16-0.49); Achilles tendinopathy (insertional): 0.12 % (95 % CI: 0.05-0.28); and Achilles tendinopathy (non-insertional): 0.07 % (95 % CI: 0.02-0.21). Leaving aside the comparison between Maya-Yucateco and Chontal groups (p = 0.18), we found significant differences (p < 0.001) in

  3. Subjective health complaints in older adolescents are related to perceived stress, anxiety and gender – a cross-sectional school study in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18 year olds (n = 1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r = 0.71) and anxiety (r = 0.71). Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order

  4. Prevalence of the different Axis I clinical subtypes in a sample of patients with orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorders in the Andalusian Healthcare Service

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Torronteras, Alejandro; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background The main objective of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of each of the different clinical subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a sample of patients with this pathology. In addition, a second objective was to analyze their distribution according to gender. Material and Methods To this end, the results of 1603 patients who went to the Unit of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Córdoba Healthcare District because they suffered from this pathology were analyzed. In order to diagnose them, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) were applied, analyzing the different Axis I subtypes (myopathy, discopathy and arthropathy) and obtaining the combined Axis I for each patient and the relation of all these variables according to gender. The null-hypothesis test confirmed the lack of connection between the gender variable and the different subtypes in the clinical analysis, and between the former and the combined Axis I of the RDC/TMD. Results The prevalence was high for the muscle disorders subtype in general, showing an 88.7% prevalence, while the presence of discopathies or arthropathies was much lower. Among discopathies, the most frequent ones were disc displacements with reduction, with 39.7% and 42.8% for the left and right temporomandibular joints (TMJ), respectively, while the prevalence of arthropathies was 26.3% for the right TMJ and 32.9% for the left TMJ. The bivariate analysis on the connection with gender reveals a p≥ 0.05 value for the muscle and arthralgia subtypes. Conclusions The patients seen at the TMD Unit where mostly middle-aged women whose main clinical axis subtype was the muscle disorder subtype. For their part, both discopathies and arthropathies, although present, are much less prevalent. Key words:RDCTMD, axis I, orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, gender. PMID:26615508

  5. Prevalence of low back pain and associated risk factors amongst adult patients presenting to a Nigerian family practice clinic, a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Adebusoye, Lawrence A.; Alonge, Temitope O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem with concomitant disability which has assumed a public health importance in our setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors amongst adult patients attending the General Outpatients’ Clinic of the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional study of 485 respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demography, lifestyle, occupation and other risk factors associated with LBP. Results There were 288 (59.4%) female and 197 (40.6%) male respondents. The point prevalence of LBP was 46.8%. Occupational activities, previous back injury and tobacco smoking were significant associated factors for the total population. For the female respondents, logistic regression analysis showed that a waist circumference of 88 cm or more, dysmenorrhea, previous back injury and being engaged in an occupation were the most significant factors associated with LBP. However, previous back injury was the most significant factor associated with LBP for the male respondents. Conclusion The prevalence of LBP amongst adult patients in our setting is high, with preventable and treatable predisposing factors. Public health efforts should be directed at educating people on occupational activities and lifestyle habits.

  6. Pathways Underlying Somatic Complaints in Children and Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouwenberg, Maartje; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Oosterveld, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Frequent somatic complaints are not only a problem in themselves but also related to other difficulties. So far, no conclusive findings have been reported about the prevalence of and factors underlying these complaints in children and adolescents who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Such information would be valuable for prevention and…

  7. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  8. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  9. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  10. 37 CFR 4.3 - Submitting complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.3 Submitting complaints. (a) A person may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter with the Office. A person submitting a complaint should understand that the complaint may be forwarded to the invention promoter and may become...

  11. Depression, Health, and Somatic Complaints in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahurin, Kathleen A.; Gatz, Margaret

    Although depression is considered to be common in the elderly, reliable rates of prevalence are lacking. Studies have shown that age differences on measures of depressive symptomatology can be attributed to higher levels of somatic complaints. In order to examine whether the association between somatic and depressive symptoms varies as a function…

  12. Prevalence and long-term predictors of persistent chronic widespread pain in the general population in an 11-year prospective study: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common and associated with prominent negative consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of persistent CWP in an 11-year prospective cohort study in the general population, and to examine anxiety, depression, alcohol use, poor sleep, body mass index (BMI) and chronic disease, along with demographic, lifestyle and other health-related variables as possible predictors for the assumed CWP persistence. Methods CWP was defined as having pain at three or more predefined sites (involving the trunk and upper and lower limbs) for at least three months in the last year. We used a Norwegian general population cohort of 28,367 individuals who responded to both the second (1995–1997) and the third (2006–2008) waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 and HUNT3, respectively). Data were analysed with logistic regression models. Results CWP prevalence in HUNT2 was 17%. Of those reporting CWP in HUNT2, 53% still reported CWP at follow-up in HUNT3. Adjusted analyses revealed that depression and alcohol consumption were not substantially associated with the 11-year prospective CWP outcome. Poor sleep, obesity and chronic disease predicted persistent CWP, and being male and/or 60 years or older was protective. Conclusions This cohort study revealed that nearly half of the participants with baseline CWP resolved from CWP 11 years later. Among those whose CWP did not resolve, obesity, sleeping problems and chronic disease predicted CWP persistence, while aging and male sex was protective. Anxiety, mixed anxiety and depression, former smoking, and overweight were weakly associated, while depression, moderate exercise, and alcohol use were not associated with persistent CWP. PMID:24951013

  13. 48 CFR 422.1308 - Complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Vietnam Era, and Other Eligible Veterans 422.1308 Complaint procedures. The contracting officer shall forward complaints received about the administration of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment...

  14. 48 CFR 422.1308 - Complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Vietnam Era, and Other Eligible Veterans 422.1308 Complaint procedures. The contracting officer shall forward complaints received about the administration of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment...

  15. 48 CFR 422.1308 - Complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Vietnam Era, and Other Eligible Veterans 422.1308 Complaint procedures. The contracting officer shall forward complaints received about the administration of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment...

  16. 48 CFR 422.1308 - Complaint procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Vietnam Era, and Other Eligible Veterans 422.1308 Complaint procedures. The contracting officer shall forward complaints received about the administration of the Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment...

  17. A pilot study of the prevalence of lumbar disc degeneration in elite athletes with lower back pain at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Ong, A; Anderson, J; Roche, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the prevalence of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration in elite athletes as compared with published literature of changes seen in non-athletes—that is, normal population. Methods: The lumbar spines of 31 Olympic athletes who presented to the Olympic Polyclinic with low back pain and/or sciatica were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Three criteria were looked at: (a) the loss of disc signal intensity; (b) the loss of disc height; (c) the presence of disc displacement. The results were then recorded and correlated with the lumbar levels. Results: The disc signal intensity was progressively reduced the more caudal the disc space. It was most common at the L5/S1 level, and, of the abnormal group, 36% (n = 11) showed the most degenerative change. Disc height reduction was also found to be most common at the L5/S1 level. However, the most common height reduction was only mild. A similar trend of increased prevalence of disc herniation was noted with more caudal levels. At the L5/S1 level, 58% were found to have an element of disc displacement, most of which were disc bulges. Compared with changes seen in the normal population (non-athletes) as described in the literature, disc degeneration defined by the above criteria was found to be significantly more severe in these Olympic athletes. Conclusions: Although the study was limited, the results suggest that elite athletes have a greater prevalence and greater degree of lumbar disc degeneration than the normal population. A more detailed follow up study should be considered to investigate which particular training activities have the most impact on the lumbar spine, and how to modify training methods so as to avoid the long term sequelae of degenerative disc disease of the lumbar spine. PMID:12782554

  18. Physical performance, pain, pain behavior and subjective disability in patients with subacute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lindström, I; Ohlund, C; Nachemson, A

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the physical performance, pain, pain behavior and disability in patients with subacute low back pain (LBP). The patients were blue-collar workers and had been sick-listed for 8 weeks due to subacute low back pain. A total of 103 patients were randomized, 51 of them to the intervention group and the other to a control group. Recordings of physical performance and complaints of LBP were done before and after treatment in the intervention group. The proportion of patients with no complaints of LBP was significantly greater in the intervention group than in the control group at the one-year follow-up. The patients who intra-individually improved their physical performance also intra-individually decreased their complaints of LBP. The intra-individual improvements were suggested to be important for the individual return to work. PMID:8602477

  19. Use of Airport Noise Complaint Files to Improve Understanding of Community Response to Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Howe, Richard

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of using complaint information archived by modem airport monitoring systems to conduct quantitative analyses of the causes of aircraft noise complaints and their relationship to noise- induced annoyance. It was found that all computer-based airport monitoring systems provide at least rudimentary tools for performing data base searches by complainant name, address, date, time of day, and types of aircraft and complaints. Analyses of such information can provide useful information about longstanding concerns, such as the extent to which complaint rates are driven by objectively measurable aspects of aircraft operations; the degree to which changes in complaint rates can be predicted prior to implementation of noise mitigation measures; and the degree to which aircraft complaint information can be used to simplify and otherwise improve prediction of the prevalence of noise-induced annoyance in communities.

  20. Work–Family Conflict, Task Interruptions, and Influence at Work Predict Musculoskeletal Pain in Operating Room Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Nützi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner; Elfering, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in Swiss operating room (OR) nurses, and to investigate how work–family conflict, work interruptions, and influence at work are related to lumbar and cervical back pain. Methods Participants in this correlational questionnaire study included 116 OR nurses from eight different hospitals in Switzerland. Results We found that 66% of the OR staff suffered from musculoskeletal problems. The most prevalent musculoskeletal complaints were lumbar (52.7%) and cervical pain (38.4%). Furthermore, 20.5% reported pain in the mid spine region, 20.5% in the knees and legs, and 9.8% in the hands and feet. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that work–family conflict (p < 0.05) and interruptions (p < 0.05) significantly predicted lumbar and cervical pain in OR nurses, while influence at work (p < 0.05) only predicted lumbar pain. Conclusion These results suggest that reducing the work–family conflict and interruptions at work, as well as offering opportunities to influence one's workplace, help to promote OR nurses' health. PMID:26929846

  1. Is Chronic Low Back Pain Associated with the Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease when Genetic Susceptibility Is Considered? A Co-Twin Control Study of Spanish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Matt; Ordoñana, Juan R.; Hartvigsen, Jan; Ferreira, Manuela L.; Refshauge, Kathryn M.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Pinheiro, Marina B.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Hopper, John L.; Ferreira, Paulo H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the chronic low back pain and coronary heart disease relationship, after adjusting for relevant confounders, including genetics. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 2148 twins were recruited from the Murcia Twin Registry, Spain. The exposure was chronic LBP and the outcomes were myocardial infarction and other coronary heart diseases—lifetime and in the last 2 years–based on standardized health-related questionnaires. First, logistic regression analysis investigated associations of the total sample followed by a matched co-twin control analyses, with all complete twin pairs discordant for chronic LBP utilised, separated for zygosity—dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) pairs, which adjusted for shared familial factors, including genetics. Results Chronic LBP pain is associated with lifetime myocardial infarction [odds ratio (OR) = 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.35–5.36], other coronary heart diseases over a lifetime (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.69–3.93) and in the last two years (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.33–3.60), while there was a borderline association with myocardial infarction in the last 2 years (OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 0.98–7.12). Although the magnitude of the association remained or increased in the co-twin control analyses, none reached statistical significance. Conclusion Chronic LBP is associated with a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. It is possible that this association remains even when controlling for genetics and early shared environment, although this should be investigated with larger samples of twins discordant for LBP. PMID:27171210

  2. 47 CFR 1.1404 - Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Complaint. 1.1404 Section 1.1404... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1404 Complaint. (a) The complaint shall contain the name and address of... § 1.721(b)), signed by the complainant or officer thereof if complainant is a corporation,...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1404 - Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Complaint. 1.1404 Section 1.1404... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1404 Complaint. (a) The complaint shall contain the name and address of... § 1.721(b)), signed by the complainant or officer thereof if complainant is a corporation,...

  4. 39 CFR 3030.10 - Complaint contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Complaint contents. 3030.10 Section 3030.10 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.10 Complaint contents. (a) A complaint must: (1) Set forth the facts...

  5. 39 CFR 3030.10 - Complaint contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Complaint contents. 3030.10 Section 3030.10 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.10 Complaint contents. (a) A complaint must: (1) Set forth the facts...

  6. 39 CFR 3030.10 - Complaint contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint contents. 3030.10 Section 3030.10 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.10 Complaint contents. (a) A complaint must: (1) Set forth the facts...

  7. 39 CFR 3030.10 - Complaint contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint contents. 3030.10 Section 3030.10 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.10 Complaint contents. (a) A complaint must: (1) Set forth the facts...

  8. 39 CFR 3030.10 - Complaint contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint contents. 3030.10 Section 3030.10 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES FOR COMPLAINTS Form and Manner Requirements of Initial Pleadings § 3030.10 Complaint contents. (a) A complaint must: (1) Set forth the facts...

  9. 21 CFR 1271.320 - Complaint file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint file. 1271.320 Section 1271.320 Food and... CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.320 Complaint file. (a) Procedures... the investigation of complaints as appropriate. (b) Complaint file. You must maintain a record...

  10. Complaining about chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Kugelmann, R

    1999-12-01

    This paper examines how a group of working class people describes and experiences chronic pain. This hermeneutical-phenomenological study concentrates on the lived body of pain from three perspectives, drawing on interviews with 14 people who were attending a pain management program. First I consider the terms in which pain is circumscribed in the narratives, stories told in the context of learning to manage pain. These terms are polarities, ways of specifying and legitimating pain in relation to "mind" and "body." Pain, in the discursive polarities that define it, is the private property of an individual, who must in some fashion prove that pain exists in an objective manner. The speaker, in this discourse, stands as the one responsible for the production of pain. In the second part, the analysis turns to what this discourse reveals about pain as a lived body phenomenon. Here the analysis centers upon the torment of having to inhabit the intolerable, upon how pain unmakes the lifeworld of the sufferer, and how, simultaneously, people make pain. The place of pain is the body, as body-in-place. The place of pain is at the boundaries of human dwelling, a kind of non-place, expressed metaphorically as "prison" or "homelessness." Finally, after these considerations of how pain is described, in part three, I turn to the act of "saying" pain, that is, to the narratives as addressed to someone else. The participants were not simply dispensing information; they were saying something to me. The narratives had the form of complaints. The form of the narratives, in the context of the pain program, was a quasi-legal call to rectify wrongs. PMID:10574237

  11. The Incidence, Prevalence, Costs and Impact on Disability of Common Conditions Requiring Rehabilitation in the US: Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Limb Loss, and Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Vincent Y; Chan, Leighton; Carruthers, Kadir J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relative incidence, prevalence, costs and impact on disability of 8 common conditions treated by rehabilitation professionals. Design Structured review of the literature Setting United States Participants N/A Interventions N/A Main Outcome Measures disease associated incidence, prevalence, direct and indirect costs and impact on activity and work limitations. Results Back pain and arthritis (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis) are the most common and costly conditions that we examined, affecting over 100 million individuals and costing over $200 billion per year. Traumatic brain injury, while less common than arthritis and back pain, carries enormous per capita direct and indirect costs, mostly due to the young age of those involved and the severe disability that it may cause. Finally, stroke, which is often listed as the most common cause of disability, is likely second to both arthritis and back pain in its impact on functional limitations. Conclusions Of the common rehabilitation diagnoses we studied, musculoskeletal conditions such and back pain and arthritis likely have the most impact on the health care system due to their high prevalence and impact on disability. PMID:24462839

  12. Prevalence of narcotic bowel syndrome in opioid abusers in iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Bizhan; Arab, Peyman; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Shafieipour, Sara; Drossman, Douglas A; Banivaheb, Ghodseyeh

    2014-10-01

    BACKGROUND In spite of the increasing trend in opioid abusers worldwide, the prevalence of narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS) is undetermined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NBS and other opioid bowel dysfunction (OBD) in opioid abusers in Kerman, southeast Iran. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the prevalence of NBS in opioid abusers. METHODS By referring to addiction treatment centers in Kerman city and in a cross-sectional study, 577 subjects with opium or opioid subtracts abuse were included in our study. A validated questionnaire was used for OBD assessment and diagnosis of NBS was made according to both the presence of chronic abdominal pain despite increasing the opioid dose and ruling out other causes of abdominal pain. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis. p value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Constipation, regurgitation, and heartburn were the most gastrointestinal complaints that were found in 132(22.9%), 123(21.3%) and 91(15.8%) subjects, respectively. Only 16(2.8%) participants fulfilled all the NBS criteria. Simultaneous use of non-narcotic sedative drugs increased the risk of NBS significantly (the odds ratio 3:1 and p=0.049). CONCLUSION NBS is not rare among opioid abusers and should be considered as a cause of chronic abdominal pain in this group. PMID:25349684

  13. Repeated survey on changes in musculoskeletal complaints relative to age and work demands.

    PubMed Central

    de Zwart, B C; Broersen, J P; Frings-Dresen, M H; van Dijk, F J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in musculoskeletal complaints over four years in groups of employees relative to age and work demands. METHODS: Repeated questionnaire data of male employees in heavy physical work (exposed group, n = 7324) and mental work (control group, n = 4686), stratified for age (20-9, 30-9, 40-9, 50-9), were analysed. For each employee, data on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints from two surveys with a mean interval of around four years were available. Changes in prevalences over the follow up interval were analysed. Proportions of new, recovered, and chronic cases as well as those free of complaints at both surveys were studied. RESULTS: For most complaints, there were significantly greater increases in prevalences in the exposed group compared with the control group over the follow up interval particularly within the group aged 40-9 for back, neck, and several sites of the upper and lower limbs. The 20-9 year age group also had significantly greater changes for several musculoskeletal complaints. Within the oldest age group (50-9) exposure to heavy physical work demands only affected changes in prevalences of neck and upper arm complaints. After four years in the cohort free of complaints at the start of the follow up the group aged 40-9 had the highest prevalence of complaints of the back, neck, and the upper and lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Middle aged and younger employees develop musculoskeletal complaints as a result of exposure to heavy physical work. In the oldest age group health related selection seems to mask the occupational health risks under study. To prevent the expected increase in musculoskeletal disorders and related work disability in our aging workforce, preventive measures should be taken at all stages of a working life. PMID:9538351

  14. Spinal cord injury pain.

    PubMed

    Beric, Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Awareness that SCI pain is common emerged during the past decade. However, there are a number of unresolved issues. There is a need for variety of experimental models to reflect diversity of SCI pains. Current classification is not as user-friendly as it should be. More attention should be given to a condition of the spinal cord below and above the SCI lesion. A consensus for what is an optimal SCI functional assessment for patients with sensory complaints and pain should be developed. Further extensive SCI pain research is needed prior to spinal cord regeneration trials in order to be able to cope with a potential for newly developed pains that may appear during incomplete spinal cord regenerative attempts. PMID:12821403

  15. [Groin pain in athletes].

    PubMed

    Sanders, Rick J M; Kokshoorn, Arjan P J; Kolkman, Karel A; van der Wal, Wybren A; van Loon, Corné J M

    2014-01-01

    Groin pain in young athletes is a common problem, accounting for significant downtime in sports participation. It can be difficult to make the correct diagnosis as groin pain has a wide differential diagnosis, which encompasses acute as well as chronic causative factors. In this article this is illustrated by presenting three cases of patients who attended our hospital. In all three cases the main complaint was sports-related groin pain, and the patients presented with very similar symptoms. However, after further investigation the patients were diagnosed with three very different types of injury: sportsman's hernia; hip labral tear; and pubic osteitis. This emphasises the need for every general practitioner and medical specialist to understand that there is a wide differential diagnosis for groin pain in athletes, in order to be able to implement specific therapy targeting the actual cause of groin pain. PMID:25315329

  16. 'Hip' pain.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Josef; Gursche, Angelika

    2003-02-01

    'Hip' pain is usually located in the groin, upper thigh or buttock and is a common complaint. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, avascular femoral head necrosis and apophyseal avulsion are the most common diagnoses in childhood and adolescents. Strains and fractures are common in sport-active adults. Osteoarthritis occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Trauma may result in femoral head fracture or typical muscle and tendon sprains and bursitis. Septic or inflammatory arthritis can occur at every age. Septic arthritis, fractures and acute epiphyseal slipping are real emergency cases. Congenital dysplasia of the hip joint may lead to labral tears and early osteoarthritis. The most important hip problems in children, adolescents, adult and older people are discussed; these problems originate from intra-articular disorders and the surrounding extra-articular soft tissues. Medical history, clinical examination and additional tests, including imaging, will be demonstrated. Principles of treatment are given for specific disorders. PMID:12659822

  17. Shoulder Tip Pain After Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Ustunyurt, Emin; Yilmaz, Canan; Olmez, Fatma; Basar, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of postoperative shoulder tip pain (STP) after cesarean section and compare spinal and general anaesthesia with respect to STP. Materials and Methods Three hundred patients who underwent cesarean section were randomly assigned to either spinal anaesthesia group (Group SA, n=143) or general anaesthesia group (Group GA, n=157). Postoperative STP was assessed at 8 hours and 24 hours after operation by Visual Analogue Scale of Pain (VAS). Results There were no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of demographic data, operative findings, and clinical outcomes. The overall incidence of STP in study population was 35.7%. The incidence of STP in group SA (26.6%) was lower than that in group GA (43.9%)(p=0.005). Moreover VAS scores for STP at 6 hours and 24 hours were significantly lower in Group SA (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion Shoulder tip pain is a common complaint after cesarean section, which is more prevalent in general anaesthesia. PMID:26436000

  18. Prevalence and determinants of cannabinoid prescription for the management of chronic noncancer pain: a postal survey of physicians in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec

    PubMed Central

    St-Amant, Huguette; Ware, Mark A.; Julien, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have been conducted to explore physicians’ prescription practices and attitudes toward the use of cannabinoids in Canada.We measured the prevalence and identified determinants of cannabinoid prescription for the management of chronic noncancer pain among physicians in southwestern Quebec. Methods In February 2013, we conducted a postal survey using a modified Dillman method that involved physicians practising in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec. We used multivariate logistic regression models to identify determinants of cannabinoid prescription. Results A total of 166 physicians of 318 practising in the region participated in the survey (response rate 52.2%). The prevalence of cannabinoid prescription was 27.3% (45/165) for any indication and 23.0% (38/165) for the management of chronic noncancer pain; 91.1% (41/45) of the physicians prescribed cannabinoids to 5 or fewer patients. Of the 38 physicians who prescribed cannabinoids for chronic noncancer pain, 35 (92.1%) prescribed nabilone, 7 (18.4%) medical marijuana and 2 (5.3%) nabiximols. The principal determinant of cannabinoid prescription was the physician’s level of comfort with prescribing cannabinoids (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.55, per 1-point increase in comfort level measured on 10-point scale). Respondents reported that continuing medical education (CME) activities could increase their comfort level. They also indicated a need for guidelines or algorithms that included cannabinoid use as well as more studies about the efficacy and safety of cannabinoids for the management of chronic noncancer pain. Interpretation We found that cannabinoids were not often prescribed for the management of chronic noncancer pain and that survey respondents were not comfortable with prescribing this drug class. This degree of discomfort could be addressed by CME activities, more effective dissemination of guidelines and more evidence regarding cannabinoid

  19. Cardiovascular Complaints Among Military Members During Operation Enduring Freedom.

    PubMed

    Watts, James A; Russo, Frank D; Villines, Todd C; Jones, Samuel O; Patino, Gilberto; Nasir, Javed M; Eckart, Robert E; Steel, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    During Operation Enduring Freedom, the US military began deploying a dedicated theater cardiology consultant to Afghanistan in an effort to increase rates of return to duty in service members with cardiovascular complaints. This study was designed to categorize these complaints and determine the effect on both aeromedical evacuation and return to duty rates during a 2.5 year observation period. A total of 1,495 service members were evaluated, with 43% presenting due to chest pain followed by arrhythmias/palpitations (24.5%) and syncope (13.5%). Eighty-five percent of individuals returned to duty, most commonly with complaints of noncardiac chest pain, palpitations, or abnormal electrocardiograms. Fifteen percent were evacuated out of theater, most often with acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolus, or ventricular tachycardia. The forward-deployed theater cardiology consultant is vital in the disposition of military members by effectively parsing out life threatening cardiovascular conditions versus low risk diagnoses that can safely return to duty. PMID:27215883

  20. 14 CFR 13.208 - Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.208 Complaint. (a... documents in the civil penalty action. (c) Contents. A complaint shall set forth the facts alleged,...

  1. 14 CFR 13.208 - Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.208 Complaint. (a... documents in the civil penalty action. (c) Contents. A complaint shall set forth the facts alleged,...

  2. Botlhoko, botlhoko! How people talk about their musculoskeletal complaints in rural Botswana: a focused ethnography

    PubMed Central

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan; Johannessen, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Background Conflicting interpretations about the structure and function of the body contribute to discordance in communication between healthcare professionals and lay people. Understanding musculoskeletal (MSK) complaints presents additional complexities when discussed in more than one language or in cross-cultural settings. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), few healthcare professionals have specialist MSK training and not all practitioners speak the primary language of patients. Objective Our goal was to understand how people in rural Botswana perceive and express MSK complaints. Design Ethnographic fieldwork for 8 months in the Botswana Central District included participant observations and interviews with 34 community members with MSK complaints. Audio-recorded interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with an interpreter, transcribed verbatim, and contextually translated into English. Abductive qualitative analysis was used as the interpretive methodology. Results Whereas initial responses about MSK troubles yielded the exclamation botlhoko, botlhoko! combined with animated non-verbal gestures and facial expressions indicating widespread body pains, in-depth interviews revealed the complexities of pain expression among respondents. MSK pains were described as ‘bursting, exploding, aching, numbness, hot, pricking, stabbing, swollen, and pain in the heart’. Language subtleties manifested during interviews, where ‘meat’ or ‘flesh’ implied soft tissue pains; waist pains were voiced yet portrayed as low back or sacroiliac pain; and ‘veins’ variously referred to structural and functional types of pain. Psychological and social stressors accompanied many accounts of MSK troubles. Conclusions Respondents offered diverse MSK symptom descriptions consistent with biopsychosocial illness models, yet few communicated complaints using the biomedical language of healthcare providers. Although research interview and transcription processes may

  3. Pain after earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009). Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%). Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations. PMID:22747796

  4. 7 CFR 1.163 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The complaint. 1.163 Section 1.163 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.163 The complaint. The complaint...

  5. 7 CFR 1.163 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The complaint. 1.163 Section 1.163 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.163 The complaint. The complaint...

  6. 7 CFR 1.163 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The complaint. 1.163 Section 1.163 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.163 The complaint. The complaint...

  7. 7 CFR 1.163 - The complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The complaint. 1.163 Section 1.163 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Rules of Practice Governing Cease and Desist Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.163 The complaint. The complaint...

  8. 48 CFR 408.711 - Quality complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality complaints. 408... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.711 Quality complaints. Prior to attempting to resolve a complaint regarding the quality of goods or services provided by participating nonprofit agency with...

  9. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal Complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formal Complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal Complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  10. 47 CFR 1.1404 - Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Complaint. 1.1404 Section 1.1404... Procedures § 1.1404 Complaint. (a) The complaint shall contain the name and address of the complainant, name and address of the respondent, and shall contain a verification (in the form in § 1.721(b)), signed...

  11. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  12. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  13. 47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....

  14. 25 CFR 11.1000 - Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Juvenile Offender Procedure § 11.1000 Complaint. A complaint must be filed by a law enforcement officer or... to the section(s) of this part which the minor is alleged to have violated; (c) The name, age, and address of the minor who is the subject of the complaint, if known; and (d) A plain and concise...

  15. 21 CFR 211.198 - Complaint files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint files. 211.198 Section 211.198 Food and... files. (a) Written procedures describing the handling of all written and oral complaints regarding a...) A written record of each complaint shall be maintained in a file designated for drug...

  16. 21 CFR 820.198 - Complaint files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complaint files. 820.198 Section 820.198 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Records § 820.198 Complaint files. (a) Each manufacturer shall maintain complaint files. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for receiving, reviewing,...

  17. 48 CFR 408.711 - Quality complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality complaints. 408... People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.711 Quality complaints. Prior to attempting to resolve a complaint regarding the quality of goods or services provided by participating nonprofit agency with...

  18. Public Complaints and Complaint Responses in Calls to a Jordanian Radio Phone-In Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migdadi, Fathi; Badarneh, Muhammad A.; Momani, Kawakib

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates complaints and complaint responses in interactions between local citizens and the hosts of a live two-hour radio phone-in in Jordan devoted to receiving and handling complaints of a public nature. Using Brown and Levinson's (1987) politeness model, the study examines the functions and patterns of complaints and the types of…

  19. Acupuncture for Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Golianu, Brenda; Yeh, Ann Ming; Brooks, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a growing problem in children, with prevalence as high as 30.8%. Acupuncture has been found to be useful in many chronic pain conditions, and may be of clinical value in a multidisciplinary treatment program. The basic principles of acupuncture are reviewed, as well as studies exploring basic mechanisms of acupuncture and clinical efficacy. Conditions commonly treated in the pediatric pain clinic, including headache, abdominal pain, fibromyalgia, juvenile arthritis, complex regional pain syndrome, cancer pain, as well as perioperative pain studies are reviewed and discussed. Areas in need of further research are identified, and procedural aspects of acupuncture practice and safety studies are reviewed. Acupuncture can be an effective adjuvant in the care of pediatric patients with painful conditions, both in a chronic and an acute setting. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, as well as trials of comparative effectiveness are needed. PMID:27417472

  20. Differentiating common causes of radial wrist pain.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Waqas; Mohiuddin, Zia; Swain, Freddie R; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-09-01

    Radial wrist pain is a common patient complaint with a broad differential. Because treatment and prognosis differ, determining the underlying cause is key. This article reviews a case of intersection syndrome and compares it to other causes of radial wrist pain. PMID:25148441

  1. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. PMID:27133248

  2. Characteristics of temporomandibular joint in patients with temporomandibular joint complaint

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanfeng; Guo, Xiaoqian; Sun, Xiaoxue; Wang, Ning; Xie, Min; Zhang, Jianqiang; Lv, Yuan; Han, Weili; Hu, Min; Liu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was to investigate whether there was statistical difference between the bilateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in patients with unilateral TMJ pain or joint sounds, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: TMJ CBCT images of 123 cases were used to preliminarily determine the indicators suitable for the measuring method. TMJ CBCT image reconstruction was performed and 19 indicators were measured. Thirty-six cases without TMJ complaint served as controls. The comparison of bilateral TMJs was analyzed by paired t-test to find out the indicators without statistical significance. Twenty-nine patients with unilateral TMJ pain or joint sounds who underwent CBCT at the hospital were enrolled for the comparative study. The measured values were analyzed by paired t-test to determine the indicators with statistical difference. Results: In the control group, only radius value of bilateral TMJ was different statistically (P < 0.05). In the TMJ complaint group, the vertical 60° joint space of the bilateral TMJ was statistically different (P < 0.05) and the rest of the measured values showed no statistical difference. Conclusions: In the patients with unilateral TMJ pain or joint sounds, the vertical 60° joint space of the symptomatic side was significantly increased comparing with the asymptomatic side. PMID:26629112

  3. Primary hyperparathyroidism: an uncommon cause of hip pain.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Erickson, Evelyn; Agyare, Samuel; Godil, Mushtaq A

    2015-04-01

    Hip pain is a common complaint in a pediatric emergency department. The causes of hip pain are diverse and generally include traumatic and infectious causes. We report a case of hip pain caused by deep soft tissue infection associated with hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism. Atypical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism may result in a delay in diagnosis. PMID:25831028

  4. Chronic pain management in the active-duty military

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David; Cohen, Steven P.

    2012-06-01

    As in the general population, chronic pain is a prevalent and burdensome affliction in active-duty military personnel. Painful conditions in military members can be categorized broadly in terms of whether they arise directly from combat injuries (gunshot, fragmentation wound, blast impact) or whether they result from non-combat injuries (sprains, herniated discs, motor vehicle accidents). Both combat-related and non-combat-related causes of pain can further be classified as either acute or chronic. Here we discuss the state of pain management as it relates to the military population in both deployed and non-deployed settings. The term non-battle injury (NBI) is commonly used to refer to those conditions not directly associated with the combat actions of war. In the history of warfare, NBI have far outstripped battle-related injuries in terms not only of morbidity, but also mortality. It was not until improvements in health care and field medicine were applied in World War I that battle-related deaths finally outnumbered those attributed to disease and pestilence. However, NBI have been the leading cause of morbidity and hospital admission in every major conflict since the Korean War. Pain remains a leading cause of presentation to military medical facilities, both in and out of theater. The absence of pain services is associated with a low return-to-duty rate among the deployed population. The most common pain complaints involve the low-back and neck, and studies have suggested that earlier treatment is associated with more significant improvement and a higher return to duty rate. It is recognized that military medicine is often at the forefront of medical innovation, and that many fields of medicine have reaped benefit from the conduct of war.

  5. [Psychosomatic medicine for non-cardiac chest pain].

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, Seiko; Hosoi, Masako; Tsuchida, Osamu

    2009-09-01

    Recently, it has become problematic that the number of noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) patients are increasing among those who come to the emergency room with chest pain as a chief complaint. They tend to come to hospitals often and over many years, even after cardiac-chest pain has been excluded from their diagnosis. Moreover, studies have shown that NCCP patients have a high prevalence of anxiety, depression and disability. However, most NCCP patients are usually treated by cardiologists or primary physicians. Ordinary biomedical approaches often fail to treat NCCP. NCCP is one of the most important functional somatic syndromes from the view of medical economics. The cause of NCCP includes gastroesophageal reflux disease, panic disorder and esophageal dysmotility. In this review article, we summarize the definition, epidemiology, pathology, and process of diagnosis of NCCP. Finally, we propose a pathological hypothesis from a psychosomatic view. We discuss the effects of anxiety, fear and hyperactive behavior induced by affective stressors on the dysmotility and the lowering of the pain threshold. PMID:19768919

  6. Chest pain evaluation in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Foy, Andrew J; Filippone, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department. Recognition of chest pain symptoms and electrocardiographic changes consistent with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can lead to prompt initiation of goal-directed therapy. Cardiac troponin testing confirms the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, but does not reveal the mechanism of injury. When patients with chest pain rule out for ACS the use of advanced, noninvasive testing has not been found to be associated with better patient outcomes. PMID:26042885

  7. Groin pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg: This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...

  8. [Repetitive work and psychosomatic complaints].

    PubMed

    Liebrich, J; Geiger, L; Rupp, M

    1978-08-01

    200 workers of the Swiss watch industry were examined in an interdisciplinary study on the effect of repetitive work on the wellbeing of the worker. Women doing repetitive work with little autonomy complained more often about psychosomatic problems than the male workers doing non-repetitive work. This difference is interpreted as a difference of sexe rather than one of the work situation. However, there is a significant difference in the complaint about nervosity between women being paid monthly and women who were paid by piece or by hour with a premium. PMID:706840

  9. High prevalence of neck, shoulder and back pain among nursing graduates warrants preventive strategies during the degree and into working life.

    PubMed

    Yassi, Annalee

    2015-04-01

    Implications for practice and research: Physical, organisational and social aspects of work significantly contribute to musculoskeletal pain in nurses, along with nonoccupational contextual and personal factors. Measures to prevent neck, shoulder and back pain in nurses should be implemented for nurses from the very beginning of their training programmes, while modifications to overtime work and physical loads should be seriously considered. Preventive measures targeting overtime work, physical workload and psychosocial factors need investigating further. PMID:25121936

  10. Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function. PMID:26614726