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1

The effect of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity, pain threshold and pain tolerance  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the impact of the application of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity (NCV), pain threshold (PTH) and pain tolerance (PTO). Design A within?subject experimental design; treatment ankle (cryotherapy) and control ankle (no cryotherapy). Setting Hospital?based physiotherapy laboratory. Participants A convenience sample of adult male sports players (n?=?23). Main outcome measures NCV of the tibial nerve via electromyogram as well as PTH and PTO via pressure algometer. All outcome measures were assessed at two sites served by the tibial nerve: one receiving cryotherapy and one not receiving cryotherapy. Results In the control ankle, NCV, PTH and PTO did not alter when reassessed. In the ankle receiving cryotherapy, NCV was significantly and progressively reduced as ankle skin temperature was reduced to 10°C by a cumulative total of 32.8% (p<0.05). Cryotherapy led to an increased PTH and PTO at both assessment sites (p<0.05). The changes in PTH (89% and 71%) and PTO (76% and 56%) were not different between the iced and non?iced sites. Conclusions The data suggest that cryotherapy can increase PTH and PTO at the ankle and this was associated with a significant decrease in NCV. Reduced NCV at the ankle may be a mechanism by which cryotherapy achieves its clinical goals. PMID:17224445

Algafly, Amin A; George, Keith P

2007-01-01

2

Painless electrodiagnostic current perception threshold and pain tolerance threshold values in CRPS subjects and healthy controls: a multicenter study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to evaluate both painless and painful sensory transmission in patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) using the automated electrodiagnostic sensory Nerve Conduction Threshold (sNCT) test. This test generates reliable, painless Current Perception Threshold (CPT) and atraumatic Pain Tolerance Threshold (PTT) measures. Standardized CPT and PTT measures using constant alternating current sinusoid waveform stimulus at 3 different frequencies 5 Hz, 250 Hz, and 2 kHz (Neurometer CPT/C Neurotron, Inc. Baltimore, MD) were obtained from CRPS subjects at a distal phalange of the affected extremity and at an ipsilateral asymptomatic control site. Matched sites were tested on healthy subjects. Detection sensitivities for an abnormal PTT and CPT test were calculated based on specificity of 90% as determined from data obtained from healthy controls. A Spearman rank correlation was used to test for a significant association between presence of allodynia and an abnormal PTT or CPT at any frequency tested. Thirty-six CRPS subjects and 57 healthy controls were tested. The highest detection sensitivity of the PTT test from symptomatic test sites was 63% for the finger and 71% for the toe. PTT abnormalities were also detected, to a lesser degree, at the asymptomatic control site (41% finger control site, 16% toe control site). The highest CPT detection sensitivity at the symptomatic site was 37% for the finger site and 53% for the toe site. CPT abnormalities were also detected at the asymptomatic control site (29% finger control site, 37% toe control site). Eighty-six percent of the CRPS subjects had either a PTT or CPT abnormality at any frequency at the symptomatic site. There was a significant correlation between presence of allodynia and presence of an abnormal CPT and PTT, respectively (P < .01). The correlation coefficient was lower for CPT than for PTT, ie, 0.34 versus 0.6 for the finger and 0.48 versus 0.67 for the toe, respectively. In studied CRPS patients an abnormal PTT was detected with higher sensitivity than an abnormal CPT. Assessing PTT may become a useful electrodiagnostic quantitative sensory test for diagnosing and following the course of neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:17129284

Raj, P P; Chado, H N; Angst, M; Heavner, J; Dotson, R; Brandstater, M E; Johnson, B; Parris, W; Finch, P; Shahani, B; Dhand, U; Mekhail, N; Daoud, E; Hendler, N; Somerville, J; Wallace, M; Panchal, S; Glusman, S; Jay, G W; Palliyath, S; Longton, W; Irving, G

2001-01-01

3

Reliability of pain tolerance threshold testing by applying an electrical current stimulus to the alveolar ridge.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of testing pain tolerance threshold (PTT) by applying an electrical current stimulus to the alveolar ridge. Twenty volunteers studying or working at the Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo participated in this study. Participants were seated comfortably on a dental chair in a quiet room during testing. A single operator obtained mucosal PTT measurements around the right greater palatine foramen using a Neurometer CPT/C(®) device (Neurotron Inc., Baltimore, MD, USA) to deliver electrical stimulation at frequencies of 5, 250 and 2000 Hz. The participant released a button to automatically discontinue the stimulus when it could no longer be tolerated. Two types of factors were confirmed: the consistency of repeated measurements and a potential carry-over effect on PTTs. The consistency and carry-over effects of pain with regard to PTT measurements were analysed via Cronbach's coefficient ?. The Cronbach's coefficient ? of PTTs calculated more than 6 days of PTT testing at 5, 250 and 2000 Hz was 0.97, 0.95 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting that the consistency of the measurements was excellent. The Cronbach's coefficient ? calculated when the three frequencies of 5, 250 and 2000 Hz were applied in different orders was 0.91, 0.87 and 0.90, respectively, suggesting no carry-over effect. In conclusion, the measurement of PTTs at the alveolar ridge as assessed by applying an electrical current stimulus with an electro-diagnostic device exhibited excellent reliability, and thus, it constitutes a widely available option for PTT measurement in the clinical setting. PMID:24814257

Nakashima, Y; Kimoto, S; Kawai, Y

2014-08-01

4

Effect of GaAs Laser at 904 nm in the Pain Threshold in Tibia and Tolerance in Deltoid Evaluated by Pressure Algometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of LLLT in pain relief is a controversial issue in Physiotherapy, with the efficacy of LLLT associated to pain relief still requiring significant study. Objective. This work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of low power GaAs laser at 904 nm in pressure pain threshold and tolerance in tibia and deltoid muscle, respectively. A total of 17 subjects were divided in two groups: active and sham laser. Measurements were taken before and after laser irradiation in healthy individuals using a pressure algometry, first verifying the viability of algometry to evaluate the pain threshold and tolerance inter individuals and comparing the differences of right and left sides in the same patients, and finally evaluating the pain threshold and tolerance before and after a single laser application. Laser energy density was of 4.0 J/cm2 with power density of 137 mW/cm2. Comparing algometry values of active laser group and the sham group, the pain tolerance in the deltoid muscle did not change among groups after laser irradiation, while it was also encountered a statistically significant difference in the pain threshold in tibia when comparing the laser active and sham laser (p<0.05). It was found that the active laser was effective in maintaining the pain threshold in tibia. The effective laser action in raising the pain threshold in tibia upon healthy individuals can suggest that the laser could be applied not only as curative but also with preventive purpose.

Soares, Luiz G. P.; Sato, Sidney K.; Silveira, Landulfo; Aimbire, Flávio; Moreira, Leonardo M.; Pinheiro, Antônio L. B.

2011-08-01

5

Tactile threshold and pressure pain threshold during treatment of orofacial pain: an explorative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pressure pain threshold (PPT), tactile threshold (TT) and pain intensity as measured on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in patients with pain in the orofacial region. Twenty-six patients with myogenous pain (7 ss), myogenous and capsular pain (11 ss) or neuropathic pain (8 ss) participated in the study. At baseline,

Wojciech Drobek; Antoon De Laat; Joseph Schoenaers

2001-01-01

6

Systemic Inflammation Decreases Pain Threshold in Humans In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperalgesia is a well recognized hallmark of disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been suggested to be mainly responsible, but human data are scarce. Changes in pain threshold during systemic inflammation evoked by human endotoxemia, were evaluated with three quantitative sensory testing methods. Methods and Results Pressure pain thresholds, electrical pain thresholds and tolerance to the cold pressor test were measured before and 2 hours after the intravenous administration of 2 ng/kg purified E. coli endotoxin in 27 healthy volunteers. Another 20 subjects not exposed to endotoxemia served as controls. Endotoxemia led to a rise in body temperature and inflammatory symptom scores and a rise in plasma TNF-?, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1RA. During endotoxemia, pressure pain thresholds and electrical pain thresholds were reduced with 20±4 % and 13±3 %, respectively. In controls only a minor decrease in pressure pain thresholds (7±3 %) and no change in electrical pain thresholds occurred. Endotoxin-treated subjects experienced more pain during the cold pressor test, and fewer subjects were able to complete the cold pressor test measurement, while in controls the cold pressor test results were not altered. Peak levels and area under curves of each individual cytokine did not correlate to a change in pain threshold measured by one of the applied quantitative sensory testing techniques. Conclusions and Significance In conclusion, this study shows that systemic inflammation elicited by the administration of endotoxin to humans, results in lowering of the pain threshold measured by 3 quantitative sensory testing techniques. The current work provides additional evidence that systemic inflammation is accompanied by changes in pain perception. PMID:24358337

de Goeij, Moniek; van Eijk, Lucas T.; Vanelderen, Pascal; Wilder-Smith, Oliver H.; Vissers, Kris C.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Kox, Matthijs; Scheffer, Gert Jan; Pickkers, Peter

2013-01-01

7

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases tolerance to human experimental pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFCx) has been implicated in pain perception and in a pain modulation pathway. However, the precise participation of this region is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 1 Hz rTMS of DLPFCx modifies threshold and tolerance in experimental pain.The effect of 1 Hz rTMS during 15 min at 100% motor threshold

Ariel Graff-Guerrero; Jorge González-Olvera; Ana Fresán; Diana Gómez-Martín; Juan Carlos Méndez-Núñez; Francisco Pellicer

2005-01-01

8

Pain tolerance in upper limb disorders: findings from a community survey  

PubMed Central

Aims: To test the hypothesis that non-specific upper limb pain arises from altered pain perception with reduced tolerance of sensory stimuli. Methods: Subjects undergoing clinical examination as part of a community based survey of upper limb disorders were invited to return for an assessment of pain tolerance. A standardised algorithm was used to classify the 94 participants according to whether they had specific upper limb disorders (n = 22), non-specific arm pain (n = 15), or no arm pain (n = 57). Pain tolerance was assessed at three anatomical sites in each arm in response to electrocutaneous stimulation with alternating currents up to a maximum of 10 mA at three frequencies (5, 250, and 2000 Hz). A proportional odds model was used to compare pain tolerance thresholds according to sex, age, and diagnosis. Results: Women were less tolerant of pain than men (OR 0.13) and tolerance also declined with age (OR for one year increase in age 0.97). After allowance for sex and age, there was no indication that pain tolerance was lower in subjects with non-specific arm pain than in those with specific upper limb disorders or those who had no arm pain. Conclusions: The study hypothesis was not supported. However, before the hypothesis is dismissed, it should be tested further in patients with more severe and disabling arm pain. PMID:12598671

Mitchell, S; Reading, I; Walker-Bone, K; Palmer, K; Cooper, C; Coggon, D

2003-01-01

9

Sleep Deprivation Affects Thermal Pain Thresholds but Not Somatosensory Thresholds in Healthy Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Sleep disturbances have been thought to augment pain. Sleep deprivation has been proven to produce hyperalgesic effects. It is still unclear whether these changes are truly specific to pain and not related to general changes in somatosensory functions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of total sleep deprivation on thermal pain thresholds (heat, cold)

BERND KUNDERMANN; JULIA SPERNAL; MARTIN TOBIAS HUBER; JURGEN-CHRISTIAN KRIEG; STEFAN LAUTENBACHER

2004-01-01

10

Age effects on pain thresholds, temporal summation and spatial summation of heat and pressure pain.  

PubMed

Experimental data on age-related changes in pain perception have so far been contradictory. It has appeared that the type of pain induction method is critical in this context, with sensitivity to heat pain being decreased whereas sensitivity to pressure pain may be even enhanced in the elderly. Furthermore, it has been shown that temporal summation of heat pain is more pronounced in the elderly but it has remained unclear whether age differences in temporal summation are also evident when using other pain induction methods. No studies on age-related changes in spatial summation of pain have so far been conducted. The aim of the present study was to provide a comprehensive survey on age-related changes in pain perception, i.e. in somatosensory thresholds (warmth, cold, vibration), pain thresholds (heat, pressure) and spatial and temporal summation of heat and pressure pain. We investigated 20 young (mean age 27.1 years) and 20 elderly (mean age 71.6 years) subjects. Our results confirmed and extended previous findings by showing that somatosensory thresholds for non-noxious stimuli increase with age whereas pressure pain thresholds decrease and heat pain thresholds show no age-related changes. Apart from an enhanced temporal summation of heat pain, pain summation was not found to be critically affected by age. The results of the present study provide evidence for stimulus-specific changes in pain perception in the elderly, with deep tissue (muscle) nociception being affected differently by age than superficial tissue (skin) nociception. Summation mechanisms contribute only moderately to age changes in pain perception. PMID:15876494

Lautenbacher, Stefan; Kunz, Miriam; Strate, Peter; Nielsen, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

2005-06-01

11

Effect of bilateral caudatal lesion on pain threshold in rats.  

PubMed

Pain threshold was determined in eleven adult male rats (Haffkine strain) on electrical stimulation of midpart of tail. Three responses, namely tail withdrawal, vocalization and vocalization afterdischarge were studied. Of these eleven animals, seven in experimental group were subjected to bilateral electrolytic lesion of mid-dorsal caudate nucleus while remaining four animals were sham operated. The increase in pain threshold after caudatal destruction for all the three responses suggests the possible modulatory role of mid-dorsal caudate nucleus in the mechanism of pain. PMID:6096272

Mulgaonker, V K; Gogate, M G

1984-01-01

12

Fault-Tolerant Thresholds for Encoded Ancillae with Homogeneous Errors  

E-print Network

I describe a procedure for calculating thresholds for quantum computation as a function of error model given the availability of ancillae prepared in logical states with independent, identically distributed errors. The thresholds are determined via a simple counting argument performed on a single qubit of an infinitely large CSS code. I give concrete examples of thresholds thus achievable for both Steane and Knill style fault-tolerant implementations and investigate their relation to threshold estimates in the literature.

Bryan Eastin

2006-11-14

13

Elevated pain threshold in eating disorders: physiological and psychological factors.  

PubMed

Several studies have found decreased pain sensitivity in patients with eating disorders but it is unclear what physiological and psychological factors are associated with this abnormality. In the present investigation, thermal pain threshold latency, somatoform dissociation, body image disturbance and physiological indices of autonomic neural system activity were measured in 39 female patients with eating disorders (21 with anorexia nervosa and 18 with bulimia nervosa) and 17 healthy women. Pain threshold was elevated in patients with eating disorders, especially those with binge-purging symptomatology. A regression analysis indicated that increased pain threshold is moderately associated with decreased peripheral skin temperature and weakly associated with lack of familiarity with one's own body. However, the between group differences in pain perception remained significant after controlling for peripheral skin temperature. Hence, elevation of pain threshold in eating disorders is a replicable finding, which is not explicable by peripheral indices of autonomic system activity or by somatoform dissociation. In future research it may be evaluated as a potential marker of broader phenotype of decreased interoceptive awareness, which may be associated with vulnerability to the development of eating disorders. PMID:15804394

Papezová, H; Yamamotová, A; Uher, R

2005-07-01

14

Pain threshold correlates with functional scores in osteoarthritis patients.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - Pain sensitization may be one of the reasons for persistent pain after technically successful joint replacement. We analyzed how pain sensitization, as measured by quantitative sensory testing, relates preoperatively to joint function in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) scheduled for joint replacement. Patients and methods - We included 50 patients with knee OA and 49 with hip OA who were scheduled for joint replacement, and 15 control participants. Hip/knee scores, thermal and pressure detection, and pain thresholds were examined. Results - Median pressure pain thresholds were lower in patients than in control subjects: 4.0 (range: 0-10) vs. 7.8 (4-10) (p = 0.003) for the affected knee; 4.5 (2-10) vs. 6.8 (4-10) (p = 0.03) for the affected hip. Lower pressure pain threshold values were found at the affected joint in 26 of the 50 patients with knee OA and in 17 of the 49 patients with hip OA. The American Knee Society score 1 and 2, the Oxford knee score, and functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the pressure pain thresholds in patients with knee OA. Also, Harris hip score and the functional questionnaire of Hannover for osteoarthritis score correlated with the cold detection threshold in patients with hip OA. Interpretation - Quantitative sensory testing appeared to identify patients with sensory changes indicative of mechanisms of central sensitization. These patients may require additional pain treatment in order to profit fully from surgery. There were correlations between the clinical scores and the level of sensitization. PMID:25323797

Kuni, Benita; Wang, Haili; Rickert, Markus; Ewerbeck, Volker; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

2015-04-01

15

Race and Histories of Mood Disorders Modulate Experimental Pain Tolerance in Women  

PubMed Central

Thirty-two African American and 23 non-Hispanic White women were compared for experimental pain threshold and tolerance to thermal, ischemic, and cold pressor pain. Approximately half of each group had prior mood disorders (17 African Americans, 13 non-Hispanic Whites), though all were free of current mood disturbance. Women with prior mood disorders were less sensitive to ischemic pain than women with no prior mood disorders (p<.05), while African Americans were more sensitive to ischemic pain than non-Hispanic Whites, though only at pain tolerance (p<.001). For cold pressor pain, the effects of race were only seen in women with prior mood disorders, since African Americans with prior mood disorders were more sensitive than non-Hispanic Whites with prior mood disorders (p<.05). These results indicate that experimental pain sensitivity in women is influenced by both race and histories of mood disorders. Perspective: We examined the association of race and histories of mood disorders with experimental pain sensitivity in an exclusively female sample. Our findings for racial differences in pain sensitivity may have implications for greater clinical pain in African American women. Persistent disturbance in pain modulatory mechanisms in women with a history of mood disorders may also have implications for the development of subsequent mood disturbances. PMID:17644044

Klatzkin, Rebecca R.; Mechlin, Beth; Bunevicius, Robertas; Girdler, Susan S.

2007-01-01

16

Modification of Electrical Pain Threshold by Voluntary Breathing-Controlled Electrical Stimulation (BreEStim) in Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Pain has a distinct sensory and affective (i.e., unpleasantness) component. BreEStim, during which electrical stimulation is delivered during voluntary breathing, has been shown to selectively reduce the affective component of post-amputation phantom pain. The objective was to examine whether BreEStim increases pain threshold such that subjects could have improved tolerance of sensation of painful stimuli. Methods Eleven pain-free healthy subjects (7 males, 4 females) participated in the study. All subjects received BreEStim (100 stimuli) and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim, 100 stimuli) to two acupuncture points (Neiguan and Weiguan) of the dominant hand in a random order. The two different treatments were provided at least three days apart. Painful, but tolerable electrical stimuli were delivered randomly during EStim, but were triggered by effortful inhalation during BreEStim. Measurements of tactile sensation threshold, electrical sensation and electrical pain thresholds, thermal (cold sensation, warm sensation, cold pain and heat pain) thresholds were recorded from the thenar eminence of both hands. These measurements were taken pre-intervention and 10?min post-intervention. Results There was no difference in the pre-intervention baseline measurement of all thresholds between BreEStim and EStim. The electrical pain threshold significantly increased after BreEStim (27.5±6.7% for the dominant hand and 28.5±10.8% for the non-dominant hand, respectively). The electrical pain threshold significantly decreased after EStim (9.1±2.8% for the dominant hand and 10.2±4.6% for the non–dominant hand, respectively) (F[1, 10]?=?30.992, p?=?.00024). There was no statistically significant change in other thresholds after BreEStim and EStim. The intensity of electrical stimuli was progressively increased, but no difference was found between BreEStim and EStim. Conclusion Voluntary breathing controlled electrical stimulation selectively increases electrical pain threshold, while conventional electrical stimulation selectively decreases electrical pain threshold. This may translate into improved pain control. PMID:23894632

Li, Shengai; Berliner, Jeffrey C.; Melton, Danielle H.; Li, Sheng

2013-01-01

17

Measuring mechanical pain: The refinement and standardization of pressure pain threshold measurements.  

PubMed

Pain thresholds are widely used in behavioral research, but unlike other pain modalities, a standardized assessment of pressure pain remains a challenge. In this research, we describe the application of an automatic pressure algometer with a linear increase in force. Ergonomically designed fixation devices were developed to increase the accuracy and to shorten the time of each measurement. Ten healthy volunteers were included in a pilot study to test the algometry method. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were investigated over 2 experimental days in three nonconsecutive runs at 29 measurement sites. During the experiment, subjects reported their subjective sleepiness, level of state-anxiety, psychological status and the perceived pain intensity of each measurement. Pain intensity ratings indicate that instructions were followed. State-anxiety and subjective sleepiness levels were low throughout the experiment. The method has proven to be suitable for standardized PPT measurements across the body in an ergonomic, safe, and user-friendly fashion. PMID:24570335

Melia, Michael; Schmidt, Martin; Geissler, Britta; König, Jochem; Krahn, Ulrike; Ottersbach, Hans Jürgen; Letzel, Stephan; Muttray, Axel

2015-03-01

18

Pain threshold and pain recovery after experimental stimulation in patients with burning mouth syndrome.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine pain threshold and pain recovery in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and matched no-pain controls. Twenty female patients diagnosed with BMS without organic gross changes were enrolled in the study. Twenty control subjects were chosen from age-matched healthy female volunteers. We compared the thermal pain threshold using heat beam dolorimeter on the finger and tongue between patients and controls. Warm (at 50 degrees C for 5 s), cold (at 0 degrees C for 30 s) and mechanical (stimulation by electric tooth brush for 15 s) stimulation was applied to the tongue for both groups. Participants were asked to rate the subjective pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Although there was no significant differences between patients and controls in terms of the threshold on the finger, the threshold on the tongue was significantly higher in patients than in controls. We suggest there were peripheral dysfunction at the tongue, and/or central dysfunction in patients with BMS. Among the three types of stimulation, the patients perceived significantly the highest pain from the mechanical stimulation for the first 5 min after the stimulation. Furthermore, when patients with BMS perceived some pain, they continued to complain of the pain longer and more intricately than the controls. This indicates that the pain of the patients is strongly affected not only at a sensory component but also at an affective/motivational component than the controls. However, we should be cautious of simply advancing psychogenic theory in this etiology. PMID:11952919

Ito, Mikiko; Kurita, Kenichi; Ito, Takako; Arao, Munetaka

2002-04-01

19

Humor as a cognitive technique for increasing pain tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial research has demonstrated that cognitive psychological techniques including distraction can increase pain tolerance. In recent years, there also have been claims that humor and laughter possess unique characteristics for coping with pain and stress. Theoretically, explanations include the release of endorphins, the lowering of tension, as well as the distraction that results from humor. The question is whether humor

Matisyohu Weisenberg; Inbal Tepper; Joseph Schwarzwald

1995-01-01

20

Silica Nanoconstruct Cellular Toleration Threshold In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The influence of geometry of silica nanomaterials on cellular uptake and toxicity on epithelial and phagocytic cells was studied. Three types of amine-terminated silica nanomaterials were prepared and characterized via the modified Stober method, namely spheres (178±27 nm), worms (232±22 nm × 1348±314 nm) and cylinders (214±29 nm × 428±66 nm). The findings of the study suggest that in this size range and for the cell types studied, geometry does not play a dominant role in the modes of toxicity and uptake of these particles. Rather, a concentration threshold and cell type dependent toxicity of all particle types was observed. This correlated with confocal microscopy observations, as all nanomaterials were observed to be taken up in both cell types, with a greater extent in phagocytic cells. It must be noted that there appears to be a concentration threshold at ~100 µg/mL, below which there is limited to no impact of the nanoparticles on membrane integrity, mitochondrial function, phagocytosis or cell death. Analysis of cell morphology by transmission electron microscopy, colocalization experiments with intracellular markers and Western Blot results provide evidence of potential involvement of lysosomal escape, autophagic like activity, compartmental fusion and recycling in response to intracellular nanoparticle accumulation. These processes could be involved in cellular coping or defense mechanisms. The manipulation of physicochemical properties to enhance or reduce toxicity paves the way for the safe design of silica-based nanoparticles for use in nanomedicine. PMID:21342660

Herd, Heather L.; Malugin, Alexander; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

2011-01-01

21

The relationship of gender to pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences have been identified in the perception of pain intensity for both acute and chronic pain and with responses to analgesics. Women seem to show lower pain thresholds, a greater ability to discriminate painful sensations, higher pain ratings, and a lower tolerance for pain. Although some pain syndromes, such as facial pain, are more common in women, gender-related responses

April Hazard Vallerand; Rosemary C. Polomano

2000-01-01

22

Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects.  

PubMed

Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold and tolerance in patients with AD. We examined 29 patients with mild to moderate AD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects with quantitative sensory testing, ie, assessments of detection threshold (warmth detection threshold [WDT]) and pain threshold (heat pain threshold [HPT], pressure algometry, cold pressor test), and assessments of tolerance (pressure algometry, cold pressor test). All procedures were done twice on day 1, 1 hour apart, and repeated on day 2. We found no difference between groups for WDT (patient vs control subjects: mean [95% confidence interval]: 35.5°C [33.4°C to 37.6°C] vs 35.4°C [34.3°C to 36.5°C], P=.8) or HPT (41.2°C [40.0°C to 42.4°C] vs 42.3°C [41.1°C to 43.5°C], P=.24). We observed comparable thresholds for pressure algometry (median [25% to 75% interquartile range]: 120 kPa [100 to 142 kPa] vs 131 kPa [113 to 192 kPa], P=.10), but significantly lower tolerance in AD patients (213 kPa [188 to 306 kPa] vs 289 kPa [262 to 360 kPa], P=.008). No differences were found for the cold pressor test. The study demonstrated good replicability of the sensory testing data with comparable data variability, for both groups, which supports the use of these methods in studies of patients with mild to moderate AD. Contrary to previous studies, we observed a reduced pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate AD, which suggests that the reduced report of pain cannot be explained by reduced processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24412285

Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Ballegaard, Martin; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Waldemar, Gunhild

2014-08-01

23

Pain tolerance in patients presenting to primary care and physiotherapy services with upper limb disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Arm pain is a common cause of incapacity for work and is often attributed to occupational activities, but in many cases the pathogenesis is unclear. Objective To investigate whether arm pain in the absence of identifiable underlying pathology is associated with reduced tolerance of painful sensory stimuli. Methods 133 incident cases of arm pain, recruited from primary care and physiotherapy services, were classified according to a validated diagnostic algorithm. Pain tolerance was measured at three sites in each arm in response to electrocutaneous stimulation. Associations with pain tolerance (the geometric mean of the six measurements at 5?Hz) were assessed by linear regression, and findings were summarised as proportional changes in pain tolerance. Results Pain tolerance was generally lower than in an earlier community survey. Women had a lower tolerance than men. After allowance for sex, age, use of analgesics and anatomical extent of pain, there was no indication of reduced tolerance in patients with non?specific pain relative to those with specific local pathology. Conclusions Pain tolerance may be generally reduced in patients presenting to medical services with arm pain, but those with non?specific pain do not seem to have lower tolerance than those with identifiable local pathology. PMID:17182647

Ryall, Claire; Coggon, David; Peveler, Robert; Reading, Isabel; Palmer, Keith T

2007-01-01

24

Effects of Sensory Behavioral Tasks on Pain Threshold and Cortical Excitability  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective Transcutaneous electrical stimulation has been proven to modulate nervous system activity, leading to changes in pain perception, via the peripheral sensory system, in a bottom up approach. We tested whether different sensory behavioral tasks induce significant effects in pain processing and whether these changes correlate with cortical plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings This randomized parallel designed experiment included forty healthy right-handed males. Three different somatosensory tasks, including learning tasks with and without visual feedback and simple somatosensory input, were tested on pressure pain threshold and motor cortex excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Sensory tasks induced hand-specific pain modulation effects. They increased pain thresholds of the left hand (which was the target to the sensory tasks) and decreased them in the right hand. TMS showed that somatosensory input decreased cortical excitability, as indexed by reduced MEP amplitudes and increased SICI. Although somatosensory tasks similarly altered pain thresholds and cortical excitability, there was no significant correlation between these variables and only the visual feedback task showed significant somatosensory learning. Conclusions/Significance Lack of correlation between cortical excitability and pain thresholds and lack of differential effects across tasks, but significant changes in pain thresholds suggest that analgesic effects of somatosensory tasks are not primarily associated with motor cortical neural mechanisms, thus, suggesting that subcortical neural circuits and/or spinal cord are involved with the observed effects. Identifying the neural mechanisms of somatosensory stimulation on pain may open novel possibilities for combining different targeted therapies for pain control. PMID:23301010

Volz, Magdalena Sarah; Pinheiro, Fernando Santos; Merabet, Lotfi B.; Fregni, Felipe

2013-01-01

25

A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose-Response Trial of the Melatonin Effect on the Pain Threshold of Healthy Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that melatonin may produce antinociception through peripheral and central mechanisms. Based on the preliminary encouraging results of studies of the effects of melatonin on pain modulation, the important question has been raised of whether there is a dose relationship in humans of melatonin on pain modulation. Objective The objective was to evaluate the analgesic dose response of the effects of melatonin on pressure and heat pain threshold and tolerance and the sedative effects. Methods Sixty-one healthy subjects aged 19 to 47 y were randomized into one of four groups: placebo, 0.05 mg/kg sublingual melatonin, 0.15 mg/kg sublingual melatonin or 0.25 mg/kg sublingual melatonin. We determine the pressure pain threshold (PPT) and the pressure pain tolerance (PPTo). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to measure the heat pain threshold (HPT) and the heat pain tolerance (HPTo). Sedation was assessed with a visual analogue scale and bispectral analysis. Results Serum plasma melatonin levels were directly proportional to the melatonin doses given to each subject. We observed a significant effect associated with dose group. Post hoc analysis indicated significant differences between the placebo vs. the intermediate (0.15 mg/kg) and the highest (0.25 mg/kg) melatonin doses for all pain threshold and sedation level tests. A linear regression model indicated a significant association between the serum melatonin concentrations and changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance (R2?=?0.492 for HPT, R2?=?0.538 for PPT, R2?=?0.558 for HPTo and R2?=?0.584 for PPTo). Conclusions The present data indicate that sublingual melatonin exerts well-defined dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. There is a correlation between the plasma melatonin drug concentration and acute changes in the pain threshold. These results provide additional support for the investigation of melatonin as an analgesic agent. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec): (U1111-1123-5109). IRB: Research Ethics Committee at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre.

Stefani, Luciana Cadore; Muller, Suzana; Torres, Iraci L. S.; Razzolini, Bruna; Rozisky, Joanna R.; Fregni, Felipe; Markus, Regina; Caumo, Wolnei

2013-01-01

26

The Effects of Focus of Meditation on Pain Tolerance, Compassion, and Anxiety Levels  

E-print Network

Sixty-one individuals participated in a study to examine whether practicing a meditation with a spiritual focus would demonstrate higher pain tolerance and faster pain awareness (cold-pressor task), increased implicit compassion (lexical decision...

Kluck, Benjamin Joseph

2008-01-01

27

Gender role expectations of pain: relationship to experimental pain perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an individual's Gender Role Expectations of Pain (GREP) on experimental pain report. One hundred and forty-eight subjects (87 females and 61 males) subjects underwent thermal testing and were asked to report pain threshold, pain tolerance, VAS ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness, and a computerized visual analogue scales

Emily A Wise; Donald D Price; Cynthia D Myers; Marc W Heft; Michael E Robinson

2002-01-01

28

Changes to somatosensory detection and pain thresholds following high frequency repetitive TMS of the motor cortex in individuals suffering from chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results in a transient reduction in the experience of chronic pain. The present research aimed to investigate whether a single session of high frequency TMS is able to change the sensory thresholds of individuals suffering from chronic pain. Detection and pain thresholds for cold and heat sensations were measured before and after

Sama Johnson; Jeff Summers; Saxby Pridmore

2006-01-01

29

Quantitative determinations of sensory and pain thresholds on human oral mucosa by argon laser stimulation.  

PubMed

High-energy light from an argon laser was applied to human oral mucosa in order to investigate regional pain sensitivity. Significant regional differences in sensory and pain thresholds were observed between the test sites on the hard and soft palatal mucosa, the buccal mucosa, the tongue, the lower lip, and the skin on the hand. Pain thresholds were lowest on the tip of the tongue and highest on the hard palate. Sensory and pain thresholds were influenced by different stimulus parameters: pulse duration and laser beam diameter. Blackening of the mucosa in regions with high optical reflectance, such as the hard palate, increased light absorption and, hence, reduced both thresholds significantly. Reflectance spectrophotometric measurements indicated that the hard palatal mucosa reflected argon laser light about 1.5 times more than the tip of the tongue. The different threshold values could, in part, be ascribed to different reflectance and absorption properties of the mucosal areas but also indicated substantial regional variation in pain sensitivity of the human oral mucosa. Measurement of laser thresholds is an appropriate and standardized method for investigating sensory differences in human oral mucosa and may be used to study various pain conditions, e.g., burning mouth syndrome. PMID:1608647

Svensson, P; Bjerring, P; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Kaaber, S

1992-05-01

30

Determinants of pressure pain threshold in adult twins: evidence that shared environmental influences predominate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors in determining pain perception in a classical twin study. Dolorimeter measurements of pressure pain threshold (PPT) were recorded in 609 healthy female-female twin pairs of whom 269 pairs were monozygotic (MZ) and 340 were dizygotic (DZ). There was a strong correlation (R) in PPT

Alexander J. MacGregor; Gareth O. Griffiths; Juliet Baker; Timothy D. Spector

1997-01-01

31

The Fine Tuning of Pain Thresholds: A Sophisticated Double Alarm System  

PubMed Central

Two distinctive features characterize the way in which sensations including pain, are evoked by heat: (1) a thermal stimulus is always progressive; (2) a painful stimulus activates two different types of nociceptors, connected to peripheral afferent fibers with medium and slow conduction velocities, namely A?- and C-fibers. In the light of a recent study in the rat, our objective was to develop an experimental paradigm in humans, based on the joint analysis of the stimulus and the response of the subject, to measure the thermal thresholds and latencies of pain elicited by A?- and C-fibers. For comparison, the same approach was applied to the sensation of warmth elicited by thermoreceptors. A CO2 laser beam raised the temperature of the skin filmed by an infrared camera. The subject stopped the beam when he/she perceived pain. The thermal images were analyzed to provide four variables: true thresholds and latencies of pain triggered by heat via A?- and C-fibers. The psychophysical threshold of pain triggered by A?-fibers was always higher (2.5–3°C) than that triggered by C-fibers. The initial skin temperature did not influence these thresholds. The mean conduction velocities of the corresponding fibers were 13 and 0.8 m/s, respectively. The triggering of pain either by C- or by A?-fibers was piloted by several factors including the low/high rate of stimulation, the low/high base temperature of the skin, the short/long peripheral nerve path and some pharmacological manipulations (e.g. Capsaicin). Warming a large skin area increased the pain thresholds. Considering the warmth detection gave a different picture: the threshold was strongly influenced by the initial skin temperature and the subjects detected an average variation of 2.7°C, whatever the initial temperature. This is the first time that thresholds and latencies for pain elicited by both A?- and C-fibers from a given body region have been measured in the same experimental run. Such an approach illustrates the role of nociception as a “double level” and “double release” alarm system based on level detectors. By contrast, warmth detection was found to be based on difference detectors. It is hypothesized that pain results from a CNS build-up process resulting from population coding and strongly influenced by the background temperatures surrounding at large the stimulation site. We propose an alternative solution to the conventional methods that only measure a single “threshold of pain”, without knowing which of the two systems is involved. PMID:20428245

Plaghki, Léon; Decruynaere, Céline; Van Dooren, Paul; Le Bars, Daniel

2010-01-01

32

Fault-tolerant quantum computation with high threshold in two dimensions  

E-print Network

We present a scheme of fault-tolerant quantum computation for a local architecture in two spatial dimensions. The error threshold is 0.75% for each source in an error model with preparation, gate, storage and measurement errors.

Robert Raussendorf; Jim Harrington

2007-05-14

33

An accurate analytical framework for computing fault-tolerance thresholds using the [[7,1,3  

E-print Network

In studies of the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum error-correction, it is generally assumed that the noise channel at all levels of error-correction is the depolarizing channel. The effects of this assumption on the ...

Morten, Andrew J

2005-01-01

34

Significant thresholds for the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant threshold values for the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) during pregnancy have yet to be conclusively determined. This study aimed to identify the risk significance of various set thresholds for the oGTT result. Women undergoing a 75-g oGTT during the third trimester of pregnancy were classified into three groups: mild gestational impaired glucose tolerance (GIGT; 2-h postload

Charles Savona-Ventura; Marcel Chircop

2008-01-01

35

Deriving a Fault-Tolerant Threshold for a Global Control Scheme  

E-print Network

In this paper, adapted from the author's PhD thesis, we present otherwise unpublished results relating to global control schemes, culminating in the calculation of a fault-tolerant threshold for one such scheme. As with early fault-tolerant threshold results, the aim is to calculate a positive number, not to optimise it. We also discuss how the results might affect other related schemes, such as those based on cellular automata.

Alastair Kay

2007-03-07

36

Vibratory stimulation increase the electro-cutaneous sensory detection and pain thresholds in women but not in men  

PubMed Central

Background Vibratory stimulation is a potential method for the treatment of pain. Methods The effect of vibration on the forearm on detection (DT) and pain thresholds (PT) induced by electro-cutaneous stimulation were investigated in healthy male and female volunteers. Results Women have lower baseline detection and pain thresholds as compared to men. Furthermore, women but not men report increased detection and pain thresholds after vibratory stimulation. Conclusion Our findings indicate the potential usefulness of vibratory stimulation for pain treatment, and that gender differences should be considered in future evaluation of the method. PMID:16719906

Dahlin, Lisbeth; Lund, Irene; Lundeberg, Thomas; Molander, Carl

2006-01-01

37

Gender role expectations of pain: relationship to experimental pain perception  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an individual’s Gender Role Expectations of Pain (GREP) on experimental pain report. One hundred and forty-eight subjects (87 females and 61 males) subjects underwent thermal testing and were asked to report pain threshold, pain tolerance, VAS ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness, and a computerized visual analogue scales (VAS) rating of pain intensity during the procedure. Subjects completed the GREP questionnaire to assess sex-related stereotypic attributions of pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain. Consistent with previous research, significant sex differences emerged for measures of pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain unpleasantness. After statistically controlling for age, GREP scores were significant predictors of threshold, tolerance, and pain unpleasantness, accounting for an additional 7, 11, and 21% of the variance, respectively. Sex remained a significant predictor of pain tolerance in hierarchical regression analyses after controlling for GREP scores. Results provide support for two competing but not mutually exclusive hypotheses related to the sex differences in experimental pain. Both psychosocial factors and first-order, biological sex differences remain as viable explanations for differences in experimental pain report between the sexes. It appears that GREP do play a part in determining an individual’s pain report and may be contributing to the sex differences in the laboratory setting. PMID:11973007

Wise, Emily A.; Price, Donald D.; Myers, Cynthia D.; Heft, Marc W.; Robinson, Michael E.

2008-01-01

38

Influence of scapular position on the pressure pain threshold of the upper trapezius muscle region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A position of scapula depression will maintain the upper trapezius muscle region in a lengthened position, causing excessive strain. This strain could lead to peripheral nociceptive nerves sensitization in the affected area, changing the pressure pain threshold (PPT). Thus, people with a faulty alignment of scapular depression may have lower PPT levels in the upper trapezius region when compared to

Daniel Camara Azevedo; Tatiana de Lima Pires; Fernanda de Souza Andrade; Mary Kate McDonnell

2008-01-01

39

Introduction and validation of a less painful algorithm to estimate the nociceptive flexion reflex threshold.  

PubMed

The nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) is a widely used tool to investigate spinal nociception for scientific and diagnostic purposes, but its clinical use is currently limited due to the painful measurement procedure, especially restricting its applicability for patients suffering from chronic pain disorders. Here we introduce a less painful algorithm to assess the NFR threshold. Application of this new algorithm leads to a reduction of subjective pain ratings by over 30% compared to the standard algorithm. We show that the reflex threshold estimates resulting from application of the new algorithm can be used interchangeably with those of the standard algorithm after adjusting for the constant difference between the algorithms. Furthermore, we show that the new algorithm can be applied at shorter interstimulus intervals than are commonly used with the standard algorithm, since reflex threshold values remain unchanged and no habituation effects occur when reducing the interstimulus interval for the new algorithm down to 3s. Finally we demonstrate the utility of the new algorithm to investigate the modulation of nociception through different states of attention. Taken together, the here presented new algorithm could increase the utility of the NFR for investigation of nociception in subjects who were previously not able to endure the measurement procedure, such as chronic pain patients. PMID:25749484

Lichtner, Gregor; Golebiewski, Anna; Schneider, Martin H; von Dincklage, Falk

2015-05-22

40

The effect of depression on the thermal nociceptive thresholds in rats with spontaneous pain  

PubMed Central

Objective Recently, there has been growing interest in the interaction between depressive disorders and pain. The purpose of this study was to examine whether depression would lead to a decreased sensitivity to noxious stimuli in rats with spontaneous pain. Methods The olfactory bulbectomized rats were used as a model of depression. The depression-like behaviors were assessed by open field test and changes in body weight. Formalin solution was injected into the rat hindpaw to produce ongoing pain. Noxious thermal stimuli were applied onto the hindpaw contralateral to formalin injection, and the withdrawal thresholds were measured. Results In non-depressive rats, the formalin-treated paw developed hypoalgesia to noxious stimuli while the contralateral paw was not affected. The depressive rats, however, showed a significantly lower sensitivity to noxious thermal stimulus, represented as higher withdrawal thresholds of the contralateral paw, when compared to the non-depressive rats. Conclusion These results demonstrate that depression can alleviate the stimulus-evoked pain even in the context of formalin inflammatory pain, consistent with the previous clinical observations that patients suffering from both depression and persistent pain have decreased sensitivities to noxious experimental stimuli. PMID:21113193

Su, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Ning; Gao, Ge; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

2015-01-01

41

D-Aspartate Modulates Nociceptive-Specific Neuron Activity and Pain Threshold in Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain Condition in Mice  

PubMed Central

D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is a free D-amino acid found in the mammalian brain with a temporal-dependent concentration based on the postnatal expression of its metabolizing enzyme D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). D-Asp acts as an agonist on NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Accordingly, high levels of D-Asp in knockout mice for Ddo gene (Ddo?/?) or in mice treated with D-Asp increase NMDAR-dependent processes. We have here evaluated in Ddo?/? mice the effect of high levels of free D-Asp on the long-term plastic changes along the nociceptive pathway occurring in chronic and acute pain condition. We found that Ddo?/? mice show an increased evoked activity of the nociceptive specific (NS) neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (L4–L6) and a significant decrease of mechanical and thermal thresholds, as compared to control mice. Moreover, Ddo gene deletion exacerbated the nocifensive responses in the formalin test and slightly reduced pain thresholds in neuropathic mice up to 7 days after chronic constriction injury. These findings suggest that the NMDAR agonist, D-Asp, may play a role in the regulation of NS neuron electrophysiological activity and behavioral responses in physiological and pathological pain conditions. PMID:25629055

Boccella, Serena; Vacca, Valentina; Errico, Francesco; Marinelli, Sara; Squillace, Marta; Di Maio, Anna; Vitucci, Daniela; Palazzo, Enza; De Novellis, Vito; Maione, Sabatino; Pavone, Flaminia; Usiello, Alessandro

2015-01-01

42

Decreased pain threshold and enhanced synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of experimental hypothyroidism mice  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid hormones are essential for the maturation and functions of the central nervous system. Pain sensitivity is related to the thyroid status. However, information on how thyroid hormones affect pain processing and synaptic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is limited. Nociceptive threshold and synaptic transmission in the ACC were detected in the experimental hypothyroidism (HT) mice. Results HT was induced by methimazole and potassium perchlorate in distilled drinking water for 4 weeks. The threshold of pain perception to hot insults, but not mechanical ones, decreased in hypothyroid mice. After treatment with tri-iodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) for 2 weeks, thermal pain threshold recovered. Electrophysiological recordings revealed enhanced glutamatergic synaptic transmission and reduced GABAergic synaptic transmission in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 significantly rescued this synaptic transmission imbalance. In the same model, HT caused the up-regulation of the GluR1 subunit of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor and NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, but it down-regulated ?-aminobutyric acid A receptors in the ACC. Supplementation with T3 or T4 notably recovered the levels of above proteins. Conclusions These results suggest that HT promotes hypersensitivity to noxious thermal, and that supplementation with T3 or T4 rescues the imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the ACC. PMID:24943008

2014-01-01

43

Wireless peripheral nerve stimulation increases pain threshold in two neuropathic rat models.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation approaches including spinal cord and peripheral nerve stimulation are typically used to treat intractable chronic pain in individuals who are refractory to pain medications. Our earlier studies have shown that a voltage controlled capacitive discharge (VCCD) method of stimulation of nerve activation is able to selectively recruit activity in large myelinated nerve fibers. In this study, we were able to wirelessly activate the sciatic nerve using the VCCD waveform. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this waveform can effectively improve two of the most troublesome pain symptoms experienced by patients with chronic neuropathic pain mechanical and cold hyperalgesia. Neuropathic mechanical hyperalgesia was reproduced using the Spinal Nerve Ligation (SNL) rat model whereas cold allodynia was reproduced using the Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI) model in male rats. Von Frey and cold plate tests were used to evaluate paw withdrawal threshold and latency to withdrawal before and after stimulation in experimental and control rats. Paw withdrawal threshold increased significantly compared to post-lesion baseline after VCCD stimulation in SNL rats. We also observed a significant improvement in cold allodynia in the active implant CCI rats after stimulation. These results suggest that the VCCD stimulation using a wireless microstimulator may be effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:22487199

Rosellini, Will; Casavant, Reema; Engineer, Navzer; Beall, Patrick; Pierce, David; Jain, Ravi; Dougherty, Patrick M

2012-06-01

44

Pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata in parents at-risk for child physical abuse.  

PubMed

This study examined whether parents with varying degrees of child physical abuse (CPA) risk differed in pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Participants included 91 (51 low CPA risk and 40 high CPA risk) general population parents. Participants were randomly assigned to complete either an easy or a difficult anagram task. Pain tolerance and pain sensitivity were assessed using a cold pressor task. Accessibility of aggression-related schemata was assessed at the outset of the data collection session and at the end of the session using a word completion task. Parents' self-reported negative affect was assessed three times over the course of the study: baseline, after the anagram task, and after the cold pressor task. As expected, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents reported higher levels of negative affect at each time point. Moreover, after completing the difficult anagram task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited higher pain sensitivity during the cold pressor task. Following completion of the cold pressor task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited greater accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Collectively, these findings indicate that under certain conditions, high-risk parents experience a confluence of aggression-related risk factors (i.e., negative affect, pain sensitivity, and aggression-related information processes) that may predispose them to aggressive behavior. PMID:25073732

Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

2014-11-01

45

Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on sensation thresholds in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy: an observational study.  

PubMed

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is one of the therapies for painful neuropathy. Its analgesic mechanisms probably involve the gate control theory, the physiological block and the endogenous pain inhibitory system. The aim of the study was to determine whether TENS improves small fibre function diminished because of painful diabetic neuropathy. Forty-six patients with painful diabetic neuropathy were treated with TENS three consecutive hours a day for 3 weeks. Treatment effect was evaluated with cold, warm, cold pain and heat pain thresholds, vibration perception thresholds and touch perception thresholds. In all patients, thermal-specific and thermal pain sensitivity determination showed quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in all the measured spots. After the TENS therapy, no statistically significant changes in cold, warm, cold pain, heat pain, vibratory perception and touch perception thresholds were observed in the stimulated area. TENS did not alter C, A? nor A? fibre-mediated perception thresholds. The observed changes at thenar are probably because of central mechanisms. In general, analgesic mechanisms of TENS are likely to be complex. PMID:20042866

Mohari?, Metka; Burger, Helena

2010-09-01

46

Tonic Descending Facilitation from the Rostral Ventromedial Medulla Mediates Opioid-Induced Abnormal Pain and Antinociceptive Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many clinical case reports have suggested that sustained opi- oid exposure can elicit unexpected, paradoxical pain. Here, we explore the possibility that (1) opioid-induced pain results from tonic activation of descending pain facilitation arising in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and (2) the presence of such pain manifests behaviorally as antinociceptive tolerance. Rats implanted subcutaneously with pellets or osmotic minipumps

Todd W. Vanderah; Nova M. H. Suenaga; Michael H. Ossipov; T. Philip; Josephine Lai

2001-01-01

47

Gender differences in low and high pain palpation thresholds in the TMJ and neck areas.  

PubMed

The null hypothesis was that pain pressure thresholds are the same for young healthy males and females and do not differ between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and muscle sites. The aim of the current study was to compare pain pressure threshold levels using an algometer with a convex-formed contact piece and pressure increase rates similar to those in conventional finger palpation, making the conditions more like clinical examination of painful spots with commonly used physiotherapeutic methods. Healthy subjects, 12 male, mean age 22.5 +/- 1.62 (SD), and 12 female, 22.4 +/- 2.19 (SD), were enrolled. A transducer with a calibrated load range, 0 to 25 pounds, was used to measure pressure threshold levels for low (T1), VAS to approximately 2, and high (T2), VAS to approximately 8, pain levels bilaterally in the occipital (OC), sternocleidomastoid (SCM), upper trapezius (TU), transverse process of first vertebra (C1), and lateral temporomandibular joint (TMJ) areas. The null hypothesis was rejected. Levels T1 and T2 were significantly lower in the females in all tested areas. The range of the mean for T1 levels was 4.9-8.0 pounds for males and 3.2-5.1 pounds for females. For T2 levels, the range was 8.9-15.6 pounds for males and 6.2-10.3 pounds for females. Significant differences were found between muscle sites. These results support the use of different threshold levels: a) for males and females; and b) for different muscle areas. PMID:23795398

Widmalm, Sven E; McKay, Duane C; Radke, John C; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaorui; Wang, Meiqing

2013-04-01

48

Sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study  

PubMed Central

Background Our aim was to compare subjective and objective sleep quality and arousal in migraine and to evaluate the relationship between sleep quality and pain thresholds (PT) in controls, interictal, preictal and postictal migraine. Methods Polysomnography and PT (to pressure, heat and cold) measurements were done in 34 healthy controls and 50 migraineurs. Subjective sleep quality was assessed by sleep diaries, Epworth sleepiness scale, Karolinska sleep questionnaire and Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Migraineurs who had their sleep registration more than 48 h from an attack were classified as interictal while those who were less than 48 h from an attack were classified as either preictal or postictal. Results Migraineurs reported more insomnia and other sleep-related symptoms than controls, but the objective sleep differences were smaller and we found no differences in daytime sleepiness. Interictal migraineurs had more awakenings (p=0.048), a strong tendency for more slow-wave sleep (p=0.050), lower thermal pain thresholds (TPT) (heat pain thresholds p=0.043 and cold pain thresholds p=0.031) than controls. Migraineurs in the preictal phase had shorter latency to sleep onset than controls (p=0.003). Slow-wave sleep correlated negatively with pressure PT and slow bursts correlated negatively with TPT. Conclusion Lower PT in interictal migraineurs seems related to increased sleep pressure. We hypothesize that migraineurs on the average suffer from a relative sleep deprivation and need more sleep than healthy controls. Lack of adequate rest might be an attack-precipitating- and hyperalgesia-inducing factor. PMID:23565669

2013-01-01

49

Pain pressure threshold algometry of the abdominal wall in healthy women  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of pain pressure threshold algometry at various points of the abdominal wall of healthy women. Twenty-one healthy women in menacme with a mean age of 28 ± 5.4 years (range: 19-39 years) were included. All volunteers had regular menstrual cycles (27-33 days) and were right-handed and, to the best of our knowledge, none were taking medications at the time of testing. Women with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety or other mood disturbances were excluded. Women with previous abdominal surgery, any pain condition or any evidence of inflammation, hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, or inflammatory disease were also excluded. Pain perception thresholds were assessed with a pressure algometer with digital traction and compression and a measuring capacity for 5?kg. All points were localized by palpation and marked with a felt-tipped pen and each individual was evaluated over a period of 2 days in two consecutive sessions, each session consisting of a set of 14?point measurements repeated twice by two examiners in random sequence. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean pain threshold obtained by the two examiners on 2 diferent days (examiner A: P = 1.00; examiner B: P = 0.75; Wilcoxon matched pairs test). There was excellent/good agreement between examiners for all days and all points. Our results have established baseline values to which future researchers will be able to refer. They show that pressure algometry is a reliable measure for pain perception in the abdominal wall of healthy women. PMID:22527127

Montenegro, M.L.L.S.; Braz, C.A.; Mateus-Vasconcelos, E.L.; Rosa-e-Silva, J.C.; Candido-dos-Reis, F.J.; Nogueira, A.A.; Poli-Neto, O.B.

2012-01-01

50

Nonadaptive Algorithms for Threshold Group Testing with Inhibitors and Error-Tolerance  

PubMed Central

Abstract A group test gives a positive (negative) outcome if it contains at least u (at most l) positive items, and an arbitrary outcome if the number of positive items is between thresholds l and u. This problem introduced by Damaschke is called threshold group testing. It is a generalization of classical group testing. Chen and Fu extended this problem to the error-tolerant version and first proposed efficient nonadaptive algorithms. In this article, we extend threshold group testing to the k-inhibitors model in which a test has a positive outcome if it contains at least u positives and at most k?1 inhibitors. By using (d?+?k???l, u; 2e?+?1]-disjunct matrix we provide nonadaptive algorithms for the threshold group testing model with k-inhibitors and at most e-erroneous outcomes. The decoding complexity is O(nu+k log n) for fixed parameters (d, u, l, k, e). PMID:22401573

He, Yichao; Tian, Haiyan; Zhang, Xinlu; Wang, Zhiwei

2012-01-01

51

Fault-tolerant ancilla preparation and noise threshold lower bounds for the 23-qubit Golay code  

E-print Network

In fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes, the overhead is often dominated by the cost of preparing codewords reliably. This cost generally increases quadratically with the block size of the underlying quantum error-correcting code. In consequence, large codes that are otherwise very efficient have found limited fault-tolerance applications. Fault-tolerant preparation circuits therefore are an important target for optimization. We study the Golay code, a 23-qubit quantum error-correcting code that protects the logical qubit to a distance of seven. In simulations, even using a naive ancilla preparation procedure, the Golay code is competitive with other codes both in terms of overhead and the tolerable noise threshold. We provide two simplified circuits for fault-tolerant preparation of Golay code-encoded ancillas. The new circuits minimize error propagation, reducing the overhead by roughly a factor of four compared to standard encoding circuits. By adapting the malignant set counting technique to depolarizing noise, we further prove a threshold above 1.32 x 10^{-3} noise per gate.

Adam Paetznick; Ben W. Reichardt

2013-04-12

52

Gender differences in pain ratings and pupil reactions to painful pressure stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate gender differences in pain perception, the present study employed both a psychophysical and a psychophysiological measure. In experiment 1, 20 subjects rated the painfulness of 4 different levels of tonic pressure applied to their fingers using a verbally anchored categorization procedure. In general agreement with studies of pain threshold and tolerance, female subjects reported greater pain

Wolfgang Ellermeier; Wolfgang Westphal

1995-01-01

53

Acetaminophen self-administered in the drinking water increases the pain threshold of rats (Rattus norvegicus).  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that the addition of flavored acetaminophen suspension (for example, Children's Tylenol) in the drinking water of rats may not be effective in producing postoperative analgesia because of low levels of consumption. However, these investigations neither measured analgesia nor compared the consumption by rats that had undergone surgery with that by unmanipulated rats. The present study reports that although unmanipulated rats naive to the taste of flavored acetaminophen do indeed drink significantly less of this liquid than tap water, they drank sufficient amounts of the acetaminophen-containing solution to significantly raise pain thresholds, as measured by the hot-plate test. Moreover, rats that had undergone surgery drank significantly more acetaminophen solution than did those that had no surgery. These data suggest that oral self-administration of flavored acetaminophen by rats may be an appropriate means to reduce pain. PMID:16995647

Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M; Kenmuir, Cynthia L; Bacik, Stephanie E

2006-09-01

54

Threshold of Musculoskeletal Pain Intensity for Increased Risk of Long-Term Sickness Absence among Female Healthcare Workers in Eldercare  

PubMed Central

Purpose Musculoskeletal disorders increase the risk for absenteeism and work disability. However, the threshold when musculoskeletal pain intensity significantly increases the risk of sickness absence among different occupations is unknown. This study estimates the risk for long-term sickness absence (LTSA) from different pain intensities in the low back, neck/shoulder and knees among female healthcare workers in eldercare. Methods Prospective cohort study among 8,732 Danish female healthcare workers responding to a questionnaire in 2004–2005, and subsequently followed for one year in a national register of social transfer payments (DREAM). Using Cox regression hazard ratio (HR) analysis we modeled risk estimates of pain intensities on a scale from 0–9 (reference 0, where 0 is no pain and 9 is worst imaginable pain) in the low back, neck/shoulders and knees during the last three months for onset of LTSA (receiving sickness absence compensation for at least eight consecutive weeks) during one-year follow-up. Results During follow-up, the 12-month prevalence of LTSA was 6.3%. With adjustment for age, BMI, smoking and leisure physical activity, the thresholds of pain intensities significantly increasing risk of LTSA for the low back (HR 1.44 [95%CI 1.07–1.93]), neck/shoulders (HR 1.47 [95%CI 1.10–1.96]) and knees (HR 1.43 [95%CI 1.06–1.93]) were 5, 4 and 3 (scale 0–9), respectively, referencing pain intensity of 0. Conclusion The threshold of pain intensity significantly increasing the risk for LTSA among female healthcare workers varies across body regions, with knee pain having the lowest threshold. This knowledge may be used in the prevention of LTSA among health care workers. PMID:22911772

Andersen, Lars L.; Clausen, Thomas; Burr, Hermann; Holtermann, Andreas

2012-01-01

55

Comparison of muscle and joint pressure-pain thresholds in patients with complex regional pain syndrome and upper limb pain of other origin.  

PubMed

Pain localized in the deep tissues occurs frequently in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In addition, hyperalgesia to blunt pressure over muscles is common in CRPS, but it often appears in limb pain of other origin as well. Considering that 3-phase bone scintigraphy (TPBS) reveals periarticular enhanced bone metabolism in CRPS, joint-associated hyperalgesia to blunt pressure might be a more specific finding than hyperalgesia over muscles. In 34 patients with upper limb pain (18 CRPS, 16 non-CRPS; diagnosed in accordance to the Budapest criteria) and in 18 healthy controls, pressure-pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over the thenar (PPTThenar), the metacarpophalangeal (PPTMCP), and the proximal interphalangeal (PPTPIP) joints using a pressure algometer (Somedic, Sweden). Beforehand, all patients had received TPBS for diagnostic purposes independently of the study. Region-of-interest (ROI) ratios (mineralization phase) for the MCP and PIP, excluding fracture sites, were correlated with the PPT. In CRPS, all ROI ratios were significantly increased and all PPT of the affected hand were decreased compared to non-CRPS (PPTThenar: 243±150kPa vs 358±197kPa, PPTMCP: 80±67kPa vs 159±93kPa, PPTPIP: 80±56kPa vs 184±110kPa; P<.01) and controls (PPTThenar: 478±106kPa, PPTMCP: 254±50kPa, PPTPIP: 275±76kPa; P<.01). A PPTThenar below 293kPa revealed 77% sensitivity but only 63% specificity, whereas a PPTPIP below 102kPa had 82% sensitivity and 94% specificity to identify CRPS. Only in CRPS were PPTMCP and PPTPIP correlated significantly inversely with the ROI ratio (MCP: r=-0.439, PIP: r=-0.447). PPTPIP shows higher specificity for CRPS type I than PPTThenar without loss of sensitivity. Therefore, measurement of joint PPT could be a noninvasive diagnostic tool reflecting increased bone metabolism assessed by TPBS as a sign of bone pathophysiology. PMID:24333949

Mainka, Tina; Bischoff, Florian S; Baron, Ralf; Krumova, Elena K; Nicolas, Volkmar; Pennekamp, Werner; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vollert, Jan; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

2014-03-01

56

Pressure Pain Thresholds Increase after Preconditioning 1 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Background The primary motor cortex (M1) is an effective target of non-invasive cortical stimulation (NICS) for pain threshold modulation. It has been suggested that the initial level of cortical excitability of M1 plays a key role in the plastic effects of NICS. Objective Here we investigate whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) primed 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds and if this is related to observed alterations in cortical excitability. Method 15 healthy, male participants received 10 min 1 mA anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS to the left M1 before 15 min 1 Hz rTMS in separate sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Motor cortical excitability was recorded at baseline, post-tDCS priming and post-rTMS through recording motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from right FDI muscle. Pressure pain thresholds were determined by quantitative sensory testing (QST) through a computerized algometer, on the palmar thenar of the right hand pre- and post-stimulation. Results Cathodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS was found to reverse the expected suppressive effect of 1 Hz rTMS on cortical excitability; leading to an overall increase in activity (p<0.001) with a parallel increase in pressure pain thresholds (p<0.01). In contrast, anodal tDCS-primed 1 Hz-rTMS resulted in a corresponding decrease in cortical excitability (p<0.05), with no significant effect on pressure pain. Conclusion This study demonstrates that priming the M1 before stimulation of 1 Hz-rTMS modulates experimental pressure pain thresholds in a safe and controlled manner, producing a form of analgesia. PMID:24658333

Moloney, Tonya M.; Witney, Alice G.

2014-01-01

57

The effects of aerobic exercise and strengthening exercise on pain pressure thresholds.  

PubMed

[Purpose] We assessed the effects of aerobic exercise and strengthening exercise on pain pressure thresholds (PPTs) over time. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen healthy participants were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: aerobic exercise, strengthening exercise, and control. The subjects in the aerobic group walked on a treadmill for 40?min at 6.5?km/h. The subjects in the strength group performed circuit training that included bench press, lat pull down, biceps curl, triceps extension, and shoulder press based on the perceived exertion for 40?min. The subjects in the control group rested without any exercise in a quiet room for 40?min. The PPTs of 5 potential muscle trigger points before exercise, and immediately after 10 and 40?min of exercise or rest were measured using an electronic algometer (JTECH Medical, USA). The Friedman's, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests were performed using SPSS 18.0 (IBM, Korea). [Results] The PPTs of all subjects decreased after 10?min of exercise, but the difference was not statistically significant. The PPTs of the control group decreased after 40?min. Furthermore, the PPTs of 3 muscles increased after 40?min of aerobic exercise and of 6 muscles after 40?min of strengthening exercise. No significant difference in PPTs was noted among the groups. [Conclusion] The results show that 40?min is a more appropriate exercise time, although the efficacy of controlling pain did not differ between strengthening exercise and aerobic exercise. PMID:25140106

Lee, Han Suk

2014-07-01

58

Evaluation of sensitivity, motor and pain thresholds across the menstrual cycle through medium-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify variations in nervous thresholds in different phases of the menstrual cycle in eumenorrheic women and users of oral contraceptives. METHOD: An observational study was performed including 56 volunteers, consisting of 30 eumenorrheic women who were non-users of oral contraceptives and 26 users of oral contraceptives. An electrical stimulator was employed to assess their nervous thresholds, with pulses applied at a fixed frequency of 2,500 Hz, modulated at 50 Hz, with phase variances of 20 ?s, 50 ?s and 100 ?s. Sensitivity, motor and pain thresholds were evaluated during five menstrual cycle phases: phase 1 - menstrual, phase 2 - follicular, phase 3 - ovulatory, phase 4 - luteal and phase 5 - premenstrual. RESULTS: The results indicated low sensitivity thresholds of 100 ?s for non-users of oral contraceptives and 50 ?s for oral contraceptive users in phase 5. Low motor thresholds of 20 ?s, 50 ?s and 100 ?s were observed for non-users of oral contraceptives in phase 5, while that of oral contraceptive users was 100 ?s. Finally, a low pain threshold of 100 ?s was observed in phase 5, but only in the oral contraceptive group. CONCLUSION: Nervous thresholds vary systematically across the phases of the menstrual cycle, with or without the use of oral contraceptives. These variations should be taken into account during research performed in women. PMID:23917651

de Brito Barbosa, Mariana; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Nunes, Fabiana Roberta

2013-01-01

59

Human body impedance and threshold currents for perception and pain for contact hazard analysis in the VLF-MF band  

Microsoft Academic Search

The body impedance and threshold currents needed to produce sensations of perception and pain have been measured for 367 human subjects for the frequency range 10 kHz to 3 MHz. A sufficient number of subjects (197 male and 170 female subjects of ages between 18 and 70 years) were utilized in the study to make valid statistical predictions for the

Indira Chatterjee; Ding Wu; Om P. Gandhi

1986-01-01

60

Long-term fluctuations of pressure pain thresholds in healthy men, normally menstruating women and oral contraceptive users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether the pressure pain threshold (PPT) in masticatory muscles of symptom-free subjects was influenced by fluctuations of the sex hormones. The PPT was measured with an electronic algometer for at least 10 consecutive menstrual cycles in 10 women using oral contraceptives and 10 women not using oral contraceptives, with a regular menstrual

Hans Isselée; Antoon De Laat; Kris Bogaerts; Roeland Lysens

2001-01-01

61

Effect of brief mindfulness intervention on tolerance and distress of pain induced by cold-pressor task.  

PubMed

A number of studies have demonstrated that short-term meditation intervention can lead to greater tolerance and lower pain or distress ratings of experimentally induced pain. However, few attempts have been made to examine the effects of short-term mindfulness-based intervention on the tolerance and distress of pain, when delivered in a therapist-free form. The present research explored the effect of brief mindfulness intervention using pre-recorded instruction on pain experimentally induced by the cold-pressor task. The effects of the mindfulness strategy, the distraction strategy and spontaneous strategy, all through the instructions of pre-recorded voices, were compared. The subjects were drawn from healthy college students and randomly assigned to the aforementioned three groups. Our results showed that compared with using spontaneous strategies, the mindfulness intervention significantly improved the participants' pain tolerance and reduced their immersion distress. The distraction strategy also significantly improved the participants' pain tolerance. However, it did not have a significant effect on the participants' level of distress during the immersion period. Our results suggest that brief mindfulness intervention without a therapist's personal involvement is capable of helping people cope with pain induced by the cold-pressor task. PMID:22961992

Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Sisi; Chang, Shaochen; Chen, Wenjun; Si, Mei

2013-08-01

62

Superconducting quantum circuits at the surface code threshold for fault tolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum computer can solve hard problems, such as prime factoring, database searching and quantum simulation, at the cost of needing to protect fragile quantum states from error. Quantum error correction provides this protection by distributing a logical state among many physical quantum bits (qubits) by means of quantum entanglement. Superconductivity is a useful phenomenon in this regard, because it allows the construction of large quantum circuits and is compatible with microfabrication. For superconducting qubits, the surface code approach to quantum computing is a natural choice for error correction, because it uses only nearest-neighbour coupling and rapidly cycled entangling gates. The gate fidelity requirements are modest: the per-step fidelity threshold is only about 99 per cent. Here we demonstrate a universal set of logic gates in a superconducting multi-qubit processor, achieving an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 99.92 per cent and a two-qubit gate fidelity of up to 99.4 per cent. This places Josephson quantum computing at the fault-tolerance threshold for surface code error correction. Our quantum processor is a first step towards the surface code, using five qubits arranged in a linear array with nearest-neighbour coupling. As a further demonstration, we construct a five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using the complete circuit and full set of gates. The results demonstrate that Josephson quantum computing is a high-fidelity technology, with a clear path to scaling up to large-scale, fault-tolerant quantum circuits.

Barends, R.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Veitia, A.; Sank, D.; Jeffrey, E.; White, T. C.; Mutus, J.; Fowler, A. G.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Korotkov, A. N.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

2014-04-01

63

Superconducting quantum circuits at the surface code threshold for fault tolerance.  

PubMed

A quantum computer can solve hard problems, such as prime factoring, database searching and quantum simulation, at the cost of needing to protect fragile quantum states from error. Quantum error correction provides this protection by distributing a logical state among many physical quantum bits (qubits) by means of quantum entanglement. Superconductivity is a useful phenomenon in this regard, because it allows the construction of large quantum circuits and is compatible with microfabrication. For superconducting qubits, the surface code approach to quantum computing is a natural choice for error correction, because it uses only nearest-neighbour coupling and rapidly cycled entangling gates. The gate fidelity requirements are modest: the per-step fidelity threshold is only about 99 per cent. Here we demonstrate a universal set of logic gates in a superconducting multi-qubit processor, achieving an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 99.92 per cent and a two-qubit gate fidelity of up to 99.4 per cent. This places Josephson quantum computing at the fault-tolerance threshold for surface code error correction. Our quantum processor is a first step towards the surface code, using five qubits arranged in a linear array with nearest-neighbour coupling. As a further demonstration, we construct a five-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using the complete circuit and full set of gates. The results demonstrate that Josephson quantum computing is a high-fidelity technology, with a clear path to scaling up to large-scale, fault-tolerant quantum circuits. PMID:24759412

Barends, R; Kelly, J; Megrant, A; Veitia, A; Sank, D; Jeffrey, E; White, T C; Mutus, J; Fowler, A G; Campbell, B; Chen, Y; Chen, Z; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Neill, C; O'Malley, P; Roushan, P; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; Korotkov, A N; Cleland, A N; Martinis, John M

2014-04-24

64

Salivary Cortisol and Cold Pain Sensitivity in Female Twins  

PubMed Central

Background There is a dearth of knowledge about the link between cortisol and pain sensitivity. Purpose We examined the association of salivary cortisol with indices of cold pain sensitivity in 198 female twins and explored the role of familial confounding. Methods Three-day saliva samples were collected for cortisol levels and a cold pressor test was used to collect pain ratings and time to threshold and tolerance. Linear regression modeling with generalized estimating equations examined the overall and within-pair associations. Results Lower diurnal variation of cortisol was associated with higher pain ratings at threshold (p = 0.02) and tolerance (p < 0.01). The relationship of diurnal variation with pain ratings at threshold and tolerance was minimally influenced by familial factors (i.e., genetics and common environment). Conclusions Understanding the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms underlying the link between HPA axis dysregulation and pain sensitivity may help to prevent chronic pain development and maintenance. PMID:23955075

Godfrey, Kathryn M; Strachan, Eric; Dansie, Elizabeth; Crofford, Leslie J; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Poeschla, Brian; Succop, Annemarie; Noonan, Carolyn; Afari, Niloofar

2013-01-01

65

Long-term efficacy, safety and tolerability of Remoxy for the management of chronic pain.  

PubMed

Historically, chronic pain generally went under-treated for a variety of objective and subjective reasons, including difficulty to objectively diagnose and manage over a long period of time, potential serious adverse effects of commonly available medications, and patient, healthcare and societal concerns over opioid medications. More recently, in an effort to redress the under-treatment of pain, the number of prescriptions of opioid analgesics has risen dramatically. However, paralleling the increased legitimate use has been a concomitant increase in opioid abuse, misuse and diversion. Pharmaceutical companies have responded by developing a variety of opioid formulations designed to deter abuse by making the products more difficult to tamper with. One such product is Remoxy(®), an extended-release formulation of the strong opioid oxycodone. We review the efficacy, safety and tolerability of this formulation based on the available published literature. PMID:25683255

Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Zampogna, Gianpietro; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

2015-03-01

66

Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze-tolerant caterpillars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreases in snow cover due to climate change could alter the energetics and physiology of ectothermic animals that overwinter beneath snow, yet how snow cover interacts with physiological thresholds is unknown. We applied numerical simulation of overwintering metabolic rates coupled with field validation to determine the importance of snow cover and freezing to the overwintering lipid consumption of the freeze-tolerant Arctiid caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella. Caterpillars that overwintered above the snow experienced mean temperatures 1.3°C lower than those below snow and consumed 18.36 mg less lipid of a total 68.97-mg reserve. Simulations showed that linear temperature effects on metabolic rate accounted for only 30% of the difference in lipid consumption. When metabolic suppression by freezing was included, 93% of the difference between animals that overwintered above and below snow was explained. Our results were robust to differences in temperature sensitivity of metabolic rate, changes in freezing point, and the magnitude of metabolic suppression by freezing. The majority of the energy savings was caused by the non-continuous reduction in metabolic rate due to freezing, the first example of the importance of temperature thresholds in the lipid use of overwintering insects.

Marshall, Katie E.; Sinclair, Brent J.

2012-01-01

67

The initial effects of a Mulligan's mobilization with movement technique on range of movement and pressure pain threshold in pain-limited shoulders.  

PubMed

There is little known about the specific manual therapy techniques used to treat painfully limited shoulders and their effects on range of movement (ROM) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). The objective of this study was to investigate the initial effects of a Mulligan's mobilization with movement (MWM) technique on shoulder ROM in the plane of the scapula and PPT in participants with anterior shoulder pain. A repeated measures, double-blind randomized-controlled trial with a crossover design was conducted with 24 subjects (11 males and 13 females). ROM and PPT were measured before and after the application of MWM, sham and control conditions. Significant and clinically meaningful improvements in both ROM (15.3%, F (2,46)=16.31 P=0.00) and PPT (20.2%, F(2,46)=3.44, P=0.04) occurred immediately after post treatment. The results indicate that this specific manual therapy treatment has an immediate positive effect on both ROM and pain in subjects with painful limitation of shoulder movement. Further study is needed to evaluate the duration of such effects and the mechanism by which this occurs. PMID:17070090

Teys, Pamela; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

2008-02-01

68

Heat pain thresholds and cerebral event-related potentials following painful CO2 laser stimulation in chronic tension-type headache.  

PubMed

Current opinion concerning the pathophysiology of tension-type headache (TTH) and its related pericranial muscle tenderness proposes a primary role of central sensitization at the level of dorsalhorn/trigeminal nucleus as well as the supraspinal level. Investigation of these phenomena can be conducted using laser-evoked potentials (LEPs), which are objective and quantitative neurophysiological tools for the assessment of pain perception. In the present study we examined features of LEPs, as well as cutaneous heat-pain thresholds to laser stimulation, in relation to the tenderness of pericranial muscles in chronic TTH resulting from pericranial muscle disorder, during a pain-free phase. Twelve patients with TTH and 11 healthy controls were examined using the Total Tenderness Scoring (TTS) system. The stimulus was a laser pulse generated by a CO(2) laser. The dorsum of the hand and the cutaneous zones corresponding to pericranial muscles were stimulated. Subjective perception of stimulus intensity was assessed by a visual analogue scale. Two responses, the earlier named N2a and the last named P2, were considered; the absolute latency was measured at the highest peak of each response. The N2a-P2 components' peak-to-peak amplitude was detected. The heat pain threshold was similar in TTH patients and controls at the level of both the hand and pericranial skin. The TTS scores at almost all pericranial sites were higher in TTH patients than in normal controls. The amplitude of the N2a-P2 complex elicited by stimulation of the pericranial zone was greater in TTH patients than in controls; the amplitude increase was significantly associated with the TTS score. Our findings suggest that pericranial tenderness may be a primary phenomenon that precedes headache, and is mediated by a greater pain-specific hypervigilance at the cortical level. PMID:12855320

de Tommaso, Marina; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Losito, Luciana; Puca, Francomichele

2003-07-01

69

Chronic inflammatory pain prevents tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of the rat  

PubMed Central

The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) contributes to morphine antinociception and tolerance. Chronic inflammatory pain causes changes within the PAG that are expected to enhance morphine tolerance. This hypothesis was tested by assessing antinociception and tolerance following repeated microinjections of morphine into the vlPAG of rats with chronic inflammatory pain. Microinjection of morphine into the vlPAG reversed the allodynia caused by intraplantar administration of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA), and produced antinociception on the hot plate test. Although there was a gradual decrease in morphine antinociception with repeated testing, there was no evidence of tolerance when morphine and saline treated rats with hind paw inflammation were tested with cumulative doses of morphine. In contrast, repeated morphine injections into the vlPAG caused a rightward shift in the morphine dose-response curve in rats without hind paw inflammation, as would be expected with the development of tolerance. The lack of tolerance in CFA treated rats was evident whether rats were exposed to repeated behavioral testing or not (Experiment 2) and whether they were treated with 4 or 8 prior microinjections of morphine into the vlPAG (Experiment 3). These data demonstrate that chronic inflammatory pain does not disrupt the antinociceptive effect of microinjecting morphine into the vlPAG, but it does disrupt the development of tolerance. PMID:24161274

Mehalick, Melissa L.; Ingram, Susan L.; Aicher, Sue; Morgan, Michael M

2013-01-01

70

Efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability of oral oxycodone/naloxone combination for chronic pain in outpatients with cancer: an observational study.  

PubMed

Combination opioid agonist/antagonist therapy has been shown to preserve bowel function in patients with chronic cancer pain. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of prolonged-released fixed-dose oxycodone-naloxone (PR OXN) in consecutive outpatients with chronic cancer pain. Of 206 patients prescribed PR OXN (mean age 61.3 ± 12.9 years; 52.9% female), 31.5% were opioid naïve. PR OXN was associated with a significant decrease in pain score measured on a visual analogue scale over 28 days (P < .0001), without adverse effects on bowel function, nor change in laxative use. PR OXN efficacy and tolerability were similar in opioid-naïve and -experienced patients, and among age-stratified subgroups. No severe side effects occurred. In a real-life outpatient setting, PR OXN provided analgesia without bowel dysfunction in patients with chronic cancer pain. PMID:24249829

Cuomo, Arturo; Russo, Gennaro; Esposito, Gennaro; Forte, Cira Antonietta; Connola, Marianna; Marcassa, Claudio

2014-12-01

71

Gender differences in pain.  

PubMed

A review of the literature on gender and clinical pain reveals a disproportionate representation of women receiving treatment for many pain conditions and suggests that women report more severe pain, more frequent pain, and pain of longer duration than do men. Gender differences in pain perception have also been extensively studied in the laboratory, and ratings of experimentally induced pain also show some sex disparity, with females generally reporting lower pain thresholds and tolerance than males. However, there is little consensus on whether these apparent differences reflect the way men and women respond to pain, differing social rules for the expression of pain, or biologic differences in the way noxious stimuli are processed. In this paper, our working hypothesis is that the higher prevalence of chronic orofacial pain in women is a result of sex differences in generic pain mechanisms and of as-yet unidentified factors unique to the craniofacial system. We will review the evidence concerning gender differences in the prevalence of pain conditions, with a focus on orofacial pain conditions. Evidence and hypotheses concerning biologic and psychosocial factors that could influence prevalence rates will also be discussed. PMID:11203754

Dao, T T; LeResche, L

2000-01-01

72

Human body impedance and threshold currents for perception and pain for contact hazard analysis in the VLF-MF band  

SciTech Connect

The body impedance and threshold currents needed to produce sensations of perception and pain have been measured for 367 human subjects for the frequency range 10 kHz to 3 MHz. A sufficient number of subjects (197 male and 170 female subjects of ages between 18 and 70 years) were utilized in the study to make valid statistical predictions for the general adult population. Various types of contact with metallic electrodes were used to simulate the situation where a human being would be in contact with a large metallic object (car, van, school bus, etc.) in an electromagnetic field in the VLF to MF band. Based on these measurements, it is speculated that the body impedance of a human being is inversely proportional to the body dimensions and the threshold current for perception is directly proportional to the square of the body dimensions. Predictions are made, based on scaling, for the corresponding threshold values for ten-year-old children. The average measured impedance and threshold current values are used to calculate threshold electric fields required to produce sensations of perception and pain in humans in contact with these vehicles. It is concluded from these calculations that many situations can exist in which the present ANSI (American National Standards Institute) recommended standard of 632 V/m for the frequency band 0.3-3 MHz is too high. The usefulness of safety devices like electrical safety shoes and gloves has been evaluated and it is concluded that they offer adequate protection from VLF to MF currents only up to a frequency of 1 MHz and 3 MHz, respectively. The current flowing through the hand of a human in conductive contact with the handle of an ungrounded van is shown to be as high as 879 mA and produces a local SAR in the wrist of about 1045 W/kg.

Chatterjee, I.; Wu, D.; Gandhi, O.P.

1986-05-01

73

Pain Relief by Electrical Stimulation of the Central Gray Matter in Humans and Its Reversal by Naloxone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relief of intractable pain was produced in six human patients by stimulation of electrodes permanently implanted in the periventricular and periaqueductal gray matter. The level of stimulation sufficient to induce pain relief seems not to alter the acute pain threshold. Indiscriminate repetitive stimulation produced tolerance to both stimulation-produced pain relief and the analgesic action of narcotic medication; this process could

Yoshio Hosobuchi; John E. Adams; Rita Linchitz

1977-01-01

74

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of the analgesic efficacy, onset of action, and tolerability of ibuprofen arginate and ibuprofen in postoperative dental pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Because of its enhanced pharmacokinetic characteristics, ibuprofen arginate might be expected to provide faster pain relief than standard ibuprofen formulations in patients experiencing acute pain.Objective: This study assessed the analgesic efficacy, speed of onset, and tolerability of ibuprofen arginate compared with a commercially available form of ibuprofen in patients with postoperative dental pain.Methods: Patients were randomized to receive ibuprofen

Peter Black; Mitchell B. Max; Paul Desjardins; Thomas Norwood; Alfredo Ardia; Teresa Pallotta

2002-01-01

75

[The impact of Alzheimer's disease on the pain processing].  

PubMed

It is well known that patients with Alzheimer's disease report less pain in comparison to their age group. However, little is yet known about the underlying mechanisms causing the decreased pain report. In order to learn more about these mechanisms, experimental studies are indispensable, since only in experimental settings, noxious input and pain experience can be assessed independently. We therefore report on experimental data on pain perception in Alzheimer's disease in this review. The experimental data suggest that the threshold for pain tolerance is markedly increased and the autonomic pain reaction is, at least in part, considerably diminished. On the other hand, pain threshold and pain event-related brain potentials remain largely unchanged. As possible explanations we discuss age-related changes in pain perception and neuroanatomical changes in Alzheimer's disease. Particularly the atrophy of limbic structures may have a modifying impact on the pain experience. We also discuss what influence communicational deficits have on pain report. PMID:15252751

Kunz, M; Lautenbacher, S

2004-07-01

76

The threshold criteria for the 75g oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy and short-term adverse pregnancy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant threshold values for the 75g oGTT during pregnancy have yet to be conclusively determined. The study aims to identify the risk significance of a borderline oGTT result. Women undergoing a 75g OGTT during the third trimester of pregnancy were classified into two groups - borderline tolerance (2-h post-load glucose 8.0-8.5 mmol\\/l: n=75), and GDM (?8.6 mmol\\/l: n=236). Outcome

C. Savona-Ventura; M. Chircop

2003-01-01

77

Ferulic acid increases pain threshold and ameliorates depression-like behaviors in reserpine-treated mice: behavioral and neurobiological analyses.  

PubMed

Depression-pain dyad involves a series of pathological changes including the dysfunction of neuroendocrine and immune networks. Depression and pain influence each other, but the mechanisms are still obscure. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA) on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors in mice. The results showed that reserpine (1 mg/kg for 3 days, i.p.) led to a significant decrease in nociceptive threshold in thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, as well as a significant increase in the immobility time in mouse models of despair test. The neurochemical assays suggested the decreased neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) along with the increased oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic parameters in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the reserpinised mice. Treatment with FA (40 or 80 mg/kg, p.o.) reversed the behavioral abnormalities and decreased norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex induced by reserpine. The higher dose of FA effectively antagonized the oxidative and nitrosative stress and inflammation as evidenced by down-regulated nitrite, LPO, IL-1?, TNF-?, and up-regulated GSH and SOD. Furthermore, FA produced a dose dependent decrease in substance P, NF-?? p65 and caspase-3 levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of reserpinised mice. The findings suggest that FA exerts the effects on reserpine-induced pain and depression-like behaviors through regulating monoaminergic system, oxidative/antioxidant defense, inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. Understanding the mechanism by which FA ameliorates depression and pain as a multi-targeted compound could open new avenues for the development of innovative treatments for depression coupled with pain. PMID:23584961

Xu, Ying; Zhang, Lu; Shao, Tuo; Ruan, Lina; Wang, Lin; Sun, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Zhu, Xinbo; O'Donnell, James M; Pan, Jianchun

2013-12-01

78

Do Diabetic Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes Have a Higher Threshold for Ischemic Pain?  

PubMed Central

Background: Data from over 4 decades have reported a higher incidence of silent infarction among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), but recent publications have shown conflicting results regarding the correlation between DM and presence of pain in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Objective: Our primary objective was to analyze the association between DM and precordial pain at hospital arrival. Secondary analyses evaluated the association between hyperglycemia and precordial pain at presentation, and the subgroup of patients presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset. Methods: We analyzed a prospectively designed registry of 3,544 patients with ACS admitted to a Coronary Care Unit of a tertiary hospital. We developed multivariable models to adjust for potential confounders. Results: Patients with precordial pain were less likely to have DM (30.3%) than those without pain (34.0%; unadjusted p = 0.029), but this difference was not significant after multivariable adjustment, for the global population (p = 0.84), and for subset of patients that presented within 6 hours from symptom onset (p = 0.51). In contrast, precordial pain was more likely among patients with hyperglycemia (41.2% vs 37.0% without hyperglycemia, p = 0.035) in the overall population and also among those who presented within 6 hours (41.6% vs. 32.3%, p = 0.001). Adjusted models showed an independent association between hyperglycemia and pain at presentation, especially among patients who presented within 6 hours (OR = 1.41, p = 0.008). Conclusion: In this non-selected ACS population, there was no correlation between DM and hospital presentation without precordial pain. Moreover, hyperglycemia correlated significantly with pain at presentation, especially in the population that arrived within 6 hours from symptom onset. PMID:25076180

Nicolau, José Carlos; Barbosa, Carlos José Dornas Gonçalves; Franci, André; Baracioli, Luciano Moreira; Franken, Marcelo; Lima, Felipe Gallego; Giraldez, Roberto Rocha; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Ramires, José Antônio Franchini; Giugliano, Robert P.

2014-01-01

79

Group differences in pain modulation: pain-free women compared to pain-free men and to women with TMD.  

PubMed

Previously reported differences in sensitivity to experimental pain stimuli between the sexes, as well as between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients and healthy control subjects, may be attributable in part to group differences in two pain modulatory mechanisms: the baroreceptor reflex arc and the endogenous opioid system. Twenty-two pain-free (PF) men, 20 PF women and 20 women with TMD underwent two testing sessions in which heat pain and ischemic arm pain threshold and tolerance were measured during both sessions, but followed relaxation during one session and laboratory stress tasks during the other. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma -endorphin (E) concentration were measured during a baseline rest and during the stress or relaxation periods. PF men's threshold and tolerance for heat pain, but not for ischemic pain, exceeded that of PF women's during both sessions. PF women and TMD women did not differ in sensitivity to either pain modality; however, significantly lower ischemic pain threshold (IPTh) was linked to oral contraceptive use in PF women but not TMD patients. In the men alone, higher baseline systolic BP (SBP) was correlated with higher heat pain threshold on both days and heat pain tolerance on the stress day. Conversely, in TMD women, higher baseline SBP was correlated with lower ischemic pain tolerance (IPTol) on both days; BP and pain sensitivity were not related in PF women. In men, but not in PF or TMD women, stress systolic and diastolic BP were positively correlated with heat pain threshold and tolerance and higher diastolic reactivity to stress were correlated with higher heat pain and IPTh and tolerance. On the stress day, higher baseline E level was strongly associated with higher IPTol in PF women but marginally associated with lower IPTol in TMD women. Thus, it appears that a BP-related analgesic mechanism (probably baroreceptor-mediated) predominates in PF men, while an endogenous opioid mechanism predominates in PF women. Stress enhances the expression of these central mechanisms. Female TMDs appear unable to effectively engage normal pain-inhibitory systems; opioid receptor desensitization and/or downregulation are probably implicated, because TMDs' production of E appears normal. PMID:11972994

Bragdon, Edith E; Light, Kathleen C; Costello, Nancy L; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Bunting, Shelley; Bhalang, Kanokporn; Maixner, William

2002-04-01

80

Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold  

PubMed Central

Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

2014-01-01

81

Practical Guide to the Management of Acute and Chronic Pain in the Presence of Drug Tolerance for the Healthcare Practitioner  

PubMed Central

Background Drug tolerance has been on the rise in recent years worldwide, and consequently, pain management in our population has become challenging. Methods Discussed in this review are commonly abused drugs and considerations for treating acute and chronic pain states in patients with substance disorders. Results After marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco, the most widely abused substances are oxycodone (Oxycontin), diazepam (Valium), and methylphenidate (Ritalin). Urine testing can detect metabolites of drugs used by patients and is useful for assessing drug abuse, medication diversion, and drug interactions. The comprehensive treatment of pain in a patient with addictive disorder or tolerance must address 3 issues: the patient's addiction, any associated psychiatric conditions, and the patient's pain. Eliciting a detailed history of drug abuse—illicit drugs as well as prescription drugs—and ascertaining if the patient is currently enrolled in a methadone maintenance program for the treatment of drug addiction is vital. Conclusion Medical observation, supportive care, multidisciplinary pain management, and timely interventions as necessary are the keys to safe outcomes in these patients. PMID:25249810

Vadivelu, Nalini; Singh-Gill, Harman; Kodumudi, Gopal; Kaye, Aaron Joshua; Urman, Richard D.; Kaye, Alan David

2014-01-01

82

Subgroups based on thermal and pressure pain thresholds in women with chronic whiplash display differences in clinical presentation – an explorative study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the presence of subgroups in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) based on pain thresholds for pressure (PPT), cold (CPT), and heat (HPT) and to compare these subgroups with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. Methods Two groups of female subjects – patients with chronic WAD (n = 28) and healthy controls (CON; n = 29) – were investigated. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) for thermal thresholds and algometry for PPT at four sites in the body (over the trapezius and tibialis anterior bilaterally) were determined. Habitual pain intensities, psychological strain, disability, and health aspects were registered using a questionnaire. Results A cluster analysis based on PPT, CPT, and HPT identified two subgroups of chronic WAD: one sensitive subgroup (s-WAD; n = 21), and one less sensitive subgroup (ls-WAD; n = 6). S-WAD displayed widespread hyperalgesia, whereas ls-WAD had localized hyperalgesia in the neck area, with tendencies to supernormal values in remote areas of the body. Generally, s-WAD had a significantly worse situation than the CON with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. The ls-WAD group was intermediary between s-WAD and CON in these aspects. Conclusion Different explanations, eg, severity of the pain condition per se, etiological factors, and pre-trauma differences in pain sensitivity, may exist for the differences in pain thresholds between the two subgroups. Future research should investigate the role of pain thresholds in the chronic stage to determine the efficacy of treatment interventions. PMID:23166449

Börsbo, Björn; Liedberg, Gunilla M; Wallin, Mia; Gerdle, Björn

2012-01-01

83

Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Active Medical Research Studies on Pain (ClinicalTrials.gov) Multimedia NCCAM Intramural Pain Research Program Safety Information Remoufan ... News Press Releases Alerts & Advisories Events Highlighted Information Multimedia (Video, Images, and Audio) NCCIH Clinical Digest A ...

84

Spatial discrimination thresholds for pain and touch in human hairy skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional concept that pain is poorly localized has been challenged by recent studies, where subjects were able to point to the stimulated spot on the skin with an accuracy of 10–20 mm. Pointing movements themselves, however, have errors of about 15 mm. To determine the limits of sensory performance of the nociceptive system independent of motor performance, point localization

Tanja Schlereth; Walter Magerl; Rolf-Detlef Treede

2001-01-01

85

Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) lowers alcohol sensitivity and pain threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abuse of ethanol is a major risk factor in medicine, in part because of its widespread effect on the activity of the central nervous system, including behavior, pain, and temperature sensation. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a mitochondrial protonophore that regulates cellular energy homeostasis. Its expression in mitochondria of axons and axon terminals of basal forebrain areas suggests that UCP2

Balazs Horvath; Claudia Spies; Gyongyi Horvath; Wolfgang J Kox; Suzanne Miyamoto; Sean Barry; Craig H Warden; Ingo Bechmann; Sabrina Diano; Jill Heemskerk; Tamas L Horvath

2002-01-01

86

High-Frequency Transcutaneous Peripheral Nerve Stimulation Induces a Higher Increase of Heat Pain Threshold in the Cutaneous Area of the Stimulated Nerve When Confronted to the Neighbouring Areas  

PubMed Central

Background. TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) is probably the most diffused physical therapy used for antalgic purposes. Although it continues to be used by trial and error, correct targeting of paresthesias evoked by the electrical stimulation on the painful area is diffusely considered very important for pain relief. Aim. To investigate if TENS antalgic effect is higher in the cutaneous area of the stimulated nerve when confronted to neighbouring areas. Methods. 10 volunteers (4 males, 6 females) underwent three different sessions: in two, heat pain thresholds (HPTs) were measured on the dorsal hand skin before, during and after electrical stimulation (100?Hz, 0.1?msec) of superficial radial nerve; in the third session HPTs, were measured without any stimulation. Results. Radial nerve stimulation induced an increase of HPT significantly higher in its cutaneous territory when confronted to the neighbouring ulnar nerve territory, and antalgic effect persisted beyond the stimulation time. Conclusions. The location of TENS electrodes is crucial for obtaining the strongest pain relief, and peripheral nerve trunk stimulation is advised whenever possible. Moreover, the present study indicates that continuous stimulation could be unnecessary, suggesting a strategy for avoiding the well-known tolerance-like effect of prolonged TENS application. PMID:24027756

Buonocore, M.; Camuzzini, N.; Cecini, M.; Dalla Toffola, E.

2013-01-01

87

Blockade of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Attenuates Morphine Tolerance and Facilitates the Pain Relieving Properties of Morphine  

PubMed Central

The ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an integral locus for morphine action. Although it is clear that glia contribute to the development of morphine tolerance, to date, the investigation of their role has been limited to spinal and medullary loci. Opioids induce a neuroinflammatory response that opposes acute and long-term analgesia, thereby limiting their efficacy as therapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), along with its coreceptor myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2), mediates these effects. To date, the brain loci through which TLR4 modulates morphine tolerance have not been identified. We have previously demonstrated that chronic subcutaneous morphine results in tolerance that is accompanied by increases in vlPAG glial cell activity. Using in vivo pharmacological manipulations of vlPAG glia and TLR4 in the adult male rat, we show that intra-vlPAG administration of the general glial cell metabolic inhibitor propentofylline or the astrocyte activity inhibitor fluorocitrate attenuate tolerance to morphine. Characterization of MD-2 expression within the PAG revealed dense MD-2 expression throughout the vlPAG. Further, antagonizing vlPAG TLR4 dose dependently prevented the development of morphine tolerance, and vlPAG microinjections of TLR4 agonists dose dependently produced a “naive” tolerance to subsequent challenge doses of morphine. Finally, using a model of persistent inflammatory pain and pharmacological manipulation of TLR4 we demonstrate that systemic antagonism of TLR4 potentiated acute morphine antihyperalgesia. These results, together, indicate that vlPAG glia regulate morphine tolerance development via TLR4 signaling, and implicate TLR4 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain. PMID:24089500

Eidson, Lori N.

2013-01-01

88

Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold pain

D Ziegler; P Mayer; F A Gries

1988-01-01

89

Perceived racial discrimination, but not mistrust of medical researchers, predicts the heat pain tolerance of African Americans with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Studies have shown that perceived racial discrimination is a significant predictor of clinical pain severity among African Americans. It remains unknown whether perceived racial discrimination also alters the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli, which, in turn, could influence clinical pain severity. This study examined associations between perceived racial discrimination and responses to noxious thermal stimuli among African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers was also assessed given its potential to affect responses to the noxious stimuli. Method One hundred and thirty (52% African American, 48% non-Hispanic white) community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis completed two study sessions. In session one, individuals provided demographic, socioeconomic, physical and mental health information. They completed questionnaires related to perceived lifetime frequency of racial discrimination and mistrust of medical researchers. In session two, individuals underwent a series of controlled thermal stimulation procedures to assess heat pain sensitivity, particularly heat pain tolerance. Results African Americans were more sensitive to heat pain and reported greater perceived racial discrimination as well as greater mistrust of medical researchers compared to non-Hispanic whites. Greater perceived racial discrimination significantly predicted lower heat pain tolerance for African Americans but not non-Hispanic whites. Mistrust of medical researchers did not significantly predict heat pain tolerance for either racial group Conclusion These results lend support to the idea that perceived racial discrimination may influence the clinical pain severity of African Americans via the nociceptive processing of painful stimuli. PMID:24219416

Pham, Quyen T.; Glover, Toni L.; Sotolongo, Adriana; King, Christopher D.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Sanden, Shelley H.; Staud, Roland; Redden, David T.; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B.

2014-01-01

90

Pain rating schema: three distinct subgroups of individuals emerge when rating mild, moderate, and severe pain  

PubMed Central

Background While the validity of pain assessment has been well documented, the underlying schema (ie, organized, preconceived ideas) of how individuals interpret numerical pain ratings is not well understood. This study’s objectives were to examine numerical pain intensity ratings, from (0 to 10 cm on the visual analog scale [VAS]) across multiple severities of commonly experienced acute pain conditions to determine whether the ratings differed between these pain conditions and/or between individuals. Methods A community sample (N=365, 66% female) rated their anticipated pain intensity (VAS) for threshold, mild, moderate, severe, and tolerance level, using several common pain conditions: headache, toothache, joint injury, delayed-onset muscle soreness, burns, and “general pain.” Results Cluster analysis revealed three subgroups of individuals, suggesting three types of underlying pain rating schema: 1) Low Rating subgroup (low VAS pain intensity ratings across all the pain severity categories); 2) Low/High Rating subgroup (low VAS pain intensity rating for mild, but high VAS pain intensity rating for severe pain); and 3) High Rating subgroup (high VAS pain intensity ratings across all the pain severity categories). Overall, differences between pain conditions were small: muscle soreness pain intensity was consistently rated lower than the other pain types across severities. The highest pain ratings varied between joint injury and general pain, depending on severity level. No effects of sex or current experience of pain were noted. Conclusion The results indicate that: 1) three distinct pain schemas were present in this community-based sample, indicating significant variation in how pain scales are utilized and/or interpreted between clusters of individuals; 2) pain ratings vary by condition, but these differences are minor; and 3) pain rating schemas are not significantly different between males and females or between individuals with and without current pain. PMID:24379696

Frey-Law, Laura A; Lee, Jennifer E; Wittry, Alex M; Melyon, Myles

2014-01-01

91

Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... women. For instance, after puberty, when sex hormone levels rise, girls start to have more migraines than boys. But other painful conditions, such as joint pain, don’t become more common in women until after menopause, when sex hormone levels drop. It’s not clear yet which hormones affect ...

92

Noise Threshold for a Fault-Tolerant Two-Dimensional Lattice Architecture  

E-print Network

We consider a model of quantum computation in which the set of operations is limited to nearest-neighbor interactions on a 2D lattice. We model movement of qubits with noisy SWAP operations. For this architecture we design a fault-tolerant coding scheme using the concatenated [[7,1,3

Krysta M. Svore; David P. DiVincenzo; Barbara M. Terhal

2006-11-03

93

Efficacy and tolerability of carbamazepine for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy in adults: a 12-week, open-label, multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Objective Anticonvulsants are increasingly being used in the symptomatic management of several neuropathic pain disorders. The present observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life (QoL) of carbamazepine use for 12 weeks in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy, in Pakistan. Methods This was a 12-week, multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled trial in adult type 2 diabetic patients (aged 18–65 years) suffering from clinically confirmed neuropathic pain (Douleur Neuropathique en 4 [DN4] score ?4). Change in neuropathic pain at week 12 compared with baseline was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory Scale–Short Form (pain severity score and pain interference score). QoL was determined by the American Chronic Pain Association QoL scale. Safety was assessed based on patient reported adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Of the total 500 screened patients, 452 enrolled and completed the study. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) pain interference score decreased from 4.5±2.0 at baseline to 3.1±1.9 at week 12 (P<0.001). The mean (± SD) pain severity score decreased from 5.8±2.0 at baseline to 3.6±2.2 at week 12 (P<0.001). There was a decrease of ?30% in the pain severity score between visits. The mean (± SD) QoL scale score improved from 5.9±1.6 at baseline to 8.0±1.7 at week 12. A total of ten (2.2%) patients reported AEs during the study period. No patient discontinued the study due to AEs. Conclusion In this real-life experience study, carbamazepine, when prescribed for 12 weeks to adult diabetic patients suffering from neuropathic pain, showed pain-relief effect, with reduced mean pain severity and mean pain interference scores and with improved QoL and good tolerability profile. PMID:25061334

Saeed, Tariq; Nasrullah, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Adnan; Shahid, Riaz; Islam, Nadeem; Khattak, Mohammad Usman; Maheshwary, Neeta; Siddiqi, Ahson; Khan, Muhammad Athar

2014-01-01

94

Habitat selection and ranges of tolerance: how do species differ beyond critical thresholds?  

PubMed

Sensitivity to habitat fragmentation often has been examined in terms of thresholds in landscape composition at which a species is likely to occur. Observed thresholds often have been low or absent, however, leaving much unexplained about habitat selection beyond initial thresholds of occurrence, even for species with strong habitat preferences. We examined responses to varying amounts of tree cover, a widely influential measure of habitat loss, for 40 woodland bird species in a mixed woodland/grassland landscape in eastern North Dakota, USA. We used LOESS smoothing to describe incidence for each species at three scales: within 200, 400, and 1200 m around sample locations. For the 200-m scale, we also calculated the most-preferred range of tree cover (within which at least half of observations were predicted to occur) for each species. Only 10 of 40 species had occurrence thresholds greater than about 10% tree cover. After initial occurrence, species showed three general patterns: some increased monotonically with tree cover; some increased up to an asymptote; some peaked at intermediate amounts of tree cover and then declined. These patterns approximate selection for interior woodlands and for edge-rich environments, but incidence plots provide greater detail in landscape-scale selection than do those categories. For most species, patterns persisted at larger scales, but for some, larger scales had distinctly different patterns than local scales. Preferred ranges of tree cover varied from <20% tree cover (common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula) to >60% (veery, Catharus fuscescens). We conclude that incidence patterns provide more information on habitat selection than do threshold measures for most species: in particular, they differentiate species preferring concentrated woodlands from those preferring mixed landscapes, and they show contrasting degrees of selectiveness. [Correction added on 16 October 2012, after first online publication: the Abstract section has been reworded]. PMID:23170216

Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

2012-11-01

95

Habitat selection and ranges of tolerance: how do species differ beyond critical thresholds?  

PubMed Central

Sensitivity to habitat fragmentation often has been examined in terms of thresholds in landscape composition at which a species is likely to occur. Observed thresholds often have been low or absent, however, leaving much unexplained about habitat selection beyond initial thresholds of occurrence, even for species with strong habitat preferences. We examined responses to varying amounts of tree cover, a widely influential measure of habitat loss, for 40 woodland bird species in a mixed woodland/grassland landscape in eastern North Dakota, USA. We used LOESS smoothing to describe incidence for each species at three scales: within 200, 400, and 1200 m around sample locations. For the 200-m scale, we also calculated the most-preferred range of tree cover (within which at least half of observations were predicted to occur) for each species. Only 10 of 40 species had occurrence thresholds greater than about 10% tree cover. After initial occurrence, species showed three general patterns: some increased monotonically with tree cover; some increased up to an asymptote; some peaked at intermediate amounts of tree cover and then declined. These patterns approximate selection for interior woodlands and for edge-rich environments, but incidence plots provide greater detail in landscape-scale selection than do those categories. For most species, patterns persisted at larger scales, but for some, larger scales had distinctly different patterns than local scales. Preferred ranges of tree cover varied from <20% tree cover (common grackle, Quiscalus quiscula) to >60% (veery, Catharus fuscescens). We conclude that incidence patterns provide more information on habitat selection than do threshold measures for most species: in particular, they differentiate species preferring concentrated woodlands from those preferring mixed landscapes, and they show contrasting degrees of selectiveness. [Correction added on 16 October 2012, after first online publication: the Abstract section has been reworded]. PMID:23170216

Cunningham, Mary Ann; Johnson, Douglas H

2012-01-01

96

Threshold analysis with fault-tolerant operations for nonbinary quantum error correcting codes  

E-print Network

WITH FAULT-TOLERANT QUAN- TUM COMPUTATION ....................... 25 A.Background .......................... 25 1. Assumptions ....................... 25 2. SyndromeCalculation.................. 27 vii CHAPTER Page 3. ErrorModel ....................... 29 B... quantum error correcting code is most e?cient is based on the above four factors. Optimizing all the four parameters is not possible, but we can select the code based on the requirements of the computation. 2. Syndrome Calculation Error detection...

Kanungo, Aparna

2005-11-01

97

Heat-Related Deaths in Hot Cities: Estimates of Human Tolerance to High Temperature Thresholds  

PubMed Central

In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages <65 and ?65 during the months May–October for years 2000–2008. The most robust relationship was between ATmax on day of death and mortality from direct exposure to high environmental heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90–97 °F; 32.2?36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males <65 years (ATmax = 102 °F; 38.9 °C). Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide. PMID:24658410

Harlan, Sharon L.; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B.; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Ruddell, Darren M.

2014-01-01

98

Drought Tolerance Thresholds in Cattail ( Typha latifolia ): A Test Using Controlled Hydrologic Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades of anthropogenic flooding to create wetlands in spring for breeding waterfowl in the Canadian Prairies have produced\\u000a undesirable successional shifts from open wetlands dominated by endemic Eleocharis palustris L. (spikerush), to habitats dominated by relatively closed communities of Typha latifolia L. (cattail). Using 2 greenhouse experiments, we examined the potential of specific drying regimes to cross moisture thresholds\\u000a and

Stephen A. Asamoah; Edward W. Bork

2010-01-01

99

Model for fitting longitudinal traits subject to threshold response applied to genetic evaluation for heat tolerance  

PubMed Central

A semi-parametric non-linear longitudinal hierarchical model is presented. The model assumes that individual variation exists both in the degree of the linear change of performance (slope) beyond a particular threshold of the independent variable scale and in the magnitude of the threshold itself; these individual variations are attributed to genetic and environmental components. During implementation via a Bayesian MCMC approach, threshold levels were sampled using a Metropolis step because their fully conditional posterior distributions do not have a closed form. The model was tested by simulation following designs similar to previous studies on genetics of heat stress. Posterior means of parameters of interest, under all simulation scenarios, were close to their true values with the latter always being included in the uncertain regions, indicating an absence of bias. The proposed models provide flexible tools for studying genotype by environmental interaction as well as for fitting other longitudinal traits subject to abrupt changes in the performance at particular points on the independent variable scale. PMID:19284701

Sánchez, Juan Pablo; Rekaya, Romdhane; Misztal, Ignacy

2009-01-01

100

Identifying a temporal threshold of tolerance for silent gaps after requests.  

PubMed

This study addresses whether there is a threshold, some particular length of silent gap between two speakers' turns, at which negative social attributions emerge. The effect of such inter-turn silence was tested by constructing dialogues where responses to requests were identical and affirmative so that study participants' (n = 380) ratings about "willingness" would be colored by lag time, not semantics. 100 ms intervals between 200 and 1200 ms were tested in a between groups design. There was a notable drop-off in ratings at 600 ms and a statistically significant difference in ratings between 700 and 800 ms. PMID:23742442

Roberts, Felicia; Francis, Alexander L

2013-06-01

101

Red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) isoflavones extract on the pain threshold of normal and ovariectomized rats--a long-term study.  

PubMed

Depletion of estrogens occurs in women during menopause, while in experimental animals, oophorectomy is a common method to deplete the animals of their gonadal hormones. Recently, phytoestrogens derived from plants have been tried as estrogen substitutes during menopause. In the present study an isoflavones methanol extract from red clover Trifolium pratense (Linn.) was administered orally (500?mg/kg of body weight) to ovariectomized (OVX) and normal (controls) rats for 90 and 180 days. Their pain threshold was monitored using tail flicking and formalin test methods. Observations showed that the OVX rat pain threshold was reduced due to estrogen deprivation, whereas the pain threshold levels in OVX rats treated with isoflavones extract was similar to the control animals. The present study demonstrated the influence of phytoestrogen on long-term OVX rats in pain perception in the absence of ovarian estrogen and without toxic side effects. However, the actions of gonadal hormones on nociceptive axis are myriad and complex, so further studies on the exact physiological mechanism of the phytoestrogen action on nociceptive axis is warranted. PMID:20623592

Vishali, Nagarajan; Kamakshi, Krishnaswamy; Suresh, Sekar; Prakash, Seppan

2011-01-01

102

Effectiveness and gastrointestinal tolerability during conversion and titration with once-daily OROS® hydromorphone extended release in opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe the efficacy and safety of hydromorphone extended-release tablets (OROS hydromorphone ER) during dose conversion and titration. Patients and methods A total of 459 opioid-tolerant adults with chronic moderate to severe low back pain participated in an open-label, 2- to 4-week conversion/titration phase of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal trial, conducted at 70 centers in the United States. Patients were converted to once-daily OROS hydromorphone ER at 75% of the equianalgesic dose of their prior total daily opioid dose (5:1 conversion ratio), and titrated as frequently as every 3 days to a maximum dose of 64 mg/day. The primary outcome measure was change in pain intensity numeric rating scale; additional assessments included the Patient Global Assessment and the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire scores. Safety assessments were performed at each visit and consisted of recording and monitoring all adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs. Results Mean (standard deviation) final daily dose of OROS hydromorphone ER was 37.5 (17.8) mg. Mean (standard error of the mean [SEM]) numeric rating scale scores decreased from 6.6 (0.1) at screening to 4.3 (0.1) at the final titration visit (mean [SEM] change, ?2.3 [0.1], representing a 34.8% reduction). Mean (SEM) change in Patient Global Assessment was ?0.6 (0.1), and mean change (SEM) in the Roland–Morris Disability Questionnaire was ?2.8 (0.3). Patients achieving a stable dose showed greater improvement than patients who discontinued during titration for each of these measures (P < 0.001). Almost 80% of patients achieving a stable dose (213/268) had a ?30% reduction in pain. Commonly reported AEs were constipation (15.4%), nausea (11.9%), somnolence (8.7%), headache (7.8%), and vomiting (6.5%); 13.0% discontinued from the study due to AEs. Conclusion The majority of opioid-tolerant patients with chronic low back pain were successfully converted to effective doses of OROS hydromorphone ER within 2 to 4 weeks. PMID:23658495

Hale, Martin E; Nalamachu, Srinivas R; Khan, Arif; Kutch, Michael

2013-01-01

103

Opiate tolerance to daily heroin administration: an apparent phenomenon associated with enhanced pain sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a classical viewpoint, tolerance to analgesic effects of opiates refers to the decreased effectiveness of a given opiate following its repeated use.[11]Despite much research, it has not been conclusively demonstrated in vivo that functional changes observed at the opioid receptor level in the responsiveness to opiates account for development of tolerance.[2, 9, 10, 36]An alternative hypothesis is that opioid

J. P Laulin; E Célèrier; A Larcher; M Le Moal; G Simonnet

1999-01-01

104

Structural Health Monitoring: Leveraging Pain in the Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue damage, or the perception thereof, is managed through pain experience. The neurobiological process of pain triggers most effective defense mechanisms for our safety. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is also a very similar function, albeit in engineering systems. SHM technology can leverage many aspects of pain mechanisms to progress in several critical areas. Discrimination between features from the undamaged and damaged structures can follow the threshold gate mechanism of the pain perception. Furthermore, the sensing mechanisms can be adaptive to changes by adjusting the threshold as does the pain perception. A distributed sensor network, often advanced by SHM, can be made fault-tolerant and robust by following the perception way of self-organization and redundancy. Data handling in real life is a huge challenge for large-scale SHM. As sensory data of pain is first cleaned, the threshold is then processed through experiential information gathering and use.

Nayak, Subhadarshi

2012-07-01

105

Possible involvement of prolonging spinal µ-opioid receptor desensitization in the development of antihyperalgesic tolerance to µ-opioids under a neuropathic pain-like state.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the possible development of tolerance to the antihyperalgesic effect of µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists under a neuropathic pain-like state. Repeated treatment with fentanyl, but not morphine or oxycodone, produced a rapid development of tolerance to its antihyperalgesic effect in mice with sciatic nerve ligation. Like the behavioral study, G-protein activation induced by fentanyl was significantly reduced in membranes obtained from the spinal cord of nerve-ligated mice with in vivo repeated injection of fentanyl. In ?-endorphin-knockout mice with nerve ligation, developed tolerance to the antihyperalgesic effect of fentanyl was abolished, and reduced G-protein activation by fentanyl after nerve ligation with fentanyl was reversed to the normal level. The present findings indicate that released ?-endorphin within the spinal cord may be implicated in the rapid development of tolerance to fentanyl under a neuropathic pain-like state. PMID:21812868

Narita, Minoru; Imai, Satoshi; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ozeki, Ayumi; Asato, Megumi; Rahmadi, Mahardian; Sudo, Yuka; Hojo, Minoru; Uezono, Yasuhito; Devi, Lakshmi A; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Suzuki, Tsutomu

2013-07-01

106

Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Sensation Thresholds in Patients with Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: An Observational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is one of the therapies for painful neuropathy. Its analgesic mechanisms probably involve the gate control theory, the physiological block and the endogenous pain inhibitory system. The aim of the study was to determine whether TENS improves small fibre function diminished because of painful

Moharic, Metka

2010-01-01

107

Higher serum S100B and BDNF levels are correlated with a lower pressure-pain threshold in fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is conceptualized as a central sensitization (CS) condition, that presents high serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neuroglia activation. Although the S100B protein regulates neuroglia functions, it has been traditionally used as a proxy of central nervous system damage. However, neither BDNF nor S100B association with the clinical picture of FM has been elucidated. To explore their association with the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) in FM, we performed a cross-sectional study, including 56 females with confirmed FM aged 18–65 years. Linear regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors between serum BDNF, S100B and PPT. Results Serum BDNF and S100B were correlated (Spearman’s Rho?=?0.29). Serum BDNF (log) and S100B (log) were correlated with the PPT (log) (Partial ?2?=?0.129, P?=?0.012 for the BDNF (log), and Partial ?2?=?0.105, P?=?0.025 for the S100B (log)). Serum BDNF (log) was inversely associated with PPT (log) (??=?-1.01, SE?=?0.41), age (??=?-0.02, SE?=?0.15) and obsessive compulsive disorder (??=?-0.36, SE?=?0.15), while serum S100B (log) was inversely associated with PPT (log) (??=?-1.38, SE?=?0.50), only. Conclusions Both neuroglia key mediators in the CS process were inversely correlated with the PPT. Serum assessment of BDNF and S100B deserve further study to determine its potential as a proxy for the CS spectrum in FM. PMID:25005881

2014-01-01

108

[Double-blind comparative study of the effectiveness and tolerance of 900 mg dexibuprofen and 150 mg diclofenac sodium in patients with painful gonarthrosis].  

PubMed

In this randomized double-blind, parallel-group study the efficacy of 300 mg oral dexibuprofen three times daily and 50 mg oral diclofenac sodium three times daily was tested for equivalence in 110 patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee. During the 15-day treatment period the functional index for knee osteoarthritis according to Lequesne was improved under dexibuprofen by a mean of 7.4 and by a mean of 7.3 under treatment with diclofenac sodium. The test for equivalence by one-sided Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test shows equivalent efficacy of dexibuprofen by a Mann-Whitney-statistic of 0.505 and 0.415 as its lower boundary of the 95% confidence interval. The descriptive analysis of secondary criteria such as intensity of pain, rest pain, pain at beginning, nocturnal pain, tenderness, restriction of movement, handicap, subjective estimation of disease progression, as well as global judgement of efficacy and tolerance by investigator and patient confirm equivalence of both preparations. The pooled analysis of all parameters, tolerability included, by a Mann-Whitney-statistic of 0.520 with the lower boundary of the 95% confidence interval of 0.467 shows equivalence of both drugs with a trend to superiority of dexibuprofen due to its better tolerability. 7.3% of the patients on dexibuprofen and 14.5% of the patients on diclofenac sodium dropped out because of side-effects. PMID:9123945

Hawel, R; Klein, G; Mitterhuber, J; Brugger, A

1997-01-31

109

Effect of a single 30?min UMTS mobile phone-like exposure on the thermal pain threshold of young healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

One of the most frequently investigated effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) on the behavior of complex biological systems is pain sensitivity. Despite the growing body of evidence of EMF-induced changes in pain sensation, there is no currently accepted experimental protocol for such provocation studies for the healthy human population. In the present study, therefore, we tested the effects of third generation Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) RF EMF exposure on the thermal pain threshold (TPT) measured on the surface of the fingers of 20 young adult volunteers. The protocol was initially validated with a topical capsaicin treatment. The exposure time was 30?min and the genuine (or sham) signal was applied to the head through a patch antenna, where RF EMF specific absorption rate (SAR) values were controlled and kept constant at a level of 1.75?W/kg. Data were obtained using randomized, placebo-controlled trials in a double-blind manner. Subjective pain ratings were tested blockwise on a visual analogue rating scale (VAS). Compared to the control and sham conditions, the results provide evidence for intact TPT but a reduced desensitization effect between repeated stimulations within the individual blocks of trials, observable only on the contralateral side for the genuine UMTS exposure. Subjective pain perception (VAS) data indicated marginally decreased overall pain ratings in the genuine exposure condition only. The present results provide pioneering information about human pain sensation in relation to RF EMF exposure and thus may contribute to cover the existing gap between safety research and applied biomedical science targeting the potential biological effects of environmental RF EMFs. PMID:23787775

Vecsei, Zsuzsanna; Csathó, Árpád; Thuróczy, György; Hernádi, István

2013-10-01

110

An open-label, long-term study examining the safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies of pregabalin for the treatment of central neuropathic pain have been limited to double-blind trials of 4–17 weeks in duration. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term safety and tolerability of pregabalin in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain. The efficacy of pregabalin was also assessed as a secondary measure. Patients and methods This was a 53-week, multicenter, open-label trial of pregabalin (150–600 mg/day) in Japanese patients with central neuropathic pain due to spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral stroke. Results A total of 103 patients received pregabalin (post-stroke =60; spinal cord injury =38; and multiple sclerosis =5). A majority of patients (87.4%) experienced one or more treatment-related adverse events, most commonly somnolence, weight gain, dizziness, or peripheral edema. The adverse event profile was similar to that seen in other indications of pregabalin. Most treatment-related adverse events were mild (89.1%) or moderate (9.2%) in intensity. Pregabalin treatment improved total score, sensory pain, affective pain, visual analog scale (VAS), and present pain intensity scores on the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and ten-item modified Brief Pain Inventory (mBPI-10) total score at endpoint compared with baseline. Improvements in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 total scores were evident in all patient subpopulations. Mean changes from baseline in SF-MPQ VAS and mBPI-10 scores at endpoint were ?20.1 and ?1.4, respectively. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that pregabalin is generally well tolerated and provides sustained efficacy over a 53-week treatment period in patients with chronic central neuropathic pain. PMID:25114584

Onouchi, Kenji; Koga, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Yoshiyama, Tamotsu

2014-01-01

111

Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue pain.  

PubMed

Women disproportionately suffer from many deep tissue pain conditions. Experimental studies show that women have lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings and less tolerance to a range of painful stimuli. Most clinical and epidemiological reports suggest female gonadal hormones modulate pain for some, but not all, conditions. Similarly, animal studies support greater nociceptive sensitivity in females in many deep tissue pain models. Gonadal hormones modulate responses in primary afferents, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal sites, but the direction of modulation is variable. This review will examine sex differences in deep tissue pain in humans and animals focusing on the role of gonadal hormones (mainly estradiol) as an underlying component of the modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:23872333

Traub, Richard J; Ji, Yaping

2013-10-01

112

Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue pain  

PubMed Central

Women disproportionately suffer from many deep tissue pain conditions. Experimental studies show that women have lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings and less tolerance to a range of painful stimuli. Most clinical and epidemiological reports suggest female gonadal hormones modulate pain for some, but not all, conditions. Similarly, animal studies support greater nociceptive sensitivity in females in many deep tissue pain models. Gonadal hormones modulate responses in primary afferents, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal sites, but the direction of modulation is variable. This review will examine sex differences in deep tissue pain in humans and animals focusing on the role of gonadal hormones (mainly estradiol) as an underlying component of the modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:23872333

Traub, Richard J.; Ji, Yaping

2013-01-01

113

Experimental approaches in the study of pain in the elderly.  

PubMed

The present review summarizes experimental data on age-related changes in pain processing. These data suggest an increase in pain threshold and a decrease in tolerance threshold, which both are dependent on the physical nature of the stressor, as well as a developing deficiency in endogenous pain inhibition, which might be paralleled by an enhanced disposition to central sensitization (stronger temporal summation). These findings are arranged in a model that allows for explaining the two seemingly divergent perspectives: age both dulls the pain sense and increases the prevalence of pain complaints. This model is based on the assumption that both excitatory and inhibitory processes are dampened with age but that the later processes age at a faster rate, leading to increasingly unbalanced pain excitation. PMID:22497747

Lautenbacher, Stefan

2012-04-01

114

Gender, variation in opioid receptor genes and sensitivity to experimental pain  

PubMed Central

Background Pain tolerance is subject to considerable inter-individual variation, which may be influenced by a number of genetic and non-genetic factors. The mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors play a role in pain perception and are thought to mediate different pain modalities. The aim of this study was to explore associations between pain thresholds and gender and genetic variants in the three opioid receptor genes (OPRM, OPRD and OPRK). Experimental multi-modal pain data from previously published studies carried out in healthy Caucasian volunteers were used in order to limit the number of confounders to the study outcome. Data on thermal skin pain (n=36), muscle pressure pain (n=31) and mechanical visceral pain (n=50)) tolerance thresholds were included. Results Nineteen genetic polymorphisms were included in linear regression modeling. Males were found to tolerate higher thermal and muscle pressure pain than females (p=0.003 and 0.02). Thirty four percent of variability in thermal skin pain was accounted for by a model consisting of OPRK rs6473799 and gender. This finding was just outside significance when correction for multiple testing was applied. Variability in muscle pressure pain tolerance was associated with OPRK rs7016778 and rs7824175. These SNPs accounted for 43% of variability in muscle pressure pain sensitivity and these findings remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. No association was found with mechanical visceral pain. Conclusion This is a preliminary and hypothesis generating study due to the relatively small study size. However, significant association between the opioid receptor genes and experimental pain sensitivity supports the influence of genetic variability in pain perception. These findings may be used to generate hypotheses for testing in larger clinical trials of patients with painful conditions. PMID:23570317

2013-01-01

115

Adult attachment and reports of pain in experimentally-induced pain.  

PubMed

Attachment theory has been proposed as a framework for understanding the development of chronic pain, with evidence supporting the overrepresentation of insecure attachment styles in chronic pain populations and links between insecure attachment and factors known to impact one's ability to cope with pain. The present study sought to extend two earlier studies exploring the relationships between adult attachment and communication of an acute pain experience, in anticipation of providing insight into individual differences in vulnerability in development of chronic pain. It was hypothesised that: (a) fearful attachment would be associated with perceptions of the pain as less intense, and (b) anxious attachment would be associated with lower pain thresholds. A convenience sample of 82 healthy adults completed self-report measures of attachment, neuroticism, and negative affect prior to taking part in a coldpressor pain inducement task. Results demonstrated that fearful attachment was associated with lower levels of pain intensity throughout the coldpressor task. In addition, dismissing attachment was also associated with less intense pain, as well as increased coldpressor endurance (tolerance) in the presence of a known assessor. These associations were retained after controlling for measures of neuroticism, negative affect, age, and social desirability. The results of this study are consistent with the proposition that fearful and dismissing individuals tend to mask their underlying distress caused by the pain experience, potentially leading to difficulties coping with pain over time. PMID:21095633

Andrews, Nicole Emma; Meredith, Pamela Joy; Strong, Jenny

2011-05-01

116

A double-blind, multicentre, randomised clinical trial comparing the efficacy and tolerability of aceclofenac with diclofenac resinate in patients with acute low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy and tolerability of aceclofenac was compared with diclofenac resinate in a double-blind, multicentre randomised\\u000a study in patients with acute low back pain suffering from degenerative spinal disorders. The study included 227 patients randomised\\u000a to receive either aceclofenac 2 ? 100 mg daily or diclofenac resinate 2 ? 75 mg daily for up to 10 days. The primary objective

M. Schattenkirchner; K. A. Milachowski

2003-01-01

117

Pharmacological pain management in the elderly patient  

PubMed Central

With the increasing number of elderly patients the issue of pain management for older people is of increasing relevance. The alterations with aging of the neurobiology of pain have impacts of pain threshold, tolerance and treatment. In this review the available evidence from animal and human experimentation is discussed to highlight the differences between young and older subjects along with consideration of how these changes have practical effect on drug treatment of pain. Cognitive impairment, physical disability and social isolation can also impact on the accessibility of treatment and have to be considered along with the biological changes with ageing. Conventional pain therapies, while verified in younger adults cannot be automatically applied to the elderly without consideration of all these factors and in no other group of patients is a holistic approach to treatment more important. PMID:18225465

McCleane, Gary

2007-01-01

118

Lack of cross-tolerance between the antinociceptive effects of systemic morphine and asimadoline, a peripherally-selective ?-opioid agonist, in CCI-neuropathic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of tolerance following repeated doses of morphine hinders the treatment of clinical pain. We have previously shown that morphine tolerance develops in neuropathic rats without cross-tolerance to a systemic ?-opioid agonist; in the current work, using paw-pressure vocalization thresholds, we studied the antinociceptive effect of the peripherally-selective kappa (?)-opioid agonist, asimadoline, in both morphine-tolerant and opioid-na??ve rats 2

Judith Walker; Gwénaëlle Catheline; Gisèle Guilbaud; Valérie Kayser

1999-01-01

119

Efficacy and tolerability of low-dose oral prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone for chronic nononcological pain in older patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults. Increasing evidence indicates strong opioids as a valid option for chronic pain management in geriatrics. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of low-dose oral prolonged-release oxycodone–naloxone (OXN-PR) in patients aged ?70 years. Methods This open-label prospective study assessed older patients naïve to strong opioids presenting with moderate-to-severe chronic pain. Patients were prescribed OXN-PR at an initial dose of 10/5 mg/day for 28 days. In case of insufficient analgesia, the initial daily dose could be increased gradually. The primary efficacy measure was change in pain intensity from baseline, assessed by a ten-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) at day 28 (T28). Changes in cognitive state, daily functioning, quality of life, constipation, and other adverse events were assessed. Results Of 53 patients enrolled (mean 81.7±6.2 years [range 70–92 years]), 52 (98.1%) completed the 28-day observation. At T28, the primary end point (?30% reduction in mean pain from baseline in the absence of bowel function deterioration) was achieved in 38 patients (71.7%). OXN-PR significantly relieved pain (NRS score –3.26; P<0.0001), as well as daily need for rescue paracetamol (from 86.8% at baseline to 40.4% at T28; P<0.001), and reduced impact of pain on daily activities (Brief Pain Inventory Short Form from 6.2±1.5 to 3.4±2.1; P<0.0001). OXN-PR was also associated with significant improvement in daily functioning (Barthel Index from 53.3±14.1 to 61.3±14.3; P<0.01). No changes were observed in cognitive status and bowel function. OXN-PR was well tolerated; only one patient (1.9%) prematurely withdrew from treatment, due to drowsiness. Conclusion Findings from this open-label prospective study suggest that low-dose OXN-PR may be effective and well tolerated for treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic pain in older patients. Besides its effectiveness, these data indicate that low-dose OXN-PR may be considered a safe analgesic option in this fragile population and warrants further investigation in randomized controlled studies. PMID:25565782

Guerriero, Fabio; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Marcassa, Claudio; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Rollone, Marco

2015-01-01

120

Structural damage alarming using auto-associative neural network technique: Exploration of environment-tolerant capacity and setup of alarming threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the intention of avoiding false-positive and false-negative alarms in structural damage alarming using the auto-associative neural network (AANN) technique, two issues pertaining to this technique are addressed in this study. The first issue explored is the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN. Efforts have been made to seek a generalization technique to enhance the environment-tolerant capacity. First, a baseline AANN model is formulated using the conventional training algorithm. Generalization techniques including AIC and FPE, early stopping, and Bayesian regularization are then investigated, resulting in three new AANN models. Their environment-tolerant capacity is evaluated as per their capability to avoid false-positive and false-negative alarms. The other issue addressed is the setup of alarming threshold, with intent to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming. A procedure based on the probability analysis of the novelty index is proposed for this purpose. First, the novelty index characterizing the intact structure is analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test to obtain its best-fit continuous probability distribution. A confidence interval is then defined in consideration of the compromise between type I and type II errors. The alarming threshold of the novelty index is consequently set at the upper limit of the confidence interval. The above explorations are examined by using the long-term monitoring data on modal properties of the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. The capability to eliminate false-positive alarm is verified by using unseen testing data which were not used in formulating the AANN models, while the capability to alleviate false-negative alarm is examined by using simulated data from the 'damaged' bridge with the help of a precise finite element model. The study indicates that the early stopping technique performs best in improving the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN, and the alarming threshold set by the proposed procedure helps to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming.

Zhou, H. F.; Ni, Y. Q.; Ko, J. M.

2011-07-01

121

Experimental Pain Responses Support Peripheral and Central Sensitization in Patients with Unilateral Shoulder Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to 1) examine the pattern of experimental pain responses in the affected and non-affected extremities in patients with shoulder pain and 2) explore the intra-individual association between sensitization states derived from experimental pain testing. Methods Experimental pain responses from 58 patients with shoulder pain (17 females, ages 18 to 52) were compared to those from 56 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (16 females, ages 21 to 58). Experimental pain responses included pressure pain threshold (PPT), thermal pain threshold and tolerance, and suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR). Comparisons were made between the affected and non-affected extremity of clinical participants and the average response of extremities in healthy participants. Peripheral and central sensitization indexes were computed for clinical participants using standardized scores and percentile cut-offs based on the data from the healthy control sample. Experimental pain responses in clinical participants observed beyond the 25th and 75th percentile of healthy control sample responses were used for investigation of intra-individual association of sensitization states. Results PPT on the affected side acromion and masseter of clinical participants were diminished compared to their non-affected side (p < 0.015). Bilateral sensitivity in clinical participants was noted for PPT at the acromion and SHPR (p < 0.015). Peripheral and central sensitization indexes demonstrated that individuals with shoulder pain present with variable patterns of peripheral and central sensitization. Conclusions Collectively, experimental pain responses supported peripheral and central sensitization in response to pressure and thermal stimuli. No clear association was made between individuals exhibiting peripheral or central sensitization and suggests heterogeneity in pain processing in this clinical population. PMID:23619203

Coronado, Rogelio A.; Simon, Corey B.; Valencia, Carolina; George, Steven Z.

2013-01-01

122

Tonic pain evoked by pulsating heat: temporal summation mechanisms and perceptual qualities.  

PubMed

The properties of a newly developed tonic heat pain model (THPM), which makes use of pulsating contact heat, were investigated in 18 young men. The most important feature of this model is that repetitive heat pulses with an intensity of 1 degree C above the individual pain threshold are employed. This approach was used to tailor the tonic pain stimulation to the individual pain sensitivity. In the first of two experiments, the effects of pulse frequencies ranging from 5 to 30 pulses per minute (ppm) on ratings of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness (visual analogue scales) were examined. At all frequencies, both ratings increased steadily over the 5-min test period. Frequencies of 15 ppm or more appeared to enhance pain intensity throughout the test period compared to the lower frequencies, but did not appear to alter pain unpleasantness. This suggests that only pain intensity is influenced by slow temporal summation and that a sort of frequency threshold exists for this kind of summation. In the second experiment, the THPM was compared to a well-established form of tonic pain stimulation, the cold-pressor test (CPT); visual analogue scales were again used, and in addition the McGill Pain Questionnaire was employed. The CPT appeared to produce stronger tonic pain than the THPM. However, as is typical with tonic pain, both tonic pain models induced relatively higher values on the affective pain dimension than on the sensory pain dimension. The time course of pain was dynamic in the CPT, with an increase followed by a plateau phase, at least in those subjects who could tolerate the CPT for more than 60 sec. In contrast, as in the first experiment, the pain ratings in the THPM were characterized by a slow and steady increase over time. Moreover, there was absolutely no indication of a dichotomy between "pain-sensitive" and "pain-tolerant" individuals in the THPM, although such a dichotomy was evident in the CPT. This implies that the distinction between pain-sensitive and pain-tolerant individuals can be made only with the CPT, and that this distinction represents individual differences in peripheral vascular reactions to cold rather than in pain perception. In conclusion, the THPM appears to produce a stable and predictable temporal pattern of tonic pain with a predominant affective component, and to be suitable for application in the majority of individuals without causing undue discomfort. PMID:7571943

Lautenbacher, S; Roscher, S; Strian, F

1995-01-01

123

Proton tolerance of multiple-threshold voltage and multiple-breakdown voltage CMOS device design points in a 0.18 ?m system-on-a-chip CMOS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of an investigation of the proton tolerance of the multiple-threshold voltage and multiple-breakdown voltage device design points contained in a 0.18 ?m system-on-a-chip CMOS technology. The radiation response of the CMOS devices having three different device design configurations are characterized and compared for equivalent gamma doses up to 300 krad(Si), using the threshold voltage, off-state

Ying Li; John D. Cressler; Yuan Lu; Jun Pan; Guofu Niu; Robert A. Reed; Paul W. Marshall; Christopher Polar; Michael J. Palmer; Alvin J. Joseph

2003-01-01

124

Massage on experimental pain in healthy females: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

This randomized controlled study evaluated the effect of massage on affect, relaxation, and experimental pain induced by electrical stimulation. Participants were 96 healthy women (M age = 20.13 ± 5.93 years; 84.4% White) randomly assigned to a 15-minute no-treatment control, guided imagery, massage or massage plus guided imagery condition. Multilevel piecewise modeling revealed no group differences in pain intensity, threshold, or tolerance. The two massage conditions generally reported decreased pain unpleasantness, lower unpleasant affect, maintenance of pleasant affect, and increased relaxation compared to the no-treatment condition. The results suggest that massage may alter immediate affective qualities in the context of pain. PMID:23362336

Karlson, Cynthia W; Hamilton, Nancy A; Rapoff, Michael A

2014-03-01

125

Sensitization in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is the dominant symptom in osteoarthritis (OA) and sensitization may contribute to the pain severity. This study investigated the role of sensitization in patients with painful knee OA by measuring (1) pressure pain thresholds (PPTs); (2) spreading sensitization; (3) temporal summation to repeated pressure pain stimulation; (4) pain responses after intramuscular hypertonic saline; and (5) pressure pain modulation by

Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Hongling Nie; Mogens B. Laursen; Birgitte S. Laursen; Pascal Madeleine; Ole H. Simonsen; Thomas Graven-Nielsen

2010-01-01

126

Intrathecal Ziconotide for Severe Chronic Pain: Safety and Tolerability Results of an Open-Label, Long-Term Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ziconotide is a non-opioid drug indicated for management of severe chronic pain in patients for whom intrathecal (IT) therapy is warranted and who are intolerant of or refractory to other treatments. METHODS: Six-hundred and forty-four patients with severe chronic pain participated in this open-label, multicenter study. Ziconotide titration was followed by long-term infusion. Efficacy assessments included the Visual Analog

Mark S. Wallace; Richard Rauck; Robert Fisher; Steven G. Charapata; David Ellis; Sanjeeva Dissanayake

2008-01-01

127

The Association of Pain and Depression in Preadolescent Girls: Moderation by Race and Pubertal Stage  

PubMed Central

Objective?To test whether an association between pain response and depression in females is present during preadolescence using a controlled pain stimulus and a clinically relevant assessment of depressive symptoms. Method?In a sample of 232 girls, pain threshold and tolerance were assessed at age 10 years using the cold pressor task, and a diagnostic interview was used to assess depression symptoms at 10 and 11 years of age. Results?Response to pain at age 10 was associated with depressive symptoms at ages 10 and 11; race and pubertal stage moderated the association. Pain response and depression were more strongly associated among girls who had reached advanced stages of pubertal development and among European American girls. Conclusions?The results add to the existing literature on the co-occurrence of depression and pain by demonstrating modest but consistent concurrent and prospective associations between response to pain and depression among girls during preadolescence. PMID:18948381

Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.; Hinze, Amanda E.; Babinski, Dara E.

2009-01-01

128

The Role of Ketamine in Preventing Fentanyl-Induced Hyperalgesia and Subsequent Acute Morphine Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perioperative opioids increase postoperative pain and morphine requirement, suggesting acute opioid toler- ance. Furthermore, opioids elicit N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent pain hypersensitivity. We investi- gated postfentanyl morphine analgesic effects and the consequences of NMDA-receptor antagonist (ket- amine) pretreatment. The rat nociceptive threshold was measured by the paw-pressure vocalization test. Four fentanyl boluses (every 15 min) elicited a dose- dependent (a) increase followed

Jean-Paul Laulin; Pierre Maurette; Cyril Rivat; Marcel Chauvin; Guy Simonnet

2002-01-01

129

Gender expression, sexual orientation and pain sensitivity in women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Despite a growing body of literature investigating sex differences with regard to pain, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the influence of various aspects of self-identity, including gender expression and sexual orientation, on pain sensitivity within each sex, particularly among women. In men, dispositional femininity is linked to greater clinical pain and trait masculinity is associated with higher pain thresholds. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether gender expression and sexual orientation are associated with within-sex differences in ischemic pain sensitivity in healthy young women. METHODS: A convenience sample of 172 females (mean age 21.4 years; range 18 to 30 years of age; 56.0% white, 89% heterosexual) performed an ischemic pain task in counterbalanced order. Desired levels of dispositional femininity for a preferred romantic partner and self-described levels of personal dispositional femininity were measured. RESULTS: Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian and bisexual women reported lower pain intensity ratings early in the discomfort task. Irrespective of sexual orientation, attraction to more feminine romantic partners and dispositional masculinity were correlated with lower pain intensity, and with higher pain thresholds and tolerance levels. DISCUSSION: These preliminary findings suggest that within-sex differences in sexual orientation and other aspects of identity, irrespective of biological sex, may be important to consider when examining experimental pain performance and clinical pain experiences. CONCLUSION: Larger investigations of the psychophysiological relationships among sexual orientation, gender expression and pain sensitivity are warranted. These findings may have implications for differences in clinical pain sensitivity of lesbian and bisexual women compared with heterosexual women. PMID:24575419

Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Lutz, Charlotte

2014-01-01

130

Gender role affects experimental pain responses: a systematic review with meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Gender role refers to the culturally and socially constructed meanings that describe how women and men should behave in certain situations according to feminine and masculine roles learned throughout life. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between gender role and experimental pain responses in healthy human participants. We searched computerized databases for studies published between January 1950 and May 2011 that had measured gender role in healthy human adults and pain response to noxious stimuli. Studies were entered into a meta-analysis if they calculated a correlation coefficient (r) for gender role and experimental pain. Searches yielded 4465 'hits' and 13 studies were eligible for review. Sample sizes were 67-235 participants and the proportion of female participants was 45-67%. Eight types of gender role instrument were used. Meta-analysis of six studies (406 men and 539 women) found a significant positive correlation between masculine and feminine personality traits and pain threshold and tolerance, with a small effect size (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Meta-analysis of four studies (263 men and 297 women) found a significant negative correlation between gender stereotypes specific to pain and pain threshold and tolerance, with a moderate effect size (r = -0.41, p < 0.001). In conclusion, individuals who considered themselves more masculine and less sensitive to pain than the typical man showed higher pain thresholds and tolerances. Gender stereotypes specific to pain scales showed stronger associations with sex differences in pain sensitivity response than masculine and feminine personality trait scales. PMID:22434689

Alabas, O A; Tashani, O A; Tabasam, G; Johnson, M I

2012-10-01

131

Defining clinical issues around tolerance, hyperalgesia, and addiction: a quantitative and qualitative outcome study of long-term opioid dosing in a chronic pain practice.  

PubMed

Treatment with opioid medications has grown over the past decades, but has been surrounded by some ongoing controversy and debate to whether it is causing more harm than good for patients. To this end, the field of pain management has suffered from a lack of clarity about some basic definitions on concepts such as tolerance and hyperalgesia. Some characterize these issues as inevitable parts of opioid therapy while other schools of thought look at these issues as relatively rare occurrences. Unfortunately, most of the rhetoric around these topics has occurred with very little in the realm of real world data. To this end, the authors have reviewed the charts of 197 patients treated by a pain specialist for at least 1 year to better illustrate whether notions of tolerance and hyperalgesia are common occurrences and, more importantly, whether they occur within any type of specified timeframe. A total of 197 patient charts were reviewed. The sample had an average age of 49.39 years (range = 19-87 years; standard deviation [SD] = 12.48) and comprised 66 men (33.5 percent) and 131 women (66.5 percent). The patients were seen in the pain practice for an average of 56.52 months (range = 12-155 months; SD = 31.26). On average, the patients maintained an average daily dose of 180 mg morphine equivalents for a period of 35.1 months (range = 3-101 months; SD = 21.3). Looking at the pattern of medication usage change over time, 34.5 percent experienced dose stabilization after the initial titration, 13.2 percent had early dose stabilization within one dose change, and an additional 14.7 percent actually had dose decreases after surgeries or other interventional procedures. Only 6.6 percent of the sample had to be discharged or weaned from controlled substances over time in the clinic. Thus, it appears that tolerance and hyperalgesia are not foregone conclusions when considering placing a patient on long-term opioid therapy. PMID:21268999

Schneider, Jennifer P; Kirsh, Kenneth L

2010-01-01

132

Injection-associated pain in femoral arteriography: A European multicenter study comparing safety, tolerability, and efficacy of iodixanol and iopromide  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To evaluate injection-associated pain, safety, and efficacy with the isotonic contrast medium iodixanol (Visipaque 270 mg I/ml) compared with iopromide (Ultravist 300 mg I/ml) in femoral arteriography. Methods. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical investigation was carried out in 54 hospitals in Europe. Of the patients evaluated, 1225 received iodixanol and 1227 iopromide in conventional and/or digital subtraction angiography. Results. The iodixanol group reported statistically significantly less injection-associated pain (0.9%) than the iopromide group (9.5%) (p<0.001). Further, 4.1% in the iodixanol group experienced pain and/or severe heat sensation vs 19.8% in the iopromide group (p<0.001). In the iodixanol group, 1.8% of the patients experienced contrast-related adverse events vs 2.4% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Overall diagnostic information was optimal for 94.1% in the iodixanol group and 95.3% in the iopromide group (p=NS). Conclusions. Iodixanol 270 mg I/ml causes significantly less injection-associated pain during femoral arteriography and is as safe and efficatious as iopromide 300 mg I/ml.

Justesen, Per [Odense University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Denmark); Downes, Mark [Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United Kingdom); Grynne, Birthe Hougens; Lang, Hanne; Rasch, Wenche; Seim, Eva [Nycomed Imaging AS, Clinical R and D (Norway)

1997-07-15

133

Pain channelopathies  

PubMed Central

Pain remains a major clinical challenge, severely afflicting around 6% of the population at any one time. Channelopathies that underlie monogenic human pain syndromes are of great clinical relevance, as cell surface ion channels are tractable drug targets. The recent discovery that loss-of-function mutations in the sodium channel Nav1.7 underlie a recessive pain-free state in otherwise normal people is particularly significant. Deletion of channel-encoding genes in mice has also provided insights into mammalian pain mechanisms. Ion channels expressed by immune system cells (e.g. P2X7) have been shown to play a pivotal role in changing pain thresholds, whilst channels involved in sensory transduction (e.g. TRPV1), the regulation of neuronal excitability (potassium channels), action potential propagation (sodium channels) and neurotransmitter release (calcium channels) have all been shown to be potentially selective analgesic drug targets in some animal pain models. Migraine and visceral pain have also been associated with voltage-gated ion channel mutations. Insights into such channelopathies thus provide us with a number of potential targets to control pain. PMID:20142270

Cregg, Roman; Momin, Aliakmal; Rugiero, Francois; Wood, John N; Zhao, Jing

2010-01-01

134

A new real-time method for detecting the effect of fentanyl using the preoperative pressure pain threshold and Narcotrend index: a randomized study in female surgery patients.  

PubMed

Individual variability in the effects of opioid analgesics such as fentanyl remains a major challenge for tailored pharmacological treatment including postoperative analgesia. This study aimed to establish a new real-time method for detecting the effects of fentanyl and their individual differences in the preoperative period, using the pressure pain threshold (PPT) and Narcotrend index (NTI) test.Eighty women undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to receive either intravenous fentanyl (Group F) or saline (Group S). Before (T1) and 5 (T2) and 10?min (T3) after intravenous injection, the PPT, NTI, respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse oxygen saturation were measured. The initial time at which the Narcotrend index showed a decline was also recorded.In total, 40 patients in Group S and 38 patients in Group F were included in the final analysis. At 5?min and 10?min after intravenous fentanyl administration, the analgesic effect was determined by measuring the PPT, which was significantly increased (P?

Duan, Guangyou; Guo, Shanna; Zhan, Huiming; Qi, Dongmei; Zhang, Yuhao; Zhang, Xianwei

2015-01-01

135

Increased Sensitivity to Thermal Pain and Reduced Subcutaneous Lidocaine Efficacy in Redheads  

PubMed Central

Background: Anesthetic requirement in redheads is exaggerated, suggesting that redheads may be especially sensitive to pain. We therefore tested the hypotheses that women with natural red hair are more sensitive to pain, and that redheads are resistant to topical and subcutaneous lidocaine. Methods: We evaluated pain sensitivity in red-haired (n=30) or dark-haired (n=30) women by determining the electrical current perception threshold, pain perception, and maximum pain tolerance with a Neurometer CPT/C (Neurotron, Inc., Baltimore, MD). We evaluated the analogous warm and cold temperature thresholds with the TSA-II Neurosensory Analyzer (Medoc Ltd., Minneapolis, MN). Volunteers were tested with both devices at baseline and with the Neurometer after 1-hour exposure to 4% liposomal lidocaine and after subcutaneous injection of 1% lidocaine. Data are presented as medians [interquartile ranges]. Results: Current perception, pain perception, and pain tolerance thresholds were similar in the red-haired and dark-haired women at 2000, 250, and 5 Hz. In contrast, redheads were more sensitive to cold pain perception (22.6°C [15.1, 26.1] vs. 12.6°C [0, 20], P=0.004), cold pain tolerance (6.0°C [0, 9.7] vs. 0.0°C [0.0, 2.0], P=0.001), and heat pain (46.3°C [45.7, 47.5] vs. 47.7°C [46.6, 48.7], P=0.009). Subcutaneous, lidocaine was significantly less effective in redheads, e.g., pain tolerance threshold at 2000 Hz stimulation in redheads was 11.0 mA [8.5, 16.5] vs. >20.0 mA [14.5, >20] in others, P=0.005). Conclusion: Red hair is the phenotype for mutations of the melanocortin 1 receptor. Our results indicate that redheads are more sensitive to thermal pain and are resistant to the analgesic effects of subcutaneous lidocaine. Mutations of the melanocortin 1 receptor, or a consequence thereof, thus modulate pain sensitivity. PMID:15731586

Liem, Edwin B.; Joiner, Teresa V.; Tsueda, Kentaro; Sessler, Daniel I.

2005-01-01

136

Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and effects on human experimental pain of the selective ionotropic glutamate receptor 5 (iGluR5) antagonist LY545694 in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to establish in healthy volunteers the maximally tolerated multiple dose (MTMD) of the ionotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist LY545694 (part A), and to investigate whether that dose had analgesic or antihyperalgesic effects in the brief thermal stimulation (BTS) pain model (Part B). Part A was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 3 groups of 10 healthy men. To simulate an extended-release formulation, study drug was administered orally over 6hours (12 equally divided aliquots at 30-minute intervals). Part B was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, 3-way crossover study in 27 healthy men. At each of the 3 study periods, subjects received either LY545694 (MTMD; as determined during part A) as a simulated, twice daily extended-release formulation for 4 doses over 3days, gabapentin (600mg 8hours apart; 6 doses over 3days; positive control), or matching placebo. The BTS model was induced twice with a 1-hour interval on each of the 2 study days, before drug administration and at the time of expected peak analgesia of LY545694. Plasma exposure for LY545694 was approximately linear over the 25- to 75-mg dose range. The MTMD of LY545694 was 25mg twice daily. Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were significantly smaller after administration of LY545694 and gabapentin compared with placebo (P<.0001 and P=.0004, respectively), but there was no difference between areas after administration of gabapentin and LY545694 (P=.400). Neither gabapentin nor LY545694 reduced the painfulness of skin heating during BTS model induction. The most common treatment-emergent adverse event was dizziness. The results of this study suggest that LY545694 should be explored further as a potential treatment for chronic pain involving neuronal sensitization. PMID:24486883

Petersen, Karin L; Iyengar, Smriti; Chappell, Amy S; Lobo, Evelyn D; Reda, Haatem; Prucka, William R; Verfaille, Steven J

2014-05-01

137

The Relationship Between Neck Pain and Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each of the two participant groups. 21 participants were recruited for each of the two participant groups (n = 42). Data collection included the use of the Neck Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, electrocutaneous (Neurometer® CPT) and pressure stimulation (JTech algometer) for quantitative sensory testing, and 5 days of subjective (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity) and objective (BioTrainer II) measurements of physical activity. Analysis of Variance and Pearson’s Correlation were used to determine if differences and relationships exist between dependent variables both within and between groups. The results show that individuals with mild neck pain and healthy controls do not differ in subjectively and objectively measured physical activity. While participants with neck pain reported higher neck disability and fear of movement, these factors did not significantly relate to physical activity levels. Perceived activity level was related to pain threshold and tolerance at local neck muscles sites (C2 paraspinal muscle and upper trapezius muscle), whereas measured activity was related to generalized pain sensitivity, as measured at the tibialis anterior muscle site. PMID:24133553

Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; MacDermid, Joy C.

2013-01-01

138

Efficacy of long-term milnacipran treatment in patients meeting different thresholds of clinically relevant pain relief: subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal study  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia patients from a long-term, open-label study of milnacipran (50–200 mg/day) were eligible to participate in a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled withdrawal study. The withdrawal study evaluated loss of therapeutic response in patients who achieved ?50% pain improvements after receiving up to 3.25 years of milnacipran. This post-hoc analysis investigated whether patients who met lower thresholds of pain improvement also experienced worsening of fibromyalgia symptoms upon treatment withdrawal. Method Among patients who received milnacipran ?100 mg/day during the long-term study, three subgroups were identified based on percentage of pain reduction at randomization: ?50% (protocol-defined “responders”; n=150); ?30% to <50% (patients with clinically meaningful pain improvement; n=61); and <30% (n=110). Efficacy assessments included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR), 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results In the ?30 to <50% subgroup, significant worsening in pain was detected after treatment withdrawal. The difference between placebo and milnacipran in mean VAS score changes for this subgroup (+9.0, P<0.05) was similar to the difference in protocol-defined responders (+9.4, P<0.05). In the <30% subgroup, no worsening in pain was observed in either treatment arm. However, patients in this subgroup experienced significant worsening in FIQR scores after treatment withdrawal (placebo, +6.9; milnacipran, ?2.8; P<0.001), as well as worsening in SF-36 PCS and BDI scores. Conclusion Patients who experienced ?30% to <50% pain reduction with long-term milnacipran had significant worsening of fibromyalgia symptoms after treatment withdrawal. These results suggest that the conventional ?30% pain responder cutoff may be adequate to demonstrate efficacy in randomized withdrawal studies of fibromyalgia. Patients in the <30% pain reduction subgroup had worsening scores on the FIQR and other multidimensional measures after treatment withdrawal, indicating the importance of identifying and managing the multiple symptoms of fibromyalgia. PMID:25473309

Mease, Philip J; Clauw, Daniel J; Trugman, Joel M; Palmer, Robert H; Wang, Yong

2014-01-01

139

Effects of Videogame Distraction using a Virtual Reality Type Head-Mounted Display Helmet on Cold Pressor Pain in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective?To test whether a head-mounted display helmet enhances the effectiveness of videogame distraction for children experiencing cold pressor pain.?Method?Forty-one children, aged 6–14 years, underwent one or two baseline cold pressor trials followed by two distraction trials in which they played the same videogame with and without the helmet in counterbalanced order. Pain threshold (elapsed time until the child reported pain) and pain tolerance (total time the child kept the hand submerged in the cold water) were measured for each cold pressor trial.?Results?Both distraction conditions resulted in improved pain tolerance relative to baseline. Older children appeared to experience additional benefits from using the helmet, whereas younger children benefited equally from both conditions. The findings suggest that virtual reality technology can enhance the effects of distraction for some children. Research is needed to identify the characteristics of children for whom this technology is best suited. PMID:18367495

Weiss, Karen E.; Dillinger Clendaniel, Lindsay; Law, Emily F.; Ackerman, Claire Sonntag; McKenna, Kristine D.

2009-01-01

140

The effects of emotion regulation strategies on the pain experience: a structured laboratory investigation.  

PubMed

Although emotion regulation modulates the pain experience, inconsistencies have been identified regarding the impact of specific regulation strategies on pain. Our goal was to examine the effects of emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal on automatic (ie, nonverbal) and cognitively mediated (ie, verbal) pain expressions. Nonclinical participants were randomized into either a suppression (n = 58), reappraisal (n = 51), or monitoring control (n = 42) condition. Upon arrival to the laboratory, participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, to quantify self-reported suppression and reappraisal tendencies. Subsequently, they completed a thermal pain threshold and tolerance task. They were then provided with instructions to use, depending on their experimental condition, suppression, reappraisal, or monitoring strategies. Afterward, they were exposed to experimentally induced pain. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and tension were administered, and facial expressions, heart rate, and galvanic skin response were recorded. The Facial Action Coding System was used to quantify general and pain-related facial activity (ie, we defined facial actions that occurred during at least 5% of pain stimulation periods as "pain-related actions"). Reappraisal and suppression induction led to reductions in nonverbal and verbal indices of pain. Moreover, self-reported tendencies to use suppression and reappraisal (as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire) did not interact with experimental condition in the determination of participants' responses. Results suggest that consciously applying emotion regulation strategies during a painful task can moderate both cognitively mediated (eg, verbal) and automatic (eg, facial activity) expressions of pain. PMID:25734999

Hampton, Amy J D; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Gagnon, Michelle M; Williams, Jaime; Clark, David

2015-05-01

141

Implication of delta opioid receptor subtype 2 but not delta opioid receptor subtype 1 in the development of morphine analgesic tolerance in a rat model of chronic inflammatory pain.  

PubMed

Opioids are well known for their robust analgesic effects. Chronic activation of mu opioid receptors (MOPs) is, however, accompanied by various unwanted effects such as analgesic tolerance. Among other mechanisms, interactions between MOPs and delta opioid receptors (DOPs) are thought to play an important role in morphine-induced behavioral adaptations. Interestingly, certain conditions such as inflammation enhance the function of the DOP through a MOP-dependent mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of DOPs during the development of morphine tolerance in an animal model of chronic inflammatory pain. Using behavioral approaches, we first established that repeated systemic morphine treatment induced morphine analgesic tolerance in rats coping with chronic inflammatory pain. We then observed that blockade of DOPs with subcutaneous naltrindole (NTI), a selective DOP antagonist, significantly attenuated the development of morphine tolerance in a dose-dependent manner. We confirmed that this effect was DOP mediated by showing that an acute injection of NTI had no effect on morphine-induced analgesia in naive animals. Previous pharmacological characterizations revealed the existence of DOP subtype 1 and DOP subtype 2. As opposed to NTI, 7-benzylidenenaltrexone and naltriben were reported to be selective DOP subtype 1 and DOP subtype 2 antagonists, respectively. Interestingly, naltriben but not 7-benzylidenenaltrexone was able to attenuate the development of morphine analgesic tolerance in inflamed rats. Altogether, our results suggest that targeting of DOP subtype 2 with antagonists provides a valuable strategy to attenuate the analgesic tolerance that develops after repeated morphine administration in the setting of chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:25639561

Beaudry, H; Gendron, L; Morón, J A

2015-04-01

142

Neuropathic pain (NeP) is pain resulting from nervous tissue damage. It is chronic,  

E-print Network

Why? Neuropathic pain (NeP) is pain resulting from nervous tissue damage. It is chronic, affects disturbances likely to be associated with neuropathic pain in your dog. ·Test thermal and pressure thresholds-neuropathic pain to establish the range of threshold in normal dogs for standardisation. Clipping off fur in small

Burn, Charlotte

143

The Effect of Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Patient Factors on Self-Reported Pain-Disability in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to estimate the extent to which pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) and patient factors predict pain-related disability in patients with neck pain (NP), and to determine if PPS differs by gender. Forty-four participants with a moderate level of chronic NP were recruited for this cross sectional study. All participants were asked to complete self-reported assessments of pain, disability and comorbidity and then underwent PPS testing at 4-selected body locations. Pearson`s r w was computed to explore relationships between the PPS measures and the self-reported assessments. Regression models were built to identify predictors of pain and disability. An independent sample t-test was done to identify gender-related differences in PPS, pain-disability and comorbidity. In this study, greater PPS (threshold and tolerance) was significantly correlated to lower pain-disability (r = -.30 to -.53, p?0.05). Age was not correlated with pain or disability but comorbidity was (r= 0.42-.43, p?0.01). PPS at the 4-selected body locations was able to explain neck disability (R2=25-28%). Comorbidity was the strongest predictor of neck disability (R2 =30%) and pain (R2=25%). Significant mean differences for gender were found in PPS, disability and comorbidity, but not in pain intensity or rating. This study suggests that PPS may play a role in outcome measures of pain and disability but between-subject comparisons should consider gender and comorbidity issues. PMID:25320651

Uddin, Zakir; MacDermid, Joy C.; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Triano, John J.; Galea, Victoria; Gross, Anita R.

2014-01-01

144

A multicentre, open-label, follow-on study to assess the long-term maintenance of effect, tolerance and safety of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in the management of neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) poses a significant clinical challenge. The long-term efficacy of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray was investigated in this 38-week open-label extension study. In total, 380 patients with PNP associated with diabetes or allodynia entered this study from two parent randomised, controlled trials. Patients received THC/CBD spray for a further 38 weeks in addition to their current analgesic therapy. Neuropathic pain severity was the primary efficacy measure using a pain 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Additional efficacy, safety and tolerability outcomes were also investigated. In total, 234 patients completed the study (62 %). The pain NRS showed a decrease in score over time in patients from a mean of 6.9 points (baseline in the parent studies) to a mean of 4.2 points (end of open-label follow-up). The proportion of patients who reported at least a clinically relevant 30 % improvement in pain continued to increase with time (up to 9 months); at least half of all patients reported a 30 % improvement at all time points. Improvements were observed for all secondary efficacy outcomes, including sleep quality 0-10 NRS scores, neuropathic pain scale scores, subject global impression of change and EQ-5D questionnaire scores. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated for the study duration and patients did not seek to increase their dose with time, with no new safety concerns arising from long-term use. In this previously difficult to manage patient population, THC/CBD spray was beneficial for the majority of patients with PNP associated with diabetes or allodynia. PMID:25270679

Hoggart, B; Ratcliffe, S; Ehler, E; Simpson, K H; Hovorka, J; Lej?ko, J; Taylor, L; Lauder, H; Serpell, M

2015-01-01

145

Alterations in endogenous pain modulation in endurance athletes: an experimental study using quantitative sensory testing and the cold-pressor task.  

PubMed

There is evidence for long-term alterations in pain tolerance among athletes compared with normally active controls. However, scientific data on pain thresholds in this population are inconsistent, and the underlying mechanisms for the differences remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed differences and similarities in pain perception and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) at rest in endurance athletes and normally active controls. The standardised quantitative sensory testing protocol (QST) of the 'German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain' was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions. The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. CPM (the diffuse-noxious-inhibitory-control-like effect) was measured using 2 tonic heat pain test stimuli (at the temperature exceeding a subjective pain rating of 50/100) separated by a 2-min cold-pressor task (CPM-TASK; conditioning stimulus). Pain ratings were measured with a numerical rating scale. Endurance capacity was validated by assessment of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants included 25 pain-free male endurance athletes (VO2max>60mL/min?kg) and 26 pain-free normally active controls (VO2max<45mL/min?kg) matched based on age and body mass index. Athletes were significantly less sensitive to mechanical pain but showed higher sensitivity to vibration (P<0.05). In athletes, CPM was significantly less activated by the conditioning stimuli (P<0.05) when compared with normally active controls. Our data show that somatosensory processing in athletes differs in comparison with controls, and suggest that the endogenous pain inhibitory system may be less responsive. This finding may explain the paradoxical propensity of athletes to develop chronic widespread pain. PMID:23657118

Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

2013-07-01

146

Effectiveness and tolerability of pharmacologic and combined interventions for reducing injection pain during routine childhood immunizations: Systematic review and meta-analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Immunization is the most common cause of iatrogenic pain in childhood. Despite the availability of various analgesics to manage vaccine injection pain, they have not been incorporated into clinical practice. To date, no systematic review has been published on the effectiveness of pharmacologic and combined interventions for reducing injection pain.Objectives: The objectives of this article were to assess the

Vibhuti Shah; Anna Taddio; Michael J. Rieder

2009-01-01

147

Heritability of pain catastrophizing and associations with experimental pain outcomes: a twin study.  

PubMed

This study used a twin paradigm to examine genetic and environmental contributions to pain catastrophizing and the observed association between pain catastrophizing and cold-pressor task (CPT) outcomes. Male and female monozygotic (n = 206) and dizygotic twins (n = 194) from the University of Washington Twin Registry completed a measure of pain catastrophizing and performed a CPT challenge. As expected, pain catastrophizing emerged as a significant predictor of several CPT outcomes, including cold-pressor Immersion Tolerance, Pain Tolerance, and Delayed Pain Rating. The heritability estimate for pain catastrophizing was found to be 37% with the remaining 63% of variance attributable to unique environmental influence. Additionally, the observed associations between pain catastrophizing and CPT outcomes were not found attributable to shared genetics or environmental exposure, which suggests a direct relationship between catastrophizing and experimental pain outcomes. This study is the first to examine the heritability of pain catastrophizing and potential processes by which pain catastrophizing is related to experimental pain response. PMID:25599234

Trost, Zina; Strachan, Eric; Sullivan, Michael; Vervoort, Tine; Avery, Ally R; Afari, Niloofar

2015-03-01

148

Application of the “threshold of toxicological concern” to derive tolerable concentrations of “non-relevant metabolites” formed from plant protection products in ground and drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limits for tolerable concentrations of ground water metabolites (“non-relevant metabolites” without targeted toxicities and specific classification and labeling) derived from active ingredients (AI) of plant protection products (PPPs) are discussed in the European Union. Risk assessments for “non-relevant metabolites” need to be performed when concentrations are above 0.75?g\\/L. Since oral uptake is the only relevant exposure pathway for “non-relevant metabolites”,

Stephanie Melching-Kollmuß; Wolfgang Dekant; Fritz Kalberlah

2010-01-01

149

Effectiveness and tolerability of once-daily nimesulide versus ibuprofen in pain management after surgical extraction of an impacted third molar: A 24-hour, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, parallel-group study  

PubMed Central

Background: Nimesulide is a nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that hasbeen used for a wide range of acute and chronic pain. A once-daily formulation of nimesulide is now commercially available, but its effectiveness in pain management after dental surgery has not been assessed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effectiveness and tolerability of oral treatment with once-daily nimesulide versus ibuprofen q6h over 24 hours in patients with postoperative pain associated with surgical extraction of an impacted third molar. Methods: This 24-hour, double-blind, randomized, double-dummy, parallel-groupstudy was conducted at a private practice in Caracas, Venezuela. Patients aged between 12 and 60 years with moderate to severe pain after extraction of an impacted third molar were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive a single dose of nimesulide (300-mg tablet) or ibuprofen (400-mg tablets) q6h for 24 hours. For double-dummy design, patients in the nimesulide group also received ibuprofen placebo tablets, to be taken q6h for 24 hours, and patients in the ibuprofen group received a nimesulide placebo tablet. The primary end points were pain intensity (PI) and pain relief scores over 24 hours. Secondary end points included total pain relief, PI difference (PID), sum of PID (SPID), time to first measurable change in PI (ie, PID ? 10 mm), and use of rescue medication (acetaminophen). Patients also rated the treatment's effectiveness as very poor to very good on questioning by the study investigator. Spontaneously reported adverse effects (AEs) were recorded. Results: Eighty-six patients were enrolled (56 females, 30 males), with 43 patientsper treatment group (mean age: nimesulide group, 25.2 years; ibuprofen group, 24.2 years). The baseline characteristics were statistically similar between the 2 groups. Compared with baseline, mean PI scores were significantly lower in both treatment groups at all time points throughout the study (P < 0.001). Mean PI scores were significantly lower in the nimesulide group compared with the ibuprofen group at 15 and 45 minutes and 1 hour after study drug administration (P ? 0.049). Time to first measurable change in PI was within the first 15 minutes in 22 patients (52%) in the nimesulide group and in 14 patients (33%) in the ibuprofen group (P = 0.03). Analgesia lasted 24 hours with nimesulide and ibuprofen (PI scores at 24 hours, 9.4 and 3.6, respectively). The mean PR score was significantly lower in the nimesulide group compared with the ibuprofen group at 1 hour after study drug administration (P = 0.049). Compared with baseline, PID and SPID were significantly higher in both treatment groups throughout the study (P < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the nimesulide group than in the ibuprofen group reported that treatment provided effective pain relief (82% vs 73%; P = 0.013). No AEs were reported in either treatment group throughout the study. Use of rescue medication was statistically similar between the nimesulide and ibuprofen groups (38% and 31%, respectively). Conclusions: In this study of patients with moderate to severe pain afterextraction of impacted third molars, nimesulide and ibuprofen provided effective 24-hour relief. However, the results suggest that the analgesic effect of nimesulide had a faster onset (<15 minutes) and was stronger (based on patient opinion) than that of ibuprofen. Both study drugs were well tolerated. PMID:24672121

Bocanegra, Mildred; Seijas, Alberto; González Yibirín, María

2005-01-01

150

Groin pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... The health care provider will do an exam of the groin area and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, such as: Have you had an injury recently? Has there ...

151

Abdominal pain  

MedlinePLUS

Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

152

Flank pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - side; Side pain ... Flank pain can be a sign of a kidney problem. However, since many organs are in this area, other causes are possible. If you have flank pain and fever , chills, blood in the urine, or ...

153

Prediction of experimental pain sensitivity by attention to pain-related stimuli in healthy individuals.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive power of the processing of pain-related information, comprising concepts of hypervigilance to pain, pain catastrophizing, and pain-related anxiety (questionnaires) as well as attentional processes related to pain-related stimuli (dot-probe task) in explaining individual differences in experimental pain sensitivity (pressure/thermal pain threshold). In 160 healthy participants (ages 13-61; 80 females), results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that self-reported hypervigilance contributed significantly to the prediction of pain sensitivity, whereas pain catastrophizing and anxiety did not. However, inconsistent with prediction, the effect was in the opposite direction, indicating that vigilance to pain sensations or stimuli is associated with lower pain sensitivity in healthy individuals. Entering the attentional bias indices from the dot-probe task showed that an increased bias to pain words is related to higher experimental pain sensitivity, which confirms the hypothesis. PMID:21853779

Baum, Corinna; Huber, Claudia; Schneider, Raphaela; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2011-06-01

154

Efficacy and Tolerability of Conventional Nimesulide Versus Beta-Cyclodextrin Nimesulide in Patients with Pain After Surgical Dental Extraction: A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Study?  

PubMed Central

Background: Pain following extraction of an impacted third molar is widely used to assess analgesic efficacy, especially that of a single dose of a drug. The analgesic activity of conventional nimesulide (CN) has been documented in a variety of types of acute and chronic pain. Beta-cyclodextrin nimesulide (BN) is a new formulation in which nimesulide is included in a cyclodextrin molecule, which increases its solubility in water and its dilution rate, allowing extended, rapid absorption of the drug. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of BN compared with CN in patients with pain following extraction of an impacted third molar. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study conducted at 3 dentistry centers in Venezuela. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. One group received a single dose of BN (400-mg tablet, equivalent to 100 mg of nimesulide); the other group received a single dose of CN (100-mg tablet). Both groups also received a placebo. The efficacy variables were (1) pain intensity (PI), assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS) at the following times: 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after drug administration; (2) time to first measurable difference in PI from baseline (PID) (PID ?1 cm on the VAS; ie, the beginning of analgesic action); (3) maximum PID (max PID); (4) sum of PIDs in the 12-hour observation period; (5) pain relief (PR), as rated on a 5-point scale; (6) maximum PR; and (7) sum of the PR scores in the 12-hour observation period (ie, total PR). For the tolerability analysis, all adverse events (AEs) were to be recorded, and the investigators were to assess whether each AE was drug related. Results: Seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, 62 patients (40 women, 22 men; mean [SD] age, 20.1 [5.9] years) were assessed; 35 were treated with BN and 27 with CN. PI reduction was more rapid and greater in the BN group. The first measurable change in PI (PID ?1 on the VAS) was reached within 5 minutes by 39% and 15% of the patients in the BN and CN groups, respectively, and within 10 minutes by 52% and 30% of the patients in the BN and CN groups, respectively. The max PID was reached <1 hour in 32% and 15% of patients in the BN and CN groups, respectively. No AEs were reported. Conclusions: In this study population, both BN and CN were similarly effective in relieving pain after extraction of an impacted third molar, and both drugs were well tolerated. PI changes were statistically significantly more rapid and greater with BN than CN. PMID:24944376

Bocanegra, Mildred; Seijas, Alberto; Yibirín, Maria González

2003-01-01

155

Quantum Error Correction and Fault-Tolerance  

E-print Network

I give an overview of the basic concepts behind quantum error correction and quantum fault tolerance. This includes the quantum error correction conditions, stabilizer codes, CSS codes, transversal gates, fault-tolerant error correction, and the threshold theorem.

Daniel Gottesman

2005-07-18

156

Increasing intensity of TENS prevents analgesic tolerance in rats  

PubMed Central

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) reduces hyperalgesia and pain. Both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) TENS, delivered at the same intensity (90% motor threshold (MT)) daily, result in analgesic tolerance with repeated use by the 5th day of treatment. Thecurrentstudytestedif 1) increasingintensityby 10% per daypreventsthedevelopmentoftolerance to repeated TENS, and 2) iflowerintensity TENS (50 % MT) produces an equivalentreduction in hyperalgesia when compared to 90% MT TENS. Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral knee joint inflammation (3% carrageenan) were separated according to the intensity of TENS used: Sham, 50% LF, 50% HF, 90% LF, 90% HF, and increased intensity by 10% per day (LF and HF). The reduced mechanical withdrawal threshold following the induction of inflammation was reversed by application of TENS applied at 90% MT and increasing intensity for the first 4 days. On the 5th day, the groups that received 90% MT intensity showed tolerance. Nevertheless, the group that received an increased intensity on each day still showed a reversal of the mechanical withdrawal threshold with TENS. These results show that the development of tolerance can be delayed by increasing intensity of TENS. PMID:22858165

Sato, Karina L.; Sanada, Luciana S.; Rakel, Barbara A.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

2012-01-01

157

Positive Traits Linked to Less Pain through Lower Pain Catastrophizing  

PubMed Central

The present study examined the association between positive traits, pain catastrophizing, and pain perceptions. We hypothesized that pain catastrophizing would mediate the relationship between positive traits and pain. First, participants (n = 114) completed the Trait Hope Scale, the Life Orientation Test- Revised, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Participants then completed the experimental pain stimulus, a cold pressor task, by submerging their hand in a circulating water bath (0º Celsius) for as long as tolerable. Immediately following the task, participants completed the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ-SF). Pearson correlation found associations between hope and pain catastrophizing (r = ?.41, p < .01) and MPQ-SF scores (r = ?.20, p < .05). Optimism was significantly associated with pain catastrophizing (r = ?.44, p < .01) and MPQ-SF scores (r = ?.19, p < .05). Bootstrapping, a non-parametric resampling procedure, tested for mediation and supported our hypothesis that pain catastrophizing mediated the relationship between positive traits and MPQ-SF pain report. To our knowledge, this investigation is the first to establish that the protective link between positive traits and experimental pain operates through lower pain catastrophizing. PMID:22199416

Hood, Anna; Pulvers, Kim; Carrillo, Janet; Merchant, Gina; Thomas, Marie

2011-01-01

158

Effect of spinal cord stimulation on sensory nerve conduction threshold functional measures.  

PubMed

Background. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is being used with increasing frequency in the treatment of various chronic pain conditions. There is a paucity of reliable outcome data regarding changes in pain tolerance and peripheral sensory nerve function. The automated electrodiagnostic neuroselective sensory Nerve Conduction Threshold (sNCT) test measures painless current perception thresholds (CPTs) and atraumatic pain tolerance thresholds (PTTs). The ability of the sNCT test to independently evaluate small and large fiber function may have particular relevance for evaluating response to SCS. Methods/Results. Sixteen patients with implanted SCS systems and lower extremity neuropathic pain of greater than 6-months duration were tested using a standardized protocol, pre- and post-SCS. CPT and PTT measures (Neurometer, CPT/C Neurotron, Inc. Baltimore, MD) were obtained from the distal phalange of the most symptomatic extremity and at an ipsilateral asymptomatic control site. Only CPTs at the symptomatic site (2000 Hz only) and at the control site (5 Hz only) reached statistical significance. Changes in CPTs at other frequencies, and changes in PTTs at all frequencies (symptomatic and control sites) were not statistically significant. Conclusion. The results of this study appear to substantiate the postulates that both segmental and suprasegmental effects are involved in SCS-mediated analgesia. SCS modulates segmental large afferent fiber input as reflected by a statistically significant increase in large fiber CPTs (2000 Hz) at the symptomatic site post-SCS. A statistically significant increase in small fiber (5 Hz) CPTs at the control site suggests a central sensory (suprasegmental) modulating effect on nociceptive fiber activity. sNCT testing provided reliable outcome data for evaluating response to SCS. PMID:22151462

Aló, K M; Chado, H N

2000-08-01

159

Experimental muscle pain impairs descending inhibition  

PubMed Central

In chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions, the balance between supraspinal facilitation and inhibition of pain shifts towards an overall decrease in inhibition. Application of a tonic painful stimulus results in activation of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). The aims of the present experimental human study were (1) to compare DNIC, evoked separately, by hypertonic saline (6%)-induced muscle pain (tibialis anterior) or cold pressor pain; (2) to investigate DNIC evoked by concomitant experimental muscle pain and cold pressor pain, and (3) to analyze for gender differences. Ten males and 10 age matched females participated in two sessions. In the first session unilateral muscle pain or unilateral cold pressor pain were induced separately; in the second session unilateral muscle pain and unilateral cold pressor pain were induced concomitantly. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured around the knee joint before, during, and after DNIC induction. Cold pressor pain increased PPT in both males and females with greater increases in males. Hypertonic saline-evoked muscle pain significantly increased PPT in males but not in females. When cold pressor and muscle pain were applied concomitantly the PPT increases were smaller when compared to the individual sessions. This study showed for the first time that two concurrent conditioning tonic pain stimuli (muscle pain and cold pressor pain) cause less DNIC compared with either of the conditioning stimuli given alone; and males showed greater DNIC than females. This may explain why patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain have impaired DNIC. PMID:18977598

Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Nie, Hong Ling

2009-01-01

160

Neuropathic Features of Joint Pain: a Community-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Quantitative sensory testing (QST) and questionnaire-based assessment have been used to demonstrate features of neuropathic pain in those with musculoskeletal pain. However, their direct relationship has not been investigated in the community. We conducted an observational study to describe the characteristics of joint pain and examine the relationship between QST and the PainDETECT questionnaire. Methods Warm detection, heat pain, mechanical pain thresholds and mechanical pain sensitivity were determined over the sternum alongside PainDETECT scores in a cross-sectional study of 462 participants from the Chingford Study. Comparisons were made between those with and without joint pain. Logistic regression modelling was used to describe the association between neuropathic pain features, determined by the PainDETECT score, and each of the QST measures individually, adjusting for age, BMI and pain-modifying medication use. Results 66.2% reported recent joint pain with a median average pain severity of 5/10. There was increased sensitivity to painful stimuli in those with pain compared to the pain free group and this persisted after stratification by pain-modifying medication use. While only 6.7% had possible and 1.9% likely neuropathic pain features using standard PainDETECT thresholds, features of neuropathic pain were common and present in over 50%, with at least moderate severity, of those reporting pain. Heat pain thresholds and mechanical pain sensitivity were significantly associated with features of neuropathic pain identified using PainDETECT, OR 0.88(0.79-0.97), p=0.011 and 1.24(1.04-1.48), p=0.018 respectively. Conclusion QST and the PainDETECT questionnaire identified features of neuropathic pain in this community-based study, with significant overlap between the two techniques. PMID:23553508

Soni, A; Batra, RN; Gwilym, SE; Spector, TD; Hart, DJ; Arden, NK; Cooper, C; Tracey, I; Javaid, MK

2013-01-01

161

Cancer pain  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Importance of the Problem; Neurophysiology and Biochemistry of Pain; Assessment of Pain in Patients with Cancer; Drug Therapy; Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Cancer Pain; Sympton Control as it Relates to Pain Control; and Palliative Surgery in Cancer Pain Treatment.

Swerdlow, M.; Ventafridda, V.

1987-01-01

162

Review of the efficacy and tolerability of the diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% in patients with acute pain due to soft tissue injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2007 for the treatment of soft tissue injuries such as strains, sprains, and contusions, although it has been available for many years in >40 countries worldwide.Objective: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy and tolerability of the DETP

Kerry S. Kuehl

2010-01-01

163

Is the Deficit in Pain Inhibition in Fibromyalgia Influenced by Sleep Impairments?  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that a deficit in inhibitory conditioned pain modulation (ICPM) underlies the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia (FM), but there is high variability in ICPM efficacy in this syndrome that remains poorly understood. Based on emerging data showing that age, anxiety, depression and sleep can modulate ICPM efficacy, the main objective of this study was to determine the clinical correlates of experimentally-induced pain perception in FM. Fifty FM patients and 39 healthy controls (HC) were tested. Anxiety, depression, sleep and FM symptoms were measured with questionnaires or interview-type scales. Experimental pain testing consisted of two tonic heat pain stimulations separated by a 2-minute cold pressor test (CPT). Thermal pain thresholds and tolerance were higher in HC compared to FM patients. Pain ratings during the CPT were lower in HC relative to FM patients. ICPM efficacy was stronger in HC compared to FM patients. Finally, sleep quality was the only factor significantly related to ICPM efficacy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report this association in FM. Future studies will need to replicate this finding, to determine whether impaired sleep is primary or secondary to deficient pain inhibition, and to characterize the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:23091577

Paul-Savoie, Emilie; Marchand, Serge; Morin, Mélanie; Bourgault, Patricia; Brissette, Nathalie; Rattanavong, Vongmaly; Cloutier, Christian; Bissonnette, Alain; Potvin, Stéphane

2012-01-01

164

Foetal pain?  

PubMed

The majority of commentary on foetal pain has looked at the maturation of neural pathways to decide a lower age limit for foetal pain. This approach is sensible because there must be a minimal necessary neural development that makes pain possible. Very broadly, it is generally agreed that the minimal necessary neural pathways for pain are in place by 24 weeks gestation. Arguments remain, however, as to the possibility of foetal pain before or after 24 weeks. Some argue that the foetus can feel pain earlier than 24 weeks because pain can be supported by subcortical structures. Others argue that the foetus cannot feel pain at any stage because it is maintained in a state of sedation in the womb and lacks further neural and conceptual development necessary for pain. Much of this argument rests on the definition of terms such as 'wakefulness' and 'pain'. If a behavioural and neural reaction to a noxious stimulus is considered sufficient for pain, then pain is possible from 24 weeks and probably much earlier. If a conceptual subjectivity is considered necessary for pain, however, then pain is not possible at any gestational age. Regardless of how pain is defined, it is clear that pain for conceptual beings is qualitatively different than pain for non-conceptual beings. It is therefore a mistake to draw an equivalence between foetal pain and pain in the older infant or adult. PMID:20356798

Derbyshire, Stuart W G

2010-10-01

165

A pilot study of the tolerability and effects of high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) on pain perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several brain stimulation technologies are beginning to evidence promise as pain treatments. However, traditional versions of one specific technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), stimulate broad regions of cortex with poor spatial precision. A new tDCS design, called High Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS), allows for focal delivery of the charge to discrete regions of the cortex. We sought to preliminarily test

Jeffrey J. Borckardt; Marom Bikson; Heather Frohman; Scott T. Reeves; Abhishek Datta; Varun Bansal; Alok Madan; Kelly Barth; Mark S. George

166

Pain (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer treatment ends. Pain control can improve your quality of life. Pain can be controlled in most patients with ... in most patients. Pain control can improve your quality of life all through your cancer treatment and after it ...

167

Belly Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... tract infection or a blocked intestine. Infection by bacteria or a parasite, heartburn , irritable bowel disease , or ... to have abdominal pain, the pain in your gut may really be a pain in your brain. ...

168

Elbow pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - elbow ... Elbow pain can be caused by a variety of problems. A common cause in adults is tendinitis , an inflammation ... a partial dislocation ). Other common causes of elbow pain are: Bursitis -- inflammation of a fluid-filled cushion ...

169

Heel pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - heel ... Heel pain is most often the result of overuse. Rarely, it may be caused by an injury. Your heel ... on the heel Conditions that may cause heel pain include: When the tendon that connects the back ...

170

Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Pregnancy and Rheumatic Disease Sex and Arthritis Neck Pain PRINT Download PDF Description Saying, “It’s a pain ... requires expensive or uncomfortable tests. What is neck pain? Acute strain may occur after sleeping in an ...

171

Wrist pain  

MedlinePLUS

... back. Over-the-counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can relieve pain and swelling. Various, ... Take over-the-counter pain medication, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Wear a splint for several days. ...

172

Pain Relievers  

MedlinePLUS

Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve headaches, sore muscles, arthritis, or other aches and pains. There ... also have a slightly different response to a pain reliever. Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are good for ...

173

Impact of written emotional disclosure of trauma on laboratory induced pain  

E-print Network

on pain and may be effective in increasing pain tolerance during a dental procedure. Finally, Gillis et al. (2006) have suggested disclosure may benefit health outcomes in people with fibromyalgia. The Impact of Writing on Laboratory Pain Our...

Creech, Suzannah K

2008-10-10

174

Spatial summation of heat pain in males and females.  

PubMed

Sex differences in pain sensitivity have been found to vary between considerable and negligible. It has appeared that the pain stimulation method is critical in this context. It was assumed this might be due to the different degrees of spatial summation associated with the different pain stimulus modalities. Hence, sex differences were investigated in spatial summation of heat pain in 20 healthy women and 20 healthy men of similar age. Pain thresholds were assessed by a tracking procedure and responses to supra-threshold pain stimulation by numerical ratings. Heat stimuli were administered by a thermode with contact areas of 1, 3, 6 and 10 cm2. Pain thresholds were significantly higher with smaller areas stimulated than with larger ones. No significant effect of area was found for the ratings of the supra-threshold stimuli, the intensities of which were tailored to the individual pain threshold. Consequently, spatial summation of heat pain appeared to result mainly in a shift of the pain threshold on the ordinate and not a change of slope of the stimulus-response function in the pain range. In neither of the two pain parameters were there any sex differences. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that sex differences in spatial summation of heat pain are unlikely. PMID:11534773

Lautenbacher, S; Nielsen, J; Andersen, T; Arendt-Nielsen, L

2001-01-01

175

Electronic gaming as pain distraction.  

PubMed

The current study investigated whether active distraction reduces participants' experience of pain more than passive distraction during a cold pressor task. In the first experiment, 60 participants were asked to submerge their hand in cold (2°C) water for as long as they could tolerate. They did this with no distraction, and then with active (electronic gaming system) and passive (television) distraction, in randomly assigned order. Tolerance time, pain intensity ratings and task absorption ratings were measured for each condition. A second experiment attempted to control for participants' expectations about the effects of distraction on pain. Forty participants underwent the same experimental procedure, but were given verbal suggestions about the effects of distraction by the experimenter before each distraction condition. Participants in both experiments had a significantly higher pain tolerance and reported less pain with the active distraction compared with passive or no distraction. Participants reported being more absorbed, and were significantly more willing to do the task again when they had the active distraction compared with both passive distraction and no distraction. They also had more enjoyment, less anxiety and greater reduction in pain with active distraction than with passive distraction. There was no effect of suggestion. These experiments offer further support for the use of electronic games as a method of pain control. PMID:21369538

Jameson, Eleanor; Trevena, Judy; Swain, Nic

2011-01-01

176

Pelvic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

177

Intrathecal ziconotide: a review of its use in patients with chronic pain refractory to other systemic or intrathecal analgesics.  

PubMed

Ziconotide (Prialt(®)) is a synthetic conopeptide analgesic that acts by selectively antagonizing N-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Intrathecal ziconotide is the only non-opioid intrathecal analgesic that is FDA-approved for use in patients with treatment-refractory, chronic pain. The efficacy of intrathecal ziconotide was demonstrated in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with treatment-refractory noncancer-related pain or cancer- or AIDS-related pain. Across trials, ziconotide recipients had significantly greater reductions in pain intensity during ziconotide treatment than those receiving placebo (primary endpoint). At the end of the titration period, approximately one-sixth to one-third of patients with noncancer chronic pain and one-half with cancer- or AIDS-related pain who received ziconotide reached a pain response threshold (?30 % reduction in the pain intensity score). In ziconotide responders, analgesic effects were enduring, with some patients continuing treatment over extended periods. Across trials, the chief tolerability concerns in ziconotide recipients during the titration phase and during extended treatment were related to CNS adverse events. These were mostly of mild to moderate intensity, although serious adverse events were commonly attributed to ziconotide treatment, especially in trials with rapid ziconotide titration and that permitted higher dosages. In general, clinically important non-CNS adverse events were infrequent, and during the ziconotide titration phase, relatively few patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Ongoing research will assess various strategies for selecting patients for ziconotide treatment and for enhancing its efficacy and tolerability. At the present time, intrathecal ziconotide provides a treatment option for patients with severe, unremitting pain who have failed to respond to other intensive analgesic regimens. PMID:23999971

Sanford, Mark

2013-11-01

178

Silicon micromachined threshold accelerometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A threshold accelerometer, also known as a g-switch, was developed for sensing very high acceleration levels. The design follows the concept of a cantilever beam as the sensing element with a metal line running along its length. Under applied acceleration, the beam deflects upwards across a small gap and makes contact with a second electrode, thus closing a switch. The structural material chosen for the beam was silicon dioxide, due to its flexibility and ease in fabrication. The theory of the electrostatic and inertial forces are analyzed and a threshold acceleration level is derived. It is shown that this level is very sensitive to beam length. Fabrication steps are described, including chemical vapor deposition, chemical etching, and fabrication and assembly of the top glass plate. Electrostatic testing that involved voltages representative of threshold acceleration levels of 400 to 100,000 gravities was performed on over 150 beams. Under static centrifuge testing involving over 100 beams, threshold acceleration levels from 400 to 20,000 gravities were measured. Most of the experimental results are within the predicted tolerance limits set by the processing parameters.

Loke, Y.; McKinnon, G. H.; Brett, M. J.

179

Tolerating Zero Tolerance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

Moore, Brian N.

2010-01-01

180

Basic Mechanisms of Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain itself occurs in the central nervous system (CNS), while the peripheral nervous system reports on tissue damage via a\\u000a mechanical event, termed nociception, characterized by the discharge of high-threshold primary afferent fibers. Neuronal responses\\u000a in these peripheral fibers drive spinal cord activity and result in signals ascending to the brainstem and thalamus through\\u000a spinal cord tracts. It is from

Frank Willard

181

Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients  

PubMed Central

Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

2015-01-01

182

Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients.  

PubMed

Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

Zamorano, Anna M; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M; Montoya, Pedro

2014-01-01

183

Research on laser induced pain effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study 1.06?m laser causing pain in human skin. The skin of human dorsum hand was irradiated by a Nd: YAG laser. The energy of each pulse and whether the subjects felt a painful sensation after each stimulus were recorded. The pain threshold was defined as the laser dose at which the subjects reported a painful sensation to 50% of stimulus deliveries. The pain thresholds were determined under 3 different beam diameter and pulse duration conditions. The influence of skin temperature on the pain caused by laser stimulus was also explored. As the temperature of skin was about 30°C, the pain thresholds were 394mJ/mm2, 36.4mJ/mm2 and 8.92mJ/mm2 respectively under the stimulating condition of 1.20mm beam diameter and 85?s pulse duration, 1.20mm beam diameter and 20ns pulse duration and 2.56mm beam diameter and 20ns pulse duration. Under the first condition, when skin temperature was 25°C and radiant exposure was 383mJ/mm2, the probability of laser stimulus causing pain was 16.7%; when skin temperature was 39°C and radiant exposure was 361mJ/mm2, the probability was 56.7%. The threshold of 1.06?m laser stimulus causing pain decreases with decreasing pulse duration, increasing beam diameter and skin temperature.

Chen, P.; Wang, J. R.; Li, Y. C.; Yang, Z. F.

2010-11-01

184

Sex differences in nociceptive withdrawal reflex and pain perception.  

PubMed

Experimentally induced pain often reveals sex differences, with higher pain sensitivity in females. The degree of differences has been shown to depend on the stimulation and assessment methods. Since sex differences in pain develop anywhere along the physiological and psychological components of the nociceptive system, we intended to compare the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) as a more physiological (spinal) aspect of pain procession to the verbal pain report of intensity and unpleasantness as the more psychological (cortical) aspect. Twenty female and twenty male healthy university students were investigated by use of nociceptive flexion reflex threshold (staircase method) after electrical stimulation of the N. suralis. Furthermore, we assessed supra-threshold reflex responses (latency, amplitude and area) by applying 10 stimuli 5 mA above reflex threshold. Following each stimulation, the subjects provided pain ratings of intensity and unpleasantness on a visual analogue scale. Females exhibited marked lower nociceptive flexion reflex thresholds than males, while the supra-threshold reflex response tailored to the individual reflex threshold did not show any significant differences. The verbal pain ratings, corrected for NFR threshold, were not found to differ significantly. The large sex differences in nociception that were present in NFR threshold but not in the pain ratings corroborate the hypothesis that spinal processes contribute substantially to sex differences in pain procession. PMID:16338828

Mylius, Veit; Kunz, Miriam; Schepelmann, Karsten; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2005-09-01

185

Current perception threshold evaluation of the female urethra.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the current perception threshold (CPT) evaluation in the female urethra. Women without LUT dysfunction underwent CPT testing using a Neurometer (Neurotron, Inc., Baltimore, MD) connected to a ring electrode in the urethra. Testing was done in a standardized fashion at three frequencies, 2000, 250 and 5 Hz, to determine when subjects first perceived the stimuli and when perceived stimuli became painful. Current perception threshold testing was accomplished in all 10 subjects studied. The level at which subjects first perceived stimuli was significantly lower than that at which the stimuli became painful ( P<0.002). Mean perception thresholds at 2000, 250 and 5 Hz were 70 microA (range 14-230), 25 microA (4-80) and 17 microA (2-78), respectively, and mean pain thresholds were 229 microA (54-424), 91 microA (24-162) and 110 microA (25-200), respectively. There was no difference in subjects' perception thresholds at 250 and 5 Hz ( P=0.206). Perception thresholds and pain thresholds were significantly different at all other frequencies. Women without LUT dysfunction have lower perception thresholds than pain thresholds and can distinguish between most stimuli at different frequencies. Current perception threshold testing of the female urethra is technically feasible and may be useful for assessing the functional integrity of different afferent pathways. PMID:12851758

Kenton, Kimberly; Fuller, Elizabeth; Benson, J Thomas

2003-06-01

186

Pain Assessment  

MedlinePLUS

... as a result of the pain, and the nature of other medical and psychiatric problems, should be ... information helps the health care provider understand the nature of the pain or the potential benefits of ...

187

Finger pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - finger ... Nearly everyone has had finger pain at some time. You may have: Tenderness Burning Stiffness Numbness Tingling Coldness Swelling Change in skin color Redness Many conditions, such ...

188

Orofacial Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Neck, shoulder or back pain Dizziness ?xml:namespace> Sleep disorders ; If you have gone through treatment and still experience orofacial pain, you may have a sleep disorder, such as bruxism, or a sleep-related breathing ...

189

Knee pain  

MedlinePLUS

... avoid activities that aggravate your pain, especially weight bearing activities. Apply ice. First, apply it every hour ... knee You have severe pain, even when not bearing weight Your knee buckles, clicks, or locks Your ...

190

Painful swallowing  

MedlinePLUS

... ulcers Something stuck in the throat (for example, fish or chicken bones) Tooth infection or abscess ... with the painful swallowing, including: Abdominal pain Chills Cough Fever Heartburn Nausea or vomiting Sour taste in ...

191

Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the counter medicine, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, to relieve pain, and apply heat to the ... an injury. Use anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen and aspirin, to relieve pain and discomfort, and ...

192

Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... my aching back!", you are not alone. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, affecting 8 out of 10 people at some point during their lives. Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to ...

193

Chronic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... 2002. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy/ Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS): State-of-the-Science A workshop on Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy/ Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (CRPS): State-of-the-Science, December 15, 2001. Publicaciones ...

194

Chronic pain.  

PubMed

Essential facts Chronic pain is pain that persists or recurs for more than three months. It may be related to a condition, or may be pain from an injury or operation that continues after healing would usually take place. According to guidance from the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), around 18 per cent of Europe's population are currently affected by moderate to severe chronic pain. It has a considerable effect on quality of life, and can cause significant suffering and disability. PMID:25783253

2015-03-18

195

Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purposes of acute pain and the reason it is noxious are to interrupt ongoing activity in order to warn the sufferer of tissue damage, to discourage movement that might exacerbate injury or prevent healing, and to teach the organism to avoid the pain-producing circumstances. Therefore, it is no wonder that when pain persists to become chronic, many sufferers

Malcolm H. Johnson

196

Face pain  

MedlinePLUS

Face pain may be dull and throbbing or an intense, stabbing discomfort in the face or forehead. It can occur in one or ... Pain that starts in the face may be caused by a nerve problem, ... Face pain may also begin other places in the body. Abscessed ...

197

Lightness dependencies and the effect of texture on suprathreshold lightness tolerances  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychophysical experiment was performed to determine the effects of lightness dependency on suprathreshold lightness tolerances. Using a pass\\/fail method of constant stimuli, lightness tolerance thresholds were measured using achromatic stimuli centered at CIELAB L* = 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 90 using 44 observers. In addition to measuring tolerance thresholds for uniform samples, lightness tolerances were measured using

Ethan D. Montag; Roy S. Berns

2000-01-01

198

Preoperative widespread pain sensitization and chronic pain after hip and knee replacement: a cohort analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chronic pain after joint replacement is common, affecting approximately 10% of patients after total hip replacement (THR) and 20% of patients after total knee replacement (TKR). Heightened generalized sensitivity to nociceptive input could be a risk factor for the development of this pain. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was associated with chronic pain after joint replacement. Data were analyzed from 254 patients receiving THR and 239 patients receiving TKR. Pain was assessed preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Pain Scale. Preoperative widespread pain sensitivity was assessed through measurement of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the forearm using an algometer. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression and linear mixed models, and adjustments were made for confounding variables. In both the THR and TKR cohort, lower PPTs (heightened widespread pain sensitivity) were significantly associated with higher preoperative pain severity. Lower PPTs were also significantly associated with higher pain severity at 12 months after surgery in the THR cohort. However, PPTs were not associated with the change in pain severity from preoperative to 12 months postoperative in either the TKR or THR cohort. These findings suggest that although preoperative widespread pressure pain sensitivity is associated with pain severity before and after joint replacement, it is not a predictor of the amount of pain relief that patients gain from joint replacement surgery, independent of preoperative pain severity. PMID:25599300

Wylde, Vikki; Sayers, Adrian; Lenguerrand, Erik; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Pyke, Mark; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

2015-01-01

199

Synthesis and evaluation of fault-tolerant quantum computer architectures  

E-print Network

Fault-tolerance is the cornerstone of practical, large-scale quantum computing, pushed into its prominent position with heroic theoretical efforts. The fault-tolerance threshold, which is the component failure probability ...

Cross, Andrew W. (Andrew William), 1979-

2005-01-01

200

Pain perception, somatosensory event-related potentials and skin conductance responses to painful stimuli in high, mid, and low hypnotizable subjects: effects of differential pain reduction strategies.  

PubMed

In this study, pain perception, somatosensory event-related potential (SERP) and skin conductance response (SCR) changes during hypnotic suggestions of Deep Relaxation, Dissociated Imagery, Focused Analgesia, and Placebo, compared with a Waking baseline condition, were investigated. SERPs were recorded from frontal, temporal, central, and parietal scalp sites. Ten high, 9 mid, and 10 low hypnotizable right-handed women participated in the experiment. The following measures were obtained: (1) pain and distress tolerance ratings; (2) sensory and pain thresholds to biphasic electrical stimulation delivered to the right wrist; (3) reaction time and number of omitted responses; (4) N2 (280+/-11 ms) and P3 (405+/-19 ms) peak amplitudes of SERPs to target stimuli delivered using an odd-ball paradigm; (5) number of evoked SCRs and SCR amplitudes as a function of stimulus repetition. Results showed, high, mid and low hypnotizables exhibited significant reductions of reported pain and distress ratings during conditions of Deep Relaxation/Suggestion of Analgesia, Dissociated Imagery and Focused Analgesia. High hypnotizable subjects displayed significant reductions in pain and distress levels compared to mid and low hypnotizables during Dissociated Imagery, Focused Analgesia and, to a lesser degree, during Deep Relaxation. Placebo condition did not display significant differences among hypnotizability groups. High hypnotizables, compared to mid and low hypnotizables, also showed significant increases in sensory and pain thresholds during Dissociated Imagery and Focused Analgesia. High, mid, and low groups showed significant reductions in P3 peak amplitudes across all hypnosis conditions and, to a lesser degree, during Placebo. The temporal cortical region was the most sensitive in differentiating SERP responses among hypnotizability groups. On this recording area the subjects highly susceptible to hypnosis displayed significantly smaller P3 and greater N2 peaks during Focused Analgesia than did the other hypnotizable groups. In this condition highly susceptible subjects also reported the highest number of omitted responses and the shortest Reaction Times. These subjects also showed faster habituation of SCRs when compared with mid and low hypnotizables. During Dissociated Imagery and Focused Analgesia, highly hypnotizable subjects also disclosed a smaller total number of evoked SCRs than did mid and low hypnotizable subjects. The results are discussed considering possible common and different mechanisms to account for the effects of different hypnotic suggestions. PMID:10568858

De Pascalis, V; Magurano, M R; Bellusci, A

1999-12-01

201

EEG responses to tonic heat pain.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to characterize the EEG response pattern specific for tonic pain which is an experimental pain model resembling clinical pain more closely than phasic pain. Tonic experimental pain was produced by a series of heat pulses 1 degree C above pain threshold over 10 min. A series of heat pulses 0.3 degree C below pain threshold and a constant temperature of 37 degrees C served as non-painful heat control and as baseline condition, respectively. The level of attention was experimentally manipulated by instruction and by a distraction task. Twenty male, pain-free subjects had to rate the sensation intensity and sensation unpleasantness during thermal stimulation. Furthermore, a German version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire was to be filled out after tonic painful heat stimulation. The EEG was recorded via 10 leads according to 10/20 convention. Power density was calculated for the usual frequency bands. The ratings showed that tonic painful heat was experienced clearly distinct from tonic non-painful heat. An EEG response pattern emerged characterized by a rather generalized increased delta(2) activity, a left-biased fronto-temporally diminished theta activity, a fronto-temporal decrease in the alpha(1) activity and a left-sided temporal increase in the beta(1) activity. This observation agrees well with the findings of others. However, there was no evidence in our data that these EEG changes are specific to tonic heat pain as opposed to changes observed during tonic non-painful heat stimulation. Accordingly, the repeatedly reported EEG patterns are also likely to be produced by other forms of strong somatosensory stimuli and to be not specific for pain. PMID:16552561

Huber, M T; Bartling, J; Pachur, D; Woikowsky-Biedau, S v; Lautenbacher, S

2006-08-01

202

Neuropathic Pain  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain is triggered by lesions to the somatosensory nervous system that alter its structure and function so that pain occurs spontaneously and responses to noxious and innocuous stimuli are pathologically amplified. The pain is an expression of maladaptive plasticity within the nociceptive system, a series of changes that constitute a neural disease state. Multiple alterations distributed widely across the nervous system contribute to complex pain phenotypes. These alterations include ectopic generation of action potentials, facilitation and disinhibition of synaptic transmission, loss of synaptic connectivity and formation of new synaptic circuits, and neuroimmune interactions. Although neural lesions are necessary, they are not sufficient to generate neuropathic pain; genetic polymorphisms, gender, and age all influence the risk of developing persistent pain. Treatment needs to move from merely suppressing symptoms to a disease-modifying strategy aimed at both preventing maladaptive plasticity and reducing intrinsic risk. PMID:19400724

Costigan, Michael; Scholz, Joachim; Woolf, Clifford J.

2009-01-01

203

[Pain in elderly people with dementia].  

PubMed

Aging is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia. These diseases not only impair brain tissues and the nervous system, but also affect patients' verbal and non-verbal communicative ability. It is difficult, for instance, to assess pain in the cognitively impaired elderly because pain perception draws heavily on a patient's subjective interpretation and tolerance level. To seek an effective solution for pain detection in patients with dementia is therefore essential. From a systematic literature review covering the past decade, this paper presents a synopsis of the difficulty of pain assessment in the elderly with cognitive impairment, changes in the academic concept of pain, and explores factors resulting in obstacles to pain recognition. The obstacles to pain assessment derive mainly from three general factors. Firstly, classic definitions of early stage pain are inappropriate when applied to the elderly with cognitive impairment. Secondly, pain indicators are also unclear for this population. Thirdly, pain instruments and informants are ineffective in evaluating elderly patients with varying cognitive levels. To address these obstacles, a sound, multifaceted model of pain assessment for elderly patients with different severities of cognitive impairment is presented. On the basis of the above literature review, multiple methods for detecting aspects of pain in elderly people with cognitive impairment is recommended. To test the feasibility of the multidimensional model of pain assessment, further study is needed. PMID:18393211

Chen, Yi-Heng; Lin, Li-Chan

2008-04-01

204

The role of painful events and pain perception in blood-injection-injury fears  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Research suggests that blood, injection, and injury (BII) fears are related to painful experiences; however the role of frequency, intensity, and perceived ability to handle such events remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BII fears and the frequency and intensity of prior painful experiences with blood, injuries, and injections. The relation of BII fears with self-reported tolerance and avoidance of physical discomfort and pain was also examined. Methods In the context of an undergraduate student survey, 392 participants completed questions about whether they were fearful of blood, injection, and injuries. They also completed questions about experiences with blood and injuries, as well as injections, including pain intensity, frequency of painful experiences, perceived ability to tolerate physical discomfort and pain (pain perception), and avoidance of physical discomfort. Results Findings indicated that only pain intensity, but not frequency of painful experiences with blood, injuries, and injections, was related to BII fears. Furthermore, there was a significant association between BII fears and pain perception, such that higher levels of discomfort intolerance were related to greater odds of endorsing BII fears. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence that BII fears are associated with experiences with injections of high pain intensity. Individuals with a lower perceived ability to handle physical pain and discomfort are more likely to endorse BII fears. Clinical considerations and future directions are discussed. PMID:22677208

Smith, Noelle B.; Meuret, Alicia E.

2013-01-01

205

PAIN SCALES (ATTACHMENT A)  

E-print Network

PAIN SCALES (ATTACHMENT A) 0-10 NUMERIC PAIN INTENSITY SCALE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 NO PAIN MODERATE WORST PAIN PAIN #12;PAIN SCALES (ATTACHMENT A) FLACC PAIN SCALE The FLACC is a behavioral pain assessment scale for use in non-verbal patients unable to provide numeric reports of pain. SCORING Categories

Oliver, Douglas L.

206

Pain referral and regional deep tissue hyperalgesia in experimental human hip pain models.  

PubMed

Hip disorder patients typically present with extensive pain referral and hyperalgesia. To better understand underlying mechanisms, an experimental hip pain model was established in which pain referrals and hyperalgesia could be studied under standardized conditions. In 16 healthy subjects, pain was induced by hypertonic saline injection into the gluteus medius tendon (GMT), adductor longus tendon (ALT), or gluteus medius muscle (GMM). Isotonic saline was injected contralaterally as control. Pain intensity was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects mapped the pain distribution. Before, during, and after injections, passive hip joint pain provocation tests were completed, together with quantitative sensory testing as follows: pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), cuff algometry pain thresholds (cuff PPTs), cutaneous pin-prick sensitivity, and thermal pain thresholds. Hypertonic saline injected into the GMT resulted in higher VAS scores than hypertonic injections into the ALT and GMM (P<.05). Referred pain areas spread to larger parts of the leg after GMT and GMM injections compared with more regionalized pain pattern after ALT injections (P<.05). PPTs at the injection site were decreased after hypertonic saline injections into GMT and GMM compared with baseline, ALT injections, and isotonic saline. Cuff PPTs from the thigh were decreased after hypertonic saline injections into the ALT compared with baseline, GMT injections, and isotonic saline (P<.05). More subjects had positive joint pain provocation tests after hypertonic compared with isotonic saline injections (P<.05), indicating that this provocation test also assessed hyperalgesia in extra-articular soft tissues. The experimental models may open for better understanding of pain mechanisms associated with painful hip disorders. PMID:24447510

Izumi, Masashi; Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

2014-04-01

207

Central pain in multiple sclerosis - sensory abnormalities.  

PubMed

Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop central neuropathic pain (CP). In the present study somatosensory abnormalities have been analysed in detail in 62 patients with MS and CP (42 women, 20 men; mean age 52 years) and in a control group of 10 women and 6 men (mean age 47 years) with MS and sensory symptoms, but without pain. Assessment included clinical testing and quantitative methods (QST) for the measurement of perception thresholds for touch, vibration, and temperatures. All CP patients except two (97%) had abnormal thresholds for innoxious and/or noxious temperatures, compared to 81% in the control group (p<0.05). There was a tendency towards the opposite regarding sensibility to touch, which was decreased in 66% vs. 87% (n.s.), vibration (55% vs. 81%; n.s.) and to joint movement (32% vs. 62%; p<0.04). Comparisons between painful and non-painful regions showed both the absolute threshold values and the index values to be significantly more abnormal, in the CP regions, for warmth (p<0.001), cold (p<0.05), difference limen (innoxious warmth and cold, p<0.01), cold pain (p<0.01) and heat pain/cold pain combined (p<0.001). Also the comparisons between regions with central pain and regions with sensory symptoms in the controls showed significantly more abnormal thresholds in the CP patients for warmth (p<0.05), cold (p<0.01), difference limen (innoxious warmth and cold, p<0.01) and heat pain/cold pain combined (p<0.001). The results support the general hypothesis that only patients who have lesions affecting the spinothalamo-cortical pathways run the risk of developing central pain. PMID:19359204

Osterberg, A; Boivie, J

2010-01-01

208

Pain Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain, which afflicts up to 20% of the population at any time, provides both a massive therapeutic challenge and a route to understanding mechanisms in the nervous system. Specialised sensory neurons (nociceptors) signal the existence of tissue damage to the central nervous system (CNS), where pain is represented in a complex matrix involving many CNS structures. Genetic approaches to investigating

Tom Foulkes; John N. Wood

2008-01-01

209

Heel Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Resting provides only temporary relief. When you resume walking, particularly after a night's sleep, you may experience a sudden elongation of the fascia band, which stretches and pulls on the heel. As you walk, the heel pain may ... Excessive Pronation: Heel pain sometimes results from excessive ...

210

Pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Pain frequency has been shown to influence sensitization, psychological distress, and pain modulation. The present study examined if pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain. Method: A non-clinical (247 students) and a clinical (223 pain patients) sample completed the Danish versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Beck Depression Inventory, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and rated pain intensity, unpleasantness and frequency. Results: In both samples, high pain frequency was found to moderate the association between pain catastrophizing and pain intensity, whereas low pain frequency did not. The psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Danish version of the PCS were confirmed. Conclusions: This is the first study to validate the Danish version of the PCS and to show that pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and reported pain in both non-clinical and clinical populations. PMID:25646089

Kjøgx, Heidi; Zachariae, Robert; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Kasch, Helge; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S.; Vase, Lene

2014-01-01

211

Endogenous inhibition of somatic pain is impaired in girls with irritable bowel syndrome compared with healthy girls  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Endogenous pain inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain inhibition, somatic pain threshold, ...

212

Delayed onset muscle soreness at tendon–bone junction and muscle tissue is associated with facilitated referred pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) involves central and peripheral pain mechanisms. Referred pain patterns following stimulation of DOMS affected tissue have not been fully described. Referred pain may provide information on how central mechanisms are involved in DOMS, as referred pain is a central mechanism. Further, tendon tissue involvement in DOMS is not clear. This study assessed pressure pain threshold

William Gibson; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Thomas Graven-Nielsen

2006-01-01

213

Acute psychosocial stress reduces pain modulation capabilities in healthy men.  

PubMed

Anecdotes on the ability of individuals to continue to function under stressful conditions despite injuries causing excruciating pain suggest that acute stress may induce analgesia. However, studies exploring the effect of acute experimental stress on pain perception show inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological differences. Our aim was to systematically study the effect of acute stress on pain perception using static and dynamic, state-of-the-art pain measurements. Participants were 29 healthy men who underwent the measurement of heat-pain threshold, heat-pain intolerance, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Testing was conducted before and during exposure to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), inducing acute psychosocial stress. Stress levels were evaluated using perceived ratings of stress and anxiety, autonomic variables, and salivary cortisol. The MIST induced a significant stress reaction. Although pain threshold and pain intolerance were unaffected by stress, an increase in temporal summation of pain and a decrease in CPM were observed. These changes were significantly more robust among individuals with stronger reaction to stress ("high responders"), with a significant correlation between the perception of stress and the performance in the pain measurements. We conclude that acute psychosocial stress seems not to affect the sensitivity to pain, however, it significantly reduces the ability to modulate pain in a dose-response manner. Considering the diverse effects of stress in this and other studies, it appears that the type of stress and the magnitude of its appraisal determine its interactions with the pain system. PMID:25250721

Geva, Nirit; Pruessner, Jens; Defrin, Ruth

2014-11-01

214

Pain insensitivity syndrome misinterpreted as inflicted burns.  

PubMed

We present a case study of a 10-year-old child with severe burns that were misinterpreted as inflicted burns. Because of multiple injuries since early life, the family was under suspicion of child abuse and therefore under supervision of the Child Care Board for 2 years before the boy was burned. Because the boy incurred the burns without feeling pain, we conducted a thorough medical examination and laboratory testing, evaluated detection and pain thresholds, and used MRI to study brain morphology and brain activation patterns during pain between this patient and 3 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We found elevated detection and pain thresholds and lower brain activation during pain in the patient compared with the healthy controls and reference values. The patient received the diagnosis of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV on the basis of clinical findings and the laboratory testing, complemented with the altered pain and detection thresholds and MRI findings. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy IV is a very rare congenital pain insensitivity syndrome characterized by the absence of pain and temperature sensation combined with oral mutilation due to unawareness, fractures, and anhidrosis caused by abnormalities in the peripheral nerves. Health care workers should be aware of the potential presence of this disease to prevent false accusations of child abuse. PMID:24733875

van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Baartmans, Martin G A; Vos, Paul; Dokter, Jan; White, Tonya; Tibboel, Dick

2014-05-01

215

Spinal pain.  

PubMed

The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic pain, much more difficult to treat. The clinical assessment of pain source can be a challenge because of the complex anatomy and function of the spine; the advanced imaging methods are often not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis because similar findings could be present in either asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects: a clinical correlation is always mandatory and the therapy cannot rely uniquely upon any imaging abnormalities. Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. Special attention will be done to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. PMID:25824642

Izzo, R; Popolizio, T; D'Aprile, P; Muto, M

2015-05-01

216

Multi-method assessment of experimental and clinical pain in patients with fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Experimental measures of responsiveness to painful and non-painful stimuli as well as measures of typical and present clinical pain were assessed in 26 female patients with fibromyalgia and in an equal number of age-matched healthy women. Pressure pain thresholds, determined by means of a dolorimeter, were lower in the patients compared to the control subjects both at a tender point (trapezius) and at a non-tender control point (inner forearm). The same was true for the heat pain thresholds, measured using a contact thermode. In contrast, the pain thresholds for electrocutaneous stimuli were decreased only at the tender point. The detection thresholds for non-painful stimuli (warmth, cold and electrical stimuli) seemed to be less affected in the fibromyalgia patients, with only the detection threshold for cold being lower at both sites. Tender points were more sensitive than control points for mechanical pressure. The reverse was found for the other modalities which were tested. Although the 3 experimental pain thresholds showed patterns of either generalized or site-specific pain hyperresponsiveness, the between-methods correlations were not very high. While the correlations between the experimental pain thresholds and the various measures of clinical pain (Localized Pain Rating, McGill Pain Questionnaire) in the patients were generally low, there were significant negative correlations between pressure pain thresholds at the two sites and the level of present pain assessed by the Localized Pain Rating. We conclude that a pattern of pain hyperresponsiveness, generalized across the site of noxious stimulation and across the physical nature of the stressor, is associated with fibromyalgia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7854801

Lautenbacher, S; Rollman, G B; McCain, G A

1994-10-01

217

Opioids for low back pain.  

PubMed

Back pain affects most adults, causes disability for some, and is a common reason for seeking healthcare. In the United States, opioid prescription for low back pain has increased, and opioids are now the most commonly prescribed drug class. More than half of regular opioid users report back pain. Rates of opioid prescribing in the US and Canada are two to three times higher than in most European countries. The analgesic efficacy of opioids for acute back pain is inferred from evidence in other acute pain conditions. Opioids do not seem to expedite return to work in injured workers or improve functional outcomes of acute back pain in primary care. For chronic back pain, systematic reviews find scant evidence of efficacy. Randomized controlled trials have high dropout rates, brief duration (four months or less), and highly selected patients. Opioids seem to have short term analgesic efficacy for chronic back pain, but benefits for function are less clear. The magnitude of pain relief across chronic non-cancer pain conditions is about 30%. Given the brevity of randomized controlled trials, the long term effectiveness and safety of opioids are unknown. Loss of long term efficacy could result from drug tolerance and emergence of hyperalgesia. Complications of opioid use include addiction and overdose related mortality, which have risen in parallel with prescription rates. Common short term side effects are constipation, nausea, sedation, and increased risk of falls and fractures. Longer term side effects may include depression and sexual dysfunction. Screening for high risk patients, treatment agreements, and urine testing have not reduced overall rates of opioid prescribing, misuse, or overdose. Newer strategies for reducing risks include more selective prescription of opioids and lower doses; use of prescription monitoring programs; avoidance of co-prescription with sedative hypnotics; and reformulations that make drugs more difficult to snort, smoke, or inject. PMID:25561513

Deyo, Richard A; Von Korff, Michael; Duhrkoop, David

2015-01-01

218

[Hindfoot pain].  

PubMed

The hindfoot is the part of the foot which is proximal to the midtarsal joint. The obvious causes of pain are not considered (post-traumatic etiologies, sprains and fractures but also cutaneous lesions). The main etiologies on the subject are successively exposed by following the localization of the pain. Diffuse pains (ankle arthritis tarsal osteoarthritis, algodystrophy, calcaneo-navicular synostosis but also bone diseases like stress fractures, Paget disease or tumors). Plantar talalgia (Sever's disease, plantar fasciitis and entrapment neuropathies such as (esions of the medial calcaneal nerve, of the first branch of the plantar lateral nerve, medial plantar nerve and lateral plantar nerve). Posterior pains: calcaneal tendinopathy including peritendinitis, tendinosis, retro-calcaneal bursitis and pathology of the postero-lateral talar tuberosity. Medial pains: tendinopathies of the posterior tibial tendon and tendinopathy of the flexor hallucis longus tendon and tarsal tunnel syndrome. Lateral pains: fibularis tendinopathies including split lesions of the fibularis brevis tendon, displacement of the fibularis iongus tendon, sinus tarsi syndrome and finally thickenings of capsules and ligaments and ossifications localized under the tibial malleoli. Anterior pains: antero-inferior tibio-fibular ligament, anterior tibial tendinopathy and anterior impingment syndrome. PMID:20402125

Damiano, Joël; Bouysset, Maurice

2010-03-20

219

Reproducibility of pain measurement and pain perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproducibility of both the conscious experience of pain and the reproducibility of psychophysical assessments of pain remain critical, yet poorly characterized factors in pain research and treatment. To assess the reproducibility of both the pain experience and two methods of pain assessment, 15 subjects evaluated experimental heat pain during four weekly sessions. In each session, both brief (5s) and

Elisa M. Rosier; Michael J. Iadarola; Robert C. Coghill

2002-01-01

220

Chronic pain - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association - www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association - www.fmcpaware.org ...

221

Risk Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of the important role financial risk tolerance plays in shaping consumer financial decisions.\\u000a A review of normative and descriptive models of risk tolerance is provided. Additional discussion regarding the measurement\\u000a of risk tolerance is also presented. The chapter includes the presentation of a conceptual model of the principal factors\\u000a affecting financial risk tolerance with recommendations

John E. Grable

222

Pain perception and nonsuicidal self-injury: a laboratory investigation.  

PubMed

People who engage in self-injurious behaviors such as cutting and burning may have altered pain perception. Using a community sample, we examined group differences in pain threshold and pain endurance between participants who self-injured and control participants who were exposed to pressure pain applied to the finger. Participants who self-injured had higher pain thresholds (time to report pain) and endured pain for longer than control participants. Among participants who self-injured, those with longer histories of self-injury had higher pain thresholds. Duration of self-injury was unrelated to pain endurance. Instead, greater pain endurance was predicted by higher levels of introversion and neuroticism and by more negative beliefs about one's self-worth. A highly self-critical cognitive style was the strongest predictor of prolonged pain endurance. People who self-injure may regard suffering and pain as something that they deserve. Our findings also have implications for understanding factors that might be involved in the development and maintenance of self-injury. PMID:22448633

Hooley, Jill M; Ho, Doreen T; Slater, Joshua; Lockshin, Amanda

2010-07-01

223

Eye pain  

MedlinePLUS

... may be caused by the wrong eyeglass or contact lens prescription. Sometimes they are due to a problem ... that can cause eye pain are: Infections Inflammation Contact lens problems Dry eye Acute glaucoma Sinus problems Neuropathy ...

224

Neuropathic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... nerve pain, you know that it can erode quality of life. Communication Tools View All Everyday Tools During Your ... each of them. Ability Chart - Arthritis version (PDF) Quality of Life Scale The Quality of Life scale is provided ...

225

Chest pain  

MedlinePLUS

... carries food from the mouth to the stomach) Gallstones cause pain that gets worse after a meal ( ... EM, et al. ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina and Non-ST- ...

226

Breast pain  

MedlinePLUS

... breast pain. For example, hormone level changes from menstruation or pregnancy often cause breast tenderness. Some amount ... unless a woman is taking hormone replacement therapy) Menstruation and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Pregnancy -- breast tenderness tends ...

227

Shoulder pain  

MedlinePLUS

... therapist can help you do this safely. Taking ibuprofen or acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) may help reduce ... have had shoulder pain before, use ice and ibuprofen after exercising. Learn exercises to stretch and strengthen ...

228

Chest Pain  

MedlinePLUS

Having a pain in your chest can be scary. It does not always mean that you are having a heart attack. ... can be many other causes, including Other heart problems, such as angina Panic attacks Digestive problems, such ...

229

Anorectal Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anorectal pain is distressing for the patient and challenging for the physician. The vague and inconsistent use of terms such\\u000a as proctalgia fugax, levator ani syndrome, spastic pelvic floor, coccygodynia, chronic idiopathic anorectal pain, and pelvic\\u000a floor dyssynergia make it difficult to identify a cause and an effective therapy. Many conditions, some of which may be potentially\\u000a fatal, must be

Jill C. Genua; Dana R. Sands

230

Globally controlled fault tolerant quantum computation  

E-print Network

We describe a method to execute globally controlled quantum information processing which admits a fault tolerant quantum error correction scheme. Our scheme nominally uses three species of addressable two-level systems which are arranged in a one dimensional array in a specific periodic arrangement. We show that the scheme possesses a fault tolerant error threshold.

J. Fitzsimons; J. Twamley

2007-07-08

231

Pain sensitivity can be assessed by self-rating: Development and validation of the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire.  

PubMed

Experimental determination of pain sensitivity has received increasing attention because of emerging clinical applications (including prediction of postoperative pain and treatment response) and scientific implications (e.g. it has been proposed that above-average pain sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of chronic pain disorders). However, the use of experimental pain sensitivity assessment on a broad scale is hampered by its requirements on time, equipment and human resources and the fact that it is painful for the tested subject. Alternatives to experimental pain testing are currently lacking. Here we developed a self-rating instrument for the assessment of pain sensitivity, the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) that is based on pain intensity ratings of daily life situations and takes 5-10min to complete. Adequate reliability of the PSQ was confirmed in 354 subjects. In a validation study comprising 47 healthy subjects, the results of comprehensive experimental pain testing, including different modalities (heat, cold, pressure, and pinprick) and different measures (pain thresholds, pain intensity ratings), were compared to the results of the PSQ. PSQ scores were significantly correlated to experimental pain intensity ratings (r = 0.56, p < 0.001) but not to pain thresholds (r = 0.03). Prediction of experimental pain intensity ratings by the PSQ was better than by pain-associated psychological factors (pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety). This shows that the PSQ may be a simple alternative to experimental pain intensity rating procedures in healthy subjects and makes the PSQ a highly promising tool for clinical and experimental pain research. PMID:19665301

Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Marziniak, Martin; Stumpenhorst, Frederike; Reinholz, Julia; Knecht, Stefan

2009-11-01

232

Neonatal pain  

PubMed Central

Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

Walker, Suellen M

2014-01-01

233

Accuracy threshold for postselected quantum computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove an accuracy threshold theorem for fault-tolerant quantum computation based on error detection and postselection. Our proof provides a rigorous foundation for the scheme suggested by Knill, in which preparation circuits for ancilla states are protected by a concatenated error-detecting code and the preparation is aborted if an error is detected. The proof applies to independent stochastic noise but

Panos Aliferis; Daniel Gottesman; John Preskill

2007-01-01

234

PTPN22: Setting thresholds for autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 620W allelic variant of the intracellular tyrosine phosphatase, PTPN22, is associated with a number of different autoimmune disorders, and this provides direct evidence for common mechanisms underlying many of these diseases. The associated allele appears to influence thresholds for T cell receptor signaling, and a variety of disease models involving both central and peripheral tolerance can be proposed. However,

Peter K. Gregersen; Hye-Soon Lee; Franak Batliwalla; Ann B. Begovich

2006-01-01

235

Intraoperative use of remifentanil and opioid induced hyperalgesia/acute opioid tolerance: systematic review  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The use of opioids has been increasing in operating room and intensive care unit to provide perioperative analgesia as well as stable hemodynamics. However, many authors have suggested that the use of opioids is associated with the expression of acute opioid tolerance (AOT) and opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) in experimental studies and clinical observations in dose and/or time dependent exposure even when used within the clinically accepted doses. Recently, remifentanil has been used for pain management during anesthesia as well as in the intensive care units because of its rapid onset and offset. Objectives: Search of the available literature to assess remifentanil AOT and OIH based on available published data. Methods: We reviewed articles analyzing remifentanil AOT and OIH, and focused our literature search on evidence based information. Experimental and clinical studies were identified using electronic searches of Medline (PubMed, Ovid, Springer, and Elsevier, ClinicalKey). Results: Our results showed that the development of remifentanil AOT and OIH is a clinically significant phenomenon requiring further research. Discussions and Conclusions: AOT – defined as an increase in the required opioid dose to maintain adequate analgesia, and OIH – defined as decreased pain threshold after chronic opioid treatment, should be suspected with any unexplained pain report unassociated with the disease progression. The clinical significance of these findings was evaluated taking into account multiple methodological issues including the dose and duration of opioids administration, the different infusion mode, the co-administrated anesthetic drug’s effect, method assessing pain sensitivity, and the repetitive and potentially tissue damaging nature of the stimuli used to determine the threshold during opioid infusion. Future studies need to investigate the contribution of remifentanil induced hyperalgesia to chronic pain and the role of pharmacological modulation to reverse this process. PMID:24847273

Kim, Sang Hun; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Soghomonyan, Suren; Bergese, Sergio D.

2014-01-01

236

Impairment of pain inhibition in chronic tension-type headache.  

PubMed

Evidence has been accumulated suggesting that a dysfunction in pain inhibitory systems, i.e. in 'diffuse noxious inhibitory controls' (DNIC)-like mechanisms, might be-amongst other factors-responsible for the development of anatomically generalized chronic pain like fibromyalgia. The aim of the present study was to look for similar impairments in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) as a regionally specific pain syndrome. Twenty-nine CTTH patients and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects participated in the study. After baseline assessment of electrical detection and pain thresholds, tonic heat stimuli were concurrently applied by a thermode to the thigh to induce DNIC-like pain inhibition. Tonic heat stimuli were applied either slightly above ('pain' condition) or slightly below ('heat' condition) pain threshold. For determination of electrical detection and pain thresholds, electrocutaneous stimuli were administered either to the forearm (extra-cranial site) or to the temple (cranial site), using a multiple staircase procedure. The increase in the electrical detection and pain thresholds induced by concurrent tonic heat stimulation was significantly smaller in the CTTH patients than in the control subjects. This group difference was present during the 'pain' as well as the 'heat' condition. Furthermore, the electrical detection and pain thresholds were affected in this group-specific manner both at the forearm and at the temple. These findings suggest that patients with CTTH suffer from deficient DNIC-like pain inhibitory mechanisms in a similar manner, as do patients with anatomically generalized chronic pain like fibromyalgia. PMID:16202520

Pielsticker, Anke; Haag, Gunther; Zaudig, Michael; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2005-11-01

237

Pain modulation role of melatonin in eating disorders.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to test the effect of melatonin on thermal pain threshold in female patients with eating disorders. Fourteen patients were included in the study. We found a parabolic relation between pain threshold and the content of urine sulfatoxymelatonin (r = 0.6299, P < 0.05). We can speculate that increase in severity of eating disorder pathology may decrease both the melatonin level and pain sensitivity. In contrast with expected melatonin analgesic effect, our results showed its possible normalizing influence as well on pathologically decreased pain sensitivity. PMID:11246295

Papezová, H; Yamamotová, A; Nedvídková, J

2001-02-01

238

The pain paradox: Borderline personality disorder features, self-harm history, and the experience of pain.  

PubMed

Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), compared to controls, report a relative absence of acute pain. In contrast, BPD is overrepresented among chronic pain patients, suggesting they experience a relative excess of chronic pain. To date, this "pain paradox" has been only partially explored; no study has examined both acute and chronic pain in the same sample. In addition, previous research has not fully examined the effect of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) on either acute or chronic pain experience in BPD. Undergraduates (N = 206), oversampled for those high in BPD features, completed a Cold Pressor Task (CPT), rating their pain every 15 s over a maximum of 4 min. Following the CPT, participants completed measures of BPD features, NSSI history, past-year pain, and perceived pain tolerance. Results did not support the expected negative association between BPD features and acute pain. Multilevel modeling revealed an interaction of BPD features and NSSI history on CPT pain ratings: Among individuals in the no-NSSI group, BPD features were associated with greater acute pain. Among individuals in the NSSI group, BPD features were not significantly associated with acute pain. Results for past-year pain indicated that BPD features were associated with greater past-year pain regardless of NSSI history. This finding, coupled with the difference in the association of BPD features and acute pain between the NSSI and no-NSSI groups provides tentative evidence that the combination of BPD features and NSSI history, among nonclinical samples, is linked to a pain paradox. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25705980

Carpenter, Ryan W; Trull, Timothy J

2015-04-01

239

Self-Regulatory Deficits Associated with Unpracticed Mindfulness Strategies for Coping with Acute Pain  

PubMed Central

Training in mindfulness is a well-supported therapeutic strategy for pain conditions, though short-term mindfulness training for acute pain is not always effective. To explore the possibility that initial attempts at mindfulness in people without previous training may drain self-regulatory resources, the current study used a student sample (N=63) to test the hypothesis that brief instruction in mindfulness would lead to reduced pain tolerance on a cold pressor task (CPT), compared to more familiar strategies for coping with acute pain. We also investigated whether high heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological indicator of self-regulatory capacity, would predict pain tolerance. Higher HRV predicted greater pain tolerance only in the control group, suggesting that applying unfamiliar mindfulness strategies while attempting to tolerate pain more rapidly sapped self-regulatory strength.

Evans, Daniel R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Button, Daniel F.; Baer, Ruth A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

2015-01-01

240

[Forefoot pain].  

PubMed

Forefoot chronic pain is a frequent problem in daily clinical practice. Mechanical pathology of the forefoot, usually called static metatarsalgia, represents the most frequent reason for consultation in pathology of the foot. The cause is a functionnal disorder or anatomic derangement of the forefoot architecture. Metatarsalgia can originate from a wide range of affections. Etiologies of chronic pain are described from medial to lateral with first ray pathologies (hallux valgus, hallux rigidus and sesamoid pathology) and first ray insufficiency, pathologies of the second, third and fourth ray and intermetatarsal spaces (second ray syndrome, Freiberg's disease, Morton neuroma, stress or bone insufficiency metatarsal fractures, intermetatarsal bursitis) and fifth ray pathology (lateral bursitis, quintus varus). Sometimes forefoot pain could also be caused by chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis) with a risk of structural metatarsophalangeal joints alteration. The pathology of the toes can, more rarely, explain a forefoot pain. So, several pathologic conditions can produce forefoot pain and the diagnostic approach must always be based on the anamnesis and clinical examination. In a second time if the cause is difficult to establish based solely on clinical findings, radiography and ultrasonography are today the most usefull auxiliary investigations. PMID:20402124

Damiano, Joël

2010-03-20

241

Changes in Pain Perception in Women During and Following an Exhaustive Incremental Cycling Exercise  

PubMed Central

Exercise has been found to alter pain sensitivity with a hypoalgesic response (i.e., diminished sensitivity to pain) typically reported during and/or following high intensity exercise. Most of this research, however, has involved the testing of men. Thus, the purpose of the following investigation was to examine changes in pain perception in women during and following exercise. Seventeen healthy female subjects (age 20.47±.87; VO2 peak 36.77± 4.95) volunteered to undergo pain assessment prior to, during, and after a graded exhaustive VO2 peak cycling challenge. Heart Rate (HR) and Oxygen Uptake (VO2) were monitored along with electro-diagnostic assessments of Pain Threshold (PT) and Pain Tolerance (PTOL) at: 1) baseline (B), 2) during exercise (i.e., 120 Watts), 3) at exhaustive intensity (VO2 peak), and 4) 10 minutes into recovery (R). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to determine differences across trials. Significant differences in PT and PTOL were found across trials (PT, p = 0.0043; PTOL p = 0.0001). Post hoc analyses revealed that PT were significantly elevated at VO2 peak in comparison to B (p = 0.007), 120 Watts (p = 0.0178) and R (p = 0.0072). PTOL were found to be significantly elevated at 120 Watts (p = 0.0247), VO2 peak (p < 0.001), and R (p = 0.0001) in comparison to B. In addition, PTOL were found to be significantly elevated at VO2 peak in comparison to 120 Watts (p = 0.0045). It is concluded that exercise-induced hypoalgesia occurs in women during and following exercise, with the hypoalgesic response being most pronounced following exhaustive exercise. Key Points Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (i.e., elevated PT and PTOL) was found to occur in women during and following exercise, with the hypoalgesic response being most pronounced during exhaustive exercise. PMID:24453524

Drury, Daniel G.; Greenwood, Katelyn; Stuempfle, Kristin J.; Koltyn, Kelli F.

2005-01-01

242

Pain as a reward: changing the meaning of pain from negative to positive co-activates opioid and cannabinoid systems.  

PubMed

Pain is a negative emotional experience that is modulated by a variety of psychological factors through different inhibitory systems. For example, endogenous opioids and cannabinoids have been found to be involved in stress and placebo analgesia. Here we show that when the meaning of the pain experience is changed from negative to positive through verbal suggestions, the opioid and cannabinoid systems are co-activated and these, in turn, increase pain tolerance. We induced ischemic arm pain in healthy volunteers, who had to tolerate the pain as long as possible. One group was informed about the aversive nature of the task, as done in any pain study. Conversely, a second group was told that the ischemia would be beneficial to the muscles, thus emphasizing the usefulness of the pain endurance task. We found that in the second group pain tolerance was significantly higher compared to the first one, and that this effect was partially blocked by the opioid antagonist naltrexone alone and by the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant alone. However, the combined administration of naltrexone and rimonabant antagonized the increased tolerance completely. Our results indicate that a positive approach to pain reduces the global pain experience through the co-activation of the opioid and cannabinoid systems. These findings may have a profound impact on clinical practice. For example, postoperative pain, which means healing, can be perceived as less unpleasant than cancer pain, which means death. Therefore, the behavioral and/or pharmacological manipulation of the meaning of pain can represent an effective approach to pain management. PMID:23265686

Benedetti, Fabrizio; Thoen, Wilma; Blanchard, Catherine; Vighetti, Sergio; Arduino, Claudia

2013-03-01

243

Sensory profiles of patients with neuropathic pain based on the neuropathic pain symptoms and signs.  

PubMed

This manuscript aimed to characterize the clinical profile of various neuropathic pain (NeP) disorders and to identify whether patterns of sensory symptoms/signs exist, based on baseline responses on the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) questionnaire and the quantitative sensory testing (QST). These post hoc analyses were based on data from 4 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies of pregabalin (150-600mg/day) in patients with NeP syndromes: central poststroke pain, posttraumatic peripheral pain, painful HIV neuropathy, and painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The NPSI questionnaire includes 10 different pain symptom descriptors. QST was used to detect sensory thresholds of accurately calibrated sensory stimuli and to quantify the intensity of evoked sensation. To identify symptoms/signs clusters and select the number of clusters, a principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering methods with clinical input were used. Analysis of the NPSI pain qualities and individual QST measures at baseline indicated no clear association between particular symptoms/signs profiles and etiologies. Based on NPSI symptoms, PCA identified 3 pain dimensions: provoked, deep, and pinpoint. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified 3 clusters with distinct pain characteristics profiles independent of NeP syndrome. Based on QST signs, PCA identified 2 pain dimensions: evoked by cold and evoked by touch. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified 4 clusters with distinct pain characteristics profiles. These "trans-etiological" profiles may reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore, potential differential responses to treatment. PMID:24472518

Freeman, Roy; Baron, Ralf; Bouhassira, Didier; Cabrera, Javier; Emir, Birol

2014-02-01

244

Napping Reverses Increased Pain Sensitivity Due to Sleep Restriction  

PubMed Central

Study Objective To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping. Design A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed. Setting Laboratory-based study. Participants 11 healthy male volunteers. Interventions Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: “sleep restriction” alone and “sleep restriction and nap”. Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the “sleep restriction and nap” session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Measurements and Results Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area. Conclusions Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status. PMID:25723495

Faraut, Brice; Léger, Damien; Medkour, Terkia; Dubois, Alexandre; Bayon, Virginie; Chennaoui, Mounir; Perrot, Serge

2015-01-01

245

[Pain in multimorbid internistic patients].  

PubMed

Pain and pain management in multimorbid patients is a subject which is mostly unknown. General rules in pain management like the WHO analgesic ladder and its recommendations are to be equally respected as with other patients. As multimorbidity is a common problem especially in the elderly population, some changes in physiology, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics have to be taken into consideration. A careful and slow adoption of dosage leads to more safety and tolerability. Other main problems of multimorbidity are drug-drug, drug-disease or disease-disease interactions, which influence the choice of analgesic medication. As especially the number of drug-drug interactions is endless, available software is a valuable aid to become aware of interactions and help weight the compromises. PMID:23233099

Schneider, D; Zimmerli, L

2012-12-12

246

Back Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program reviews the anatomy of the back, the most common causes of back pain, and measures to prevent back pain. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

247

Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients with Intractable Cancer-Related Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of a tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) extract, a nonopioid analgesic endocannabinoid system modulator, and a THC extract, with placebo, in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 177 patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, entered a two-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to THC:CBD extract

Jeremy R. Johnson; Mary Burnell-Nugent; Dominique Lossignol; Elena Doina Ganae-Motan; Richard Potts; Marie T. Fallon

2010-01-01

248

[Cellular mechanism of opioid tolerance].  

PubMed

Opioids relieve painful stimuli by interacting with the opioid receptor subtypes, mu, delta, and kappa, in brain regions and spinal cord. Tolerance reduces medication effectiveness and causes a right-hand shift in the dose-response curve. The mechanisms involved in the development of opioid tolerance remain not clear. Following long-term opioid treatment, either a decrease or increase in opioid receptors was demonstrated, depending on the types or subtypes of receptors and the central areas to which they are distributed. Opioid receptors, like most other hormone and neurotransmitter receptors, have been shown to mediate their effects through guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein). Studies regarding chronic treatment with opioid agonists suggest that the uncoupling of the opioid receptors from their corresponding G protein may play an important role in opioid tolerance. The NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors have also been demonstrated involving not only in nociception and pain processing but also in the development of opioid tolerance. The sustained potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated responses may be provided through activation of PKC (protein kinase C). Furthermore, NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular translocation and activation of PKC may be a critical step in the development of opioid tolerance. The NMDA receptors can also induce the synthesis of NO (nitric oxide) through the activation of NOS (NO synthase). NOS inhibitors were also shown to prevent the development of opioid tolerance, therefore, NO was suggested to play a role in opioid tolerance development. Although much evidence indicates the reasons of opioid tolerance, it is still worth further investigation to explore the mechanisms of multiplicity of opioid receptors and complexity of intracellular biochemical events. PMID:9084551

Liaw, W J; Ho, S T; Wang, J J; Wong, C S; Lee, H K

1996-12-01

249

Inflammatory Back Pain vs. Mechanical Back Pain  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... cause. Specifically, is the back pain inflammatory in nature or mechanical? INFLAMMATORY VS MECHANICAL BACK PAIN VIDEO: ... determing if the back pain is inflammatory in nature and related to a disease such as ankylosing ...

250

[Pain perception and peripheral pain localization in angina pectoris].  

PubMed

Cardiac nociceptive afferences are mainly transmitted by sympathetic nervous tracts. After passing the ganglion stellatum and neighbouring ganglia, the nerves enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord at C8-Th9 (especially Th2-Th6). Here the nerve synapses for the first time, mainly to neurons which run up to the thalamus contralaterally by the tractus spinothalamicus. Apart from atypically localised pain (jaw, head, neck), the nervus vagus is rarely involved in transmitting angina pectoris pain. There is no close relation between peripheral pain localisation and localisation of coronary stenosis or myocardial ischemia areas. The localisation of angina pectoris is decided by viscero-somatic summation (convergence-projection-theory). Almost all the ascending tracts of the tractus spinothalamicus with visceral inflow also receive inflow from somatic afferences, from skin areas of the dermatome from the same segment level, and especially from deep somatic structures such as muscle and ligaments (Head's zones). Additional reflex mechanisms, where the efferent part is probably sympathetic, explain transferred effects in the matching dermatome such as hypothermic skin zones, cutaneous hyperalgesia, higher pressure sensitivity of the muscles and occasionally even dystrophic changes. The amount of spinal visceral afferences is relatively small (only 1.5-2.5% of all somatic spinal afferences). The low amount, the pronounced divergence and, compared to converging somatic afferences, the larger receptive fields in the organ explain the diffuse, barely localisable character of angina pectoris pain. Cardiac afferences are tonically and phasically inhibited at spinal and supraspinal levels, especially by descending tracts. This explains why angina pectoris can be missing in spite of pronounced peripheral nociceptive impulse rates. Patients with silent myocardial ischemia have a higher central pain threshold than patients with symptomatic myocardial ischemia. Endogenous opioids are involved in the body's own analgesia system. The beta-endorphin level in the serum rises significantly in many patients during exercise diagnostic tests. Patients with silent myocardial ischemia have higher beta-endorphin levels compared to symptomatic patients at the same exercise level. This can be interpreted as expressing quantitative differences in a superior pain regulation system. Myocardial ischemia is experienced as angina pectoris pain when the peripheral nociceptive impulse rate is so pronounced that the prevailing inhibitory pain threshold can be overcome and when the pain pathways are intact. PMID:3066037

Droste, C

1988-01-01

251

Achilles Pain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

Connors, G. Patrick

252

Leg pain  

MedlinePLUS

... bone tumors ( osteosarcoma , Ewing sarcoma) Legg-Calve-Perthes disease -- poor blood flow to the hip that may stop or slow the normal growth of the leg Noncancerous (benign) tumors or cysts of the femur or tibia (osteoid osteoma) Sciatic nerve pain (radiating ...

253

Central Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Central Pain Syndrome? Is there ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

254

Somatoform pain disorder  

MedlinePLUS

Pain disorder ... thought to be related to emotional stress. The pain was often said to be "all in their head." However, patients with somatoform pain disorder seem to experience painful sensations in a ...

255

Central pain: clinical and physiological characteristics.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To study the clinical and pathophysiological features of central pain due to damage to the CNS. METHODS--156 patients (mostly with ischaemic strokes, some with infarct after subarachnoid haemorrhage and other cerebral conditions; one with bulbar and others with spinal pathology) with central pain have been investigated clinically and varying numbers instrumentally with respect to quantitative somatosensory perception thresholds and autonomic function. RESULTS--Pain onset was immediate in a minority; and from a week or two up to six years in > 60%. For those with supraspinal ischaemic lesions, the median age of onset was 59; dominant and non-dominant sides were equally affected. Two thirds of the patients had allodynia, including a previously undescribed movement allodynia apparently triggered from group I afferents. Most patients exhibited autonomic instability in that their pain was increased by physical and emotional stress and alleviated by relaxation; cutaneous blood flow and sweating may also be affected. Pain occurred within a larger area of differential sensory deficit. The critical deficit seems to be for thermal and pinprick sensations, which were more pronounced in areas of greatest than in areas of least pain; whereas low threshold mechanoceptive functions, if affected, did not vary between areas of greatest and least pain. Skinfold pinch (tissue damage) pain thresholds were only slightly affected in supraspinal cases, but greatly increased in patients with spinal lesions; thermal (heat) pain did not show this dissociation. CONCLUSION--The pathogenetic hypothesis which seems best to fit the findings is that there is up regulation or down regulation of receptors for transmitters, possibly mainly noradrenergic, over time. PMID:8676164

Bowsher, D

1996-01-01

256

Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain.  

PubMed

This study compared the efficacy of a tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) extract, a nonopioid analgesic endocannabinoid system modulator, and a THC extract, with placebo, in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 177 patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, entered a two-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to THC:CBD extract (n = 60), THC extract (n = 58), or placebo (n = 59). The primary analysis of change from baseline in mean pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) score was statistically significantly in favor of THC:CBD compared with placebo (improvement of -1.37 vs. -0.69), whereas the THC group showed a nonsignificant change (-1.01 vs. -0.69). Twice as many patients taking THC:CBD showed a reduction of more than 30% from baseline pain NRS score when compared with placebo (23 [43%] vs. 12 [21%]). The associated odds ratio was statistically significant, whereas the number of THC group responders was similar to placebo (12 [23%] vs. 12 [21%]) and did not reach statistical significance. There was no change from baseline in median dose of opioid background medication or mean number of doses of breakthrough medication across treatment groups. No significant group differences were found in the NRS sleep quality or nausea scores or the pain control assessment. However, the results from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Cancer Questionnaire showed a worsening in nausea and vomiting with THC:CBD compared with placebo (P = 0.02), whereas THC had no difference (P = 1.0). Most drug-related adverse events were mild/moderate in severity. This study shows that THC:CBD extract is efficacious for relief of pain in patients with advanced cancer pain not fully relieved by strong opioids. PMID:19896326

Johnson, Jeremy R; Burnell-Nugent, Mary; Lossignol, Dominique; Ganae-Motan, Elena Doina; Potts, Richard; Fallon, Marie T

2010-02-01

257

Clinical Issues in Pain Management Clinical Issues in Pain Management  

E-print Network

#12;Clinical Issues in Pain Management: Chronic Pain Chronic Pain Typically begins with an acute of chronic pain Chronic benign pain Recurrent acute pain Chronic progressive pain #12;Clinical Issues in Pain Management: Chronic Pain Chronic benign pain Persists more than 6 months Varies in severity

Meagher, Mary

258

Bogus visual feedback alters onset of movement-evoked pain in people with neck pain.  

PubMed

Pain is a protective perceptual response shaped by contextual, psychological, and sensory inputs that suggest danger to the body. Sensory cues suggesting that a body part is moving toward a painful position may credibly signal the threat and thereby modulate pain. In this experiment, we used virtual reality to investigate whether manipulating visual proprioceptive cues could alter movement-evoked pain in 24 people with neck pain. We hypothesized that pain would occur at a lesser degree of head rotation when visual feedback overstated true rotation and at a greater degree of rotation when visual feedback understated true rotation. Our hypothesis was clearly supported: When vision overstated the amount of rotation, pain occurred at 7% less rotation than under conditions of accurate visual feedback, and when vision understated rotation, pain occurred at 6% greater rotation than under conditions of accurate visual feedback. We concluded that visual-proprioceptive information modulated the threshold for movement-evoked pain, which suggests that stimuli that become associated with pain can themselves trigger pain. PMID:25691362

Harvie, Daniel S; Broecker, Markus; Smith, Ross T; Meulders, Ann; Madden, Victoria J; Moseley, G Lorimer

2015-04-01

259

Pain Sensitivity and Observer Perception of Pain in Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

The peer-reviewed literature investigating the relationship between pain expression and perception of pain in individuals with ASD is sparse. The aim of the present systematic PRIMSA review was twofold: first, to see what evidence there is for the widely held belief that individuals with ASD are insensitive to pain or have a high pain threshold in the peer-reviewed literature and, second, to examine whether individuals with ASD react or express pain differently. Fifteen studies investigating pain in individuals with ASD were identified. The case studies all reported pain insensitivity in individuals with ASD. However, the majority of the ten experimental studies reviewed indicate that the idea that individuals with ASD are pain insensitive needs to be challenged. The findings also highlight the strong possibility that not all children with ASD express their physical discomfort in the same way as a neurotypical child would (i.e., cry, moan, seek comfort, etc.) which may lead caregivers and the medical profession to interpret this as pain insensitivity or incorrectly lead them to believe that the child is in no pain. These results have important implications for the assessment and management of pain in children with ASD. PMID:23843740

Allely, C. S.

2013-01-01

260

Mechanical pain sensitivity and the severity of chronic neck pain and disability are not modulated across the menstrual cycle  

PubMed Central

Despite the high prevalence of neck pain among women, menstrual effects on regional pain outcomes have not been investigated in this clinical population. This study evaluated menstrual effects on mechanical pain sensitivity (Pressure Pain Threshold; PPT), neck pain intensity (Numeric Pain Rating Scale; NPRS) and neck-related disability (Neck Disability Index; NDI) in 22 normally menstruating (NM) and 17 hormonal contraceptive (HC) users with chronic neck pain. Sex hormones, PPT, and NDI were measured during the early follicular (F1), late follicular (F2), and luteal (L) menstrual phases. Daily NPRS scores were recorded in an online symptom diary and averaged within each phase. Estradiol and progesterone increased only for NM women in F2 and L, respectively. Phase effects on PPT (?2=0.003), NDI (?2=0.003), and NPRS (?2=0.016) for NM women were small, and did not differ from the HC group (p?0.386). Averaged across the menstrual cycle, PPT scores explained 29% of the variance in NPRS scores for NM women, but were not associated with NDI scores in either group. Results indicate that that magnitude of menstrual effects on mechanical pain sensitivity, and the severity of neck pain and disability do not exceed thresholds of clinically detectable change in women with chronic neck pain. PERSPECTIVE Fluctuations in evoked and clinical pain outcomes across the menstrual cycle do not appear to be of sufficient magnitude to impact clinical decision-making for women with chronic neck pain. PMID:24021578

Balter, JE; Molner, JL; Kohrt, WM; Maluf, KS

2013-01-01

261

Prolonged Treatment with Transdermal Fentanyl in Neuropathic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight patients with noncancer neuropathic pain who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with intravenous fentanyl (FENiv) infusions received prolonged transdermal fentanyl (FENtd) in an open prospective study. Pain relief, side effects, tolerance, psychological dependence, mood changes, and quality of life were evaluated. The value of clinical baseline characteristics and the response to FENiv also was evaluated in terms

Paul L. I. Dellemijn; Hans van Duijn; Jan A. L. Vanneste

1998-01-01

262

Neurobiology of Pain in Children: An Overview  

PubMed Central

The evaluation of pain in the newborn and the infant is difficult because pain is mainly a subjective phenomenon. Until a few years ago, several myths persisted. First, the myth that children, especially infants, do not feel pain the way adults do, therefore there is no untoward consequences for them. Second, lack of assessment and reassessment for the presence of pain. Third, misunderstanding of how to conceptualise and quantify a subjective experience. Fourth, lack of knowledge of pain treatment. Fifth, the notion that addressing pain in children takes too much time and effort, in ultimate analysis resulting in wasting time. Sixth, fears of hidden -and not easy to diagnose or prevent- adverse effects of analgesic medications, including respiratory depression and addiction. Finally, from a conceptual point of view, high thresholds of pain in neonates and infants were considered to be present by natural character, and useful in protecting infant from pain during birth and transit through the narrow vaginal channel. The present review is focused on the description of different theories on the pain pathogenesis in children. PMID:19543535

Loizzo, Alberto; Loizzo, Stefano; Capasso, Anna

2009-01-01

263

Pain analgesia among adolescent self-injurers.  

PubMed

Although non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) involves self-inflicted physical harm, many self-injurers report feeling little or no pain during the act. Here we test: (1) whether the pain analgesia effects observed among adult self-injurers are also present among adolescents, and (2) three potential explanatory models proposing that habituation, dissociation, and/or self-criticism help explain the association between NSSI and pain analgesia among adolescents. Participants were 79 adolescents (12-19 years) recruited from the community who took part in a laboratory-based pain study. Results revealed that adolescent self-injurers have a higher pain threshold and greater pain endurance than non-injurers. Statistical mediation models revealed that the habituation and dissociation models were not supported; however, a self-critical style does mediate the association between NSSI and pain analgesia. The present findings extend earlier work by highlighting that a self-critical style may help to explain why self-injurers exhibit pain analgesia. Specifically, the tendency to experience self-critical thoughts in response to stressful events may represent a third variable that increases the likelihood of both NSSI and pain analgesia. Prospective experimental studies are needed to replicate and tease apart the direction of these associations, and may provide valuable leads in the development of effective treatments for this dangerous behavior problem. PMID:25172611

Glenn, Jeffrey J; Michel, Bethany D; Franklin, Joseph C; Hooley, Jill M; Nock, Matthew K

2014-12-30

264

Evaluation of the threshold trimming method for micro inertial fluidic switch based on electrowetting technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The switch based on electrowetting technology has the advantages of no moving part, low contact resistance, long life and adjustable acceleration threshold. The acceleration threshold of switch can be fine-tuned by adjusting the applied voltage. This paper is focused on the electrowetting properties of switch and the influence of microchannel structural parameters, applied voltage and droplet volume on acceleration threshold. In the presence of process errors of micro inertial fluidic switch and measuring errors of droplet volume, there is a deviation between test acceleration threshold and target acceleration threshold. Considering the process errors and measuring errors, worst-case analysis is used to analyze the influence of parameter tolerance on the acceleration threshold. Under worst-case condition the total acceleration threshold tolerance caused by various errors is 9.95%. The target acceleration threshold can be achieved by fine-tuning the applied voltage. The acceleration threshold trimming method of micro inertial fluidic switch is verified.

Liu, Tingting; Su, Wei; Yang, Tao; Han, Bin

2014-03-01

265

Neck pain  

PubMed Central

Introduction Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis and affects about two thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but may become chronic in about 10% of people. Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration–deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident, although this varies between countries. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for people with non-specific neck pain without severe neurological deficit? What are the effects of treatments for acute whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for chronic whiplash injury? What are the effects of treatments for neck pain with radiculopathy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 91 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of the evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, biofeedback, drug treatments (analgesics, antidepressants, epidural steroid injections, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), early mobilisation, early return to normal activity, exercise, heat or cold, manipulation (alone or plus exercise), mobilisation, multimodal treatment, patient education, percutaneous radiofrequency neurotomy, physical treatments, postural techniques (yoga, pilates, Alexander technique), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment, soft collars and special pillows, spray and stretch, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445809

2008-01-01

266

No Pain Relief with the Rubber Hand Illusion  

PubMed Central

The sense of body ownership can be easily disrupted during illusions and the most common illusion is the rubber hand illusion. An idea that is rapidly gaining popularity in clinical pain medicine is that body ownership illusions can be used to modify pathological pain sensations and induce analgesia. However, this idea has not been empirically evaluated. Two separate research laboratories undertook independent randomized repeated measures experiments, both designed to detect an effect of the rubber hand illusion on experimentally induced hand pain. In Experiment 1, 16 healthy volunteers rated the pain evoked by noxious heat stimuli (5 s duration; interstimulus interval 25 s) of set temperatures (47°, 48° and 49°C) during the rubber hand illusion or during a control condition. There was a main effect of stimulus temperature on pain ratings, but no main effect of condition (p?=?0.32), nor a condition x temperature interaction (p?=?0.31). In Experiment 2, 20 healthy volunteers underwent quantitative sensory testing to determine heat and cold pain thresholds during the rubber hand illusion or during a control condition. Secondary analyses involved heat and cold detection thresholds and paradoxical heat sensations. Again, there was no main effect of condition on heat pain threshold (p?=?0.17), nor on cold pain threshold (p?=?0.65), nor on any of the secondary measures (p<0.56 for all). We conclude that the rubber hand illusion does not induce analgesia. PMID:23285026

Petkova, Valeria I.; Dey, Abishikta; Barnsley, Nadia; Ingvar, Martin; McAuley, James H.; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Ehrsson, Henrik H.

2012-01-01

267

Transient receptor potential channels: targeting pain at the source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain results from the complex processing of neural signals at different levels of the central nervous system, with each signal potentially offering multiple opportunities for pharmacological intervention. A logical strategy for developing novel analgesics is to target the beginning of the pain pathway, and aim potential treatments directly at the nociceptors — the high-threshold primary sensory neurons that detect noxious

Ardem Patapoutian; Simon Tate; Clifford J. Woolf

2009-01-01

268

Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.  

PubMed

Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ? 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain. PMID:25790450

Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

2015-04-01

269

Threshold quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We present the concept of threshold collaborative unitary transformation or threshold quantum cryptography, which is a kind of quantum version of threshold cryptography. Threshold quantum cryptography states that classical shared secrets are distributed to several parties and a subset of them, whose number is greater than a threshold, collaborates to compute a quantum cryptographic function, while keeping each share secretly inside each party. The shared secrets are reusable if no cheating is detected. As a concrete example of this concept, we show a distributed protocol (with threshold) of conjugate coding.

Tokunaga, Yuuki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Okamoto, Tatsuaki [NTT Information Sharing Platform Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 1-1 Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-0847 (Japan); Imoto, Nobuyuki [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

2005-01-01

270

Pain and the ethics of pain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I clarify the concepts of 'pain', 'suffering', 'pains of body', 'pains of soul'. I explore the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives patients a strong prima facie right to freedom from unnecessary and unwanted pain and which places upon medical professionals two concomitant moral obligations to patients. First, there is the duty not

Rem B. Edwards

1984-01-01

271

Addiction and the Treatment of Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons experiencing pain, whether acute or chronic, seek and deserve relief from their discomfort and loss of function. However, opioid analgesics have the capacity to induce tolerance, physical dependence, and addiction. Furthermore, persons with a history of opioid use disorders or other substance misuse problems are at \\

Penelope P. Ziegler

2005-01-01

272

Fentanyl nasal spray (Lazanda) for pain.  

PubMed

The FDA has approved a nasal spray formulation of fentanyl (Lazanda-Archimedes) for management of breakthrough pain in adult cancer patients who are already receiving and are tolerant to opioid therapy. Fentanyl is already available in the US for intravenous, intrathecal, epidural, transdermal and oral transmucosal use. PMID:22173454

2011-12-12

273

Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display  

PubMed Central

Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886

Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

2014-01-01

274

Psoriasis and skin pain: instrumental and biological evaluations.  

PubMed

The prevalence of skin pain and the molecular mechanisms responsible for pain in psoriasis remain unclear. This study assessed skin pain in 163 patients (98 males, 65 females, range 18-81 years) with plaque psoriasis, evaluating: the subjective/objective features of this symptom compared with clinical severity of the disease; and the role of interleukin (IL)-33, (involved in both psoriasis and pain pathogenesis), in psoriasis-related pain. Clinical measures used were a questionnaire, plaque Physician Global Assessment (PGA) index, pressure algometry to measure pain threshold and tactile/thermal sensitivity test. IL-33 gene expression was examined in vivo (n?=?12) in patients skin and through an ex vivo model of nociception using sodium dodecyl sulphate. Of the psoriatic patients 43.6% reported skin pain during the previous week; itchy, unpleasant, aching, sensitive, hot/burning, tender and cramping were the most reported qualities. Patients' pain threshold decreased with increasing PGA index and pain intensity. Sensitivity to touch/heat was reduced in lesional skin, compared with unaffected psoriatic skin. IL-33 expression was increased in lesional skin of patients reporting pain and in the ex vivo system. In conclusion, symptoms of skin pain should be taken into account in the management of psoriasis. PMID:25178645

Patruno, Cataldo; Napolitano, Maddalena; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio; Megna, Matteo; Patrì, Angela; Cirillo, Teresa; Balato, Anna

2015-04-15

275

Reliability and validity of quantitative sensory testing in persons with spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has been used to assess neurological function in various chronic pain patient populations. In the present study, we investigated the ability of QST to reliably characterize somatosensory dysfunction in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and neuropathic pain by measuring mechanical, vibration, and thermal detection and pain thresholds. Test-retest reliability was determined based on data collected from 10 subjects with SCI and neuropathic pain who underwent QST on two occasions approximately 3 weeks apart. The intraclass correlation coefficients for mechanical, vibration, warm, and cool detection thresholds were in the "substantial" range, while thresholds for cold pain and hot pain demonstrated "fair" stability in this sample of patients. To determine the validity of QST in persons with SCI-related neuropathic pain, we evaluated the relationship between somatosensory thresholds and severity of neuropathic pain symptoms with multiple linear regression analysis. Thermal pain threshold was the only QST variable significantly related to the severity of neuropathic pain symptoms. The present study provides preliminary evidence that QST is a reliable and valid adjunct measurement strategy for quantifying the neurological dysfunction associated with neuropathic pain in persons with SCI. PMID:19533521

Felix, Elizabeth R; Widerström-Noga, Eva G

2009-01-01

276

Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…

Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

2012-01-01

277

Risk Factor Assessment for Problematic Use of Opioids for Chronic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opioid analgesics provide effective treatment for noncancer pain, but many health providers have concerns about cognitive effects, tolerance, dependence, and addiction. Misuse of opioids is prominent in patients with chronic pain and early recognition of misuse risk could help providers offer adequate patient care while implementing appropriate levels of monitoring to reduce aberrant drug-related behaviors. Many persons with chronic pain

Robert N. Jamison; Robert R. Edwards

2012-01-01

278

Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threshold concepts can be identified for any discipline and provide a framework for linking student learning to curricular design. Threshold concepts represent a transformed understanding of a discipline, without which the learner cannot progress and are therefore pivotal in learning in a discipline. Although threshold concepts have been…

Loertscher, Jennifer

2011-01-01

279

Serum Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Painful Knee Osteoarthritis and Sensitization  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder in the world. Among the mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis, biomarkers (cytokines profile) may be related to pain and pain intensity, functional capacity, and pressure pain thresholds (PPT). Thus, the study of these relationships may offer useful information about pathophysiology and associated mechanisms involved in osteoarthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the seric concentration of pro (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis and to correlate the levels of these biomarkers with the patients' functional capacity and pressure pain threshold (PPT) values.

Imamura, Marta; Ezquerro, Fernando; Marcon Alfieri, Fábio; Vilas Boas, Lucy; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Chen, Janini; Özçakar, Levent; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

2015-01-01

280

Pain in People with Learning Disabilities in Residential Settings--The Need for Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This audit investigated residential staff beliefs around pain thresholds and strategies they adopt to recognise and manage pain in people with learning disabilities across Surrey. A structured interview was constructed to elicit information. Results demonstrated that pain is not being effectively recognised or managed by residential staff in…

Beacroft, Monica; Dodd, Karen

2010-01-01

281

Inherited Pain  

PubMed Central

Inherited erythromelalgia (IEM) causes debilitating episodic neuropathic pain characterized by burning in the extremities. Inherited “paroxysmal extreme pain disorder” (PEPD) differs in its clinical picture and affects proximal body areas like the rectal, ocular, or jaw regions. Both pain syndromes have been linked to mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7. Electrophysiological characterization shows that IEM-causing mutations generally enhance activation, whereas mutations leading to PEPD alter fast inactivation. Previously, an A1632E mutation of a patient with overlapping symptoms of IEM and PEPD was reported (Estacion, M., Dib-Hajj, S. D., Benke, P. J., Te Morsche, R. H., Eastman, E. M., Macala, L. J., Drenth, J. P., and Waxman, S. G. (2008) NaV1.7 Gain-of-function mutations as a continuum. A1632E displays physiological changes associated with erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder mutations and produces symptoms of both disorders. J. Neurosci. 28, 11079–11088), displaying a shift of both activation and fast inactivation. Here, we characterize a new mutation of Nav1.7, A1632T, found in a patient suffering from IEM. Although transfection of A1632T in sensory neurons resulted in hyperexcitability and spontaneous firing of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, whole-cell patch clamp of transfected HEK cells revealed that Nav1.7 activation was unaltered by the A1632T mutation but that steady-state fast inactivation was shifted to more depolarized potentials. This is a characteristic normally attributed to PEPD-causing mutations. In contrast to the IEM/PEPD crossover mutation A1632E, A1632T failed to slow current decay (i.e. open-state inactivation) and did not increase resurgent currents, which have been suggested to contribute to high-frequency firing in physiological and pathological conditions. Reduced fast inactivation without increased resurgent currents induces symptoms of IEM, not PEPD, in the new Nav1.7 mutation, A1632T. Therefore, persistent and resurgent currents are likely to determine whether a mutation in Nav1.7 leads to IEM or PEPD. PMID:24311784

Eberhardt, Mirjam; Nakajima, Julika; Klinger, Alexandra B.; Neacsu, Cristian; Hühne, Kathrin; O'Reilly, Andrias O.; Kist, Andreas M.; Lampe, Anne K.; Fischer, Kerstin; Gibson, Jane; Nau, Carla; Winterpacht, Andreas; Lampert, Angelika

2014-01-01

282

Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force Outcomes: Clinical Measures of Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Pain is one of the most commonly reported impairments after breast cancer treatment affecting anywhere from 16-73% of breast cancer survivors Despite the high reported incidence of pain from cancer and its treatments, the ability to evaluate cancer pain continues to be difficult due to the complexity of the disease and the subjective experience of pain. The Oncology Section Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force was created to evaluate the evidence behind clinical outcome measures of pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods The authors systematically reviewed the literature for pain outcome measures published in the research involving women diagnosed with breast cancer. The goal was to examine the reported psychometric properties that are reported in the literature in order to determine clinical utility. Results Visual Analog Scale, Numeric Rating Scale, Pressure Pain Threshold, McGill Pain Questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire – Short Form, Brief Pain Inventory and Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form were highly recommended by the Task Force. The Task Force was unable to recommend two measures for use in the breast cancer population at the present time. Conclusions A variety of outcome measures were used to measure pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. When assessing pain in women with breast cancer, researchers and clinicians need to determine whether a unidimensional or multidimensional tool is most appropriate as well as whether the tool has strong psychometric properties. PMID:25346950

Harrington, Shana; Gilchrist, Laura; Sander, Antoinette

2014-01-01

283

When Sex Is Painful  

MedlinePLUS

How common is painful sex? Pain during intercourse is very common—nearly 3 out of 4 women have pain during intercourse at some time during ... a long-term problem. What causes pain during sex? Pain during sex may be a sign of ...

284

Shoulder Pain COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

Shoulder Pain COMMON CAUSES: Shoulder injury or pain may be triggered by a specific event those required in swimming, tennis, baseball, and football can lead to shoulder pain. These OVER USE labor can lead to shoulder pain over time. Long term shoulder problems are more likely when pain

Virginia Tech

285

Chronic pain as a reticular formation syndrome.  

PubMed

Evidence was previously presented to support the thesis that chronic pain is activated by neuronal elements that make up the multisynaptic short axon core of the reticular system (Andy and Peeler 1985). The present thesis, that chronic pain is a reticular formation syndrome, is based on a retrospective analysis of four patients with chronic pain who were successfully treated with a lesion in the anterior thalamus and stimulation electrode implants in the posterior thalamus and pontomesencephalic brain stem. The reticular formation was the common underlying anatomic substrate at those three sites. In addition to chronic pain, all the patients had other symptoms attributable to other body organs and systems. The number and type of symptoms that made up the syndrome differed between patients. Symptoms making up the core of the syndrome were pain, anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, and depression. Experimental and clinical findings are briefly presented to demonstrate the various reticular formation sites, pragmatically considered "reticular functional systems," from which symptoms may arise. It is hypothesized that the symptoms are recruited by a low threshold "pain oscillator" that is generated at one reticular site and subsequently permeates the rest of the reticular system. Therapeutic stimulation inactivates the low threshold system by "jamming" it. PMID:3487065

Andy, O J

1986-01-01

286

Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.  

PubMed

Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions. PMID:25719519

Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

2015-01-01

287

Transplantation tolerance.  

PubMed

Although transplantation has been a standard medical practice for decades, marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs and poor long-term graft survival remain important limitations in the field. Since the first solid organ transplant between the Herrick twins in 1954, transplantation immunology has sought to move away from harmful, broad-spectrum immunosuppressive regimens that carry with them the long-term risk of potentially life-threatening opportunistic infections, cardiovascular disease, and malignancy, as well as graft toxicity and loss, towards tolerogenic strategies that promote long-term graft survival. Reports of "transplant tolerance" in kidney and liver allograft recipients whose immunosuppressive drugs were discontinued for medical or non-compliant reasons, together with results from experimental models of transplantation, provide the proof-of-principle that achieving tolerance in organ transplantation is fundamentally possible. However, translating the reconstitution of immune tolerance into the clinical setting is a daunting challenge fraught with the complexities of multiple interacting mechanisms overlaid on a background of variation in disease. In this article, we explore the basic science underlying mechanisms of tolerance and review the latest clinical advances in the quest for transplantation tolerance. PMID:24213880

Salisbury, Emma M; Game, David S; Lechler, Robert I

2014-12-01

288

Chronic intraoral pain--assessment of diagnostic methods and prognosis.  

PubMed

The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden our knowledge of chronic intraoral pain. The research questions were: What methods can be used to differentiate inflammatory, odontogenic tooth pain from pain that presents as toothache but is non-odontogenic in origin? What is the prognosis of chronic tooth pain of non-odontogenic origin, and which factors affect the prognosis? Atypical odontalgia (AO) is a relatively rare but severe and chronic pain condition affecting the dentoalveolar region. Recent research indicates that the origin is peripheral nerve damage: neuropathic pain. The condition presents as tooth pain and is challenging to dentists because it is difficult to distinguish from ordinary toothache due to inflammation or infection. AO is of interest to the pain community because it shares many characteristics with other chronic pain conditions, and pain perpetuation mechanisms are likely to be similar. An AO diagnosis is made after a comprehensive examination and assessment of patients' self-reported characteristics: the pain history. Traditional dental diagnostic methods do not appear to suffice, since many patients report repeated care-seeking and numerous treatment efforts with little or no pain relief. Developing methods that are useful in the clinical setting is a prerequisite for a correct diagnosis and adequate treatment decisions. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory function on skin when nerve damage or disease is suspected. A variety of stimuli has been used to examine the perception of, for example, touch, temperature (painful and non-painful), vibration, pinprick pain, and pressure pain. To detect sensory abnormalities and nerve damage in the oral cavity, the same methods may be possible to use. Study I examined properties of thermal thresholds in and around the mouth in 30 pain-free subjects: the influence of measurement location and stimulation area size on threshold levels, and time variability of thresholds. Thresholds for cold, warmth and painful heat were measured in four intraoral and two extraoral sites. Measurements were repeated 3 times over 6 weeks, using four sizes of stimulation area (0.125-0.81 cm2). The threshold levels were highly dependent on location but less dependent on measuring probe size and time variability was small, and this knowledge is important for the interpretation of QST results. Study II applied a recently developed standardized QST examination protocol (intended for use on skin) inside the oral cavity. Two trained examiners evaluated 21 pain-free subjects on three occasions over 1-3 weeks, at four sites-three intraoral and one extraoral. Most tests had acceptable reliability and the original test instruments and techniques could be applied intraorally with only minor adjustments. Study III examined the value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in pain investigations. Twenty patients with AO and 5 with symptomatic apical periodontitis (inflammatory tooth pain) participated. The results indicate that when AO is suspected, addition of CBCT can improve the diagnostic certainty compared to sole use of periapical and panoramic radiographs, especially because of the superior ability of CBCT to exclude inflammation as the pain cause. Study IV assessed the long-term prognosis of AO, and analyzed potential outcome predictors. A comprehensive questionnaire including validated and reliable instruments was used to gather data on patient and pain characteristics and pain consequences from 37 patients in 2002 and 2009. Thirty-five percent of the patients reported substantial overall improvement at follow-up, but almost all still had pain of some degree after many years. The initial high level of emotional distress was unchanged. Low baseline pain intensity predicted improvement over time. PMID:22338784

Pigg, Maria

2011-01-01

289

Intracerebroventricular opioids for intractable pain  

PubMed Central

When pain is refractory to systemic opioid and non-opioid analgesic therapy and palliative chemoradiation or ablative or stimulant neurosurgical procedures are not possible, palliative treatment becomes limited, particularly if the patient wishes to be at home at the end of life. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of morphine in the home setting might be presented as an option. The present article reviews the basic and clinical evidence of the efficacy and safety of ICV administration of opioids. Information was gathered from various bibliographic sources, including PubMed and others, and summarized and evaluated to assess the efficacy and safety of ICV opioids for pain relief. Results from ICV infusion of morphine into terminally ill patients refractory to other pain treatments have been reported since the early 1980s. Good efficacy has been achieved for the vast majority of patients, without serious development of analgesic tolerance. There have also been a low incidence of adverse effects, such as constipation and respiratory depression, and a significant retention of alertness associated with this route of administration. Intracerebroventricular infusion of opioid analgesics thus appears to be a safe and effective therapy for the palliative treatment of refractory pain. PMID:22295988

Raffa, Robert B; Pergolizzi, Joseph V

2012-01-01

290

Role of Anticipatory Anxiety and Anxiety Sensitivity in Children’s and Adolescents’ Laboratory Pain Responses  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine relationships among trait anxiety sensitivity, state task-specific anticipatory anxiety, and laboratory pain responses in healthy children and adolescents. Methods Participants (N=118, 49.2% female, ages 8-18 years) completed a measure of anxiety sensitivity and rated anticipatory anxiety prior to undergoing thermal, pressure, and cold pain tasks. Linear and logistic regressions were used to test the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity and anticipatory anxiety would predict incremental variance in pain response after controlling for sex, age, and anxious symptoms. Results Anticipatory anxiety accounted for 35-38% of unique variance in pain report across tasks, and 10% of unique variance in thermal tolerance. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to pain responses. Conclusions Task-specific anxiety is an important predictor of pain report and, in certain cases, pain tolerance. Interventions designed to reduce task-specific anticipatory anxiety may help reduce pain responses in children and adolescents. PMID:15187176

Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Myers, Cynthia D.; Craske, Michelle G.; Bursch, Brenda; Kim, Su C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

2008-01-01

291

Pain drawings in somatoform-functional pain  

PubMed Central

Background Pain drawings are a diagnostic adjunct to history taking, clinical examinations, and biomedical tests in evaluating pain. We hypothesized that somatoform-functional pain, is mirrored in distinctive graphic patterns of pain drawings. Our aim was to identify the most sensitive and specific graphic criteria as a tool to help identifying somatoform-functional pain. Methods We compared 62 patients with somatoform-functional pain with a control group of 49 patients with somatic-nociceptive pain type. All patients were asked to mark their pain on a pre-printed body diagram. An investigator, blinded with regard to the patients’ diagnoses, analyzed the drawings according to a set of numeric or binary criteria. Results We identified 13 drawing criteria pointing with significance to a somatoform-functional pain disorder (all p-values???0.001). The most specific and most sensitive criteria combination for detecting somatoform-functional pain included the total number of marks, the length of the longest mark, and the presence of symmetric patterns. The area under the ROC-curve was 96.3% for this criteria combination. Conclusion Pain drawings are an easy-to-administer supplementary technique which helps to identify somatoform-functional pain in comparison to somatic-nociceptive pain. PMID:23256679

2012-01-01

292

Growing Pains (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Growing Pains KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Aches, Pains & Injuries > Growing Pains Print ...

293

What Is Chronic Pain?  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Chronic Pain Medications & Treatments The Art of Pain Management What We Have Learned Going to the ER Communication Tools Pain Management Programs Videos Resources Glossary FAQs Surveys September is ...

294

American Pain Society  

MedlinePLUS

... From the APS Newsroom Current research in The Journal of Pain discuss the latest in therapeutic opioids, chronic headaches, chronic neck pain and pain education. Read More » Posted February 16, 2015 Clinical Trial ...

295

The effect of repeated intramuscular alfentanil injections on experimental pain and abuse liability indices in healthy males  

PubMed Central

Objective Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), increased sensitivity to noxious stimuli following repeated opioid exposures, has been demonstrated in pre-clinical studies. However, there is no accepted, prospective model of OIH following repeated opioid exposures currently available in humans. This study assessed a potential prospective OIH model. Methods Double-blind intramuscular (IM) injections of a short-acting opioid, (alfentanil 15 mcg/kg; N=8) were compared to active placebo (diphenhydramine 25 mg; N=3) on cold and pressure pain testing and standard abuse liability measures in eight 10-hour sessions (1 injection/session) over 4–5 weeks in healthy pain-free males. Decreases from session baseline pain threshold (PThr) and tolerance (PTol) were calculated to represent hyperalgesia, and were assessed both within and across sessions. Results Mean decreases in cold PTol were seen in the alfentanil group at 180 minutes (?3.8 seconds, +/?26.5) and 480 minutes (?1.63 seconds, +/?31.5) after drug administration. There was a trend for differences between conditions on cold PThr hyperalgesia but not for pressure PThr. Alfentanil participants had greater mean ratings on LIKING and HIGH visual analog scales at peak effects (30 minutes), but these scores did not change across sessions. Discussion Repeated alfentanil exposures over 4–5 weeks resulted in within session decreases in cold pain tolerance from baseline but these differences were not substantially different from diphenhydramine controls. The results did not support the phenomenon of OIH in this model, although definitive conclusions regarding the existence of OIH in humans likely requires a larger sample size or an alternative model. PMID:23446076

Tompkins, D. Andrew; Smith, Michael T.; Bigelow, George E.; Moaddel, Ruin; Venkata, S.L. Vatem; Strain, Eric C.

2013-01-01

296

Pain syndromes in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pediatric rheumatologist cares for children who may have a wide variety of causes of musculoskeletal pain. These include\\u000a such diverse conditions as arthritis, low-back pain, hypermobility, metabolic bone pain, and amplified pain syndromes such\\u000a as complex regional pain syndrome and fibromyalgia. This review examines the recent literature on these and other conditions\\u000a causing musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents.

David D. Sherry

2000-01-01

297

Pain Management: Post-Amputation Pain  

MedlinePLUS

Pain Management Post-Amputation Pain Volume 8 · Issue 2 · March/April 1998 Text size Larger text Smaller text Java ... of the most frequently asked questions. Ideas about management are one of the frequent topics of conversation ...

298

Reactive effects of diary self-assessment in chronic pain patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies of experimental and acute clinical pain have indicated reactive effects of self-assessment on pain intensity and tolerance. A recent study of chronic pain patients (vonBaeyer 1994), however, failed to show these effects. The present investigation sought to determine whether reactive effects can be produced in chronic pain patients by an intensive self-assessment protocol. Using the methodology of ecological

Charles E. Cruise; Joan Broderick; Laura Porter; Alan Kaell; Arthur A. Stone

1996-01-01

299

Pain sensitivity in major depression and its relationship to central serotoninergic function as reflected by the neuroendocrine response to clomipramine.  

PubMed

Several studies reported a decreased pain sensitivity in patients with depression, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this phenomenon are unclear. While there is extensive evidence that the serotoninergic system plays a key role in pain modulation, especially in pain inhibitory mechanisms via descending pathways, as well as in the pathophysiology of depression, no study so far has examined its potential relevance in mediating the alteration of pain processing. The present study addresses the question of whether indices of serotoninergic dysfunction, as investigated by a neuroendrocine challenge paradigm, are related to pain sensitivity. Nineteen drug-free inpatients with unipolar major depression underwent a neuroendocrine challenge test by measuring cortisol and prolactin in response to intravenously administered clomipramine (12.5mg). Heat/cold pain thresholds, warmth/cold detection thresholds, measures of current pain complaints and mood were assessed the day before and three day after challenge procedure. When patients were classified in subgroups based on a median split of their cortisol response values, the low-responsive group showed significantly elevated heat pain thresholds and nearly significantly elevated cold pain thresholds compared to the high-responsive group. No such group differences were found with regard to somatosensory thresholds, measures of pain complaints and mood. Subgrouping on the basis of prolactin responsiveness did not reveal significant differences in any parameter. In summary, a decreased pain sensitivity was demonstrated in patients characterized by a reduced neuroendocrine responsiveness to clomipramine, suggesting an involvement of serotoninergic dysfunction underlying altered pain perception in depression. PMID:19467668

Kundermann, Bernd; Hemmeter-Spernal, Julia; Strate, Peter; Gebhardt, Stefan; Huber, Martin Tobias; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2009-12-01

300

Significant Determinants of Mouse Pain Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether. PMID:25101983

Minett, Michael S.; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Wood, John N.

2014-01-01

301

Religious Tolerance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue looks at three issues of religious tolerance. The first article examines a case recently decided by the United States Supreme Court on student-led prayers at school events. The second article explores the persecution suffered by members of the Mormon religion during the 19th century. The final article looks at Martin Luther and…

Martz, Carlton

2000-01-01

302

Oral tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of the mucosal immune system to distinguish between harmful and harmless antigens is essential for mounting protective immune responses and preventing the induction of mucosal pathology yet the basis for this remains unclear. As fed antigen can also exert systemic effects understanding oral tolerance and priming will also have important consequences for therapy and vaccination. Here we will

P Garside; A. McI Mowat

2001-01-01

303

Resonance phenomena near thresholds  

SciTech Connect

The trapping effect is investigated close to the elastic threshold. The nucleus is described as an open quantum mechanical many-body system embedded in the continuum of decay channels. An ensemble of compound nucleus states with states below and above threshold is investigated in an energy-dependent formalism. It is shown that the states below threshold can trap the resonance ones and also that they can directly influence the scattering cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Persson, E.; Mueller, M.; Rotter, I. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)] [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

1996-06-01

304

Fault-tolerant almost exact state transmission  

PubMed Central

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault-tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose an experimental implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices. PMID:24185259

Wang, Zhao-Ming; Wu, Lian-Ao; Modugno, Michele; Yao, Wang; Shao, Bin

2013-01-01

305

Fault-Tolerant Exact State Transmission  

E-print Network

We show that a category of one-dimensional XY-type models may enable high-fidelity quantum state transmissions, regardless of details of coupling configurations. This observation leads to a fault- tolerant design of a state transmission setup. The setup is fault-tolerant, with specified thresholds, against engineering failures of coupling configurations, fabrication imperfections or defects, and even time-dependent noises. We propose the implementation of the fault-tolerant scheme using hard-core bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices.

Zhao-Ming Wang; Lian-Ao Wu; Michele Modugno; Wang Yao; Bin Shao

2012-05-02

306

Peripheral Pain Mechanisms in Chronic Widespread Pain  

PubMed Central

Clinical symptoms of chronic widespread pain (CWP) conditions including fibromyalgia (FM), include pain, stiffness, subjective weakness, and muscle fatigue. Muscle pain in CWP is usually described as fluctuating and often associated with local or generalized tenderness (hyperalgesia and/or allodynia). This tenderness related to muscle pain depends on increased peripheral and/or central nervous system responsiveness to peripheral stimuli which can be either noxious (hyperalgesia) or non-noxious (allodynia). For example, patients with muscle hyperalgesia will rate painful muscle stimuli higher than normal controls, whereas patients with allodynia may perceive light touch as painful, something that a “normal” individual will never describe as painful. The pathogenesis of such peripheral and/or central nervous system changes in CWP is unclear, but peripheral soft tissue changes have been implicated. Indirect evidence from interventions that attenuate tonic peripheral nociceptive impulses in patients with CWP syndromes like FM suggest that overall FM pain is dependent on peripheral input. More importantly, allodynia and hyperalgesia can be improved or abolished by removal of peripheral impulse input. Another potential mechanism for CWP pain is central disinhibition. However, this pain mechanism also depends on tonic impulse input, even if only inadequately inhibited. Thus a promising approach to understanding CWP is to determine whether abnormal activity of receptors in deep tissues is fundamental to the development and maintenance of this chronic pain disorder. Conclusions Most CWP patients present with focal tissue abnormalities including myofascial trigger points, ligamentous trigger points, or osteoarthritis of the joints and spine. While not predictive for the development of CWP these changes nevertheless represent important pain generators that may initiate or perpetuate chronic pain. Local chemical mediators, including lactic acid, ATP, and cytokines seem to play an important role in sensitizing deep tissue nociceptors of CWP patients. Thus the combination of peripheral impulse input and increased central pain sensitivity may be responsible for wide-spread chronic pain disorders including FM. PMID:22094192

Staud, Roland

2011-01-01

307

Pain in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy--more than neuropathic?  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN) is an adverse effect of chemotherapy. Pain in CIN might comprise neuropathic and nonneuropathic (ie, musculoskeletal) pain components, which might be characterized by pain patterns, electrophysiology, and somatosensory profiling. Included were 146 patients (100 female, 46 male; aged 56 ± 0.8 years) with CIN arising from different chemotherapy regimens. Patients were characterized clinically through nerve conduction studies (NCS) and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Questionnaires for pain (McGill) and anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were supplied. Patients were followed-up after 17 days. Large- (61%) and mixed- (35%) fibre neuropathies were more frequent than small-fibre neuropathy (1.4%). The 5 major chemotherapeutic regimens impacted differently on large- but not on small-fibre function and did not predict painfulness. Chronic pain associated with CIN was reported in 41.7%. Painless and painful CIN did not differ in QST profiles or electrophysiological findings, but different somatosensory patterns were found in CIN subgroups (pain at rest [RestP], n = 25; movement-associated pain [MovP], n = 15; both pain characteristics [MovP+RestP], n = 21; or no pain [NonP], n = 85): small-fibre function (cold-detection threshold, CDT: z score: -1.46 ± 0.21, P < 0.01) was most impaired in RestP; mechanical hyperalgesia was exclusively found in MovP (z score: +0.81 ± 0.30, P < 0.05). "Anxiety" discriminated between painful and painless CIN; "CDT" and "anxiety" discriminated between patients with ongoing (RestP) and movement-associated pain (MovP) or pain components (MovP+RestP). The detrimental effect of chemotherapy on large fibres failed to differentiate painful from painless CIN. Patients stratified for musculoskeletal or neuropathic pain, however, differed in psychological and somatosensory parameters. This stratification might allow for the application of a more specific therapy. PMID:23999056

Geber, Christian; Breimhorst, Markus; Burbach, Berenike; Egenolf, Christina; Baier, Bernhard; Fechir, Marcel; Koerber, Juergen; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank

2013-12-01

308

A Systematic Comparison Between Subjects with No Pain and Pain Associated with Active Myofascial Trigger Points  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether standard evaluations of pain distinguish subjects with no pain from those with myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) and active trigger points (MTrPs); and to assess whether self-reports of mood, function and health-related quality of life differ between these groups. Design Prospective, descriptive study. Setting University Patients Adults with and without neck pain Methods We evaluated adults with MPS and active (painful) MTrPs and those without pain. Subjects in the “Active” (‘A’) group had at least one active MTrP with spontaneous pain which was persistent, lasted more than 3 months and had characteristic pain on palpation. Subjects in the “No pain” (‘Np’) group had no spontaneous pain. However, some had discomfort on MTrP palpation (latent MTrP) while others in the Np group had no discomfort on palpation of nodules or had no nodules. Outcome Measures Each participant underwent range of motion (ROM) measurement, 10-point manual muscle test, and manual and algometric palpation. The latter determined the pain/pressure threshold using an algometer of 4 pre-determined anatomical sites along the upper trapezius. Participants rated pain using a verbal analogue scale (0–10); completed the Brief Pain Inventory and Oswestry Disability Scale (ODS), which included a sleep sub-scale; Short Form 36(SF36) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results here were 24 in the ‘A’ group (mean 36 yrs, 16 women) and 26 in the ‘Np’ group (mean 26 yrs, 12 women). Subjects in group ‘A’ differed from ‘Np’ in number of latent MTrPs (p=.0062); asymmetrical cervical ROM (p=.01 side bending and p=.002 rotation); in all pain reports (p<.0001); algometry (p<.03); POMS (p<.038); SF36 (p<.01) and ODS (p<.0001). Conclusion A systematic musculoskeletal evaluation of people with MPS reliably distinguishes them from subjects with no pain. The two groups are significantly different in their physical findings and self-reports of pain, sleep disturbance, disability, health status and mood. These findings support the view that a “local” pain syndrome has significant associations with mood, health-related quality of life and function.. PMID:23810811

Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Armstrong, Katee; Diao, Guoqing; Heimur, Juliana; Kopecky, John; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Gebreab, Tadesse; Shah, Jay

2013-01-01

309

Interventional pain treatments for cancer pain.  

PubMed

Cancer pain is prevalent and often multifactorial. For a segment of the cancer pain population, pain control remains inadequate despite full compliance with the WHO analgesic guidelines including use of co-analgesics. The failure to obtain acceptable pain or symptom relief prompted the inclusion of a fourth step to the WHO analgesic ladder, which includes advanced interventional approaches. Interventional pain-relieving therapies can be indispensable allies in the quest for pain reduction among cancer patients suffering from refractory pain. There are a variety of techniques used by interventional pain physicians, which may be grossly divided into modalities affecting the spinal canal (e.g., intrathecal or epidural space), called neuraxial techniques and those that target individual nerves or nerve bundles, termed neurolytic techniques. An array of intrathecal medications are infused into the cerebrospinal fluid in an attempt to relieve refractory cancer pain, reduce disabling adverse effects of systemic analgesics, and promote a higher quality of life. These intrathecal medications include opioids, local anesthetics, clonidine, and ziconotide. Intrathecal and epidural infusions can serve as useful methods of delivering analgesics quickly and safely. Spinal delivery of drugs for the treatment of chronic pain by means of an implantable drug delivery system (IDDS) began in the 1980s. Both intrathecal and epidural neurolysis can be effective in managing intractable cancer-related pain. There are several sites for neurolytic blockade of the sympathetic nervous system for the treatment of cancer pain. The more common sites include the celiac plexus, superior hypogastric plexus, and ganglion impar. Today, interventional pain-relieving approaches should be considered a critical component of a multifaceted therapeutic program of cancer pain relief. PMID:18837908

Christo, Paul J; Mazloomdoost, Danesh

2008-09-01

310

Sickle Cell Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... patient’s life. Folic acid prevents severe anemia in sickle cell disease. Other studies have suggested that the more severe and painful ... chance of long-lasting PHN pain. Also, some studies have concluded that people who do not ... Treatment for sickle cell pain The terrible pain of a sickle ...

311

Thai perspectives on pain.  

PubMed

This qualitative research aimed to study the meaning, the characteristics, and the dimensions of pain from a Thai point of view. It was conducted under the research project on the development of the quality of pain management for people in the hospital. The subjects were 62 patients, experiencing pain and receiving treatment in 4 hospitals in northeast Thailand. Data were analyzed through content analysis. The findings included: 1) concept from experience of pain, perceived pain as suffering physically and psychologically, 2) different characteristics between acute and chronic pain, 3) four levels of pain intensity: mild, moderate, high and severe, 4) pain effects on four dimensions: physical, psychological, behavioral and societal (family-social-economy), 5) two factors related to pain: alleviating factor and predisposing factor, and 6) pain management relies on beliefs, culture and religion i.e. good deeds in Buddhism affected six dimensions: physical, psychological, social, spiritual, treatment seeking and asking health personnel for help. The results of the present study revealed the influence of culture beliefs on the meaning of pain, pain characteristics, and the effects of pain as well as pain management in terms of cultural contexts. The findings may be implemented for the development of pain assessment and the model development of pain management more appropriately according to cultural contexts. PMID:24386747

Mongkhonthawornchai, Siriporn; Sangchart, Bumpenchit; Sornboon, Ariya; Chantarasiri, Jongkolnee

2013-09-01

312

Implied Mortgage Refinancing Thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal prepayment model asserts that rational homeowners will refinance if they can reduce the current value of their liabilities by an amount greater than the refinancing threshold, defined as the cost of carrying the transaction plus the time value of the embedded call option. To compute the notional value of the refinancing threshold, researchers have traditionally relied on discrete-

Paul Bennett; Richard Peach; Stavros Peristiani

2000-01-01

313

Bayesian Threshold Estimation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bayesian estimation of a threshold time (hereafter simply threshold) for the receipt of impulse signals is accomplished given the following: 1) data, consisting of the number of impulses received in a time interval from zero to one and the time of the largest time impulse; 2) a model, consisting of a uniform probability density of impulse time…

Gustafson, S. C.; Costello, C. S.; Like, E. C.; Pierce, S. J.; Shenoy, K. N.

2009-01-01

314

[Central pain processing and Parkinson's disease. Epidemiology, physiology, and experimental results issuing pain processing].  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and a resulting dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathways including the basal ganglia. Beside motor symptoms, different types of pain (e.g., dystonic musculoskeletal pain or central pain) occur in a considerable number of patients. In addition, abnormalities in pain processing have been observed in PD patients, which may present as increased pain sensitivity. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in disturbed pain processing of PD, however, are still poorly understood. The present article gives an overview of the relevant experimental studies, investigating the abnormalities of pain processing in PD by means of electrophysiological [electroencephalography (EEG), sympathetic skin response (SSR)] and psychophysical methods [quantitative sensory testing (QST), RIII reflex threshold]. Based on a review of the literature, it is postulated that dysfunction in endogenous pain inhibition caused by dopaminergic deficiency in the basal ganglia, especially in the striatum, but also in mesolimbic areas is a main pathophysiological mechanism involved in nociceptive abnormalities in PD. PMID:23052966

Priebe, J A; Rieckmann, P; Lautenbacher, S

2012-12-01

315

Differential effects of repeated low dose treatment with the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in experimental models of bone cancer pain and neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Pain due to bone malignancies is one of the most difficult types of cancer pain to fully control and may further decrease the patients' quality of life. Animal models of chronic pain conditions resulting from peripheral inflammatory reactions or nerve injuries are responsive to treatment with cannabinoid agonists. However, the use of cannabinoid agonists in humans may be hampered by CNS related side effects and development of tolerance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of repeated low dose administration of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 on bone cancer pain and neuropathic pain in mice. In addition, we investigated the development of CNS related side effects and tolerance. We found that 0.5 mg/kg/day for 18 days reduced pain related behavior and expression of spinal glial fibrillary acidic protein in the bone cancer pain model but not in the neuropathic pain model. Furthermore, this treatment strategy was not found to induce measurable CNS related side effects or tolerance. Cancer cell viability assays and bone volume fraction assessed by micro computed tomography (microCT) demonstrated that these effects were not due to changes in cancer progression. The difference in WIN 55,212-2 efficacy between the bone cancer and neuropathic pain models may reflect the different pain generating mechanisms, which may be utilized in designing new therapeutic drugs. PMID:18611408

Hald, Andreas; Ding, Ming; Egerod, Kristoffer; Hansen, Rikke R; Konradsen, Dorthe; Jørgensen, Stine G; Atalay, Baris; Nasser, Arafat; Bjerrum, Ole J; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

2008-11-01

316

Pressure and Cutaneous Pain Threshold Values in Patients With Fibromyalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a non- inflamatory and non-otoimmune disease which is commonly seen. Because the basic underlying mechanisms are unclear, there are various treatment procedures and approaches. In this study, 50 patients with primary FMS who had full filling the ACR diagnosis criteria, divided into two groups as 25 patients in each group. Other than the Amitriptyline

Vedat NAC?TARHAN; Serdar YURTÇU

317

Functional MRI demonstrates pain perception in hand osteoarthritis has features of central pain processing  

PubMed Central

Background Hand osteoarthritis (HOA) is typified by pain and reduced function. We hypothesised that people with HOA have enhanced sensitivity and activation of peripheral nociceptors in the hand, thereby potentiating chronic pain. In our study we aimed to assess if central sensitisation mediates pain perception in osteoarthritis of the hand. Methods Participants with proximal and distal interphalangeal joint (PIP/DIP) HOA and non-OA controls were recruited. Clinical pain scores using the visual analogue scale (VAS) were recorded before and after performing a painful hand task. Central pain processing was evaluated with functional brain neuroimaging (fMRI) using a finger flexion-extension (FFE) task performed over 3 minutes. Data was analysed with FMRIB software (www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Group mean activation of functional MRI signal between hand osteoarthritis and control non-arthritic participants was compared. Results Our group of hand OA participants reported high pain levels compared with non-arthritic controls as demonstrated by the mean VAS in hand OA participants of 59.31± 8.19 mm compared to 4.00 ± 1.89 mm in controls (p < 0.0001), despite all participants reporting analgesic use. Functional MRI analysis showed increased activation in the thalamus, cingulate, frontal and somatosensory cortex in the hand OA group but not in controls (thresholded at p < 0.05). Regions of activation were mapped to Brodmann areas 3, 4, 6, 9, 13, 22, 24 and 44. Activated regions found in our study are recognised higher brain pain processing centres implicated in central sensitisation. Conclusions People with hand osteoarthritis demonstrated features of central sensitisation that was evident after a finger flexion-extension task using functional MRI. Functional MRI is a useful biomarker in detecting pain in hand osteoarthritis and could be used in future hand osteoarthritis pain studies to evaluate pain modulation strategies. PMID:24294351

Sofat, Nidhi; Smee, Cori; Hermansson, Monika; Howard, Matthew; Baker, Emma H; Howe, Franklyn A; Barrick, Thomas R

2013-01-01

318

Comparison of acceptance and distraction strategies in coping with experimentally induced pain  

PubMed Central

Background This study compared an acceptance-based strategy with a control-based strategy (distraction) in terms of the ability of participants to tolerate a painful stimulus, across two experiments. In addition, participants were either actively encouraged, or not, to link pain tolerance with pursuit of valued goals to examine the impact of pursuing a personally meaningful goal or value on the extent to which pain will be tolerated. Methods Participants in experiment 1 (n=41) and experiment 2 (n=52) were equally assigned to acceptance or distraction protocols. Further, half the participants in each group generated examples from their own lives in which they had pursued a valued objective, while the other half did not. In experiment 2, the values focus was enhanced to examine the impact on pain tolerance. Results There were no significant differences overall between the acceptance and distraction groups on pain tolerance in either experiment. However, in experiment 2, individuals classified as accepting in terms of general coping style and who were assigned to the acceptance strategy showed significantly better pain tolerance than accepting individuals who were in the distraction condition. Across both experiments, those with strong goal-driven values in both protocols were more tolerant of pain. Participants appeared to have more difficulty adhering to acceptance than to distraction as a strategy. Conclusion Acceptance may be associated with better tolerance of pain, but may also be more difficult to operationalize than distraction in experimental studies. Matching coping style and coping strategy may be most effective, and enhancement of goal-driven values may assist in pain coping. PMID:25834464

Moore, Hazel; Stewart, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; McGuire, Brian E

2015-01-01

319

A human experimental model of episodic pain.  

PubMed

An experimental model of daily episodic pain was developed to investigate peripheral sensitization and cortical reorganization in healthy individuals. Two experiments (A and B) were conducted. Experiments A and B consisted of one and five consecutive days, respectively, in which the participants were subjected to 45 min of intense painful cutaneous electrical stimulation (episodic pain session), using a stimulus paradigm that in animals has been shown to induce long-term potentiation. These electrical stimulations produced a verbal pain rating of approximately 85 on a 0-100 verbal rating scale (VRS). Physiological (blood flow and axon flare reflex), psychophysical (perception threshold and verbal pain ratings) and electrophysiological (128 channels recorded somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)) measurements were recorded. The stimulation evoked a visible axon flare reflex and caused significantly increased cutaneous blood flow around the site of the stimulation. Axon flare reflex and blood flow reached a plateau on day one in all the subjects and no significant changes between the days were observed. The results showed that the effect of the electrical stimulations changed over the five days; pain potentiation was induced on the first day (significant increase in the verbal pain ratings during the 45 min stimulation) but not on any of the subsequent days. After five days of subsequent pain induction, the global field power showed a significant reduction in P2 amplitude in the late stage (200-370 ms, in the central-parietal area). In conclusion, the results suggest that in healthy individuals this model of episodic pain produces a rapid adaptation after day one and that generates significant SEP changes at day five. PMID:25128903

Petrini, Laura; Hennings, Kristian; Li, Xi; Negro, Francesco; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

2014-12-01

320

Evidence of Increased Non-Verbal Behavioral Signs of Pain in Adults with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Chronic Self-Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of pain in relation to self-injurious behavior (SIB) among individuals with intellectual disabilities is not well understood. Some models of SIB are based on altered endogenous opioid system activity which could result in elevated pain thresholds. In this study, non-verbal behavioral signs indicative of pain as measured by the…

Symons, Frank J.; Harper, Vicki N.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Breau, Lynn M.; Bodfish, James W.

2009-01-01

321

Neuraxial pain relief for intractable cancer pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most patients with cancer pain achieve good analgesia using traditional analgesics and adjuvant medications; however, an important\\u000a minority of patients (2% to 5%) suffers from severe and refractory cancer pain. For these individuals, spinal analgesics (intrathecal\\u000a or epidural) provide significant hope for pain relief over months or years of treatment to help improve quality of life. Spinal\\u000a analgesics have been

Paul A. Sloan

2007-01-01

322

The validity of using an electrocutaneous device for pain assessment in patients with cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and preference for assessing pain magnitude with electrocutaneous testing (ECT) compared to the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Borg CR10 scale in men and women with cervical radiculopathy of varying sensory phenotypes. An additional purpose was to investigate ECT sensory and pain thresholds in men and women with cervical radiculopathy of varying sensory phenotypes. This is a cross-sectional study of 34 patients with cervical radiculopathy. Scatterplots and linear regression were used to investigate bivariate relationships between ECT, VAS and Borg CR10 methods of pain magnitude measurement as well as ECT sensory and pain thresholds. The use of the ECT pain magnitude matching paradigm for patients with cervical radiculopathy with normal sensory phenotype shows good linear association with arm pain VAS (R(2)?=?0.39), neck pain VAS (R(2)?=?0.38), arm pain Borg CR10 scale (R(2)?=?0.50) and neck pain Borg CR10 scale (R(2)?=?0.49) suggesting acceptable validity of the procedure. For patients with hypoesthesia and hyperesthesia sensory phenotypes, the ECT pain magnitude matching paradigm does not show adequate linear association with rating scale methods rendering the validity of the procedure as doubtful. ECT for sensory and pain threshold investigation, however, provides a method to objectively assess global sensory function in conjunction with sensory receptor specific bedside examination measures. PMID:24666409

Abbott, Allan; Ghasemi-Kafash, Elaheh; Dedering, Åsa

2014-10-01

323

The Anti-Nociception Effect of Dezocine in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model.  

PubMed

The treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) currently remains clinically challenging. In an attempt to identify novel targets of known opioids, we found that dezocine, a non-addictive opioid, inhibits norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake through their transporter proteins which open the potential for dezocine to manage NP. In the present study, the effect of dezocine on NP was observed in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) were used to evaluate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanic allodynia for nociceptive response. PWL and PWT tests were performed at 11:00 AM starting from 1 day before CCI surgery and 1, 3, 7, 10 days after right sciatic nerve ligation in the presence or absence of daily intraperitoneal injection of dezocine. The results demonstrated that the CCI-induced thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity was attenuated by dezocine significantly and persistently without sign of tolerance, indicating that dezocine could be an alternative medication for the treatment of NP. Clinical trial to confirm such discovery is warranted. PMID:25356434

Wu, Fei-Xiang; Pan, Rui-Rui; Yu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Renyu

2014-01-01

324

The Anti-Nociception Effect of Dezocine in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model  

PubMed Central

The treatment of neuropathic pain (NP) currently remains clinically challenging. In an attempt to identify novel targets of known opioids, we found that dezocine, a non-addictive opioid, inhibits norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake through their transporter proteins which open the potential for dezocine to manage NP. In the present study, the effect of dezocine on NP was observed in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) were used to evaluate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanic allodynia for nociceptive response. PWL and PWT tests were performed at 11:00 AM starting from 1 day before CCI surgery and 1, 3, 7, 10 days after right sciatic nerve ligation in the presence or absence of daily intraperitoneal injection of dezocine. The results demonstrated that the CCI-induced thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity was attenuated by dezocine significantly and persistently without sign of tolerance, indicating that dezocine could be an alternative medication for the treatment of NP. Clinical trial to confirm such discovery is warranted. PMID:25356434

Wu, Fei-Xiang; Pan, Rui-Rui; Yu, Wei-Feng; Liu, Renyu

2014-01-01

325

Teaching tolerance  

PubMed Central

Babies born with Pompe disease require life-long treatment with enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT). Despite the human origin of the therapy, recombinant human lysosomal acid ? glucosidase (GAA, rhGAA), ERT unfortunately leads to the development of high titers of anti-rhGAA antibody, decreased effectiveness of ERT, and a fatal outcome for a significant number of children who have Pompe disease. The severity of disease, anti-drug antibody (ADA) development, and the consequences thereof are directly related to the degree of the enzyme deficiency. Babies born with a complete deficiency GAA are said to have cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM)–negative Pompe disease and are highly likely to develop GAA ADA. Less frequently, GAA ADA develop in CRIM-positive individuals. Currently, GAA-ADA sero-positive babies are treated with a combination of immunosuppressive drugs to induce immunological tolerance to ERT, but the long-term effect of these regimens is unknown. Alternative approaches that might redirect the immune response toward antigen-specific tolerance without immunosuppressive agents are needed. Methods leading to the induction of antigen-specific regulatory T cells (Tregs), using peptides such as Tregitopes (T regulatory cell epitopes) are under consideration for the future treatment of CRIM-negative Pompe disease. Tregitopes are natural T cell epitopes derived from immunoglobulin G (IgG) that cause the expansion and activation of regulatory T cells (Treg). Teaching the immune system to tolerate GAA by co-delivering GAA with Tregitope peptides might dramatically improve the lives of CRIM-negative babies and could be applied to other enzyme replacement therapies to which ADA have been induced. PMID:23095864

Cousens, Leslie P.; Mingozzi, Federico; van der Marel, Sander; Su, Yan; Garman, Richard; Ferreira, Valerie; Martin, William; Scott, David W.; De Groot, Anne S.

2012-01-01

326

Mechanical Data for Use in Damage Tolerance Analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the results of a research program to determine the damage tolerance properties of metallic propeller materials. Three alloys were selected for investigation: 2025-T6 Aluminum, D6AC Steel and 4340 Steel. Mechanical response, fatigue (S-N) and fatigue crack growth rate data are presented for all of the alloys. The main conclusions that can be drawn from this study are as follows. The damage tolerant design of a propeller system will require a complete understanding of the fatigue crack growth threshold. There exists no experimental procedure to reliably develop the fatigue crack growth threshold data that is needed for damage tolerant design methods. Significant research will be required to fully understand the fatigue crack growth threshold. The development of alternative precracking methods, evaluating the effect of specimen configuration and attempting to identify micromechanical issues are simply the first steps to understanding the mechanics of the threshold.

Forth, Scott C.; James, Mark A.; Newman, John A.; Everett, Richard A., Jr.; Johnston, William M., Jr.

2004-01-01

327

Pain perception in depression: relationships to symptomatology and naloxone-sensitive mechanisms.  

PubMed

A decrease in pain sensitivity during acute depression has been observed in several studies, apparently related to the severity of symptomatology. However, the question remains whether this relationship can be found only in heterogeneous groups of depressive patients or also in a single diagnostic group, such as major depression. In the present study, pain thresholds were assessed in 20 patients with major depression (DSM-III-R) and in 20 healthy controls. Two threshold methods with a differing impact of reaction time on the results were used. Contact heat was applied as a natural source of pain. With both methods the pain thresholds were significantly increased in the depressive patients. No relationship was found to the various symptoms of depression assessed by psychopathometric scales. In contrast to the pain thresholds, the thresholds of skin sensitivity for nonnoxious stimuli (warmth, cold, vibration) were only slightly increased. In subsamples (N = 10 in each group), naloxone (5 mg i.v.) and placebo were administered in a double-blind design. No systematic changes in pain thresholds occurred under either treatment. Our findings suggest that the decrease in skin sensitivity in major depression is specific to pain and not due to an increased reaction time. Moreover, the decrease appears to be related neither to a naloxone-sensitive mechanism nor to symptomatology. PMID:7972617

Lautenbacher, S; Roscher, S; Strian, D; Fassbender, K; Krumrey, K; Krieg, J C

1994-01-01

328

Influence of dementia on multiple components of pain.  

PubMed

Experimental findings on the influence of dementia on pain have so far been conflicting. There is evidence for a decreased, an unchanged and even for an increased pain processing in patients with dementia. The present study was conducted to add on the description of the impact of dementia on pain processing by assessing multiple components of pain (subjective, facial, motor reflex and autonomic responses) in parallel in one group of demented patients. Subjective (rating scale), facial (FACS), motor reflex (NFR) and autonomic (SSR, heart rate) responses to noxious electrical stimulation were assessed in 35 demented patients and 46 aged-matched healthy controls. Stimulus intensities were tailored to the individual NFR threshold. Demented patients rated the stimuli similarly painful as healthy controls did; however, the ability to provide these self-report ratings was markedly diminished in demented patients. Facial responses to noxious stimulation were significantly increased in demented patients. In line with this the NFR threshold was markedly decreased in the patient group. Autonomic responses on the other hand tended to be diminished in patients with dementia. In conclusion, dementia tends to affect different pain components in different ways. Therefore, the assessment of pain in patients with dementia should be based on the measurement of multiple components of pain and not solely on subjective self-report ratings. Furthermore, taking into account our findings on facial responses and the NFR, we think that there is sufficient evidence suggesting a rather intensified processing of noxious stimulation in this patient group. PMID:18562225

Kunz, Miriam; Mylius, Veit; Scharmann, Siegfried; Schepelman, Karsten; Lautenbacher, Stefan

2009-03-01

329

Managing your chronic back pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. ...

330

Chiropractic care for back pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. ...

331

Epidural injections for back pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Society Low Back Pain Guideline Panel. Interventional therapies, surgery, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society. ...

332

Pediatric pain management.  

PubMed

It is now recognized that from the newborn period onwards, children are capable of experiencing pain. This includes the premature infant. The challenge for healthcare providers is to incorporate methods of pain assessment and treatment into their daily practices. The child's understanding of pain closely follows the cognitive and behavioral model developed by Jean Piaget. Based on these developmental stages, pain assessment measures have been developed. Pharmacologic advances have accompanied this improved understanding of infant, child, and adolescent psychology. While acute pain accounts for the majority of children's experiences, recurrent/chronic pain states do occur (e.g. sickle cell related and neuropathic) and can be effectively treated. PMID:9037997

Lederhaas, G

1997-01-01

333

Central modulation of pain  

PubMed Central

It has long been appreciated that the experience of pain is highly variable between individuals. Pain results from activation of sensory receptors specialized to detect actual or impending tissue damage (i.e., nociceptors). However, a direct correlation between activation of nociceptors and the sensory experience of pain is not always apparent. Even in cases in which the severity of injury appears similar, individual pain experiences may vary dramatically. Emotional state, degree of anxiety, attention and distraction, past experiences, memories, and many other factors can either enhance or diminish the pain experience. Here, we review evidence for “top-down” modulatory circuits that profoundly change the sensory experience of pain. PMID:21041960

Ossipov, Michael H.; Dussor, Gregory O.; Porreca, Frank

2010-01-01

334

Pain as a channelopathy  

PubMed Central

Mendelian heritable pain disorders have provided insights into human pain mechanisms and suggested new analgesic drug targets. Interestingly, many of the heritable monogenic pain disorders have been mapped to mutations in genes encoding ion channels. Studies in transgenic mice have also implicated many ion channels in damage sensing and pain modulation. It seems likely that aberrant peripheral or central ion channel activity underlies or initiates many pathological pain conditions. Understanding the mechanistic basis of ion channel malfunction in terms of trafficking, localization, biophysics, and consequences for neurotransmission is a potential route to new pain therapies. PMID:21041956

Raouf, Ramin; Quick, Kathryn; Wood, John N.

2010-01-01

335

Quantum threshold group signature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most situations, the signer is generally a single person. However, when the message is written on behalf of an organization, a valid message may require the approval or consent of several persons. Threshold signature is a solution to this problem. Generally speaking, as an authority which can be trusted by all members does not exist, a threshold signature scheme without a trusted party appears more attractive. Following some ideas of the classical Shamir’s threshold signature scheme, a quantum threshold group signature one is proposed. In the proposed scheme, only t or more of n persons in the group can generate the group signature and any t - 1 or fewer ones cannot do that. In the verification phase, any t or more of n signature receivers can verify the message and any t - 1 or fewer receivers cannot verify the validity of the signature.

Yang, Yuguang; Wen, Qiaoyan

2008-10-01

336

What a Pain! Kids and Growing Pains  

MedlinePLUS

... your leg looks red or is swollen (puffed up), your parent should take you to the doctor. Growing pains should not keep you from running, playing, ... reviewed: July 2012 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC How Do Pain Relievers Work? I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? What Medicines Are and ...

337

Attentional and emotional mechanisms related to pain as predictors of chronic postoperative pain: a comparison with other psychological and physiological predictors.  

PubMed

The present prospective longitudinal study on chronic postoperative pain was conducted to assess the predictive power of attentional and emotional variables specifically assumed to augment pain, such as pain hypervigilance, pain-related anxiety, pain catastrophizing and attentional biases to pain. Their relevance was determined in comparison with other psychological and physiological predictors (depression, anxiety, somatization, cortisol reactivity, pain sensitivity). In 84 young male patients the predictor variables were assessed one day before surgery (correction of chest malformation). Postoperative outcome (subjective pain intensity and pain-related disability) was assessed three (N=84) and six months (N=78) after surgery. Patients were classified into good and poor outcome groups. Patients with high pain intensity three (25%) or six months (14%) after surgery, differed significantly from those low in pain with regard to their preoperative performance in the dot-probe task (high attentional bias towards positive words). A sizeable portion (54%) of patients still felt disabled due to pain after three months and a few patients after six months (13%). These patients were those with high preoperative ratings in the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire. The few subjectively disabled patients after six months could be identified in addition by low pressure pain and high cold pain thresholds before surgery. An attentional bias towards positive stimuli prior to surgery may indicate a maladaptive coping style, which avoids necessary confrontation with pain and predisposes patients to chronic postoperative pain. Lasting subjectively felt pain-related disability occurs predominantly in patients with high levels of pain hypervigilance before surgery. PMID:20850220

Lautenbacher, Stefan; Huber, Claudia; Schöfer, Dorothea; Kunz, Miriam; Parthum, Andreas; Weber, Peter G; Roman, Carbon; Griessinger, Norbert; Sittl, Reinhard

2010-12-01

338

Inhibitory effects do not depend on the subjective experience of pain during heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (HNCS): a contribution to the psychophysics of pain inhibition.  

PubMed

Heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation (HNCS) has been thought to give access to the diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC) in man, which can be activated in wide-dynamic-range neurons by noxious stimulation from remote areas of the body and form the neurophysiological basis of the phenomenon 'pain inhibits pain'. The latter phenomenon suggests that the subjective experience of pain is a prerequisite for an inhibitory action. The necessity of using painful stimuli as conditioning and as test stimuli to produce inhibitory effects was investigated in the present study, using a HNCS paradigm. Twenty young men received conditioning stimuli created by tonic heat at painful and non-painful levels, using either hot water (hand) or thermode (forearm). The test stimuli were phasic heat stimuli (thermode) at painful and non-painful levels applied to the cheek. Only painful but not non-painful heat as conditioning stimulus increased the heat pain threshold and decreased the ability to discriminate between painful heat of different intensities. These two findings are in accord with an inhibitory effect depending on a painful conditioning stimulus. However, the intensity ratings of the test stimuli indicated inhibitory effects of the conditioning stimuli also upon non-painful levels. Furthermore, non-painful heat as conditioning stimulus also appeared to be capable of decreasing the ratings of the test stimuli at painful levels. The latter two findings suggest: (i) that very strong but subjectively still non-painful stimulation can trigger pain inhibitory effects and (ii) that also subjectively non-painful stimuli are affected by inhibitory influences during HNCS. PMID:12160511

Lautenbacher, Stefan; Roscher, Stephan; Strian, Friedrich

2002-01-01

339

Effects of the CORE Exercise Program on Pain and Active Range of Motion in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of the CORE exercise program on pain and active range of motion (AROM) in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups: the CORE group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The CORE group performed the CORE exercise program for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks, while the control group did not perform any exercise. The visual analog scale (VAS) and an algometer were used to measure pain, and pain-free AROM in the trunk was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The CORE group showed significantly decreased VAS scores at rest and during movement and had a significantly increased pressure pain threshold in the quadratus lumborum and AROM in the trunk compared with those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the CORE exercise program is effective in decreasing pain and increasing AROM in patients with chronic low back pain. Thus, the CORE exercise program can be used to manage pain and AROM in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:25202188

Cho, Hwi-young; Kim, Eun-hye; Kim, Junesun

2014-01-01

340

Chronic Pelvic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... with pain. Such types include relaxation exercises and biofeedback . FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ099 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS The American ... pain signals from reaching tissues and organs. Glossary Biofeedback: A technique in which an attempt is made ...

341

Communicating about Cancer Pain  

Cancer.gov

Patients with cancer may be reluctant to discuss their pain with their doctors for a variety of reasons. NCI sponsors research that examines the barriers that prevent patients from talking about pain.

342

Pain: Hope through Research  

MedlinePLUS

... comes with its own telltale brand of pain. Migraines are characterized by throbbing head pain, sensitivity to ... and visual disturbances that begine before the headache. Migraines are more frequent in women than men. Stress ...

343

What's wrong with pain?  

E-print Network

are quickly confronted with difficult questions. This thesis, through an examination of a particular feature of moral language and a description of recent research on pain, provides an analysis of how pain fits into ethical theory. It is argued...

Shriver, Adam Joseph

2006-10-30

344

Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods  

MedlinePLUS

... dysmenorrhea? Glossary What is dysmenorrhea? Pain associated with menstruation is called dysmenorrhea . How common is dysmenorrhea? Dysmenorrhea ... the menstrual period? Pain usually occurs right before menstruation starts, as the level of prostaglandins increases in ...

345

Neuropathic pain in leprosy.  

PubMed

Chronic neuropathic pain in treated leprosy has received scant attention. In this article the concept, clinical features and diagnosis of neuropathic pain are reviewed. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms, treatment challenges and research needs in this area are discussed. PMID:15072122

Haanpää, Maija; Lockwood, Diana N J; Hietaharju, Aki

2004-03-01

346

Alternative medicine - pain relief  

MedlinePLUS

... relieve pain due to: Cancer Carpal tunnel syndrome Fibromyalgia Childbirth (labor) Musculoskeletal injuries (such as the neck, ... pain for: After surgery or labor Arthritis Cancer Fibromyalgia Irritable bowel syndrome Migraine headache Tension headache Both ...

347

Patient Education on Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Annual Meeting Safe Prescribing Resources Clinical Pearls Patient Center Home > Patient Center > Patient Education > Patient Education ... to People with Pain Press Room Position Statements Patient Education on Pain AAPM Past President, Perry G. ...

348

What Is Back Pain?  

MedlinePLUS

... herniated disks National statistics on back pain costs Socioeconomic factors that relate to back pain costs and treatment. ... Skin Diseases (NIAMS) Information Clearinghouse National Institutes of Health 1 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD 20892-3675 Phone: ...

349

Pain in Parkinson's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... for increased overall health care costs. A person’s perception of pain can be affected by emotional factors. ... medications such as levodopa can affect a person’s perception of pain. People with Parkinson’s who are in ...

350

Pain and your emotions  

MedlinePLUS

... low back pain: physical training, graded activity with problem solving training, or both? The one-year post-treatment results of a randomized controlled trial. Pain . 2008;134:263-276. Kroenke K, Bair ...

351

Magnets for Pain Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... for any health-related purpose, yet static, or permanent, magnets are widely marketed for pain control. This fact ... Blackman MR, Kingman A, et al. Low intensity permanent magnets in the treatment of chronic lumbar radicular pain. ...

352

Fighting Chronic Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... and inflammation Heart/Blood Vessels: Heart attack, angina, leg pain from clogged arteries Stomach/Digestive: Gallstones, intestinal obstruction, diverticulitis, ulcers, severe indigestion, severe gas pain, inflammatory bowel disease, ...

353

Multidimensional pain evaluation scale.  

PubMed

This study developed a pain evaluation scale and validated it for the Portuguese language. Development of the inventory--308 readily available pain descriptors--were searched in international literature and validated by six judges. One hundred descriptors of acute pain and 100 descriptors of chronic pain were found, which were used in the next stage. Statistical validation--493 health professionals and 146 patients experiencing acute and chronic pain participated in the study. Instructions, pain descriptors and respective definitions, pen and measuring tape were provided to participants. Psychophysical methods were used to establish categories, magnitude and cross-modality matching using line-length. Results revealed the ranking of the most frequently used descriptors of acute and chronic pain, with power equal to 0.99, close to the predicted (one), using line-length estimations. The Multidimensional Pain Evaluation Scale is thus validated for the Portuguese language. PMID:20428690

Sousa, Fátima Aparecida Emm Faleiros; Pereira, Lilian Varanda; Cardoso, Roberta; Hortense, Priscilla

2010-01-01

354

Eldercare at Home: Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... listening to music may also decrease a person's awareness of pain. Avoid stressful events when possible. Emotional stress and anxiety increase pain. Try to minimize these types of situations. Carrying Out and Adjusting Your Plan : Problems You ...

355

Exercise and Shoulder Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... the painful limb and should seek immediate medical attention. They should select other forms of exercise to ... cautions people to avoid exercise/activities that cause increased pain lasting an hour or more after exercise. ...

356

Racial differences in the physical and psychosocial health among black and white women with chronic pain.  

PubMed Central

Gender-based differences in pain epidemiology, pain threshold, attitudes toward pain management, coping styles and social roles are well described, yet little is known about the chronic pain experience in women or the role race plays. A retrospective analysis of self-reported data using a secondary clinical database was performed to elucidate the relationship between race and pain severity, depression, physical disability, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as affective distress in women with chronic pain. White (n=1,088) and black (n=104) adult women were compared based on their responses to the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Disability Index, Posttraumatic Chronic Pain Test and items from the West-Haven Yale Multidisciplinary Pain Inventory. After accounting for sociodemographic, medical, psychological and physical confounders, there was no significant race effect for pain severity or affective distress. However, black women with chronic pain experience more physical impairments than white women with chronic pain (beta = 4.622; p<0.005). Except for the family/home responsibilities, similar differences were found on all PDI subscales. We also found that disability mediates the race-depression relationship such that black women are comparatively more vulnerable to depression as a result of higher disability. Due to the economic, social and emotional impact that disability has on women with chronic pain and their families, these findings have significant implications for chronic pain research as well as its management in black women. PMID:16353658

Ndao-Brumblay, S. Khady; Green, Carmen R.

2005-01-01

357

Associations between serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and heat pain perception in adults with chronic pain  

PubMed Central

Background The triallelic serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with alterations in thermal pain perception. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the associations between heat pain (HP) perception and the triallelic 5-HTTLPR in a large cohort of adults with chronic pain. Methods The cohort included 277 adults with chronic pain who met inclusion criteria, and were consecutively admitted to an outpatient pain rehabilitation program from March 2009 through March 2010. Individuals were genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR (including rs25531) and categorized as high, intermediate, or low expressors of the serotonin transporter. Standardized measures of HP perception were obtained using a validated quantitative sensory test method of levels. Results The distribution of the high, intermediate, and low expressing genotypes was 61 (22%), 149 (54%) and 67 (24%), respectively. The Hardy-Weinberg P-value was 0.204 which indicated no departure from equilibrium. A significant effect of genotype was observed for values of HP threshold (P?=?0.029). Individual group comparisons showed that values of HP threshold were significantly greater in the intermediate compared to the high expressing group (P?=?0.009) but not the low expressing group (P?>?0.1). In a multiple variable linear regression model, the intermediate group (P?=?0.034) and male sex (P?=?0.021) were associated with significantly greater values of HP 0.5, but no significant genotype-by-sex interaction effect was observed. Conclusions In this study that involved adults with chronic pain, the intermediate triallelic 5-HTTLPR expressing group, but not the low expressing group, was associated with greater HP thresholds compared to the high expressing group. PMID:23895108

2013-01-01

358

Posttonsillectomy pain in children.  

PubMed

Tonsillectomy, used to treat a variety of pediatric disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, peritonsillar cellulitis or abscesses, and very frequent throat infection, is known to produce nausea, vomiting, and prolonged, moderate-to-severe pain. The authors review the causes of posttonsillectomy pain, current findings on the efficacy of various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions in pain management, recommendations for patient and family teaching regarding pain management, and best practices for improving medication adherence. PMID:24445532

Sutters, Kimberly A; Isaacson, Glenn

2014-02-01

359

Neuropathic low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this discussion, we hope to advance a clinical approach to low back pain that is more in line with our modern understanding\\u000a of neuropathic pain. We review the current understanding of normal and pathologic neuroanatomy of the lumbar spine and then\\u000a outline how pathology in the different structures can lead to neuropathic pain and cause common pain patterns seen

Joseph F. Audette; Emmanuel Emenike; Alec L. Meleger

2005-01-01

360

Pediatric Procedural Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the various settings in which infants, children, and adolescents experience pain during acute medical procedures and issues related to referral of children to pain management teams. In addition, self-report, reports by others, physiological monitoring, and direct observation methods of assessment of pain and related constructs…

Blount, Ronald L.; Piira, Tiina; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Cheng, Patricia S.

2006-01-01

361

Approaching cancer pain relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is defined as an unpleasant experience—it is subjective and achieving pain relief is achieving a change in the patient's experience. There needs to be an adequate concept of a human person (an ecological model will be discussed) and a logical process for approaching pain relief in an individual patient (e.g. the plan used in the Sydney Institute of Palliative

J. Norelle Lickiss

2001-01-01

362

Cannabinoids in cancer pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article of the month presents results of a clinical study conducted in the UK and Romania, which evaluated the efficacy of a THC:CBD cannabis extract (Sativex®) and a THC cannabis ex- tract in the treatment of 177 patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate pain reduction despite intake of opioids (Johnson et al. J Pain Symptom Manage, 2010, in

Franjo Grotenhermen

2010-01-01

363

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. It may happen ... move the affected body part The cause of CRPS is unknown. There is no specific diagnostic test. ...

364

[Neurosurgical treatments for pain].  

PubMed

Pain represents the most frequent symptom faced by general practitioners and is associated with 60% of neurological troubles. Pain consists in a conscious, subjective, unpleasant and protective sensory experience transmitted by thermoalgic pathways in the central nervous system (nociceptive pain). Lesioning of peripheral or central sensory pathways can also generate pain associated with hypoesthesia (phantom or neuropathic pain). Since the 1920's, neurosurgeons have attempted to alleviate nociceptive and neuropathic chronic pain by interrupting (irreversible interruptive techniques) thermoalgic fibers (neurotomies, rhizotomies, cordotomies, tractotomies, thalamotomies, cingulotomies). Some of them (neurotomies, rhizotomies) are still used today when all medications have failed. They can provide immediate and tremendous pain relief like in trigeminal neuralgia. However, the technique, when not sufficiently selective, can generate a neuropathic pain and then a short-lating pain relief. Increasing knowledge on pathophysiological mechanisms of pain allowed surgery to interfere with the functioning of the sensory circuits without lesioning and to modulate neuronal activity in order to reduce pain (neuromodulation). Non-lesioning modulating techniques (then reversible) appeared (deep brain stimulation, epidural spinal cord or motor cortex stimulation, intrathecal infusion, radiosurgery) and are currently applied to efficiently alleviate neuropathic pain. PMID:23091942

Pirotte, B

2012-09-01

365

Surgical Treatment for Chronic Pelvic Pain  

PubMed Central

The source of chronic pelvic pain may be reproductive organ, urological, musculoskeletal - neurological, gastrointestinal, or myofascial. A psychological component almost always is a factor, whether as an antecedent event or presenting as depression as result of the pain. Surgical interventions for chronic pelvic pain include: 1) resection or vaporization of vulvar/vestibular tissue for human papillion virus (HPV) induced or chronic vulvodynia/vestibulitis; 2) cervical dilation for cervix stenosis; 3) hysteroscopic resection for intracavitary or submucous myomas or intracavitary polyps; 4) myomectomy or myolysis for symptomatic intramural, subserosal or pedunculated myomas; 5) adhesiolysis for peritubular and periovarian adhesions, and enterolysis for bowel adhesions, adhesiolysis for all thick adhesions in areas of pain as well as thin ahesions affecting critical structures such as ovaries and tubes; 6) salpingectomy or neosalpingostomy for symptomatic hydrosalpinx; 7) ovarian treatment for symptomatic ovarian pain; 8) uterosacral nerve vaporization for dysmenorrhea; 9) presacral neurectomy for disabling central pain primarily of uterine but also of bladder origin; 10) resection of endometriosis from all surfaces including removal from bladder and bowel as well as from the rectovaginal septal space. Complete resection of all disease in a debulking operation is essential; 11) appendectomy for symptoms of chronic appendicitis, and chronic right lower quadrant pain; 12) uterine suspension for symptoms of collision dyspareunia, pelvic congestion, severe dysmenorrhea, cul-desac endometriosis; 13) repair of all hernia defects whether sciatic, inguinal, femoral, Spigelian, ventral or incisional; 14) hysterectomy if relief has not been achieved by organ-preserving surgery such as resection of all endometriosis and presacral neurectomy, or the central pain continues to be disabling. Before such a radical step is taken, MRI of the uterus to confirm presence of adenomyosis may be helpful; 15) trigger point injection therapy for myofascial pain and dysfunction in pelvic and abdominal muscles. With application of all currently available laparoscopic modalities, 80% of women with chronic pelvic pain will report a decrease of pain to tolerable levels, a significant average reduction which is maintained in 3-year follow-up. Individual factors contributing to pain cannot be determined, although the frequency of endometriosis dictates that its complete treatment be attempted. The beneficial effect of uterosacral nerve ablation may be as much due to treatment of occult endometriosis in the uterosacral ligaments as to transection of the nerve fibers themselves. The benefit of the presacral neurectomy appears to be definite but strictly limited to midline pain. Appendectomy, herniorraphy, and even hysterectomy are all appropriate therapies for patients with chronic pelvic pain. Even with all laparoscopic procedures employed, fully 20% of patients experience unsatisfactory results. In addition, these patients are often depressed. Whether the pain contributes to the depression or the depression to the pain is irrelevant to them. Selected referrals to an integrated pain center with psychologic assistance together with judicious prescription of antidepressant drugs will likely benefit both women who respond to surgical intervention and those who do not. A maximum surgical effort must be expended to resect all endometriosis, restore normal pelvic anatomy, resect nerve fibers, and treat surgically accessible disease. In addition, it is important to provide patients with chronic pelvic pain sufficient psychologic support to overcome the effects of the condition, and to assist them with underlying psychologic disorders. PMID:9876726

1998-01-01

366

Differential changes in gingival somatosensory sensitivity after painful electrical tooth stimulation.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the effect of painful tooth stimulation on gingival somatosensory sensitivity of healthy volunteers in a randomized, controlled design. Thirteen healthy volunteers (six women, seven men; 28.4 ± 5.0 years) were included for two experimental sessions of electrical tooth stimulation: painful tooth stimulation and tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (control). Eight of the human subjects participated in a third session without tooth stimulation. In all sessions, the somatosensory sensitivity of the gingiva adjacent to the stimulated tooth was evaluated with a standardized battery of quantitative sensory tests (QST) before, immediately after and 30 min after tooth stimulation. Painful tooth stimulation evoked significant decreases in warmth and heat pain thresholds (P < 0.001) as well as pressure pain thresholds (increased sensitivity) (P = 0.024) and increases in mechanical detection thresholds (decreased sensitivity) (P < 0.050). Similar thermal threshold changes (P < 0.019) but no mechanical changes were found after tooth stimulation below the sensory threshold (P > 0.086). No QST changes were detected in the session without tooth stimulation (P > 0.060). In conclusion, modest increased gingival sensitivity to warmth, painful heat and pressure stimuli as well as desensitization to non-painful mechanical stimulation were demonstrated after tooth stimulation. This suggests involvement of competing heterotopic facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Furthermore, stimulation below the sensory threshold induced similar thermal sensitization suggesting the possibility of activation of axon-reflex-like mechanisms even at intensities below the perception threshold. These findings may have implications for interpretation of somatosensory results in patients with chronic intraoral pain. PMID:25567087

Baad-Hansen, Lene; Lu, Shengyi; Kemppainen, Pentti; List, Thomas; Zhang, Zhenting; Svensson, Peter

2015-04-01

367

Neuropathic orofacial pain: cannabinoids as a therapeutic avenue.  

PubMed

Neuropathic orofacial pain (NOP) exists in several forms including pathologies such as burning mouth syndrome (BMS), persistent idiopathic facial pain (PIFP), trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). BMS and PIFP are classically diagnosed by excluding other facial pain syndromes. TN and PHN are most often diagnosed based on a typical history and presenting pain characteristics. The pathophysiology of some of these conditions is still unclear and hence treatment options tend to vary and include a wide variety of treatments including cognitive behaviour therapy, anti-depressants, anti-convulsants and opioids; however such treatments often have limited efficacy with a great amount of inter-patient variability and poorly tolerated side effects. Analgesia is one the principal therapeutic targets of the cannabinoid system and many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cannabinoid compounds in the treatment of neuropathic pain. This review will investigate the potential use of cannabinoids in the treatment of symptoms associated with NOP. PMID:25150831

McDonough, Patrick; McKenna, Joseph P; McCreary, Christine; Downer, Eric J

2014-10-01

368

Efficacy and safety of cimicoxib in the control of perioperative pain in dogs  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of cimicoxib (Cimalgex®; Vétoquinol SA) for the control of perioperative pain in dogs. Methods A double-blind, randomized, controlled multi-centre field study was conducted in 237 dogs undergoing orthopaedic or soft tissue surgery. Pain was monitored by the attending veterinarian over the 7 days following the surgical procedure using two pain-scoring systems and a visual analogue scale. An enhanced monitoring protocol for postoperative pain was utilized during the first 24 hours after surgery. The dog owner's assessment of perceived analgesia during this time period was also recorded. Results Cimicoxib demonstrated statistically significant non-inferiority compared to carprofen. These findings were confirmed by owners’ assessments and by the evolution of the pain scores. Both drugs were well tolerated throughout the study. Clinical Significance Cimicoxib had non-inferior efficacy and tolerability when compared to carprofen for the control of perioperative pain in dogs undergoing orthopaedic or soft tissue surgery. PMID:23710692

Grandemange, E; Fournel, S; Woehrlé, F

2013-01-01

369

The influence of children's pain memories on subsequent pain experience.  

PubMed

Healthy children are often required to repeatedly undergo painful medical procedures (eg, immunizations). Although memory is often implicated in children's reactions to future pain, there is a dearth of research directly examining the relationship between the 2. The current study investigated the influence of children's memories for a novel pain stimulus on their subsequent pain experience. One hundred ten healthy children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a laboratory pain task and provided pain ratings. Two weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories as well as their expectancies about future pain. One month following the initial laboratory visit, children again completed the pain task and provided pain ratings. Results showed that children's memory of pain intensity was a better predictor of subsequent pain reporting than their actual initial reporting of pain intensity, and mediated the relationship between initial and subsequent pain reporting. Children who had negatively estimated pain memories developed expectations of greater pain prior to a subsequent pain experience and showed greater increases in pain ratings over time than children who had accurate or positively estimated pain memories. These findings highlight the influence of pain memories on healthy children's expectations of future pain and subsequent pain experiences and extend predictive models of subsequent pain reporting. PMID:22560288

Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H

2012-08-01

370

Opioid-insensitive hypoalgesia to mechanical stimuli at sites ipsilateral and contralateral to experimental muscle pain in human volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Musculoskeletal pains are often characterised by referred pain and hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to examine\\u000a the sensitivity to pressure and pinprick at sites ipsi- and contralateral to capsaicin-induced pain in the tibialis anterior\\u000a (TA) muscle. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of the sensation to sub- and supra-pain threshold stimuli by pressure and\\u000a pinprick were recorded before,

Thomas Graven-Nielsen; Stephen J. Gibson; René J. Laursen; Peter Svensson; Lars Arendt-Nielsen

2002-01-01

371

An Introduction Significance of Pain  

E-print Network

and chronic pain. Because animals cannot verbally report on their pain, this state must be inferred using become sensitized (hyperalgesic) for the duration of an injury #12;Pathological Pain - Chronic Pain Inflammation or nerve damage !!65 -90 million in US !!Arthritis !!Neuropathic pain !!Back pain !!Migraine

Meagher, Mary

372

Ethnic differences in pain and pain management  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Considerable evidence demonstrates substantial ethnic disparities in the prevalence, treatment, progression and outcomes of pain-related conditions. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these group differences is of crucial importance in reducing and eliminating disparities in the pain experience. Over recent years, accumulating evidence has identified a variety of processes, from neurophysiological factors to structural elements of the healthcare system, that may contribute to shaping individual differences in pain. For example, the experience of pain differentially activates stress-related physiological responses across various ethnic groups, members of different ethnic groups appear to use differing coping strategies in managing pain complaints, providers’ treatment decisions vary as a function of patient ethnicity and pharmacies in predominantly minority neighborhoods are far less likely to stock potent analgesics. These diverse factors, and others may all play a role in facilitating elevated levels of pain-related suffering among individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Here, we present a brief, nonexhaustive review of the recent literature and potential physiological and sociocultural mechanisms underlying these ethnic group disparities in pain outcomes. PMID:23687518

Campbell, Claudia M; Edwards, Robert R

2012-01-01

373

Virtual Reality as a Pediatric Pain Modulation Technique: A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-surgical pain has been consistently reported in pediatrics as being difficult to manage and limiting to surgical outcomes. 1 Pain management of children is not ideal, and some chil- dren unable to tolerate traditional pharmacological agents. 2 Virtual reality (VR) is a new and promising form of non-pharmacologic analgesia. This case study explored the use of VR anal- gesia with

Emily Steele; Karen Grimmer; Bruce Thomas; Barrie Mulley; Ian Fulton; Hunter Hoffman

2003-01-01

374

Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

1991-01-01

375

A Novel Psychovisual Threshold on Large DCT for Image Compression  

PubMed Central

A psychovisual experiment prescribes the quantization values in image compression. The quantization process is used as a threshold of the human visual system tolerance to reduce the amount of encoded transform coefficients. It is very challenging to generate an optimal quantization value based on the contribution of the transform coefficient at each frequency order. The psychovisual threshold represents the sensitivity of the human visual perception at each frequency order to the image reconstruction. An ideal contribution of the transform at each frequency order will be the primitive of the psychovisual threshold in image compression. This research study proposes a psychovisual threshold on the large discrete cosine transform (DCT) image block which will be used to automatically generate the much needed quantization tables. The proposed psychovisual threshold will be used to prescribe the quantization values at each frequency order. The psychovisual threshold on the large image block provides significant improvement in the quality of output images. The experimental results on large quantization tables from psychovisual threshold produce largely free artifacts in the visual output image. Besides, the experimental results show that the concept of psychovisual threshold produces better quality image at the higher compression rate than JPEG image compression. PMID:25874257

2015-01-01

376

Greater trochanteric hip pain.  

PubMed

In the patient with lateral hip pain, there is a broad differential diagnosis, making appropriate evaluation and management challenging. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a term used to denote chronic lateral hip pain and encompasses several painful soft tissue diagnoses including coxa saltans, trochanteric bursitis, and gluteus minimus and medius tendon tears. An overview of these common causes is presented through a series of cases that encompass the anatomic associations, classic presentations, diagnostic tests, and management strategies unique to each disorder. By reviewing this information, we hope to provide clinicians with the tools to evaluate greater trochanteric pain syndrome efficiently and effectively. PMID:24651142

Kimpel, Diane M; Garner, Chadwick C; Magone, Kevin M; May, Jedediah H; Lawless, Matthew W

2014-01-01

377

Heel pain and phonophoresis.  

PubMed

A review of 25 cases of heel pain treated conservatively with phonophoresis, using the anti-inflammatory gel containing a combination of flufenamic acid, salicylic acid and mucopolysaccharide polysulphate is being reported here. The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a noninvasive procedure called phonophoresis in treating hell pain. It involved usage of ultrasound waves to deliver anti-inflammatory drugs to the painful site. The heel pain subsided in all the cases and did not recur for a period of one year till last reviewed indicating the definite role of phonophoresis in heel pain. PMID:21121387

Deshpande, Milind M; Patil, C B

2010-06-01

378

[Pain: an approach to its understanding and management].  

PubMed

The article highlights that pain is a human experience that goes beyond the merely physical, and notes the importance of understanding that only the sufferer is able to describe and quantify it. Describe the pain not only as a symptom, more than that is feeling, and emotion and emphasizes the role of the doctor-patient relationship in their approach. It emphasizes the neurobiological, psychosocial and spiritual dimensions of pain and the need for an interdisciplinary approach. Upgrade contributions of neurobiology in brain modulation of pain and the origins of the levels of sensitivity and pain tolerance. Rescue the importance of recognizing the total pain and suffering in the pain therapeutic approach, and highlights the difficulties of the health team. Review various international human rights instruments, to support the argument that the patient should be protected from the inadequate treatment of pain. Lack of education and updating of health professionals is another major problem. Finally emphasizes that pain relief is a human right and the inadequacy of treatment is a serious ethical lapse. PMID:24312922

Jacob, Graciela

2013-01-01

379

Pain perception in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and often debilitating psychiatric disorder that begins during adolescence. Core features of BPD are affective dysregulation, dysfunctional self-concepts, and difficulties in social interactive domains. A widely accepted marker for severe emotion dysregulation in adult BPD is decreased pain sensitivity. Until now it is unclear whether this characteristic feature of BPD is already present during adolescence. Thus, this study aims to investigate pain sensitivity in adolescent patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD. 20 female adolescent patients with BPD (mean age 16.4 years) and 20 healthy age-matched control participants were investigated. Detection and pain thresholds for thermal stimuli were assessed on both hands. Furthermore, self-rating instruments were used to assess overall psychopathology, dissociation, and depression. We found significantly higher pain thresholds in patients with BPD than in healthy controls. Patients with BPD had higher intensities of depression, overall psychopathology, and dissociative symptoms, but there was no correlation between pain sensitivity and any of these measures of psychopathology. These findings are in line with previous findings in adult BPD patients concerning lower pain sensitivity as compared to healthy controls. This provides support for the idea that disturbed pain processing is not only a consequence of chronic BPD but is already present in early stages of BPD. PMID:25053123

Ludäscher, Petra; von Kalckreuth, Clemens; Parzer, Peter; Kaess, Michael; Resch, Franz; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Brunner, Romuald

2015-03-01

380

Ziconotide: a new option for refractory pain.  

PubMed

Ziconotide has been introduced as a new nonopioid treatment for chronic pain. Structurally, it is a peptide, the synthetic analog of the omega-conotoxin, derived from the marine snail, Conus magus. N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels play a role in the transmission of nociceptive stimuli and also are involved in the release of neurotransmitters important in pain transmission. Ziconotide's therapeutic benefit derives from its potent and selective blockade of neuronal-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Blockade of the channels results in suppression of abnormal ectopic discharges from the injury site or the dorsal root ganglia, possibly resulting in decreased neuroplasticity, and decreased synaptic transmission that leads to the generation of chronic pain syndromes. The advantage of ziconotide is that tolerance does not occur, while disadvantages associated with ziconotide are the need for intrathecal administration and significant neurotoxicites associated with its use. When tested in clinical trials, ziconotide has been shown to have synergistic or additive value to the effect of morphine. Ziconotide, formerly known also as SNX- 111, represents a new class of agents, the N-type calcium channel blockers. These may represent another option for patients with refractory pain and refractory pain syndromes. PMID:16845440

Prommer, Eric

2006-06-01

381

Immune mediators of chronic pelvic pain syndrome.  

PubMed

The cause of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) has yet to be established. Since the late 1980s, cytokine, chemokine, and immunological classification studies using human samples have focused on identifying biomarkers for CPPS, but no diagnostically beneficial biomarkers have been identified, and these studies have done little to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chronic prostatic pain. Given the large number of men thought to be affected by this condition and the ineffective nature of current treatments, there is a pressing need to elucidate these mechanisms. Prostatitis types IIIa and IIIb are classified according to the presence of pain without concurrent presence of bacteria; however, it is becoming more evident that, although levels of bacteria are not directly associated with levels of pain, the presence of bacteria might act as the initiating factor that drives primary activation of mast-cell-mediated inflammation in the prostate. Mast cell activation is also known to suppress regulatory T cell (Treg) control of self-tolerance and also activate neural sensitization. This combination of established autoimmunity coupled with peripheral and central neural sensitization can result in the development of multiple symptoms, including pelvic pain and bladder irritation. Identifying these mechanisms as central mediators in CPPS offers new insight into the prospective treatment of the disease. PMID:24686526

Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Thumbikat, Praveen

2014-05-01

382

Controversies in cancer pain. Medical perspectives.  

PubMed

The treatment of pain in the patient with cancer has focused attention on a series of controversial issues involving medical, social, and moral factors. The medical factors include a lack of knowledge on the part of health care professionals regarding the rational use of opioid drugs. This is coupled with real limitations in the general understanding of the mechanisms of pain and its treatment using pharmacologic, anesthetic, and neurosurgical approaches. Several pharmacologic controversies, including the choice of drug, route and method of administration, and tolerance development and risk of substance abuse, have emerged with the use of opioids on a chronic basis in the cancer population. The social and moral implications involve the issue of who will pay for high technology pain management approaches for patients either at home or in hospice care and the ethical considerations in managing pain with opioid drugs. Carefully designed studies to assess these factors, coupled with broad educational programs, will improve the care of cancer patients in pain and expand our understanding of these important issues. PMID:2566369

Foley, K M

1989-06-01

383

Unrelieved pain: A crisis  

PubMed Central

Despite many recent advances in the past 40 years in the understanding of pain mechanisms, and in pain diagnosis and management, considerable gaps in knowledge remain, with chronic pain present in epidemic proportions in most countries. It is often unrelieved and is associated with significant socioeconomic burdens. Several opportunities and approaches to address this crisis are identified in the present article. Most crucial is the need to increase pain awareness, enhance pain education, improve access to pain care and increase pain research resources. Given the variability among countries in health care policies and programs, resources and educational programs, many of the approaches and strategies outlined will need to be tailored to each country’s socioeconomic and educational situation. PMID:22184550

Sessle, Barry J

2011-01-01

384

[Pain in nursing homes].  

PubMed

Elderly live in nursing homes if the necessary need for care cannot be realized in the home care setting. Dementia syndrome (60?% of nursing home residents) has a prominent role. Pain is a frequent problem in nursing homes, affecting functionality and quality of life. Studies often show inadequate pain therapy. Not only is the presentation of pain often atypical, but pharmacological and invasive pain therapy is limited by multimorbidity and increased risk of side effects. Nonpharmacological pain therapy is part of nursing therapy; however, the effect on nursing home residents has been insufficiently studied. This situation necessitates interprofessional coordination of all team members, in which the nursing pain assessment and the realization of both pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain therapy are very important. PMID:25701275

Nestler, N; Gnass, I; Schuler, M

2015-02-01

385

Common medical pains  

PubMed Central

Pain in infancy and childhood is extremely common. Sources of pain include illness, injury, and medical and dental procedures. Over the past two decades, tremendous progress has been made in the assessment, prevention and treatment of pain. It is important for the paediatric health care provider to be aware of the implications and consequences of pain in childhood. A multitude of interventions are available to reduce or alleviate pain in children of all ages, including neonates. These include behavioural and psychological methods, as well as a host of pharmacological preparations, which are safe and effective when used as indicated. Many complementary and alternative treatments appear to be promising in treating and relieving pain, although further research is required. The present article reviews the most common sources of pain in childhood and infancy, as well as current treatment strategies and options. PMID:19030348

Jacobson, Sheila

2007-01-01

386

Pain syndromes in children.  

PubMed

The pediatric rheumatologist cares for children who may have a wide variety of causes of musculoskeletal pain. These include such diverse conditions as arthritis, low-back pain, hypermobility, metabolic bone pain, and amplified pain syndromes such as complex regional pain syndrome and fibromyalgia. This review examines the recent literature on these and other conditions causing musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents. Overall, headway is being made, but differentiating soma from psyche remains a problem. This is perhaps due to the marked and unique effect pain brings to each of us. Children are different from adults in causes, presentations, and outcome. Vigilance in history, physical examination, and judicious use of laboratory investigations are usually sufficient in establishing a diagnosis, as well as an appreciation for the variety of presentations each condition can manifest. PMID:11123080

Sherry, D D

2000-08-01

387

An equine pain face  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

2015-01-01

388

Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?  

PubMed

Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms. PMID:22623149

Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

2012-08-01

389

Overview of pain in the lame patient.  

PubMed

Pain is often the limiting factor associated with joint disease. Pain results from the stimulation of nociceptors by excessive mechanical stimulation, chemical stimulation associated with the inflammatory process, or a combination of both. Even though OA is considered to be a noninflammatory disease, the mild degree of inflammation frequently associated with this condition can result in peripheral sensitization. This results in increased spontaneous activity and decreased activation threshold of nociceptive fibers. Activity of the primary joint afferents also leads to changes within the dorsal spinal horn, resulting in central sensitization and changes in the neural structures of the dorsal horn that facilitate and amplify the nociceptive response. Changes in the periarticular tissues correspond to the neurobiologic changes, resulting in increased stimulation of nociceptors caused by mechanical and chemical alterations resulting from tissue damage. Similar pathophysiologic events occur regardless of whether the initiating event is an acute joint injury or a chronic condition such as OA. The combination of these events results in the complex dynamic of joint pain. Because of this complex interaction of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems, it is difficult to imagine a single treatment that is effective for the alleviation of pain, because that agent would require inhibition of a number of stimulatory pathways. Instead, restoration of mechanical integrity, relief of peripheral inflammation, and blockage of central neurotransmission are all likely to have a role in the relief of joint pain and resolution of lameness. PMID:11787263

Johnston, S A

2001-01-01

390

[Painful neuropathies and small fiber involvement].  

PubMed

It is customary to consider that a purely sensory and painful neuropathy accompanied by normal electroneuromyographic examination may be or must be a small fiber neuropathy. This leads to perform specific tests, such as measuring the intra-epidermal nerve fiber density on skin biopsy or neurophysiological tests, such as evoked potentials to noxious stimuli (laser) or quantification of thermal sensory thresholds. However, these tests are only sensitive to the loss of small fibers (A-delta and C), which does not reflect the mechanisms responsible for peripheral neuropathic pain. Selective loss of small sensory fibers inherently generates a sensory deficit that does not necessarily present a painful character. Also, assigning the cause of a painful neuropathy to a small fiber neuropathy has no pathophysiological sense, although there are indirect links between these two conditions. In fact, it is not possible to explain univocally peripheral neuropathic pain, which reflects complex and diverse mechanisms, involving different types of nerve fibers. In this context, the clinical and laboratory approach must be improved to better understand the underlying mechanisms. It is imperative to interpret the data provided by laboratory tests and to correlate these data to the clinical signs and symptoms presented by the patients. Thus, one must go beyond many a priori and misinterpretations that unfortunately exist in this area at present and are not based on any solid pathophysiological basis. PMID:25459125

Lefaucheur, J-P

2014-12-01

391

S(+)-ibuprofen (dexibuprofen)--Excellent tolerance has not to be combined with poor clinical efficacy.  

PubMed

S(+)-ibuprofen (dexibuprofen) is an NSAID offering a lot of advantages in the treatment of rheumatism and pain. A randomized double-blind, parallel group study in 110 patients showed equivalence in efficacy of 900 mg dexibuprofen (Seractil 300 mg, Gebro Fieberbrunn, Austria) vs. 150 mg diclofenac sodium. Regarding tolerance there was a trend to superiority of dexibuprofen. Therefore dexibuprofen can be characterized as an effective and very tolerable drug against inflammation and pain. PMID:17638129

Zohmann, A; Hawel, R; Klein, G; Kullich, W; Lötsch, G

1998-01-01

392

Hypoalgesic effect of a passive accessory mobilisation technique in patients with lateral ankle pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomised, double blind, repeated measures study was conducted to investigate the initial effects of an accessory mobilisation technique applied to the ankle joint in 13 patients with a unilateral sub-acute ankle supination injury. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, pressure pain threshold, visual analogue scale rating of pain during functional activity and ankle functional scores were assessed before and after

Hwee Koon Yeo; Anthony Wright

2011-01-01

393

Quantitative sensory testing in patients with chronic unilateral radicular neuropathic pain and active spinal cord stimulation.  

PubMed

Objectives.? Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is an effective treatment option for chronic radicular neuropathic pain syndromes. This prospective study was performed to examine the peripheral effects of SCS on sensation using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Materials and Methods.? We measured two consecutive QST measurements for thermal, tactile-static, tactile-dynamic, vibratory, and pain sensation of the lower limbs in seven patients with chronic unilateral radicular neuropathic pain who underwent SCS implantation for their pain. Measurements were performed when SCS was turned off and once again during SCS and subsequent reduced pain levels. Results.? Baseline QST demonstrated significantly increased thresholds for tactile and warm and cold detection in the pain area. With SCS active, a significant reduction of the cold and warm perception and mechanical detection thresholds was found on the painful side (p < 0.01). Although not significant (p > 0.01), altered sensory thresholds with active SCS also were found at the healthy side where no paresthesias were felt. Conclusion.? SCS leads to bilateral subclinical effects even if the evoked paresthesias are only unilateral. Pain perception thresholds are not altered with therapeutic SCS. PMID:22151713

Rasche, Dirk; Ruppolt, Marc A; Kress, Bodo; Unterberg, Andreas; Tronnier, Volker M

2006-07-01

394

Painfully reassuring? The effects of validation on emotions and adherence in a pain test.  

PubMed

Communicating reassurance to patients with musculoskeletal pain complaints, but no red flags, presents a dilemma of dampening worry while refraining from reinforcing undue pain behaviors. Previous research shows that reassurance does not decrease negative affect and may be perceived as not taking the symptoms seriously. Validation offers an alternative where the patient's experiences and feelings are acknowledged and has demonstrated, for other problems, a decrease in arousal which may set the stage for behavioral change. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally whether validation, as compared to invalidation, impacts on emotions and adherence during repeated pain tests. To this end, 50 participants were randomized to either a validation or invalidation condition. Each participant was told they would undergo four pain trials involving holding a bucket at arm's length to tolerance. During the inter-trial interval, the experimenter provided validating or invalidating responses according to the randomization. As a proxy measure of adherence subjects were asked to engage in an additional pain test. Results indicated that validation relative to invalidation resulted in significantly more positive affect and significantly less worry. Both groups had reductions in negative affect over the trials, but there were no difference between the groups on negative affect or pain. However, adherence was more than twice as high in the validation group as compared to invalidation. These results show that a relatively simple validation procedure had significant and positive effects on emotion and increased adherence. Further research should extend these findings and explore their clinical application. PMID:22396087

Linton, S J; Boersma, K; Vangronsveld, K; Fruzzetti, A

2012-04-01

395

Deficient conditioned pain modulation after spinal cord injury correlates with clinical spontaneous pain measures.  

PubMed

The contribution of endogenous pain modulation dysfunction to clinical and sensory measures of neuropathic pain (NP) has not been fully explored. Habituation, temporal summation, and heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus-induced modulation of tonic heat pain intensity were examined in healthy noninjured subjects (n = 10), and above the level of spinal cord injury (SCI) in individuals without (SCI-noNP, n = 10) and with NP (SCI-NP, n = 10). Thermoalgesic thresholds, Cz/AFz contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs), and phasic or tonic (30 seconds) heat pain intensity were assessed within the C6 dermatome. Although habituation to tonic heat pain intensity (0-10) was reported by the noninjured (10 s: 3.5 ± 0.3 vs 30 s: 2.2 ± 0.5 numerical rating scale; P = 0.003), loss of habituation was identified in both the SCI-noNP (3.8 ± 0.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.5) and SCI-NP group (4.2 ± 0.4 vs 4.9 ± 0.8). Significant temporal summation of tonic heat pain intensity was not observed in the 3 groups. Inhibition of tonic heat pain intensity induced by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus was identified in the noninjured (-29.7% ± 9.7%) and SCI-noNP groups (-19.6% ± 7.0%), but not in subjects with SCI-NP (+1.1% ± 8.0%; P < 0.05). Additionally, the mean conditioned pain modulation response correlated positively with Cz/AFz CHEP amplitude (? = 0.8; P = 0.015) and evoked heat pain intensity (? = 0.8; P = 0.007) in the SCI-NP group. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the mean conditioned pain modulation (R = 0.72) correlated with pain severity and pressing spontaneous pain in the SCI-NP group. Comprehensive assessment of sensory dysfunction above the level of injury with tonic thermal test and conditioning stimuli revealed less-efficient endogenous pain modulation in subjects with SCI-NP. PMID:25599447

Albu, Sergiu; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Avila-Martin, Gerardo; Taylor, Julian

2015-02-01

396

Salinity thresholds of Acropora spp. on the Great Barrier Reef  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Salinity tolerances of reef corals have been experimentally investigated since the early twentieth century. Yet, nearly 100 years later, we are no closer to having a threshold that can be applied in studies of the impacts of freshwater runoff on coral communities. We present an empirically derived salinity threshold for sensitive Acropora species from the Keppel Islands in the southern inshore Great Barrier Reef (GBR), based on in situ salinity exposure and coral responses during a major flood event in 2010-2011. This threshold is presented as a dose-time response for a salinity-sensitive range of 22-28 PSU and an exposure time of 3-16 days at the lowest and highest salinities, respectively. The robustness of the salinity threshold was confirmed by comparison with responses of corals to low salinity ~600 km north in the central GBR, which were exposed to substantially different turbidity and chlorophyll levels during the period of hypo-salinity.

Berkelmans, R.; Jones, A. M.; Schaffelke, B.

2012-12-01

397

Animation with Threshold Textures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for frame coherent texturing and hatching of 3D models with a discrete set of colors. Our technique is inspired by various artistic styles that use a limited set of colors to convey surface shape and texture. In previous research discrete color shading was produced by modifying smooth shading with a threshold function. We extend this approach

Oleg Veryovka

2002-01-01

398

Charmonium spectroscopy above thresholds  

E-print Network

We present a systematic and selfconsistent analysis of four-quark charmonium states and applied it to study compact four-quark systems and meson-meson molecules. Our results are robust and should serve to clarify the situation of charmonium spectroscopy above the threshold production of charmed mesons.

T. Fernandez-Carames; A. Valcarce; J. Vijande

2010-01-25

399

Plant salt tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress in plant agriculture worldwide. This has led to research into salt tolerance with the aim of improving crop plants. However, salt tolerance might have much wider implications because transgenic salt-tolerant plants often also tolerate other stresses including chilling, freezing, heat and drought. Unfortunately, suitable genetic model systems have been hard to find. A

Jian-Kang Zhu

2001-01-01

400

Chronic pain: lost inhibition?  

PubMed

Human brain imaging has revealed that acute pain results from activation of a network of brain regions, including the somatosensory, insular, prefrontal, and cingulate cortices. In contrast, many investigations report little or no alteration in brain activity associated with chronic pain, particularly neuropathic pain. It has been hypothesized that neuropathic pain results from misinterpretation of thalamocortical activity, and recent evidence has revealed altered thalamocortical rhythm in individuals with neuropathic pain. Indeed, it was suggested nearly four decades ago that neuropathic pain may be maintained by a discrete central generator, possibly within the thalamus. In this investigation, we used multiple brain imaging techniques to explore central changes in subjects with neuropathic pain of the trigeminal nerve resulting in most cases (20 of 23) from a surgical event. Individuals with chronic neuropathic pain displayed significant somatosensory thalamus volume loss (voxel-based morphometry) which was associated with decreased thalamic reticular nucleus and primary somatosensory cortex activity (quantitative arterial spin labeling). Furthermore, thalamic inhibitory neurotransmitter content was significantly reduced (magnetic resonance spectroscopy), which was significantly correlated to the degree of functional connectivity between the somatosensory thalamus and cortical regions including the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, anterior insula, and cerebellar cortex. These data suggest that chronic neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic anatomy and activity, which may result in disturbed thalamocortical circuits. This disturbed thalamocortical activity may result in the constant perception of pain. PMID:23616562

Henderson, Luke A; Peck, Chris C; Petersen, Esben T; Rae, Caroline D; Youssef, Andrew M; Reeves, Jenna M; Wilcox, Sophie L; Akhter, Rahena; Murray, Greg M; Gustin, Sylvia M

2013-04-24

401

Multiple sclerosis and pain.  

PubMed

Despite the common belief that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a painless disease, several studies contradict this. There are a significant number of MS patients who actually suffer from painful conditions such as central and peripheral neuropathy, migraines, trigeminal neuralgia, painful tonic spasms, complex regional pain syndrome, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and transverse myelitis. In addition, MS relapses are usually painful with many patients complaining of paroxysmal dystonia and neuropathic pain during these episodes. Additionally, treatments for MS such as use of beta-interferons may be associated with headache and pain at the injection site. The pathophysiology of pain in MS is poorly understood, but may be related to the development of demyelinating lesions involving certain neuroanatomic pathways such as the spinothalamic tract. Management of pain in MS patients is a therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Currently, various pharmacological agents such as antiepielptics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and even corticosteroids are used to suppress various painful conditions associated with MS. Non-pharmacological procedures such as massage therapy have also been used in the treatment of MS patients. The authors present a review of recent findings in pathophysiology and management of pain in MS patients. PMID:22909889

Nick, Saeed Talebzadeh; Roberts, Charles; Billiodeaux, Seth; Davis, Debra Elliott; Zamanifekri, Behrouz; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Alekseeva, Nadejda; Munjampalli, Sai; Roberts, Joann; Minagar, Alireza

2012-11-01

402

Diagnosis of heel pain.  

PubMed

Heel pain is a common presenting symptom in ambulatory clinics. There are many causes, but a mechanical etiology is most common. Location of pain can be a guide to the proper diagnosis. The most common diagnosis is plantar fasciitis, a condition that leads to medial plantar heel pain, especially with the first weight-bearing steps in the morning and after long periods of rest. Other causes of plantar heel pain include calcaneal stress fracture (progressively worsening pain following an increase in activity level or change to a harder walking surface), nerve entrapment (pain accompanied by burning, tingling, or numbness), heel pad syndrome (deep, bruise-like pain in the middle of the heel), neuromas, and plantar warts. Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition that causes posterior heel pain. Other tendinopathies demonstrate pain localized to the insertion site of the affected tendon. Posterior heel pain can also be attributed to a Haglund deformity, a prominence of the calcaneus that may cause bursa inflammation between the calcaneus and Achilles tendon, or to Sever disease, a calcaneal apophysitis in children. Medial midfoot heel pain, particularly with continued weight bearing, may be due to tarsal tunnel syndrome, which is caused by compression of the posterior tibial nerve as it courses through the flexor retinaculum, medial calcaneus, posterior talus, and medial malleolus. Sinus tarsi syndrome occurs in the space between the calcaneus, talus, and talocalcaneonavicular and subtalar joints. The syndrome manifests as lateral midfoot heel pain. Differentiating among causes of heel pain can be accomplished through a patient history and physical examination, with appropriate imaging studies, if indicated. PMID:22010770

Tu, Priscilla; Bytomski, Jeffrey R

2011-10-15

403

Neurological diseases and pain  

PubMed Central

Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541

2012-01-01

404

Age-related differences in endogenous pain modulation: a comparison of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in healthy older and younger adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite decades of research, hundreds of studies, and a number of recent reviews, the effects of aging on the experience of pain remain poorly understood. Many prior investigators have reported increases in persistent pain conditions and diminished tolerance for certain types of laboratory-induced pain among the elderly. While explanations for these effects often propose senescent decrements in endogenous analgesic systems

Robert R. Edwards; Roger B. Fillingim; Timothy J. Ness

2003-01-01

405

Importance of glial activation in neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Glia plays a crucial role in the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis in the central nervous system. The microglial production of immune factors is believed to play an important role in nociceptive transmission. Pain may now be considered a neuro-immune disorder, since it is known that the activation of immune and immune-like glial cells in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord results in the release of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as algesic and analgesic mediators. In this review we presented an important role of cytokines (IL-1alfa, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, TNFalpha, IFNgamma, TGF-beta 1, fractalkine and CCL2); complement components (C1q, C3, C5); metaloproteinases (MMP-2,-9) and many other factors, which become activated on spinal cord and DRG level under neuropathic pain. We discussed the role of the immune system in modulating chronic pain. At present, unsatisfactory treatment of neuropathic pain will seek alternative targets for new drugs and it is possible that anti-inflammatory factors like IL-10, IL-4, IL-1alpha, TGF-beta 1 would fulfill this role. Another novel approach for controlling neuropathic pain can be pharmacological attenuation of glial and immune cell activation. It has been found that propentofylline, pentoxifylline, minocycline and fluorocitrate suppress the development of neuropathic pain. The other way of pain control can be the decrease of pro-nociceptive agents like transcription factor synthesis (NF-kappaB, AP-1); kinase synthesis (MEK, p38MAPK, JNK) and protease activation (cathepsin S, MMP9, MMP2). Additionally, since it is known that the opioid-induced glial activation opposes opioid analgesia, some glial inhibitors, which are safe and clinically well tolerated, are proposed as potential useful ko-analgesic agents for opioid treatment of neuropathic pain. This review pointed to some important mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain, which led to identify some possible new approaches to the treatment of neuropathic pain, based on the more comprehensive knowledge of the interaction between the nervous system and glial and immune cells. PMID:23500198

Mika, Joanna; Zychowska, Magdalena; Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Przewlocka, Barbara

2013-09-15

406

Persistent Peripheral Inflammation Attenuates Morphine-induced Periaqueductal Gray Glial Cell Activation and Analgesic Tolerance in the Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Morphine is among the most prevalent analgesics prescribed for chronic pain. However, prolonged morphine treatment results in the development of analgesic tolerance. An abundance of evidence has accumulated indicating that CNS glial cell activity facilitates pain transmission and opposes morphine analgesia. While the midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is an important neural substrate mediating pain modulation and the development of morphine tolerance, no studies have directly assessed the role of PAG-glia. Here we test the hypothesis that morphine-induced increases in vlPAG glial cell activity contribute to the development of morphine tolerance. As morphine is primarily consumed for the alleviation of severe pain, the influence of persistent inflammatory pain was also assessed. Administration of morphine, in the absence of persistent inflammatory pain, resulted in the rapid development of morphine tolerance and was accompanied by a significant increase in vlPAG glial activation. In contrast, persistent inflammatory hyperalgesia, induced by intraplantar administration of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA), significantly attenuated the development of morphine tolerance. No significant differences were noted in vlPAG glial cell activation for CFA-treated animals versus controls. These results indicate that vlPAG glia are modulated by a persistent pain state, and implicate vlPAG glial cells as possible regulators of morphine tolerance. Perspective The development of morphine tolerance represents a significant impediment to its use in the management of chronic pain. We report that morphine tolerance is accompanied by increased glial cell activation within the vlPAG, and that the presence of a persistent pain state prevented vlPAG glial activation and attenuated morphine tolerance. PMID:23395474

Eidson, Lori N.; Murphy, Anne Z.

2014-01-01

407

Inhibitory effect of bisphosphonate on osteoclast function contributes to improved skeletal pain in ovariectomized mice.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate skeletal pain associated with osteoporosis and to examine the inhibitory effect of bisphosphonate (BP) on pain in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. We evaluated skeletal pain in OVX mice through an examination of pain-like behavior as well as immunohistochemical findings. In addition, we assessed the effects of alendronate (ALN), a potent osteoclast inhibitor, on those parameters. The OVX mice showed a decrease in the pain threshold value, and an increase in the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in laminae I-II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Alendronate caused an increase in the pain threshold value and inhibited c-Fos expression. The serum level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, a marker of osteoclast activity, was significantly negatively correlated with the pain threshold value. Furthermore, we found that an antagonist of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member 1, which is an acid-sensing nociceptor, improved pain-like behavior in OVX mice. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of BP on osteoclast function might contribute to an improvement in skeletal pain in osteoporosis patients. PMID:24633536

Abe, Yasuhisa; Iba, Kousuke; Sasaki, Koichi; Chiba, Hironori; Kanaya, Kumiko; Kawamata, Tomoyuki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Sasaki, Muneteru; Yamashita, Toshihiko

2015-03-01

408

Relationship between cold pressor pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in opioid-dependent males on methadone treatment  

PubMed Central

Aim. Poor sleep quality due to pain has been reported among opioid-dependent male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) but objective pain data are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the rate of pain-sensitivity using cold pressor test (CPT) and the relationship between pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in this population. Methods. A total of 168 male participants were included into the study. Objective pain-tolerance was evaluated at 0 h and at 24 h after the first CPT. Malay version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the subjective opiate withdrawal scale (SOWS) questionnaires were administered to evaluate the quality of sleep and withdrawal symptoms, respectively. Results. The mean age of study participants was 37.22 (SD 6.20) years old. Mean daily methadone dose was 76.64 (SD 37.63) mg/day, mean global PSQI score was 5.47 (SD 2.74) and mean averaged SOWS score was 5.43 (SD 6.91). The averaged pain-tolerance time ranged from 7 to 300 s with a mean time of 32.16 (SE 2.72) s, slightly below the cut-off score of 37.53 s. More specifically, 78.6% (n = 132) of participants were identified as pain-sensitive (averaged pain-tolerance time ?37.53 s), and 36 (21.4%) participants were pain-tolerant (averaged pain-tolerance time >37.53 s). The pain-sensitive group reported poorer sleep quality with mean (SD) PSQI of 5.78 (2.80) compared with the pain-tolerant group with mean (SD) PSQI of 4.31 (2.18) (p = 0.005). With analysis of covariance, pain-sensitive group was found to have higher global PSQI scores (adjusted mean 5.76, 95% CI 5.29; 6.22) than pain-tolerant participants (adjusted mean 4.42, 95% CI 3.52; 5.32) (p = 0.010). Conclusions. Majority of opioid-dependent male patients on methadone treatment are pain-sensitive with CPT. Poor sleep quality is associated with cold pressor pain-sensitivity. Pain and sleep complaints in this male population should not be overlooked.

Lee, Chee Siong; Tan, Soo Choon; Mohamad, Nasir; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Ismail, Rusli

2015-01-01

409

Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

2008-01-01

410