Sample records for paindlik tootearendus lbi

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI production as an integrated process using the wastes from sunflower-oil refining as a substrate.


    Benincasa, Maria; Accorsini, Fábio Raphael


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI produced surface active rhamnolipids when cultivated on waste from the sunflower-oil process under different conditions. These biosurfactants, which reduce the superficial and interfacial tensions between fluids, offer advantages over their chemical counterparts, especially because of their ecological acceptability. These molecules can be used in fields as diverse as chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries. In this work, we present the effect of C/N ratio on growth and production yield. The best production yields (Y P/S) were achieved for C/N ratios (in g/g) of 8/1 (0.22) and 6.4/1 (0.23). The product concentration was very satisfactory (7.3g/L) at C/N ratio of 8/1, especially when considering that the substrate was basically composed of wastes that would otherwise constitute an environmental disposal problem. PMID:17698353

  2. Behavioral responses of catnip (Nepeta cataria l.)by two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (l.) and Anopheles harrisoni harbach and manguin, in Thailand.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An investigation of the biological effect of catnip oil (Nepeta cataria L.) on the behavioral response of field collected Ae. aegypti and An. harrisoni were conducted using an automated excito-repellency test system. Aedes aegypti showed significant higher escape rates from the contact chamber at 5%...

  3. Life History Parameters of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Reared on Liquid Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid diet for rearing Ceratitis capitata was developed. Several yeasts were evaluated and a combination of whole cell yeast (LBI2240) and hydrolyzed yeast (such as FNILS65 and FNI200) in 1:1 to 3:1 ratio was selected for use in the study. Larvae reared in a liquid diet with LBI2240:LS65 (either ...

  4. Changes in electromyographic activity of trunk muscles within the sub-acute phase for individuals deemed recovered from a low back injury.


    Butler, Heather L; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Kozey, John W


    Evidence indicates that previous low back injury (LBI) is a strong predictor for re-injury. The purpose of this study was to examine whether neuromuscular patterns remain altered in a LBI group who were deemed recovered. Surface electromyograms from 12-abdominal and 12-back extensors sites and motion variables were recorded from 33 LBI individuals (sub-acute phase) and 54 asymptomatic controls. Pain-related variables were recorded and a clinical assessment performed for LBI participants. Subjects performed a symmetrical lift and replace task in two reaches. Pattern recognition techniques were applied to normalized activation amplitude patterns to extract key recruitment strategies. Mixed model ANOVAs tested for effects (p < 0.05). Despite similar task performance, significantly (p < 0.05) different recruitment strategies were observed for the LBI group. There were higher activation amplitudes for LBI subjects in all muscles (except posterior external oblique) and greater co-activation between abdominal and back extensor sites compared to controls. Local abdominal and back extensor sites showed altered responses to increased physical demands in the LBI group. Despite outcomes indicating recovery, the LBI group had altered neuromuscular patterns compared to asymptomatic controls supporting that residual alterations remain following recovery. PMID:23200059

  5. Lecithin-Bound Iodine Prevents Disruption of Tight Junctions of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Hypoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masahiko; Kondo, Mineo


    Aim. We investigated whether lecithin-bound iodine (LBI) can protect the integrity of tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelial cells from hypoxia. Method. Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells were pretreated with LBI. To mimic hypoxic conditions, cells were incubated with CoCl2. We compared the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs) of control to cells with either LBI alone, CoCl2 alone, or LBI + CoCl2. The levels of cytokines in the conditioned media were also determined. Results. Significant decrease in the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) intensity in the CoCl2 group compared to the control (5787.7 ± 4126.4 in CoCl2 group versus 29244.6 ± 2981.2 in control; average ± standard deviation). But the decrease was not significant in the LBI + CoCl2 (27189.0 ± 11231.1). The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 11 (CCL-11) were significantly higher in the CoCl2 than in the control (340.8 ± 43.3 versus 279.7 ± 68.3 pg/mL for MCP-1, and 15.2 ± 12.9 versus 12.5 ± 6.1 pg/mL for CCL-11. With LBI pretreatment, the levels of both cytokines were decreased to 182.6 ± 23.8 (MCP-1) and 5.46 ± 1.9 pg/mL for CCL-11). Blockade of MCP-1 or CCL-11 also shows similar result representing TJ protection from hypoxic stress. Conclusions. LBI results in a protective action from hypoxia. PMID:27340563

  6. Laser blood irradiation effect on electrophysiological characteristics of acute coronary syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khotiaintsev, Sergei N.; Doger-Guerrero, E.; Glebova, L.; Svirid, V.; Sirenko, Yuri


    This paper treats electro-physiological effects of the low- level laser irradiation of blood (LBI). The data presented here are based on the observation of almost 200 patients suffering from the acute disruption of coronary blood circulation, unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Statistically significant changes of the electro-physiological characteristics were observed in the group of 65 patients, treated by the LBI. In particular, the significant 6 percent extension of the effective refractory period was observed. The electrical situation threshold has increased by 20.6 percent. The significant changes of some other important electro-physiological characteristics were within the range of 5-15 percent. In this paper, the data obtained on the LBI effectiveness are compared also with the results obtained on 94 patients who in addition to the standard anti-angina therapy were treated by the autohaemo- transfusion performed simultaneously with the UV-light irradiation of the transfused blood. The results obtained demonstrate the significant positive effect of the low energy LBI. The electrophysiological data obtained have good correlation with observed anti-arrhythmic effect of the LBI. This is proved by the data obtained on the electro- physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system and by other clinical data on the experimental and control group of patients. In the course of this research the exact effect of the low level LBI was established. LBI led to the pronounced positive changes in electro-physiological characteristics of the cardiovascular system of the patients, it also led to the pronounced anti-arrhythmic effect.

  7. Geodetic long baseline interferometry research in Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langley, R. B.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Canon, W. H.


    The objectives and results of several studies using the Canadian long baseline interferometry system (LBI) are presented. The precision of measurements from radio telescopes at the Algonquin Radio Observatory (ARO), Lake Traverse, Ontario; the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), Big Pine, California; and the Chilbolton Observatory (CHIL), Chilbolton, England, is discussed. Also, since LBI is insensitive to the uncertainty in the geocentric gravitational constant, it is a very useful technique for determining the scales of the coordinate systems used by other precise techniques. Beginning in May 1977, a number of LBI observing sessions were accompanied by simultaneous satellite Doppler observations. The baseline components obtained from the satellite Doppler observations were compared to the LBI values. The weighted mean scale bias of the NSWC 9Z-2 satellite Doppler coordinate system relative to the LBI system was found to be 0.42 + or - 0.05 PPM. The weighted mean difference in the origin of longitude was found to be 0.87 sec + or - 0.01 while the difference in declination origin was found to be 0.06 sec + or - 0.01.

  8. Laminin-binding integrin gene copy number alterations in distinct epithelial-type cancers

    PubMed Central

    Harryman, William L; Pond, Erika; Singh, Parminder; Little, Andrew S; Eschbacher, Jennifer M; Nagle, Raymond B; Cress, Anne E


    Background: The laminin-binding integrin (LBI) family are cell adhesion molecules that are essential for invasion and metastasis of human epithelial cancers and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance. We investigated whether copy number alteration (CNA) or mutations of a five-gene signature (ITGB4, ITGA3, LAMB3, PLEC, and SYNE3), representing essential genes for LBI adhesion, would correlate with patient outcomes within human epithelial-type tumor data sets currently available in an open access format. Methods: We investigated the relative alteration frequency of an LBI signature panel (integrin β4 (ITGB4), integrin α3 (ITGA3), laminin β3 chain (LAMB3), plectin (PLEC), and nesprin 3 (SYNE3)), independent of the epithelial cancer type, within publically available and published data using cBioPortal and Oncomine software. We rank ordered the results using a 20% alteration frequency cut-off and limited the analysis to studies containing at least 100 samples. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were analyzed to determine if alterations in the LBI signature correlated with patient survival. The Oncomine data mining tool was used to compare the heat map expression of the LBI signature without SYNE3 (as this was not included in the Oncomine database) to drug resistance patterns. Results: Twelve different cancer types, representing 5,647 samples, contained at least a 20% alteration frequency of the five-gene LBI signature. The frequency of alteration ranged from 38.3% to 19.8%. Within the LBI signature, PLEC was the most commonly altered followed by LAMB3, ITGB4, ITGA3, and SYNE3 across all twelve cancer types. Within cancer types, there was little overlap of the individual amplified genes from each sample, suggesting different specific amplicons may alter the LBI adhesion structures. Of the twelve cancer types, overall survival was altered by CNA presence in bladder urothelial carcinoma (p=0.0143*) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma and endocervical adenocarcinoma (p=0

  9. Functional thioredoxin reductase from pathogenic and free-living Leptospira spp.


    Sasoni, Natalia; Iglesias, Alberto A; Guerrero, Sergio A; Arias, Diego G


    Low molecular mass thiols and antioxidant enzymes have essential functions to detoxify reactive oxygen and nitrogen species maintaining cellular redox balance. The metabolic pathways for redox homeostasis in pathogenic (Leptospira interrogans) and free-living (Leptospira biflexa) leptospires species were not functionally characterized. We performed biochemical studies on recombinantly produced proteins to in depth analyze kinetic and structural properties of thioredoxin reductase (LinTrxR) and thioredoxin (LinTrx) from L. interrogans, and two TrxRs (LbiTrxR1 and LbiTrxR2) from L. biflexa. All the TrxRs were characterized as homodimeric flavoproteins, with LinTrxR and LbiTrxR1 catalyzing the NADPH dependent reduction of LinTrx and DTNB. The thioredoxin system from L. interrogans was able to use glutathione disulfide, lipoamide disulfide, cystine and bis-γ-glutamyl cysteine and homologous peroxiredoxin as substrates. Classic TrxR activity of LinTrxR2 had not been evidenced in vitro, but recombinant Escherichia coli cells overexpressing LbiTrxR2 showed high tolerance to oxidative stress. The enzymatic systems herein characterized could play a key role for the maintenance of redox homeostasis and the function of defense mechanisms against reactive oxidant species in Leptospira spp. Our results contribute to the general knowledge about redox biochemistry in these bacteria, positioning TrxR as a critical molecular target for the development of new anti-leptospiral drugs. PMID:27178006

  10. LOGO Based Instruction in Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad

    The objective of this pretest-posttest Quasi-Experimental Design study was to determine the effects of LOGO Based Instruction (LBI) compared to instruction by teacher lecture and pencil-and-paper activities on: (1) students' understanding of the concepts of point, ray, line, and line segment; (2) students' attitudes toward learning geometry,…

  11. 76 FR 52735 - Members of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014


    ..., Deputy Associate CIO, Enterprise Operations (MITS); Richard E. Byrd, Commissioner (W&I); Robin L. Canady... CIO, Enterprise Services (MITS); Michael Danilack, Deputy Commissioner, International (LB&I); Jonathan...); Carl T. Froehlich, Associate CIO, End User and Equipment Services (MITS); Julieta Garcia,...

  12. High specification starter diets improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to 10 weeks of age.


    Douglas, S L; Wellock, I; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I


    Piglets born with low birth weights (LBiW) are likely to be lighter at weaning. Starter regimes tailored for pigs of average BW therefore may not be optimal for LBiW nursery performance. The objective was to determine if LBiW pigs benefit from a high specification starter regime and the provision of extra feed (additional allowance of last phase diet of the starter regime) in comparison to a standard commercial regime. Additionally, the effect of starter regime on performance of normal birth weight (NBiW) pigs at weaning was determined and compared to that of LBiW pigs. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined. The experiment was therefore an incomplete 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, as the provision of extra feed was given only to LBiW pigs (n = 6 replicates per treatment; 5 pigs per replicate). Treatments comprised birth weight (LBiW or NBiW), starter regime (high specification [HS] or standard starter [SS]), and extra feed 3 quantity (yes [YF] or no [NF], for LBiW pigs only; feed 3 corresponded to the last phase diet of the starter regime). At weaning (d 28), pigs were randomly assigned within each birth weight category to treatment groups. Nutritional treatments were fed ad libitum on a kilogram/head basis for approximately 3 wk followed by a common weaner diet fed ad libitum until d 70. Starter regime (P = 0.019), feed 3 amount (P = 0.010), and their interaction (P = 0.029) had an effect on ADG of LBiW pigs from d 28 to 49, with pigs on HS followed by YF (HY) performing best. An improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noted between d 28 and 49 for pigs fed the additional feed 3 (P = 0.030); between d 49 and 70, the only residual effect seen was of starter regime (P = 0.017) on ADG. In contrast, there was no significant effect of starter regime from d 28 to 70 on ADG, ADFI, or FCR of NBiW pigs. By d 49 and 70, LBiW pigs on regime HY weighed the same as NBiW pigs (d 70 BW; 30.0 vs. 30.6 kg; P = 0.413), with similar growth rates from

  13. Hyperbolic/parabolic development for the GIM-STAR code. [flow fields in supersonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.; Stalnaker, J. F.; Ratliff, A. W.


    Flow fields in supersonic inlet configurations were computed using the eliptic GIM code on the STAR computer. Spillage flow under the lower cowl was calculated to be 33% of the incoming stream. The shock/boundary layer interaction on the upper propulsive surface was computed including separation. All shocks produced by the flow system were captured. Linearized block implicit (LBI) schemes were examined to determine their application to the GIM code. Pure explicit methods have stability limitations and fully implicit schemes are inherently inefficient; however, LBI schemes show promise as an effective compromise. A quasiparabolic version of the GIM code was developed using elastical parabolized Navier-Stokes methods combined with quasitime relaxation. This scheme is referred to as quasiparabolic although it applies equally well to hyperbolic supersonic inviscid flows. Second order windward differences are used in the marching coordinate and either explicit or linear block implicit time relaxation can be incorporated.

  14. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin E-mail:; Chen, Zhong E-mail:; Chen, Youhe


    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields.

  15. Comparison of reusable insulation systems for cryogenically-tanked earth-based space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Barber, J. R.


    Three reusable insulation systems concepts were developed for use with cryogenic tanks of earth-based space vehicles. Two concepts utilized double-goldized Kapton (DGK) or double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) multilayer insulation (MLI), while the third utilized a hollow-glass-microsphere, loadbearing insulation (LBI). Thermal performance measurements were made under space-hold (vacuum) conditions for insulating warm boundary temperatures of approximately 291 K. The resulting effective thermal conductivity was approximately 0.00008 W/m-K (W = weight,Kg; m = measured; K = temperature) for the MLI systems (liquid hydrogen test results) and 0.00054 W/m-K for the LBI system (liquid nitrogen test results corrected to liquid hydrogen temperature).

  16. Comparison of reusable insulation systems for cryogenically-tanked earth-based space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Barber, J. R.


    Three reusable insulation systems concepts have been developed for use with cryogenic tanks of earth-based space vehicles. Two concepts utilized double-goldized Kapton (DGK) or double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) multilayer insulation (MLI), while the third utilized a hollow-glass-microsphere, load-bearing insulation (LBI). All three insulation systems have recently undergone experimental testing and evaluation under NASA-sponsored programs. Thermal performance measurements were made under space-hold (vacuum) conditions for insulation warm boundary temperatures of approximately 291 K. The resulting effective thermal conductivity was approximately .00008 W/m-K for the MLI systems (liquid hydrogen test results) and .00054 W/m-K for the LBI system (liquid nitrogen test results corrected to liquid hydrogen temperature). The DGK MLI system experienced a maximum thermal degradation of 38 percent, the DAM MLI system 14 percent, and the LBI system 6.7 percent due to repeated thermal cycling representing typical space flight conditions. Repeated exposure of the DAM MLI system to a high humidity environment for periods as long as 8 weeks provided a maximum degradation of only 24 percent.

  17. Hadronic light-by-light scattering in the muon g-2: A new short-distance constraint on pion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Nyffeler, Andreas


    Recently it was pointed out that for the evaluation of the numerically dominant pion-exchange contribution to the hadronic light-by-light scattering correction in the muon g-2, a fully off-shell pion-photon-photon form factor should be used. Following this proposal, we first derive a new short-distance constraint on the off-shell form factor which enters at the external vertex for the muon g-2 and show that it is related to the quark condensate magnetic susceptibility in QCD. We then evaluate the pion-exchange contribution in the framework of large-N{sub C} QCD using an off-shell form factor which fulfills all short-distance constraints. With a value for the magnetic susceptibility as estimated in the same large-N{sub C} framework, we obtain the result a{sub {mu}}{sup LbyL;{pi}{sup 0}}=(72{+-}12)x10{sup -11}. Updating our earlier results for the contributions from the exchanges of the {eta} and {eta}{sup '} using simple vector-meson dominance form factors, we obtain a{sub {mu}}{sup LbyL;PS}=(99{+-}16)x10{sup -11} for the sum of all light pseudoscalars. Combined with available evaluations for the other contributions to hadronic light-by-light scattering this leads to the new estimate a{sub {mu}}{sup LbyL;had}=(116{+-}40)x10{sup -11}.

  18. Synthesis and structure of N,C-chelated organoantimony(v) and organobismuth(v) compounds.


    Urbanová, Iva; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Jirásko, Robert; Dostál, Libor


    The reaction of N,C-intramolecularly coordinated organoantimony(iii) and organobismuth(iii) compounds LMCl2 (M = Sb () or Bi () and L = [o-(CH[double bond, length as m-dash]N-2,6-iPr2C6H3)C6H4]) with phenyllithium in a 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 molar ratio gave compounds LM(Ph)Cl (M = Sb () or Bi ()) and LMPh2 (M = Sb () or Bi ()) in moderate to good yields. Compound could also be prepared by the treatment of the lithium compound LLi with in situ prepared PhSbCl2. Oxidation of the antimony(iii) compounds , and with one equivalent of SO2Cl2 proceeded smoothly with formation of organoantimony(v) compounds LSbCl4 (), LSb(Ph)Cl3 () and LSbPh2Cl2 () in nearly quantitative yields. Compounds are yellowish solids that are stable for a long time even in the presence of air. In contrast, only organobismuth(iii) compounds and could be successfully oxidized using SO2Cl2 to give compounds LBi(Ph)Cl3 () and LBiPh2Cl2 (). Compound is stable, but compound readily decomposed in solution and could not be isolated and stored for a longer period. All attempts to prepare compound LBiCl4 by the oxidation of with SO2Cl2 failed and resulted only in a mixture of products. All studied compounds were characterized by electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of , and were unambiguously established using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:24121460

  19. [Heterogeneity of leghemoglobin from yellow lupine nodules].


    Kudriavtseva, N N; Borodenko, L I; Krasnobaeva, N N; Zhizhevskaia, G Ia


    A possibility is demonstrated to separate summary lupine leghemoglobins (which are salted out within 55--90% of ammonium sulphate saturation) into Lb I and Lb II components by means of ionic exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Lb I is eluted at lower ionic strength buffer than LbII, and differs from the latter in the form and the size of crystals. Both components have the same electrophoretic mobility and contain N-terminal glycine. LbII and LbI precipitate under gradual salting out within 55--75% and 78--90% of saturation respectively. PMID:647081

  20. Air Deployable Underwater Glider and Buoy Development for Arctic and Oceanographic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legnos, P. J.


    LBI developed under a NOAA SBIR the AXIB (Airborne eXpendable Ice Buoy). The initial buoy was developed to collect barometric pressure, air temperature two meters above the surface and sea surface or ice temperature. A number of these AXIBs have been successfully deployed in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently we are in the process of integrating additional sensors to include an anemometer, thermistor chain and hydrophones. Further development is in process for the integration of solar and wind recharging systems and lower power sensors and processing LBI developed under an ONR SBIR Grant two Air Deployable Underwater Gliders. They are primarily designed for air deployment from Navy P-3 or P-8 Aircraft though easily deployed from other aircraft or helicopters. The A-size (4 7/8'dia. X 36' long) and the 12 ¾ (12 ¾' dia. X 9' 9' long). On the development side we are in the process of integrating sensors and enhancing the battery storage capacity. We anticipate a broad range of Oceanographic sensing missions for these Gliders.

  1. Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Akulich, N. V.; Marochkov, A. V.; Laskina, O. V.; Mit'kovskaya, N. P.


    We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous exposure of blood to low-intensity emission from an He-Ne laser (LBI, laser blood irradiation). We have demonstrated the possibility of correcting the oxygentransport characteristics of blood by laser optical methods based on photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We have shown that the therapeutic effects initiated both by UBI and LBI are based on a single mechanism: a change in the balance between production of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidants. The data obtained are of interest not only for studying the primary (molecular) mechanisms of action for photohemotherapy and their effect on processes occurring in the living body, but also can provide a basis for designing next-generation laser optical instruments and for development of not yet existing methods for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of photohemotherapy.

  2. Emerging infectious disease or evidence of endemicity? A multi-season study of beak and feather disease virus in wild red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae).


    Jackson, Bethany; Varsani, Arvind; Holyoake, Carly; Jakob-Hoff, Richard; Robertson, Ian; McInnes, Kate; Empson, Raewyn; Gray, Richard; Nakagawa, Kahori; Warren, Kristin


    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that is the etiological agent of beak and feather disease in both wild and captive parrots. Given that BFDV is globally recognized as a conservation threat for wild parrots, between 2011-2013, red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae, n = 229), which are endemic to New Zealand, were captured in mist nets on Tiritiri Matangi Island and Hauturu-o-Toi/Little Barrier Island (LBI), New Zealand, for disease surveillance. Blood and feathers from all birds were tested by PCR for BFDV, and full genomes were recovered and sequenced. A subset of blood samples (n = 96) were tested for antibodies to BFDV by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. A further 238 feather samples were obtained from red-crowned parakeets from three sites in the Wellington region of the North Island, and these were screened for BFDV. The DNA-based prevalence of BFDV infection determined on Tiritiri Matangi Island was 1.09% (CI 95 %, 0.1-3.9%); on Hauturu-o-Toi/LBI, 4.4% (95% CI, 0.5%-15.1%); on Kapiti Island, 3.4% (CI 95%, 1.1-7.8%); at the ZEALANDIA-Karori sanctuary, 1.6% (95% CI, 0-8.4%); and on Matiu-Somes Island, 0% (CI 95%, 0-12.3%). Seroprevalence for BFDV, indicating prior or current exposure, in the Tiritiri Matangi Island population, it was 2% (CI 95%, 0-10.1%), and in the Hauturu-o-Toi/LBI population was 14% (CI 95%, 5.3-27.9%). BFDV-positive birds showed no signs of clinical disease, with the exception of an individual bird obtained opportunistically from Shakespear Regional Park during the study period, which had classical signs of feather loss. Phylogenetic analysis of the 11 full genome sequences recovered from BFDV-positive red-crowned parakeets revealed evidence of ongoing viral flow between red-crowned parakeets and eastern rosellas (Platycercus eximius) in the Hauraki Gulf/Auckland region, with separate but closely related strains from the Wellington region of the North Island. This is the first study

  3. A multi-sensor dosimeter for brachytherapy based on radioluminescent fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, A.; Chiquita, S.; Hussain, N. Sooraj; Pirraco, Rui; Rosa, C. C.


    High-precision dosimeters are needed in brachytherapy treatments to ensure safe operation and adequate working conditions, to assess the correspondence between treatment planning and dose delivery, as well as to monitor the radiation dose received by patients. In this paper we present the development of a multi-sensor dosimeter platform targeted for brachytherapy environments. The performance of different scintillating materials response is assessed. The emission bands of most common scintillator materials used in ionizing radiation detection are typically below 550 nm, thus they may be prone to stem effect response. To avoid this effect we propose the use of scintillators with longer wavelength emission. Samples of neodymium doped glasses are evaluated as new infrared radioluminescent scintillators for real-time dosimeters, namely lithium lead boron silver (LLB4Ag) and lithium bismuth boron silver (LBiB4Ag) glasses. Their response is compared with the response of organic scintillator BCF-60 with a 530nm response.

  4. Complete amino acid sequence of the lentil trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor LCI-1.7 and a discussion of atypical binding sites of Bowman-Birk inhibitors.


    Weder, Jürgen K P; Hinkers, Sabine C


    The complete primary structure of the lentil (Lens culinaris) trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor LCI-1.7 was determined by conventional methods in order to find relationships between partial sequences and the difference in action against human and bovine chymotrypsin. As other Bowman-Birk type inhibitors, LCI-1.7 contained 68 amino acid residues, seven disulfide bridges, and two reactive sites, Arg16-Ser17 for trypsin and Tyr42-Ser43 for chymotrypsin. Evaluation of sequence homologies showed that it belonged to the group III Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The atypical additional binding site of LCI-1.7 for human chymotrypsin was discussed and compared with such binding sites of two other Bowman-Birk inhibitors, the Bowman-Birk soybean proteinase inhibitor BBI, and the lima bean proteinase inhibitor LBI I, for human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. A concept to reduce the action of these inhibitors against human enzymes by genetic engineering was proposed. PMID:15212472

  5. Inactivation of BRCA2 in human cancer cells identifies a subset of tumors with enhanced sensitivity towards death receptormediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    De Toni, Enrico N.; Ziesch, Andreas; Rizzani, Antonia; Török, Helga-Paula; Hocke, Sandra; Lü, Shuai; Wang, Shao-Chun; Hucl, Tomas; Göke, Burkhard; Bruns, Christiane; Gallmeier, Eike


    Purpose DNA repair defects due to detrimental BRCA2-mutations confer increased susceptibility towards DNA interstrand-crosslinking (ICL) agents and define patient subpopulations for individualized genotype-based cancer therapy. However, due to the side effects of these drugs, there is a need to identify additional agents, which could be used alone or in combination with ICL-agents. Therefore, we investigated whether BRCA2-mutations might also increase the sensitivity towards TRAIL-receptors (TRAIL-R)-targeting compounds. Experimental design Two independent model systems were applied: a BRCA2 gene knockout and a BRCA2 gene complementation model. The effects of TRAIL-R-targeting compounds and ICL-agents on cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were compared in BRCA2-proficient versus-deficient cancer cells in vitro. In addition, the effects of the TRAIL-R2-targeting antibody LBY135 were assessed in vivo using a murine tumor xenograft model. Results BRCA2-deficient cancer cells displayed an increased sensitivity towards TRAIL-R-targeting agents. These effects exceeded and were mechanistically distinguishable from the well-established effects of ICL-agents. In vitro, ICL-agents expectedly induced an early cell cycle arrest followed by delayed apoptosis, whereas TRAIL-R-targeting compounds caused early apoptosis without prior cell cycle arrest. In vivo, treatment with LBY135 significantly reduced the tumor growth of BRCA2-deficient cancer cells in a xenograft model. Conclusions BRCA2 mutations strongly increase the in vitro- and in vivo-sensitivity of cancer cells towards TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis. This effect is mechanistically distinguishable from the well-established ICL-hypersensitivity of BRCA2-deficient cells. Our study thus defines a new genetic subpopulation of cancers susceptible towards TRAIL-R-targeting compounds, which could facilitate novel therapeutic approaches for patients with BRCA2-deficient tumors. PMID:26843614

  6. Large-scale, high-definition Ground Penetrating Radar prospection in archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, I.; Kucera, M.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Nau, E.; Neubauer, W.; Zitz, T.


    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro) in collaboration with its eight European partner organisations is the advancement of state-of-the-art archaeological sciences. The application and specific further development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications, as well as of novel integrated interpretation approaches dedicated to non-invasive spatial archaeology combining near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science is crucial for modern archaeology. Within the institute's research programme different areas for distinct case studies in Austria, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the UK have been selected as basis for the development and testing of new concepts for efficient and universally applicable tools for spatial, non-invasive archaeology. In terms of geophysical prospection the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes for the exploration and protection of Europe's buried cultural heritage requires new measurement devices, which are fast, accurate and precise. Therefore the further development of motorized, multichannel survey systems and advanced navigation solutions is required. The use of motorized measurement devices for archaeological prospection implicates several technological and methodological challenges. Latest multichannel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) arrays mounted in front off, or towed behind motorized survey vehicles permit large-scale GPR prospection surveys with unprecedented spatial resolution. In particular the motorized 16 channel 400 MHz MALÅ Imaging Radar Array (MIRA) used by the LBI ArchPro in combination with latest automatic data positioning and navigation solutions permits the reliable high

  7. Comparative effects of 4-aminopyrazolopyrimidine, its 2'-deoxyriboside derivative, and allopurinol on in vitro growth of American Leishmania species.

    PubMed Central

    Avila, J L; Casanova, M A


    When assayed on promastigotes of 10 American Leishmania isolates (including Leishmania brasiliensis and mexicana species), 4-aminopyrazolopyrimidine (AAP) was severalfold more active than allopurinol as a leishmanistatic drug. There were some intraspecific and interspecific differences among the isolates in their susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of APP and allopurinol. APP-2'-deoxyriboside did not affect the 10 isolates tested. This was surprising, because allopurinol riboside has previously been shown to be more active than allopurinol. In all of the American Leishmania isolates tested, the metabolism of [14C]6-APP resulted in a high level of HPP-ribose-5'-P and lower levels of APP-ribose-5'-P, APP-ribose-5'-PP, and APP-ribose-5'-PPP. MP, LR, LBY, and JAP isolates strongly converted APP into APP derivatives, thus perhaps explaining their greater susceptibility to the inhibitory effects of APP. With the 10 American Leishmania isolates tested, several purines reversed the inhibitory effects of allopurinol, but only adenine countered the inhibitory effects of APP. This suggests biochemical differences in the mechanisms of action of allopurinol and APP. Finally, and contrary to previous claims, the reversal by purines of the allopurinol-induced growth inhibition was not a Leishmania species-specific effect. PMID:6982678

  8. Molecular cloning of the cowpea leghemoglobin II gene and expression of its cDNA in Escherichia coli. Purification and characterization of the recombinant protein.

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, R; Moran, J F; Sarath, G; Luan, P; Klucas, R V


    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) nodules contain three leghemoglobins (LbI, LbII, and LbIII) that are encoded by at least two genes. We have cloned and sequenced the gene that encodes for LbII (lbII), the most abundant Lb in cowpea nodules, using total DNA as the template for PCR. Primers were designed using the sequence of the soybean lbc gene. The lbII gene is 679 bp in length and codes for a predicted protein of 145 amino acids. Using sequences of the cowpea lbII gene for the synthesis of primers and total nodule RNA as the template, we cloned a cDNA for LbII into a constitutive expression vector (pEMBL19+) and then expressed it in Escherichia coli. Recombinant LbII (rLbII) and native LbII (nLbII) from cowpea nodules were purified to homogeneity using standard techniques. Properties of rLbII were compared with nLbII by partially sequencing the proteins and by sodium dodecyl sulfate- and isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western-blot analysis using anti-soybean Lba antibodies, tryptic and chymotryptic mapping, and spectrophotometric techniques. The data showed that the structural and spectral characteristics of rLbII and nLbII were similar. The rLbII was reversibly oxygenated/deoxygenated, showing that it is a functional hemoglobin. PMID:9193085

  9. Bioactive secondary metabolites of a marine Bacillus sp. inhibit superoxide generation and elastase release in human neutrophils by blocking formyl peptide receptor 1.


    Yang, Shun-Chin; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Wen-Yi; Kuo, Jimmy; Huang, Yin-Ting; Chung, Pei-Jen; Hwang, Tsong-Long


    It is well known that overwhelming neutrophil activation is closely related to acute and chronic inflammatory injuries. Formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) plays an important role in activation of neutrophils and may represent a potent therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that IA-LBI07-1 (IA), an extract of bioactive secondary metabolites from a marine Bacillus sp., has anti-inflammatory effects in human neutrophils. IA significantly inhibited superoxide generation and elastase release in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated neutrophils, but failed to suppress the cell responses activated by non-FPR1 agonists. IA did not alter superoxide production and elastase activity in cell-free systems. IA also attenuated the downstream signaling from FPR1, such as the Ca2+, MAP kinases and AKT pathways. In addition, IA inhibited the binding of N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein, a fluorescent analogue of FMLP, to FPR1 in human neutrophils and FPR1-transfected HEK293 cells. Taken together, these results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of IA in human neutrophils are through the inhibition of FPR1. Also, our data suggest that IA may have therapeutic potential to decrease tissue damage induced by human neutrophils. PMID:23736784

  10. Deep drilling of silica glass by continuous-wave laser backside irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidai, Hirofumi; Saito, Namiko; Matsusaka, Souta; Chiba, Akira; Morita, Noboru


    We propose a novel method for drilling of silica glass based on the continuous-wave laser backside irradiation (CW-LBI) phenomenon. The method allows drilling to be performed by single-shot irradiation using a CW laser. A spindle-shaped emission is generated in the bulk glass and is then guided to the glass surface, and at the instant that the beam reaches the surface, the glass material is ejected. The glass ejection process occurs for a time of ~250 μs. A hole that is similar in shape to that of the spindle-shaped emission is left. The hole length tended to increase linearly with increasing laser power. The laser power dependence of the spindle-shaped emission propagation velocity is also linear, and the velocity increases with increasing laser power. The hole diameters were smaller in the case where the laser focus position was set on the glass surface, and these diameters increased with increasing defocusing. The maximum hole depth reached more than 5 mm. Through-hole drilling was demonstrated using a 3-mm-thick glass substrate.

  11. Biodegradability of commercial and weathered diesel oils

    PubMed Central

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Pirôllo, Maria Paula Santos; Contiero, Jonas


    This work aimed to evaluate the capability of different microorganisms to degrade commercial diesel oil in comparison to a weathered diesel oil collected from the groundwater at a petrol station. Two microbiological methods were used for the biodegradability assessment: the technique based on the redox indicator 2,6 -dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) and soil respirometric experiments using biometer flasks. In the former we tested the bacterial cultures Staphylococcus hominis, Kocuria palustris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LBI, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus cereus, a commercial inoculum, consortia obtained from soil and groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbons and a consortium from an uncontaminated area. In the respirometric experiments it was evaluated the capability of the native microorganisms present in the soil from a petrol station to biodegrade the diesel oils. The redox indicator experiments showed that only the consortia, even that from an uncontaminated area, were able to biodegrade the weathered diesel. In 48 days, the removal of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the respirometric experiments was approximately 2.5 times greater when the commercial diesel oil was used. This difference was caused by the consumption of labile hydrocarbons, present in greater quantities in the commercial diesel oil, as demonstrated by gas chromatographic analyses. Thus, results indicate that biodegradability studies that do not consider the weathering effect of the pollutants may over estimate biodegradation rates and when the bioaugmentation is necessary, the best strategy would be that one based on injection of consortia, because even cultures with recognised capability of biodegrading hydrocarbons may fail when applied isolated. PMID:24031193

  12. The Masses and Radii of the Eclipsing Binary zeta Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Philip D.; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Hummel, Christian A.


    We present a full determination of the fundamental stellar and orbital parameters of the eclipsing binary ζ Aurigae (K4 Ib + BS V) using recent observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and the Mark III long-baseline optical interferometer. The information obtained from spectroscopic and interferometric measurements is complementary, and the combination permits a complete determination of the stellar masses, the absolute semimajor axis of the orbit, and the distance. A complete solution requires that both components be visible spectroscopically, and this has always been difficult for the ζ Aur systems. The ζ Aur K star primary presents no difficulty, and accurate radial velocities are readily obtainable in the optical. However, the B star secondary is more problematic. Ground-based radial velocity measurements are hampered by the difficulty of working with the composite spectrum in the blue-violet region, the small number of suitable lines in the generally featureless optical spectrum of the B star, and the great width of the few available lines (the Balmer lines of hydrogen and a few weak He I lines) due to rapid rotation. We avoid the worst of these problems by using GHRS observations in the ultraviolet, where the K star flux is negligible and the intrinsic B star spectrum is more distinctive, and obtain the most accurate determination of the B star radial velocity amplitude to date. We also analyze published photometry of previous eclipses and near-eclipse phases of ζ Aur in order to obtain eclipse durations, which fix the length of the eclipse chord and therefore determine the orbit inclination. The long-baseline interferometry (LBI) yields, in conjunction with the spectroscopic solution, the distance to the system and thus the absolute stellar radius of the resolved K supergiant primary star, ζ Aur A. The secondary is not resolved by LBI, but its angular (and absolute) radius is found by fitting the model

  13. Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar trifolii, Ensifer numidicus and Mesorhizobium amorphae symbiovar ciceri (or Mesorhizobium loti) are new endosymbiotic bacteria of Lens culinaris Medik.


    Sami, Dhaoui; Mokhtar, Rejili; Peter, Mergaert; Mohamed, Mars


    A total of 142 rhizobial bacteria were isolated from root nodules of Lens culinaris Medik endemic to Tunisia and they belonged to the species Rhizobium leguminosarum, and for the first time to Ensifer and Mesorhizobium, genera never previously described as microsymbionts of lentil. Phenotypically, our results indicate that L. culinaris Medik strains showed heterogenic responses to the different phenotypic features and they effectively nodulated their original host. Based on the concatenation of the 16S rRNA with relevant housekeeping genes (glnA, recA, dnaK), rhizobia that nodulate lentil belonged almost exclusively to the known R. leguminosarum sv. viciae. Interestingly, R. leguminosarum sv. trifolii, Ensifer numidicus (10 isolates) and Mesorhizobium amorphae (or M. loti) (9 isolates) isolates species, not considered, up to now, as a natural symbiont of lentil are reported. The E. numidicus and M. amorphae (or M. loti) strains induced fixing nodules on Medicago sativa and Cicer arietinum host plants, respectively. Symbiotic gene phylogenies showed that the E. numidicus, new symbiont of lentil, markedly diverged from strains of R. leguminosarum, the usual symbionts of lentil, and converged to the symbiovar meliloti so far described within E. meliloti Indeed, the nodC and nodA genes from the M. amorphae showed more than 99% similarity with respect to those from M. mediterraneum, the common chickpea nodulating species, and would be included in the new infrasubspecific division named M. amorphae symbiovar ciceri, or to M. loti, related to the strains able to effectively nodulate C. arietinum host plant. On the basis of these data, R. leguminosarum sv. trifolii (type strain LBg3 (T)), M. loti or M. amorphae sv. ciceri (type strain LB4 (T)) and E. numidicus (type strain LBi2 (T)) are proposed as new symbionts of L. culinaris Medik. PMID:27267929

  14. Dispensability of the [4Fe-4S] cluster in novel homologues of adenine glycosylase MutY.


    Trasviña-Arenas, Carlos H; Lopez-Castillo, Laura M; Sanchez-Sandoval, Eugenia; Brieba, Luis G


    7,8-Dihydro-8-deoxyguanine (8oG) is one of the most common oxidative lesions in DNA. DNA polymerases misincorporate an adenine across from this lesion. Thus, 8oG is a highly mutagenic lesion responsible for G:C→T:A transversions. MutY is an adenine glycosylase, part of the base excision repair pathway that removes adenines, when mispaired with 8oG or guanine. Its catalytic domain includes a [4Fe-4S] cluster motif coordinated by cysteinyl ligands. When this cluster is absent, MutY activity is depleted and several studies concluded that the [4Fe-4S] cluster motif is an indispensable component for DNA binding, substrate recognition and enzymatic activity. In the present study, we identified 46 MutY homologues that lack the canonical cysteinyl ligands, suggesting an absence of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. A phylogenetic analysis groups these novel MutYs into two different clades. One clade is exclusive of the order Lactobacillales and another clade has a mixed composition of anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria and species from the protozoan genus Entamoeba. Structural modeling and sequence analysis suggests that the loss of the [4Fe-4S] cluster is compensated by a convergent solution in which bulky amino acids substitute the [4Fe-4S] cluster. We functionally characterized MutYs from Lactobacillus brevis and Entamoeba histolytica as representative members from each clade and found that both enzymes are active adenine glycosylases. Furthermore, chimeric glycosylases, in which the [4Fe-4S] cluster of Escherichia coli MutY is replaced by the corresponding amino acids of LbY and EhY, are also active. Our data indicates that the [4Fe-4S] cluster plays a structural role in MutYs and evidences the existence of alternative functional solutions in nature. PMID:26613369