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Sample records for palavras em voz

  1. VOZ; isolation and characterization of novel vascular plant transcription factors with a one-zinc finger from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Hisabori, Toru; Takeyasu, Kunio; Sato, Masa H

    2004-07-01

    A 38-bp pollen-specific cis-acting region of the AVP1 gene is involved in the expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana V-PPase during pollen development. Here, we report the isolation and structural characterization of AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2, novel transcription factors that bind to the 38-bp cis-acting region of A. thaliana V-PPase gene, AVP1. AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2 show 53% amino acid sequence similarity. Homologs of AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2 are found in various vascular plants as well as a moss, Physcomitrella patens. Promoter-beta-glucuronidase reporter analysis shows that AtVOZ1 is specifically expressed in the phloem tissue and AtVOZ2 is strongly expressed in the root. In vivo transient effector-reporter analysis in A. thaliana suspension-cultured cells demonstrates that AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2 function as transcriptional activators in the Arabidopsis cell. Two conserved regions termed Domain-A and Domain-B were identified from an alignment of AtVOZ proteins and their homologs of O. sativa and P. patens. AtVOZ2 binds as a dimer to the specific palindromic sequence, GCGTNx7ACGC, with Domain-B, which is comprised of a functional novel zinc coordinating motif and a conserved basic region. Domain-B is shown to function as both the DNA-binding and the dimerization domains of AtVOZ2. From highly the conservative nature among all identified VOZ proteins, we conclude that Domain-B is responsible for the DNA binding and dimerization of all VOZ-family proteins and designate it as the VOZ-domain. PMID:15295067

  2. The Phytochrome-Interacting VASCULAR PLANT ONE–ZINC FINGER1 and VOZ2 Redundantly Regulate Flowering in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Yukiko; Mukougawa, Keiko; Uemoto, Mitsuhiro; Yokofuji, Akira; Suzuri, Ryota; Nishitani, Aiko; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    The timing of the transition to flowering in plants is regulated by various environmental factors, including daylength and light quality. Although the red/far-red photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) represses flowering by indirectly regulating the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), the mechanism of phyB signaling for flowering is largely unknown. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis thaliana genes, VASCULAR PLANT ONE–ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2, which are highly conserved throughout land plant evolution, as phyB-interacting factors. voz1 voz2 double mutants, but neither single mutant, showed a late-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions, which indicated that VOZ1 and VOZ2 redundantly promote flowering. voz1 voz2 mutations suppressed the early-flowering phenotype of the phyB mutant, and FT expression was repressed in the voz1 voz2 mutant. Green fluorescent protein–VOZ2 signal was observed in the cytoplasm, and interaction of VOZ proteins with phyB was indicated to occur in the cytoplasm under far-red light. However, VOZ2 protein modified to localize constitutively in the nucleus promoted flowering. In addition, the stability of VOZ2 proteins in the nucleus was modulated by light quality in a phytochrome-dependent manner. We propose that partial translocation of VOZ proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus mediates the initial step of the phyB signal transduction pathway that regulates flowering. PMID:22904146

  3. Writing Gender in Revolutionary Times: Male Identity and Ideology in Dulce Chacon's "La voz dormida"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Inma Civico

    2009-01-01

    The historical content of "La voz dormida" by Dulce Chacon gives us unique insight into the formation of male subjectivities during the ideological and physical struggle that followed the establishment of Franco's regime. The second part of the novel which centers around the figure of the "maquis," allows us to investigate the construction of a…

  4. Writing Gender in Revolutionary Times: Male Identity and Ideology in Dulce Chacon's "La voz dormida"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Inma Civico

    2009-01-01

    The historical content of "La voz dormida" by Dulce Chacon gives us unique insight into the formation of male subjectivities during the ideological and physical struggle that followed the establishment of Franco's regime. The second part of the novel which centers around the figure of the "maquis," allows us to investigate the construction of a

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana VOZ (Vascular plant One-Zinc finger) transcription factors are required for proper regulation of flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Celesnik, Helena; Ali, Gul S.; Robison, Faith M.; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transition to flowering in plants is tightly controlled by environmental cues, which regulate the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, and endogenous signals, which mediate the autonomous and gibberellin pathways. In this work, we investigated the role of two Zn2+-finger transcription factors, the paralogues AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2, in Arabidopsis thaliana flowering. Single atvoz1-1 and atvoz2-1 mutants showed no significant phenotypes as compared to wild type. However, atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 double mutant plants exhibited several phenotypes characteristic of flowering-time mutants. The double mutant displayed a severe delay in flowering, together with additional pleiotropic phenotypes. Late flowering correlated with elevated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which encodes a potent floral repressor, and decreased expression of its target, the floral promoter FD. Vernalization rescued delayed flowering of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 and reversed elevated FLC levels. Accumulation of FLC transcripts in atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 correlated with increased expression of several FLC activators, including components of the PAF1 and SWR1 chromatin-modifying complexes. Additionally, AtVOZs were shown to bind the promoter of MOS3/SAR3 and directly regulate expression of this nuclear pore protein, which is known to participate in the regulation of flowering time, suggesting that AtVOZs exert at least some of their flowering regulation by influencing the nuclear pore function. Complementation of atvoz1-1 atvoz2-1 with AtVOZ2 reversed all double mutant phenotypes, confirming that the observed morphological and molecular changes arise from the absence of functional AtVOZ proteins, and validating the functional redundancy between AtVOZ1 and AtVOZ2. PMID:23616927

  6. Fireground EMS.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Richard W

    2004-01-01

    The incident commander must ensure that EMS is able to effectively communicate and function as the incident warrants. EMS should provide appropriate services to the general public and emergency responders. With routine cross-training and drills, EMS functions can become common practice when the incident is anything but routine. PMID:14750296

  7. EMS Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrum, Jim

    This handbook is intended to assist instructors of courses in emergency medical services (EMS). Discussed first are the role of the EMS instructor and EMS training. The second chapter deals with three learning principles (the principles of effect, exercise, and readiness) and four teaching steps (preparing the learner, presenting the information,

  8. EMS Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Patrick

    This student guide is one of a series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in an emergency medical services (EMS) training program. Discussed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: the purpose and history of EMS professionals; EMS training, certification and examinations (national and state certification and

  9. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  10. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  11. EM Diffusion for a Time-Domain Airborne EM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C.; Qiu, C.; Liu, Y.; Cai, J.

    2014-12-01

    Visualization of EM diffusion for an airborne EM (AEM) system is important for understanding the transient procedure of EM diffusion. The current distribution and diffusion features also provide effective means to evaluate EM footprint, depth of exploration and further help AEM system design and data interpretation. Most previous studies on EM diffusion (or "smoke ring" effect) are based on the static presentation of EM field, where the dynamic features of EM diffusion were not visible. For visualizing the dynamic feature of EM diffusion, we first calculate in this paper the frequency-domain EM field by downward continuation of the EM field at the EM receiver to the deep earth. After that, we transform the results to time-domain via a Fourier transform. We take a homogeneous half-space and a two-layered earth induced by a step pulse to calculate the EM fields and display the EM diffusion in the earth as 3D animated vectors or time-varying contours. The "smoke ring" effect of EM diffusion, dominated by the resistivity distribution of the earth, is clearly observed. The numerical results for an HCP (vertical magnetic dipole) and a VCX (horizontal magnetic dipole) transmitting coil above a homogeneous half-space of 100 ohm-m are shown in Fig.1. We display as example only the distribution of EM field inside the earth for the diffusion time of 0.05ms. The detailed EM diffusion will be shown in our future presentation. From the numerical experiments for different models, we find that 1) the current for either an HCP or a VCX transmitting dipole propagates downward and outward with time, becoming wider and more diffuse, forming a "smoke ring"; 2) for a VCX transmitter, the underground current forms two ellipses, corresponding to the two polarities of the magnetic flux of a horizontal magnetic dipole, injecting into or ejected from the earth; 3) for a HCP transmitter, however, the underground current forms only one circle, corresponding to the polarity of the magnetic flux for a vertical magnetic dipole, injecting into the earth; 4) there exists no vertical current in an isotropic homogeneous half-space. The currents for both HCP and VCX transmitting dipole flow horizontally.

  12. EMS Course Coordinator's Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockrum, Jim

    This handbook is intended to clarify the responsibilities of an instructor-coordinator responsible for coordinating an emergency medical services (EMS) training program and to describe many of the materials now available for use in coordinating EMS training. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the nature and scope of the

  13. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  14. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  15. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  16. Populaes estelares em galxias HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westera, P.; Cuisinier, F.; Telles, E.; Kehrig, C.

    2003-08-01

    Analisamos o contedo estelar de 74 galxias HII a partir do contnuo observado nos espectros pticos dessas galxias, utilizando mtodos de sntese de populao estelar. Descobrimos que todas as galxias para as quais encontramos solues contm uma populao estelar velha que domina a massa estelar, e numa maioria dessas tambm encontramos evidncia de uma populao de idade intermediaria alm da gerao jovem que est se formando agora. Conclumos que a formao estelar dessas galxias se realiza em surtos individuais, Esses surtos so interrompidos por longos perodos de inatividade, com os primeiros consumindo a maior parte do gs. Sugerimos, portanto, que as galxias HII sejam galxias ans normais flagradas em um perodo de surto.

  17. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  18. Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira

    2002-01-01

    The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:12149326

  19. Correlation of the NBME Advanced Clinical Examination in EM and the National EM M4 exams

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Katherine; Miller, Emily S.; Lawson, Luan; Wald, David; Beeson, Michael; Heitz, Corey; Morrissey, Thomas; House, Joseph; Poznanski, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2011 two online, validated exams for fourth-year emergency medicine (EM) students have been available (National EM M4 Exams). In 2013 the National Board of Medical Examiners offered the Advanced Clinical Examination in Emergency Medicine (EM-ACE). All of these exams are now in widespread use; however, there are no data on how they correlate. This study evaluated the correlation between the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. Methods From May 2013 to April 2014 the EM-ACE and one version of the EM M4 exam were administered sequentially to fourth-year EM students at five U.S. medical schools. Data collected included institution, gross and scaled scores and version of the EM M4 exam. We performed Pearsons correlation and random effects linear regression. Results 303 students took the EM-ACE and versions 1 (V1) or 2 (V2) of the EM M4 exams (279 and 24, respectively). The mean percent correct for the exams were as follows: EM-ACE 74.8 (SD-8.83), V1 83.0 (SD-6.41), V2 78.5 (SD-7.70). Pearsons correlation coefficient for the V1/EM-ACE was 0.51 (0.42 scaled) and for the V2/EM-ACE was 0.59 (0.41 scaled). The coefficient of determination for V1/EM-ACE was 0.72 and for V2/EM-ACE = 0.71 (0.86 and 0.49 for scaled scores). The R-squared values were 0.25 and 0.30 (0.18 and 0.13, scaled), respectively. There was significant cluster effect by institution. Conclusion There was moderate positive correlation of student scores on the EM-ACE exam and the National EM M4 Exams. PMID:25671023

  20. Dabartini? vertikali?j? em?s plutos judesi? ?takos niveliavimo matavimams vertinimas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Puzien?, R?ta; Anik?nien?, Asta

    2009-01-01

    D?l vertikali?j? em?s plutos judesi? einant laikui kei?iasi niveliavimo enkl? auk?iai, ir niveliacijos praranda pirmin? tikslum?. Darbe teori\\vskai pagr?sta ir parengta metodika vertikali?j? em?s plutos judesi? ?takai niveliavimo matavimams ir tinklams ?vertinti taikant judesi? grei?i? horizontaliuosius gradientus. Pagal si?lom? metodik? ?vertinta vertikali?j? em?s plutos judesi? ?taka Lietuvos vertikaliojo geodezinio tinklo niveliacijoms. Norint ilaikyti reikiam? vertikaliojo tinklo tikslum?, tinkl? reikia kas 15-20 met? niveliuoti pakartotinai.

  1. Deterministini? ir geostatistini? interpoliavimo metod? taikymas em?s paviriui modeliuoti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nareiko, Viktor; Ruzgien?, Birut?; ?selis, Adomas

    2010-01-01

    Analizuojamas em?s paviriaus trimatis modeliavimas pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius matavimo duomenis, taikant tiesin?, svorin? ir Kriging interpoliavimo metodus. Interpoliavimo algoritmai pertvarkyti ir pritaikyti MATLAB paketo vykdomajam kodui. Sudarytoji programa Geo3D skirta erdviniams duomenims vaizduoti pagal geodezinius ir fotogrametrinius duomenis. Geo3D programa sudaryti trima?iai em?s paviriaus modeliai ?vertinti bei palyginti su modeliais, sukurtais reljefo vaizdavimo programa WinSurf.

  2. Propositionalizing the EM algorithm by BDDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihata, Masakazu; Kameya, Yoshitaka; Sato, Taisuke; Minato, Shin-Ich

    We propose an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm which works on binary decision diagrams (BDDs). The proposed algorithm, BDD-EM algorithm, opens a way to apply BDDs to statistical learning. The BDD-EM algorithm makes it possible to learn probabilities in statistical models described by Boolean formulas, and the time complexity is proportional to the size of BDDs representing them. We apply the BDD-EM algorithm to prediction of intermittent errors in logic circuits and demonstrate that it can identify error gates in a 3bit adder circuit.

  3. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  4. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  5. Ambiente e formao estelar em galxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodr, L., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Estudamos o ambiente de galxias com formao estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galxias com formao estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificao as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galxias. Mostramos que a frao de galxias com formao estelar bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galxias passivas aumenta nestas regies. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a frao de galxias que apresentam um surto recente de formao estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regies mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distores em sua morfologia. Estes resultados so confrontados com a anlise da dependncia ambiental da taxa de formao estelar, estimada pela emisso em Ha, de uma amostra extrada do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declnio gradual da formao estelar tambm observado nesta anlise, sugerindo que as interaes por efeitos de mar sejam responsveis pela reduo da formao estelar em ambientes densos atravs da remoo do reservatrio de gs das galxias. No entanto, estas interaes tambm podem induzir surtos de formao estelar nas galxias, alm de peculiaridades morfolgicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regies mais densas.

  6. Evoluo qumica em galxias compactas azuis (BCGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfranchi, G. A.; Matteucci, F.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, a formao estelar e evoluo qu mica em galxias Compactas Azuis (Blue Compact Galaxies - BCGs) foram estudadas atravs da comparao de previses de modelos de evoluo qu mica a vrias razes de abundncia qu mica observadas nestas galxias. Modelos detalhados com recentes dados de nucleoss ntese e que levam em considerao o papel desempenahdo por supernovas de ambos os tipos (II e Ia) na evoluo galctica foram desenvolvidos para as BCGs permitindo seguir a evoluo de vrios elementos qu micos (H, D, He, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, e Fe). O modelo caracterizado pelas prescries adotadas para a formao estelar, a qual ocorre em vrios surtos de atividade separados por longos per odos quiescentes. Aps ajustar os melhores modelos aos dados observacionais, as previses destes modelos foram comparadas tambm a razes de abundncia observadas em sistemas Damped Lyman alpha (DLAs) e a origem do N (primria ou secundria) foi discutida. Alguns dos resultados obtidos so: i) as razes de abundncia observadas nas BCGs so reproduzidas por modelos com 2 a 7 surtos de formao estelar com eficincia entre n = 0.2-0.9 Gano-1; ii) os baixos valores de N/O observados nestas galxias so um resultado natural de uma formao estelar em surtos; iii) os modelos para BCGs podem reproduzir os dados dos DLAs, iv) uma quantidade "baixa" de N primrio produzido em estrelas de alta massa pode ser uma explicao para os baixos valores de [N/a] observados em DLAs.

  7. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  8. Abundncias em estrelas de Brio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de Brio apresentam linhas intensas de elementos produzidos pelo processos (ex: Ba, Y, Sr, Zr) e bandas intensas de CN, C2 e CH. A hiptese mais aceita sobre a origem deste grupo peculiar a de que essas estrelas faam parte de sistemas binrios, tendo recebido material enriquecido em elementos pesados da companheira mais evoluda. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma anlise detalhada de uma amostra de estrelas desta classe, incluindo determinao de parmetros atmosfricos e clculo de abundncias. As temperaturas efetivas foram determinadas a partir de dados fotomtricos obtidos com o Fotrap instalado no telescpio Zeiss do LNA (Laboratrio Nacional de Astrofsica) (B-V, V-I, R-I, V-R), e coletados na literatura nos catlogos Hipparcos (B-V), 2MASS (Two Micron All Sky Survey) (V-K) e The General Catalogue Photometric Data (sistema Geneva). Obtivemos uma faixa de temperaturas de 4400 Tef 6500. As metalicidades foram determinadas a partir de linhas de Fe I e Fe II, estando os resultados no intervalo -1 [Fe/H] +0.1. O log g foi determinado pelo equilbrio de ionizao e pela relao com a magnitude bolomtrica, a temperatura e a massa, sendo os resultados na faixa 1.5 log g 4.5. As distncias utilizadas foram determinadas com o auxlio das paralaxes Hipparcos, e as massas determinadas por modelos de iscronas. Os espectros utilizados foram obtidos com o espectrgrafo FEROS no Telescpio de 1,5m do ESO (European Southern Observatory). As abundncias foram calculadas por meio de sntese espectral de linhas individuais incluindo elementos alfa, pico do Fe, s e r. Encontramos um excesso de elementos pesados em relao ao Fe, como esperado para estrelas de Brio.

  9. EMS offshore. A new horizon for paramedics.

    PubMed

    Mallard, A S

    1991-10-01

    The difficulty in getting medical aid to offshore drilling platforms can be a source of life-threatening delays. Recently, some companies have charted new waters by actually stationing EMS crews on their rigs. PMID:10116023

  10. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  11. EMS communication system in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Onji, Y

    1977-07-01

    Osaka prefecture, an industrial and commercial center in western Japan with a population of 7.4 million, is divided into 40 municipalities. Each municipality has an independent ambulance dispatching center to provide ambulances and rescue personnel information about availability of physicians and hospital beds in that municipality's receiving hospitals. An Emergency Medical Services Information Center (EMS-IC), equipped with a wireless network and memory devices, collects information on available specialits and vacant hospital beds every three hours from 300 hospitals and clinics in the whole prefecture and supplies them to physicians, ambulances, medical institutions, fire services headquarters, police departments, ambulance dispatching centers, medical societies and the Red Cross. EMS-IC can provide the name of the most appropriate medical institution to a running ambulance on request from rescue personnel. EMS-IC also stores information on bank blood and antiserum. PMID:875250

  12. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  13. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  14. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  15. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  16. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  17. College surprised by shortened EMS payback

    SciTech Connect

    Hume, M.

    1984-02-20

    The staff's close work with the energy management system (EMS) will enable Broward Community College, in Fort Lauderdale to recover its $590,000 investment in only 1.7 years instead of the projected 2.7 years. The college lowered electricity use by 24% with an Andover Controls Corporation AC 256 Master and Slave. Operating ease, careful planning, and staff involvement enhanced the system's efficiency at the nearly all-electric college. The EMS controls 400 point and monitors 800, primarily chillers, air handlers and other heating, ventilating, and air conditioning equipment, as well as outdoor lighting.

  18. Populao estelar jovem em galxias irregulares prximas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimares, T. A.; Telles, E.

    2003-08-01

    A anlise do contedo estelar de galxias prximas atravs da fotometria das suas estrelas resolvidas nos fornece informaes importantes sobre a histria de formao estelar e os processos de formao estelar em galxias, que esto diretamente ligados ao estudo de evoluo de galxias. Quando nenhuma estrela puder ser resolvida o mtodo mais poderoso consiste na anlise do contedo estelar integrado das galxias atravs das suas cores integradas em conjunto com informao espectroscpica que combinados com modelos de sntese evolutiva podem restringir simultaneamente a funo de massa inicial (IMF) e a taxa de formao estelar (SFR). Nesse contexto, galxias do tipo tardio, em particular, irregulares, so relevantes por vrias razes: elas so objetos relativamente simples, com alta atividade de formao estelar e so objetos relativamente jovens (geralmente apresentam baixas abundncias de elementos pesados e grande quantidade de gs). Apresentamos uma anlise fotomtrica de uma amostra de 7 galxias do tipo tardio do universo local (NGC 2366, NGC 4395, NGC 4656, NGC 4214, NGC 4236, HOII, IC2574) que foram observadas com uma boa resoluo espacial nas bandas B, V e R no telescpio Isaac Newton de 2.5m de Roque de los Muchachos nas Ilhas Canrias, Espanha. A distribuio espacial da populao estelar jovem dessas galxias discutida sobre os pontos de vista dos indices de cor integrados e dos seus diagramas cor magnitude, que comparados com iscronas tericas, nos fornecem informaes sobre os eventos de formao estelar, como por exemplo, indicaes sobre a idade dos mesmos. As principais concluses do trabalho podem ser resumidas em: (i) As galxias irregulares possuem formao estelar recente (FE) espalhada ocorrendo nos ltimos 50 Manos; (ii) A formao estelar em galxias irregulares no auto-propagante em escalas globais ( > 100 pc) ; (iii) A FE pode ser auto-regulvel em escalas espaciais de poucas dezenas de parsec; (iv) As galxias irregulares sofreram um evento principal de FE h 1010 anos atrs, o que implica que houve um momento na evoluo do universo onde a maior parte das estrelas se formaram em galxias.

  19. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication at RFETS is lively and involves important issues, but often does not inform participants about true ''risk reduction.''

  20. "Oye Mi Voz!" (Hear My Voice!): The Perceptions of Hispanic Boys regarding Their Literacy Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickafoose, Rubylinda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the perspectives that pertain to the literacy experiences of young Hispanic boys. Hispanic boys will be asked to describe, feel, judge, and make sense of their "public and private literacies" (Faulkner, 2005). This phenomenological study embraces two methods of data collection, participant focus groups and…

  1. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered aspirations…

  2. Buscando Su Voz en Dos Culturas = Finding Your Voice in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Zulmara

    1998-01-01

    An administrator/former teacher ponders difficulties of living in two cultures: a professional world that respects her degrees and credentials and a Latina world that questions pursuit of the "American dream." Although she used her American voice to coax a Latina student back to school, she sympathized with the mother's family-centered aspirations

  3. "Oye Mi Voz!" (Hear My Voice!): The Perceptions of Hispanic Boys regarding Their Literacy Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickafoose, Rubylinda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the perspectives that pertain to the literacy experiences of young Hispanic boys. Hispanic boys will be asked to describe, feel, judge, and make sense of their "public and private literacies" (Faulkner, 2005). This phenomenological study embraces two methods of data collection, participant focus groups and

  4. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... populated areas. The significant distances they must travel mean that it may take EMS personnel longer to arrive at the scene of the emergency, which can have a significant impact on patient outcomes, including survival rates. Despite sparse rural populations, trauma is certainly ...

  5. Marine EM in GOM: Advances and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, L. M.; Strack, K. M.

    2005-05-01

    Marine electromagnetic (EM) sounding methods provide valuable complementary information to conventional seismic exploration methods and success stories have been claimed by several oil companies: 1) as indicator of hydrocarbon presence derived from strong resistive anomalies 2) as complimentary tool in structural exploration. While 3D seismic identifies geological structures, it does not directly reveal the fluid content (hydrocarbons). Marine EM sounding exploits variations in electrical resistivity, and is directly sensitive to fluid saturation and thus resistive hydrocarbons. Under the right circumstances it can confirm the presence of hydrocarbons by identifying their resistive characteristics. This means that the possibility of drilling dry exploration wells is significantly reduced, as is the need for extensive appraisal drilling. EM data is used to resolve ambiguities in the structural interpretation of seismic data. For example, whereas the top of a diapiric salt body is often well constrained by seismic data, the position of the lower boundaries is often more elusive. Carbonate (or salt blankets, or resistive basalt) layers complicate the detection and characterization of deeper structure because of diffusive scattering in the layer. However, the resistivity contrast between these layers and the sediments below is an ideal target for EM sounding methods. Recently, two marine EM methods have become popular: The controlled source EM (CSEM) method and magnetotellurics (MT). The CSEM method uses an electric dipole source to transmit low frequency electromagnetic signals to an array of receivers that measure the electromagnetic field at the seafloor. Variation in amplitude and phase of the received signal as the source is towed through the receiver array yield the resistivity structure of the sub-surface to depths of several kilometers. The MT method uses naturally occurring electromagnetic source fields to determine the resistivity of the sub-surface. Thus, by studying the variation in response as a function of frequency, the variation in resistivity as a function of depth may be determined. These methods give complementary information about the resistivity structure of the sub-seafloor. Whereas CSEM data are primarily sensitive to resistive structures, and in particular to layers that are thin compared to their depth of burial, MT data can constrain larger scale conductive structure. By combining natural and controlled source methods better constraints on the geometry and properties of the seafloor can be gained than from either data type alone. Several case histories with large salt structures in the section illustrate that the techniques are useful for future exploration in the GOM. We see the technology moving from its present focus of deep water to include shallower water depths (where CSEM sounding is presently restricted). In addition, we envision the integration of complimentary EM techniques to get a better constrained resistivity image of the subsurface.

  6. Modelling and design for PM/EM magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.; Johnson, R. G.; Zmood, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    A mathematical model of a permanent magnet/electromagnet (PM/EM) radially active bearing is presented. The bearing is represented by both a reluctance model and a stiffness model. The reluctance model analyzes the magnetic circuit of the PM/EM bearings. By combining the two models, the performance of the bearing can be predicted given geometric dimensions, permanent magnet strength, and the parameters of the EM coils. The overall bearing design including the PM and EM design is subject to the performance requirement and physical constraints. A study of these requirements and constraints is discussed. The PM design is based on the required magnetic flux for proper geometric dimensions and magnet strength. The EM design is based on the stability and force slew rate consideration, and dictates the number of turns for the EM coils and the voltage and current of the power amplifier. An overall PM/EM bearing design methodology is proposed and a case study is also demonstrated.

  7. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  8. Gradientes de abundncias em galxias espirais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Gradientes de abundncias obtidos atravs de observaes de regies H II tm um papel importante no estudo de formao e evoluo de galxias espirais. Determinaes diretas de abundncias somente so obtidas quando linhas de emisso sensveis temperatura eletrnica (e.g., [O III]l4363) so detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas so fracas ou no observadas em regies H II de baixa excitao. Nestes casos mtodos empricos so utilizados para estimar as abundncias qumicas. Entretanto, diferentes mtodos tm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundncias. Neste trabalho, ns construmos modelos de fotoionizao com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnsticos construdos com dados publicados de algumas galxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparaes entre nossas estimativas de abundncias e de outros mtodos mostram que quando no h acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relao a estimativas diretas de abundncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relao a outros mtodos empricos. A origem da produo de nitrognio nas galxias estudadas discutida.

  9. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  10. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.

    2012-01-01

    Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems. PMID:22203905

  11. Sequence analysis of two tandemly linked Em genes from wheat.

    PubMed

    Futers, T S; Onde, S; Turet, M; Cuming, A C

    1993-12-01

    DNA sequences are presented for two members of the wheat Em gene family. The sequences correspond to the two linked genes at the Xem-1AL locus. Comparisons of these sequences with that of another wheat Em gene and two Em cDNA clones reveals substantial homology within the protein-coding regions, and the presence in the 5'-flanking regions of the genomic sequences of motifs characteristic of ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. PMID:8260627

  12. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  13. AVALIAO DA PRESENA DE ENDOSSIMBIONTES Cardinium em DIFERENTES ESPCIES DE ARTRPODES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A presena de endossimbiontes do gnero Cardinium em alguns grupos de artrpodes foi recentemente relatada e relacionada com diversas alteraes reprodutivas em seus hospedeiros, tais como feminilizao de caros, partenognese em parasitides, incompatibilidade citoplasmtica e aumento da fecundida...

  14. Analysis and applicability of the Dutch EMS system into countries developing EMS systems.

    PubMed

    Dib, Joe E; Naderi, Sassan; Sheridan, Indrani A; Alagappan, Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Development of an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is a challenging task for administrators, government agencies, and politicians. Factors such as the political climate, governmental support, and monetary resources heavily influence and shape the development of an EMS system. There are various systems in place to meet the functional needs and abilities of different regions while maintaining the basic principle of providing fast attention to those in need, and transportation to a definitive care facility. In this report, we describe the current Dutch EMS system in Amsterdam and the methods of daily pre-hospital health care delivery used, while exploring its potential applicability in developing nations. The Dutch EMS system is a nurse-driven triage system, both at the dispatch level and at the treatment level. Of the approximate yearly 165,000 calls received at the dispatch center, 40% of the requests were triaged based on national protocols such that no emergency ambulance dispatching was necessary. Furthermore, 30% of patients were treated at the scene, and did not subsequently require emergency transport to a definitive care facility. PMID:16434351

  15. A monoclonal antibody against Echinococcus multilocularis Em2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Deplazes, P; Gottstein, B

    1991-08-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb G11) species-specific to the Em2 antigen of Echinococcus multilocularis was generated for (i) further biological characterization of the Em2 antigen, (ii) easy affinity-purification of Em2 antigen for immunodiagnostic and immunological investigations and (iii) development of a sandwich-ELISA for the detection of Em2 antigen in diagnostic samples and thus species-specific identification of E. multilocularis metacestode material. The MAb G11 was used in an antibody sandwich-ELISA to detect soluble Em2 antigen with a methodical sensitivity of 80 ng E. multilocularis antigen/ml of solution. MAb G11 specifically detected Em2 antigen in all of 15 E. multilocularis-isolates originating from various geographical areas and in none of other helminth isolates (e.g. Echinococcus granulosus, E. vogeli, and others). Further biological analysis by FITC-labelled MAb G11 demonstrated unique binding activity to the laminated layer of the metacestode. Also, oncospheres were binding FITC-labelled MAb G11 on an outer layer synthesized during cultivation in vitro for 13 days after hatching. Application of the MAb G11 antibody sandwich-ELISA for investigation of solubilized oncospheres confirmed the in vitro synthesis of Em2 antigen by oncospheres on day 13 p.i. Adult stages (somatic antigens) and freshly hatched oncospheres were always MAb G11 negative. Solid-phase MAb G11 was used for purification of the corresponding Em2 antigen by affinity chromatography. A preliminary serological evaluation of the Em2(G11) antigen by ELISA revealed identical immunodiagnostic characteristics, compared to Em2 obtained by classical means, thus suggesting the presented method for future isolation of large-scale Em2 antigen. PMID:1945524

  16. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  17. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  18. Quality improvement in EMS: a unique and challenging necessity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Devin; Choi, Bryan; Sullivan, Francis; Williams, Kenneth A

    2014-08-01

    Quality Improvement (QI) is required in all aspects of the healthcare field. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) poses unique QI challenges. This article explores some of these challenges and provides some points to consider when performing QI in EMS services. PMID:25083952

  19. Sobre o uso das sries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentada uma demonstrao do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em sries para as equaes de perturbao em Mecnica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clssicos como os de Poincar (Poincar, 1893) por exemplo, j esta planteado o uso de potncias no inteiras no pequeno parmetro, o que evidencia a no analiticidade das funes quando uma ressonncia ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos so na raz quadrada da massa de Jpiter (o pequeno parmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergncia das sries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raz cbica do pequeno parmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em sries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) so obtidos a partir da aplicao de Teorema de Preparao de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equao de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equao algbrica. Os resultados so aplicados ao problema restrito dos trs corpos em ressonncia de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteride em relao de Jpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raz quadrada ou raz cbica da massa de Jpiter.

  20. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Khlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  1. Accuracy of EMS Trauma Transport Destination Plans in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Moss, Chailee; Cowden, Christopher S; Atterton, Laurie Meyer; Arasaratnam, Meredith H; Fernandez, Antonio R; Evarts, Jeff S; Barrier, Brian; Lerner, E Brooke; Mann, N Clay; Lohmeier, Chad; Shofer, Frances S; Brice, Jane H

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Planning for time-sensitive injury may allow emergency medical services (EMS) systems to more accurately triage patients meeting accepted criteria to facilities most capable of providing life-saving treatment. In 2010, North Carolina (NC) implemented statewide Trauma Triage and Destination Plans (TTDPs) in all 100 of North Carolina's county-defined EMS systems. Each system was responsible for identifying the specific destination hospitals with appropriate resources to treat trauma patients. We sought to characterize the accuracy of their hospital designations. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we collected TTDPs for each county-defined EMS system, including their assigned hospital capabilities (i.e., trauma center or community hospital). We conducted a survey with each EMS system to determine how their TTDP was constructed and maintained, as well as with each TTDP-designated hospital to verify their capabilities. We determined the accuracy of the EMS assigned hospital designations by comparing them to the hospital's reported capabilities. Results. The 100 NC EMS systems provided 380 designations for 112 hospitals. TTDPs were created by EMS administrators and medical directors, with only 55% of EMS systems engaging a hospital representative in the plan creation. Compared to the actual hospital capabilities, 97% of the EMS TTDP designations were correct. Twelve hospital designations were incorrect and the majority (10) overestimated hospital capabilities. Of the 100 EMS systems, 7 misclassified hospitals in their TTDP. EMS systems that did not verify their local hospitals' capabilities during TTDP development were more likely to incorrectly categorize a hospital's capabilities (p = 0.001). Conclusions. A small number of EMS systems misclassified hospitals in their TTDP, but most plans accurately reflected hospital capabilities. Misclassification occurred more often in systems that did not consult local hospitals prior to developing their TTDP. The potential of the TTDP to improve communication between EMS agencies and the facilities with which they work has not been fully realized. EMS agencies or systems should verify local hospital capabilities when engaging in destination planning efforts. PMID:24878396

  2. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  3. Energy use held steady without EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ponczak, G.

    1986-03-17

    A Chicago bank was able to maintain energy efficiency despite a computer breakdown of its energy management system. Plans to install a digital EMS will limit demand but will leave some equipment for manual control because of skepticism over the effectiveness of digital over pneumatic systems. The bank plans to operate the old and new controls in parallel to compare their cost effectiveness. The energy manager argues that they can make a good estimate of the most efficient time to start equipment, although they will not be as accurate as the computer in optimal start and stop functions. The new system should lower electricity cost in the all-electric building by $10,000 a month, mostly from savings in demand charges.

  4. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  5. Elevated ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept, Roche): overview.

    PubMed

    Pozniak, Anton; Mller, Lutz; Salgo, Miklos; Jones, Judith K; Larson, Peter; Tweats, David

    2009-01-01

    Roche's protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate (Viracept) produced between March 2007-June 2007 was found to contain elevated levels of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a known mutagen (alkylator) - leading to a global recall of the drug. EMS levels in a daily dose (2,500 mg Viracept/day) were predicted not to exceed a dose of approximately 2.75 mg/day (approximately 0.055 mg/kg/day based on 50 kg patient). As existing toxicology data on EMS did not permit an adequate patient risk assessment, a comprehensive animal toxicology evaluation of EMS was conducted. General toxicity of EMS was investigated in rats over 28 days. Two studies for DNA damage were performed in mice; chromosomal damage was assessed using a micronucleus assay and gene mutations were detected using the MutaMouse transgenic model. In addition, experiments designed to extrapolate animal exposure to humans were undertaken. A general toxicity study showed that the toxicity of EMS occurred only at doses >or= 60 mg/kg/day, which is far above that received by patients. Studies for chromosomal damage and mutations in mice demonstrated a clear threshold effect with EMS at 25 mg/kg/day, under chronic dosing conditions. Exposure analysis (Cmax) demonstrated that approximately 370-fold higher levels of EMS than that ingested by patients, are needed to saturate known, highly conserved, error-free, mammalian DNA repair mechanisms for alkylation. In summary, animal studies suggested that patients who took nelfinavir mesylate with elevated levels of EMS are at no increased risk for carcinogenicity or teratogenicity over their background risk, since mutations are prerequisites for such downstream events. These findings are potentially relevant to >40 marketed drugs that are mesylate salts. PMID:19660105

  6. Pirmasis lietuvi\\vskas Suvalkijos em?lapis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girkus, Romualdas; Lukoevi?ius, Viktoras

    2009-01-01

    Po ilgo paie\\vskos laikotarpio, dr. N. Lietuvninkaitei padedant, KTU bibliotekos Ret? knyg? skyriaus kartografiniame archyve aptiktas 1915 m. JAV ileistas B. K. Balu?io M 1:252 000 Suvalkijos em?lapis. Lietuvi? ieivijos instituto B. K. Balu?io fonde em?lapio sudarymo mediagos nerasta. Paie\\vska atrod? bevilti\\vska d?l tarpukario Lietuvi\\vskosios enciklopedijos klaidinan?ios informacijos, kad prasid?jus Pirmajam pasauliniam karui em?lapis nebuvo ileistas, tad apraomas ir publikuojamas pirm? kart?.

  7. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  8. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  9. Application of EM stress sensors in large steel cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodun; Wang, Ming L.; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Yong; Sun, Bingnan

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, the calibration and workability of magnetoelastic (ME or EM) stress sensors for large steel cables used in Qiangjiang 4th bridge in China are discussed. As an engineering application of magnetoelasticity, EM sensors make non-contact stress monitoring possible for steel hangers and post-tensioned cables on suspension and cable-stayed bridges, and other ferromagnetic structures. By quantifying the correlation of tension with magnetic properties represented by the relative permeability of the steel structure itself, the EM sensor inspects the loading level of the steel structure. The tension dependence of the relative permeability and the temperature influence was calibrated. The results revealed that the magnetoelasticity of the multi-wire hangers is consistent with one another, while the post-tensioned cables are similar to single wires. Cable stress monitoring on Qiangjiang (Qj) 4th bridge demonstrated the reliability of the EM sensors in safety evaluation of bridge.

  10. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  11. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  12. Estimation of multiple sound sources with data and model uncertainties using the EM and evidential EM algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun; Quost, Benjamin; Chazot, Jean-Daniel; Antoni, Jrme

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of identifying multiple sound sources from acoustical measurements obtained by an array of microphones. The problem is solved via maximum likelihood. In particular, an expectation-maximization (EM) approach is used to estimate the sound source locations and strengths, the pressure measured by a microphone being interpreted as a mixture of latent signals emitted by the sources. This work also considers two kinds of uncertainties pervading the sound propagation and measurement process: uncertain microphone locations and uncertain wavenumber. These uncertainties are transposed to the data in the belief functions framework. Then, the source locations and strengths can be estimated using a variant of the EM algorithm, known as the Evidential EM (E2M) algorithm. Eventually, both simulation and real experiments are shown to illustrate the advantage of using the EM in the case without uncertainty and the E2M in the case of uncertain measurement.

  13. Imatuot? auk?i? skirtum? redukavimas ivertinant vertikaliuosius em?s paviriaus judesius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakarevi?ius, Algimantas; Puzien?, R?ta

    2010-01-01

    Atliekant niveliavimo matavimus darbai danai t?siasi kelet? met?. D?l ios prieasties niveliavimo matavim? duomenims ?takos gali tur?ti vertikalieji em?s plutos judesiai. Siekiant ivengti ios ?takos, imatuoti auk?i? skirtumai turi b?ti redukuojami atsivelgiant ? pasirinkt? epoch?. Tyrimai atlikti Lietuvos vertikaliojo geodezinio tinklo pavyzdiu. Nustatyta, kad eksperimentiniame objekte niveliavimo matavimo rezultat? redukavimo, atsivelgiant ? pasirinkt? epoch?, pataisos yra reikmingos ir didesn?s u kitas apdorojant niveliavimo matavim? rezultatus skai?iuotas pataisas. Patais? d?l vertikali?j? em?s plutos judesi? ?tak? skai?iuoti niveliaciniuose ?jimuose rekomenduojama taikant regresinius vertikali?j? judesi? grei?i? prognozavimo arba judesi? grei?i? horizontali?j? gradient? modelius.

  14. A History and Informal Assessment of the <em>Slacker Astronomyem> Podcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Gay, Pamela; Searle, Travis; Brissenden, Gina

    Slacker Astronomyem> is a weekly podcast that covers a recent astronomical news event or discovery. The show has a unique style consisting of irreverent, over-the-top humor combined with a healthy dose of hard science. According to our demographic analysis, the combination of this style and the unique podcasting distribution mechanism allows the show to reach audiences younger and busier than those reached via traditional channels. We report on the successes and challenges of the first year of the show, and provide an informal assessment of its role as a source for astronomical news and concepts for its approximately 15,500 weekly listeners.

  15. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating. PMID:10458570

  16. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  17. Emergency medical services information systems and a future EMS national database.

    PubMed

    Mears, Gregory; Ornato, Joseph P; Dawson, Drew E

    2002-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, various publications and legislation have contributed to the development of emergency medical services (EMS) information systems and databases. Yet, even today, EMS systems vary in their ability to collect patient and systems data and to put these data to use. In addition, no means currently exists to easily link disparate EMS databases to allow analysis at local, state, and national levels. For this reason, the National Association of State EMS Directors is working with its federal partners at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Trauma and EMS program of the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA's) Maternal and Child Health Bureau to develop a national EMS database. Such a database would be useful in developing nationwide EMS training curricula, evaluating patient and EMS system outcomes, facilitating research efforts, determining national fee schedules and reimbursement rates, and providing valuable information on other issues related to EMS care. PMID:11789641

  18. FitEM2EM--tools for low resolution study of macromolecular assembly and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Sperling, Joseph; Sperling, Ruth; Eisenstein, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    Studies of the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies often involve comparison of low resolution models obtained using different techniques such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. We present new computational tools for comparing (matching) and docking of low resolution structures, based on shape complementarity. The matched or docked objects are represented by three dimensional grids where the value of each grid point depends on its position with regard to the interior, surface or exterior of the object. The grids are correlated using fast Fourier transformations producing either matches of related objects or docking models depending on the details of the grid representations. The procedures incorporate thickening and smoothing of the surfaces of the objects which effectively compensates for differences in the resolution of the matched/docked objects, circumventing the need for resolution modification. The presented matching tool FitEM2EMin successfully fitted electron microscopy structures obtained at different resolutions, different conformers of the same structure and partial structures, ranking correct matches at the top in every case. The differences between the grid representations of the matched objects can be used to study conformation differences or to characterize the size and shape of substructures. The presented low-to-low docking tool FitEM2EMout ranked the expected models at the top. PMID:18974836

  19. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  20. Astronomia para/com crianas carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Cincias Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatrio do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoo Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituio mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianas e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivncia Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criana e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianas e adolescentes em Centros Comunitrios de diversas reas da cidade. Esses projetos tm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianas no sentido de retir-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianas passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatrio. Este painel descreve as vrias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reunies de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianas ao Observatrio, proposta de construo de gnmons e relgios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitrios de Limeira e divulgao do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discusses sobre a aprendizagem de crianas carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinncia do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatrio e o que o nmero de crianas atendidas representou para as atividades da instituio desde o incio de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados so baseados na anlise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatrio, registros de visitas e matrias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliao do que tal projeto representou para as Instituies participantes. Para o Observatrio, em particular, foi feita uma anlise com relao s outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e pblico em geral. Tambm abordada a questo do compromisso social do Observatrio na educao do pblico em questo.

  1. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  2. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is topologically favored. The present work offers persistent homology based new strategies for topological denoising and for resolving ill-posed inverse problems. PMID:25851063

  3. Learning when to Hold'em and When to Fold'em: ERS's Budget Hold'em Game Facilitates the Budget Development Process in Memphis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If your school district is facing a budget issue, it might surprise you to learn that the solution might very well lie in a game of cards. That certainly was the case earlier this year for the city schools of Memphis, Tennessee. The game is called Budget Hold'em, and it was developed by Education Resource Strategies (ERS) of Watertown,

  4. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  5. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua–Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  6. Developments in the EM-CCD camera for OGRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutt, James H.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Miles, Drew M.; Zhang, William; Murray, Neil J.; Holland, Andrew D.; Cash, Webster; Rogers, Thomas; O'Dell, Steve; Gaskin, Jessica; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Evagora, Anthony M.; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David

    2014-07-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a sub-orbital rocket payload designed to advance the development of several emerging technologies for use on space missions. The payload consists of a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer based around an optic made from precision cut and ground, single crystal silicon mirrors, a module of off-plane gratings and a camera array based around Electron Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) technology. This paper gives an overview of OGRE with emphasis on the detector array; specifically this paper will address the reasons that EM-CCDs are the detector of choice and the advantages and disadvantages that this technology offers.

  7. The photon: EM fields, electrical potentials, and AC charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, A.; Hudgins, W. R.; Penland, R. F.

    2015-09-01

    Photons are here considered to be resonant oscillations (solitons) in four dimensions (space/time) of an undefined `field' otherwise generally existing at a local energy minimum. The photons' constituent EM fields result in elevated energy, and therefore potentials, within that field. It is in the context of the standing waves of and between photons that the EM fields and potentials lead to a description of alternating (AC) `currents' (of some form) of unquantized alternating `charge' (of some sort). The main topic of this paper is the alternating charge.

  8. Waste fuel, EMS may save plant $1M yearly

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, J.

    1982-05-24

    A mixture of paper trash and coal ash fueling an Erie, Pa. General Electric plant and a Network 90 microprocessor-based energy-management system (EMS) to optimize boiler efficiency will cost about $3 million and have a three-to-four-year payback. Over half the savings will come from the avoided costs of burning plant-generated trash. The EMS system will monitor fuel requirements in the boiler and compensate for changes in steam demand. It will also monitor plant electrical needs and control the steam diverted for cogeneration. (DCK)

  9. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase evolutiva S.

  10. PREVALNCIA DE ENDOSSIMBIONTES Cardinium EM POPULAES DE CAROS Brevipalpus phoenicis DE DIFERENTES REGIES BRASILEIRAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Em B. phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), caro vetor de importantes fitovrus, a presena de endossimbiontes do gnero Cardinium relaciona-se ao processo de feminilizao dos machos, acarretando em elevada proporo de fmeas em populaes naturais. At o momento, no conhecido se este e...

  11. Item Parameter Estimation via Marginal Maximum Likelihood and an EM Algorithm: A Didactic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Bock and Aitkin Marginal Maximum Likelihood/EM (MML/EM) approach to item parameter estimation is an alternative to the classical joint maximum likelihood procedure of item response theory. This paper provides the essential mathematical details of a MML/EM solution and shows its use in obtaining consistent item parameter estimates. (TJH)

  12. Airborne EM for geothermal and hydrogeological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, A.; Manzella, A.; Viezzoli, A.; Montanari, D.; Maggi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Within the "VIGOR" project, aimed at assessing the geothermal potential of four regions in southern Italy, Airborne EM data have been acquired, modeled and interpreted. The system deployed was SkyTEM, a time-domain helicopter electromagnetic system designed for hydrogeophysical, environmental and mineral investigations. The AEM data provide, after data acquisition, analysis, processing, and modeling, a distribution volume of electrical resistivity, spanning an investigation depth from ground surface of few hundred meters, depending on resistivity condition. Resistivity is an important physical parameter for geothermal investigation, since it proved to be very effective in mapping anomalies due to hydrothermal fluid circulation, which usually has high salt content and produces clayey alteration minerals. Since the project required, among other issues, to define geothermal resources at shallow level, it was decided to perform a test with an airborne electromagnetic geophysical survey, to verify the advantages offered by the system in covering large areas in a short time. The geophysical survey was carried out in Sicily, Italy, in late 2011, over two test sites named "Termini" and "Western Sicily". The two areas were chosen on different basis. "Termini" area is covered by extensive geological surveys, and was going to be investigated also by means of electrical tomography in its northern part. Since geological condition of Sicily, even at shallow depth, is very complex, this area provided a good place for defining the resistivity values of the main geological units outcropping in the region. "Termini" survey has been also an occasion to define relations between resistivity distribution, lithological units and thermal conductivity. The "Western Sicily" area cover the main thermal manifestations of western Sicily, and the research target was to establish whether they are characterized by common hydrogeological or tectonic features that could be mapped by resistivity. SkyTEM data have been acquired in a series of flight lines and were then processed and inverted. In the "Termini" area the flight line spacing had 150 m separation. In the "Western Sicily" area two different line spacing were used: the 1 km spacing was used for the regional mapping, whereas for infill areas, around the main hydrothermal springs, the flight lines had 100 m spacing. The total number of flight line was 4580 km, and the explored surface was in excess of 2000 km2. After acquisition, data were processed to eliminate coupling with infrastructures, and noise. Inversions was then carried out using the quasi 3-D Spatially Constrained Inversion. The obtained resistivity volume has then been the base for a detailed lithological and geothermal interpretation. Lithological and geological maps were used to constrain surface condition and to understand the resistivity ranges of the different lithological units. On the base of resistivity values, lithological units were combined to establish the main litho-resistive units, then modeled at depth, down to achievable investigation depth. This detailed interpretative modeling was also the occasion of recognizing resistivity anomalies within carbonate units, which may possibly represent hydrogeological or hydrothermal bodies. The litho-resitive 3D model is now under investigation to verify how it can represent a viable way to image thermal conductivity variations at depth.

  13. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to

  14. Reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring with crosshole EM

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    1995-06-01

    Crosshole electromagnetic (EM) imaging is applied to reservoir characterization and steam flood monitoring in a central California oil field. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping, unconsolidated oil sands within the upper 200 m. The steam plume is expected to develop as an ellipse aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. EM measurements were made from two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile using the LLNL frequency domain crosshole EM system. Field data were collected before the initiation of a steam drive to map the distribution of the oil sands and then 6 and 12 months later to monitor the progress of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the EM data before steam injection clearly delineate the distribution and dipping structure on the target oil sands. Difference images, from data collected before and after steam flooding, show resistivity changes that indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the deeper oil sands although steam injection occurred in all three sand layers.

  15. Texas Hold 'em Online Poker: A Further Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Anthony A. B.; Dempsey, Kevin; Nicki, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Playing Texas Hold 'em Online Poker (THOP) is on the rise. However, there is relatively little research examining factors that contribute to problem gambling in poker players. The aim of this study was to extend the research findings of Hopley and Nicki (2010). The negative mood states of depression, anxiety and stress were found to be linked to…

  16. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS...

  17. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS...

  18. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. Symmetry-restrained flexible fitting for symmetric EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Yan; Gumbart, James; McGreevy, Ryan; Watermeyer, Jean M.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Schulten, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary Many large biological macromolecules have inherent structural symmetry, being composed of a few distinct subunits, repeated in a symmetric array. These complexes are often not amenable to traditional high-resolution structural determination methods, but can be imaged in functionally relevant states using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). A number of methods for fitting atomic-scale structures into cryo-EM maps have been developed, including the molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) method. However, quality and resolution of the cryo-EM map are the major determinants of a methods success. In order to incorporate knowledge of structural symmetry into the fitting procedure, we developed the symmetry-restrained MDFF method. The new method adds to the cryo-EM map-derived potential further restraints on the allowed conformations of a complex during fitting, thereby improving the quality of the resultant structure. The benefit of using symmetry-based restraints during fitting, particularly for medium to low-resolution data, is demonstrated for three different systems. PMID:21893283

  20. Imaging of subsurface contaminations using dipole EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. P.; Verma, S. K.

    1994-04-01

    Major contemporary applications of the dipole EM methods deal with the problems of imaging subsurface contaminated or polluted zones, mapping of saline-water incursion zones in coastal areas, foundation engineering and waste disposal etc. Because such problems are mostly encountered in populated and/or industrialized areas, inductive electromagnetic (EM) methods employing small dipolar transmit-receive (T-R) systems provide efficient tools to tackle them. A number of T-R orientations, measuring different primary and resultant fields, are currently employed in EM exploration.In most of the above problems the target zone can be simulated by a thin conductive or resistive layer. The present work quantifies the resolving capabilities of various dipole EM systems for such a target layer. The target layer is considered embedded in different types of commonly occuring geoelectrical situations. Comparative study of the resolutions obtained for the target layer by different dipole systems reveals that the perpendicular loop system provides the best resolution due to its unique advantage of being free from primary field interference.

  1. Signs and Guides: Wayfinding Alternatives for the EMS Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Johanna H.

    Concerned with increasing the accessibility of the collection of the Engineering/Math Sciences (EMS) Library at the University of California at Los Angeles through the use of self guidance systems, this practical study focused on the problem context, general library guides, and library signage in reviewing the literature, and conducted a survey of

  2. EMS-generated Rhizoctonia resistance in an adapted wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first genetic resistance in wheat to Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae, the causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot and pre-emergence damping-off. Rhizoctonia resistance was generated in the spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Resistant plants, named Scarlet-Rz1, d...

  3. Populao estelar nuclear e extranuclear em galxias Seyfert 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimann, D. I.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Cid Fernandes, R., Jr.; Delgado, R. M. G.; Schmitt, H.; Heckman, T.; Leitherer, C.

    2003-08-01

    A luz das estrelas foi, historicamente, vista por observadores de AGNs como uma poluio inconveniente. Conseqentemente, a informao contida nas caractersticas estelares foi, durante muito tempo, largamente omitida. Nos primeiros estudos, o mtodo empregado para remover esta contaminao estelar foi represent-la por um template de galxia elptica e subtra-la do espectro observado, restando o puro AGN como um resduo. Hoje sabemos que no to simples representar essa populao. Vrios estudos tm mostrado a presena de formao estelar recente prxima a regio nuclear de galxias Seyfert. Neste trabalho foi revisada a abordagem tradicional, tendo-se focalizado a anlise na luz estelar. Espectros ticos de fenda longa, com alta razo sinal/rudo, foram usados para estudar a variao radial das larguras equivalentes de linhas de absoro e cores do contnuo. Utilizando o mtodo de sntese espectral de populaes estelares, foram estimadas as contribuies de populaes estelares de diferentes idades (e de um contnuo tipo lei de potncia) para a luz integrada das galxias, em 4020A. As principais concluses deste trabalho so: na regio nuclear, mais da metade das galxias Seyfert 2 da amostra (57%) apresenta contribuies das populaes com 100 milhes de anos ou mais jovens superior a 20% do fluxo em 4020A, enquanto que em cerca de 40% delas a componente de 3 milhes de anos (e/ou luz que provem de um ncleo ativo) tem contribuio significativa (maior do que 10%). Estas contribuies em geral decrescem quando se vai para regies mais distantes do centro das galxias, respectivamente 53% e 30% a 1kpc, 40% e 15% a 3kpc do centro das galxias. Estes resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos para uma amostra de galxias no ativas de mesmo tipo de Hubble das Seyfert. Em uma anlise inicial nota-se que em geral as galxias Seyfert apresentam contribuies das populaes de 100 milhes de anos maiores do que aquelas encontradas nas galxias no ativas, sugerindo uma ligao entre a formao estelar e a atividade em galxias.

  4. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  5. Development of the Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS).

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Elizabeth A; Siebert, Darcy; Siebert, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the theoretically grounded Emergency Medical Services Role Identity Scale (EMS-RIS), which measures four domains of EMS role identity. The EMS-RIS was developed using a mixed methods approach. Key informants informed item development and the scale was validated using a representative probability sample of EMS personnel. Factor analyses revealed a conceptually consistent, four-factor solution with sound psychometric properties as well as evidence of convergent and discriminant validities. Social workers work with EMS professionals in crisis settings and as their counselors when they are distressed. The EMS-RIS provides useful information for the assessment of and intervention with distressed EMS professionals, as well as how role identity may influence occupational stress. PMID:25760489

  6. Translation of EMS: clinical practice and system oversight from core content study guide to best practices implementation in an Urban EMS system.

    PubMed

    Tataris, Katie; Mercer, Mary; Brown, John

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, the seminal text in emergency medical services (EMS) medicine has been used to guide the academic development of the new subspecialty but direct application of the material into EMS oversight has not been previously described. The EMS/Disaster Medicine fellowship program at our institution scheduled a monthly meeting to systematically review the text and develop a study guide to assist the fellow and affiliated faculty in preparation for the board examination. In addition to the summary of chapter content, the review included an assessment of areas from each chapter subject where our EMS system did not exhibit recommended characteristics. A matrix was developed in the form of a gap analysis to include specific recommendations based on each perceived gap. Initial review and completion dates for each identified gap enable tracking and a responsible party. This matrix assisted the fellow with development of projects for EMS system improvement in addition to focusing and prioritizing the work of other interested physicians working in the system. By discussing expert recommendations in the setting of an actual EMS system, the faculty can teach the fellow how to approach system improvements based on prior experiences and current stakeholders. This collaborative environment facilitates system-based practice and practice-based learning, aligning with ACGME core competencies. Our educational model has demonstrated the success of translating the text into action items for EMS systems. This model may be useful in other systems and could contribute to the development of EMS system standards nationwide. PMID:25290737

  7. Superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) system for Grumman Maglev concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalsi, Swarn S.

    1994-01-01

    The Grumman developed Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev system has the following key characteristics: a large operating airgap--40 mm; levitation at all speeds; both high speed and low speed applications; no deleterious effects on SC coils at low vehicle speeds; low magnetic field at the SC coil--less than 0.35 T; no need to use non-magnetic/non-metallic rebar in the guideway structure; low magnetic field in passenger cabin--approximately 1 G; low forces on the SC coil; employs state-of-the-art NbTi wire; no need for an active magnet quench protection system; and lower weight than a magnet system with copper coils. The EMS Maglev described in this paper does not require development of any new technologies. The system could be built with the existing SC magnet technology.

  8. The Role of EMS in Regionalized Systems of Care.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Ian R; Verbeek, P Richard

    2015-07-01

    The parallel advancement of prehospital and in-hospital patient care has provided impetus for the development and implementation of regionalized systems of health care for patients suffering from acute, life-threatening injury and illness. Regardless of the patient's clinical condition, regionalized systems of care revolve around the premise of providing the right care to the right patient at the right time. Current regionalization strategies have shown improvements in the time to patient treatment and in patient outcome, with the incorporation of emergency medical services (EMS) bypass as a key component of the system of care. This article discusses the emerging role of EMS as a critical component of regionalized systems essential to ensure effective and efficient use of resources to improve patient outcome. We also examine some of the benefits and barriers to implementation of regionalized systems of care and avenues for future research. PMID:26073708

  9. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  10. Small sample learning of superpixel classifiers for EM segmentation.

    PubMed

    Parag, Toufiq; Plaza, Stephen; Scheffer, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Pixel and superpixel classifiers have become essential tools for EM segmentation algorithms. Training these classifiers remains a major bottleneck primarily due to the requirement of completely annotating the dataset which is tedious, error-prone and costly. In this paper, we propose an interactive learning scheme for the superpixel classifier for EM segmentation. Our algorithm is 'active semi-supervised' because it requests the labels of a small number of examples from user and applies label propagation technique to generate these queries. Using only a small set (< 20%) of all datapoints, the proposed algorithm consistently generates a classifier almost as accurate as that estimated from a complete groundtruth. We provide segmentation results on multiple datasets to show the strength of these classifiers. PMID:25333142

  11. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This booklet introduces the reader to the mission and functions of a major new unit within the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). The Secretary of Energy established EM in November 1989, implementing a central purpose of DOE's first annual Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, which had appeared three months earlier. The contents of this booklet, and their arrangement, reflect the annual update of the Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan supports DOE's strategy for meeting its 30-year compliance and cleanup goal. This strategy involves: focusing DOE's activities on eliminating or reducing known or recognized potential risks to worker and public health and the environment, containing or isolating, removing, or detoxifying onsite and offsite contamination, and developing technology to achieve DOE's environmental goals.

  12. EMS Providers and Exception From Informed Consent Research: Benefits, Ethics, and Community Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Ripley, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Cornelia; Prorock-Ernest, Amy; Foco, Rebecca; Luckett, Solomon; Ornato, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    As attention to, and motivation for, EMS-related research continues to grow, particularly exception from informed consent (EFIC) research, it is important to understand the thoughts, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers who are actively engaged in the research. Study Objective We explored the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of EMS providers regarding their involvement in prehospital emergency research, particularly EFIC research. Method Using a qualitative design, 24 participants were interviewed including Nationally Registered Paramedics and Virginia certified Emergency Medical Technicians employed at Richmond Ambulance Authority, the participating EMS agency. At the time of our interviews, the EMS agency was involved in an exception from informed consent trial. Transcribed interview data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings were presented back to the EMS agency for validation. Results Overall, there appeared to be support for prehospital emergency research. Participants viewed research as necessary for the advancement of the field of EMS. Improvement in patient care was identified as one of the most important benefits. A number of ethical considerations were identified: individual risk versus public good and consent. EMS providers in our study were open to working with EMS researchers throughout the community consultation and public disclosure process. Conclusions EMS providers in our study value research and are willing to participate in studies. Support for research was balanced with concerns and challenges regarding the role of providers in the research process. PMID:22823963

  13. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM - a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules. PMID:26566976

  14. EMS mutagenesis in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gal; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-Ren

    2014-04-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  15. EMS Mutagenesis in the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Tagu, Denis; Le Trionnaire, Gal; Tanguy, Sylvie; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Jean-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In aphids, clonal individuals can show distinct morphologic traits in response to environmental cues. Such phenotypic plasticity cannot be studied with classical genetic model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila melanogaster. The genetic basis of this biological process remain unknown, as mutations affecting this process are not available in aphids. Here, we describe a protocol to treat third-stage larvae with an alkylating mutagen, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), to generate random mutations within the Acyrthosiphon pisum genome. We found that even low concentrations of EMS were toxic for two genotypes of A. pisum. Mutagenesis efficiency was nevertheless assessed by estimating the occurrence of mutational events on the X chromosome. Indeed, any lethal mutation on the X-chromosome would kill males that are haploid on the X so that we used the proportion of males as an estimation of mutagenesis efficacy. We could assess a putative mutation rate of 0.4 per X-chromosome at 10 mM of EMS. We then applied this protocol to perform a small-scale mutagenesis on parthenogenetic individuals, which were screened for defects in their ability to produce sexual individuals in response to photoperiod shortening. We found one mutant line showing a reproducible altered photoperiodic response with a reduced production of males and the appearance of aberrant winged males (wing atrophy, alteration of legs morphology). This mutation appeared to be stable because it could be transmitted over several generations of parthenogenetic individuals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first example of an EMS-generated aphid mutant. PMID:24531730

  16. Integrated GW-EM Follow-up Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, Kendall; Eikenberry, Stephen; Klimenko, Sergey; LSC Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Advanced Gravitational-Wave (GW) detectors such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo are expected to become operational for observation runs in 2015, with an expected ultimate improvement in sensitivity over previous configurations by a factor of 10 by 2019. There are many potential electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to GWs including short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and kilonovae. While SGRBs and LGRBs predominantly emit in the X-ray, and the recently-observed kilonova primarily in the infrared, all three sources are expected to have detectable traces in the optical band, albeit requiring very sensitive optical telescopes. In order to aid in the optimization of GW trigger follow-up procedures, we perform an end-to-end analysis feasibility study using synthesized Advanced detector data simulating a GW detection with a theoretical EM counterpart injected into archival optical images. We use images from Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and inject candidate events following observed lightcurves of SGRBs, LGRBs, and kilonovae. The use of Zernike PSF decomposition on candidate objects offers a fast way to identify point sources, speeding up the automated identification of transient sources in the images. We present our method of transient recovery and the latest results of our feasibility study of a joint GW-EM observation.

  17. Perda de massa em ventos empoeirados de estrelas supergigantes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2003-08-01

    Em praticamente todas as regies do diagrama HR, as estrelas apresentam evidncias observacionais de perda de massa. Na literatura, pode-se encontrar trabalhos que tratam tanto do diagnstico da perda de massa como da construo de modelos que visam explic-la. O amortecimento de ondas Alfvn tem sido utilizado como mecanismo de acelerao de ventos homogneos. Entretanto, sabe-se que os envelopes de estrelas frias contm gros slidos e molculas. Com o intuito de estudar a interao entre as ondas Alfvn e a poeira e a sua conseqncia na acelerao do vento estelar, Falceta-Gonalves & Jatenco-Pereira (2002) desenvolveram um modelo de perda de massa para estrelas supergigantes. Neste trabalho, apresentamos um estudo do modelo acima proposto para avaliar a dependncia da taxa de perda de massa com alguns parmetros iniciais como, por exemplo, a densidade r0, o campo magntico B0, o comprimento de amortecimento da onda L0, seu fluxo f0, entre outros. Sendo assim, aumentando f0 de 10% a partir de valores de referncia, vimos que aumenta consideravelmente, enquanto que um aumento de mesmo valor em r0, B0 e L0 acarreta uma diminuio em .

  18. Gaussian mean-shift is an EM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Carreira-Perpin, Miguel A

    2007-05-01

    The mean-shift algorithm, based on ideas proposed by Fukunaga and Hostetler [16], is a hill-climbing algorithm on the density defined by a finite mixture or a kernel density estimate. Mean-shift can be used as a nonparametric clustering method and has attracted recent attention in computer vision applications such as image segmentation or tracking. We show that, when the kernel is Gaussian, mean-shift is an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and, when the kernel is non-Gaussian, mean-shift is a generalized EM algorithm. This implies that mean-shift converges from almost any starting point and that, in general, its convergence is of linear order. For Gaussian mean-shift, we show: 1) the rate of linear convergence approaches 0 (superlinear convergence) for very narrow or very wide kernels, but is often close to 1 (thus, extremely slow) for intermediate widths and exactly 1 (sublinear convergence) for widths at which modes merge, 2) the iterates approach the mode along the local principal component of the data points from the inside of the convex hull of the data points, and 3) the convergence domains are nonconvex and can be disconnected and show fractal behavior. We suggest ways of accelerating mean-shift based on the EM interpretation. PMID:17356198

  19. The US DOE-EM International Program - 13004

    SciTech Connect

    Elmetti, Rosa R.; Han, Ana M.; Williams, Alice C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) conducts international collaboration activities in support of U.S. policies and objectives regarding the accelerated risk reduction and remediation of environmental legacy of the nations' nuclear weapons program and government sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM International Program supported out of the EM Office of the Associate Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary pursues collaborations with foreign government organizations, educational institutions and private industry to assist in identifying technologies and promote international collaborations that leverage resources and link international experience and expertise. In fiscal year (FY) 2012, the International Program awarded eight international collaborative projects for work scope spanning waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) and nuclear materials disposition initiatives to seven foreign organizations. Additionally, the International Program's scope and collaboration opportunities were expanded to include technical as well as non-technical areas. This paper will present an overview of the on-going tasks awarded in FY 2012 and an update of upcoming international activities and opportunities for expansion into FY 2013 and beyond. (authors)

  20. Improving EM&V for Energy Efficiency Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy Uniform Methods Project to bring consistency to energy savings calculations in U.S. energy efficiency programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a framework and a set of protocols for determining gross energy savings from energy efficiency measures and programs. The protocols represent a refinement of the body of knowledge supporting energy efficiency evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) activities. They have been written by technical experts within the field and reviewed by industry experts. Current EM&V practice allows for multiple methods for calculating energy savings. These methods were developed to meet the needs of energy efficiency program administrators and regulators. Although they served their original objectives well, they have resulted in inconsistent and incomparable savings results - even for identical measures. The goal of the Uniform Methods Project is to strengthen the credibility of energy savings determinations by improving EM&V, increasing the consistency and transparency of how energy savings are determined.

  1. Retrospectively exploring the importance of items in the decision to leave the emergency medical services (EMS) profession and their relationships to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and likelihood of returning to EMS.

    PubMed

    Blau, Gary; Chapman, Susan

    2011-01-01

    An exit survey was returned by a sample of 127 respondents in fully compensated positions who left the EMS profession, most within 12 months prior to filling out the exit survey. A very high percentage continued to work after leaving EMS. Respondents were asked to rate the importance of each of 17 items in affecting their decision to leave EMS. A higher than anticipated response to a "not applicable" response choice affected the usability of 8 of these items. Nine of the 17 items had at least 65 useable responses and were used for further analysis. Within these 9, stress/burnout and lack of job challenges had the highest importance in affecting the decision to leave EMS, while desire for better pay and benefits had the lowest importance. Desire for career change was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS and negatively related to likelihood of returning to EMS. Stress/burnout was positively related to life satisfaction after leaving EMS. Study limitations and future research issues are briefly discussed. PMID:21695362

  2. EMS-STARS: Emergency Medical Services "Superuser" Transport Associations: An Adult Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hall, M Kennedy; Raven, Maria C; Hall, Jane; Yeh, Clement; Allen, Elaine; Rodriguez, Robert M; Tangherlini, Niels L; Sporer, Karl A; Brown, John F

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Emergency medical services (EMS) "superusers" -those who use EMS services at extremely high rates -have not been well characterized. Recent interest in the small group of individuals who account for a disproportionate share of health-care expenditures has led to research on frequent users of emergency departments and other health services, but little research has been done regarding those who use EMS services. To inform policy and intervention implementation, we undertook a descriptive analysis of EMS superusers in a large urban community. In this paper we compare EMS superusers to low, moderate, and high users to characterize factors contributing to EMS use. We also estimate the financial impact of EMS superusers. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study based on 1 year of data from an urban EMS system. Data for all EMS encounters with patients age ?18years were extracted from electronic records generated on scene by paramedics. We identified demographic and clinical variables associated with levels of EMS use. EMS users were characterized by the annual number of EMS encounters: low (1), moderate (2-4), high (5-14), and superusers (?15). In addition, we performed a financial analysis using San Francisco Fire Department (SFFD) 2009 charge and reimbursement data. Results. A total of 31,462 adults generated 43,559 EMS ambulance encounters, which resulted in 39,107 transports (a 90% transport rate). Encounters for general medical reasons were common among moderate and high users and less frequent among superusers and low users, while alcohol use was exponentially correlated with encounter frequency. Superusers were significantly younger than moderate EMS users, and more likely to be male. The superuser group created a significantly higher financial burden/person than any other group, comprising 0.3% of the study population, but over 6% of annual EMS charges and reimbursements. Conclusions. In this retrospective study, adult EMS "superusers" emerged as a distinct, predominantly male population and their EMS encounters were associated with alcohol use. Continued analysis of this unique, high-cost, and frequently transported population will likely illuminate specific intervention strategies. PMID:25093273

  3. Does EMS Perceived Anatomic Injury Predict Trauma Center Need?

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Roberts, Jennifer; Guse, Clare E.; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Brasel, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the predictive value of the anatomic step of the 2011 Field Triage Decision Scheme for identifying trauma center need. Methods EMS providers caring for injured adults transported to regional trauma centers in 3 midsized communities were interviewed over two years. Patients were included, regardless of injury severity, if they were at least 18 years old and were transported by EMS with a mechanism of injury that was an assault, motor vehicle or motorcycle crash, fall, or pedestrian or bicyclist struck. The interview was conducted upon ED arrival and collected physiologic condition and anatomic injury data. Patients who met the physiologic criteria were excluded. Trauma center need was defined as non-orthopedic surgery within 24 hours, intensive care unit admission, or death prior to hospital discharge. Data were analyzed by calculating descriptive statistics including positive likelihood ratios (+LR) with 95% confidence intervals. Results 11,892 interviews were conducted. One was excluded because of missing outcome data and 1,274 were excluded because they met the physiologic step. EMS providers identified 1,167 cases that met the anatomic criteria, of which 307 (26%) needed the resources of a trauma center (38% sensitivity, 91% specificity, +LR 4.4; CI: 3.9 - 4.9). Criteria with a +LR ?5 were flail chest (9.0; CI: 4.1 - 19.4), paralysis (6.8; CI: 4.2 - 11.2), two or more long bone fractures (6.3; CI: 4.5 - 8.9), and amputation (6.1; CI: 1.5 - 24.4). Criteria with a +LR >2 and <5 were penetrating injury (4.8; CI: 4.2 - 5.6), and skull fracture (4.8; CI: 3.0 - 7.7). Only pelvic fracture (1.9; CI: 1.3 - 2.9) had a +LR less than 2. Conclusions The anatomic step of the Field Triage Guidelines as determined by EMS providers is a reasonable tool for determining trauma center need. Use of EMS perceived pelvic fracture as an indicator for trauma center need should be re-evaluated. PMID:23627418

  4. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jrgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  5. Multi-frequency electromagnetic sounding tool EMS. Archaeological discoveries. Case stories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Zeid, N.; Balkov, E.; Chemyakina, M.; Manstein, A.; Manstein, Y.; Morelli, G.; Santarato, G.

    2003-04-01

    EMS is the new patented tool for shallow-depth (up to 7 m) induction frequency sounding. The tool is developed in Institute of Geophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy, Novosibirsk, RUSSIA. Few years of application of EMS prototypes in archaeological prospection gave us the well described picture of possibilities and limitations of EM sounding for archaeological purpose. We would like to present several archaeological case stories including paleolitic, bronze and iron ages, antique and medieval targets discovery. The cases include complex geophysical works using GPR, Vertical DC sounding and magnetometry together with EM sounding. Archaeological proofs of geophysical prospection will be presented. The last September in Italy we have done the comparative work at few Italian archaeological sites. The second EMS prototype has been compared with commercially available tools for EM prospection such as EM mappers, georadars and DC electrical resistivity tomography. In the comparison EMS feature good noise immunity, high sensibility and resolution. In some cases only EMS data shows the buried targets and it was proved immediately by excavation. The researches were done with financial support of RFBR grant # 00-06-80421

  6. Emergency medical services and "psych calls": Examining the work of urban EMS providers.

    PubMed

    Prener, Christopher; Lincoln, Alisa K

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical technicians and paramedics form the backbone of the United States' Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system. Despite the frequent involvement of EMS with people with mental health and substance abuse problems, the nature and content of this work, as well as how EMS providers think about this work, have not been fully explored. Using data obtained through observations and interviews with providers at an urban American EMS agency, this paper provides an analysis of the ways in which EMS providers interact with people with mental illness and substance abuse problems, as well as providers' experiences with the mental health care system. Results demonstrate that EMS providers share common beliefs and frustrations about "psych calls" and the types of calls that involve people with behavioral health problems. In addition, providers described their understandings of the ways in which people with mental health and substance use problems "abuse the system" and the consequences of this abuse. Finally, EMS providers discuss the system-level factors that impact their work and specific barriers and challenges to care. These results suggest that additional work is needed to expand our understanding of the role of EMS providers in the care of people with behavioral health problems and that mental health practitioners and policy makers should include consideration of the important role of EMS and prehospital care in providing community-based supports for people with behavioral health needs. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26192707

  7. Modeling of MHD edge containment in strip casting with ELEKTRA and CaPS-EM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.

    2000-01-12

    This paper presents modeling studies of magnetohydrodynamics analysis in twin-roll casting. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and ISPAT Inland Inc. (Inland), formerly Inland Steel Co., have worked together to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) computer model that can predict eddy currents, fluid flows, and liquid metal containment of an electromagnetic (EM) edge containment device. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid metal containment and fluid flow in EM edge dams (EMDs) that were designed at Inland for twin-roll casting. This mathematical model can significantly shorten casting research on the use of EM fields for liquid metal containment and control. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a 3-D finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA can predict the eddy-current distribution and the EM forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM can model fluid flows with free surfaces. The computed 3-D magnetic fields and induced eddy currents in ELEKTRA are used as input to temperature- and flow-field computations in CaPS-EM. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from both static and dynamic tests.

  8. General 4-week toxicity study with EMS in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Thomas; Eichinger-Chapelon, Anne

    2009-11-12

    In this subacute toxicity study, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) was administered daily by oral gavage to SPF-bred Wistar rats of both sexes at dose levels of 20, 60 and 180/120 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for a period of 28 days (for 19 days in the high-dose group). A control group was treated similarly with the vehicle, bidistilled water, only. The groups comprised 10 animals per sex, which were sacrificed after 28 days, respectively 19 days in the high-dose group, of treatment. Additional five rats per sex and group were treated accordingly and then allowed a 14 days treatment-free recovery period. Additional six rats per sex and group (three rats per sex in the control group) were treated accordingly and used for hemoglobin adduct analysis after EMS exposure. All animals survived until their scheduled necropsy. Treatment with EMS had a direct dose-dependent effect on food consumption and consequently on body weight at doses > or =20mg/kgbw/day in male rats and at > or =60 mg/kgbw/day in females rats. Hence, treatment with the high dose of 180 mg/kgbw/day had to be interrupted for 9 days after which, the animals were re-dosed at 120 mg/kgbw/day. This dose was also poorly tolerated over the remaining two treatment weeks causing again a marked reduction in food consumption and body weight. A dose of 60 mg/kgbw/day was moderately tolerated over 4 weeks treatment with mean daily food consumption and body weight distinctly lower than in controls. Primary targets of systemic toxicity were the hematopoietic system, thymolymphatic system and sexual organs. Characteristic changes in hematology parameters were decreased red blood cell counts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin concentration. White blood cell counts were also decreased due to reduced lymphocyte and granulocyte populations of each fraction. The corresponding histopathology findings were fatty atrophy of bone marrow and minimal hypocellularity of the white pulp of the spleen. Similarly, treatment with EMS caused an involution of the thymolymphatic system characterized by decreased organ weight of thymus, lymph nodes, and spleen microscopically associated with atrophy of the thymus and hypocellularity of Peyer's patches, lymph nodes and the white pulp of the spleen. The effects on sexual organs included lower organ weight/reduced size for testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, prostate, and uterus. Tubular atrophy, single cell necrosis of the germ cells and in epididymides reduced spermatozoa were recorded microscopically. The described findings occurred at doses of 60 and 180/120 mg/kgbw/day and were dose-dependent with regard to incidence and severity. Other target organs were the pancreas (acinar cell vacuolation), thyroid gland (follicular cell hypertrophy), and salivary gland (secretory depletion of convoluted ducts). The systemic exposure to EMS was monitored by hemoglobin ethylvaline adduct measurement. The concentration of hemoglobin ethylvaline adducts was linear with the dose and accumulated 11-26-fold over the treatment period. In summary, decreases in food consumption and body weight were the dose-limiting effects of treatment with EMS. Organ toxicity was characterized by depression of cell proliferation (hematopoiesis and spermatogenesis) and changes suggestive of reduced metabolism and/or physiological imbalances (e.g. thymolymphatic system and thyroid gland) without signs of inflammatory or necrotic lesions. For some findings, especially the effects on the thymolymphatic system and sexual organs, it cannot be excluded that starvation-like condition contributed to the occurrence of such changes. The low dose of 20 mg/kgbw/day was basically free of adverse effects despite of a clear evidence for hemoglobin adducts. PMID:19442710

  9. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  10. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  11. Effects of caffeine or EDTA post-treatment on EMS mutagenesis in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Gu, A; Deng, X; Geng, Y; Lu, Z

    1995-04-01

    Seeds of soybean cultivar LD4 were mutagenically treated with EMS (0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9, 1.5 and 1.8%) for 3 h only or plus caffeine (50 mM) or EDTA (1 mM) post-treatment for 5 h. The experimental results indicated that: (1) of the different concentrations of EMS treatment, the M2 mutation frequency induced with 0.6% EMS was the highest (9.7%). When the EMS concentration was over 0.9%, the mutation frequency decreased rapidly. (2) Of the EMS treatments plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment, the mutagenic effect of 0.6% EMS was the best for inducing morphological variations. Caffeine post-treatment decreased notably the mutation frequency of EMS treatment; when concentrations of EMS were very high (1.5% and 1.8%), mutation frequencies of EDTA post-treatment were still 5.0% and 4.88%, but no mutants were found in EMS treatment or plus caffeine post-treatment. (3) In the M2 mutation spectrum, 11 kinds of mutant types were observed in EMS treatment or plus caffeine or EDTA post-treatment. Relative frequencies of some mutant types (growth period, plant height, grain size, leaf shape and sterility, etc.) were similar among the three treatments, but EDTA post-treatment could change the relative frequencies of yield characteristics (number of pods and grains, grain weight/plant) induced by EMS treatment only. PMID:7885367

  12. Accuracy of EMS-Reported Last Known Normal Times in Suspected Acute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Curfman, David; Connor, Lisa Tabor; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Heitsch, Laura; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo; Tan, David K.; Ford, Andria L.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The last known normal (LKN) time is a critical determinant of IV tPA eligibility; however, the accuracy of EMS-reported LKN times is unknown. We determined the congruence between EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times and identified predictors of incongruent LKN times. Methods We prospectively collected EMS-reported LKN times for patients brought into the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the EMS-reported and neurologist-determined LKN times (|?LKN|). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tPA use if EMS-reported times had been used in place of neurologist-determined times. Univariate and multivariable linear regression assessed for any predictors of prolonged |?LKN|. Results Of 251 patients, mean and median |?LKN| were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. |?LKN| was <15 min in 91% of the entire cohort and was <15 min in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=86). Of patients who received IV tPA, none would have been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who did not receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times: mean EMS LKN time - neurologist LKN time = ?208 minutes. The presence of wake-up stroke symptoms (p<0.0001) and older age (p=0.019) were independent predictors of prolonged |?LKN|. Conclusions EMS-reported LKN times were largely congruent with neurologist-determined times. Focused EMS training regarding wake-up stroke symptoms may further improve accuracy. PMID:24643409

  13. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma segmentation via HMRF-EM with maximum entropy.

    PubMed

    Kai-Wei Huang; Zhe-Yi Zhao; Qian Gong; Juan Zha; Liu Chen; Ran Yang

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a novel automatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma segmentation approach used in magnetic resonance images. Adaptive calculation of the nasopharyngeal region location is first performed. The contour of the tumor is determined through distance regularized level set evolution with the initial contour obtained by the nearest neighbor graph model. To further refine the segmentation, a hidden Markov random field model with maximum entropy (HMRF-EM) is introduced to model the spatial information with prior knowledge. The proposed method is tested on magnetic resonance images of 26 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients, and achieves good results. PMID:26736915

  14. EM-wave absorption properties of hollow spiral iron particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-12-01

    Hollow iron spiral particles were fabricated successfully by thermal decomposition method, and they were heat-treated at different temperatures in N2 atmosphere. The electromagnetic wave absorption properties of hollow iron spiral particles were investigated ranging between 1 GHz and 18 GHz. The results indicated that the phase structures of the particles changed from amorphous to nanocrystal with the treating temperature rising, also causing the significant change in electromagnetic parameters and the reflection loss. The reflection loss could reach -33 dB at 16.2 GHz, indicating that the hollow iron spiral particles had the potential to be used in prepare the a high property EM-wave absorber.

  15. Theme park EMS. It's no Mickey Mouse operation.

    PubMed

    Philips, J H

    1995-07-01

    In a single shift, they can rescue someone trapped in a time warp, perform CPR while menacing monsters look over their shoulders or calmly watch as a motorboat chase ends in a huge ball of fire. It's just another routine day for EMS providers in America's theme parks, where getting ready for unusual calls is the norm. JEMS went behind the scenes with theme park responders to explore the unique challenges of their service environment. What we found was a group of super-dedicated professionals who place genuine hospitality right alongside quality patient care. PMID:10143711

  16. EM Modelling of RF Propagation Through Plasma Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfo, L.; Bandinelli, M.; Araque Quijano, J. L.; Vecchi, G.; Pawlak, H.; Marliani, F.

    2012-05-01

    Electric propulsion is a commercially attractive solution for attitude and position control of geostationary satellites. Hall-effect ion thrusters generate a localized plasma flow in the surrounding of the satellite, whose impact on the communication system needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. An electromagnetic modelling tool has been developed and integrated into the Antenna Design Framework- ElectroMagnetic Satellite (ADF-EMS). The system is able to guide the user from the plume definition phases through plume installation and simulation. A validation activity has been carried out and the system has been applied to the plume modulation analysis of SGEO/Hispasat mission.

  17. State of the Art in EM Field Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.; Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.; Chen, S.; Folwell, N.; Ge, L.; Guetz, A.; Jiang, H.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.-Q.; Li, Z.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Xiao, L.; Ko, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-25

    This paper presents the advances in electromagnetic (EM) field computation that have been enabled by the US DOE SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project which supports the development and application of a suite of electromagnetic codes based on the higher-order finite element method. Implemented on distributed memory supercomputers, this state of the art simulation capability has produced results which are of great interest to accelerator designers and with realism previously not possible with standard codes. Examples from work on the International Linear Collider (ILC) project are described.

  18. Method for evaluating compatibility of commercial electromagnetic (EM) microsensor tracking systems with surgical and imaging tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Christopher; Jensen, Vern; von Jako, Ron

    2008-03-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems have been successfully used for Surgical Navigation in ENT, cranial, and spine applications for several years. Catheter sized micro EM sensors have also been used in tightly controlled cardiac mapping and pulmonary applications. EM systems have the benefit over optical navigation systems of not requiring a line-of-sight between devices. Ferrous metals or conductive materials that are transient within the EM working volume may impact tracking performance. Effective methods for detecting and reporting EM field distortions are generally well known. Distortion compensation can be achieved for objects that have a static spatial relationship to a tracking sensor. New commercially available micro EM tracking systems offer opportunities for expanded image-guided navigation procedures. It is important to know and understand how well these systems perform with different surgical tables and ancillary equipment. By their design and intended use, micro EM sensors will be located at the distal tip of tracked devices and therefore be in closer proximity to the tables. Our goal was to define a simple and portable process that could be used to estimate the EM tracker accuracy, and to vet a large number of popular general surgery and imaging tables that are used in the United States and abroad.

  19. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by…

  20. Estudo comparativo entre estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetrias deficientes em hidrognio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcolino, W. L. F.; de Arajo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos neste trabalho o resultado de um estudo das principais caractersticas espectrais das estrelas centrais de nebulosas planetrias (ECNP) deficientes em hidrognio. A origem e a evoluo dessas estrelas ainda constitui um problema em aberto na evoluo estelar. Geralmente esses objetos so divididos em [WCE], [WCL] e [WELS]. Os tipos [WCE] e [WCL] apresentam um espectro tpico de uma estrela Wolf-Rayet carbonada de populao I e as [WELS] apresentam linhas fracas de carbono e oxignio em emisso. Existem evidncias que apontam a seguinte sequncia evolutiva : [WCL] = > [WCE] = > [WELS] = > PG 1159 (pr an-branca). No entanto, tal cenrio apresenta falhas como por exemplo a falta de ECNP entre os tipos [WCL] e [WCE]. Baseados em uma amostra de 24 objetos obtida no telescpio de 1.52m em La Silla, Chile (acordo ESO/ON), ao longo do ano 2000, apresentamos os resultados da comparao das larguras equivalentes de diversas linhas relevantes entre os tipos [WCL], [WCE] e [WELS]. Verificamos que nossos dados esto de acordo com a sequncia evolutiva. Baseado nas linhas de C IV, conseguimos dividir pela primeira vez as [WELS] em dois grupos principais. Alm disso, os dados reforam a afirmao de que as [WCE] so as estrelas que possuem a maior temperatura entre as ECNP deficientes em hidrognio. Discutimos ainda, a escassez de dados disponveis na literatura e a necessidade da obteno de parametros fsicos para estes objetos.

  1. EMS Instructor Training Program. National Standard Curriculum. Instructor Guide. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide for teaching a course to prepare emergency medical service (EMS) trainers focuses on the skills necessary to present any of the Department of Transportation (DOT), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) EMS courses. Course topics are as follows: (1) introduction; (2) instructor roles and responsibilities; (3) legal

  2. Covariance Structure Model Fit Testing under Missing Data: An Application of the Supplemented EM Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li; Lee, Taehun

    2009-01-01

    We apply the Supplemented EM algorithm (Meng & Rubin, 1991) to address a chronic problem with the "two-stage" fitting of covariance structure models in the presence of ignorable missing data: the lack of an asymptotically chi-square distributed goodness-of-fit statistic. We show that the Supplemented EM algorithm provides a convenient

  3. Global Convergence of the EM Algorithm for Unconstrained Latent Variable Models with Categorical Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Convergence of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to a global optimum of the marginal log likelihood function for unconstrained latent variable models with categorical indicators is presented. The sufficient conditions under which global convergence of the EM algorithm is attainable are provided in an information-theoretic context by

  4. Developing State and National Evaluation Infrastructures- Guidance for the Challenges and Opportunities of EM&V

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-06-24

    Evaluating the impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for state policymakers and program administrators given legislative mandates and regulatory goals and increasing reliance on energy efficiency as a resource. In this paper, we summarize three activities that the authors have conducted that highlight the expanded role of evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V): a study that identified and analyzed challenges in improving and scaling up EM&V activities; a scoping study that identified issues involved in developing a national efficiency EM&V standard; and lessons learned from providing technical assistance on EM&V issues to states that are ramping up energy efficiency programs. The lessons learned are summarized in 13 EM&V issues that policy makers should address in each jurisdiction and which are listed and briefly described. The paper also discusses how improving the effectiveness and reliability of EM&V will require additional capacity building, better access to existing EM&V resources, new methods to address emerging issues and technologies, and perhaps foundational documents and approaches to improving the credibility and cross jurisdictional comparability of efficiency investments. Two of the potential foundational documents discussed are a national EM&V standard or resource guide and regional deemed savings and algorithm databases.

  5. Contactless ultrasonic treatment of melts using EM induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarevics, V.; Djambazov, G.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Pericleous, K. A.

    2015-06-01

    Ultrasound Treatment (UT) is commonly used in light alloys during solidification to refine microstructure, or disperse immersed particles. A sonotrode probe introduced into the melt generates sound waves that are strong enough to produce cavitation of dissolved gases. The same method cannot be used in high temperature melts, or for highly reactive alloys, due to probe erosion and melt contamination. An alternative, contactless method of generating sound waves is proposed and investigated theoretically in this paper, using electromagnetic (EM) induction. In addition to strong vibration, the EM induction currents generate strong stirring in the melt that aids distribution of the UT effect to large volumes of material. In a typical application, the same induction coil surrounding the crucible used to melt the alloy may be adopted for UT with suitable frequency tuning. Alternatively - or in addition - a top coil may be used. For industrial use, instead of multiple sonotrodes as has been the practice in scaling up, modelling shows that one simply has to alter the coil geometry and current to suit. To reach sinusoidal pressure fluctuations suitable for cavitation it may be necessary to tune the induction coil frequency for resonance, given the crucible dimensions.

  6. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  7. Fabrication and EM shielding properties of electrospining PANi/MWCNT/PEO fibrous membrane and its composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Jiang, Xueyong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, Polyaniline-based fibrous membranes were fabricated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by the electrospinning method. And then PANi/PEO/MWCNT fibrous membranes reinforced epoxy based nanocomposite was then fabricated. The morphology and electrical properties of PANi /MWCNT /PEO fibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The morphologies of the membranes indicate that the electrospining method can fabricate well nano structures fibrous membrane. The EM properties of the composite reinforced with the electrospining fibrous membrane were measured by vector network analyzer. The results show that the permittivity real, image parts and permeability real part of the composite increase by filling with PANI/PEO and PANI/CNT/PEO membrane. The EM shielding and absorb performance is base on the dielectric dissipation. And different membranes made of different materials show different EM parameter, and different EM shielding performance, which can be used to the EM shielding and stealth material design and fabrication.

  8. A Strategy for Collecting and Analyzing Multiple Electromagnetic (EM) Data Sets for Pre- Earthquake Signal Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Cutler, D.; Dunson, C.; Bortnik, D.; Calais, D.; Dautermann, T.; Maniscalco, M.

    2006-12-01

    There have been a number of reports of interesting electromagnetic (EM) signals detected prior to large earthquakes, but the subsequent analyses have been hampered by insufficient instrumentation to cover large geographical areas, and enough data history to allow statistical analyses of potential "earthquake signatures". The EM data analysis requires that several basic questions be addressed: "What are the "normal" background signatures (both natural and man-made) for each instrument during non-earthquake days?" and "What are the statistically "unique" signatures associated with large earthquakes?" Both ground and space sensors are subjected to a wide variety of non-earthquake EM noise (geomagnetic micropulsations, SRS, Schumann Resonance and man-made EM noise). We first show the top-level strategy developed by QuakeFinder and our partners to collect large volumes of satellite EM data (DEMETER and QuakeSat), and ground EM data (from QuakeFinder's CalMagNet and Berkeley's magnetometer network, and total electron content (TEC) data from both US and Japanese GPS networks). We show a wide variety of algorithms used to identify and characterize natural and man-made EM noise, and then compare the information from multiple instrument platforms and algorithms to help discriminate between "normal" EM noise sources and potentially "earthquake-generated" EM noise. This data collection, algorithm generation, and analysis processes are evolving from a simple "post quake" analysis, to a daily ingest, data fusion, and strategy refinement at our QuakeFinder Data Center. We also recognize that there may never be enough instrumentation located at the right place and at the right time, so we also include the strategy to use multiple, portable instruments to collect and measure potential post-quake EM signals near the epicenter area.

  9. Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation. PMID:20977363

  10. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de emissão e a relação dos índices espectrais, dpés > dtopo prioriza as interpretações com difusão em ângulo de passo devida a colisões Coulombianas. Nesta difusão o déficit de elétrons energéticos na precipitação seria uma conseqüência natural da dependência em e-3/2 das colisões elétron-próton (onde e é a energia dos elétrons).

  11. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable regulatory milestones, they can provide a comprehensive work plan for not only the board, but also regulators, site contractors, and DOE. Because the work plans are reviewed and approved by DOE, they carry some weight in holding local boards of the EM SSAB accountable. This structure provides the basis for local boards to achieve their primary function, to provide DOE with information, advice, and recommendations concerning issues affecting the EM program at the site. (authors)

  12. THE WHITE DWARF IN EM CYGNI: BEYOND THE VEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Godon, Patrick; Sion, Edward M.; Barrett, Paul E.; Linnell, Albert P. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu E-mail: linnell@astro.washington.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present a spectral analysis of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of the eclipsing double-line spectroscopic binary EM Cygni (EM Cyg), a Z Cam DN system. The FUSE spectrum, obtained in quiescence, consists of four individual exposures (orbits): two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} {approx} 0.65 and {phi} {approx} 0.90, have a lower flux; and two exposures, at orbital phases {phi} = 0.15 and 0.45, have a relatively higher flux. The change of flux level as a function of the orbital phase is consistent with the stream material (flowing over and below the disk from the hot spot region to smaller radii) partially masking the white dwarf. We carry out a spectral analysis of the FUSE data, obtained at phase 0.45 (when the flux is maximal), using synthetic spectra generated with the codes TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. Using a single white dwarf spectral component, we obtain a white dwarf temperature of 40, 000 K {+-} 1000 K, rotating at 100 km s{sup -1}. The white dwarf, or conceivably, the material overflowing the disk rim, shows suprasolar abundances of silicon, sulphur, and possibly nitrogen. Using a white dwarf+disk composite model, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature could be even as high as 50,000 K, contributing more than 90% of the FUV flux, and the disk contributing less than 10% must have a mass accretion rate reaching 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The single white dwarf model fits the absorption lines better than the white dwarf+disk model, but the white dwarf+disk model fits better the continuum in the shorter wavelengths. In both cases, however, we obtain that the white dwarf temperature is much higher than previously estimated. We emphasize the importance of modeling the spectra of EM Cyg around phase {phi} < 0.5, when the white dwarf and disk are facing the observer, and we suggest that the discrepancy between the present analysis and previous spectral analysis might be due to the occulting effect of the stream veiling the white dwarf and disk.

  13. A constrained sequential EM algorithm for speech enhancement.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Park S; Choi S

    2008-11-01

    Speech enhancement is a fundamental problem, the goal of which is to estimate clean speech s(t), given a noise-contaminated signal s(t)+n(t), where n(t) is white or colored noise. This task can be viewed as a probabilistic inference problem which involves estimating the posterior distribution of hidden clean speech, given a noisy observation. Kalman filter is a representative method but is restricted to Gaussian distributions only. We consider the generalized auto-regressive (GAR) model in order to capture the non-Gaussian characteristics of speech. Then we present a constrained sequential EM algorithm where Rao-Blackwellized particle filters (RBPFs) are used in the E-step and model parameters are updated in a sequential manner in the M-step under positivity constraints for noise variance parameters. Numerical experiments confirm the high performance of our proposed method, compared to Kalman filter-based methods, in the task of sequential speech enhancement.

  14. Making connections. Voice and data solutions for EMS.

    PubMed

    Careless, James; Erich, John

    2008-08-01

    Communications used to be so simple-1) grab the radio, 2) push and talk. Now we're besieged by a confusing assortment of technology and terms-wideband, broadband, VoIP, RoIP, ect.- and a constand thrumming imperative to achieve and improve and perfect some mystical state of full interoperability. Frankly, it can all be a bit much. With this supplement, we hope to clarify you options. We examine the importance of broadband for EMS, with its potential for larger data "pipes" between the hospital and the field; advances in the promising technologies of Voice over IP and Radio over IP; and how some systems are improving their interconnectedness and resulting operations. The jargon can be overwhelming, but the ideas are worth understanding. PMID:18814746

  15. Quantitative spectroscopic analysis of and distance to SN1999em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, L.; Hillier, D. J.

    2006-02-01

    Multi-epoch multi-wavelength spectroscopic observations of photospheric-phase type II supernovae (SN) provide information on massive-star progenitor properties, the core-collapse mechanism, and distances in the Universe. Following successes of recent endeavors (Dessart & Hillier 2005a, A&A, 437, 667; 2005b, A&A, 439, 671) with the non-LTE model atmosphere code CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller 1998, ApJ, 496, 407), we present a detailed quantitative spectroscopic analysis of the type II SN1999em and, using the Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM) or synthetic fits to observed spectra, la Baron et al. (2004, ApJ, 616, 91), we estimate its distance. Selecting eight epochs, which cover the first 38 days after discovery, we obtain satisfactory fits to optical spectroscopic observations of SN1999em (including the UV and near-IR ranges when available). We use the same iron-group metal content for the ejecta, the same power-law density distribution (with exponent n = 10{-}12), and a Hubble-velocity law at all times. We adopt a H/He/C/N/O abundance pattern compatible with CNO-cycle equilibrium values for a RSG/BSG progenitor, with C/O enhanced and N depleted at later times. The overall evolution of the spectral energy distribution, whose peak shifts to longer wavelengths as time progresses, reflects the steady temperature/ionization-level decrease of the ejecta, associated non-linearly with a dramatic shift to ions with stronger line-blocking powers in the UV and optical (Fe ii, Tiii). In the parameter space investigated, CMFGEN is very sensitive and provides photospheric temperatures and velocities, reddenings, and the H/He abundance ratio with an accuracy of 500 K, 10%, 0.05 and 50%, respectively. Following Leonard et al. (2002, PASP, 114, 35), and their use of correction factors from Hamuy et al. (2001, ApJ, 558, 615), we estimate an EPM distance to SN1999em that also falls 30% short of the Cepheid distance of 11.7 Mpc to its host galaxy NGC 1637 (Leonard et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 247). However, using the systematically higher correction factors of Dessart & Hillier (2005b) removes the discrepancy. A significant scatter, arising primarily from errors in the correction factors and derived temperatures, is seen in distances derived using different band passes. However, adopting both correction factors and corresponding color-temperatures from tailored models to each observation leads to a good agreement between distance estimates obtained from different band passes. The need for detailed model computations thus defeats the appeal and simplicity of the original EPM method, which uses tabulated correction factors and broadband fluxes, for distance determinations. However, detailed fits to SN optical spectra, based on tailored models for individual SN observations, offers a promising approach to obtaining accurate distances, either through the EPM or via the technique of Baron et al. (2004). Our best distance-estimate to SN1999em is 11.5 1.0 Mpc. We note that to achieve 10-20% accuracy in such distance estimates requires multiple observations, covering preferentially a range of early epochs preceding the hydrogen-recombination phase.

  16. Detection of karst structures using airborne EM and VLF

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P. Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.

    1994-12-31

    Through the combined use of multi-frequency helicopter electromagnetic and VLF data, it is possible to detect and delineate a wide variety of karst structures and possibly to assess their interconnectedness. Multi-frequency EM Can detect karst features if some element of the structure is conductive. This conductive aspect may derive from thick, moist soils in the depression commonly associated with a doline, from conductive fluids in the cavity, or from conductive sediments in the cavity if these occupy a significant portion of it. Multiple loop configurations may also increase the likelihood of detecting karst features. Preliminary evidence indicates total field VLF measurements may be able to detect interconnected karst pathways, so long as the pathways are water or sediment filled. Neither technique can effectively detect dry, resistive air-filled cavities.

  17. EM Structure-Based Accelerators Working Group Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, W.D.; Lidia, S.M.

    2004-12-07

    This Working Group (WG) focused on EM Structure-Based Accelerators, which covers a broad area of mechanisms and experiments. Topics covered included dielectric wakefield accelerators (DWA), photonic bandgap accelerators (PBGA), inverse free electron lasers (IFEL), vacuum laser accelerators (VLA), other novel schemes, and supporting analysis and modeling. In addition, this WG was tasked at the Workshop with developing conceptual (strawman) designs for a 1-GeV accelerator system based upon any of the experimentally-proven approaches covered in this WG. Two strawmen designs were developed based upon IFELs and DWAs. The presentations given and strawmen designs indicate great progress has been made in many areas. Proof-of-principle experiments will occur shortly in PBGA and VLA. Other well-proven devices, such as IFELs, are becoming accepted as 'workhorse' providers of microbunches.

  18. Position resolution and particle identification with the ATLAS EM calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, J.; Di Ciaccio, L.; El Kacimi, M.; Gaumer, O.; Gouanre, M.; Goujdami, D.; Lafaye, R.; Le Maner, C.; Neukermans, L.; Perrodo, P.; Poggioli, L.; Prieur, D.; Przysiezniak, H.; Sauvage, G.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zitoun, R.; Lanni, F.; Ma, H.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rescia, S.; Takai, H.; Belymam, A.; Benchekroun, D.; Hakimi, M.; Hoummada, A.; Barberio, E.; Gao, Y. S.; Lu, L.; Stroynowski, R.; Aleksa, M.; Beck Hansen, J.; Carli, T.; Fassnacht, P.; Gianotti, F.; Hervas, L.; Lampl, W.; Belhorma, B.; Collot, J.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Hostachy, J. Y.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Martin, P.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Saboumazrag, S.; Viret, S.; Leltchouk, M.; Parsons, J. A.; Seman, M.; Barreiro, F.; Del Peso, J.; Labarga, L.; Oliver, C.; Rodier, S.; Barrillon, P.; Benchouk, C.; Djama, F.; Duval, P. Y.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hubaut, F.; Monnier, E.; Pralavorio, P.; Sauvage, D.; Serfon, C.; Tisserant, S.; Toth, J.; Banfi, D.; Carminati, L.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Delmastro, M.; Fanti, M.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Kotov, K.; Maslennikov, A.; Pospelov, G.; Tikhonov, Yu.; Bourdarios, C.; de La Taille, C.; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Kado, M.; Lechowski, M.; Parrour, G.; Puzo, P.; Rousseau, D.; Sacco, R.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Serin, L.; Unal, G.; Zerwas, D.; Dekhissi, B.; Derkaoui, J.; El Kharrim, A.; Maaroufi, F.; Camard, A.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Schwemling, Ph.; Ghazlane, H.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Idrissi Fakhr-Eddine, A.; Boonekamp, M.; Mansouli, B.; Meyer, P.; Schwindling, J.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Tayalati, Y.

    2005-09-01

    In the years between 2000 and 2002 several pre-series and series modules of the ATLAS EM barrel and end-cap calorimeter were exposed to electron, photon and pion beams. The performance of the calorimeter with respect to its finely segmented first sampling has been studied. The polar angle resolution has been found to be in the range 50-60 (mrad)/?{E(GeV)}. The ?0 rejection has been measured to be about 3.5 for 90% photon selection efficiency at pT=50 GeV/c. e- ? separation studies have indicated that a pion fake rate of (0.07-0.5)% can be achieved while maintaining 90% electron identification efficiency for energies up to 40 GeV.

  19. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.; Ng, L.C.; Lea, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have been used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  20. EM modeling of RF drive in DTL tank 4

    SciTech Connect

    Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    2012-06-19

    A 3-D MicroWave Studio model for the RF drive in the LANSCE DTL tank 4 has been built. Both eigensolver and time-domain modeling are used to evaluate maximal fields in the drive module and RF coupling. The LANSCE DTL tank 4 has recently been experiencing RF problems, which may or may not be related to its replaced RF coupler. This situation stimulated a request by Dan Rees to provide EM modeling of the RF drive in the DTL tank 4 (T4). Jim O'Hara provided a CAD model that was imported into the CST Microwave Studio (MWS) and after some modifications became a part of a simplified MWS model of the T4 RF drive. This technical note describes the model and presents simulation results.

  1. EM Properties of Magnetic Minerals at RADAR Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stillman, D. E.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    Previous missions to Mars have revealed that Mars surface is magnetic at DC frequency. Does this highly magnetic surface layer attenuate RADAR energy as it does in certain locations on Earth? It has been suggested that the active magnetic mineral on Mars is titanomaghemite and/or titanomagnetite. When titanium is incorporated into a maghemite or magnetite crystal, the Curie temperature can be significantly reduced. Mars has a wide range of daily temperature fluctuations (303K - 143K), which could allow for daily passes through the Curie temperature. Hence, the global dust layer on Mars could experience widely varying magnetic properties as a function of temperature, more specifically being ferromagnetic at night and paramagnetic during the day. Measurements of EM properties of magnetic minerals were made versus frequency and temperature (300K- 180K). Magnetic minerals and Martian analog samples were gathered from a number of different locations on Earth.

  2. Speech articulator measurements using low power EM-wave sensors.

    PubMed

    Holzrichter, J F; Burnett, G C; Ng, L C; Lea, W A

    1998-01-01

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions as speech is produced. Glottal tissue oscillations, jaw, tongue, soft palate, and other organs have been measured. Previously, microwave imaging (e.g., using radar sensors) appears not to have been considered for such monitoring. Glottal tissue movements detected by radar sensors correlate well with those obtained by established laboratory techniques, and have used to estimate a voiced excitation function for speech processing applications. The noninvasive access, coupled with the small size, low power, and high resolution of these new sensors, permit promising research and development applications in speech production, communication disorders, speech recognition and related topics. PMID:9440346

  3. Integrated EM & Thermal Simulations with Upgraded VORPAL Software

    SciTech Connect

    D.N. Smithe, D. Karipides, P. Stoltz, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear physics accelerators are powered by microwaves which must travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and the cryogenic accelerator structures. The ohmic heat load from the microwaves is affected by the temperature-dependent surface resistance and in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. Integrated EM & thermal analysis of this difficult non-linear problem is now possible with the VORPAL finite-difference time-domain simulation tool. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multi-physics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields, and we will also discuss user interface and algorithmic upgrades which facilitate this emerging multiphysics capability.

  4. Suspended-Patch Antenna With Inverted, EM-Coupled Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    An improved suspended-patch antenna has been designed to operate at a frequency of about 23 GHz with linear polarization and to be one of four identical antennas in a rectangular array. The antenna includes a parasitic patch on top of a suspended dielectric superstrate, an active patch on top of a suspended dielectric substrate, a microstrip on the bottom of the dielectric substrate, and a ground plane. The microstrip, the ground plane, the airgap between them, and the dielectric substrate together constitute a transmission line that has an impedance of 50 Ohm and is electromagnetically (EM) coupled to the active patch. The parasitic patch is, in turn, excited by the active patch. The microstrip feed is characterized as inverted because the microstrip is on the bottom of the substrate, whereas microstrips are usually placed on the tops of dielectric substrates

  5. High-dimensional cluster analysis with the Masked EM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kadir, Shabnam N.; Goodman, Dan F. M.; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Cluster analysis faces two problems in high dimensions: first, the curse of dimensionality that can lead to overfitting and poor generalization performance; and second, the sheer time taken for conventional algorithms to process large amounts of high-dimensional data. We describe a solution to these problems, designed for the application of spike sorting for next-generation high channel-count neural probes. In this problem, only a small subset of features provide information about the cluster member-ship of any one data vector, but this informative feature subset is not the same for all data points, rendering classical feature selection ineffective. We introduce a Masked EM algorithm that allows accurate and time-efficient clustering of up to millions of points in thousands of dimensions. We demonstrate its applicability to synthetic data, and to real-world high-channel-count spike sorting data. PMID:25149694

  6. Linear array implementation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1995-08-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution back projection algorithms. However, the PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm is computationally burdensome for today`s single processor systems. In addition, a large memory is required for the storage of the image, projection data, and the probability matrix. Since the computations are easily divided into tasks executable in parallel, multiprocessor configurations are the ideal choice for fast execution of the EM algorithms. In tis study, the authors attempt to overcome these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor systems. The parallel EM algorithm on a linear array topology using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PE`s) has been implemented. The performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, IBM 6000 RISC workstation, and on the linear array system is discussed and compared. The results show that the computational speed performance of a linear array using 8 DSP chips as PE`s executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 15.5 times better than that of the IBM 6000 RISC workstation. The novelty of the scheme is its simplicity. The linear array topology is expandable with a larger number of PE`s. The architecture is not dependant on the DSP chip chosen, and the substitution of the latest DSP chip is straightforward and could yield better speed performance.

  7. DOE-EM privatization and the 2006 Plan: Principles for procurement policies and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Duemmer, C.L.

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Remediation and Waste Management (EM) has recently set in place programs to restructure the strategic planning mechanism that will drive its clean-up schedule, The 2006 Plan, and to create a new set of business relationships with private contractors that will reduce costs--privatization. Taken together, the 2006 Plan and privatization will challenge EM to create new business practices to recast its risk management policies to support these initiatives while ensuring that its responsibilities toward the environment, human health, and worker safety (ES and H) are maintained. This paper argues that the 2006 Plan has transformed EM`s traditional, bottoms-up approach based on technical dictates to a top-down approach based on management goals--a transformation from an engineering problem to an economic problem. The 2006 Plan evolved from EM`s Ten-Year Plan, and seeks to convert the largely open-ended planning approach previously undertaken by EM to a plan bounded by time and dollars. The plan emphasizes making tradeoffs and choosing activities that deliver the most clean-up for the dollar. It also recognizes that each major player--stakeholders, DOE, OMB and Congress--has distinct interests that must be resolved if the process is to succeed. This, in turn, has created the need for a corresponding transformation in risk management practices from compliance-driven to benefit/cost-driven.

  8. DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; England, J.

    2010-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new training course, Packaging Maintenance and Operations, on September 1-2, 2009 at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC-Aiken) campus in Aiken, SC. The premier offering of the course was developed and presented by the Savannah River National Laboratory, and attended by twenty-nine students across the DOE, NNSA and private industry. This training informed package users of the requirements associated with handling shipping containers at a facility (user) level and provided a basic overview of the requirements typically outlined in Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Chapters 1, 7, and 8. The course taught packaging personnel about the regulatory nature of SARPs to help reduce associated and often costly packaging errors. Some of the topics covered were package contents, loading, unloading, storage, torque requirements, maintaining records, how to handle abnormal conditions, lessons learned, leakage testing (including demonstration), and replacement parts. The target audience for this course was facility operations personnel, facility maintenance personnel, and field quality assurance personnel who are directly involved in the handling of shipping containers. The training also aimed at writers of SARP Chapters 1, 7, and 8, package designers, and anyone else involved in radioactive material packaging and transportation safety. Student feedback and critiques of the training were very positive. SRNL will offer the course again at USC Aiken in September 2010.

  9. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado h dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais so analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativsticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O mtodo consiste em uma decomposio de curvas de luz em sries de exploses similares, em vrias freqncias, baseando-se em uma evoluo espectro-temporal mdia das exploses. A partir da evoluo mdia, um ajuste de cada exploso feito com base em equaes empricas, modificando-se apenas parmetros especficos de cada exploso. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a exploses delineadas por uma evoluo do choque em trs estgios, segundo a predominncia do processo de emisso: sncrotron, Compton e adiabtico. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrizao mais concisa, uma otimizao do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergncia mais rpida, a formulao para cada evento foi assumida com uma evoluo em apenas dois estgios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma tima delineao das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqncias 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatrio da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatrio do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatrio Metshovi. Como concluses importantes, verificou-se que: os parmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do ndice que descreve a expanso do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma no-cnica; o campo magntico turbulento atrs da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das exploses so devidas influncia de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuio espectral de energia dos eltrons, a intensidade de campo magntico e o fator de feixe Doppler, no incio do choque.

  10. EMS Provider Assessment of Vehicle Damage Compared to a Professional Crash Reconstructionist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, E. Brooke; Cushman, Jeremy T.; Blatt, Alan; Lawrence, Richard; Shah, Manish N.; Swor, Robert; Brasel, Karen; Jurkovich, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy of EMS provider assessments of motor vehicle damage, when compared to measurements made by a professional crash reconstructionist. Methods EMS providers caring for adult patients injured during a motor vehicle crash and transported to the regional trauma center in a midsized community were interviewed upon ED arrival. The interview collected provider estimates of crash mechanism of injury. For crashes that met a preset severity threshold, the vehicles owner was asked to consent to having a crash reconstructionist assess their vehicle. The assessment included measuring intrusion and external auto deformity. Vehicle damage was used to calculate change in velocity. Paired t-test and correlation were used to compare EMS estimates and investigator derived values. Results 91 vehicles were enrolled; of these 58 were inspected and 33 were excluded because the vehicle was not accessible. 6 vehicles had multiple patients. Therefore, a total of 68 EMS estimates were compared to the inspection findings. Patients were 46% male, 28% admitted to hospital, and 1% died. Mean EMS estimated deformity was 18 and mean measured was 14. Mean EMS estimated intrusion was 5 and mean measured was 4. EMS providers and the reconstructionist had 67% agreement for determination of external auto deformity (kappa 0.26), and 88% agreement for determination of intrusion (kappa 0.27) when the 1999 Field Triage Decision Scheme Criteria were applied. Mean EMS estimated speed prior to the crash was 48 mph13 and mean reconstructionist estimated change in velocity was 18 mph12 (correlation -0.45). EMS determined that 19 vehicles had rolled over while the investigator identified 18 (kappa 0.96). In 55 cases EMS and the investigator agreed on seatbelt use, for the remaining 13 cases there was disagreement (5) or the investigator was unable to make a determination (8) (kappa 0.40). Conclusions This study found that EMS providers are good at estimating rollover. Vehicle intrusion, deformity, and seatbelt use appear to be more difficult to estimate with only fair agreement with the crash reconstructionist. As expected, the EMS provider estimated speed prior to the crash does not appear to be a reasonable proxy for change in velocity. PMID:21815732

  11. Time-Lapse inversion of EM Tomography data for polymer-injected hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, Seiwook; Park, Chanho; Nam, Myung Jin; Son, Jeong-Sul

    2015-04-01

    Polymer flooding is a method to increase the production of hydrocarbon reservoir by injecting polymer solution into the reservoir. For a study on the monitoring fluid variation within the reservoir, we first make analysis on seismic- and electromagnetic (EM)- tomography responses for seismic and electrical-resistivity rock physics models (RPMs) of the reservoir considering polymer fluid. Constructing RPMs are dependent on not only geologic characteristics of reservoir but also reservoir parameters such as fluid-type, fluid saturation, pressure and temperature. When making RPM for monitoring analysis, we assume the geology does not changes while reservoir parameters change to affect responses of seismic and EM tomography data. Specifically when constructing electrical-resistivity RPM, we consider three different types of hydrocarbon reservoirs, which are clean sand, shaly sand, sand-shale lamination, while considering two different types of waters (fresh water and salt water) to make 2wt% polymer solution. To compute time lapse EM and seismic tomography responses for corresponding RPMs of polymer-injected reservoirs, we used 2.5D finite element EM modeling algorithm and staggered-grid finite difference elastic modeling algorithm, respectively. Comparison between sensitivities of seismic and EM tomography to polymer injection confirms that EM tomography is more sensitivity to the polymer injection. For the evaluation of the potential of EM tomography to monitor polymer flooding, this study subsequently develops an efficient time-lapse EM tomography inversion algorithm based on the 2.5D EM tomography modeling. Using the inversion algorithm, we inverted the time-lapse EM tomography data to construct true resistivity models of polymer-injected reservoirs and analyze differences between them. From the time-lapse inversion results, we can observe the differences in time lapse responses between using fresh water and salt water have been decreased in the inverted time-lapse sections. Even though EM tomography has larger sensitivity than seismic tomography, EM tomography still has limitation in monitoring polymer flooding in a sense that the method simply detects changes due to the injection of fresh or salt water rather than polymer solution directly. However, the time-lapse inversion method developed in this study has many applications in monitoring fluid variation in other engineering fields.

  12. Development of MPD thruster EM for a space test. [Engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiina, K.; Suzuki, H.; Uematsu, K.; Ohtsuka, T.; Toki, K. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa )

    1990-01-01

    An engineering model (EM) of MPD thruster has been developed for a space test on board the first Space Flyer Unit (SFU-1). A thermal vacuum test was conducted, and the following results were obtained: (1) a thermal mathematical model of MPD thruster EM was established, (2) sizing data of thruster heaters were obtained, and (3) thermal characteristics of the MPD thruster EM were confirmed to meet the requirement. The data are going to be reflected in designing a protoflight model of MPD thruster. 8 refs.

  13. Investigating the source of contaminated plumes downstream of the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant using EM34 conductivity data, VLF-EM and DC-resistivity geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraz, Farzin Amirkhani; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Moradzadeh, Ali; Arab-Amiri, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coal washing factories may create serious environmental problems due to pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage generation from coal waste piles on nearby land. Infiltration of pyrite oxidation products through the porous materials of the coal waste pile by rainwater cause changes in the conductivity of underground materials and groundwater downstream of the pile. Electromagnetic and electrical methods are effective for investigation and monitoring of the contaminated plumes caused by coal waste piles and tailings impoundments. In order to investigate the environmental impact from a coal waste pile at the Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, an EM34 ground conductivity meter was used on seven parallel lines in an E-W direction, downstream of the waste pile. Two-dimensional resistivity models obtained by the inversion of EM34 conductivity data identified conductive leachate plumes. In addition, quasi-3D inversion of EM34 data has confirmed the decreasing resistivity at depth due to the contaminated plumes. Comparison between EM34, VLF and DC-resistivity datasets, which were acquired for similar survey lines, agree well in identifying changes in the resistivity trend. The EM34 and DC-resistivity sections have greater similarity and better smoothness rather than those of the VLF model. Two-dimensional inversion models of these methods have shown some contaminated plumes with low resistivity.

  14. Simulating Suspended Silt Concentrations in the Ems Estuary, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasmeijer, B. T.

    2009-04-01

    1 Introduction The Ems Estuary is situated in the North-east Netherlands on the border with Germany. Its area, including the tidal river and excluding the outer delta, is 500 km2. The area of the outer delta is 100 km2. The length of the estuary from the inlet to the town of Leer in Germany is approximately 75 km. The mean tidal range varies over years (de Jonge, 1992), but is approximately 2.3 m near the island of Borkum (tidal inlet) and approximately 3.2 m near the town of Emden in Germany. The estuary receives water from the rain-fed River Ems (approximately 115 m3/s on average). A second much smaller freshwater input emanates from the small canalized river Westerwoldsche Aa (12.5 m3/s on average). These discharges vary strongly within and between years. The result of the interaction between freshwater discharge and seawater brought in by the tide is a salinity gradient, the length and position of which is strongly dependent on the water discharge by the rivers. The present morphology of the estuary is the result of natural processes such as tidal currents, wind and wave driven currents and river discharge, resulting in sediment trans-port and sedimentation and erosion patterns. These natural processes are affected by human interferences like maintenance dredging of the navigation channels, land reclamation, building of dikes, etc. The greatest changes in the last 50 years in the physical functioning of the Ems estuary have been the increased sea level and tidal range, the increased amplitude and frequency of storm surge, and greatly increased turbidity and sediment concentrations (particularly near the estuarine turbidity maximum). Much of the changes can be traced directly or indirectly to anthropogenic influence. 2 Aim and approach We studied the hydrodynamics and morphodynamics of the Ems estuary. One of the aims was to gain more insight in the behaviour of the suspended silt concentrations in the estuary and the anthropogenic influence thereon. We applied a beta release of the state-of-the-art Delft3D numerical model for this purpose. The model includes a new sediment transport module published by Van Rijn (2007, 2007a). The vertical distribution of the suspended sediment concentration in the transport module depends on the effective settling velocity of the sediment, the bed shear velocity and the turbulence. The silt transport is simulated every time step together with the flow (online), which means that the impact of the calculated concentration is accounted for in the hydrodynamics. Major challenge was to accurately simulate the relatively high suspended silt concentrations observed near the estuarine turbidity maximum. 3 Results The paper will compare observed and predicted water levels, salinity distributions and suspended silt concentrations. Figure 1 shows an example of predicted depth-averaged suspended silt concentrations during spring high tide without waves. Under these conditions the depth-averaged concentrations decrease from about 2 kg/m3 in the Unterems (upstream of Emden) to almost zero seaward of Borkum. PIC Figure 1: Figure 2 Observed and predicted salinities in the upper part of the water column along the estuary The presence of waves will increase the concentrations on the shoals but have a limited effect on the concentrations in the channels. Figure 2 presents observed and predicted salinities along the estuary. The model results encouragingly agree with the observations. PIC 4 References De Jonge, V.N., 1992. Tidal flow and residual flow in the Ems estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 34: 1-22. Van Rijn, L.C., 2007. Unified View of Sediment Transport by Currents and Waves. I: Initiation of Motion, Bed Roughness, and Bed-Load Transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 133(6): 649-667. Van Rijn, L.C., 2007a. Unified View of Sediment Transport by Currents and Waves. II: Suspended Transport. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 133(6): 668-689.

  15. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  16. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Robert M; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-02-23

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness. PMID:26386606

  17. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    PubMed Central

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination. PMID:26817416

  18. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  19. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity model. The integration of electric and electromagnetic data allowed us to overcome the limits of each technique, especially in terms of resolution and depth, in humid/saturated conditions was investigated and the effectiveness of three-dimensional acquisitions was studied to better explore archeological sites and reduce the uncertainties related on the interpretation of geophysical analysis. The complexity of the relationship between archaeological features in the subsoil and their geophysical response requires efforts in the interpretation of resulting data. Reference Campana S. and Piro, S., (2009): Seeing the unseen - Geophysics and landscape archaeology., CRC Press, London, 2. No. of pages: 376. ISBN: 978-0-415-44721-8. Conyers, L. and Goodman, D., (1997): Ground-Penetrating Radar: An Introduction for Archaeologists. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press. Davis, J.L. and Annan, A.P. (1989): Ground-penetrating radar for high-resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy. Geophysical Prospecting, 37, 531-551.

  20. EMS Provider Attitudes and Perceptions of Enrolling Patients without Consent in Prehospital Emergency Research.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Jamie; Fernandez, Antonio R; Schmidt, Terri A; Lerner, E Brooke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and opinions of a broad population of EMS providers on enrolling patients in research without consent. A survey was conducted in 2010 of all EMS providers who participated in the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) reregistration process, which included half of all registered providers. Each reregistration packet included our optional survey, which had nine 6-point Likert scale questions concerning their opinion of research studies without consent as well as 8 demographic questions. Responses were collapsed to agree and disagree and then analyzed using descriptive statistics with 99% confidence intervals. A total of 65,993 EMS providers received the survey and 23,832 (36%) participated. Most respondents agreed (98.4%, 99%CI: 98.2-98.6) that EMS research is important, but only 30.9% (99%CI: 30.1-31.6) agreed with enrolling patients without their consent when it is important to learn about a new treatment. Only 46.6% (99%Cl: 45.7-47.4) were personally willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. A majority (68.5% [99%Cl: 67.7-69.3]) of respondents believed that EMS providers should have the individual right to refuse to enroll patients in EMS research. While the majority of respondents agreed that EMS research is important, considerably less agree with enrolling patients without consent and less than half would be willing to be enrolled in a study without their consent. Prior to starting an Exception from Informed Consent (EFIC) study, researchers should discuss with EMS providers their perceptions of enrolling patients without consent and address their concerns. PMID:26270331

  1. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as 'movies' made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired. PMID:26546989

  2. EM?IM: software for relating ion mobility mass spectrometry and electron microscopy data.

    PubMed

    Degiacomi, Matteo T; Benesch, Justin L P

    2016-01-01

    We present EM?IM, software that allows the calculation of collision cross-sections from electron density maps obtained for example by means of transmission electron microscopy. This allows the assessment of structures other than those described by atomic coordinates with ion mobility mass spectrometry data, and provides a new means for contouring and validating electron density maps. EM?IM thereby facilitates the use of data obtained in the gas phase within structural biology studies employing diverse experimental methodologies. PMID:26616427

  3. Pre-flight risk assessment in emergency medical service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to assist pilots in making a decision objectively to accept or decline a mission. The ability of the SAFE system to predict risk profiles was examined at an EMS operator. Results of this field study showed that the usefulness of SAFE was largely dependent on the type of mission flown.

  4. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key pointsSimilar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone.Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident.S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance.No improvement occurred in linear sprint performance. PMID:26957923

  5. Effects of Loaded Squat Exercise with and without Application of Superimposed EMS on Physical Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Nicolas; Zinner, Christoph; Doermann, Ulrike; Kleinoeder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a multiple set squat exercise training intervention with superimposed electromyostimulation (EMS) on strength and power, sprint and jump performance. Twenty athletes from different disciplines participated and were divided into two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed EMS (S+E). Both groups completed the same training program twice a week over a six week period consisting of four sets of the 10 repetition maximum of back squats. Additionally, the S+E group had EMS superimposed to the squat exercise with simultaneous stimulation of leg and trunk muscles. EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual pain threshold to ensure dynamic movement. Strength and power of different muscle groups, sprint, and vertical jump performance were assessed one week before (pre), one week after (post) and three weeks (re) following the training period. Both groups showed improvements in leg press strength and power, countermovement and squat jump performance and pendulum sprint (p < 0.05), with no changes for linear sprint. Differences between groups were only evident at the leg curl machine with greater improvements for the S+E group (p < 0.05). Common squat exercise training and squat exercise with superimposed EMS improves maximum strength and power, as well as jumping abilities in athletes from different disciplines. The greater improvements in strength performance of leg curl muscles caused by superimposed EMS with improvements in strength of antagonistic hamstrings in the S+E group are suggesting the potential of EMS to unloaded (antagonistic) muscle groups. Key points Similar strength adaptations occurred after a 6 week 10 RM back squat exercise program with superimposed EMS (S+E) and 10 RM back squat exercise (S) alone. Specific adaptations for S+E at the leg curl muscles were evident. S and S+E improved SJ, CMJ and pendulum sprint performance. No improvement occurred in linear sprint performance. PMID:26957923

  6. The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 S&T Roadmap Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-02-11

    The Soils and Groundwater – EM-20 Science and Technology Roadmap Project is a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management-funded initiative designed to develop new methods, strategies and technology for characterizing, modeling, remediating, and monitoring soils and groundwater contaminated with metals, radionuclides, and chlorinated organics. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by EM-20 Roadmap Project staff.

  7. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  8. Observaes simultneas no ptico e infravermelho prximo dos BL Lacs PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304 em diversas escalas de tempo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominici, T. P.; Abraham, Z.; Galo, A. L.

    2003-08-01

    A existncia de variaes rpidas de brilho em alguns blazares um fenmeno bem comprovado, mas at agora no sabemos ao certo quais so os mecanismos fsicos envolvidos. A maior dificuldade a ausncia de observaes multibanda simultneas que poderiam fornecer vnculos aos modelos. Buscando colaborar com a discusso estudamos o comportamento de dois BL Lacs, PKS 2005-489 e PKS 2155-304, em relao variabilidade em diversas escalas de tempo, de poucos minutos at vrios meses, com observaes simultneas em seis bandas espectrais (ptico e infravermelho prximo). Para tanto dois telescpios do LNA foram utilizados em conjunto nas campanhas observacionais realizadas em 2001 e 2002, cujos resultados so apresentados aqui. As duas fontes apresentaram caractersticas bastante diferentes, inclusive em relao existncia de variabilidade nos ndices espectrais. Particularmente, registramos a primeira deteco de variaes em escalas de tempo da ordem de poucos minutos em PKS 2005-489, com evidncias da presena de um atraso entre as curvas de luz nas bandas V e R e a variao em R ocorrendo antes (o contrrio do esperado no modelo de shock-in-jet). Em PKS 2155-304 detectamos pela primeira vez variabilidade em escalas de tempo de poucos minutos no infravermelho em um AGN. As observaes indicam que as variaes de brilho em blazares so o resultado da ao de mais de um fenmeno, especialmente em escalas de tempo muito curtas. Alguns cenrios fsicos so sugeridos para explicar os resultados observacionais.

  9. Tide-driven fluid mud transport in the Ems estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Marius; Maushake, Christian; Winter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Ems estuary, located at the border between The Netherlands and Germany, experienced a significant change of the hydrodynamic regime during the past decades, as a result of extensive river engineering. With the net sediment transport now being flood-oriented, suspended sediment concentrations have increased dramatically, inducing siltation and formation of fluid mud layers, which, in turn, influence hydraulic flow properties, such as turbulence and the apparent bed roughness. Here, the process-based understanding of fluid mud is essential to model and predict mud accumulation, not only regarding the anthropogenic impact, but also in view of the expected changes of environmental boundary conditions, i.e., sea level rise. In the recent past, substantial progress has been made concerning the understanding of estuarine circulation and influence of tidal asymmetry on upstream sediment accumulation. While associated sediment transport formulations have been implemented in the framework of numerical modelling systems, in-situ data of fluid mud are scarce. This study presents results on tide-driven fluid mud dynamics, measured during four tidal cycles aside the navigation channel in the Ems estuary. Lutoclines, i.e., strong vertical density gradients, were detected by sediment echo sounder (SES). Acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCP) of different acoustic frequencies were used to determine hydrodynamic parameters and the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentrations in the upper part of the water column. These continuous profiling measurements were complemented by CTD, ADV, and OBS casts. SES and ADCP profiles show cycles of fluid mud entrainment during accelerating flow, and subsequent settling, and the reformation of a lutocline during decelerating flow and slack water. Significant differences are revealed between flood and ebb phase. Highest entrainment rates are measured at the beginning of the flood phase, associated with strong current shear and rapid vertical mixing, inducing the highest instantaneous suspended sediment flux measured during the tidal cycle. During decelerating flood currents a lutocline is again established at a certain distance above the consolidated river bed. During slack water after the flood phase the concentration gradient increases and the thickness of the fluid mud layer below is constant, also during a significant part of the ebb phase. As water depth decreases during ebb, entrainment occurs only at the upper part of the fluid mud layer. The suspended sediment flux is low compared to the flood phase. These observations are further elaborated using turbulence parameters obtained from ADV and ADCP, explaining the difference between ebb and flood concerning the vertical location of the maximum concentration gradient. This study is funded through DFG-Research Center / Excellence Cluster "The Ocean in the Earth System". The Senckenberg Institute and the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute are acknowledged for technical support.

  10. High-speed computation of the EM algorithm for PET image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, K.; Patnaik, L.M.; Ramakrishna, J. )

    1994-10-01

    The PET image reconstruction based on the EM algorithm has several attractive advantages over the conventional convolution backprojection algorithms. However, two major drawbacks have impeded the routine use of the EM algorithm, namely, the long computational time due to slow convergence and the large memory required for the storage of the image, projection data and the probability matrix. In this study, the authors attempts to solve these two problems by parallelizing the EM algorithm on a multiprocessor system. The authors have implemented an extended hypercube (EH) architecture for the high-speed computation of the EM algorithm using the commercially available fast floating point digital signal processor (DSP) chips as the processing elements (PEs). The authors discuss and compare the performance of the EM algorithm on a 386/387 machine, CD 4360 mainframe, and on the EH system. The results show that the computational speed performance of an EH using DSP chips as PEs executing the EM image reconstruction algorithm is about 130 times better than that of the CD 4360 mainframe. The EH topology is expandable with more number of PEs.

  11. Operation Protective Edge - A Unique Challenge for a Civilian EMS Agency.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Eli; Strugo, Refael; Wacht, Oren

    2015-10-01

    During July through August 2014, Operation Protective Edge, a military conflict between Israel and the Hamas regime in Gaza, dramatically affected both populations. Magen David Adom (MDA), the Israeli national Emergency Medical Service (EMS) and a member of the Red Cross, faced a unique challenge during the conflict: to continue providing crucial service to the entire civilian population of Israel, which was under constant missile threat. This challenge included not only providing immediate care for routine EMS calls under missile threat, but also preparing and delivering immediate care to civilians injured in attacks on major cities, as well as small communities, in Israel. This task is a challenge for a civilian EMS agency that normally operates in a non-military environment, yet, in an instant, must enhance its capability to respond to a considerable threat to its population. During Operation Protective Edge, MDA provided care for 842 wounded civilians and utilized a significant amount of its resources. Providing EMS services for a civilian population in a mixed civilian/military scenario is a challenging task on a national level for an EMS system, especially when the threat lasts for weeks. This report describes MDA's preparedness and operations during Operation Protective Edge, and the unique EMS challenges and dilemmas the agency faced. PMID:26323985

  12. An interactive program for computer-aided map design, display, and query: EM APKGS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouch, Gregory W.

    1997-04-01

    EM APKGS2 is a user-friendly, PC-based electronic mapping tool for use in hydrogeologic exploration and appraisal. EM APKGS2 allows the analyst to construct maps interactively from data stored in a relational database, perform point-oriented spatial queries such as locating all wells within a specified radius, perform geographic overlays, and export the data to other programs for further analysis. EM APKGS2 runs under Microsoft R Windows 3.1 and compatible operating systems. EM APKGS2 is a public domain program available from the Kansas Geological Survey. EM APKGS2 is the centerpiece of WHEAT, the Windows-based Hydrogeologic Exploration and Appraisal Toolkit, a suite of user-friendly Microsoft R Windows programs for natural resource exploration and management. The principal goals in development of WHEAT have been ease of use, hardware independence, low cost, and end-user extensibility. WHEAT's native data format is a Microsoft R Access R database. WHEAT stores a feature's geographic coordinates as attributes so they can be accessed easily by the user. The WHEAT programs are designed to be used in conjunction with other Microsoft R Windows software to allow the natural resource scientist to perform work easily and effectively. WHEAT and EM APKGS have been used at several of Kansas' Groundwater Management Districts and the Kansas Geological Survey on groundwater management operations, groundwater modeling projects, and geologic exploration projects.

  13. Cryo-EM Data Are Superior to Contact and Interface Information in Integrative Modeling.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Sjoerd J; Chauvot de Beauchêne, Isaure; Schindler, Christina E M; Zacharias, Martin

    2016-02-23

    Protein-protein interactions carry out a large variety of essential cellular processes. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful technique for the modeling of protein-protein interactions at a wide range of resolutions, and recent developments have caused a revolution in the field. At low resolution, cryo-EM maps can drive integrative modeling of the interaction, assembling existing structures into the map. Other experimental techniques can provide information on the interface or on the contacts between the monomers in the complex. This inevitably raises the question regarding which type of data is best suited to drive integrative modeling approaches. Systematic comparison of the prediction accuracy and specificity of the different integrative modeling paradigms is unavailable to date. Here, we compare EM-driven, interface-driven, and contact-driven integrative modeling paradigms. Models were generated for the protein docking benchmark using the ATTRACT docking engine and evaluated using the CAPRI two-star criterion. At 20 Å resolution, EM-driven modeling achieved a success rate of 100%, outperforming the other paradigms even with perfect interface and contact information. Therefore, even very low resolution cryo-EM data is superior in predicting heterodimeric and heterotrimeric protein assemblies. Our study demonstrates that a force field is not necessary, cryo-EM data alone is sufficient to accurately guide the monomers into place. The resulting rigid models successfully identify regions of conformational change, opening up perspectives for targeted flexible remodeling. PMID:26846888

  14. Stroke savvy. The accuracy of EMS-reported last known normal times.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Keith; Wesley, Karen

    2014-09-01

    We collected EMS-reported "last known normal" (LKN) times for patients brought to the ED with suspected acute stroke and calculated the absolute difference between the neurologist-determined and EMS-reported LKN times (deltaLKN). We determined the rate of inappropriate IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) use if the EMS-reported times were used instead of the neurologist-determined times. Of 251 patients, mean and median deltaLKN were 28 and 0 minutes, respectively. deltaLKN was < 15 minutes in 91% of the entire group and < 15 minutes in 80% of patients with a diagnosis of stroke. Of patients who received IV tPA, none would've been incorrectly excluded from IV tPA if the EMS LKN time had been used. Conversely, of patients who didn't receive IV tPA, 6% would have been incorrectly included for IV tPA consideration had the EMS time been used. In patients with wake-up stroke symptoms, EMS underestimated LKN times by an average of 208 minutes. All of the potentially incorrectly included patients would've been wake-up strokes. PMID:25322514

  15. BSSDATA - um programa otimizado para filtragem de dados em radioastronomia solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinon, A. R. F.; Sawant, H. S.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Stephany, S.; Preto, A. J.; Dobrowolski, K. M.

    2003-08-01

    A partir de 1998, entrou em operao regular no INPE, em So Jos dos Campos, o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). O BSS dedicado s observaes de exploses solares decimtricas com alta resoluo temporal e espectral, com a principal finalidade de investigar fenmenos associados com a liberao de energia dos "flares" solares. Entre os anos de 1999 e 2002, foram catalogadas, aproximadamente 340 exploses solares classificadas em 8 tipos distintos, de acordo com suas caractersticas morfolgicas. Na anlise detalhada de cada tipo, ou grupo, de exploses solares deve-se considerar a variao do fluxo do sol calmo ("background"), em funo da freqncia e a variao temporal, alm da complexidade das exploses e estruturas finas registradas superpostas ao fundo varivel. Com o intuito de realizar tal anlise foi desenvolvido o programa BSSData. Este programa, desenvolvido em linguagem C++, constitudo de vrias ferramentas que auxiliam no tratamento e anlise dos dados registrados pelo BSS. Neste trabalho iremos abordar as ferramentas referentes filtragem do rudo de fundo. As rotinas do BSSData para filtragem de rudo foram testadas nos diversos grupos de exploses solares ("dots", "fibra", "lace", "patch", "spikes", "tipo III" e "zebra") alcanando um bom resultado na diminuio do rudo de fundo e obtendo, em conseqncia, dados onde o sinal torna-se mais homogneo ressaltando as reas onde existem exploses solares e tornando mais precisas as determinaes dos parmetros observacionais de cada exploso. Estes resultados sero apresentados e discutidos.

  16. New Developments in the Technology Readiness Assessment Process in US DOE-EM - 13247

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, Steven; Sutter, Herbert; Johnson, Hoyt

    2013-07-01

    A Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) is a systematic, metric-based process and accompanying report that evaluates the maturity of the technologies used in systems; it is designed to measure technology maturity using the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale pioneered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1980's. More recently, DoD has adopted and provided systematic guidance for performing TRAs and determining TRLs. In 2007 the GAO recommended that the DOE adopt the NASA/DoD methodology for evaluating technology maturity. Earlier, in 2006-2007, DOE-EM had conducted pilot TRAs on a number of projects at Hanford and Savannah River. In March 2008, DOE-EM issued a process guide, which established TRAs as an integral part of DOE-EM's Project Management Critical Decision Process. Since the development of its detailed TRA guidance in 2008, DOE-EM has continued to accumulate experience in the conduct of TRAs and the process for evaluating technology maturity. DOE has developed guidance on TRAs applicable department-wide. DOE-EM's experience with the TRA process, the evaluations that led to recently developed proposed revisions to the DOE-EM TRA/TMP Guide; the content of the proposed changes that incorporate the above lessons learned and insights are described. (authors)

  17. If EM waves don't interfere, what causes interferograms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellard, Stanley J.

    2012-10-01

    Photonics engineers involved in designing and operating Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) often rely on Maxwell's wave equations and time-frequency (distance-wavenumber) Fourier theory as models to understand and predict the conversion of optical energy to electrical signals in their instruments. Dr. Chandrasekhar Roychoudhuri and his colleagues, at last year's conference, presented three significant concepts that might completely change the way we comprehend the interaction of light and matter and the way interference information is generated. The first concept is his non-interaction of waves (NIW) formulation, which puts in place an optical wave description that more accurately describe the properties of the finite time and spatial signals of an optical system. The second is a new description for the cosmic EM environment that recognizes that space is really filled with the ether of classical electromagnetics. The third concept is a new metaphysics or metaphotonics that compares the photon as a particle in a void against the photon as a wave in a medium to see which best explain the twelve different aspects of light. Dr. Henry Lindner presents a compelling case that photons are waves in a medium and particles (electrons, protons, atoms) are wave-structures embedded in the new ether. Discussion of the three new principles is intended to increase the curiosity of photonics engineers to investigate these changes in the nature of light and matter.

  18. PREFACE: EmQM13: Emergent Quantum Mechanics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    These proceedings comprise the invited lectures of the second international symposium on Emergent Quantum Mechanics (EmQM13), which was held at the premises of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, 3-6 October 2013. The symposium was held at the ''Theatersaal'' of the Academy of Sciences, and was devoted to the open exploration of emergent quantum mechanics, a possible ''deeper level theory'' that interconnects three fields of knowledge: emergence, the quantum, and information. Could there appear a revised image of physical reality from recognizing new links between emergence, the quantum, and information? Could a novel synthesis pave the way towards a 21st century, ''superclassical'' physics? The symposium provided a forum for discussing (i) important obstacles which need to be overcome as well as (ii) promising developments and research opportunities on the way towards emergent quantum mechanics. Contributions were invited that presented current advances in both standard as well as unconventional approaches to quantum mechanics. The EmQM13 symposium was co-organized by Gerhard Grössing (Austrian Institute for Nonlinear Studies (AINS), Vienna), and by Jan Walleczek (Fetzer Franklin Fund, USA, and Phenoscience Laboratories, Berlin). After a very successful first conference on the same topic in 2011, the new partnership between AINS and the Fetzer Franklin Fund in producing the EmQM13 symposium was able to further expand interest in the promise of emergent quantum mechanics. The symposium consisted of two parts, an opening evening addressing the general public, and the scientific program of the conference proper. The opening evening took place at the Great Ceremonial Hall (Grosser Festsaal) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, and it presented talks and a panel discussion on ''The Future of Quantum Mechanics'' with three distinguished speakers: Stephen Adler (Princeton), Gerard 't Hooft (Utrecht) and Masanao Ozawa (Nagoya). The articles contained in these proceedings represent the talks of the invited speakers as written immediately after the symposium. The volume starts with a contribution by organizers Jan Walleczek and Gerhard Grössing, essentially explaining why emergent quantum mechanics, and other deterministic approaches to quantum theory, must be considered viable approaches in quantum foundations today. This is followed by the exposition of Stephen Adler's talk who introduced to a general audience key questions at the current frontiers of quantum mechanics during the opening evening (with the contents of his conference talk appearing elsewhere). The conference proceedings then continues with the presentations as given in their chronological order i.e. starting with the opening talk of the scientific program by Gerard 't Hooft. While the page number was restricted for all invited speakers, the paper by Jeff Tollaksen was given more space, as his invited collaborator Yakir Aharonov was unable to deliver a separate talk, in order to represent both contributions in one paper. Note that the talks of all speakers, including the talks of those who could not be represented in this volume (M. Arndt, B. Braverman, C. Brukner, S. Colin, Y. Couder, B. Poirier, A. Steinberg, G. Weihs and H. Wiseman) are freely available on the conference website as video presentations (http://www.emqm13.org). The organizers wish to express their gratitude to Siegfried Fussy and Herbert Schwabl from AINS for the organizational support. The organizers also wish to thank Bruce Fetzer, President and CEO, John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust, and the Members of the Board of Trustees, for their strong support and for funding this symposium. We also wish to thank the Austrian Academy of Sciences for allowing the symposium to be held on their premises, and Anton Zeilinger, President of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, for his welcome address. The expertise of the Members of the Scientific Advisory Board of the EmQM13 symposium, Ana Maria Cetto (Mexico), Lajos Diósi (Budapest), Maurice de Gosson (Vienna), Edward Nelson (Princeton), Theo Nieuwenhuizen (Amsterdam) and Helmut Rauch (Vienna), is also gratefully acknowledged. Finally, it is a pleasure to again thank Sarah Toms and her team at IOP Publishing (Bristol) for their friendly advice and help during the preparation of these proceedings. Vienna, Pisa, Berlin, February 2014 Gerhard Grössing, Hans-Thomas Elze, Johannes Mesa Pascasio, Jan Walleczek The front cover image shows two bouncing oil droplets on an oscillating oil surface, as they are employed by Couder, Fort, Bush, and others to show macroscopic analogues of wave-particle complementarity (courtesy of Dan Harris and John Bush, MIT).

  19. The tidal asymmetries and residual flows in Ems Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pein, Johannes Ulrich; Stanev, Emil Vassilev; Zhang, Yinglong Joseph

    2014-12-01

    A 3D unstructured-grid numerical model of the Ems Estuary is presented. The simulated hydrodynamics are compared against tidal gauge data and observations from research cruises. A comparison with an idealized test reveals the capability of the model to reproduce the secondary circulation patterns known from theoretical results. The simulations prove to be accurate and realistic, confirming and extending findings from earlier observations and modeling studies. The basic characteristics of dominant physical processes in the estuary such as tidal amplification, tidal damping, overtide generation, baroclinicity and internal mixing asymmetry are quantified. The model demonstrates an overall dominance of the flood currents in most of the studied area. However, the hypsometric control in the vicinity of Dollart Bay reverses this asymmetry, with the ebb currents stronger than the flood ones. Small-scale bathymetric characteristics and baroclinicity result in a very complex interplay between dominant physical mechanisms in different parts of the tidal channels and over the tidal flats. Residual flow reveals a clear overturning circulation in some parts of the estuary which is related to a mixing asymmetry between flood and ebb currents. We demonstrate that while areas close to the tidal river exhibit overall similarity with density controlled estuarine conditions, in large areas of the outer estuary barotropic forcing and complex bathymetry together with the density distribution affect substantially the horizontal circulation.

  20. EM modeling for GPIR using 3D FDTD modeling codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.D.

    1994-10-01

    An analysis of the one-, two-, and three-dimensional electrical characteristics of structural cement and concrete is presented. This work connects experimental efforts in characterizing cement and concrete in the frequency and time domains with the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) modeling efforts of these substances. These efforts include Electromagnetic (EM) modeling of simple lossless homogeneous materials with aggregate and targets and the modeling dispersive and lossy materials with aggregate and complex target geometries for Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar (GPIR). Two- and three-dimensional FDTD codes (developed at LLNL) where used for the modeling efforts. Purpose of the experimental and modeling efforts is to gain knowledge about the electrical properties of concrete typically used in the construction industry for bridges and other load bearing structures. The goal is to optimize the performance of a high-sample-rate impulse radar and data acquisition system and to design an antenna system to match the characteristics of this material. Results show agreement to within 2 dB of the amplitudes of the experimental and modeled data while the frequency peaks correlate to within 10% the differences being due to the unknown exact nature of the aggregate placement.

  1. 14-3-3 proteins are part of an abscisic acid-VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1) response complex in the Em promoter and interact with VP1 and EmBP1.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, T F; Medina, J; Hill, A; Quatrano, R S

    1998-01-01

    Protein-DNA complexes were formed when nuclear extracts from embryogenic rice suspension cultures or maize embryos were incubated with an abscisic acid-VIVIPAROUS1 (VP1) response element (Em1a) from the Em promoter. Monoclonal antibodies generated to GF14, a 14-3-3 protein from plants, resulted in gel retardation of the Em1a-protein complexes. Antibodies generated to the C and N termini of GF14 detected protein isoforms in rice nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts, but no differences in distribution of the GF14 isoforms were recognized between the nucleus and cytoplasm or when abscisic acid-treated and untreated tissues were compared. When recombinant GF14 fusion proteins from rice were added to nuclear extracts, novel complexes were formed that required the dimerization domain of GF14. Chemical cross-linking showed that GF-14 interacted with the basic leucine zipper factor EmBP1, which binds specifically to Em1a, and with VP1, which transactivates Em through Em1a. GF14 proteins from rice were shown to interact with VP1 in yeast through the dimerization domain of GF14. Our results indicated that GF14 interacts with both site-specific DNA binding proteins (i.e., EmBP1) and tissue-specific regulatory factors (i.e., VP1) and may provide a structural link between VP1 and the Em1a transcriptional complex. PMID:9596641

  2. Monitoring Survivability and Infectivity of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) in the Infected On-Farm Earthen Manure Storages (EMS)

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Hein M.; Cai, Zhangbin; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) has caused major epidemics, which has been a burden to North America’s swine industry. Low infectious dose and high viability in the environment are major challenges in eradication of this virus. To further understand the viability of PEDv in the infected manure, we longitudinally monitored survivability and infectivity of PEDv in two open earthen manure storages (EMS; previously referred to as lagoon) from two different infected swine farms identified in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Our study revealed that PEDv could survive up to 9 months in the infected EMS after the initial outbreak in the farm. The viral load varied among different layers of the EMS with an average of 1.1 × 105 copies/ml of EMS, independent of EMS temperature and pH. In both studied EMS, the evidence of viral replication was observed through increased viral load in the later weeks of the samplings while there was no new influx of infected manure into the EMS, which was suggestive of presence of potential alternative hosts for PEDv within the EMS. Decreasing infectivity of virus over time irrespective of increased viral load suggested the possibility of PEDv evolution within the EMS and perhaps in the new host that negatively impacted virus infectivity. Viral load in the top layer of the EMS was low and mostly non-infective suggesting that environmental factors, such as UV and sunlight, could diminish the replicability and infectivity of the virus. Thus, frequent agitation of the EMS that could expose virus to UV and sunlight might be a potential strategy for reduction of PEDv load and infectivity in the infected EMS. PMID:27014197

  3. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts

  4. Rock 'Em, Sock 'Em!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    K-12-level competitive robotics is growing in popularity around the country and worldwide. According to one of the leading organizers of these events, FIRST--For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology--250,000 students from 56 countries take part in its competitions. FIRST Tech Challenge (FTC) is a yearly event the organization puts…

  5. Accurate 2D/3D electromagnetic modeling for time-domain airborne EM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C.; Hodges, G.

    2012-12-01

    The existing industry software cannot deliver correct results for 3D time-domain airborne EM responses. In this paper, starting from the Fourier transform and convolution, we compare the stability of different modeling techniques and analyze the reason for instable calculations of the time-domain airborne EM responses. We find that the singularity of the impulse responses of EM systems at very early time that are used in the convolution is responsible for the instability of the modeling (Fig.1). Based on this finding, we put forward an algorithm that uses step response rather than impulse response of the airborne EM system for the convolution and create a stable algorithm that delivers precise results and maintains well the integral/derivative relationship between the magnetic field B and the magnetic induction dB/dt. A three-step transformation procedure for the modeling is proposed: 1) output the frequency-domain EM response data from the existing software; 2) transform into step-response by digital Fourier/Hankel transform; 3) convolve the step response with the transmitting current or its derivatives. The method has proved to be working very well (Fig. 2). The algorithm can be extended to the modeling of other time-domain ground and airborne EM system responses.Fig. 1: Comparison of impulse and step responses for an airborne EM system Fig. 2: Bz and dBz/dt calculated from step (middle panel) and impulse responses (lower panel) for the same 3D model as in Fig.1.

  6. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  7. Estudo de solues locais e cosmolgicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar so a mais simples extenso poss vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padro a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espao-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variao na constante de acoplamento da gravitao. Tais teorias apresentam solues locais e cosmolgicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqncias observacionais da evoluo de flutuaes primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graas a esta possibilidade de trazer luz novidades em relao gravitao, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para solues dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta solues gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situaes, verificando-se em que consiste a divergncia dessas solues dos casos tradicionais poss veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das solues aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expresso geral para diferentes solues cosmolgicas englobando diferentes tipos de matria (representados por diferentes equaes de estado), e a expresso para uma soluo local representando um buraco negro com rotao, similar soluo de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das solues apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos espec ficos, tal como solues cosmolgicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as solues dispon veis so, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e tal situao que este trabalho busca, em parte, reverter.

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ohio EMS Providers: A Statewide Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Robert C; Hoet, Armando E; Bell, Christopher; Kelley, Christina; Lu, Bo; Anderson, Sarah E; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the nasal carriage prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Ohio EMS personnel randomly sampled from 84 urban and rural agencies. Surveys assessing demographics, occupational history, health, cohabitation status, and hygiene practice were collected with nasal swabs from those who enrolled. Survey weight adjusted analysis was performed (1) to estimate MRSA nasal carriage prevalence of Ohio EMS providers, and (2) to identify variables associated with MRSA. MRSA was detected in 4.6% (13/280) EMS personnel sampled. After employing a survey-weighted analysis the following risk factors associated with MRSA carriage were identified: those who did not practice frequent hand hygiene after glove use (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 2.54-43.45; P = 0.0012), living with someone with a recent staphylococcal infection (OR, 9.02; 95% CI, 1.03-78.98; P = 0.0470), and individuals with low frequency of hand washing (< 8 times per shift) (OR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.02-17.27; P = 0.0468). An additional risk factor identified through the logistic regression analysis on the study population was EMS workers with an open wound or skin infection (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 1.25-36.36; P = 0.0262). However, this was not significant in the survey-weighted analysis. The high prevalence of MRSA in Ohio EMS personnel is both an occupational hazard and patient safety concern. Implementing methods to reinforce CDC guidelines for proper hygiene could decrease MRSA found in the EMS setting. Previous literature suggests that a reduction in MRSA colonization can lead to decreases in transmission and improved health for both patients and personnel. PMID:26516797

  9. National Prehospital Evidence-Based Guidelines Strategy: A Summary for EMS Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Gaither, Joshua B; Bigham, Blair L; Myers, J Brent; Kupas, Douglas F; Spaite, Daniel W

    2016-01-01

    Multiple national organizations have recommended and supported a national investment to increase the scientific evidence available to guide patient care delivered by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and incorporate that evidence directly into EMS systems. Ongoing efforts seek to develop, implement, and evaluate prehospital evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) using the National Model Process created by a multidisciplinary panel of experts convened by the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS (FICEMS) and the National EMS Advisory Council (NEMSAC). Yet, these and other EBG efforts have occurred in relative isolation, with limited direct collaboration between national projects, and have experienced challenges in implementation of individual guidelines. There is a need to develop sustainable relationships among stakeholders that facilitate a common vision that facilitates EBG efforts. Herein, we summarize a National Strategy on EBGs developed by the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) with involvement of 57 stakeholder organizations, and with the financial support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EMS for Children program. The Strategy proposes seven action items that support collaborative efforts in advancing prehospital EBGs. The first proposed action is creation of a Prehospital Guidelines Consortium (PGC) representing national medical and EMS organizations that have an interest in prehospital EBGs and their benefits to patient outcomes. Other action items include promoting research that supports creation and evaluates the impact of EBGs, promoting the development of new EBGs through improved stakeholder collaboration, and improving education on evidence-based medicine for all prehospital providers. The Strategy intends to facilitate implementation of EBGs by improving guideline dissemination and incorporation into protocols, and seeks to establish standardized evaluation methods for prehospital EBGs. Finally, the Strategy proposes that key stakeholder organizations financially support the Prehospital Guidelines Consortium as a means of implementing the Strategy, while together promoting additional funding for continued EBG efforts. PMID:26808116

  10. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  11. Prevention and Immunotherapy of Secondary Murine Alveolar Echinococcosis Employing Recombinant EmP29 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Hemphill, Andrew; Huber, Cristina Olivia; Spiliotis, Markus; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. An increasing understanding of immunological events that account for the metacestode survival in human and murine AE infection prompted us to undertake explorative experiments tackling the potential of novel preventive and/or immunotherapeutic measures. In this study, the immunoprotective and immunotherapeutic ability of recombinant EmP29 antigen (rEmP29) was assessed in mice that were intraperitoneally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For vaccination, three intraperitoneal injections with 20?g rEmP29 emulsified in saponin adjuvants were applied over 6 weeks. 2 weeks after the last boost, mice were infected, and at 90 days post-infection, rEmP29-vaccinated mice exhibited a median parasite weight that was reduced by 75% and 59% when compared to NaCl- or saponintreated control mice, respectively. For immunotherapeutical application, the rEmP29 (20?g) vaccine was administered to experimentally infected mice, starting at 1 month post-infection, three times with 2 weeks intervals. Mice undergoing rEmP29 immunotherapy exhibited a median parasite load that was reduced by 53% and 49% when compared to NaCl- and saponintreated control mice, respectively. Upon analysis of spleen cells, both, vaccination and treatment with rEmP29, resulted in low ratios of Th2/Th1 (IL-4/IFN-?) cytokine mRNA and low levels of mRNA coding for IL-10 and IL-2. These results suggest that reduction of the immunosuppressive environment takes place in vaccinated as well as immunotreated mice, and a shift towards a Th1 type of immune response may be responsible for the observed increased restriction of parasite growth. The present study provides the first evidence that active immunotherapy may present a sustainable route for the control of AE. PMID:26053794

  12. Electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption: a possible generation mechanism of coseismic EM signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hengxin; Wen, Jian; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xiaofei

    2015-02-01

    According to field observations, electromagnetic (EM) signals accompanying seismic waves can be recorded. The orders of magnitude of observed coseismic electric and magnetic signals associated with earthquakes are usually around 1 to 101 mV km-1 and 10-2 to 1 nT, respectively. In this paper, we carry out numerical simulation of coseismic EM signals associated with seismic waves due to electrokinetic effect and compare with field observations. The seismic source is represented by a finite fault measuring 15 9 km2 with a max slip displacement 1.5 m, corresponding to a Mw 5.9 earthquake. While using the EM surface boundary condition of continuous horizontal EM components, the magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving S waves at receiver near the ground surface. This is obviously different from field observations. Thus, we adopt another EM surface boundary condition which assumes the ground surface carries surface charge. For the used half-space model, a surface-charge density magnitude |Qsc| in excess of 10-4 C m-2 is sufficient to make horizontal magnetic components clearly show up at the whole time duration of seismic waves. When |Qsc| increases, the contribution of surface-charge density to coseismic EM signals becomes more and more dominant comparing with that of the seismically induced streaming-current. We estimate the Qsc expected at the Earth's surface might be a value between -5 10-4 and -0.1 C m-2 by the comparison between numerical results and field observations. The vertical magnetic signals only accompany the late-arriving seismic waves, because they are theoretically only induced by SH wave. The field observation results of vertical magnetic signals may be resulted from the scattering effect or the seismic dynamo effect. We conclude that electrokinetic effect combined with surface-charge assumption is one possible generation mechanism of the observed coseismic EM signals.

  13. Three-dimensional solution structure of EM703 with potent promoting activity of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Hiroaki; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Yoshida, Kiminari; Sugawara, Akihiro; Sakoh, Yusuke; Omura, Satoshi; Hirono, Shuichi

    2006-05-01

    EM703, which is an erythromycin derivative synthesized by our group, has a potent promoting activity of monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation in vitro. Its activity is approximately 300 times higher than that of erythromycin A (EM-A). In this study, we determined three-dimensional (3D) solution structures of EM703 and EM-A, and compared them using a superposition method, in order to investigate the 3D structure-activity relationship. We found a distinct difference between the 3D structures of these molecules, which might be an important factor in their divergent activities. PMID:16480872

  14. Gradiente radial de [Mg/Fe] em duas galxias elpticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Capelato, H.

    2003-08-01

    Basicamente, so propostos dois cenrios de evoluo qu mio-dinmico para os sistemas esferoidais: (i) o hierrquico atravs da fuso e/ou acreso de sub-sistemas com ou sem surtos de formao estelar, e (ii) o colapso monol tico dissipativo com formao estelar interrompida por um vento galctico. Ambos, dentro de certos limites, conseguem explicar os gradientes internos de metalicidade estelar presentes nas galxias el pticas bem como a relao observada entre a metalicidade central e a massa (Mg20 vs. log sv0). No entanto, nenhum prev uma variao interna para a razo de abundncias Mg/Fe que indiretamente define a escala temporal da formao estelar. Empregamos a espectroscopia ptica de fenda longa com a finalidade de recuperar as histrias de formao estelar, de enriquecimento qu mico e da dinmica dentro de determinadas regies das galxias. Os espectros de mdia resoluo (FWHM = 7,1 ) e escala angular de 1,092 arcsec/pixel foram coletados com o telescpio 1,60m do OPD/LNA. Comparamos nossas medidas de linhas de absoro com resultados espectrofotomtricos de modelos de populaes estelares simples - mais especificamente os ndices do Sistema Lick como Mg2, Mg b, < Fe > e Hb - a fim de se investigar as variaes internas de [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe] e idade. Para duas galxias el pticas, NGC 1052 e NGC 7796, pertencentes a ambientes de baixa densidade, encontramos uma variao radial da razo Mg/Fe decrescente do centro para fora em regies de 0,6 e 1 raio efetivo respectivamente. Discutimos alguns cenrios de enriquecimento qu mico para estas duas galxias.

  15. An EM algorithm for mapping segregation distortion loci

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chengsong; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Background Chromosomal region that causes distorted segregation ratios is referred to as segregation distortion locus (SDL). The distortion is caused either by differential representation of SDL genotypes in gametes before fertilization or by viability differences of SDL genotypes after fertilization but before genotype scoring. In both cases, observable phenotypes are distorted for marker loci in the chromosomal region close to the SDL. Under the quantitative genetics model for viability selection by proposing a continuous liability controlling the viability of individual, a simplex algorithm has been used to search for the solution in SDL mapping. However, they did not consider the effects of SDL on the construction of linkage maps. Results We proposed a multipoint maximum-likelihood method to estimate the position and the effects of SDL under the liability model together with both selection coefficients of marker genotypes and recombination fractions. The method was implemented via an expectation and maximization (EM) algorithm. The superiority of the method proposed under the liability model over the previous methods was verified by a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments, together with a working example derived from the MAPMAKER/QTL software. Conclusion Our results suggested that the new method can serve as a powerful alternative to existing methods for SDL mapping. Under the liability model, the new method can simultaneously estimate the position and the effects of SDL as well as the recombinant fractions between adjacent markers, and also be used to probe into the genetic mechanism for the bias of uncorrected map distance and to elucidate the relationship between the viability selection and genetic linkage. PMID:18047652

  16. Pre-flight risk assessment in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) industry has been the subject of several television and newspaper articles (Harvey and Jensen, 1987) which emphasized the negative aspects, (e.g., fatalities and high accident rates), rather than the life saving services performed. Until recently, the accident rate of the EMS industry has been five times as high as that of other civil helicopters. This high accident rate has been coupled with the dramatic rise in the number of programs. The industry has built from a single service at its inception in 1972, to over 180 in 1987 (Spray, 1987), to the point that 93 percent of the contiguous U.S. is now covered by some type of EMS service. These factors prompted the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) to study the accidents that occurred between May 11, 1978 and December 3, 1986 (NTSB, 1988). The NTSB report concluded that 'Sound pilot judgment is central to safe flight operations.' They further stated that '... factors unique to EMS helicopter operations--such as the influence of the mission itself, program competition, and EMS program management perspectives--can drastically influence pilot judgment during the EMS mission.' One of the most difficult decisions that a pilot must make is whether to accept or decline a mission. A pre-flight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed at NASA-Ames Research Center for civil EMS operations to aid pilots in making this decision objectively. The ability of the SAFE system to predict mission risk profiles was tested at an EMS facility. The results of this field study demonstrated that the usefulness of SAFE was highly dependent on the type of mission flown. SAFE is now being modified so that it can 'learn' with each mission flown. For example, after flying a mission to a particular site, an EMS pilot would input information about this mission into the system, such as new buildings, wires, or approach procedures. Then, the next time a pilot flew a similar mission or one to the same area, this additional information would be taken into account in computing a risk assessment.

  17. Scalable and Interactive Segmentation and Visualization of Neural Processes in EM Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuroscientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes. PMID:19834227

  18. Final report: Key comparison of 50/60 Hz power SIM.EM-K5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, R.; Campos, S.; Castruita, A.; Nelson, T.; Ribeiro, A.; So, E.; Di Lillo, L.; Spaggiari, A.; Slomovitz, D.; Izquierdo, Daniel; Faverio, Carlos; Postigo, H.; Daz, H.; Sanchez, H.; Gonzalez, J.; Zipaquir Triana, lvaro

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Committee Consultative of Electromagnetism, CCEM, the SIM Electromagnetic Working Group carried out a key comparison of power standards at 50/60 Hz. This key comparison, identified as SIM.EM-K5, aims to provide a link to various NMIs in the SIM region to the CCEM-K5 key comparison on 50/60 Hz power completed in 2001 and piloted by NIST. Measurements in the SIM.EM-K5 comparison were carried out from May 2010 to March 2012, including testing points of active and reactive power. CENAM was the pilot laboratory. Differences between the measurement results of the participating laboratories and the reference value of this key comparison, calculated at each of all the testing points, show a good infrastructure of national standards of measurement of electric power in the SIM region. Based on previous work, a link has been estimated between the results of the CCEM-K5 and the SIM.EM-K5 key comparisons, whose results were reported in 2002 and 2014, respectively. From the link it is shown that the measurement results of SIM.EM-K5 comparison are well supported. The SIM.EM-K5 comparison is a rewording exercise of comparison of the national standards of measurement as recommended by the CIPM. The participating laboratories are fully recommended for their enthusiastic participation in the comparison. Their individual efforts to maintain the national standards of power measurement are acknowledged.

  19. Association of Disomic Chromosome Loss with Ems-Induced Conversion in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Experimental tests with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a previously proposed model suggesting a causal relationship between disomic chromosome loss (n + 1 → n) and centromere-adjacent mitotic gene conversion were performed. Disomic haploid cells heteroallelic at two loci on the left arm of chromosome III were exposed to ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) under nonlethal conditions; EMS-induced prototrophic gene convertants were selected and tested for coincident chromosome loss. The principal results are: (1) The frequency of chromosome loss among EMS-induced gene convertants selected to arise near the centromere is markedly enhanced over basal levels and remains constant, independent of EMS exposure. There is little such enhancement among EMS-induced convertants selected to arise far from the centromere. (2) Chromosome loss is almost completely associated with induced conversion of the centromere-proximal allele at the centromere-adjacent heteroallelic locus. This result is identical to (and confirms) results found previously for spontaneous loss-associated conversion. (3) The conversion polarity at the centromere-adjacent locus among unselected (nonloss-associated) induced or spontaneous mitotic convertants is identical to that among meiotic convertants and markedly favors the contromere-distal allele. These findings are wholly consistent with, and strengthen, the hypothesis that structural involvement of centromeric regions in nearby recombinational events may interfere with proper segregational function and lead to mitotic chromosome loss. PMID:7021313

  20. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes.

    PubMed

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P S

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem. PMID:26777304

  1. Description and comparison of algorithms for correcting anisotropic magnification in cryo-EM images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Brubaker, Marcus A; Benlekbir, Samir; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-11-01

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows for structures of proteins and protein complexes to be determined from images of non-crystalline specimens. Cryo-EM data analysis requires electron microscope images of randomly oriented ice-embedded protein particles to be rotated and translated to allow for coherent averaging when calculating three-dimensional (3D) structures. Rotation of 2D images is usually done with the assumption that the magnification of the electron microscope is the same in all directions. However, due to electron optical aberrations, this condition is not met with some electron microscopes when used with the settings necessary for cryo-EM with a direct detector device (DDD) camera. Correction of images by linear interpolation in real space has allowed high-resolution structures to be calculated from cryo-EM images for symmetric particles. Here we describe and compare a simple real space method, a simple Fourier space method, and a somewhat more sophisticated Fourier space method to correct images for a measured anisotropy in magnification. Further, anisotropic magnification causes contrast transfer function (CTF) parameters estimated from image power spectra to have an apparent systematic astigmatism. To address this problem we develop an approach to adjust CTF parameters measured from distorted images so that they can be used with corrected images. The effect of anisotropic magnification on CTF parameters provides a simple way of detecting magnification anisotropy in cryo-EM datasets. PMID:26087140

  2. Single-particle cryo-EM of the ryanodine receptor channel in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:25844145

  3. Single-Particle Cryo-EM of the Ryanodine Receptor Channel in an Aqueous Environment

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Mariah R.; Fan, Guizhen

    2015-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are tetrameric ligand-gated Ca2+ release channels that are responsible for the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration leading to muscle contraction. Our current understanding of RyR channel gating and regulation is greatly limited due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the channel protein. The enormous size and unwieldy shape of Ca2+ release channels make X-ray or NMR methods difficult to apply for high-resolution structural analysis of the full-length functional channel. Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is one of the only effective techniques for the study of such a large integral membrane protein and its molecular interactions. Despite recent developments in cryo-EM technologies and break-through single-particle cryo-EM studies of ion channels, cryospecimen preparation, particularly the presence of detergent in the buffer, remains the main impediment to obtaining atomic-resolution structures of ion channels and a multitude of other integral membrane protein complexes. In this review we will discuss properties of several detergents that have been successfully utilized in cryo-EM studies of ion channels and the emergence of the detergent alternative amphipol to stabilize ion channels for structure-function characterization. Future structural studies of challenging specimen like ion channels are likely to be facilitated by cryo-EM amenable detergents or alternative surfactants. PMID:26913144

  4. dbEM: A database of epigenetic modifiers curated from cancerous and normal genomes

    PubMed Central

    Singh Nanda, Jagpreet; Kumar, Rahul; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a database called dbEM (database of Epigenetic Modifiers) to maintain the genomic information of about 167 epigenetic modifiers/proteins, which are considered as potential cancer targets. In dbEM, modifiers are classified on functional basis and comprise of 48 histone methyl transferases, 33 chromatin remodelers and 31 histone demethylases. dbEM maintains the genomic information like mutations, copy number variation and gene expression in thousands of tumor samples, cancer cell lines and healthy samples. This information is obtained from public resources viz. COSMIC, CCLE and 1000-genome project. Gene essentiality data retrieved from COLT database further highlights the importance of various epigenetic proteins for cancer survival. We have also reported the sequence profiles, tertiary structures and post-translational modifications of these epigenetic proteins in cancer. It also contains information of 54 drug molecules against different epigenetic proteins. A wide range of tools have been integrated in dbEM e.g. Search, BLAST, Alignment and Profile based prediction. In our analysis, we found that epigenetic proteins DNMT3A, HDAC2, KDM6A, and TET2 are highly mutated in variety of cancers. We are confident that dbEM will be very useful in cancer research particularly in the field of epigenetic proteins based cancer therapeutics. This database is available for public at URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/dbem. PMID:26777304

  5. Physics-based simulation of EM and SM in TSV-based 3D IC structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kteyan, Armen; Sukharev, Valeriy; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2014-06-19

    Evolution of stresses in through-silicon-vias (TSVs) and in the TSV landing pad due to the stress migration (SM) and electromigration (EM) phenomena are considered. It is shown that an initial stress distribution existing in a TSV depends on its architecture and copper fill technology. We demonstrate that in the case of proper copper annealing the SM-induced redistribution of atoms results in uniform distributions of the hydrostatic stress and concentration of vacancies along each segment. In this case, applied EM stressing generates atom migration that is characterized by kinetics depending on the preexisting equilibrium concentration of vacancies. Stress-induced voiding in TSV is considered. EM induced voiding in TSV landing pad is analyzed in details.

  6. Facility location: a review of context-free and EMS models.

    PubMed Central

    ReVelle, C; Bigman, D; Schilling, D; Cohon, J; Church, R

    1977-01-01

    EMS location models are those formulated to address specific problems of emergency medical services systems; context-free location models are those developed without reference to particular applications. The literature on these two types of public facility location models is reviewed, and the development of the maximal covering model from several earlier context-free models is described, with emphasis on problem statements and articulation of service objectives. An application of the maximal covering model to fire truck location points up the ability of this model to handle multiple objectives; its ability to compare alternative solutions gives it great utility for planning and evaluating EMS systems of a wide range of complexity. Potential applications of the maximal covering model are discussed regarding EMS problems involving multiple time standards and service objectives, location of special equipment, and siting of fixed facilities. PMID:885725

  7. Estudo e aplicao do cdigo de desembaraamento espectral - Korel - em sistemas triplos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. B. V.; Vaz, L. P. R.

    2003-08-01

    O cdigo KOREL uma ferramenta adicional eficiente para a determinao simultnea de parmetros orbitais espectroscpicos para o desembarao de espectros individuais de sistemas estelares com at cinco componentes. Estudos j realizados (Torres,KBV,2002, Dissertao de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG) mostram as limitaes, aplicabilidade e eficincia do cdigo para sistemas com duas componentes. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, a continuao dos estudos para sistemas com trs componentes (sistemas hierrquicos), utilizando espectros sintticos "gabaritos" de estrelas individuais em rbitas cujos parmetros so conhecidos "a priori". Geramos os espectros compostos e verificamos como o cdigo reproduz os parmetros orbitais e espectros individuais em diversas situaes fsicas. apresentado, ainda, uma discusso da aplicabilidade do cdigo em sistemas reais como RV Crateris (Machado,ACM,1997, Dissertao de Mestrado DF-ICEx-UFMG), um sistema triplo cujas componentes eclipsantes esto, provavelmente, ainda na fase pr-sequncia principal.

  8. Fully EM algorithms for the quasi-neutral, zero-electron-inertia model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, Dennis

    2009-11-01

    An algorithm has been developed to compute the electromagnetic signature of impulsive currents in quasi-neutral, collisionless plasmas. Such plasmas are common in laser target chambers, space physics, and EMP generating events. Traditional models[1] used in this regime make the Darwin assumption that neglects purely EM waves. Computing electro-magnetic pulse behavior (EMP) requires the solution of the EM wave equations. Other algorithms designed to treat this problem [2] are susceptible to round-off problems in our applications. The current algorithm, based on the same physics model, is to be much more forgiving in regions of low density or low magnetic field. Results and initial V&V analysis will be presented.[4pt] [1] ``Low-frequency EM (Darwin) applications in plasma simulations'', Hewett, CPC, 84, pg 243, May 1994[0pt] [2] ``A fully electromagnetic model for high density plasma simulations'' Jones, Thomas, Mason, and Winske, 13^th Conference on the Numerical Simulations of Plasmas, 1983.

  9. EM algorithm applied for estimating non-stationary region boundaries using electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khambampati, A. K.; Rashid, A.; Kim, B. S.; Liu, Dong; Kim, S.; Kim, K. Y.

    2010-04-01

    EIT has been used for the dynamic estimation of organ boundaries. One specific application in this context is the estimation of lung boundaries during pulmonary circulation. This would help track the size and shape of lungs of the patients suffering from diseases like pulmonary edema and acute respiratory failure (ARF). The dynamic boundary estimation of the lungs can also be utilized to set and control the air volume and pressure delivered to the patients during artificial ventilation. In this paper, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is used as an inverse algorithm to estimate the non-stationary lung boundary. The uncertainties caused in Kalman-type filters due to inaccurate selection of model parameters are overcome using EM algorithm. Numerical experiments using chest shaped geometry are carried out with proposed method and the performance is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). Results show superior performance of EM in estimation of the lung boundary.

  10. Evaluation model calculations with the water reactor analysis package (WRAP-EM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, M.V.; Beranek, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Water Reactor Analysis Package-Evaluation Model (WRAP-EM) is a modular system of computer codes designed to provide the safety analyst with the capability of performing complete loss-of-coolant calculations for both pressurized- and boiling-water reactor systems. The system provides a licensing-type calculation capability and thus contains most of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-Approved EM options, as described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix K. All phases of an accident (blowdown, refill, and reflood) are modeled. The WRAP consists of modified versions of five preexisting codes (RELAP4/MOD5, GAPCON, FRAP, MOXY, and NORCOOL), the necessary interfaces to permit automatic transition from one code to the next during the transient calculations, plus a host of user-convenience features to aid the analyst faced with a multitude of EM calculations. The WRAP has been verified against both calculated and experimental results.

  11. IPEP: Laboratory performance evaluation reports for management of DOE EM programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, J.E.; Lindahl, P.C.; Streets, W.E.

    1995-08-01

    Environmental restoration program/project managers at DOE`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) are making important decisions based on analytical data generated by contracted laboratories. The Analytical Services Division, EM-263, is developing the Integrated Performance Evaluation Program (IPEP) to assess the performance of those laboratories, based on results from Performance Evaluation (PE) programs. The IPEP reports will be used by the laboratories to foster self-assessment and improvement. In addition, IPEP will produce PE reports for three levels of EM management (Operations/Project Offices, Area Program Offices, and Deputy Assistant Secretary Office). These reports will be used to assess whether contracted analytical laboratories have the capability to produce environmental data of the quality necessary for making environmental restoration and waste management decisions.

  12. Experience with the EM-60 electromagnetic system for geothermal exploration in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Stark, M.; Haught, J.R.; Morrison, H.F.

    1981-09-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) conducted controlled-source electromagnetic (EM) surveys at three geothermal prospects in northern Nevada. Over 40 soundings were made in Panther Canyon (Grass Valley), near Winnemucca; Soda Lakes, near Fallon; and McCoy, west of Austin, to test and demonstrate the applicability of LBL's EM-60 system to geothermal exploration. The EM-60 is a frequency-domain system using three-component magnetic detection. Typically, +-65 A is applied to an 100-m-diameter four-turn horizontal loop, generating a dipole moment >10/sup 6/ MKS over the frequency range 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -3/ Hz. With such a source loop, soundings were made, at transmitter-receiver separations of up to 4 km, providing a maximum depth of penetration of 4 km.

  13. Recidivism Among Licensed-Released Prisoners Who Participated in the EM Program in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem

    2015-08-01

    Toward the end of 2006, a pilot program was launched in Israel wherein licensed-released prisoners were put under electronic monitoring (EM). In addition to EM, the pilot program, operated by the Prisoners' Rehabilitation Authority, provides programs of occupational supervision and personal therapy and is designed to allow for early release of those prisoners who, without increased supervision, would have been found unsuitable for early release. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the EM program among licensed-released prisoners in Israel might bring about lessened recidivism. For that matter, rates of arrests and incarceration were examined during a follow-up period of up to 4 years, among the entirety of licensed-released prisoners participating in the EM program between the years 2007 and 2009 (n = 155). To compare recidivism rates, a control group was assembled from among the entirety of released prisoners who were found unsuitable for early release in judicial conditions, and had therefore served the full term of their incarceration, to be released between the years 2005 and 2006 (a period of time during which an EM program was not yet operated among licensed-released prisoners in Israel). Study findings clearly show that while among the control group, 42% of released prisoners were re-incarcerated, at the end of a 4-year follow-up period, only 15% among the study group had returned to prison. These findings can be explained by combining the Social Control theory and the Self-Control theory which consider the period of time under EM program and the occupational and familial integration tools for reducing criminal connections and enhancing pro-social behavior. PMID:24510371

  14. Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.

    2003-08-01

    A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

  15. A distribuio de velocidades na linha de visada em galxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemtico da componente vertical de barras em galxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razo S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescpios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuio de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do ncleo, correspondendo a distncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variao radial da distribuio de velocidades tambm pde ser avaliada. Este tipo de anlise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescpio. Entretanto, de fcil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informaes que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeioar modelos tericos acerca da formao e evoluo de galxias. Um algoritmo por ns desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuies de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinmios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hiptese nem sempre razovel. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnstico para a identificao de barras recm formadas, e testes para o modelo isotrmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padro em velocidade, e dos parmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada j que tem influncia significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galxias apresentam uma depresso na disperso de velocidades na regio central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a disperso de velocidades constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  16. EM-ML algorithm for track initialization with features using possibly noninformative data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam

    2004-01-01

    Initializing and maintaining a track for a low observable (low SNR, low target detection probability and high false alarm rate) target can be very challenging because of the low information content of measurements. In addition, in some scenarios, target-originated measurements might not be present in many consecutive scans because of mispointing, target maneuvers or erroneous preprocessing. That is, one might have a set of noninformative scans that could result in poor track initialization and maintenance. In this paper an algorithm based on the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm combined with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation is presented for tracking slowly maneuvering targets in heavy clutter and possibly non-informative scans. The adaptive sliding-window EM-ML approach, which operates in batch mode, tries to reject or weight down non-informative scans using the Q-function in the M-step of the EM algorithm. A track validation technique is used to confirm the validity of the EM-ML estimates. It is shown that target features in the form of, for example, amplitude information, can also be used to improve the estimates. In addition, performance bounds based on the supplemented EM (SEM) technique are also presented. The effectiveness of new algorithm is first demonstrated on a 78-frame Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) data sequence consisting of an F1 Mirage fighter jet in heavy clutter. Previously, this scenario has been used as a benchmark for evaluating the performance of other track initialization algorithms. The new EM-ML estimator confirms the track by frame 20 while the ML-PDA (Maximum Likelihood estimator combined with Probabilistic Data Association) algorithm, the IMM-MHT (Interacting Multiple Model estimator combined with Multiple Hypothesis Tracking) and the IMM-PDA estimator previously required 28, 38 and 39 frames, respectively. The benefits of the new algorithm in terms of accuracy, early detection and computational load are illustrated using simulated scenarios as well.

  17. EM-ML algorithm for track initialization with features using possibly noninformative data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam

    2003-12-01

    Initializing and maintaining a track for a low observable (low SNR, low target detection probability and high false alarm rate) target can be very challenging because of the low information content of measurements. In addition, in some scenarios, target-originated measurements might not be present in many consecutive scans because of mispointing, target maneuvers or erroneous preprocessing. That is, one might have a set of noninformative scans that could result in poor track initialization and maintenance. In this paper an algorithm based on the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm combined with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation is presented for tracking slowly maneuvering targets in heavy clutter and possibly non-informative scans. The adaptive sliding-window EM-ML approach, which operates in batch mode, tries to reject or weight down non-informative scans using the Q-function in the M-step of the EM algorithm. A track validation technique is used to confirm the validity of the EM-ML estimates. It is shown that target features in the form of, for example, amplitude information, can also be used to improve the estimates. In addition, performance bounds based on the supplemented EM (SEM) technique are also presented. The effectiveness of new algorithm is first demonstrated on a 78-frame Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) data sequence consisting of an F1 Mirage fighter jet in heavy clutter. Previously, this scenario has been used as a benchmark for evaluating the performance of other track initialization algorithms. The new EM-ML estimator confirms the track by frame 20 while the ML-PDA (Maximum Likelihood estimator combined with Probabilistic Data Association) algorithm, the IMM-MHT (Interacting Multiple Model estimator combined with Multiple Hypothesis Tracking) and the IMM-PDA estimator previously required 28, 38 and 39 frames, respectively. The benefits of the new algorithm in terms of accuracy, early detection and computational load are illustrated using simulated scenarios as well.

  18. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits. PMID:15285401

  19. EC and EM surveys of a levee of the Tuolumne River, Stanislaus County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, I.; Ferriz, H. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Tuolumne River Regional Park is built over a non-engineered levee, which allegedly included a portion of a 1920s landfill. EC and EM surveys were conducted to substantiate this report. The conductivity measurements were acquired using a Geonics EM-31 MK2, Geonics EM-34, and the AGI Superstring Resistivity meters. The Geonics EM-31 MK2 acquired conductivity data in the horizontal and vertical dipole mode with theoretical penetration depths of 3 meters and 6 m respectively. The Geonics EM-34 acquired data at spacings of 10 and 20 m in both horizontal and vertical mode, with theoretical penetrations of 7.5 m, 15 m, and 30 m. The location of all electromagnetic measurements where tracked using a Trimble 114 GPS receiver. The AGI Superstring resistivity meter collected data in dipole-dipole mode over a 108-meter span with a four-meter spacing between each stake. The EM conductivity ranges from 20 mS/m to 50mS/m on the background portions of the levee, but the central portions of the profile include high conductivity anomalies (120 mS/m to 300 mS/m), which potentially represents the old landfill. The anomalies form pockets within the profile, rather than a continuous block, which leads us to believe that the profile cuts only the fringe of the landfill. Resistivity imaging confirms the presence of low resistivity materials (< 10 ohmm) at depths from 2 to 7 m, underlain by a zone of higher resistivities (20 to 80 ohmm) to a depth of 20 m. Because the area is used as a park, and is periodically irrigated, we cannot discount the possibility that some of the high conductivity/low resistivity anomalies could be related to increased water content in the soil.

  20. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the…

  1. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the

  2. Factor Analysis with EM Algorithm Never Gives Improper Solutions when Sample Covariance and Initial Parameter Matrices Are Proper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Rubin and Thayer ("Psychometrika," 47:69-76, 1982) proposed the EM algorithm for exploratory and confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. In this paper, we prove the following fact: the EM algorithm always gives a proper solution with positive unique variances and factor correlations with absolute values that do not exceed one, when the

  3. The longitudinal study of turnover and the cost of turnover in EMS

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Jones, Cheryl B.; Hubble, Michael W.; Carr, Matthew; Weaver, Matthew D.; Engberg, John; Castle, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Few studies have examined employee turnover and associated costs in emergency medical services (EMS). The purpose of this study was to quantify the mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination in a diverse sample of EMS agencies. Methods A convenience sample of 40 EMS agencies was followed over a 6 month period. Internet, telephone, and on-site data collection methods were used to document terminations, new hires, open positions, and costs associated with turnover. The cost associated with turnover was calculated based on a modified version of the Nursing Turnover Cost Calculation Methodology (NTCCM). The NTCCM identified direct and indirect costs through a series of questions that agency administrators answered monthly during the study period. A previously tested measure of turnover to calculate the mean annual rate of turnover was used. All calculations were weighted by the size of the EMS agency roster. The mean annual rate of turnover, total median cost of turnover, and median cost per termination were determined for 3 categories of agency staff mix: all paid staff, mix of paid and volunteer (mixed), and all-volunteer. Results The overall weighted mean annual rate of turnover was 10.7%. This rate varied slightly across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=10.2%, mixed=12.3%, all-volunteer=12.4%). Among agencies that experienced turnover (n=25), the weighted median cost of turnover was $71,613.75, which varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$86,452.05, mixed=$9,766.65, and all-volunteer=$0). The weighted median cost per termination was $6,871.51 and varied across agency staffing mix: (all-paid=$7,161.38, mixed=$1,409.64, and all-volunteer=$0). Conclusions Annual rates of turnover and costs associated with turnover vary widely across types of EMS agencies. The study’s mean annual rate of turnover was lower than expected based on information appearing in the news media and EMS trade magazines. Findings provide estimates of two key workforce measures – turnover rates and costs – where previously none have existed. Local EMS directors and policymakers at all levels of government may find the results and study methodology useful towards designing and evaluating programs targeting the EMS workforce. PMID:20199235

  4. Genomic characterization of EmsB microsatellite loci in Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Valot, Benoît; Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    EmsB is a molecular marker applied to Echinococcus multilocularis genotyping studies. This marker has largely been used to investigate the epidemiology of the parasite in different endemic foci. The present study has lifted the veil on the genetic structure of this microsatellite. By in silico analysis on the E. multilocularis genome the microsatellite was described in about 40 copies on the chromosome 5 of the parasite. Similar structure was found in the relative parasite Echinococcus granulosus, where the microsatellite was firstly described. The present study completes the first investigations made on the EmsB microsatellite origins and confirms the reliability of this highly discriminant molecular marker. PMID:25847697

  5. A human factors analysis of an EMS crew's exposure to carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Levy, Matthew J; Seaman, Kevin G; Levy, J Lee

    2012-06-01

    The safety of personnel and resources is considered to be a cornerstone of prehospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) operations and practice. However, barriers exist that limit the comprehensive reporting of EMS safety data. To overcome these barriers, many high risk industries utilize a technique called Human Factors Analysis (HFA) as a means of error reduction. The goal of this approach is to analyze processes for the purposes of making an environment safer for patients and providers. This report describes an application of this approach to safety incident analysis following a situation during which a paramedic ambulance crew was exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide. PMID:22697403

  6. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  7. Rotating-bed reactor as a power source for EM gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approx. 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th)), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approx. 300/sup 0/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it, the RBR can generate electric power (up to approx. 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications.

  8. Specially Conditioned EM Fields for Propellant-less Impulsion within Higher Dimensional Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, H. David

    2009-03-01

    A higher dimensional realm with room for both slower than light (STL) and faster-than-light (FTL) travel is defined, together with paths within this realm that enable: unlabored (momentum-conserving and energy-preserving) ship acceleration and deceleration between STL and FTL speeds. And it is shown that fields guiding ships on unlabored paths within this deeper realm must have components in more than the 3 spatial directions in which ordinary electromagnetic (EM) fields act. This is shown possible with EM fields that are transformed from lower U1 to higher SU2 Lie symmetry.

  9. Theoretical and FEM analysis of suspension and propulsion system with HTS hybrid electromagnets in an EMS Maglev model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y. D.; Lee, C. Y.; Jang, J. Y.; Yoon, Y. S.; Ko, T. K.

    2011-11-01

    We have been constructed a proto-type electromagnetic suspension (EMS) based maglev vehicle system. The maglev concept utilizes magnetic forces for noncontact suspension, guidance and propulsion. The suspension system with high temperature superconducting (HTS) hybrid electromagnet (EM) is composed of HTS coils and normal coils, which consume little power to keep large suspension gap. The magnetic forces realize to guide the vehicle, propel the vehicle along the guide-way and assist in braking action. The proto-type EMS-based Maglev model is designed to keep the suspension gap of 20 mm. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the maglev vehicle based on the EMS model to obtain the designing parameters for levitation and propulsion forces. The magnetic field distributions of the electromagnetic forces with hybrid EM and propulsion stator coils are analyzed based on three dimension (3D) finite element method (FEM) analysis. From the simulation results, appropriately design parameters of the suspension, guidance and propulsion were obtained.

  10. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma estrutura maior.

  11. Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

    2013-01-01

    "EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the…

  12. Automatic Facial Skin Segmentation Based on EM Algorithm under Varying Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsi, Mousa; Zoroofi, Reza Aghaiezadeh; Lucas, Caro; Hasanabadi, Mohammad Sadeghi; Alsharif, Mohammad Reza

    Facial skin detection is an important step in facial surgical planning like as many other applications. There are many problems in facial skin detection. One of them is that the image features can be severely corrupted due to illumination, noise, and occlusion, where, shadows can cause numerous strong edges. Hence, in this paper, we present an automatic Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for facial skin color segmentation that uses knowledge of chromatic space and varying illumination conditions to correct and segment frontal and lateral facial color images, simultaneously. The proposed EM algorithm leads to a method that allows for more robust and accurate segmentation of facial images. The initialization of the model parameters is very important in convergence of algorithm. For this purpose, we use a method for robust parameter estimation of Gaussian mixture components. Also, we use an additional class, which includes all pixels not modeled explicitly by Gaussian with small variance, by a uniform probability density, and amending the EM algorithm appropriately, in order to obtain significantly better results. Experimental results on facial color images show that accurate estimates of the Gaussian mixture parameters are computed. Also, other results on images presenting a wide range of variations in lighting conditions, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed color skin segmentation algorithm compared to conventional EM algorithm.

  13. 6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. Dynamic partnership: A new approach to EM technology commercialization and deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, D.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1996-12-31

    The task of restoring nuclear defense complex sites under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program presents an unprecedented challenge to the environmental restoration community. Effective and efficient cleanup requires the timely development or modification of novel cleanup technologies applicable to radioactive wastes. Fostering the commercialization of these innovative technologies is the mission of EM-50, the EM Program Office of Science and Technology. However, efforts are often arrested at the {open_quotes}valley of death,{close_quotes} the general term for barriers to demonstration, commercialization, and deployment. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), a not-for-profit, contract-supported organization focused on research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD&C) of energy and environmental technologies, is in the second year of a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) designed to deliver EM technologies into the commercial marketplace through a unique combination of technical support, real-world demonstration, and brokering. This paper profiles this novel approach, termed {open_quotes}Dynamic Partnership,{close_quotes} and reviews the application of this concept to the ongoing commercialization and deployment of four innovative cleanup technologies. 2 tabs.

  15. EmPOWERing Children with Learning Disabilities: A Practitioner-Based Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the expressive writing needs of students who struggle have become a critical and life-influencing problem. This article provides an overview of current research on the writing needs of students with LD and a practitioner-based reflection on the Singer and Bashir EmPOWER approach, a resource that can help teachers meet

  16. Tailored ML-EM Algorithm for Reconstruction of Truncated Projection Data using Few View-Angles

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yanfei; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2013-01-01

    Dedicated cardiac Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems have the advantage of high speed and sensitivity at no loss, or even a gain, in resolution. The potential drawbacks of these dedicated systems are data truncation by the small field of view (FOV) and the lack of view-angles. Serious artifacts, including streaks outside the FOV and distortion in the FOV, are introduced to the reconstruction when using the traditional emission data Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (ML-EM) algorithm to reconstruct images from the truncated data at small number of views. In this paper, we propose a tailored ML-EM algorithm to suppress the artifacts caused by data truncation and insufficient angular sampling by reducing the image updating step sizes for the pixels outside the FOV. As a consequence, the convergence speed for the pixels outside the FOV is decelerated. We applied the proposed algorithm to truncated analytical data, Monte Carlo simulation data and real emission data at different numbers of views. The computer simulation results show that the tailored ML-EM algorithm outperforms the conventional ML-EM algorithm in terms of streak artifacts and distortion suppression for reconstruction from truncated projection data with a small number of views. PMID:23689102

  17. Are you under stress in EMS. Understanding the slippery slope of burnout and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Collopy, Kevin T; Kivlehan, Sean M; Snyder, Scott R

    2012-10-01

    Burnout and PTSD are closely linked and often underreported in EMS. EMS classrooms do little or nothing to prepare providers for the inherent emotional stresses of emergency response and the "thick skin" culture of EMS may make many providers apprehensive about sharing their true feelings. Burnout is triggered by many of the same stresses that lead to the symptoms of PTSD and providers experiencing burnout that doesn't resolve within a few weeks may actually be experiencing PTSD. Be mindful of yourself and your fellow coworkers, particularly after a very traumatic response. And remember traumatic responses don't need to be as dramatic as Sept. 11, New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina or the Aurora, CO shootings to bother an EMS worker. In contrast, these are the calls where providers often receive the most attention. Instead, watch for the new father who just performed CPR on an infant the same age as his own, or the provider who just watched his or her friend die following a motor vehicle collision. Pay attention to yourself and colleagues, and be responsible and honest with yourself and others about when coping strategies are enough, and when they aren't. Finally, don't ever be afraid to seek help. PMID:23097838

  18. The VLF-EM imaging of potential collapse on the LUSI embankment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sungkono; Husein, Alwi; Prasetyo, Hardi; Bahri, Ayi S.; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Santosa, Bagus J.

    2014-10-01

    Collapse and overtopping repeatedly occur in LUSI Embankment. Discontinuities (crack or fracture) in the embankment are major reasons for embankment failures or collapses. Very-low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) measurement is essentially a non-destructive technique which displays subsurface 2-D cross section of resistivity. The cross section result has the possibility of detecting discontinuities and liquid saturation in embankment before it collapsed by observing which part of it in the cross section has low resistivity. This paper presents results of a survey conducted at the LUSI embankment in Eastern Java, Indonesia in a part of potential collapse. VLF-EM profiles measured along the embankment crest provided an overview of the whole embankment and served to detect anomalous zones. The noise assisted multivariate empirical mode decomposition (NA-MEMD) is applied to reject unwanted VLF-EM noise and Inv2DVLF software is applied to obtain result of 2-D resistivity models. In the selected area, the drill log and the standard penetration test (SPT) value gave detailed information about subsurface layer below embankment. This information is valuable for supporting 2-D resistivity image obtained from VLF-EM data inversion. Furthermore, the low resistivity in embankment layer is associated to discontinuities (fracture, crack or fault) along the embankment which caused its collapse.

  19. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…

  20. New Jersey's EMS response to Superstorm Sandy: a case study of the emergency management assistance compact.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Christensen, Kenneth; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is critical to responding to a natural disaster or manmade event. Recently, the State of New Jersey responded to Superstorm Sandy and implemented the EMAC system by requesting ambulances to aid in the Emergency Medical Services response. New Jersey's response to Superstorm Sandy was unprecedented in that this storm affected the entire state and EMS community. New Jersey's EMS community and infrastructure were impacted greatly, despite years of planning and preparation for such an event. Once received, out-of-state EMS resources were integrated into New Jersey's emergency management and EMS systems. In this report, each phase of the EMAC in New Jersey is explored, from how the response was coordinated to how it ultimately was executed. The state coordinated its response on multiple levels and, as such, tested the practical applicability of the EMAC process and employed best practices and solutions to issues that arose. These best practices and solutions may prove invaluable for any state or territory that may activate the EMAC system for emergency medical service resources. PMID:24844291

  1. Resolution in EM autoradiography V: /sup 45/Ca (and /sup 33/P)

    SciTech Connect

    Salpeter, M.M.; Nelson, R.; Harris, R.; Salpeter, E.E.

    1987-10-01

    We devised a specimen to test EM autoradiographic resolution for calcium-45 (and phosphorous-33). A dry emulsion film was used for soluble compounds. We obtained a resolution (HD) value of 2300 +/- 500 A. This value is no larger than that previously obtained for Carbon -14, whose emission is about 1.6-fold lower. This result is as expected on theoretical grounds.

  2. The Role of Journals in Building up Communities: The Experience of "Cincia em Tela"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel; de Souza Barros, Susana

    2015-01-01

    "Cincia em Tela" is an open access Brazilian science teacher education online journal that has been published twice a year since 2008 and which encourages the participation of professionals with different backgrounds and the submission of a variety of textual genres, besides research papers. Another feature is that the journal includes

  3. Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM): Background and Applications of Data Automation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Data for Environmental Modeling (D4EM) project demonstrates the development of a comprehensive set of open source software tools that overcome obstacles to accessing data needed by automating the process of populating model input data sets with environmental data available fr...

  4. Memria fonolgica em crianas bilngues bimodais e crianas com implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Mller; Cruz, Carina Rebello; Pizzio, Aline Lemos

    2014-01-01

    RESUMO Este estudo comparou o desempenho de crianas bilngues bimodais ouvintes (filhas de pais surdos) e crianas surdas usurias de implante coclear (filhas de pais surdos e de pais ouvintes), com diferentes contextos de acesso Lngua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), em tarefas que envolvem memria fonologica. Os testes utilizados foram: Teste de Pseudopalavras (Santos e Bueno, 2003) e Teste de Pseudosinais (desenvolvido pelos pesquisadores responsveis pelo Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilngue Bimoda). Alm disso, foram includos dois grupos de controle, formados por crianas surdas (usuarias de Libras), e adultos bilngues bimodais ouvintes. Na anlise dos resultados, em relao ao desempenho entre os dois grupos testados foi constatado que o grupo de crianas bilngues bimodais ouvintes apresentou desempenho superior, nos dois testes. No entanto, ao ser analisado o desempenho da criana surda usuaria de implante coclear, filha de pais surdos, que possui acesso irrestrito Libras e comparado com o das crianas surdas usurias de implante coclear, que possuem acesso restrito Libras, foi constatado que o seu desempenho foi semelhante ao do grupo de crianas bilngues bimodais ouvintes. As crianas surdas usurias de implante coclear com acesso restrito Libras e, portanto, com acesso maior ao Portugus apresentaram escores mais baixos nas tarefas, principalmente do teste em Portugus. Os resultados sugerem que as crianas surdas usurias de implante coclear em processo de aquisio da lnguagem podem se beneficiar com o acesso irrestrito Libras, atingindo inclusive desempenho semelhante a de crianas bilngues bimodais ouvintes. PMID:25110473

  5. 12 Years of Action Learning at EM Normandie: Monitored Field Projects as Regular Pedagogical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Sophie Gay; Hachard, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The Master Grande Ecole curriculum at EM Normandie School is organized around junior consulting projects and real problem solving activities aiming at bridging the gap between classroom knowledge and professional competencies. Since the 90's, students are involved in regular consulting activities for local and national companies following the

  6. Injury risks of EMS responders: evidence from the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Davis, Andrea L; Barnes, Brittany; Lacovara, Alicia V; Patel, Reema

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We analysed near-miss and injury events reported to the National Fire Fighter Near-Miss Reporting System (NFFNMRS) to investigate the workplace hazards and safety concerns of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) responders in the USA. Methods We reviewed 769 ‘non-fire emergency event’ reports from the NFFNMRS using a mixed methods approach. We identified 185 emergency medical calls and analysed their narrative text fields. We assigned Mechanism of Near-Miss/Injury and Nature of Injury codes and then tabulated frequencies (quantitative). We coded major themes regarding work hazards and safety concerns reported by the EMS responders (qualitative). Results Of the 185 emergency medical calls, the most commonly identified Mechanisms of Near-Miss/Injury to EMS responders was Assaults, followed by Struck-by Motor Vehicle, and Motor Vehicle Collision. The most commonly identified weapon used in an assault was a firearm. We identified 5 major domains of workplace hazards and safety concerns: Assaults by Patients, Risks from Motor Vehicles, Personal Protective Equipment, Relationships between Emergency Responders, and Policies, Procedures and Practices. Conclusions Narrative text from the NFFNMRS is a rich source of data that can be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to provide insight into near-misses and injuries sustained by EMS responders. Near-miss reporting systems are critical components for occupational hazard surveillance. PMID:26068510

  7. Quantitative comparison of FBP, EM, and Bayesian reconstruction algorithms for the IndyPET scanner.

    PubMed

    Frese, Thomas; Rouze, Ned C; Bouman, Charles A; Sauer, Ken; Hutchins, Gary D

    2003-02-01

    We quantitatively compare filtered backprojection (FBP), expectation-maximization (EM), and Bayesian reconstruction algorithms as applied to the IndyPET scanner--a dedicated research scanner which has been developed for small and intermediate field of view imaging applications. In contrast to previous approaches that rely on Monte Carlo simulations, a key feature of our investigation is the use of an empirical system kernel determined from scans of line source phantoms. This kernel is incorporated into the forward model of the EM and Bayesian algorithms to achieve resolution recovery. Three data sets are used, data collected on the IndyPET scanner using a bar phantom and a Hoffman three-dimensional brain phantom, and simulated data containing a hot lesion added to a uniform background. Reconstruction quality is analyzed quantitatively in terms of bias-variance measures (bar phantom) and mean square error (lesion phantom). We observe that without use of the empirical system kernel, the FBP, EM, and Bayesian algorithms give similar performance. However, with the inclusion of the empirical kernel, the iterative algorithms provide superior reconstructions compared with FBP, both in terms of visual quality and quantitative measures. Furthermore, Bayesian methods outperform EM. We conclude that significant improvements in reconstruction quality can be realized by combining accurate models of the system response with Bayesian reconstruction algorithms. PMID:12716002

  8. MINIMIZING DRIFT IN ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS USING THE EM-38

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geonics EM-38 is a commonly used tool for non-invasive mapping of ground bulk soil electrical conductivity (ECa). Mapping use includes, soil salinity, soil texture and water content maps within precision agriculture. In the southern United States instruments are used in the summer where shade te...

  9. EURAMET.EM-S38 supplementary comparison of small current sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydler, K.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Some years ago the EURAMET.EM-S24 comparison was performed in the field of small DC currents below 1 nA, initiated and coordinated by PTB, to compare the capabilities of thirteen European and non-European National Metrology Institutes for traceable calibrations of picoammeters. Late in the comparison, SP announced an interest to participate; instead, the bilateral comparison EURAMET.EM-S38 between SP and PTB was started. The measurements were made before any report of the EM-S24 was published. Hence, the same travelling standards, two different commercial picoammeters, could be used. They were calibrated at current values of +/-100 fA, +/-1 pA, +/-10 pA and +/-100 pA. Good agreement between the results of the participants was found. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the

  11. Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) Status and Compliance Requirements for EM Consolidated Business Center Contracts - 13204

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Moe, M.A.; Hombach, W.G.; Urdangaray, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has developed a web-accessible database to collect actual cost data from completed EM projects to support cost estimating and analysis. This Environmental Cost Analysis System (ECAS) database was initially deployed in early 2009 containing the cost and parametric data from 77 decommissioning, restoration, and waste management projects completed under the Rocky Flats Closure Project. In subsequent years we have added many more projects to ECAS and now have a total of 280 projects from 8 major DOE sites. This data is now accessible to DOE users through a web-based reporting tool that allows users to tailor report outputs to meet their specific needs. We are using it as a principal resource supporting the EM Consolidated Business Center (EMCBC) and the EM Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) team cost estimating and analysis efforts across the country. The database has received Government Accountability Office review as supporting its recommended improvements in DOE's cost estimating process, as well as review from the DOE Office of Acquisition and Project Management (APM). Moving forward, the EMCBC has developed a Special Contract Requirement clause or 'H-Clause' to be included in all current and future EMCBC procurements identifying the process that contractors will follow to provide DOE their historical project data in a format compatible with ECAS. Changes to DOE O 413.3B implementation are also in progress to capture historical costs as part of the Critical Decision project closeout process. (authors)

  12. Lessons in Generative Design, Publishing, and Circulation: What EM-Journal's First Year Has Taught Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosinski, Jana; Lonsdale, Chelsea; Morrison, Becky; Mueller, Derek; Nannini, Adam

    2013-01-01

    "EM-Journal" is a flexibly refereed online journal featuring writing produced by students of Eastern Michigan University. The journal showcases a variety of documents (articles, essays, reports, etc.) written and designed by students enrolled in EMU's First-Year Writing (FYW) program, in selected Writing Intensive (WI) courses affiliated with the

  13. The Rasch Poisson Counts Model for Incomplete Data: An Application of the EM Algorithm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Margo G. H.

    1995-01-01

    The Rasch Poisson counts model is a latent trait model for the situation in which "K" tests are administered to "N" examinees and the test score is a count (repeated number of some event). A mixed model is presented that applies the EM algorithm and that can allow for missing data. (SLD)

  14. Use of the Electromagnetic-Induction Meter (EM38) as a Tool in Managing Salinisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, R. C.; George, R. J.; Woods, S. A.; Cannon, M. E.; Bennett, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Utilisation of an EM38 electromagnetic-induction meter is a cost-effective method for assessing field salinity and for experiments on the salt tolerance of crops. The EM38 meter can be used to map the distribution and severity of salinity. The instrument must be calibrated for temperature, moisture, texture, and other soil factors, such as the presence of magnetic minerals. The meter can be carried by an operator and readings recorded manually; it can be towed behind an all-terrain vehicle to map in a preset grid; or it can be used randomly with a Global Positioning System and data-logging equipment to map large areas. In field experiments in Alberta, Canada, the EM38 was used to help assess salt tolerance of 28 species of trees and 28 species of forage and turf grasses. In similar experiments in Western Australia, the usefulness of the EM38 meter was evaluated in helping to predict survival and growth of Eucalyptus globulus and pastures in saline soils. These techniques are now being incorporated into salinity-management strategies.

  15. De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

    A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

  16. An EM Algorithm for Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Process Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Taehun

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, an Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is developed and implemented to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters and the associated standard error estimates characterizing temporal flows for the latent variable time series following stationary vector ARMA processes, as well as the parameters defining the…

  17. EMS runs for suspected opioid overdose: Implications for surveillance and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Amy; Weir, Brian; Hazzard, Frank; Olsen, Yngvild; McWilliams, Junette; Fields, Julie; Gaasch, Wade

    2013-01-01

    Objective Opioid (including prescription opiate) abuse and overdose rates in the US have surged in the past decade. The dearth and limitations of opioid abuse and overdose surveillance systems impede the development of interventions to address this epidemic. We explored evidence to support the validity of emergency medical services (EMS) data on naloxone administration as a possible proxy for estimating incidence of opioid overdose. Methods We reviewed data from Baltimore City Fire Department EMS patient records matched with dispatch records over a thirteen month time period (2008-2009), and census 2008 data. We calculated incidence rates and patient demographic and temporal patterns of naloxone administration, and examined patient evaluation data associated with naloxone administration. Results were compared to the demographic distributions of the EMS patient and city population and to prior study findings. Results Of 116,910 EMS incidents during the study period for patients 15 years and older, EMS providers administered naloxone 1,297 times (1.1% of incidents), an average of 100 administrations per month. Overall incidence was 1.87 administrations per 1,000 population per year. Findings indicated naloxone administration peaked in summer months (31% of administrations), weekends (32%), and late afternoon (4-5:00pm [8%]); and there was a trend toward peaking in the first week of the month. The incidence of suspected opioid overdose was highest among males, whites, and those in the 45-54 year age group. Findings on temporal patterns were comparable to findings from prior studies. Demographic patterns of suspected opioid overdose were similar to medical examiner reports of demographic patterns of fatal drug or alcohol related overdoses in Baltimore in 2008-9 (88% of which involved opioids). The findings on patient evaluation data suggest some inconsistencies with previously recommended clinical indications of opioid overdose. Conclusions While our findings suggest limitations of EMS naloxone administration data as a proxy indicator of opioid overdose, the results provide partial support of the data for estimating opioid overdose incidence and suggest ways to improve such data. The study findings have implications for an EMS role in conducting real-time surveillance and treatment and prevention of opioid abuse and overdose. PMID:23734988

  18. Marine EM inversion using unstructured grids and a parallel adaptive finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Key, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Marine electromagnetic (EM) methods are increasingly being used for mapping tectonic structures and offshore resources. While the ability to collect dense 2D profiles and 3D grids of multi-frequency, multi-component data has grown significantly in industry and academia during the past decade, the ability to accurately and efficiently model this data remains a significant computational challenge. To date, most non-linear inversion algorithms applied for marine EM problems have relied on some form of rectangular grids for both the inversion model parameters and the finite-element (FE) or finite-difference discretization of the differential equations; often the same grid is used for both. This work explores the use of unstructured grids for two-dimensional marine EM inversion. Here the inversion minimization is based on the Occam approach but the parameterization is instead defined using arbitrarily shaped polygonal regions. Such a model discretization overcomes many of the shortcomings of rectangular grids. It readily allows for the accurate inclusion of known complex structures (e.g., seafloor bathymetry and seismic surfaces); it also allows for a more efficient model discretization since the parameter density can be concentrated (and refined) only where required. Due to the wide availability of robust triangulation algorithms, constrained conforming Delaunay triangulations are a convenient tool for generating an unstructured model discretization. The forward problem is implemented with a parallel adaptive finite element (FE) method that automatically generates an unstructured triangular FE grid that conforms to the model parameter boundaries. The FE grid is then automatically refined until the FE solution obtains an user specified tolerance. This inversion methodology has been implemented in a single code that handles both the magnetotelluric and controlled-source EM modeling problems. Along with a few synthetic examples that demonstrate the advantages of unstructured grid inversions, this algorithm is applied to a publicly available marine EM data set collected at Hydrate Ridge.

  19. Determining and Prioritizing the Organizational Determinants of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving the organization of pre-hospital emergency to provide emergency medical services (EMS), as a part of health system, plays an important role in timely and properly response to incidents, as well as, reducing mortalities and disabilities. Objective This study was conducted to determine the organizational determinants of emergency medical services in Iran and analyze their relationship and prioritize them. Materials and Methods The present study is kind of descriptive and cross-sectional study that has been conducted on the first half of 2010 using DEMATEL method (a group decision-making technique). Required data were collected using a questionnaire from a sample of 30 Iranian experts in pre-hospital emergency, who were selected using available sampling method. Results The determinants of establishing an independent EMS organization as a policy maker and observer organization, providing services through public organizations such as Emergency 115, private organizations partnership in pre-hospital emergency system, and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as organizational determinants. Also, establishing an independent EMS organization and integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management were determined as the most affecting and affected organizational determinants, respectively, with the coordinates (1.01 and 1.01) and (0.85 and - 0.85) in the pre-hospital emergency organizational determinants graph. Conclusions Emergency medical services should be considered as a system with its independent components. Establishing an independent EMS organization, integrating pre-hospital and hospital emergency under single supervision and management, as well as, extending the possibility of providing EMS through private sector are essential in order to make fundamental reforms in providing emergency medical services in Iran. PMID:24083003

  20. Microstructure Effect on EM-induced Degradations in Dual-Inlaid Copper Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kteyan, A.; Sukharev, V.; Meyer, M.-A.; Zschech, E.; Nix, W. D.

    2007-10-01

    A novel physical model and a simulation algorithm are used to predict EM induced stress evolution in dual-inlaid copper interconnects. The aim of the current simulation was to investigate the dual effect of the microstructure, which consists of (a) the effect of GBs as the sources/sinks for vacancies and plated atoms and as the channel for vacancy migration, and (b) the effect of texture-related variations of the modulus of elasticity on the stress evolution in copper lines caused by EM. The major difference between our approach and the previously described ones is the accounting of additional stress generated by the plated atoms. As it is shown this stress plays an important role in the vacancy equilibration. The results of the numerical simulation have been proven experimentally by EM degradation studies on fully embedded dual-inlaid copper interconnect test structures and by subsequent microstructure analysis, mainly based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data. The virtual EM-induced void formation, movement and growth in a copper interconnect were continuously monitored in an in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experiment. The copper microstructure, particularly the orientation of grains and grain boundaries, was determined with EBSD. It has a significant influence on grain boundary diffusivity and on stress evolution. For interconnects with interfaces that resist atomic transport and where grain boundaries are the important pathways for atom migration, degradation and failure processes are completely different for microstructures with randomly oriented grain boundaries compared with "bamboo-like" microstructures. The correspondence between simulation results and experimental data indicates the applicability of the developed model for optimization of the physical and electrical design rules. Simulation-based optimization of the interconnect architecture, segment geometry, material properties and some of the process parameters can produce on-chip interconnect systems with a high immunity to EM-induced failures.

  1. Quality assurance guidance for field sampling and measurement assessment plates in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document is one of several guidance documents developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). These documents support the EM Analytical Services Program (ASP) and are based on applicable regulatory requirements and DOE Orders. They address requirements in DOE Orders by providing guidance that pertains specifically to environmental restoration and waste management sampling and analysis activities. DOE 5700.6C Quality Assurance (QA) defines policy and requirements to establish QA programs ensuring that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized. This is accomplished through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks imposed by the facility and the project. Every organization supporting EM`s environmental sampling and analysis activities must develop and document a QA program. Management of each organization is responsible for appropriate QA program implementation, assessment, and improvement. The collection of credible and cost-effective environmental data is critical to the long-term success of remedial and waste management actions performed at DOE facilities. Only well established and management supported assessment programs within each EM-support organization will enable DOE to demonstrate data quality. The purpose of this series of documents is to offer specific guidance for establishing an effective assessment program for EM`s environmental sampling and analysis (ESA) activities.

  2. Increased survival after EMS witnessed cardiac arrest. Observations from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Epistry - Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Hostler, David; Thomas, Elizabeth G; Emerson, Scott S; Christenson, James; Stiell, Ian G; Rittenberger, Jon C; Gorman, Kyle R; Bigham, Blair L; Callaway, Clifton W; Vilke, Gary M; Beaudoin, Tammy; Cheskes, Sheldon; Craig, Alan; Davis, Daniel P; Reed, Andrew; Idris, Ahamed; Nichol, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is common and lethal. It has been suggested that OHCA witnessed by EMS providers is a predictor of survival because advanced help is immediately available. We examined EMS witnessed OHCA from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) to determine the effect of EMS witnessed vs. bystander witnessed and unwitnessed OHCA. Methods Data were analyzed from a prospective, population-based cohort study in 10 U.S. and Canadian ROC sites. Individuals with non-traumatic OHCA treated 04/01/06 03/31/07 by EMS providers with defibrillation or chest compressions were included. Cases were grouped into EMS-witnessed, bystander witnessed, and unwitnessed and further stratified for bystander CPR. Multiple logistic regressions evaluated the odds ratio (OR) for survival to discharge relative to the EMS-witnessed group after adjusting for age, sex, public/private location of collapse, ROC site, and initial ECG rhythm. Of 9,991 OHCA, 1022 (10.2%) of EMS-witnessed, 3,369 (33.7%) bystander witnessed, and 5,600 (56.1%) unwitnessed. Results The most common initial rhythm in the EMS-witnessed group was PEA which was higher than in the bystander- and unwitnessed groups (p<0.001). The adjusted OR (95% CI) of survival compared to the EMS-witnessed group was 0.41, (0.36, 0.46) in bystander witnessed with bystander CPR, 0.37, (0.33, 0.43) in bystander witnessed without bystander CPR, 0.17 (0.14, 0.20) in unwitnessed with bystander CPR and 0.21 (0.18, 0.24) in unwitnessed cases without bystander CPR. Conclusions Immediate application of prehospital care for OHCA may improve survival. Efforts should be made to educate patients to access 9-1-1 for prodromal symptoms. PMID:20403656

  3. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national EM&V standard is that such a standard is likely to be required as a result of future federal energy legislation that includes end-use energy efficiency, either as a stand-alone energy-efficiency resource standard (EERS) or as part of a clean energy or renewable energy standard. This study is focused primarily on this third reason and thus explores issues associated with a national EM&V standard if energy efficiency is a qualifying resource in federal clean energy legislation. Developing a national EM&V standard is likely to be a lengthy process; this study focuses on the critical first step of identifying the issues that must be addressed in a future standard. Perhaps the most fundamental of these issues is 'how good is good enough?' This has always been the fundamental issue of EM&V for energy efficiency and is a result of the counter-factual nature of efficiency. Counter-factual in that savings are not measured, but estimated to varying degrees of accuracy by comparing energy consumption after a project (program) is implemented with what is assumed to have been the consumption of energy in the absence of the project (program). Therefore, the how good is good enough question is a short version of asking how certain does one have to be of the energy savings estimate that results from EM&V activities and is that level of certainty properly balanced against the amount of effort (resources, time, money) that is utilized to obtain that level of certainty. The implication is that not only should energy efficiency investments be cost-effective, but EM&V investments should consider risk management principles and thus also balance the costs and value of information derived from EM&V (EM&V should also be cost-effective).

  4. [Evaluation of the diagnostic value of the ELISA tests developed by using EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis].

    PubMed

    Pekta?, Bayram; Altinta?, Nazmiye; Akpolat, Nezahat; Gottstein, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by larva stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is one of the lethal parasitic diseases of man and a major public health problem in many countries in the northern hemisphere. When the living conditions and habits in Turkey were considered in terms of relation with the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that AE has been much more common than reported mainly from the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Since in vitro serologic diagnosis tests with high specificity for AE have not been used in our country, most of the cases with liver lesions were misdiagnosed by radiological investigations as malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the in-house ELISA methods developed by using three different antigens (EgHF, Em2, EmII/3-10) in the serological diagnosis of AE. The study samples included a total of 100 sera provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute where samples were obtained from patients with helminthiasis and all were confirmed by clinical, parasitological and/or histopathological means. Ten samples from each of the cases infected by E.multilocularis, E.granulosus, Taenia solium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Strongyloides stercolaris, Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis, Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma haematobium were studied. In the study, EgHF (E.granulosus hydatid fluid) antigens were prepared in our laboratory from the liver cyst fluids of sheeps with cystic echinococcosis, however Em2 (E.multilocularis metacestode-purified laminated layer) and EmII/3-10 (E.multilocularis recombinant protoscolex tegument) antigens were provided by Bern University Parasitology Institute. Flat bottom ELISA plates were covered with EgHF, Em2 and EmII/3-10 antigens in the concentrations of 2.5 g, 1 g and 0.18 g per well, respectively, and all sera were tested by EgHF-ELISA, Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA methods. For each tests, the samples which were reactive above the cut-off value (mean OD of negative controls+2 SD) were accepted as positive. The sensitivity of the ELISA tests performed with EgHF, Em2 and Em2II/3-10 antigens were estimated as 100%, 90% and 90%, respectively, whereas the specificity were 63%, 91% and 91%, respectively. When Em2-ELISA and EmII/3-10-ELISA tests were evaluated together, the specificity increased to 96%. Our data indicated that the highest sensitivity (100% with EgHF-ELISA) and specificity (96% with Em2-ELISA + EmII/3-10-ELISA) for the serodiagnosis of AE can be achieved by the combined use of the ELISA tests with three different antigens. It was concluded that the early and accurate diagnosis of AE in our country which is endemic for that disease, could be supported by the use of highly specific serological tests such as Em2-ELISA ve EmII/3-10-ELISA contributing radiological data. PMID:25052112

  5. 69. SITE LA04LADMIN FACILITY B.O.Q. AND E.M. BARRACKS BLDG PLUMBING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. SITE LA-04-LADMIN FACILITY B.O.Q. AND E.M. BARRACKS BLDG PLUMBING PLANS AND DETAILS - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, Microanalysis, and the Ethnography of Speaking (EM-CA-MA-ES): Resonances and Basic Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, D. Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Discusses resonances and basic issues of the four language and social interaction divisions of the National Communication Association and the International Communication Association: Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis, Microanalysis, and the Ethnography of Speaking (EM-CA-MA-ES). (Author/VWL)

  7. Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anna; Rohou, Alexis; Schep, Daniel G; Bason, John V; Montgomery, Martin G; Walker, John E; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical energy currency of biology, is synthesized in eukaryotic cells primarily by the mitochondrial ATP synthase. ATP synthases operate by a rotary catalytic mechanism where proton translocation through the membrane-inserted FO region is coupled to ATP synthesis in the catalytic F1 region via rotation of a central rotor subcomplex. We report here single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase. Combining cryo-EM data with bioinformatic analysis allowed us to determine the fold of the a subunit, suggesting a proton translocation path through the FO region that involves both the a and b subunits. 3D classification of images revealed seven distinct states of the enzyme that show different modes of bending and twisting in the intact ATP synthase. Rotational fluctuations of the c8-ring within the FO region support a Brownian ratchet mechanism for proton-translocation-driven rotation in ATP synthases. PMID:26439008

  8. Selecting gravitational wave events for EM follow-up in the advanced detector era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Min-A.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational wave sources with emissions in the frequency band detectable by ground-based instruments may have electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. The EM counterpart could help confirm the existence of the gravitational wave signature and provide complementary information regarding the source event. However, observable emissions are transient, requiring rapid communication between observing partners and members of the LSC (LIGO Scientific Collaboration) and Virgo in order to be captured. During the past year, we developed and began testing software known as the VOEvent Approval Processor that oversees the selection of events and generation of alerts to be sent to GCN for distribution. This talk will cover how VOEvent Approval Processor has been tested, thus far, and what kind of work is still to be done for its use in the advanced detector era. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U.S. National Science Foundation through Grants PHY-1068549 and PHY-1404121.

  9. Research-based course materials and assessments for upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baily, Charles; Dubson, Michael; Pollock, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Favorable outcomes from ongoing research at the University of Colorado Boulder on student learning in junior-level electrostatics (E&M I) have led us to extend this work to upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II). We describe here our development of a set of research-based instructional materials designed to actively engage students during lecture (including clicker questions and other in-class activities); and an instrument for assessing whether our faculty-consensus learning goals are being met. We also discuss preliminary results from several recent implementations of our transformed curriculum, plans for the dissemination and further refinement of these materials, and offer some insights into student difficulties in advanced undergraduate electromagnetism.

  10. Considerations for safe EMS transport of patients infected with Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Lowe, John J; Jelden, Katelyn C; Schenarts, Paul J; Rupp, Lloyd E; Hawes, Kingdon J; Tysor, Benjamin M; Swansiger, Raymond G; Schwedhelm, Shelly S; Smith, Philip W; Gibbs, Shawn G

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit through the Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, Nebraska, recently received patients with confirmed Ebola virus from West Africa. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit and Omaha Fire Department's emergency medical services (EMS) coordinated patient transportation from airport to the high-level isolation unit. Transportation of these highly infectious patients capitalized on over 8years of meticulous planning and rigorous infection control training to ensure the safety of transport personnel as well as the community during transport. Although these transports occurred with advanced notice and after confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnosis, approaches and key lessons acquired through this effort will advance the ability of any EMS provider to safely transport a confirmed or suspected patient with EVD. Three critical areas have been identified from our experience: ambulance preparation, appropriate selection and use of personal protective equipment, and environmental decontamination. PMID:25380073

  11. Rotating ned reactor as a power source for em gun applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Botts, T.; Stickley, C.M.; Meth, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electromagnetic gun applications of the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR) are examined. The RBR is a compact (approximately 1 m/sup 3/), (up to several thousand MW(th), high-power reactor concept, capable of producing a high-temperature (up to approximately 3000/degree/K) gas stream with a MHD generator coupled to it. The RBR can generate electric power (up to approximately 1000 MW(e)) in the pulsed or cw modes. Three EM gun applications are investigated: a rail gun thruster for orbit transfer, a rapid-fire EM gun for point defense, and a direct ground-to-space launch. The RBR appears suitable for all applications. 4 refs.

  12. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensore

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    2000-09-15

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  13. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L C

    2001-02-06

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced, 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions'' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions or other targets vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding synthesis and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  14. Noise models and cryo-EM drift correction with a direct-electron camera

    PubMed Central

    Shigematsu, H.; Sigworth, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Blurring due to specimen-holder drift is a common occurrence in cryo-EM images. Cameras employing active-pixel sensors are capable of high frame rates such that a single low-dose exposure can be acquired as a series of frames. In this paper we consider the possibility of tracking and compensating for overall drift in typical single-particle specimens through the analysis of frame sequences. A problem that arises in tracking through cross-correlation of frames obtained with the DE-12 camera from Direct Electron LLC is the presence of hot-pixel noise. This random pattern of bright pixels is highly correlated among frames. We show how a model of this noise can be employed to greatly reduce its effects. A filter function is derived that optimizes the tracking of image shifts by cross-correlation, and we demonstrate the tracking of specimen drift in typical cryo-EM specimens. PMID:23748163

  15. Comparing EM Models to RCS Measurements for Building-Penetration Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; Ueberschaer, R

    2007-05-18

    For the DARPA VisiBuilding program, SRI International and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are using a variety of electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes and measurement techniques to analyze how radar pulses interact with building structures and materials. Of primary interest is how interior wall and corner reflections are delayed, attenuated, and dispersed by the exterior wall materials. In this paper, we compare microwave frequency-domain radar cross section (RCS) chamber measurements of scale models of simple buildings to finite-element and finite-difference full-wave time-domain and ray-tracing models. The ability to accurately reconstruct the building from these models is compared with the reconstruction from chamber measurements. We observe that careful attention to the spatial sampling in the EM models is essential to achieving good reconstruction at the higher frequencies.

  16. Helicopter EMS Transport Outcomes Literature: Annotated Review of Articles Published 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brandon S.; Pogue, Korby A.; Williams, Emily; Hatfield, Jesse; Thomas, Matthew; Arthur, Annette; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Helicopter EMS (HEMS) and its possible association with outcomes improvement continues to be a subject of discussion. As is the case with other scientific discourse, debate over HEMS usefulness should be framed around an evidence-based assessment of the relevant literature. In an effort to facilitate the academic pursuit of assessment of HEMS utility, in late 2000 the National Association of EMS Physicians' (NAEMSP) Air Medical Task Force prepared annotated bibliographies of the HEMS-related outcomes literature. As a result of that work, two review articles, one covering HEMS use in nontrauma and the other in trauma, published in 2002 in Prehospital Emergency Care surveyed HEMS outcomes-related literature published between 1980 and mid-2000. The project was extended with two subsequent reviews covering the literature through 2006. This review continues the series, outlining outcomes-associated HEMS literature for the three-year period 2007 through the first half of 2011. PMID:22288016

  17. Use of the AIC with the EM algorithm: A demonstration of a probability model selection technique

    SciTech Connect

    Glosup, J.G.; Axelrod, M.C.

    1994-08-12

    The problem of discriminating between two potential probability models, a Gaussian distribution and a mixture of Gaussian distributions, is considered. The focus of interest is a case where the models are potentially non-nested and the parameters of the mixture model are estimated through the EM algorithm. The AIC, which is frequently used as a criterion for discriminating between non-nested models, is modified to work with the EM algorithm and is shown to provide a model selection tool for this situation. A particular problem involving an infinite mixture distribution known as Middleton`s Class A model is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of this method. The problem involves a probability model for underwater noise due to distant shipping.

  18. Automatic CT Brain Image Segmentation Using Two Level Multiresolution Mixture Model of EM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin; Dehmeshki, Jamshid

    2014-04-01

    Tissue classification in computed tomography (CT) brain images is an important issue in the analysis of several brain dementias. A combination of different approaches for the segmentation of brain images is presented in this paper. A multi resolution algorithm is proposed along with scaled versions using Gaussian filter and wavelet analysis that extends expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. It is found that it is less sensitive to noise and got more accurate image segmentation than traditional EM. Moreover the algorithm has been applied on 20 sets of CT of the human brain and compared with other works. The segmentation results show the advantages of the proposed work have achieved more promising results and the results have been tested with Doctors.

  19. Analysis incorporating electric conductivity and magnetic permeability on loop-loop EM data for detecting the magnetite ore body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jihyang; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Son, Jeong-Sul; Kim, Jung-Ho; Park, Sam-Gyu

    2013-04-01

    As the price of mineral resources goes up, exploring small amount of mineral deposits, which have been considered non-economic in the past, is getting more economic. Loop-loop EM survey system can be the best choice for exploring small mineral mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. EM responses are affected by electric conductivity, magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. In many cases, variation ranges of latter two components are so small and ignorable. However, changes of magnetic permeability affect the data in a serious way. Multidimensional EM inversion technique incorporating both electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility is on the developing stage. EM responses are calculated in a model of layered earth embedding a magnetic anomaly. Considering the size of the reactions, changes of relative magnetic permeability are frequency-independent effects that can be seen as static. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver. Ferromagnetic anomalous feature was distinguishable from the subsurface media, though, enhancement by incorporating magnetic permeability was not sufficiently noticeable.

  20. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  1. EMS helicopter incidents reported to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.; Reynard, William D.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this evaluation were to: Identify the types of safety-related incidents reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) helicopter operations; Describe the operational conditions surrounding these incidents, such as weather, airspace, flight phase, time of day; and Assess the contribution to these incidents of selected human factors considerations, such as communication, distraction, time pressure, workload, and flight/duty impact.

  2. Modelling memory in coal tits: an illustration of the EM algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jolliffe, I T; Jolliffe, A R

    1997-09-01

    Some species of birds are known to use memory to retrieve previously stored food. A series of experiments on one of those species, coal tits, investigated various aspects of such memory. For one particular experiment, a number of statistical models describing the memory were fitted. However, some of the data were unavoidably incomplete. The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm provides a means of incorporating the incomplete data into the fitting procedure. PMID:9290232

  3. Intensity Estimation Using the MSK-64 and EMS-98 Scales for Selected Historical Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, P.; Hammerl, C.

    2002-12-01

    Two different approaches for the comparison of the intensity estimation using the MSK-64 and EMS-98 scales are presented for historical earthquakes: 1) a direct comparison of the scales; 2) intensity estimation for selected historical earthquakes using the both scales. The scales are directly compared in the graphic forms. First, the graphic form of the EMS-98 was constructed. The effects on humans, and objects and nature were displayed in the form of tables. The tables include the size of the effects for all intensities. The definition of damage to buildings was displayed in the form of vulnerability class vs. damage grade table for each intensity degree separately. The MSK-64 scale was re-arranged into the same form as the EMS-98 scale. Then the classification of buildings, definitions of quantities and damage grades were compared. Finally, the effects on people, effects on objects and nature, and damage to buildings were compared separately. The effects, which are used only in one of the scales, and the effects, which are used in the both scales were identified. The cases where the differences in the intensity estimation can reach up to one degree are shown and discussed. The situations where the intensity estimation can be done using only one of the scales are also shown and discussed. The graphic forms of the MSK-64 and EMS-98 scales enable us to identify how the observed effects correspond to the defined effects for an intensity degree. Intensity estimations using the both scales were compared for the January 15, 1858 Zilina (Slovakia) and January 25, 1348 Friuli earthquakes. Examples of different intensity estimations using the both scales are given.

  4. Quantum theory of extended particle dynamics in the presence of EM radiation-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a trajectory-based relativistic quantum wave equation is established for extended charged spinless particles subject to the action of the electromagnetic (EM) radiation-reaction (RR) interaction. The quantization pertains the particle dynamics, in which both the external and self EM fields are treated classically. The new equation proposed here is referred to as the RR quantum wave equation. This is shown to be an evolution equation for a complex scalar quantum wave function and to be realized by a first-order PDE with respect to a quantum proper time s . The latter is uniquely prescribed by representing the RR quantum wave equation in terms of the corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations and introducing a parametrization in terms of Lagrangian paths associated with the quantum fluid velocity. Besides the explicit proper time dependence, the theory developed here exhibits a number of additional notable features. First, the wave equation is variational and is consistent with the principle of manifest covariance. Second, it permits the definition of a strictly positive 4-scalar quantum probability density on the Minkowski space-time, in terms of which a flow-invariant probability measure is established. Third, the wave equation is non-local, due to the characteristic EM RR retarded interaction. Fourth, the RR wave equation recovers the Schrdinger equation in the non-relativistic limit and the customary Klein-Gordon wave equation when the EM RR is negligible or null. Finally, the consistency with the classical RR Hamilton-Jacobi equation is established in the semi-classical limit.

  5. Remedial investigation Phase 2 supplemental work plan for the Hanford Site 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 1100 Area, the central warehousing, vehicle maintenance, and transportation operations center for the Hanford Site, was designated an (NPL) National Priorities List site in July 1989. This NPL site was divided into four operable units, and the first equipment maintenance operable unit, 1100-EM-1, was assigned the highest priority. The following summary focuses on the major issues related to contaminant sources, meteorology, surface hydrology, geology, pedology, hydrogeology, and ecology. The 110-EM-1 Phase 1 R1 report recommended further investigation at six waste management units assigned to or within the operable unit. 1100-1 (Battery Acid Pit)--an unlined dry sump, or french drain, used for the disposal of waste acid from vehicle batteries; 1100-2 (Paint and solvent Pit)--a former sand and gravel pit subsequently used for the disposal of construction debris and, reportedly, waste paints, thinner, and solvents; 1100-4 (Antifreeze Tank Site)--The site of a former underground storage tank used for the disposal of waste vehicle antifreeze; UN-1100-6 (Discolored Soil Site)--the location of an apparent disposal event onto the ground surface involving a container of organic waste liquids; Horn Rapids Landfill--a solid waste facility used primarily for the disposal of office and construction waste and the burning of classified documents; asbestos, sewage sludge, fly ash, and, potentially, drums of unidentified organic liquids alleged to be disposed at this location; and Ephemeral Pool--the location of 1100 Area parking lot runoff accumulation during infrequent, high-intensity precipitation events. This remedial investigation supplemental work plan details the efforts for final characterization of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit that will provide data to be used for the evaluation of remedial operations in the Phase 3 1100-EM-1 feasibility study. 19 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Engineering Analyses of NCSX Modular Coil and Its Supporting Structure for EM Loads

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Fan; D. Williamson

    2003-10-30

    NCSX modular coil is a major parts of the NCSX coil systems that surround the highly shaped plasma and vacuum vessel. The flexible copper cable conductors are used to form modular coil on both sides of the ''tee'' beam, which is cast inside the supporting shell structure. The Engineering analyses comprise sequentially coupled-field analyses that include an electromagnetic analysis to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces, and a structural analysis to evaluate the structural responses. In the sequential EM-structural analysis, nodal forces obtained from the EM analysis were applied as ''nodal force'' loads in the subsequent stress analysis using the identical nodal points and elements. The shell model was imported directly from Pro/ENGINEER files in order to obtain an accurate structural representation. The Boolean operations provided by the ANSYS preprocessor were then applied to subdivide the solid model for more desirable finite element meshing. Material properties of the modular coil were based on test results. Analyses using the ANSYS program to evaluate structural responses of the complicated modular coil systems provided a clear understanding of the structural behaviors and the directions for improving the structural design.

  7. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  8. Assessing EM Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Milestones Using a Novel Debate Format

    PubMed Central

    Mamtani, Mira; Scott, Kevin R.; DeRoos, Francis J.; Conlon, Lauren W.

    2015-01-01

    Graduate medical education is increasingly focused on patient safety and quality improvement; training programs must adapt their curriculum to address these changes. We propose a novel curriculum for emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs specifically addressing patient safety, systems-based management, and practice-based performance improvement, called EM Debates. Following implementation of this educational curriculum, we performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the curriculum through resident self-assessment. Additionally, a cross-sectional study to determine the ED clinical competency committees (CCC) ability to assess residents on specific competencies was performed. Residents were overall very positive towards the implementation of the debates. Of those participating in a debate, 71% felt that it improved their individual performance within a specific topic, and 100% of those that led a debate felt that they could propose an evidence-based approach to a specific topic. The CCC found that it was easier to assess milestones in patient safety, systems-based management, and practice-based performance improvement (sub-competencies 16, 17, and 19) compared to prior to the implementation of the debates. The debates have been a helpful venue to teach EM residents about patient safety concepts, identifying medical errors, and process improvement. PMID:26594296

  9. Hadron calorimeter performance with a PbWO4 EM compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1996-01-01

    The CMS detector[1] at the LHC has chosen PbWO4 in order to achieve the superior photon energy resolution which is crucial in searching for the 2 photon decay of low mass Higgs bosons. The hadronic compartment is thought to be Cu absorber, since one is immersed in a 4 T magnetic field, read out by scintillator tiles coupled to wavelength shifter (WLS) fibers. The combined performance of this calorimeter is of interest in the study of jets and missing transverse energy (neutrino, SUSY signatures). For this reason, a test was made of the electromagnetic (EM) compartment combined with a reasonable approximation to the baseline HCAL ``barrel`` calorimeter. Data was taken in the H4 CERN beamline. The EM compartment was a 7 {times} 7 square array of PbWO4 crystals, which for the purposes of this study are considered as a single readout in depth (or ``compartment``) [2]. The HCAL module consisted of large scintillator plates with 24 individual longitudinal readout channels. The EM compartment was followed by 10 Cu plates each 3 cm thick, followed by 9 Cu plates each 6 cm thick. This set of absorber plates represented the HCAL compartments inside the coil. The coil itself [1] was approximated as Al and Fe plates, of a total thickness of about 1.4 absorption lengths. The coil mockup was sampled and then followed by 4 plates of 8 cm thick Cu, each with an individual readout which represented a test of the ``Tailcatcher`` concept.

  10. Should payment policy be changed to allow a wider range of EMS transport options?

    PubMed

    Morganti, Kristy G; Alpert, Abby; Margolis, Gregg; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2014-05-01

    The Institute of Medicine and other national organizations have asserted that current payment policies strongly discourage emergency medical services (EMS) providers from transporting selected patients who call 911 to non-ED settings (eg, primary care clinics, mental health centers, dialysis centers) or from treating patients on scene. The limited literature available is consistent with the view that current payment policies incentivize transport of all 911 callers to a hospital ED, even those who might be better managed elsewhere. However, the potential benefits and risks of altering existing policy have not been adequately explored. There are theoretical benefits to encouraging EMS personnel to transport selected patients to alternate settings or even to provide definitive treatment on scene; however, existing evidence is insufficient to confirm the feasibility or safety of such a policy. In light of growing concerns about the high cost of emergency care and heavy use of EDs, assessing EMS transport options should be a high-priority topic for outcomes research. PMID:24209960

  11. Giving EMS flexibility in transporting low-acuity patients could generate substantial Medicare savings.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Abby; Morganti, Kristy G; Margolis, Gregg S; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-12-01

    Some Medicare beneficiaries who place 911 calls to request an ambulance might safely be cared for in settings other than the emergency department (ED) at lower cost. Using 2005-09 Medicare claims data and a validated algorithm, we estimated that 12.9-16.2percent of Medicare-covered 911 emergency medical services (EMS) transports involved conditions that were probably nonemergent or primary care treatable. Among beneficiaries not admitted to the hospital, about 34.5percent had a low-acuity diagnosis that might have been managed outside the ED. Annual Medicare EMS and ED payments for these patients were approximately $1billion per year. If Medicare had the flexibility to reimburse EMS for managing selected 911 calls in ways other than transport to an ED, we estimate that the federal government could save $283-$560million or more per year, while improving the continuity of patient care. If private insurance companies followed suit, overall societal savings could be twice as large. PMID:24301398

  12. Effect of M-EMS on the solidification structure of a steel billet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hua-Jie; Wei, Ning; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Guo-Xin; Xiao, Chao-Ping; Liu, Jin-Jin

    2011-04-01

    Effects of mold electromagnetic stirring (M-EMS) on the solidification structure of 45# steel billet were investigated by examination of interdendritic corrosion. The results show that the primary and secondary dendrite arm spacings increase from the edge of the billet to the center and decrease obviously with increasing electromagnetic torque, which will be beneficial to refine the solidification structure and enlarge the equiaxed crystal zone. The ratio of equiaxed crystal increases by 15.9% with the electromagnetic torque increasing from 230 to 400 cNcm. The increase of stirring intensity can improve the cooling rate and the impact of M-EMS on it reduces from the edge of the billet to the central area, where the cooling rates are similar at different torques. The closer to the central area, the less the influence of M-EMS on the cooling rate is. The ratio of the primary to secondary dendrite arm spacing is approximately 2.0, namely, ? 1?2 ? 2, and is constant irrespective of the stirring intensity and position of the billet. Original position analysis (OPA) results indicate that the center segregation of the billet is greatly improved, and the more uniform and compact solidification structure will be obtained with the increase of stirring intensity.

  13. Stability analysis, modeling, simulation and experimental testing of an EMS Maglev system with structural flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasoge, Aravind M.

    Vehicle-guideway interaction studies of Magnetically Levitated (Maglev) vehicles indicate that structural flexibility can adversely affect the overall stability and performance of such systems. This is one of the reasons why guideways are generally made very rigid. This in turn leads to increased cost of the overall system since guideway construction forms a significant portion of the overall cost. In this dissertation, the influence of structural flexibility on the stability of Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev systems is studied. It is shown how inherently unstable and flexible structure EMS Maglev systems can achieve guaranteed stability by using collocated actuators and sensors, along with de-centralized Proportional plus Derivative (PD) controllers. These results are valid even in the presence of Track/Guideway flexibility. A detailed dynamic model is developed for the EMS Maglev demonstration system (Test Bogie) currently under research and development at Old Dominion University (ODU). This model incorporates structural dynamics with flexible modes of vibration, non-linear electrodynamics, feedback controllers, discrete time implementation, noise filters and disturbance inputs. This model is validated via real time experimental testing. The model thus validated is used for simulation case studies involving levitation and lateral disturbance, lateral control, and centralized control.

  14. EM algorithm in estimating the 2- and 3-parameter Burr Type III distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nor Hidayah Binti; Khalid, Zarina Binti Mohd

    2014-07-01

    The Burr Type III distribution has been applied in the study of income, wage and wealth. It is suitable to fit lifetime data since it has flexible shape and controllable scale parameters. The popularity of Burr Type III distribution increases because it has included the characteristics of other distributions such as logistic and exponential. Burr Type III distribution has two categories: First a two-parameter distribution which has two shape parameters and second a three-parameter distribution which has a scale and two shape parameters. Expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm method is selected in this paper to estimate the two- and three-parameter Burr Type III distributions. Complete and censored data are simulated based on the derivation of pdf and cdf in parametric form of Burr Type III distributions. Then, the EM estimates are compared with estimates from maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) approach through mean square error. The best approach results in estimates with a higher approximation to the true parameters are determined. The result shows that the EM algorithm estimates perform better than the MLE estimates for two- and three-parameter Burr Type III distributions in the presence of complete and censored data.

  15. Application of Fuzzy Logic to EMS-type Magnetically Levitated Railway Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusagawa, Shinichi; Baba, Jumpei; Shutoh, Katsuhiko; Masada, Eisuke

    A type of the magnetically levitated railway system with the electro-magnetic suspension system (EMS), which is named HSST system, will be put into revenue service as an urban transport in Nagoya, Japan at the beginning of April 2005. To extend its operational velocity higher than 200km/h for applications in other cities, the design of its EMS system is reexamined for improvement of riding comfort and performances of a train. In order to achieve these objectives, the multipurpose optimization on the basis of the genetic algorithm is applied for the design of EMS-type magnetically levitated vehicle, control parameters of which are optimized both to follow the rail exactly in high-speed and to provide enough riding comfort to passengers. However, the ability to follow sharp irregularities of the rail and to cope with high frequency noises in the gap length control system should be coordinated with riding comfort. The fuzzy logic is introduced into the dynamic control loop and verified to solve the problem. Far better coordination is obtained between the vehicle performances and riding comfort of passengers in high-speed against such various rail conditions. The levitation control with fuzzy logic is shown to be useful for the critical design problem as the high-speed maglev railways.

  16. Application of EM38 and ERT methods in estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity in unsaturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Khalil, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Soil apparent electrical conductivity is being considerably used as a surrogate measure for soil properties and hydraulic parameters. In this study, measurements of electrical conductivity were accomplished with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and EM38 to develop multiple datasets for defining spatiotemporal moisture content variations and estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity under natural conditions in an experimental site located in Lisbon, Portugal. In addition, EM38 capability in monitoring electrical conductivity variations in comparison with ERT method was examined. In order to achieve these objectives, appropriate relationships were derived based on determination of experimental curve resistivity vs. degree of saturation by in-situ investigation to convert electrical resistivity maps inferred from ERT and EM38 data to moisture content distribution maps. In addition, the surface temperature variations during the experiment were measured and the effects of the temperature variations were removed by assuming 2% change in electrical resistivity per C change in temperature. The conducted experiment proves that the soil is fairly homogenous and semi-pervious sediment and the spatiotemporal moisture content variations during the experiment barely exceed 10%. Our calculations constrain the range of saturated hydraulic conductivity to be 3-9 (cm/day) range.

  17. Using EMS Dispatch to Trigger STEMI Alerts Decreases Door-to-Balloon Times

    PubMed Central

    Stowens, Justin C.; Sonnad, Seema S.; Rosenbaum, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine the potential reduction in door-to-balloon time (DTB) by allowing paramedics to perform prehospital ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) notification using brief communications via emergency medical services (EMS) 9-1-1 dispatchers as soon as they saw a STEMI on 12-lead electrocardiogram (EKG). Our hypothesis was that earlier cardiac catheterization lab (CCL) activation would improve overall DTB and avoid delays arising from on-scene issues or the time required to deliver a full report. Methods The study setting was a single suburban community teaching hospital, which is a regional percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) center with more than 120,000 Emergency Department (ED) visits/year and is serviced by a single tiered-response, advanced life support (ALS) paramedic-level agency. STEMI notifications from July 2009 to July 2012 occurred by either standard direct EMS-to-physician notification or by immediate 9-1-1 dispatch notification. In the 9-1-1 dispatcher-aided notification method, paramedics were asked to provide a brief one-sentence report using their lapel microphones upon immediate realization of a diagnostic EKG (usually within 12 minutes of patient contact). This report to the 9-1-1 dispatcher included the patients sex, age, and cardiologist (if known). The dispatcher then called the emergency department attending and informed them that a STEMI was being transported and that CCL activation was needed. We used retrospective chart review of a consecutive sample of patients from an existing STEMI registry to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in DTB between the groups. Results Eight hundred fifty-six total STEMI alert patients arrived by EMS during the study. We excluded 730 notifications due to events such as cardiac arrest, arrhythmia, death, resolution of EKG changes and/or symptoms, cardiologist decision not to perform PCI, arrival as a transfer after prior stabilization at a referring facility or arriving by an EMS agency other than New Castle County EMS (NCC*EMS). Sixty-four (64) sequential patients from each group comprised the study sample. The average DTB (SD) for the standard communication method was 57.6 minutes (17.9), while that for dispatcher-aided communication was 46.1 minutes (12.8), (mean difference 57.6-46.1 minutes=11.5 minutes with a 95% CI [6.06,16.94]) p=0.0001. In the dispatcher-aided group, 92% of patients (59/64) met standards of ?60 minute DTB time. Only 64% (41/64) met this goal in the standard communication group (p=0.0001). Conclusion Brief, early notification of STEMI by paramedics through 9-1-1 dispatchers achieves earlier CCL activation in a hospital system already using EMS-directed CCL activation. This practice significantly decreased DTB and yielded a higher percentage of patients meeting the DTB?60 minutes quality metric. PMID:25987932

  18. Cryo-EM Imaging of DNA-PK DNA Damage Repair Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Phoebe L. Stewart

    2005-06-27

    Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation causes DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that must be repaired for cell survival. Higher eukaryotes respond to DSBs by arresting the cell cycle, presumably to repair the DNA lesions before cell division. In mammalian cells, the nonhomologous end-joining DSB repair pathway is mediated by the 470 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) together with the DNA-binding factors Ku70 and Ku80. Mouse knock-out models of these three proteins are all exquisitely sensitive to low doses of ionizing radiation. In the presence of DNA ends, Ku binds to the DNA and then recruits DNA-PKcs. After formation of the complex, the kinase activity associated with DNA-PKcs becomes activated. This kinase activity has been shown to be essential for repairing DNA DSBs in vivo since expression of a kinase-dead form of DNA-PKcs in a mammalian cell line that lacks DNA-PKcs fails to complement the radiosensitive phenotype. The immense size of DNA-PKcs suggests that it may also serve as a docking site for other DNA repair proteins. Since the assembly of the DNA-PK complex onto DNA is a prerequisite for DSB repair, it is critical to obtain structural information on the complex. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single particle reconstruction methods provide a powerful way to image large macromolecular assemblies at near atomic (10-15 ?) resolution. We have already used cryo-EM methods to examine the structure of the isolated DNA-PKcs protein. This structure reveals numerous cavities throughout the protein that may allow passage of single or double-stranded DNA. Pseudo two-fold symmetry was found for the monomeric protein, suggesting that DNA-PKcs may interact with two DNA ends or two Ku heterodimers simultaneously. Here we propose to study the structure of the cross-linked DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. Difference imaging with our published DNA-PKcs structure will enable us to elucidate the architecture of the complex. A second objective is to locate the kinase domain of DNA-PKcs by determining the structure of a kinase deletion mutant both as an isolated protein and as part of a DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. A third objective is to pursue higher resolution studies of DNA-PKcs and the DNA-PKcs/Ku/DNA complex. If the crystal structure determination of DNA-PKcs is completed during the project period, the atomic coordinates of DNA-PKcs will be modeled within the cryo-EM structure of the complex. In order to achieve these goals, a collaborative effort is proposed between Dr. Phoebe Stewart at UCLA, whose laboratory has expertise in cryo-EM reconstruction methods, and Dr. David Chen at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, who has a long-standing interest in DNA repair. Advantages of the cryo-EM structural method include the fact that the sample is imaged in a frozen-hydrated and unstained state, avoiding artifacts associated with drying and staining in other EM approaches. Also crystals of the sample are not needed for the single particle reconstruction method and only microgram quantities of sample are required. Cryo-EM structural information of macromolecular assemblies is complementary to both atomic structures of individual component molecules, as well as low resolution information obtained from x-ray and neutron scattering. Knowledge of the geometrical arrangement of the complex, and the position of the essential DNA-PKcs kinase domain, should lead to a greater understanding of the molecular events in DNA double-strand break repair following exposure to low doses of radiation.

  19. Genomic selection and complex trait prediction using a fast EM algorithm applied to genome-wide markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The information provided by dense genome-wide markers using high throughput technology is of considerable potential in human disease studies and livestock breeding programs. Genome-wide association studies relate individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from dense SNP panels to individual measurements of complex traits, with the underlying assumption being that any association is caused by linkage disequilibrium (LD) between SNP and quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the trait. Often SNP are in genomic regions of no trait variation. Whole genome Bayesian models are an effective way of incorporating this and other important prior information into modelling. However a full Bayesian analysis is often not feasible due to the large computational time involved. Results This article proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm called emBayesB which allows only a proportion of SNP to be in LD with QTL and incorporates prior information about the distribution of SNP effects. The posterior probability of being in LD with at least one QTL is calculated for each SNP along with estimates of the hyperparameters for the mixture prior. A simulated example of genomic selection from an international workshop is used to demonstrate the features of the EM algorithm. The accuracy of prediction is comparable to a full Bayesian analysis but the EM algorithm is considerably faster. The EM algorithm was accurate in locating QTL which explained more than 1% of the total genetic variation. A computational algorithm for very large SNP panels is described. Conclusions emBayesB is a fast and accurate EM algorithm for implementing genomic selection and predicting complex traits by mapping QTL in genome-wide dense SNP marker data. Its accuracy is similar to Bayesian methods but it takes only a fraction of the time. PMID:20969788

  20. Influence of small-scale EM and HM on the growth of large-scale magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kiwan

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the influence of small-scale magnetic energy (EM) and magnetic helicity (HM) on the growth rate (?) of overline{B} field (large-scale magnetic field). HM that plays a key role in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo is a topological concept describing the structural properties of magnetic fields. Since EM is a prerequisite of HM, it is not easy to differentiate the intrinsic properties of HM from the influence of EM. However, to understand MHD dynamo, the features of helical and non-helical magnetic field should be made clear. For this, we made a detour: we gave each simulation set its own initial condition (IC, same EM(0) and specific HM(0) at the forced wavenumber kf = 5), and then drove the system with positive helical kinetic energy(kf = 5). According to the simulation results, EM(0), whether or not helical, increases the growth rate of overline{B}. The positive HM(0) boosts the increased growth rate, but the negative HM(0) decreases it. To explain these results, two coupled equations of HM and EM were derived and solved using a simple approximate method. The equations imply that helical magnetic field evolves into the total (helical and non-helical) magnetic field but quenches itself. Non-helical magnetic field also evolves into the total magnetic field but quenches itself. The initially given EM(0) modifies the electromotive force (EMF, < u b rangle) and generates new terms. The effects of these terms depend on the magnetic diffusivity ?, position of initial conditions kf, and magnetic diffusion time. But the influence disappears exponentially as time passes, so the saturated magnetic fields are eventually independent of the pre-existing initial conditions.

  1. Observações no infravermelho médio de objetos estelares jovens em NGC 3576

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C.; Damineli, A.; Blum, R.; Conti, P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de observações no infravermelho médio de candidatos a objetos estelares jovens e massivos em NGC 3576. As imagens de alta resolução foram obtidas no observatório Gemini Sul com o uso dos filtros em 10,8, 7,9, 9,8, 12,5 e 18,2 mm. Nossas imagens mostram a fonte IRS 1 resolvida em 4 objetos pela primeira vez em 10 mm. Para cada objeto obtivemos a distribuição espectral de energia de 1.2 até 18 mm, bem como a temperatura de cor, a distribuição espacial e a profundidade óptica em 9,8 mm da poeira circunstelar. Apresentamos uma estimativa das massas dos objetos estudados, baseados na luminosidade emitida no infravermelho médio, bem como um modelo para explicar as diferentes características observadas de cada objeto. Finalmente discutimos a possível localização da(s) fonte(s) de ionização de NGC 3576.

  2. Theory and detection scheme of seismic EM signals transferred into the atmosphere from the oceanic and continental lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, Oleg; Ershov, Sergey; Ruzhin, Yuri; Smirnov, Fedor; Volgin, Maxim

    2014-07-01

    Due to the compound structure of the medium and large portions of energy transferred, a seismic excitation in the oceanic or continental lithosphere disturbs all types of geophysical fields. To investigate the problem of electromagnetic (EM) disturbances in the atmosphere from the seismically activated lithosphere, we have formulated two mathematical models of interaction of fields of different physical nature resulting in arising of the low-frequency (from 0.1 to 10 Hz by amplitude of a few hundreds of pT) EM signals in the atmosphere. First we have considered the EM field generation in the moving oceanic lithosphere and then in the moving continental one. For both cases, the main physical principles and geological data were applied for formulation of the model and characteristics of the computed signals of different nature agree with measurements of other authors. On the basis of the 2D model of the seismo-hydro-EM-temperature interaction in the lithosphere-Ocean-atmosphere domain, a block-scheme of a multisensory vertically distributed (from a seafloor up to the ionosphere) tsunami precursors' detection system is described. On the basis of the 3D model of the seismo-EM interaction in a lithosphere-atmosphere domain, we explain why Prof. Kopytenko (Inst. IZMIRAN of Russian Acad. Sci.) and co-authors were able to estimate location of the future seismic epicenter area from their magnetic field measurements in the atmosphere near the earth's surface.

  3. Spatial performance of RegEM climate field reconstruction techniques in a realistic pseudoproxy context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.

    2011-12-01

    Several methods of climate field reconstructions (CFRs) have been introduced in the past few years to estimate past climate variability from proxy data over the Common Era. The pseudoproxy framework has become a tool of choice for assessing the relative merits of such methods. Here we compare four variants of the RegEM algorithm [Schneider, 2001], using a pseudoproxy network mimicking the key spatio-temporal characteristics of the network of Mann et al., 2008 (hereinafter M08); the methods are (1) RegEM TTLS (2) RegEM iTTLS (3) GraphEM and (4) RegEM iRIDGE. To ensure continuity with previous work [Smerdon et al. 2011], pseudoproxy series are designed as a white-noise degraded version of the simulated temperature field [Amman et al. 2007] over 850-1980 C.E. colocated with 1138 M08 proxies. We use signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of: ? (no noise), 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25, to simulate differences in proxy quality. Two novelties in pseudoproxy design are introduced here: (1) the decrease in proxy availability over time follows that found in M08, (2) a realistic case where the SNR is empirically derived from correlations between each M08 proxy and the HadCRUT3v temperature field. It is found that this realistic SNR is clustered around 0.3, but ranges from 0.1 to 0.8. Verification statistics such as RE, CE, r2, bias, standard deviation ratio and RMSE are presented for each method at each SNR level. The results show that all methods perform relatively well at SNR levels higher than 0.5, but display drastically different performances at lower SNR levels. Compared with results using pseudoproxy network of Mann et al., 1998, (hereinafter MBH98), the reconstruction skill of the M08 network is relatively improved, in line with the findings of Smerdon et al., 2011. Overall, we find that GraphEM and iTTLS tend to produce more robust estimates of the temperature field at low SNR levels than other schemes, while preserving a higher amount of variance in the target field. Ammann, C. M., F. Joos, D. S. Schimel, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, and R. A. Tomas (2007), Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 104, 3713-3718, doi:10.1073/pnas.0605064103. Mann, M. E., R. S. Bradley, and M. K. Hughes (1998), Global-scale temperaturepatterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries, Nature, 392, 779-787, doi:10.1038/33859. Mann, M. E., S. Rutherford, E. Wahl, and C. Ammann (2007), Robustness of proxy-based climate field reconstruction methods, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12109, doi:10.1029/2006JD008272. Mann, M. E., et al. (2008), Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 105, 13,252-13,257, doi:10.1073/pnas.0805721105. Schneider, T. (2001), Analysis of incomplete climate data: Estimation of mean values and covariance matrices and imputation of missing values, J. Clim., 14, 853-871, doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0853: AOICDE>2.0.CO;2. Smerdon, J. E., A. Kaplan, E. Zorita, J. F. Gonzlez-Rouco, and M. N. Evans (2011), Spatial performance of four climate field reconstruction methods targeting the Common Era, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L11705, doi:10.1029/2011GL047372.

  4. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  5. Massa do gs e das estrelas em aglomerados: eficincia da formao estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagan, T. F.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados de galxias apresentam um interesse especial para a cosmologia observacional. Eles so as maiores estruturas ligadas pela gravitao no Universo e relaxadas na regio central. A comparao entre a massa do gs intra-aglomerado (responsvel por ~25% da massa total, inferida a partir de observaes em raios-X), a massa contida nas estrelas (i.e., nas galxias) e a massa total (incluindo a matria escura no barinica), nos d informaes importantes sobre os processos de formao e evoluo de aglomerados. Por exemplo, a razo entre a massa do gs e a massa total uma medida da frao de brions no Universo (razo entre a matria barinica e matria escura) e, utilizando a densidade de brions predita pela nucleosntese primordial, podemos deduzir a densidade de matria escura no Universo (cf. White et al. 1993). O objetivo deste trabalho obter as razes entre as massas do gs, estelar (contida nas galxias), e a total (massa dinmica). As massas do gs e total so obtidas a partir das anlises fotomtrica e espectroscpica em raios-X enquanto que a massa estelar obtida pela anlise fotomtrica das galxias. Esta anlise foi aplicada ao aglomerado Abell 496 observado pelo satlite XMM-Newton. A massa contida nas galxias foi estimada a partir da funo de luminosidade obtida por Durret et al. (2002). Para determinar as massas dinmica e do gs nos precisamos determinar os perfis radiais de densidade e temperatura. Ns apresentaremos aqui estes resultados e suas implicaes na eficincia da formao estelar em Abell 496.

  6. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  7. Sea bed logging applications: ANOVA analysis for synthetic data from electromagnetic (EM) simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Hanita; Razali, Radzuan; Asirvadam, Vijanth; Yahya, Noorhana

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the significance level of parameters such as sediment thickness, frequency and step size for data generated from electromagnetic (EM) simulator for sea bed logging application that have been processed using cubic spline interpolation using ANOVA method. In this work synthetics data are generated from in house built simulator that is able to replicate sea bed logging environment. Sea bed logging (SBL) is a technique of finding resistive layers under sea bed by transmitting low frequency EM waves through sea water and sediment. Hydrocarbon is known to have high resistivity, about 30 - 500 ?m and EM wave will be guided and reflected if there is hydrocarbon reservoir in the sediment. In SBL low frequency is used to obtain greater wavelength for longer wave penetration. In this work frequency used are 0.5Hz, 0.25Hz, 0.125Hz and 0.0625Hz and sediment thickness are varied from 1000m to 3000m incremented every 250m. Data collected are interpolated using cubic spline with step sizes of 4,8,12 and 16 and mean square are calculated between original and interpolated data. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) method is used to study any significant different between sediment thickness level and spline step size levelat each frequency and sediment thickness level with frequency level at each step size. It is found from ANOVA tables that sediment thickness and step sizes and sediment thickness and frequency are having significant different. These indicate that the chosen parameters are contributing significantly to the MSE calculated.

  8. Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

    2008-09-01

    A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 ? m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

  9. Inversion of EM38 data measured in different heights using a-priori information for stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, Tina; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the iSOIL project apparent conductivity measurements using the EM38DD (Geonics) have been conducted on different soil types. The EM38DD is mounted in different heights on a metal-free sled and pulled behind a tractor with an inline sampling distance of 20cm and a profile offset of 1m. The apparent conductivities have been inverted into real conductivities over the whole measured area. In order to improve the equation system and to avoid singular matrices 4 measurements (vertical and horizontal mode in two different heights) at one location are used to determine the conductivities of two layers and the depth of the interface between the layers. The inversion is stabilized by weighted a-priori information for both conductivities and depth and by the inclusion of neighboring points. Depth information is gained from GPR measurements over the same area that have been done in one survey together with the EM38DD measurements. The inversion results are compared to results of 1D and 2D electrical resistivity imaging using optimized and Schlumberger configurations. Principal Component Analysis is used to compare modeled and measured data and correlation coefficients between them are calculated to evaluate the reliability of the inversion. Acknowledgement: iSOIL-Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Environment.

  10. Orexigenic effects of endomorphin-2 (EM-2) related to decreased CRH gene expression and increased dopamine and norepinephrine activity in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Luigi; Ferrante, Claudio; Orlando, Giustino; Recinella, Lucia; Leone, Sheila; Chiavaroli, Annalisa; Di Nisio, Chiara; Shohreh, Rugia; Manippa, Fabio; Ricciuti, Adriana; Mollica, Adriano; Vacca, Michele

    2013-10-01

    Endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (EM-2) are opioid peptides which are selective partial agonists of ?-opioid receptor. We studied the effects of EM-2 injected into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus on feeding behavior and gene expression of orexigenic [agouti-related peptide (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin-A] and anorexigenic [cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC)] peptides in male Wistar rats fed a standard laboratory diet. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of EM-2 on dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) steady state concentrations, in the hypothalamus. 64 rats (16 for each group of treatment) were injected into the ARC, at 9.00 am, with either vehicle or EM-2 (0.50-0.75 ?mol/kg) or EM-2 (0.50 ?mol/kg) plus ?-funaltrexamine (0.20 ?mol/kg). Food intake was recorded through 24h following injection, and hypothalamic DA, NE, 5-HT levels and neuropeptide gene expression were evaluated 24h after EM-2 administration. Compared to vehicle, EM-2 significantly increased food intake, throughout 24h post-injection. Furthermore, EM-2 treatment led to a significant increase of DA and NE concentrations and a decrease of CRH mRNA levels. On the other hand, ?-funaltrexamine administration reverted both feeding stimulatory and neuromodulatory effects induced by EM-2. We can conclude that the orexigenic effect of ?-opioid receptor activation by EM-2 could be related to both inhibition of CRH and stimulation of dopamine and norepinephrine levels, in the hypothalamus. PMID:23916912

  11. Immunocytochemical distribution of EM66 within the hypothalamic parvocellular paraventricular nucleus: colocalization with CRH and TRH but no plasticity related to acute stress and thyroidectomy in the rat.

    PubMed

    El Yamani, Fatima-Zohra; Yon, Laurent; Gurin, Marlne; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Alaoui, Abdelilah; Chartrel, Nicolas; Anouar, Youssef; Magoul, Rabia

    2013-03-10

    EM66 is a secretogranin II-derived peptide strongly expressed within hypothalamic neuroendocrine areas such as the parvocellular aspect of the paraventricular nucleus (pPVN) as well as the median eminence (ME), suggesting a hypophysiotropic role for this neuropeptide. The aim of the present study was to explore such a role in the corticotrope and thyrotrope axes. We analyzed EM66 occurrence respectively in CRH and TRH neurosecretory cells of the rat pPVN by double immunohistochemistry. Functionally, we studied the effect of acute stress (immobilization for 2 h or cold exposure at 5C for 4 h) and hypothyroidism (induced by 1-week thyroidectomy) on EM66 immunoreactivity (IR) within the pPVN. Double immunohistochemical labeling revealed that EM66-IR colocalized with CRH or TRH labelings within pPVN hypophysiotropic neurons as well as the axon terminals of the external layer of the ME. Because TRH neuronal population of the pPVN is completely distinct from the CRH neurosecretory system, our data demonstrate the existence of at least two distinct EM66 neuronal populations in the rat pPVN. Acute immobilization or cold exposure stresses did not affect EM66 expression as evaluated by the number of EM66-IR neurons within the pPVN. These results suggest that EM66 does not participate to the phenotypic plasticity of hypothalamic parvocellular neurons in response to acute stress. In addition, short-term hypothyroidism did not provoke any significant variation of the number of intraparaventricular EM66 neurons, indicating that EM66 expression would be insensitive to short-term hypothyroidism despite its occurrence within TRH neurons. Thus, the present data show the occurrence of EM66 in distinct areas of the rat PVN but its expression is not coregulated with those of CRH and TRH during acute stress and hypothyroidism. PMID:23333484

  12. Deciphering the Use and Predictive Value of EMS Provider Judgment in Out-of-Hospital Trauma Triage: A Multi-site, Mixed Methods Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Newgard, Craig D.; Kampp, Michael; Nelson, Maria; Holmes, James F.; Zive, Dana; Rea, Thomas; Bulger, Eileen M.; Liao, Michael; Sherck, John; Hsia, Renee Y.; Wang, N. Ewen; Fleischman, Ross J.; Barton, Erik D.; Daya, Mohamud; Heineman, John; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Background EMS provider judgment was recently added as a field triage criterion to the national guidelines, yet its predictive value and real-world application remain unclear. We examine the use and independent predictive value of EMS provider judgment in identifying seriously injured persons. Methods We analyzed a population-based retrospective cohort, supplemented by qualitative analysis, of injured children and adults evaluated and transported by 47 EMS agencies to 94 hospitals in 5 regions across the Western U.S. from 20062008. We used logistic regression models to evaluate the independent predictive value of EMS provider judgment for ISS ? 16. EMS narratives were analyzed using qualitative methods to assess and compare common themes for each step in the triage algorithm, plus EMS provider judgment. Results 213,869 injured patients were evaluated and transported by EMS over the 3-year period, of whom 41,191 (19.3%) met at least one of the field triage criteria. EMS provider judgment was the most commonly used triage criterion (40.0% of all triage-positive patients; sole criterion in 21.4%). After accounting for other triage criteria and confounders, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of ISS ? 16 for EMS provider judgment was 1.23 (95%CI 1.03-1.47), although there was variability in predictive value across sites. Patients meeting EMS provider judgment had concerning clinical presentations qualitatively similar to those meeting mechanistic and other special considerations criteria. Conclusions Among this multi-site cohort of trauma patients, EMS provider judgment was the most commonly used field trauma triage criterion, was independently associated with serious injury and was useful in identifying high risk patients missed by other criteria. However, there was variability in predictive value between sites. PMID:22673250

  13. FAST WAVELET-BASED SINGLE-PARTICLE RECONSTRUCTION IN CRYO-EM

    PubMed Central

    Vonesch, Cdric; Wang, Lanhui; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for the 3D tomographic inversion problem that arises in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (Cryo-EM). It is based on two key components: 1) a variational formulation that promotes sparsity in the wavelet domain and 2) the Toeplitz structure of the combined projection/back-projection operator. The first idea has proven to be very effective for the recovery of piecewise-smooth signals, which is confirmed by our numerical experiments. The second idea allows for a computationally efficient implementation of the reconstruction procedure, using only one circulant convolution per iteration. PMID:22536462

  14. Computer science. Heads-up limit hold'em poker is solved.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Michael; Burch, Neil; Johanson, Michael; Tammelin, Oskari

    2015-01-01

    Poker is a family of games that exhibit imperfect information, where players do not have full knowledge of past events. Whereas many perfect-information games have been solved (e.g., Connect Four and checkers), no nontrivial imperfect-information game played competitively by humans has previously been solved. Here, we announce that heads-up limit Texas hold'em is now essentially weakly solved. Furthermore, this computation formally proves the common wisdom that the dealer in the game holds a substantial advantage. This result was enabled by a new algorithm, CFR(+), which is capable of solving extensive-form games orders of magnitude larger than previously possible. PMID:25574016

  15. Next-generation sequencing as a tool to quickly identify causative EMS-generated mutations

    PubMed Central

    Thole, J. M.; Strader, L. C.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next generation sequencing has influenced every aspect of biological research. Many labs are now using whole genome sequencing in Arabidopsis thaliana as a means to quickly identify EMS-generated mutations present in isolated mutants. Following identification of these mutations, examination of T-DNA insertional alleles defective in candidate genes or complementation of the mutant phenotype with a wild type copy of candidate genes can be used to verify which mutation is causative for the phenotype of interest. Here, we discuss the benefits and pitfalls of using this method to identify mutations underlying phenotypes. PMID:26039464

  16. COVARIANCE ESTIMATION USING CONJUGATE GRADIENT FOR 3D CLASSIFICATION IN CRYO-EM

    PubMed Central

    Andn, Joakim; Katsevich, Eugene; Singer, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Classifying structural variability in noisy projections of biological macromolecules is a central problem in Cryo-EM. In this work, we build on a previous method for estimating the covariance matrix of the three-dimensional structure present in the molecules being imaged. Our proposed method allows for incorporation of contrast transfer function and non-uniform distribution of viewing angles, making it more suitable for real-world data. We evaluate its performance on a synthetic dataset and an experimental dataset obtained by imaging a 70S ribosome complex. PMID:26682015

  17. Modelo de atmosfera solar ajustado s observaes do raio solar em 17GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Silva, A. V. R.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo das variaes do raio solar durante o ciclo de atividades do Sol e das diferenas em relao sua distribuio angular nos fornece informaes importantes sobre as mudanas na estrutura da atmosfera solar. Neste trabalho foram analisados mais de 3600 mapas do Sol em 17 GHz obtidos pelo Rdio Heligrafo de Nobeyama (NoRH), durante 1 ciclo de atividade solar (1992-2003). O raio solar foi definido no ponto onde a temperatura de brilho do mapa era equivalente metade da temperatura do Sol calmo (temperatura mais comum no mapa).Em relao sua variao ao longo do ciclo solar, o estudo foi dividido em duas partes: a) ajuste de uma circunferncia a pontos distribudos ao redor do Sol todo. Este estudo mostrou uma variao correlacionada com o ciclo de atividade do Sol. b) ajuste da circunferncia a pontos situados somente nas regies polares. Neste caso os resultados mostraram que o raio polar sofre pouca variao durante o ciclo, com tendncia anticorrelao com este. Alm disto, a mdia do raio polar, durante o perodo analisado, foi 1" menor que o raio medido no Sol todo. Para estudar a distribuio angular do raio solar, comparamos a mdia da distribuio de 10 mapas no perodo de mnima atividade solar com a mdia de 10 mapas no perodo de mximo, este estudo mostrou um grande aumento do raio na regio equatorial no perodo de mxima atividade solar. As medidas do raio foram usadas como um dos parmetros para a criao de um modelo atmosfrico (alm da temperatura de brilho do Sol e do abrilhantamento do limbo observado), onde mostramos que um modelo atmosfrico com a regio de transio situada a 3500 km fornece um raio 5" menor que as medidas observacionais. Esta incompatibilidade do modelo com os dados observacionais foi contornada com a incluso de espculas, estas fazem com que o raio solar aumente proporcionalmente altura que estas atingem na atmosfera solar. A anticorrelao do raio polar com ciclo de atividade pode ser interpretada como reflexo do aumento de abrilhantamento de limbo nos plos, visto que este est anticorrelacionado com o ciclo solar. Porm, a presena de espculas, no capaz de explicar os valores muito altos do raio solar medidos na regio equatorial, que acreditamos ser devido s mudanas intrnsecas na estrutura local da atmosfera solar.

  18. Next-generation sequencing as a tool to quickly identify causative EMS-generated mutations.

    PubMed

    Thole, J M; Strader, L C

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next generation sequencing has influenced every aspect of biological research. Many labs are now using whole genome sequencing in Arabidopsis thaliana as a means to quickly identify EMS-generated mutations present in isolated mutants. Following identification of these mutations, examination of T-DNA insertional alleles defective in candidate genes or complementation of the mutant phenotype with a wild type copy of candidate genes can be used to verify which mutation is causative for the phenotype of interest. Here, we discuss the benefits and pitfalls of using this method to identify mutations underlying phenotypes. PMID:26039464

  19. Telescpio de pequeno porte como suporte ao ensino em cidades com intensa poluio luminosa II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P. C. R.; Santos-Jnior, J. M.; Cruz, W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Para a maioria dos estudantes, sua passagem pelo ensino formal fundamental envolve a transmisso de fatos que devem ser guardados para um exame, a habilidade para lembrar frmulas e, eventualmente, a repetio de experimentos que devem produzir resultados exigidos pelo professor. O resultado deste modelo de ensino, ao longo dos anos, conhecido por todos: desconhecimento e descontentamento, por parte dos estudantes, de temas relativos ao papel e aos processos da cincia. Acreditamos que a Astronomia, pelo seu carter observacional, uma das reas do conhecimento que pode contribuir neste cenrio. A Fundao Planetrio da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro possui um telescpio Meade LX-200 (25cm) que, juntamente com as cmeras CCD ST-7E e ST8E, tem sido utilizado em projetos voltados aos estudantes do ensino mdio desde o ano 2000. Tais projetos envolvem a conduo de um projeto de pesquisa observacional num nvel apropriado, e possibilitam o contato com tcnicas e novas tecnologias: computador, software para manipulao de dados e grficos, programas de tratamento e reduo de dados, uso de equipamentos ptico-eletrnicos (telescpio e CCD), bem como o processo de aquisio de conhecimento. Dentro da proposta dos anos anteriores, priorizamos projetos de uma noite, ou seja, procuramos trabalhar com fenmenos que apresentem variabilidade com intervalo de recorrncia relativamente curto. Em todos os casos, optamos pela fotometria diferencial, que tem se mostrado bastante eficiente para o cu luminoso como o da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Neste painel, apresentamos alguns dos projetos desenvolvidos no ltimo ano, com 25 estudantes. Apresentamos os resultados da observao da varivel pulsante AI Vel (V = 6,6) e da varivel cataclsmica FO Aqr (V = 13,5), e do monitoramento do trnsito da lua de Jpiter, Europa, ocorrido em 30 de abril de 2003. As curvas de luz produzidas para as primeiras esto concordantes com as da literatura, assim como os respectivos perodos encontrados (1h20min e 4h48min). No caso do FO Aqr, ficou evidente, tambm, a modulao decorrente da rotao da an branca receptora (21min). O erro estimado de 0,01 magnitude. Propomos uma maior utilizao de telescpios de pequeno porte, como suporte ao ensino (mdio e superior) em cidades com poluio luminosa. Escolas e Planetrios seriam ambientes propcios para a localizao do telescpio. Os critrios adotados na escolha dos objetos e o mtodo observacional empregado so tambm apresentados.

  20. Advanced Metering Plan for Monitoring Energy and Potable Water Use in PNNL EMS4 Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Jason E.; Olson, Norman J.; Berman, Marc J.; Schielke, Dale R.

    2011-08-17

    This updated Advanced Metering Plan for monitoring whole building energy use in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) EMS4 buildings on the PNNL campus has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), Section 103, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 430.2B, and Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Federal Energy Management Program, October 2007 (Sullivan et al. 2007). The initial PNNL plan was developed in July 2007 (Olson 2007), updated in September 2008 (Olson et al. 2008), updated in September 2009 (Olson et al. 2009), and updated again in August 2010 (Olson et al. 2010).

  1. Use of low power EM radar sensors for speech articulator measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Burnett, G.C.

    1997-05-14

    Very low power electromagnetic (EM) wave sensors are being used to measure speech articulator motions such as the vocal fold oscillations, jaw, tongue, and the soft palate. Data on vocal fold motions, that correlate well with established laboratory techniques, as well as data on the jaw, tongue, and soft palate are shown. The vocal fold measurements together with a volume air flow model are being used to perform pitch synchronous estimates of the voiced transfer functions using ARMA (autoregressive moving average) techniques. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  2. De novo protein structure determination from near-atomic resolution cryo-EM maps

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Kudryashev, Mikhail; Li, Xueming; Egelman, Edward H.; Basler, Marek; Cheng, Yifan; Baker, David; DiMaio, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We present a de novo model building approach that combines predicted backbone conformations with side-chain density-fit to accurately assign sequence into density maps. We show this method yields accurate models for six experimental maps at 3.34.8 resolution, and produces a nearly complete model for an unsolved map containing a 660-residue hetero-dimeric protein. This method should enable rapid and reliable protein structure determination from near-atomic resolution cryo-EM maps. PMID:25707029

  3. 2009 DOE-EM LONG-TERM MONITORING TECHNICAL FORUM SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2009-09-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) has the responsibility for cleaning up 60 sites in 22 states that were associated with the legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and other research and development activities. These sites are unique and many of the technologies needed to successfully disposition the associated wastes have yet to be developed or would require significant re-engineering to be adapted for future EM cleanup efforts. In 2008, the DOE-EM Engineering and Technology Program (EM-22) released the Engineering and Technology Roadmap in response to Congressional direction and the need to focus on longer term activities required for the completion of the aforementioned cleanup program. One of the strategic initiatives included in the Roadmap was to enhance long term performance monitoring as defined by 'Develop and deploy cost effective long-term strategies and technologies to monitor closure sites (including soil, groundwater, and surface water) with multiple contaminants (organics, metals and radionuclides) to verify integrated long-term cleanup performance'. To support this long-term monitoring (LTM) strategic initiative, EM 22 and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) organized and held an interactive symposia, known as the 2009 DOE-EM Long-Term Monitoring Technical Forum, to define and prioritize LTM improvement strategies and products that could be realized within a 3 to 5 year investment time frame. This near-term focus on fundamental research would then be used as a foundation for development of applied programs to improve the closure and long-term performance of EM's legacy waste sites. The Technical Forum was held in Atlanta, GA on February 11-12, 2009, and attended by 57 professionals with a focus on identifying those areas of opportunity that would most effectively advance the transition of the current practices to a more effective strategy for the LTM paradigm. The meeting format encompassed three break-out sessions, which focused on needs and opportunities associated with the following LTM technical areas: (1) Performance Monitoring Tools, (2) Systems, and (3) Information Management. The specific objectives of the Technical Forum were to identify: (1) technical targets for reducing EM costs for life-cycle monitoring; (2) cost-effective approaches and tools to support the transition from active to passive remedies at EM waste sites; and (3) specific goals and objectives associated with the lifecycle monitoring initiatives outlined within the Roadmap. The first Breakout Session on LTM performance measurement tools focused on the integration and improvement of LTM performance measurement and monitoring tools that deal with parameters such as ecosystems, boundary conditions, geophysics, remote sensing, biomarkers, ecological indicators and other types of data used in LTM configurations. Although specific tools were discussed, it was recognized that the Breakout Session could not comprehensively discuss all monitoring technologies in the time provided. Attendees provided key references where other organizations have assessed monitoring tools. Three investment sectors were developed in this Breakout Session. The second Breakout Session was on LTM systems. The focus of this session was to identify new and inventive LTM systems addressing the framework for interactive parameters such as infrastructure, sensors, diagnostic features, field screening tools, state of the art characterization monitoring systems/concepts, and ecosystem approaches to site conditions and evolution. LTM systems consist of the combination of data acquisition and management efforts, data processing and analysis efforts and reporting tools. The objective of the LTM systems workgroup was to provide a vision and path towards novel and innovative LTM systems, which should be able to provide relevant, actionable information on system performance in a cost-effective manner. Two investment sectors were developed in this Breakout Session. The last Breakout Session of the Technical Forum was on LTM information management. The session focus was on the development and implementation of novel information management systems for LTM including techniques to address data issues such as: efficient management of large and diverse datasets; consistency and comparability in data management and incorporation of accurate historical information; data interpretation and information synthesis including statistical methods, modeling, and visualization; and linage of data to site management objectives and leveraging information to forge consensus among stakeholders. One investment sector was developed in this Breakout Session.

  4. Refinement of protein structures by iterative comparative modeling and CryoEM density fitting.

    PubMed

    Topf, Maya; Baker, Matthew L; Marti-Renom, Marc A; Chiu, Wah; Sali, Andrej

    2006-04-14

    We developed a method for structure characterization of assembly components by iterative comparative protein structure modeling and fitting into cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) density maps. Specifically, we calculate a comparative model of a given component by considering many alternative alignments between the target sequence and a related template structure while optimizing the fit of a model into the corresponding density map. The method relies on the previously developed Moulder protocol that iterates over alignment, model building, and model assessment. The protocol was benchmarked using 20 varied target-template pairs of known structures with less than 30% sequence identity and corresponding simulated density maps at resolutions from 5A to 25A. Relative to the models based on the best existing sequence profile alignment methods, the percentage of C(alpha) atoms that are within 5A of the corresponding C(alpha) atoms in the superposed native structure increases on average from 52% to 66%, which is half-way between the starting models and the models from the best possible alignments (82%). The test also reveals that despite the improvements in the accuracy of the fitness function, this function is still the bottleneck in reducing the remaining errors. To demonstrate the usefulness of the protocol, we applied it to the upper domain of the P8 capsid protein of rice dwarf virus that has been studied by cryoEM at 6.8A. The C(alpha) root-mean-square deviation of the model based on the remotely related template, bluetongue virus VP7, improved from 8.7A to 6.0A, while the best possible model has a C(alpha) RMSD value of 5.3A. Moreover, the resulting model fits better into the cryoEM density map than the initial template structure. The method is being implemented in our program MODELLER for protein structure modeling by satisfaction of spatial restraints and will be applicable to the rapidly increasing number of cryoEM density maps of macromolecular assemblies. PMID:16490207

  5. Vascular plant one-zinc-finger protein 1/2 transcription factors regulate abiotic and biotic stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yusuke; Nakahira, Yoichi; Sumida, Hiroki; Takebayashi, Kosuke; Nagasawa, Yumiko; Yamasaki, Kanako; Akiyama, Masako; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fujiwara, Sumire; Shiina, Takashi; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Sato, Masa H

    2013-03-01

    Plants adapt to abiotic and biotic stresses by activating abscisic acid-mediated (ABA) abiotic stress-responsive and salicylic acid-(SA) or jasmonic acid-mediated (JA) biotic stress-responsive pathways, respectively. Although the abiotic stress-responsive pathway interacts antagonistically with the biotic stress-responsive pathways, the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain largely unknown. In this study, we provide insight into the function of vascular plant one-zinc-finger proteins (VOZs) that modulate various stress responses in Arabidopsis. The expression of many stress-responsive genes was changed in the voz1voz2 double mutant under normal growth conditions. Consistent with altered stress-responsive gene expression, freezing- and drought-stress tolerances were increased in the voz1voz2 double mutant. In contrast, resistance to a fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum higginsianum, and to a bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, was severely impaired. Thus, impairing VOZ function simultaneously conferred increased abiotic tolerance and biotic stress susceptibility. In a chilling stress condition, both the VOZ1 and VOZ2 mRNA expression levels and the VOZ2 protein level gradually decreased. VOZ2 degradation during cold exposure was completely inhibited by the addition of the 26S proteasome inhibitor, MG132, a finding that suggested that VOZ2 degradation is dependent on the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system. In voz1voz2, ABA-inducible transcription factor CBF4 expression was enhanced significantly even under normal growth conditions, despite an unchanged endogenous ABA content. A finding that suggested that VOZs negatively affect CBF4 expression in an ABA-independent manner. These results suggest that VOZs function as both negative and positive regulators of the abiotic and biotic stress-responsive pathways, and control Arabidopsis adaptation to various stress conditions. PMID:23167462

  6. EM Sounding Characterization of Soil Environment toward Estimation of Potential Pollutant Load from Non-point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Ide, J.; Somura, H.; Morisawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    A multi-frequency electro-magnetic (EM) sounding method was applied to agriculture fields to investigate the characteristics of non-point pollution load. Soil environmental properties such as differences in land management were analyzed with electrical conductivity (EC) maps. In addition, vertical EC profiles obtained from EM soundings were compared with EC in drainage ditch or river water. As results, surface soil EC maps successfully extracted the differences in land management affected by fertilizer application. Moreover, surface EC at the vertical profiles strongly related with drainage ditch or river EC, showing most of the EC in the water was explained by surface EC maps at the EM sounding data. The proposed method has strength in obtaining EC data without sampling river water, the situation we sometimes experienced at the field survey.

  7. Degradation of Microcystin-LR and RR by a Stenotrophomonas sp. Strain EMS Isolated from Lake Taihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Hu, Liang Bin; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Shao Hua; Yang, Jing Dong; Xue, Yan Feng; Shi, Zhi Qi

    2010-01-01

    A bacterial strain EMS with the capability of degrading microcystins (MCs) was isolated from Lake Taihu, China. The bacterium was tentatively identified as a Stenotrophomonas sp. The bacterium could completely consume MC-LR and MC-RR within 24 hours at a concentration of 0.7 μg/mL and 1.7 μg/mL, respectively. The degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR by EMS occurred preferentially in an alkaline environment. In addition, mlrA gene involved in the degradation of MC-LR and MC-RR was detected in EMS. Due to the limited literature this gene has rare homologues. Sequencing analysis of the translated protein from mlrA suggested that MlrA might be a transmembrane protein, which suggests a possible new protease family having unique function. PMID:20479990

  8. The non-antibiotic macrolide EM900 inhibits rhinovirus infection and cytokine production in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lusamba Kalonji, Nadine; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Ota, Chiharu; Kubo, Hiroshi; Sato, Takeya; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; ?mura, Satoshi; Yamaya, Mutsuo

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides may be associated with a reduced frequency of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, because the long-term use of antibiotics may promote the growth of drug-resistant bacteria, the development of a treatment to prevent COPD exacerbation with macrolides that do not exert anti-bacterial effects is necessary. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of nonantibiotic macrolides on the replication of rhinovirus (RV), which is the major cause of COPD exacerbation, have not been demonstrated. Primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells and nasal epithelial cells were pretreated with the nonantibiotic macrolide EM900 for 72h prior to infection with a major group RV type 14 rhinovirus (RV14) and were further treated with EM900 after infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection reduced RV14 titers in the supernatants and viral RNA within the cells. Moreover, cytokine levels, including interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6, were reduced in the supernatants following RV14 infection. Treatment with EM900 before and after infection also reduced the mRNA and protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is the receptor for RV14, after infection and reduced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa-B protein p50 in nuclear extracts after infection. Pretreatment with EM900 reduced the number and fluorescence intensity of the acidic endosomes through which RV RNA enters the cytoplasm. Thus, pretreatment with EM900 may inhibit RV infection by reducing the ICAM-1 levels and acidic endosomes and thus modulate the airway inflammation associated with RV infections. PMID:26462747

  9. High-resolution soft x-ray spectrometry using the electron-multiplying charge-coupled device (EM-CCD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David J.; Tutt, James H.; Soman, Matthew R.; Holland, Andrew D.; Murray, Neil J.; Schmitt, Bernd; Schmitt, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    The Electron-Multiplying Charge-Coupled Device (EM-CCD) shares a similar structure to the CCD except for the inclusion of a gain register that multiplies signal before the addition of read-noise, offering sub-electron effective readnoise at high frame-rates. EM-CCDs were proposed for the dispersive spectrometer on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) to bring sub-300 eV X-rays above the noise, increasing the science yield. The high-speed, low-noise performance of the EMCCD brought added advantages of reduced dark current and stray-light per frame, reducing cooling and filtering requirements. To increase grating efficiency, several diffracted spectral orders were co-located so the inherent energy resolution of the detector was required for order separation. Although the spectral resolution of the EM-CCD is degraded by the gain process, it was shown that the EM-CCD could achieve the required separation. The RIXS spectrometer at the Advanced Resonant Spectroscopy beamline (ADRESS) of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute currently uses a CCD, with charge spreading between pixels limiting the spatial resolution to 24 ?m (FWHM). Through improving the spatial resolution below 5 ?m alongside upgrading the grating, a factor of two energy resolution improvement could theoretically be made. With the high-speed, low-noise performance of the EM-CCD, photon-counting modes could allow the use of centroiding techniques to improve the resolution. Using various centroiding techniques, a spatial resolution of 2 ?m (FWHM) has been achieved experimentally, demonstrating the benefits of this detector technology for soft X-ray spectrometry. This paper summarises the use of EM-CCDs from our first investigations for IXO through to our latest developments in ground-based testing for synchrotron-research and looks beyond to future possibilities.

  10. EMS-physicians' self reported airway management training and expertise; a descriptive study from the Central Region of Denmark

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prehospital advanced airway management, including prehospital endotracheal intubation is challenging and recent papers have addressed the need for proper training, skill maintenance and quality control for emergency medical service personnel. The aim of this study was to provide data regarding airway management-training and expertise from the regional physician-staffed emergency medical service (EMS). Methods The EMS in this part of The Central Region of Denmark is a two tiered system. The second tier comprises physician staffed Mobile Emergency Care Units. The medical directors of the programs supplied system data. A questionnaire addressing airway management experience, training and knowledge was sent to the EMS-physicians. Results There are no specific guidelines, standard operating procedures or standardised program for obtaining and maintaining skills regarding prehospital advanced airway management in the schemes covered by this study. 53/67 physicians responded; 98,1% were specialists in anesthesiology, with an average of 17,6 years of experience in anesthesiology, and 7,2 years experience as EMS-physicians. 84,9% reported having attended life support course(s), 64,2% an advanced airway management course. 24,5% fulfilled the curriculum suggested for Danish EMS physicians. 47,2% had encountered a difficult or impossible PHETI, most commonly in a patient in cardiac arrest or a trauma patient. Only 20,8% of the physicians were completely familiar with what back-up devices were available for airway management. Conclusions In this, the first Danish study of prehospital advanced airway management, we found a high degree of experience, education and training among the EMS-physicians, but their equipment awareness was limited. Check-outs, guidelines, standard operating procedures and other quality control measures may be needed. PMID:21303510

  11. Structure of the E. coli ribosome-EF-Tu complex at <3 resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Niels; Neumann, Piotr; Konevega, Andrey L; Bock, Lars V; Ficner, Ralf; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger

    2015-04-23

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has recently made significant progress in high-resolution structure determination of macromolecular complexes due to improvements in electron microscopic instrumentation and computational image analysis. However, cryo-EM structures can be highly non-uniform in local resolution and all structures available to date have been limited to resolutions above 3. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome from Escherichia coli in complex with elongation factor Tu, aminoacyl-tRNA and the antibiotic kirromycin at 2.65-2.9 resolution using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected cryo-EM. Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction at 2.9 resolution is comparable to the best-resolved X-ray structure of the E. coli 70S ribosome (2.8), but provides more detailed information (2.65) at the functionally important ribosomal core. The cryo-EM map elucidates for the first time the structure of all 35 rRNA modifications in the bacterial ribosome, explaining their roles in fine-tuning ribosome structure and function and modulating the action of antibiotics. We also obtained atomic models for flexible parts of the ribosome such as ribosomal proteins L9 and L31. The refined cryo-EM-based model presents the currently most complete high-resolution structure of the E. coli ribosome, which demonstrates the power of cryo-EM in structure determination of large and dynamic macromolecular complexes. PMID:25707802

  12. Using an EM Covariance Matrix to Estimate Structural Equation Models with Missing Data: Choosing an Adjusted Sample Size to Improve the Accuracy of Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Peugh, James L.

    2004-01-01

    Two methods, direct maximum likelihood (ML) and the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, can be used to obtain ML parameter estimates for structural equation models with missing data (MD). Although the 2 methods frequently produce identical parameter estimates, it may be easier to satisfy missing at random assumptions using EM. However, no

  13. Maximum-likelihood methods in cryo-EM. Part I: theoretical basis and overview of existing approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sigworth, Fred J.; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Carazo, Jose-Maria; Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method provides a powerful approach for many problems in cryo-EM image processing. This contribution aims to provide an accessible introduction to the underlying theory and reviews existing applications in the field. In addition, current developments to reduce computational costs and to improve the statistical description of cryo-EM images are discussed. Combined with the increasing power of modern computers and yet unexplored possibilities provided by theory, these developments are expected to turn the statistical approach into an essential image processing tool for the electron microscopist. PMID:20888965

  14. On the impact of salinity observations on state estimates in Ems Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pein, Johannes Ulrich; Grayek, Sebastian; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil Vassilev

    2016-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of Ems Estuary are dominated by tides and their interaction with buoyancy forcing. Such an environment is challenging for any effort to bring together observations and model results. In this study, we investigate how salinity measurements in the Ems Estuary affect the reconstruction of the salinity field. Similar to the traditional observing system experiments, the impact of specific observational arrays is simulated in the framework of statistical experiments. The experimental algorithm mainly relies on the model covariance matrix. Each experiment results in an estimate of the reconstruction error. The analysed observation configurations involve single and multiple, as well as stationary and non-stationary observing arrays. Generally, the reconstruction of the ocean state improves with increasing the density of observations. It appears that certain locations are more favourable for reconstruction than others. In fact, the regions separating the main dynamical realms resist strongest to the reconstruction effort. Extending the covariance matrix by the temporal cross-covariances between the model grid points enables to evaluate the impact of observations taken from a moving platform. This approach further improves the outcome of the experiments, resulting in reconstruction errors near zero with the exception of the tidal river. The cross-covariance information is able to tackle even the irregular dynamics arising on the border between the different physical regimes.

  15. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  16. Cryo-EM and the elucidation of new macromolecular structures: Random Conical Tilt revisited.

    PubMed

    Sorzano, C O S; Alcorlo, M; de la Rosa-Trevn, J M; Melero, R; Foche, I; Zaldvar-Peraza, A; del Cano, L; Vargas, J; Abrishami, V; Otn, J; Marabini, R; Carazo, J M

    2015-01-01

    Cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) of macromolecular complexes is a fundamental structural biology technique which is expanding at a very fast pace. Key to its success in elucidating the three-dimensional structure of a macromolecular complex, especially of small and non-symmetric ones, is the ability to start from a low resolution map, which is subsequently refined with the actual images collected at the microscope. There are several methods to produce this first structure. Among them, Random Conical Tilt (RCT) plays a prominent role due to its unbiased nature (it can create an initial model based on experimental measurements). In this article, we revise the fundamental mathematical expressions supporting RCT, providing new expressions handling all key geometrical parameters without the need of intermediate operations, leading to improved automation and overall reliability, essential for the success of cryo-EM when analyzing new complexes. We show that the here proposed RCT workflow based on the new formulation performs very well in practical cases, requiring very few image pairs (as low as 13 image pairs in one of our examples) to obtain relevant 3D maps. PMID:26390853

  17. STATegra EMS: an Experiment Management System for complex next-generation omics experiments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing assays are now routinely used to study different aspects of genome organization. As decreasing costs and widespread availability of sequencing enable more laboratories to use sequencing assays in their research projects, the number of samples and replicates in these experiments can quickly grow to several dozens of samples and thus require standardized annotation, storage and management of preprocessing steps. As a part of the STATegra project, we have developed an Experiment Management System (EMS) for high throughput omics data that supports different types of sequencing-based assays such as RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, Methyl-seq, etc, as well as proteomics and metabolomics data. The STATegra EMS provides metadata annotation of experimental design, samples and processing pipelines, as well as storage of different types of data files, from raw data to ready-to-use measurements. The system has been developed to provide research laboratories with a freely-available, integrated system that offers a simple and effective way for experiment annotation and tracking of analysis procedures. PMID:25033091

  18. STATegra EMS: an Experiment Management System for complex next-generation omics experiments.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-de-Diego, Rafael; Boix-Chova, Noemi; Gmez-Cabrero, David; Tegner, Jesper; Abugessaisa, Imad; Conesa, Ana

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing assays are now routinely used to study different aspects of genome organization. As decreasing costs and widespread availability of sequencing enable more laboratories to use sequencing assays in their research projects, the number of samples and replicates in these experiments can quickly grow to several dozens of samples and thus require standardized annotation, storage and management of preprocessing steps. As a part of the STATegra project, we have developed an Experiment Management System (EMS) for high throughput omics data that supports different types of sequencing-based assays such as RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, Methyl-seq, etc, as well as proteomics and metabolomics data. The STATegra EMS provides metadata annotation of experimental design, samples and processing pipelines, as well as storage of different types of data files, from raw data to ready-to-use measurements. The system has been developed to provide research laboratories with a freely-available, integrated system that offers a simple and effective way for experiment annotation and tracking of analysis procedures. PMID:25033091

  19. Workforce planning for DOE/EM: Assessing workforce demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to bringing its facilities into regulatory compliance and restoring the environment of sites under its control by the year 2019. Responsibility for accomplishing this goal is vested with the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM). Concerns regarding the availability of workers with the necessary technical skills and the prospect of retraining workers from other programs within DOE or other industries are addressed in this report in several ways. First, various workforce projections relevant to EM occupations are compared to determine common findings and resolve inconsistencies. Second, case studies, interviews, and published data are used to examine the potential availability of workers for these occupations via occupational mobility, training/retraining options, and salary adjustments. Third, demand and supply factors are integrated in a framework useful for structuring workforce analyses. The analyses demonstrate that workforce skills are not anticipated to change due to the change in mission; science, engineering, and technician occupations tend to be mobile within and across occupational categories; experience and on-the-job training are more crucial to issues of worker supply than education; and, the clarity of an organization`s mission, budget allocation process, work implementation and task assignment systems are critical determinants of both workforce need and supply. DOE is encouraged to create a more stable platform for workforce planning by resolving organizational and institutional hindrances to accomplishing work and capitalizing on workforce characteristics besides labor {open_quotes}supply{close_quotes} and demographics.

  20. Cryo-EM and the elucidation of new macromolecular structures: Random Conical Tilt revisited

    PubMed Central

    Sorzano, C. O. S.; Alcorlo, M.; de la Rosa-Trevn, J. M.; Melero, R.; Foche, I.; Zaldvar-Peraza, A.; del Cano, L.; Vargas, J.; Abrishami, V.; Otn, J.; Marabini, R.; Carazo, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) of macromolecular complexes is a fundamental structural biology technique which is expanding at a very fast pace. Key to its success in elucidating the three-dimensional structure of a macromolecular complex, especially of small and non-symmetric ones, is the ability to start from a low resolution map, which is subsequently refined with the actual images collected at the microscope. There are several methods to produce this first structure. Among them, Random Conical Tilt (RCT) plays a prominent role due to its unbiased nature (it can create an initial model based on experimental measurements). In this article, we revise the fundamental mathematical expressions supporting RCT, providing new expressions handling all key geometrical parameters without the need of intermediate operations, leading to improved automation and overall reliability, essential for the success of cryo-EM when analyzing new complexes. We show that the here proposed RCT workflow based on the new formulation performs very well in practical cases, requiring very few image pairs (as low as 13 image pairs in one of our examples) to obtain relevant 3D maps. PMID:26390853

  1. [Research on remote sensing monitoring of soil salinization based on measured hyperspectral and EM38 data].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Kelimul, Ardak; Zhang, Fang; Lei, Lei

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, the delta oasis between the Weigan River and the Kuqa River was selected as our study area. Firstly, the measured hyperspectral data related to different soil salinization extent was combined with electromagnetic induction instrument (EM38) in order to establish a soil salinization monitoring model; Secondly, by using the scaling transformation method, the model was adopted to calibrate the soil salinity index calculated from Landsat-TM images. Thirdly, the calibrated Landsat-TM images were used for the retrieval of regional soil salinity, and the retrieved data was verified based on the measured data. We found that at wavelengths of 456, 533, 686 and 1 373 nm, the interpretated data of EM38 were highly correlated with soil spectral reflectance (obtained via first order differentiation transformation of the spectra). Additionally, the soil salinity index model constructed from the combination of 456, 686 and 1 373 nm waveband was the best model among the different saliniza tion monitoring models. The authors' conclusion is that with R2 = 0.799 3 (p < 0.01), extracting the salinity information at regional scale by combining the electromagnetic and multispectral data performed better than those monitoring models with only salinity index extracted from multispectral remote sensing method (R2 = 0.587 4, p < 0 01). Our findings provides scientific bases for the future studies related to more accurate monitoring and prediction of soil salinization. PMID:24059201

  2. A reciprocity formulation for the EM scattering by an obstacle within a large open cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathak, Prabhakar H.; Burkholder, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A formulation based on a generalized reciprocity theorem is developed for analyzing the external high frequency EM scattering by a complex obstacle inside a relatively arbitrary open-ended waveguide cavity when it is illuminated by an external source. This formulation is also extended to include EM fields whose time dependence may be nonperiodic. A significant advantage of this formulation is that it allows one to break up the analysis into two independent parts; one deals with the waveguide cavity shape alone and the other with the obstacle alone. The external scattered field produced by the obstacle (in the presence of the waveguide cavity structure) is given in terms of a generalized reciprocity integral over a surface S(T) corresponding to the interior waveguide cavity cross section located conveniently but sufficiently close to the obstacle. Furthermore, the fields coupled into the cavity from the source in the exterior region generally need to propagate only one-way via the open front end (which is directly illuminated) to the interior surface S(T) in this approach, and not back, in order to find the external field scattered by the obstacle.

  3. Type IIP supernovae as cosmological probes: A SEAM distance to SN1999em

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2004-06-01

    Because of their intrinsic brightness, supernovae make excellent cosmological probes. We describe the spectral-fitting expanding atmosphere method (SEAM) for obtaining distances to Type IIP supernovae (SNe IIP) and present a distance to SN 1999em for which a Cepheid distance exists. Our models give results consistent with the Cepheid distance, even though we have not attempted to tune the underlying hydrodynamical model but have simply chosen the best fits. This is in contradistinction to the expanding photosphere method (EPM), which yields a distance to SN 1999em that is 50 percent smaller than the Cepheid distance. We emphasize the differences between the SEAM and the EPM. We show that the dilution factors used in the EPM analysis were systematically too small at later epochs. We also show that the EPM blackbody assumption is suspect. Since SNe IIP are visible to redshifts as high as z {approx}< 6, with the James Webb Space Telescope, the SEAM may be a valuable probe of the early universe.

  4. Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Anna; Rohou, Alexis; Schep, Daniel G; Bason, John V; Montgomery, Martin G; Walker, John E; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Rubinstein, John L

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical energy currency of biology, is synthesized in eukaryotic cells primarily by the mitochondrial ATP synthase. ATP synthases operate by a rotary catalytic mechanism where proton translocation through the membrane-inserted FO region is coupled to ATP synthesis in the catalytic F1 region via rotation of a central rotor subcomplex. We report here single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase. Combining cryo-EM data with bioinformatic analysis allowed us to determine the fold of the a subunit, suggesting a proton translocation path through the FO region that involves both the a and b subunits. 3D classification of images revealed seven distinct states of the enzyme that show different modes of bending and twisting in the intact ATP synthase. Rotational fluctuations of the c8-ring within the FO region support a Brownian ratchet mechanism for proton-translocation-driven rotation in ATP synthases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10180.001 PMID:26439008

  5. 3D anisotropic modeling for airborne EM systems using finite-difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunhe; Yin, Changchun

    2014-10-01

    Most current airborne EM data interpretations assume an isotropic model, which is sometimes inappropriate, especially in regions with distinct dipping anisotropy due to strong layering and stratifications. In this paper, we investigate airborne EM modeling and interpretation for a 3D earth with arbitrarily electrical anisotropy. We implement the staggered finite-difference algorithm to solve the coupled partial differential equations for the scattered electrical fields. Whereas the current density that is connected to the diagonal elements of the anisotropic conductivity tensor is discretized by using the volume weighted average, the current density that is connected to the non-diagonal elements is discretized by using the volume current density average. Further, we apply a divergence correction technique designed specifically for 3D anisotropic models to speed up the modeling process. For numerical experiments, we take both VMD and HMD transmitting dipoles for two typical anisotropic cases: 1) anisotropic anomalous inhomogeneities embedded in an isotropic half-space; and 2) isotropic anomalous inhomogeneities embedded in an anisotropic host rock. Model experiments show that our algorithm has high calculation accuracy, the divergence correction technique used in the modeling can greatly improve the convergence of the solutions, accelerating the calculation speed up to 2 times for the model presented in the paper. The characteristics inside the anisotropic earth, like the location of the anomalous body and the principal axis orientations, can also be clearly identified from AEM area surveys.

  6. Emergency Incident Rehabilitation: Resource Document to the Position Statement of the National Association of EMS Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; McEntire, Serina J; Rittenberger, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Position Statement: Emergency Incident Rehabilitation The National Association of EMS Physicians® believes that: Emergency operations and training conducted while wearing protective clothing and respirators is physiologically and cognitively demanding. The heat stress and fatigue created by working in protective clothing and respirators creates additional risk of illness/injury for the public safety provider. Emergency incident rehabilitation provides a structured rest period for rehydration and correction of abnormal body core temperature following work in protective clothing and respirators. Emergency incident rehab should be conducted at incidents (e.g. fireground, hazardous materials, and heavy rescue emergencies) and trainings involving activities that may lead to exceeding safe levels of physical and mental exertion. Emergency incident rehabilitation is incident care, not fitness for duty, and meant to reduce physiologic strain and prepare the responder to return to duty at the current incident and for the remainder of the shift. EMS should play a role in emergency incident rehabilitation with providers trained to understand the physiologic response of healthy individuals to environmental, exertional, and cognitive stress and implement appropriate mitigation strategies. An appropriately qualified physician should have oversight over the creation and implementation of emergency incident rehabilitation protocols and may be separate from the roles and responsibilities of the occupational medicine physician. There are no peer-reviewed data related to cold weather rehabilitation. Future studies should address this limitation to the literature. PMID:26847801

  7. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhes e da Galxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arajo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes caractersticas: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro tpico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emisso de metais de baixa ionizao, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vzes tambm dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhes e na Galaxia. O objetivo estudar a influncia da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinao das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados so espectros de alta resoluo obtidos no telescpio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrgrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 cujas componentes em absoro costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expanso na GNM so maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia no parecem seguir a mesma tendncia.

  8. EMXtalOrg: an EM tilt data organization and processing system.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Jason; Barklis, Eric

    2002-10-01

    The EMXtalOrg software package organizes and processes electron microscope (EM) data from indexed images of tilted two-dimensional (2D) protein crystals. The package, which is freely available, was written to facilitate the processing of amplitude and phase (aph) data from 2D EM projections into three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions. The suite takes as input contrast transfer function corrected aph files and generates lattice line data to yield HKL files which can be output for viewing 3D structures with existing data visualization programs. Additionally, the package offers a number of other processing features, and provides a convenient graphical interface for several image processing programs devoted to the analysis of 2D crystals. The package is written in the Python scripting language using the Tcl/ Tk toolkit for the graphical user interface, making it portable and easy to modify by the user. The package provides an integrated environment to simplify the process of obtaining 3D structures from 2D crystals. PMID:12380647

  9. Microwave absorbance properties of zirconiummanganese substituted cobalt nanoferrite as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Kishwar Rehman, Sarish

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: Good candidates for EM materials with low reflectivity. Good candidates for broad bandwidth at microwave frequency. Microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the ZrMn. Higher the ZrMn content, the higher absorption rates for the electromagnetic radiation. The predicted reflection loss shows that this can be used for thin ferrite absorber. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZrMn (x) substituted Co ferrite having chemical formula CoFe{sub 2?2x}Zr{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.10.4) was prepared by co-precipitation technique. Combining properties such as structural, electrical, magnetic and reflection loss characteristics. Crystal structure and surface morphology of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By using two point probe homemade resistivity apparatus to find resistivity of the sample. Electromagnetic (EM) properties are measured through RF impedance/materials analyzer over 1 MHz3 GHz. The room-temperature dielectric measurements show dispersion behavior with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Magnetic properties confirmed relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization on ZrMn composition. Curie temperature is also found to decrease linearly with addition of ZrMn. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of microwave reflection loss (RL) is carried out as a function of substitution, frequency, and thickness. Composition accompanying maximum microwave absorption is suggested.

  10. Estimating loop length from CryoEM images at medium resolutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background De novo protein modeling approaches utilize 3-dimensional (3D) images derived from electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) experiments. The skeleton connecting two secondary structures such as ?-helices represent the loop in the 3D image. The accuracy of the skeleton and of the detected secondary structures are critical in De novo modeling. It is important to measure the length along the skeleton accurately since the length can be used as a constraint in modeling the protein. Results We have developed a novel computational geometric approach to derive a simplified curve in order to estimate the loop length along the skeleton. The method was tested using fifty simulated density images of helix-loop-helix segments of atomic structures and eighteen experimentally derived density data from Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB). The test using simulated density maps shows that it is possible to estimate within 0.5 of the expected length for 48 of the 50 cases. The experiments, involving eighteen experimentally derived CryoEM images, show that twelve cases have error within 2. Conclusions The tests using both simulated and experimentally derived images show that it is possible for our proposed method to estimate the loop length along the skeleton if the secondary structure elements, such as ?-helices, can be detected accurately, and there is a continuous skeleton linking the ?-helices. PMID:24565041

  11. Comparison of EM-based and level set partial volume segmentations of MR brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagare, Hemant D.; Chen, Yunmei; Fulbright, Robert K.

    2008-03-01

    EM and level set algorithms are competing methods for segmenting MRI brain images. This paper presents a fair comparison of the two techniques using the Montreal Neurological Institute's software phantom. There are many flavors of level set algorithms for segmentation into multiple regions (multi-phase algorithms, multi-layer algorithms). The specific algorithm evaluated by us is a variant of the multi-layer level set algorithm. It uses a single level set function for segmenting the image into multiple classes and can be run to completion without restarting. The EM-based algorithm is standard. Both algorithms have the capacity to model a variable number of partial volume classes as well as image inhomogeneity (bias field). Our evaluation consists of systematically changing the number of partial volume classes, additive image noise, and regularization parameters. The results suggest that the performances of both algorithms are comparable across noise, number of partial volume classes, and regularization. The segmentation errors of both algorithms are around 5 - 10% for cerebrospinal fluid, gray and white matter. The level set algorithm appears to have a slight advantage for gray matter segmentation. This may be beneficial in studying certain brain diseases (Multiple Sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease) where small changes in gray matter volume are significant.

  12. Optimization of the Electromagnetic (EM) Perturbative Effects Produced by High-Frequency Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Lu; Wen, Hao

    2016-03-01

    For the relic gravitational waves in high frequency band, we survey the electromagnetic resonance effect generated from the high frequency gravitational waves, which can be described in the transverse perturbative photon fluxes. Under the fixed tensor-scalar ratio r = 0.2, spectral index n t = 0 and running index α t = 0.01, we discuss several properties and quantity changes of the transverse perturbative photon fluxes, which can be improved significantly through setting the longitudinal magnetic component of background EM field in the standard gaussian form, and wave impedance analysis on the transverse direction. Through the theoretical calculation, the transverse perturbative photon fluxes can reach up to 103 s -1 with some optimal parameters such as waist of EM field W 0 = 0.05m, initial stochastic phase of gravitational waves δ = (0.21 + n) π( n = 0,1,2...). Furthermore the interference of the background transverse photon fluxes can be removed completely through establishing a suitable wave impedance function.

  13. Characterization of Antibiotic Peptide Pores Using Cryo-EM and Comparison to Neutron Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mikyung; Mei, Yuan; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Magainin, a 23-residue antibiotic peptide, interacts directly with the lipid bilayer leading to cell lysis in a strongly concentration-dependent fashion. Utilizing cryo-electron microscopy, we have directly observed magainin interacting with synthetic DMPC/DMPG membranes. Visual examination shows that visibly unperturbed vesicles are often found adjacent to vesicles that are lysed or porous, demonstrating that magainin disruption is a highly stochastic process. Quantitatively, power spectra of large numbers of porous vesicles can be averaged together to produce the equivalent of an electron scattering curve, which can be related to theory, simulation, and published neutron scattering experiments. We demonstrate that magainin-induced pores in lipid vesicles have a mean diameter of ?80 , compatible with earlier reported results in multilayer stacks. In addition to establishing a connection between experiments in multilayer stacks and vesicles, this also demonstrates that computed power spectra from windowed-out regions of cryo-EM images can be compared to neutron scattering data in a meaningful way, even though the pores of interest cannot yet be individually identified in images. Cryo-EM offers direct imaging of systems in configurations closely related to in vivo conditions, whereas neutron scattering has a greater variety of mechanisms for specific contrast variation via D2O and deuterated lipids. Combined, the two mechanisms support each other, and provide a clearer picture of such soft systems than either could provide alone. PMID:19580754

  14. On the impact of salinity observations on state estimates in Ems Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pein, Johannes Ulrich; Grayek, Sebastian; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Stanev, Emil Vassilev

    2016-02-01

    The hydrodynamics of Ems Estuary are dominated by tides and their interaction with buoyancy forcing. Such an environment is challenging for any effort to bring together observations and model results. In this study, we investigate how salinity measurements in the Ems Estuary affect the reconstruction of the salinity field. Similar to the traditional observing system experiments, the impact of specific observational arrays is simulated in the framework of statistical experiments. The experimental algorithm mainly relies on the model covariance matrix. Each experiment results in an estimate of the reconstruction error. The analysed observation configurations involve single and multiple, as well as stationary and non-stationary observing arrays. Generally, the reconstruction of the ocean state improves with increasing the density of observations. It appears that certain locations are more favourable for reconstruction than others. In fact, the regions separating the main dynamical realms resist strongest to the reconstruction effort. Extending the covariance matrix by the temporal cross-covariances between the model grid points enables to evaluate the impact of observations taken from a moving platform. This approach further improves the outcome of the experiments, resulting in reconstruction errors near zero with the exception of the tidal river. The cross-covariance information is able to tackle even the irregular dynamics arising on the border between the different physical regimes.

  15. Electromagnetic (EM-60) survey in the Panther Canyon Area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.; Stark, M.; Haught, R.

    1980-05-01

    Eight frequency domain electromagnetic soundings were measured over the Panther Canyon thermal anomaly in Grass Valley, Nevada. The data were collected with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's large moment horizontal loop system (EM-60). At the transmitter site located near the center of the thermal anomaly, square wave currents of up to 70 A were impressed into a fourturn 50 m radius coil at frequencies from 0.033 to 500 Hz. At the eight receiver sites, 0.5 to 1.5 km from the loop, magnetic fields were detected with a three-component SQUID magnetometer and vertical and radial magnetic field spectra were calculated. Data were interpreted with a computer program which fit filled spectra and associated ellipse polarization data to one-dimensional resistivity models and results were compared to interpretations from earlier dipole-dipole resistivity measurements. Comparison of these interpretations indicates fairly close agreement between the two, with both models clearly indicating the presence and dimensions of the conductivity anomaly associated with the thermal zone. Although the dc data was better able to resolve the high resistivity bedrock, the EM-data were able to resolve all major features without distortion at shorter transmitter receiver separations and in about one-third of the field time.

  16. Cryo-EM visualization of an exposed RGD epitope on adenovirus that escapes antibody neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, P L; Chiu, C Y; Huang, S; Muir, T; Zhao, Y; Chait, B; Mathias, P; Nemerow, G R

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of the adenovirus penton base protein with alpha v integrins promotes virus entry into host cells. The location of the integrin binding sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) on human type 2 adenovirus (Ad2) was visualized by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image reconstruction using a mAb (DAV-1) which recognizes a linear epitope, IRGDTFATR. The sites for DAV-1 binding corresponded to the weak density above each of the five 22 A protrusions on the adenovirus penton base protein. Modeling of a Fab fragment crystal structure into the adenovirus-Fab cryo-EM density indicated a large amplitude of motion for the Fab and the RGD epitope. An unexpected finding was that Fab fragments, but not IgG antibody molecules, inhibited adenovirus infection. Steric hindrance from the adenovirus fiber and a few bound IgG molecules, as well as epitope mobility, most likely prevent binding of IgG antibodies to all five RGD sites on the penton base protein within the intact virus. These studies indicate that the structure of the adenovirus particle facilitates interaction with cell integrins, whilst restricting binding of potentially neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9135136

  17. Beam-induced motion correction for sub-megadalton cryo-EM particles

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors HW

    2014-01-01

    In electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM), the electron beam that is used for imaging also causes the sample to move. This motion blurs the images and limits the resolution attainable by single-particle analysis. In a previous Research article (Bai et al., 2013) we showed that correcting for this motion by processing movies from fast direct-electron detectors allowed structure determination to near-atomic resolution from 35,000 ribosome particles. In this Research advance article, we show that an improved movie processing algorithm is applicable to a much wider range of specimens. The new algorithm estimates straight movement tracks by considering multiple particles that are close to each other in the field of view, and models the fall-off of high-resolution information content by radiation damage in a dose-dependent manner. Application of the new algorithm to four data sets illustrates its potential for significantly improving cryo-EM structures, even for particles that are smaller than 200 kDa. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03665.001 PMID:25122622

  18. Measurements of visual double stars with a 6" reflector and a em-ccd imaging device. (French Title: Mesures d'toiles doubles avec un tlescope de 150mm et une camra em-ccd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srot, J.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the measurements of 192 visual double stars obtained between Avr 2010 and Feb 2011 with a 6" reflector telescope and an EM-CCD camera. The sensibility of this kind of imaging device allowed us to obtain reliable measures for systems up to mag 12.

  19. Hold 'Em Poker: A Metaphorical Intervention for the Prevention of Problem Gambling among Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer-Schiumo, Kristin; Colangelo, James; Bordan, Terry

    2009-01-01

    A metaphorical intervention is introduced for counseling professionals, utilizing the terminology of hold 'em poker, the current game of choice among juvenile populations. This metaphor serves as a guide for counselors when assisting adolescents and young adults in developing healthier life choices and deterring potentially impulsive behaviors,

  20. Need a University Adopt a Formal Environmental Management System?: Progress without an EMS at a Small University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian F.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Englefield, Russell

    2004-01-01

    What system does a university need to optimise its progress to sustainability? Discusses the gradation of approaches possible for a university as it strives to improve its environmental performance. Argues that an environmental policy plus mechanisms for its implementation can be adequate, and endorsement of a single formal EMS need not be

  1. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic

  2. Body Size in Relation to Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites (EM) among Premenopausal Women during the Luteal Phase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Eliassen, A. Heather; Xu, Xia; Matthews, Charles E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen metabolism profiles may play an important role in the relationship between body size and breast carcinogenesis. Previously, we observed inverse associations between current body mass index (BMI) and plasma levels of parent estrogens (estrone and estradiol) among premenopausal women during both follicular and luteal phases. Using data from the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II), we assessed whether height, current BMI, and BMI at age 18 were associated with the urinary concentrations of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites (jointly referred to as EM) measured during the luteal phase among 603 premenopausal women. We observed inverse associations with total EM for height (Ptrend=0.01) and current BMI (Ptrend=0.01), but not BMI at age 18 (Ptrend=0.26). Six EMs were 1827% lower in women with a height 68+ inches versus ?62 inches, primarily in the methylated catechol pathway (Ptrend=0.04). Eight EMs were 1850% lower in women with a BMI of 30+ versus <20, primarily in the 2-catechol and methylated catechol pathways (Ptrend<0.001 for both). Our results suggest that height and current BMI are associated with estrogen metabolism profiles in premenopausal women. Further studies with timed urine and blood collections are required to confirm and extend our findings. PMID:23011724

  3. Asynchronous data acquisition and on-the-fly analysis of dose fractionated cryoEM images by UCSFImage.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueming; Zheng, Shawn; Agard, David A; Cheng, Yifan

    2015-11-01

    Newly developed direct electron detection cameras have a high image output frame rate that enables recording dose fractionated image stacks of frozen hydrated biological samples by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM). Such novel image acquisition schemes provide opportunities to analyze cryoEM data in ways that were previously impossible. The file size of a dose fractionated image stack is 20-60 times larger than that of a single image. Thus, efficient data acquisition and on-the-fly analysis of a large number of dose-fractionated image stacks become a serious challenge to any cryoEM data acquisition system. We have developed a computer-assisted system, named UCSFImage4, for semi-automated cryo-EM image acquisition that implements an asynchronous data acquisition scheme. This facilitates efficient acquisition, on-the-fly motion correction, and CTF analysis of dose fractionated image stacks with a total time of ?60s/exposure. Here we report the technical details and configuration of this system. PMID:26370395

  4. Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Three-Parameter Polychotomous Item Response Models: Application of an EM Algorithm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muraki, Eiji

    This study examines the application of the marginal maximum likelihood (MML) EM algorithm to the parameter estimation problem of the three-parameter normal ogive and logistic polychotomous item response models. A three-parameter normal ogive model, the Graded Response model, has been developed on the basis of Samejima's two-parameter graded

  5. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  6. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.; Norcross, Jason

    2012-01-01

    When a space suit is used during ground testing, adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout must be provided for the suited subject. Symptoms of acute CO2 exposure depend on partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), metabolic rate of the subject, and other factors. This test was done to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) for a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of about 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied between 6, 5, and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored in real time by gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the suit air outlet. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was affected mainly by the metabolic rate of the subject: increased metabolic rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased inspired ppCO2. Decreased air flow caused small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates . 2000 BTU/hr. CO2 washout values of the EM-ACES were slightly but not significantly better than those of the REI suit. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results as well as implications for future ground testing in the REI-suit and EM-ACES.

  7. Constraints on the origin of low-silica alkaline HIMU and EM OIBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilet, S.

    2012-12-01

    The composition of alkaline basalts observed in oceanic islands is classically interpreted as low degree melts originated from a heterogeneous mantle source [e.g. 1]. These heterogeneities interpreted as recycled lithologies present into the convecting mantle are required to explain the variable trace elements ratios and isotopic compositions observed in OIBs [1]. Nevertheless, the melting at depth of these recycled lithologies produces variable melt compositions [2] (Fig. 1). So, as function of the lithologies present at depth, the OIBs are expected to show distinct compositions. Nevertheless, the low silica alkaline OIBs show mostly constant major element compositions (Fig. 1) and very similar trace element patterns even they are characterized by variable isotopic composition like HIMU or EM. So the question is how to reconcile the variable isotopic composition with the mostly constant major elements composition observed in alkaline OIBs. Here, we show that the metasomatic model for the formation of alkaline basalt is able to explain the formation of alkaline rocks with mostly constant major elements composition but with variable trace elements ratios and isotopic compositions. Monte Carlo simulations of the metasomatic enrichment in the lithosphere have demonstrated that the differentiation of low degree melts from a MORB mantle source is able to produce amphibole-bearing cumulates suitable to be a source of alkaline lava in term of major and trace elements [3]. Nevertheless, these simulations do not constrain the isotopic composition of these cumulates nor integrate the heterogeneous nature of the convecting mantle. New calculations show that the differentiation of low degree melts from sources enclosing 0.5% sediments or 0.5% of recycled metasomatic lithosphere, lithologies expected to carry EM or HIMU isotopic signature respectively, produces amphibole-bearing cumulates with similar trace-element patterns except for the very incompatible trace-elements including Ba/Nb, Nb/La ratios which reflect the composition of the initial asthenospheric melts. These differences are similar to the differences observed in alkaline basalts characterized by EM or HIMU signatures. Regarding that the melting of amphibole-bearing veins reproduces the major elements composition of low silica alkaline lavas (Fig.1), we conclude that the formation of these rocks are in agreement with a two step process where asthenospheric melts, first, metasomatized the lithosphere, then the re-melting of such lithosphere produce the alkaline lava observed at the surface. [1] Willbold and Stracke, 2006; [2] Kogiso et al., 2004; [3] Pilet et al., 2011.;

  8. CO2 Washout Testing of the REI and EM-ACES Space Suits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Norcross, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Requirements for using a space suit during ground testing include providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout for the suited subject. Acute CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms including headache, dyspnea, lethargy and eventually unconsciousness or even death. Symptoms depend on several factors including partial pressure of CO2 (ppCO2), duration of exposure, metabolic rate of the subject and physiological differences between subjects. The objective of this test was to characterize inspired oronasal ppCO2 in the Rear Entry I-Suit (REI) and the Enhanced Mobility Advanced Crew Escape Suit (EM-ACES) across a range of workloads and flow rates for which ground testing is nominally performed. Three subjects were tested in each suit. In all but one case, each subject performed the test twice to allow for comparison between tests. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid. Subjects wore the suit while resting, performing arm ergometry, and walking on a treadmill to generate metabolic workloads of approximately 500 to 3000 BTU/hr. Supply airflow was varied at 6, 5 and 4 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at each workload. Subjects wore an oronasal mask with an open port in front of the mouth and were allowed to breathe freely. Oronasal ppCO2 was monitored real-time via gas analyzers with sampling tubes connected to the oronasal mask. Metabolic rate was calculated from the total CO2 production measured by an additional gas analyzer at the air outlet from the suit. Real-time metabolic rate was used to adjust the arm ergometer or treadmill workload to meet target metabolic rates. In both suits, inspired CO2 was primarily affected by the metabolic rate of the subject, with increased metabolic rate resulting in increased inspired ppCO2. Suit flow rate also affected inspired ppCO2, with decreased flow causing small increases in inspired ppCO2. The effect of flow was more evident at metabolic rates greater than or equal to 2000 BTU/hr. Results were consistent between suits, with the EM-ACES demonstrating slightly better CO2 washout than the REI suit, but not statistically significant. Regression equations were developed for each suit to predict the mean inspired ppCO2 as a function of metabolic rate and suit flow rate. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology and results, as well as implications for future ground testing in the REI and EM-ACES.

  9. Georeferencing natural disaster impact footprints : lessons learned from the EM-DAT experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallemacq, Pascaline; Guha Sapir, Debarati

    2014-05-01

    The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) contains data about the occurrence and consequences of all the disasters that have taken place since 1900. The main objectives of the database are to serve the purposes of humanitarian action at national and international levels; to aid decision making for disaster preparedness, as well as providing an objective base for vulnerability assessments and priority setting. EM-DAT records data on the human and economic impacts for each event as well as the location of said event. This is recorded as text data, namely the province, department, county, district, or village. The first purpose of geocoding (or georeferencing) the EM-DAT database is to transform the location data from text format into code data. The GAUL (Global Administrative Unit Layers) database (FAO) is used as a basis to identify the geographic footprint of the disaster, ideally to the second administrative level and add a unique code for each affected unit. Our first step has involved georeferencing earthquakes since the location of these is precise. The second purpose is to detail the degree of precision of georeferencing. The application and benefits of georeferencing are manifold. The geographic information of the footprint of past (after 2000) and future natural disasters permits the location of vulnerable areas with a GIS system and to cross data from different sources. It will allow the study of different elements such as the extent of a disaster and its human and economic consequences; the exposure and vulnerability of the population in space and time and the efficiency of mitigation measures. In addition, any association between events and external factors can be identified (e.g.: is the famine located at the same places as drought?) and precision of the information in the disaster report can be evaluated. Besides this, these maps will provide valuable communication support since maps have a high communication power and are easily understandable by the wider public and policy makers. Some results from the application of georeferencing will be presented during the session such as a study of the population potentially exposed and affected by natural disasters in Europe, a flood vulnerability analysis in Vietnam and the potential merging of watersheds analysis and flood footprints data.

  10. The Cepheid Distance to NGC 1637: A Direct Test of the Expanding Photosphere Method Distance to SN 1999em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Douglas C.; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Ngeow, Choong C.; Tanvir, Nial R.

    2003-09-01

    Type II-plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) are the classic variety of core-collapse events that result from isolated, massive stars with thick hydrogen envelopes intact at the time of explosion. Their distances are now routinely estimated through two techniques: the expanding photosphere method (EPM), a primary distance-determining method, and the recently developed standard-candle method (SCM), a promising secondary technique. Using Cycle 10 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations, we identify 41 Cepheid variable stars in NGC 1637, the host galaxy of the most thoroughly studied SN II-P to date, SN 1999em. Remarkably, the Cepheid distance that we derive to NGC 1637, D=11.7+/-1.0 Mpc, is nearly 50% larger than earlier EPM distance estimates to SN 1999em. This is the first direct comparison between these two primary distance-determining methods for a galaxy hosting a well-observed, spectroscopically and photometrically normal, SN II-P. Extensive consistency checks show strong evidence to support the Cepheid distance scale, so we are led to believe either that SN 1999em is in some heretofore unsuspected way an unusual SN II-P, or that the SN II-P distance scale must be revised. Assuming the latter, this one calibration yields H0(EPM)=57+/-15 km s-1 Mpc-1 and H0(SCM)=59+/-11 km s-1 Mpc-1 additional calibrating galaxies are clearly desirable in order to test the robustness of both determinations of H0. The HST observations of NGC 1637 also captured the fading SN 1999em 2 yr after explosion, providing the latest photometry ever obtained for an SN II-P. The nebular-phase photometric behavior of SN 1999em closely follows that observed for SN 1987A at similar epochs. The V and I light curves are both declining at rates significantly greater than the decay slope of 56Co predicts. This is likely due to an increasing transparency of the envelope to gamma rays and perhaps also to the formation of dust in the cooling atmosphere of the SN. The absolute V-band brightness of SN 1999em is ~0.25 mag brighter than SN 1987A at the same epochs, which suggests that a slightly greater amount of radioactive 56Ni, ~0.09 Msolar, was ejected by SN 1999em than was derived for SN 1987A (0.075 Msolar).

  11. Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

    2005-12-01

    We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge of produced water into unlined drainage ditches and pits, infiltration into sandy Pleistocene channel deposits, lateral migration as far as several kilometers, and discharge into the stream. Airborne EM and hydrochemical data suggest a combination of oil-field and seawater salinity contributions at the most downstream Petronila Creek segment.

  12. CryoEM and mutagenesis reveal that the smallest capsid protein cements and stabilizes Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus capsid

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinghong; Gong, Danyang; Xiao, Yuchen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2015-01-01

    With just one eighth the size of the major capsid protein (MCP), the smallest capsid protein (SCP) of human tumor herpesviruses—Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)—is vital to capsid assembly, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, by cryoEM of KSHV at 6-Å resolution, we show that SCP forms a crown on each hexon and uses a kinked helix to cross-link neighboring MCP subunits. SCP-null mutation decreased viral titer by 1,000 times and impaired but did not fully abolish capsid assembly, indicating an important but nonessential role of SCP. By truncating the C-terminal half of SCP and performing cryoEM reconstruction, we demonstrate that SCP’s N-terminal half is responsible for the observed structure and function whereas the C-terminal half is flexible and dispensable. Serial truncations further highlight the critical importance of the N-terminal 10 aa, and cryoEM reconstruction of the one with six residues truncated localizes the N terminus of SCP in the cryoEM density map and enables us to construct a pseudoatomic model of SCP. Fitting of this SCP model and a homology model for the MCP upper domain into the cryoEM map reveals that SCP binds MCP largely via hydrophobic interactions and the kinked helix of SCP bridges over neighboring MCPs to form noncovalent cross-links. These data support a mechanistic model that tumor herpesvirus SCP reinforces the capsid for genome packaging, thus acting as a cementing protein similar to those found in many bacteriophages. PMID:25646489

  13. Kinetic model of Chlorella vulgaris growth with and without extremely low frequency-electromagnetic fields (EM-ELF).

    PubMed

    Beruto, Dario T; Lagazzo, Alberto; Frumento, Davide; Converti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was grown in two bench-scale photobioreactors with and without the application of a low intensity, low frequency electromagnetic field (EM-ELF) of about 3mT. Cell concentration and tendency of cells to form aggregates inside the reactor were recorded over a 30 days-time period at 0.5L-constant medium volume in the temperature range 289-304K. At 304K, after a cultivation period of 15 days, the rate of cell death became predominant over that of growth. In the temperature range 289-299K, a two step-kinetic model based on the mitotic division and the clusterization processes was developed and critically discussed. The best-fitted curves turned out to have a sigmoid shape, and the competition between mitosis and clusterization was investigated. Without EM-ELF, the temperature dependence of the specific rate constant of the mitotic step yielded an apparent total enthalpy of 156kJmol(-1), whose value was not influenced by the EM-ELF application. The electromagnetic field was shown to exert a significant effect on the exothermic clusterization step. The heat exchange due to binding between cells and liquid medium turned out to be -445kJmol(-1) in the absence of EM-ELF and -688kJmol(-1) when it was active. Optical microscopy observations were in agreement with the model predictions and confirmed that EM-ELF was able to enhance cell clusterization. PMID:24216340

  14. Evoluo temporal da exploso solar de 06 de junho de 2000 apresentando estruturas finas em rdio freqncias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Caracini, A. G.; Vats, H. O.; Karlick, M.; Meszarosova, H.

    2003-08-01

    Em 06 de junho de 2000 (~15: 00-17: 00 UT), o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) registrou uma exploso solar intensa no intervalo de freqncia de (1000-2000) MHz, com alta resoluo temporal (100 ms) e espectral (5 MHz). A atividade solar relacionada a esta exploso associada regio ativa (AR) 9026 e classificada como X2.3 foi grande. O Ondrejov Observatory registrou rdio emisses at 4,5 GHz. O satlite SOHO registrou uma srie de erupes solares, incluindo uma Ejeo de Massa Coronal (CME) tipo "full-halo" (~15: 54 UT). Exploses tipo II/IV tambm foram registradas. Na faixa de ondas decimtricas, este evento apresentou dois picos distintos (~15: 21 UT e ~16: 42 UT). O primeiro pico coincide com a exploso registrada em raios-X moles (GOES) e em raios-X duros (Yohkoh). Os espectros dinmicos com alta resoluo do BSS revelaram vrias estruturas finas, principalmente emisses tipo "zebra" e "fibra", rdio pulsaes, emisses tipo III e do nico caso de emisses "zebra" harmnicas observado na faixa decimtrica. Neste trabalho, analisamos a evoluo temporal e o comportamento global do evento de 06 de junho de 2000, com nfase na identificao e associao da ocorrncia de cada tipo de estrutura fina registrada em rdio com cada etapa da exploso. Resultados preliminares mostraram que, na fase pr-flare, as estruturas finas apresentaram taxa de deriva negativa (~ 70-190 MHz/s). As emisses tipo "zebra" concentram-se na fase de descida do primeiro pico impulsivo e na de subida do segundo pico. Enquanto que as emisses tipo "fibra" ocorrem em ambas fases, mas preferivelmente durante a fase de descida. Os resultados sero apresentados e discutidos.

  15. Final report on the SIM capacitance comparisons SIM.EM-K4 (10 pF fused-silica standard capacitor at 1000 Hz and 1600 Hz), SIM.EM-S4 (100 pF fused-silica standard capacitor at 1000 Hz and 1600 Hz) and SIM.EM-S3 (1000 pF nitrogen gas standard capacitor at 1000 Hz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazabat, M.; Ogino, L. M.; Kyriazis, G. A.; Vasconcellos, R. T. B.; Wood, B.; Kochav, K.; Sanchez, H.; Castro, B. I.; Moreno, J. A.; Koffman, A.; Zhang, N. F.; Wang, Y.; Shields, S.; Slomovitz, D.; Izquierdo, D.; Faverio, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this comparison was to compare the measurement capabilities of seven NMIs within the SIM region in the field of capacitance. This action was aimed at determining the degree of equivalence of measuring capabilities in capacitance. The proposed test points were selected to evaluate the measuring capabilities of the participants, both their measurement standards and their measurement procedures. SIM has thus undertaken three related capacitance comparisons: SIM.EM-K4, a key comparison of a 10 pF fused-silica standard at 1000 Hz and 1600 Hz; SIM.EM-S4, a supplementary comparison of a 100 pF fused-silica standard at 1000 Hz and 1600 Hz; and SIM.EM-S3, a supplementary comparison of a 1000 pF nitrogen gas standard capacitor at 1000 Hz. Furthermore, the results of key comparison SIM.EM-K4 are linked to those of the corresponding CCEM key comparison (CCEM-K4). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. The air quality monitoring program for the 1100-EM-1 remedial investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Laws, G.L.

    1990-09-01

    Air quality monitoring for the remedial investigation of the Hanford Site's 1100-EM-1 operable unit was conducted in the spring and fall of 1989 and during January 1990. The monitoring program was divided into two phases. The first phase examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions at three of the operable unit's waste sites before the beginning of intrusive remedial investigation activities. The second phase of monitoring examined the air quality impact of routine atmospheric emissions from two of the operable unit's waste sites during intrusive remedial investigation activities. Each phase of the program consisted of a series of monitoring events that measured pollutant concentrations at key locations upwind and downwind of individual waste sites. During each monitoring event, sampling was conducted to determine the air concentrations of a wide variety of volatile organic compounds and semivolatile organic compounds. Monitoring for heavy metals and asbestos was also conducted during some monitoring events. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Cryo-EM structure of the activated NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome reveals nucleated polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liman; Chen, Shuobing; Ruan, Jianbin; Wu, Jiayi; Tong, Alexander B.; Yin, Qian; Li, Yang; David, Liron; Lu, Alvin; Wang, Wei Li; Marks, Carolyn; Ouyang, Qi; Zhang, Xinzheng; Mao, Youdong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a unidirectional adenosine triphosphatase polymerization, primed with a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 per disk. Cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at subnanometer resolution revealed a ~90° hinge rotation accompanying NLRC4 activation. Unlike in the related heptameric Apaf-1 apoptosome, in which each subunit needs to be conformationally activated by its ligand before assembly, a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 initiates NLRC4 polymerization in a domino-like reaction to promote the disk assembly. These insights reveal the mechanism of signal amplification in NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasomes. PMID:26449474

  18. Direct 4D List Mode Parametric Reconstruction for PET with a Novel EM Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jianhua; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Carson, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a direct method for producing images of kinetic parameters from list mode PET data. The time-activity curve for each voxel is described by a one-tissue compartment, 2-parameter model. Extending previous EM algorithms, a new spatiotemporal complete data space was introduced to optimize the maximum likelihood function. This leads to a straightforward parametric image update equation with moderate additional computation requirements compared to the conventional algorithm. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were performed using 2D (x,t) and 4D (x,y,z,t) simulated list mode data for a brain receptor study. Comparisons with the two-step approach (frame-based reconstruction followed by voxel-by-voxel parameter estimation) show that the proposed method can lead to accurate estimation of the parametric image values with reduced variance, especially for the volume of distribution (VT). PMID:20628540

  19. Selection and characterization of lead alloys for use in the SDC EM Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiatka, J.

    1993-12-01

    Lead, because of it`s density and ductility, has been used by man for centuries for many things ranging from building materials, to piping; from electrical connections, to radiation shielding, and batteries. However, despite it`s extensive and varied use, not much is really known about it`s exact physical and structural properties except in a very rudimentary way. The SDC cast lead EM Calorimeter needs to take full advantage of all the properties that the lead alloy has to offer. Hence, a very thorough and detailed understanding of the properties of the lead-absorber structure must be obtained and controlled, so that the integrity of the calorimeter is not compromised. This paper will attempt to detail a series of ongoing experiments used to characterize and define the properties of the Calcium-Tin-Lead alloys for use in the SDC cast lead electromagnetic calorimeter.

  20. Cryo-EM structure of a native, fully glycosylated, cleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Ward, Andrew B

    2016-03-01

    The envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) on the surface of HIV-1 recognizes CD4(+) T cells and mediates viral entry. During this process, Env undergoes substantial conformational rearrangements, making it difficult to study in its native state. Soluble stabilized trimers have provided valuable insights into the Env structure, but they lack the hydrophobic membrane proximal external region (MPER, an important target of broadly neutralizing antibodies), the transmembrane domain, and the cytoplasmic tail. Here we present (i) a cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a clade B virus Env, which lacks only the cytoplasmic tail and is stabilized by the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT151, at a resolution of 4.2 angstroms and (ii) a reconstruction of this form of Env in complex with PGT151 and MPER-targeting antibody 10E8 at a resolution of 8.8 angstroms. These structures provide new insights into the wild-type Env structure. PMID:26941313

  1. The EM Method in a Probabilistic Wavelet-Based MRI Denoising

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human body heat emission and others external causes can interfere in magnetic resonance image acquisition and produce noise. In this kind of images, the noise, when no signal is present, is Rayleigh distributed and its wavelet coefficients can be approximately modeled by a Gaussian distribution. Noiseless magnetic resonance images can be modeled by a Laplacian distribution in the wavelet domain. This paper proposes a new magnetic resonance image denoising method to solve this fact. This method performs shrinkage of wavelet coefficients based on the conditioned probability of being noise or detail. The parameters involved in this filtering approach are calculated by means of the expectation maximization (EM) method, which avoids the need to use an estimator of noise variance. The efficiency of the proposed filter is studied and compared with other important filtering techniques, such as Nowak's, Donoho-Johnstone's, Awate-Whitaker's, and nonlocal means filters, in different 2D and 3D images. PMID:26089959

  2. Effects of Dielectric Values and Substrate Materials on Electromagnetic (EM) Absorption in Human Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to considered possible discrepancy in electromagnetic (EM) fascination in the human head. Commercially available software CST Microwave Studio based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was adopted in this study. In this calculation, the conductivity and permittivity of all tissues were increased from 10 to 20% except using if not the same revelation conditions. Familiar cellular phone frequencies of 835, 900, and 1900 MHz were investigated in this research. The rise of up to 20% in conductivity, permittivity and varied substrate material always caused a SAR variation of 30.42% for SAR 1 g and 23.75% for SAR 10 g at 835 MHz, variation of 22.41% for SAR 1 g and 21.96% for SAR 10 g at 900 MHz and variation of 11.96% for SAR 1 g and 14.29% for SAR 10 g at 1900 MHz respectively.

  3. The EM Method in a Probabilistic Wavelet-Based MRI Denoising.

    PubMed

    Martin-Fernandez, Marcos; Villullas, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Human body heat emission and others external causes can interfere in magnetic resonance image acquisition and produce noise. In this kind of images, the noise, when no signal is present, is Rayleigh distributed and its wavelet coefficients can be approximately modeled by a Gaussian distribution. Noiseless magnetic resonance images can be modeled by a Laplacian distribution in the wavelet domain. This paper proposes a new magnetic resonance image denoising method to solve this fact. This method performs shrinkage of wavelet coefficients based on the conditioned probability of being noise or detail. The parameters involved in this filtering approach are calculated by means of the expectation maximization (EM) method, which avoids the need to use an estimator of noise variance. The efficiency of the proposed filter is studied and compared with other important filtering techniques, such as Nowak's, Donoho-Johnstone's, Awate-Whitaker's, and nonlocal means filters, in different 2D and 3D images. PMID:26089959

  4. System architecture and market aspects of an European Land Mobile Satellite System via EMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananasso, F.; Mistretta, I.

    1992-03-01

    The paper describes an implementation scenario of a Land Mobile Satellite System via the EMS (European Mobile System) payload embarked on Italsat F-2. Some emphasis is given on market issues aiming at singling out business niches of Land Mobile Satellite Services (LMSS) in Europe. Other crucial issues exist such as: the alternate/competitive systems, the problems of interworking with other existing and/or planned systems, the definition of network architecture that better fits the user requirements, the marketing strategy and, last but not least, the financial evaluation of the project. The paper, on the basis of a study performed by Telespazio on behalf of ESA, discusses some of these issues with emphasis on competitive market aspects.

  5. 4.4 cryo-EM structure of an enveloped alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Hryc, Corey F; Cong, Yao; Liu, Xiangan; Jakana, Joanita; Gorchakov, Rodion; Baker, Matthew L; Weaver, Scott C; Chiu, Wah

    2011-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a member of the membrane-containing Alphavirus genus, is a human and equine pathogen, and has been developed as a biological weapon. Using electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM), we determined the structure of an attenuated vaccine strain, TC-83, of VEEV to 4.4 resolution. Our density map clearly resolves regions (including E1, E2 transmembrane helices and cytoplasmic tails) that were missing in the crystal structures of domains of alphavirus subunits. These new features are implicated in the fusion, assembly and budding processes of alphaviruses. Furthermore, our map reveals the unexpected E3 protein, which is cleaved and generally thought to be absent in the mature VEEV. Our structural results suggest a mechanism for the initial stage of nucleocapsid core formation, and shed light on the virulence attenuation, host recognition and neutralizing activities of VEEV and other alphavirus pathogens. PMID:21829169

  6. Adjustment method for embedded metrology engine in an EM773 series microcontroller.

    PubMed

    Blazinek, Iztok; Kotnik, Bojan; Chowdhury, Amor; Ka?i?, Zdravko

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the problems of implementation and adjustment (calibration) of a metrology engine embedded in NXP's EM773 series microcontroller. The metrology engine is used in a smart metering application to collect data about energy utilization and is controlled with the use of metrology engine adjustment (calibration) parameters. The aim of this research is to develop a method which would enable the operators to find and verify the optimum parameters which would ensure the best possible accuracy. Properly adjusted (calibrated) metrology engines can then be used as a base for variety of products used in smart and intelligent environments. This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the development, partial automatisation, implementation and verification of this method. PMID:25956569

  7. Resonant photon-graviton conversion in EM fields: From earth to heaven

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1994-09-01

    Gravitational radiation from high energy particles in modern accelerators is reviewed. We point out that the most effective way for laboratory production and detection of gravitons is through resonant photon-graviton conversion in a strong external EM field. Specific example using crystal channels for the {gamma} {yields} g {yields} {gamma} process is given, where the physical parameters needed for such a test appears to be reasonable. As another application of this effect in astrophysics, we show that the coupling between the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) and the primordial magnetic field can induce a frequency-independent fluctuation in the photon flux. Using the observed CMBR fluctuation, we derive a bound on the primordial field strength. The effect can also convert the relic gravitons into photons. For the string cosmology it gives a new bound on the Hubble parameter at the Big Bang.

  8. The Origin of EM1 Signatures in Basalts From Tristan da Cunha and Gough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stracke, A.; Willbold, M.; Hemond, C.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing hypothesis is that enriched mantle 1 (EM-1)-type ocean island basalt (OIB) sources contain pelagic sediments. Pelagic sediments range in composition from clays to calcareous or siliceous oozes and encompass a wide range of chemical compositions [1]. For geochemical purposes the use of the term pelagic sediments is often restricted to a special group of pelagic sediments with distinctive enrichment of Rare Earth Elements (REE). The geochemical composition of such REE-enriched pelagic sediments, however, is by no means representative of the geochemical composition of pelagic sediments in general. The extremely high REE/non-REE element ratios in REE-enriched pelagic sediments (e.g. high Lu/Hf, Sm/Hf, La/Nb, La/Th, Eu/Ti, and Gd/Ti ratios) translate into high 176Hf/177Hf ratios for given 143Nd/144Nd ratios with time. OIB sources containing this special variety of REE-enriched pelagic sediment should therefore plot above the oceanic basalt array and mixing arrays with these sources are expected to have a shallow slope in a Hf-Nd isotope diagram. Here we present new Hf-Nd isotope and trace element data for EM-1-type OIB from Tristan da Cunha and Gough in the South Atlantic Ocean. The samples from Tristan have a small range in Hf-Nd isotopic composition and plot within the oceanic basalt array in a Hf-Nd isotope diagram. Samples from Gough form a trend with a slope slightly steeper than that of the ocean basalt array in a Hf-Nd isotope diagram. OIB in general have a very restricted range in Gd/Ti and Sm/Hf ratios, and high La/Nb are associated with low Lu/Hf ratios. In detail, samples from Tristan and Gough have the lowest Lu/Hf and highest La/Nb ratios. Thus from the combined Hf-Nd isotope and trace element composition of basalts from Tristan and Gough involvement of this special variety of (REE-enriched) pelagic sediments can be excluded. Similar observations are made, and thus similar arguments hold, for other EM-1-type localities (Walvis ridge [2] and Pitcairn island [3]). Due to the considerable spread in geochemical composition of pelagic or any other group of sediments (e.g. marine sediments with a higher proportion of terrigenous components), it is difficult to attribute characteristic elemental or isotopic signatures to certain groups of sediment. Moreover, subducting sediments are complex mixtures of different types of sediment [1]. Thus it is difficult to find unique evidence either in favor of or against the involvement of sediments in general at Tristan and Gough, or any other individual OIB locality. Also, it appears highly unlikely that sub-arc processing has an equalizing effect on the composition of different subducting sediments [4]. Associating the similar isotopic characteristics of certain OIB groups and/or mantle-end-members (e.g. EM-1) to recycled sediments is therefore also problematic. [1] Plank, T. and C. H. Langmuir, Chem. Geol., 145, 325-394, 1998. [2] Salters, V. J. M. and X. Li, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 68, A554, 2004. [3] Eisele, J., M. Sharma, J. G. Galer, J. Blichert-Toft, C. W. Devey and A. W. Hofmann, Earth Plan. Sci. Lett., 196, 197-212, 2002. [4] Johnson, M. C. and T. Plank, Geochem., Geophys., Geosys., 1, pp. 29, 1999.

  9. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for 1D Seismic and EM Data Inversion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-09-22

    This software provides several Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods for the Bayesian model developed for inverting 1D marine seismic and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The current software can be used for individual inversion of seismic AVO and CSEM data and for joint inversion of both seismic and EM data sets. The structure of the software is very general and flexible, and it allows users to incorporate their own forward simulation codes and rockmore » physics model codes easily into this software. Although the softwae was developed using C and C++ computer languages, the user-supplied codes can be written in C, C++, or various versions of Fortran languages. The software provides clear interfaces for users to plug in their own codes. The output of this software is in the format that the R free software CODA can directly read to build MCMC objects.« less

  10. Semi-automated selection of cryo-EM particles in RELION-1.3

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2015-01-01

    The selection of particles suitable for high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination from noisy micrographs may represent a tedious and time-consuming step. Here, a semi-automated particle selection procedure is presented that has been implemented within the open-source software RELION. At the heart of the procedure lies a fully CTF-corrected template-based picking algorithm, which is supplemented by a fast sorting algorithm and reference-free 2D class averaging to remove false positives. With only limited user-interaction, the proposed procedure yields results that are comparable to manual particle selection. Together with an improved graphical user interface, these developments further contribute to turning RELION from a stand-alone refinement program into a convenient image processing pipeline for the entire single-particle approach. PMID:25486611

  11. Optimization of laser cladding process using taguchi and EM methods for MMC coating production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, L.; St-Georges, L.

    2006-12-01

    This study investigates the influence of laser cladding parameters on the geometry and composition of metalmatrix composite (MMC) coatings. Composite coatings are made of a Ni-Cr-B-Si metallic matrix and of WC reinforcement with a volume fraction of 50%. Optical microscopy is used to characterize the coating geometry (height, width, and penetration depth) and to determine the real volumetric content of WC. Laser cladding on low-carbon steel substrate is carried out using a cw neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a coaxial powder injection system, and a combination of Taguchi and EM methods to design the experiments. This combination explores efficiently the multidimensional volume of laser cladding parameters. The results, which express the interrelationship between laser cladding parameters and the characteristics of the clad produced, can be used to find optimum laser parameters, to predict the responses, and to improve the understanding of laser cladding process.

  12. Semi-automated selection of cryo-EM particles in RELION-1.3.

    PubMed

    Scheres, Sjors H W

    2015-02-01

    The selection of particles suitable for high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination from noisy micrographs may represent a tedious and time-consuming step. Here, a semi-automated particle selection procedure is presented that has been implemented within the open-source software RELION. At the heart of the procedure lies a fully CTF-corrected template-based picking algorithm, which is supplemented by a fast sorting algorithm and reference-free 2D class averaging to remove false positives. With only limited user-interaction, the proposed procedure yields results that are comparable to manual particle selection. Together with an improved graphical user interface, these developments further contribute to turning RELION from a stand-alone refinement program into a convenient image processing pipeline for the entire single-particle approach. PMID:25486611

  13. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you! PMID:25181868

  14. A theoretical model for EM-ML reconstruction algorithms applied to rotating PET scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriarte, A.; Sorzano, C. O. S.; Carazo, J. M.; Rubio, J. L.; Marabini, R.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we show how to compute the normalizing and the system matrix terms of the EM-ML reconstruction algorithm for rotating planar detector PET scanners. The method introduced is valid for either pixelated or continuous scintillators. We base our computations in geometrical considerations, but other effects of the PET process can be easily included. In this regard, the intrinsic resolution of the detection system, the depth of interaction (DOI) of the incident gamma rays and the efficiency of the scintillators have been modeled in our development. The computation of the normalizing term and the system matrix is valid for any basis function used for the discrete approximation of the radionuclide concentration. We show that our computations are comparable to those of a Monte Carlo method at a small fraction of the computational cost.

  15. A correlao ndice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicaes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de ncleos ativos j demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contnuo ptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendncia ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicaes importantes (1) para estudos fotomtricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no clculo da correo K, com consequente impacto na determinao de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galxias hospedeiras (atravs da relao de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlaes positivas entre o ndice espectral e a luminosidade ptica, utilizando dados espectroscpicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo complementado com parmetros extrados de espectros e de dados fotomtricos pblicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenas observadas em tais correlaes para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto financiado pelo I. Milnio/CNPq.

  16. The history of a movement: Sade em Debate magazine and Brazilian health reform.

    PubMed

    Amarante, Paulo; Rizzotto, Maria Lucia Frizon; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-07-01

    This article traces significant moments in the history of the magazine Sade em Debate - sourcing references and information from documents, historical studies, editions of the magazine, academic work and interviews with physicians and writers who contributed to its creation. In its 39 years of existence, although there may have been variations in the magazine's editorial policy, its role as a means for exchange of ideas and debate on critical health thinking, and making a contribution by in some way intervening in the Brazilian political process, has not changed. The magazine established itself with a firm reputation as a vehicle of scientific communication especially in the areas of health policy and management, expanding the scope of subjects over time. Among the challenges it has faced, as well as that of financial sustenance, has been its role as an instrument for dissemination of Latin American thinking in the field of health. PMID:26132241

  17. A penalized EM algorithm incorporating missing data mechanism for Gaussian parameter estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin S.; Prentice, Ross L.; Wang, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Missing data rates could depend on the targeted values in many settings, including mass spectrometry-based proteomic profiling studies. Here we consider mean and covariance estimation under a multivariate Gaussian distribution with non-ignorable missingness, including scenarios in which the dimension (p) of the response vector is equal to or greater than the number (n) of independent observations. A parameter estimation procedure is developed by maximizing a class of penalized likelihood functions that entails explicit modeling of missing data probabilities. The performance of the resulting ‘penalized EM algorithm incorporating missing data mechanism (PEMM)’ estimation procedure is evaluated in simulation studies and in a proteomic data illustration. PMID:24471933

  18. Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data

    SciTech Connect

    Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; Silva, Hamilton P. da

    2013-05-06

    Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 Multiplication-Sign 128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

  19. Sampling and Analysis Plan Update for Groundwater Monitoring 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    DR Newcomer

    1999-06-17

    This document updates the sampling and analysis plan (Department of Energy/Richland Operations--95-50) to reflect current groundwater monitoring at the 1100-EM-1Operable Unit. Items requiring updating included sampling and analysis protocol, quality assurance and quality control, groundwater level measurement procedure, and data management. The plan covers groundwater monitoring, as specified in the 1993 Record of Decision, during the 5-year review period from 1995 through 1999. Following the 5-year review period, groundwater-monitoring data will be reviewed by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the progress of natural attenuation of trichloroethylene. Monitored natural attenuation and institutional controls for groundwater use at the inactive Horn Rapids Landfill was the selected remedy specified in the Record of Decision.

  20. Serological Monitoring of Progression of Alveolar Echinococcosis with Multiorgan Involvement by Use of Recombinant Em18?

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuji; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka; Matsuno, Takeo; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) with multiple-organ involvement (the liver, lungs, and bone) were monitored by imaging and serology for 20 years. Resection of the bone lesion was complete in one case but incomplete in the other case. Albendazole treatment was markedly to moderately effective against hepatic and pulmonary AE lesions in both cases, whereas it had almost no effect against the bone lesion in one case. The results of the serological tests with recombinant Em18 antigen coincided with the clinical findings in each case. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses, especially IgG4 responses, is expected to be a real-time indicator of the dynamics of active AE. PMID:19656973

  1. Cryo-EM structure of the activated NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome reveals nucleated polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liman; Chen, Shuobing; Ruan, Jianbin; Wu, Jiayi; Tong, Alexander B; Yin, Qian; Li, Yang; David, Liron; Lu, Alvin; Wang, Wei Li; Marks, Carolyn; Ouyang, Qi; Zhang, Xinzheng; Mao, Youdong; Wu, Hao

    2015-10-23

    The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a unidirectional adenosine triphosphatase polymerization, primed with a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 per disk. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at subnanometer resolution revealed a ~90° hinge rotation accompanying NLRC4 activation. Unlike in the related heptameric Apaf-1 apoptosome, in which each subunit needs to be conformationally activated by its ligand before assembly, a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 initiates NLRC4 polymerization in a domino-like reaction to promote the disk assembly. These insights reveal the mechanism of signal amplification in NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasomes. PMID:26449474

  2. Test of 3D CT reconstructions by EM + TV algorithm from undersampled data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evseev, Ivan; Ahmann, Francielle; da Silva, Hamilton P.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Yevseyeva, Olga; Klock, Mrgio C. L.

    2013-05-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) plays an important role in medical imaging for diagnosis and therapy. However, CT imaging is connected with ionization radiation exposure of patients. Therefore, the dose reduction is an essential issue in CT. In 2011, the Expectation Maximization and Total Variation Based Model for CT Reconstruction (EM+TV) was proposed. This method can reconstruct a better image using less CT projections in comparison with the usual filtered back projection (FBP) technique. Thus, it could significantly reduce the overall dose of radiation in CT. This work reports the results of an independent numerical simulation for cone beam CT geometry with alternative virtual phantoms. As in the original report, the 3D CT images of 128128128 virtual phantoms were reconstructed. It was not possible to implement phantoms with lager dimensions because of the slowness of code execution even by the CORE i7 CPU.

  3. Altered lipid accumulation in Nannochloropsis salina CCAP849/3 following EMS and UV induced mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Beacham, T.A.; Macia, V. Mora; Rooks, P.; White, D.A.; Ali, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have potential as a chemical feed stock in a range of industrial applications. Nannochloropsis salina was subject to EMS mutagenesis and the highest lipid containing cells selected using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Assessment of growth, lipid content and fatty acid composition identified mutant strains displaying a range of altered traits including changes in the PUFA content and a total FAME increase of up to 156% that of the wild type strain. Combined with a reduction in growth this demonstrated a productivity increase of up to 76%. Following UV mutagenesis, lipid accumulation of the mutant cultures was elevated to more than 3 fold that of the wild type strain, however reduced growth rates resulted in a reduction in overall productivity. Changes observed are indicative of alterations to the regulation of the omega 6 Kennedy pathway. The importance of these variations in physiology for industrial applications such as biofuel production is discussed. PMID:26753128

  4. The alkynylphosphonate analogue of calcitriol EM1 has potent anti-metastatic effects in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferronato, Mara J; Obiol, Diego J; Fermento, Mara E; Gandini, Norberto A; Alonso, Eliana N; Salomn, Dbora G; Vitale, Cristian; Mascar, Evangelina; Fall, Yagamare; Raimondi, Ana R; Curino, Alejandro C; Facchinetti, Mara M

    2015-11-01

    The active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol, plays a major role in maintaining calcium/phosphate homeostasis. In addition, it is a potent antiproliferative and prodifferentiating agent. However, when effective antitumor doses of calcitriol are employed, hypercalcemic effects are observed, thus precluding its therapeutic application. To overcome this problem, structural analogues have been designed with the aim at retaining or even increasing the antitumor effects while decreasing its calcemic activity. This report shows the biological evaluation of an alkynylphosphonate vitamin D less-calcemic analogue in a murine model of breast cancer. We demonstrate that this compound has potent anti-metastatic effects through its action over cellular migration and invasion likely mediated through the up-regulation of E-cadherin expression. Based on the current in vitro and in vivo results, EM1 is a promising candidate as a therapeutic agent in breast cancer. PMID:26365558

  5. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for 1D Seismic and EM Data Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-22

    This software provides several Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods for the Bayesian model developed for inverting 1D marine seismic and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The current software can be used for individual inversion of seismic AVO and CSEM data and for joint inversion of both seismic and EM data sets. The structure of the software is very general and flexible, and it allows users to incorporate their own forward simulation codes and rock physics model codes easily into this software. Although the softwae was developed using C and C++ computer languages, the user-supplied codes can be written in C, C++, or various versions of Fortran languages. The software provides clear interfaces for users to plug in their own codes. The output of this software is in the format that the R free software CODA can directly read to build MCMC objects.

  6. Multifrequency crosshole EM imaging for reservoir characterization. FY 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.

    1995-06-01

    Electrical conductivity of sedimentary rocks is controlled by the porosity, hydraulic permeability, temperature, saturation, and the pore fluid conductivity. These rock parameters play important roles in the development and production of hydrocarbon (petroleum and natural gas) resources. For these reasons, resistivity well logs have long been used by geologists and reservoir engineers in petroleum industries to map variations in pore fluid, to distinguish between rock types, and to determine completion intervals in wells. Reservoir simulation and process monitoring rely heavily on the physical characteristics of the reservoir model. Over a period of three years (1991-1993) there was an initial phase of crosshole EM technique development via an informal partnership between LLNL and LBL. Researchers developed field instrumentation to apply to oil field for monitoring EOR thermal processes. Specifically, a prototype single-frequency instrumentation was developed and with this system we have conducted field surveys in four separate locations. Theory and software were developed to interpret these data by providing subsurface images of the electrical conductivity. In spite of our initial success in developing practical EM techniques, we still had severe instrumentation limitations and shortcomings in interpretation for other than simple structures. The field equipment was designed to work only at a single frequency at a time and the transmitter must be opened to change frequencies. The equipment was also significantly noiser at higher frequencies. For high-resolution applications we need to take full advantage of the resolution inherent in the data. The development of a high-resolution subsurface conductivity imaging methods would have benefits far beyond the petroleum application. Such techniques would be very useful in environmental applications, mineral and geothermal exploration and for civil engineering applications.

  7. Macromolecular structure modeling from 3D EM using VolRover 2.0.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Bettadapura, Radhakrishna; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2012-09-01

    We review tools for structure identification and model-based refinement from three-dimensional electron microscopy implemented in our in-house software package, VOLROVER 2.0. For viral density maps with icosahedral symmetry, we segment the capsid, polymeric, and monomeric subunits using techniques based on automatic symmetry detection and multidomain fast marching. For large biomolecules without symmetry information, we again use our multidomain fast-marching method with manual or fit-based multiseeding to segment meaningful substructures. In either case, we subject the resulting segmented subunit to secondary structure detection when the EM resolution is sufficiently high, and rigid-body structure fitting when the corresponding X-ray structure is available. Secondary structure elements are identified by three techniques: our earlier volume-based and boundary-based skeletonization methods as well as a new method, currently in development, based on solving the grassfire flow equation. For rigid-body fitting, we adapt our earlier fast Fourier-based correlation scheme F2Dock. Our reported segmentation, secondary structure elements identification, and rigid-body fitting techniques, implemented in VOLROVER 2.0 are applied to the PSB 2011 cryo-EM modeling challenge data, and our results are briefly compared to similar results submitted from other research groups. The comparisons show that our techniques are equally capable of segmenting relatively accurate subunits from a viral or protein assembly, and that high segmentation quality leads in turn to higher-quality results of secondary structure elements identification and correlation-based rigid-body fitting. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 97: 709-731, 2012. PMID:22696407

  8. Crosshole EM for oil field characterization and EOR monitoring: Field examples from Lost Hills, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C.; Wratcher, M.; Lambert, I.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Tseng H.W.

    1996-07-16

    A steamflood recently initiated by Mobil Development and Production U.S. at the Lost Hills No 3 oil field in California is notable for its shallow depth and the application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques to monitor the subsurface steam flow. Steam was injected into three stacked eastward-dipping unconsolidated oil sands at depths from 60 to 120 m; the plume is expected to develop as an ellipsoid aligned with the regional northwest-southeast strike. Because of the shallow depth of the sands and the high viscosity of the heavy oil, it is important to track the steam in the unconsolidated sediments for both economic and safety reasons. Crosshole and surface-to-borehole electromagnetic imaging were applied for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. The crosshole EM data were collected to map the interwell distribution of the high-resistivity oil sands and to track the injected steam and hot water. Measurements were made in two fiberglass-cased observation wells straddling the steam injector on a northeast-southwest profile. Field data were collected before the steam drive, to map the distribution of the oil sands, and then 6 and 10 months after steam was injected, to monitor the expansion of the steam chest. Resistivity images derived from the collected data clearly delineated the distribution and dipping structure of the target oil sands. Difference images from data collected before and during steamflooding indicate that the steam chest has developed only in the middle and lower oil sands, and it has preferentially migrated westward in the middle oil sand and eastward in the deeper sand. Surface-to-borehole field data sets at Lost Hills were responsive to the large-scale subsurface structure but insufficiently sensitive to model steam chest development in the middle and lower oil sands. As the steam chest develops further, these data will be of more use for process monitoring.

  9. EMS Adherence to a Pre-hospital Cervical Spine Clearance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Raynard J.; Miller, Kenneth; Langdorf, Mark I.; Johnson, David

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree of adherence to a cervical spine (c-spine) clearance protocol by pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel by both self-assessment and receiving hospital assessment, to describe deviations from the protocol, and to determine if the rate of compliance by paramedic self-assessment differed from receiving hospital assessment. Methods: A retrospective sample of pre-hospital (consecutive series) and receiving hospital (convenience sample) assessments of the compliance with and appropriateness of c-spine immobilization. The c-spine clearance protocol was implemented for Orange County EMS just prior to the AprilNovember 1999 data collection period. Results: We collected 396 pre-hospital and 162 receiving hospital data forms. From the pre-hospital data sheet, the percentage deviation from the protocol was 4.0% (16/396). Only one out of 16 cases that did not comply with the protocol was due to over immobilization (0.2%). The remaining 15 cases were under immobilized, according to protocol. Nine of the under immobilized cases (66%) that should have been placed in c-spine precautions met physical assessment criteria in the protocol, while the other five cases met mechanism of injury criteria. The rate of deviations from protocol did not differ over time. The receiving hospital identified 8.0% (13/162; 6/l6 over immobilized, 7/16 under immobilized) of patients with deviations from the protocol; none was determined to have actual c-spine injury. Conclusion: The implementation of a pre-hospital c-spine clearance protocol in Orange County was associated with a moderate overall adherence rate (96% from the pre-hospital perspective, and 9250 from the hospital perspective. p = .08 for the two evaluation methods). Most patients who deviated from protocol were under immobilized. but no c-spine injuries were missed. The rate of over immobilization was better than previously reported, implying a saving of resources. PMID:20852696

  10. Peridynamic modeling of damage and fracture in EM windows and domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Ibrahim; Zelinski, Brian J.

    2014-05-01

    The brittle nature of electromagnetic (EM) window and dome materials limits electrical and magnetic performance due to impact of sand particles, hailstones and raindrops. The damage and fracture patterns due to such impacts are well documented with distinct association to the impact type. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to those patterns are not well understood. Adding to the complexity, multiple layers of coatings with varying thicknesses are applied to the external surfaces of these structures, which affects the extent and nature of the impact damage. A physics -based analysis method that captures correct damage and fracture patterns due to particle impact is well warranted. In this paper, Peridynamic (PD) Theory is demonstrated as a simulation methodology for fracture analysis of EM windows and domes under particle impact. This theory involves reformulation of classical continuum mechanics in integral form (no spatial derivatives), alleviating the stress singularity problem common to previous fracture analysis approaches. The PD theory enables accurate description of failure events via natural generation and accumulation of defects, cracks, and damage; it can capture complex, 3-D and multiple non-coplanar crack initiation and propagation. The fracture behavior of materials is influenced by an important material parameter, critical stretch, which is specific to PD theory. This study offers a combined experimental-computational method to extract the critical stretch parameter for glass and ceramic materials based on simulations of indentation tests. The critical stretch parameter extracted from indentation simulations is subsequently used for simulations involving sand impact. The predicted damage field is in very good agreement with the experimentally observed fracture patterns.

  11. EM-navigated catheter placement for gynecologic brachytherapy: an accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrtash, Alireza; Damato, Antonio; Pernelle, Guillaume; Barber, Lauren; Farhat, Nabgha; Viswanathan, Akila; Cormack, Robert; Kapur, Tina

    2014-03-01

    Gynecologic malignancies, including cervical, endometrial, ovarian, vaginal and vulvar cancers, cause significant mortality in women worldwide. The standard care for many primary and recurrent gynecologic cancers consists of chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. In high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, intracavitary applicators and /or interstitial needles are placed directly inside the cancerous tissue so as to provide catheters to deliver high doses of radiation. Although technology for the navigation of catheters and needles is well developed for procedures such as prostate biopsy, brain biopsy, and cardiac ablation, it is notably lacking for gynecologic HDR brachytherapy. Using a benchtop study that closely mimics the clinical interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy procedure, we developed a method for evaluating the accuracy of image-guided catheter placement. Future bedside translation of this technology offers the potential benefit of maximizing tumor coverage during catheter placement while avoiding damage to the adjacent organs, for example bladder, rectum and bowel. In the study, two independent experiments were performed on a phantom model to evaluate the targeting accuracy of an electromagnetic (EM) tracking system. The procedure was carried out using a laptop computer (2.1GHz Intel Core i7 computer, 8GB RAM, Windows 7 64-bit), an EM Aurora tracking system with a 1.3mm diameter 6 DOF sensor, and 6F (2 mm) brachytherapy catheters inserted through a Syed-Neblett applicator. The 3D Slicer and PLUS open source software were used to develop the system. The mean of the targeting error was less than 2.9mm, which is comparable to the targeting errors in commercial clinical navigation systems.

  12. Temporal trends in cardiovascular demand in EMS: Weekday versus weekend differences.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Kate; Morgans, Amee; Smith, Karen; Livingston, Michael; Dietze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosed cardiovascular disease has well-reported temporal patterns, with demand distribution peaks in the late morning and greater case numbers on Mondays and in winter. We aimed to report temporal patterns of presumptive cardiovascular disease cases as determined after emergency medical services (EMS) assessment and to characterize the demand distribution by day of the week. We conducted a secondary analysis of all Ambulance Victoria cases in metropolitan Melbourne (Victoria, Australia) between January 2008 and December 2011. Analyzed data included time of call, incident mechanism, location type, final assessment (paramedic "diagnosis") and patient age. We employed Poisson's regression to analyze case numbers and trigonometric regression to quantify distribution patterns. The 182?983 cases of presumptive cardiovascular disease observed during the study period constituted 15.2% of total demand. The median age of persons attended was 72 (IQR 57-82) and there was an almost even split between genders (51% female). Peak numbers of most cardiovascular case types occurred between 09:00 and 11:00; the only exception was acute pulmonary edema, which had peak case numbers at 06:00. Trigonometric regression showed distinct time of day distribution patterns, which did not alter by season. Although weekend day demand was lower than on Mondays, due to a different distribution pattern, these differences were not constant over the 24-hour period. There were up to 27% fewer cases at 09:00 and up to 2.8% more cases at 01:00 on weekends compared to Mondays. We have shown that examination of presumptive cardiovascular disease using not only case counts but also demand distribution patterns allows for a greater understanding of ambulance demand. Monday might be the most frequent day for cardiovascular cases but different patterns of demand occur on weekends. Increased knowledge of when different types of cases are most likely to occur will help inform EMS planning, including paramedic capacity and resources. PMID:26061586

  13. WRF EMS model High resolution simulations over river-urban area in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tota, J.; Lima, K.; Silva, R. D.; Kuhn, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing of population and size of cities in Brazil is more and more common ultimate, even in remote location like Amazon Rainforest region, e.g. Manaus, Belem. Predicting the weather and climate in large cities is remains a challenge because there are diverse processes and factors that determine or influence atmospheric condition at various time and space scales. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of connection between local climate (influenced by urbanization) and those due to larger scales. The weather and microclimate over Santarm city in Amazonia is poor studied and monitored. The application of meteorological models, which representing the diverse atmospheric processes at the various scales, is essential, as e.g. WRF EMS model. The addition of spatial scale data is needed for validation of these models over cities. In this paper, we describe the application of the WRF EMS model (Weather Research and Forecasting) to represent the urban-scale atmospheric conditions (1km resolution) over the Santarem city. The model was validated against observed 2 meter air temperature obtained from several points and spatial rainfall over urbanized zones of Santarm. Thermal conditions and gradients of temperature over forested and non-forested zones were clear represented by the model. The WRF model reproduces well rainfall patterns around the urban area and Tapajs river-city contacts. The main results for this model test was the Improvements in the representation of the types of land cover-Land change from the mosaics structures on the city domain, what permit all errors/bias are reduced.

  14. Supernova 2012aw - a high-energy clone of archetypal Type IIP SN 1999em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Subhash; Kumar, Brijesh; Sutaria, Firoza; Kumar, Brajesh; Roy, Rupak; Bhatt, V. K.; Pandey, S. B.; Chandola, H. C.; Sagar, Ram; Misra, Kuntal; Chakraborti, Sayan

    2013-08-01

    We present densely sampled UBVRI/griz photometric and low-resolution (6-10 Å) optical spectroscopic observations from 4 to 270 d after explosion of a newly discovered Type II SN 2012aw in a nearby (˜9.9 Mpc) galaxy M95. The light-curve characteristics of apparent magnitudes, colours, bolometric luminosity and the presence and evolution of prominent spectral features are found to have striking similarity with the archetypal IIP SNe 1999em, 1999gi and 2004et. The early time observations of SN 2012aw clearly detect minima in the light curve of V, R and I bands near 37 d after explosion and this we suggest to be an observational evidence for emergence of recombination phase. The mid-plateau MV magnitude (-16.67 ± 0.04) lies in between the bright (˜-18) and subluminous (˜-15) IIP SNe. The mass of nickel is 0.06 ± 0.01 M⊙. The SYNOW modelling of spectra indicate that the value and evolution of the photospheric velocity is similar to SN 2004et, but about ˜600 km s-1 higher than that of SNe 1999em and 1999gi at comparable epochs. This trend is more apparent in the line velocities of Hα and Hβ. A comparison of ejecta velocity properties with that of existing radiation-hydrodynamical simulations indicate that the energy of explosion lies in the range 1-2 × 1051 ergs; a further comparison of nebular phase [O I] doublet luminosity with SNe 2004et and 1987A indicate that the mass of progenitor star is about 14 to 15 M⊙. The presence of high-velocity absorption features in the mid-to-late plateau and possibly in early phase spectra show signs of interaction between ejecta and the circumstellar matter; being consistent with its early time detection at X-ray and radio wavebands.

  15. Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Dahl; J.P. Adams; M.A. Rynearson; R.J. Ramer

    1999-02-01

    The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy spent nuclear fuel (SNF). While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planning option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products to final disposition. Costs were applied to determine the life-cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating SNF.

  16. Investigation of range profiles from buried 3-D object based on the EM simulation.

    PubMed

    He, Siyuan; Zhuang, Lei; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Weidong; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2011-06-20

    The 1-D range profiles are suitable features for target identification and target discrimination because they provide discriminative information on the geometry of the target. To resolve features of the buried target, the contribution from individual scattering centers of the buried target in the range profiles need to be identified. Thus, the study of complex scattering mechanisms from which the range profiles are produced is of great importance. In order to clearly establish the relationship between the range profile characteristics and the complicated electromagnetic (EM) scattering mechanisms, such as reflections and diffractions, a buried cuboid possessing straight edges is chosen as the buried target in this paper. By performing an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) on the wideband backscattered field data computed with an accurate and fast EM method, the 1-D range profiles of the buried cuboid is successfully simulated. The simulated range profiles provide information about the position and scattering strength of the cuboid's scattering centers along the range direction. Meanwhile, a predicted distribution of the scattering centers is quantitatively calculated for the buried cuboid based on the ray path computation. Good agreement has been found between simulated and predicted locations of the range profiles. Validation for amplitudes of the range profiles is further provided in the research. Both the peak amplitudes and locations of the range profiles could be understood and analyzed based on the knowledge of the scattering mechanisms. The formation of the 1-D range profiles has been revealed clearly from the full analysis of the scattering mechanisms and contributions. The problem has been solved for both near and far field regions. Finally, the buried depth and the characteristic size of the object are reasonably deduced from the simulated range profiles. PMID:21716466

  17. Alignment of cryo-EM movies of individual particles by optimization of image translations.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, John L; Brubaker, Marcus A

    2015-11-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras have revolutionized single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). In addition to an improved camera detective quantum efficiency, acquisition of DDD movies allows for correction of movement of the specimen, due to both instabilities in the microscope specimen stage and electron beam-induced movement. Unlike specimen stage drift, beam-induced movement is not always homogeneous within an image. Local correlation in the trajectories of nearby particles suggests that beam-induced motion is due to deformation of the ice layer. Algorithms have already been described that can correct movement for large regions of frames and for >1 MDa protein particles. Another algorithm allows individual <1 MDa protein particle trajectories to be estimated, but requires rolling averages to be calculated from frames and fits linear trajectories for particles. Here we describe an algorithm that allows for individual <1 MDa particle images to be aligned without frame averaging or linear trajectories. The algorithm maximizes the overall correlation of the shifted frames with the sum of the shifted frames. The optimum in this single objective function is found efficiently by making use of analytically calculated derivatives of the function. To smooth estimates of particle trajectories, rapid changes in particle positions between frames are penalized in the objective function and weighted averaging of nearby trajectories ensures local correlation in trajectories. This individual particle motion correction, in combination with weighting of Fourier components to account for increasing radiation damage in later frames, can be used to improve 3-D maps from single particle cryo-EM. PMID:26296328

  18. Cryo-EM structure of the small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Prem S.; Sharma, Manjuli R.; Booth, Timothy M.; Haque, Emdadul M.; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Spremulli, Linda L.; Agrawal, Rajendra K.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are responsible for synthesizing 13 membrane proteins that form essential components of the complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation or ATP generation for the eukaryotic cell. The mammalian 55S mitoribosome contains significantly smaller rRNAs and a large mass of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs), including large mito-specific amino acid extensions and insertions in MRPs that are homologous to bacterial ribosomal proteins and an additional 35 mito-specific MRPs. Here we present the cryo-EM structure analysis of the small (28S) subunit (SSU) of the 55S mitoribosome. We find that the mito-specific extensions in homologous MRPs generally are involved in inter-MRP contacts and in contacts with mito-specific MRPs, suggesting a stepwise evolution of the current architecture of the mitoribosome. Although most of the mito-specific MRPs and extensions of homologous MRPs are situated on the peripheral regions, they also contribute significantly to the formation of linings of the mRNA and tRNA paths, suggesting a tailor-made structural organization of the mito-SSU for the recruitment of mito-specific mRNAs, most of which do not possess a 5? leader sequence. In addition, docking of previously published coordinates of the large (39S) subunit (LSU) into the cryo-EM map of the 55S mitoribosome reveals that mito-specific MRPs of both the SSU and LSU are involved directly in the formation of six of the 15 intersubunit bridges. PMID:24799711

  19. Can Medical Decision-making at the Scene by EMS Staff Reduce the Number of Unnecessary Ambulance Transportations, but Still Be Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Peyravi, Mahmoudreza; rtenwall, Per; Khorram-Manesh, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluatethe procedures adopted by the staff of the Shiraz Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and the outcome of the patients discharged from the scene over a one-year period. Background: Unnecessary use of ambulances results in the overloading of EMS and the over-crowding of emergency departments. Medical assessment at the scene by EMS staff may reduce these issues. In an earlier study in Shiraz, 36% of the patients were left at home/discharged directly from the scene with or without treatment by EMS staff after consulting a physician at the dispatch center. However, there has been no evaluation of this system with regard to mortality and morbidity. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data on all missions performed by the Shiraz EMS (2012-2013) were reviewed. Allthe patients discharged from the scene by the EMS staff on the 5th, 15th, and 25th days of each month were included. A questionnaire with nine questions was designed, and available patients/relatives were interviewed prospectively (2014; follow-up period 4-12 months). Results: Out of 3019 cases contacted, 994 (almost 33%) replied. There were 26%-93% reductions in the complaints in all disease categories. A group of the patients left the scene at their own will. Of those who were discharged by the EMS staff at the scene, over 60% were without any complaints. Twelve out of 253 patients died after they were sent home by the EMS staff. Conclusions: Patients may be discharged at the scene by EMS staff and after consulting a physician. However, there is a need for a solid protocol to ensure total patient safety. This calls for a prospective study. PMID:26203394

  20. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  1. Investigation of the enantiomerization barriers of the phthalimidone derivatives EM12 and lenalidomide by dynamic electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walz, Sarah; Weis, Sylvia; Franz, Mareike; Rominger, Frank; Trapp, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The phthalimidone derivatives EM12 and lenalidomide, which are both structurally related to thalidomide, are highly interesting drugs and very recently lenalidomide attracted great attention as an antitumor and immune-modulating drug in the therapy for multiple myeloma. EM12 and lenalidomide are chiral, and the stereogenic carbon C-3 in the piperidine-2,6-dione moiety of these phthalimidone derivatives is prone to interconversion due to keto-enol tautomerization. The knowledge of the enantiomerization barrier is mandatory for pharmacokinetic studies and to develop a tailored therapy using the enantiopure or racemic drug. Here, we used dynamic EKC in combination with direct-calculation methods to determine the enantiomerization barriers of EM12 and lenalidomide. The separations of the enantiomers of EM12 and lenalidomide were performed in 50 mM aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer at pH 8 and 50 mM aqueous sodium tetraborate buffer at pH 9.3, respectively, using 20 mg/mL heptakis-(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfato)-β-CD as a chiral additive. Enantiomerization of the compounds during the electrokinetic chromatographic separation resulted in pronounced plateau formation between the well-separated enantiomers. Peak form analysis of the experimentally obtained interconversion profiles yielded the enantiomerization rate constants k1 of EM12 and lenalidomide as well as the kinetic activation parameters ΔG(‡), ΔH(‡‡), and ΔS(‡) of enantiomerization by the evaluation of temperature-dependent measurements. The enantiomerization barrier ΔG(‡) was determined to be 98.3 ± 1.0 kJ/mol; the activation parameters ΔH(‡) = 46.1 ± 2.4 kJ/mol and ΔS(‡) = -170 ± 61 J/(K·mol) for EM12 and ΔG(‡) = 91.5 ± 1.0 kJ/mol, ΔH(‡) = 62.4 ± 5.4 kJ/mol, and ΔS(‡) = -98 ± 7 J/(K·mol) for lenalidomide. These findings were corroborated by density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/3-21G level of theory of the ground state and intermediates considering an enantiomerization pathway via a keto-enol tautomerism. PMID:25502411

  2. Direct 4D parametric imaging for linearized models of reversibly binding PET tracers using generalized AB-EM reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmim, Arman; Zhou, Yun; Tang, Jing; Lu, Lijun; Sossi, Vesna; Wong, Dean F.

    2012-02-01

    Due to high noise levels in the voxel kinetics, development of reliable parametric imaging algorithms remains one of most active areas in dynamic brain PET imaging, which in the vast majority of cases involves receptor/transporter studies with reversibly binding tracers. As such, the focus of this work has been to develop a novel direct 4D parametric image reconstruction scheme for such tracers. Based on a relative equilibrium (RE) graphical analysis formulation (Zhou et al 2009b Neuroimage 44 661-70), we developed a closed-form 4D EM algorithm to directly reconstruct distribution volume (DV) parametric images within a plasma input model, as well as DV ratio (DVR) images within a reference tissue model scheme (wherein an initial reconstruction was used to estimate the reference tissue time-activity curves). A particular challenge with the direct 4D EM formulation is that the intercept parameters in graphical (linearized) analysis of reversible tracers (e.g. Logan or RE analysis) are commonly negative (unlike for irreversible tracers, e.g. using Patlak analysis). Subsequently, we focused our attention on the AB-EM algorithm, derived by Byrne (1998, Inverse Problems 14 1455-67) to allow inclusion of prior information about the lower (A) and upper (B) bounds for image values. We then generalized this algorithm to the 4D EM framework, thus allowing negative intercept parameters. Furthermore, our 4D AB-EM algorithm incorporated and emphasized the use of spatially varying lower bounds to achieve enhanced performance. As validation, the means of parameters estimated from 55 human 11C-raclopride dynamic PET studies were used for extensive simulations using a mathematical brain phantom. Images were reconstructed using conventional indirect as well as proposed direct parametric imaging methods. Noise versus bias quantitative measurements were performed in various regions of the brain. Direct 4D EM reconstruction resulted in notable qualitative and quantitative accuracy improvements (over 35% noise reduction, with matched bias, in both plasma and reference-tissue input models). Similar improvements were also observed in the coefficient of variation of the estimated DV and DVR values even for relatively low uptake cortical regions, suggesting the enhanced ability for robust parameter estimation. The method was also tested on a 90 min 11C-raclopride patient study performed on the high-resolution research tomograph wherein the proposed method was shown across a variety of regions to outperform the conventional method in the sense that for a given DVR value, improved noise levels were observed.

  3. Helicopter EM (ZTEM-VTEM) survey results over the Nuqrah copper-lead-zinc-gold SEDEX massive sulphide deposit in the Western Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Jean M.; Izarra, Carlos; Prikhodko, Alexander; Zhao, Shengkai; Saadawi, Emad M.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) results from two helicopter EM surveys, a time-domain (VTEM) and AFMAG (ZTEM), are compared over the Nuqrah sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) massive sulphide deposits in the Western Arabian Shield of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The magnetic and EM data from both surveys map the major controlling structures that host the Nuqrah North and South deposits. Neither Nuqrah deposits stand out as distinctive aeromagnetic anomalies, but both EM surveys define the massive sulphide mineralised vent and bedded portions of the SEDEX orebodies. ZTEM is interpreted to be more capable in defining the larger, lower conductance and less mineralised distal portions of the SEDEX system. The modelled ZTEM also defines a down-dip extension of the Nuqrah South zone below a depth of 750 m.

  4. Influence of the Beam Self-Fields on the Dispersion Characteristics of EM Waves in a Dielectric Waveguide Filled with Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jixiong; Chen, Shixiu; Tian, Wei; Chen, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Considering the self-fields of relativistic electron beam (REB), the electron beam injected in plasma will form an ion-channel, which can stably guide REB transmitted in plasma. Based on the effect of ion-channel, the EM dispersion characteristics in a dielectric waveguide filled with plasmas is studied by using linear electromagnetic (EM) hydrodynamics perturbation theory. Both the TM mode dispersion equation and the dispersion relation are derived. After that, a discussion on the conditions of Cherenkov radiation in this system is given. It was found that the betatron oscillation of the REB is one of the important factors for the slow-wave EM instability in this system. The dispersion relation is of the form of electromagnetic-electrostatic (EM-ES) hybrid mode, which is different from the case where the effect of the ion channel is neglected.

  5. Código para imageamento indireto de estrelas em sistemas binarios: simulação de variações elipsoidais e do perfil das linhas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, T. R.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    As estrelas secundárias em variáveis cataclí smicas (VCs) e binárias-x de baixa massa (BXBMs) são cruciais para o entendimento da origem, evolução e comportamento destas binárias interagentes. Elas são estrelas magneticamente ativas submetidas a condições ambientais extremas [e.g., estão muito próximas de uma fonte quente e irradiante; têm rotação extremamente rápida e forma distorcida; estão perdendo massa a taxas de 10-8-10-10 M¤/ano] que contribuem para que suas propriedades sejam distintas das de estrelas de mesma massa na seqüência principal. Por outro lado, o padrão de irradiação na face da secundária fornece informação sobre a geometria das estruturas de acréscimo em torno da estrela primária. Assim, a obtenção de imagens da superfície destas estrelas é de grande interesse astrofísico. A Tomografia Roche usa as variações no perfil das linhas de emissão/absorção da estrela secundária em função da fase orbital para mapear a distribuição de brilho em sua superfície. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados iniciais do desenvolvimento de um programa para o mapeamento da distribuição de brilho na superfí cie das estrelas secundárias em VCs e BXBMs com técnicas de astro-tomografia. Presentemente temos em operação um código que simula as variações no perfil das linhas em conseqüência de efeito Doppler resultante da combinação de rotação e translação de uma estrela em forma de lobo de Roche em torno do centro de massa da binária, em função da distribuição de brilho na superfície desta estrela. O código igualmente produz a curva de luz resultante das variações de aspecto da estrela em função da fase orbital (variações elipsoidais).

  6. Deployment Evaluation Methodology for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of DOE-EM Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ramer, Ronald James; Adams, James Paul; Rynearson, Michael Ardel; Dahl, Christian Adam

    1999-03-01

    The Department of Energy - Environmental Management (DOE-EM) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is charged with the disposition of legacy Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The NSNFP, conducted by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Co. (LMITCO) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is evaluating final disposition of SNF in the DOE complex. While direct repository disposal of the SNF is the preferred disposition option, some DOE SNF may need treatment to meet acceptance criteria at various disposition sites. Evaluations of treatment needs and options have been previously prepared, and further evaluations are ongoing activities in the DOE-EM NSNFP. The treatments may range from electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) and chemical dissolution to engineering controls. As a planning basis, a need is assumed for a treatment process, either as a primary or backup technology, that is compatible with, and cost-effective for, this portion of the DOE-EM inventory. The current planning option for treating this SNF, pending completion of development work and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, is the EMT process under development by Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W). A decision on the deployment of the EMT is pending completion of an engineering scale demonstration currently in progress at ANL-W. Treatment options and treatment locations will depend on fuel type and location of the fuel. One of the first steps associated with selecting one or more sites for treating SNF in the DOE complex is to determine the cost of each option. An economic analysis will assist in determining which fuel treatment alternative attains the optimum disposition of SNF at the lowest possible cost to the government and the public. One of the major issues associated with SNF treatment is final disposition of treatment products and associated waste streams. During conventional SNF treatment, various chemicals are added that may increase the product and waste stream masses and volumes that are eventually handled, stored, and dispositioned. Thus, when assessing whether or not to treat SNF, the costs associated with final disposition must be determined, in addition to the technical issues and costs associated with the treatment process itself. For this study, a set of questions was developed for the EMT process for fuels at several locations. The set of questions addresses all issues associated with design, construction, and operation of a production facility. A matrix table was developed to determine questions applicable to various fuel treatment options. A work breakdown structure (WBS) was developed to identify a treatment process and costs from initial design to shipment of treatment products tofinal disposition. Costs were applied to determine the life-cycle cost of each option. This technique can also be applied to other treatment techniques for treating SNF.

  7. GIO-EMS and International Collaboration in Satellite based Emergency Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Jan; Lemoine, Guido; Broglia, Marco

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, satellite based emergency mapping has developed into a mature operational stage. The European Union's GMES Initial Operations - Emergency Management Service (GIO-EMS), is operational since April 2012. It's set up differs from other mechanisms (for example from the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters"), as it extends fast satellite tasking and delivery with the value adding map production as a single service, which is available, free of charge, to the authorized users of the service. Maps and vector datasets with standard characteristics and formats ranging from post-disaster damage assessment to recovery and disaster prevention are covered by this initiative. Main users of the service are European civil protection authorities and international organizations active in humanitarian aid. All non-sensitive outputs of the service are accessible to the public. The European Commission's in-house science service Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the technical and administrative supervisor of the GIO-EMS. The EC's DG ECHO Monitoring and Information Centre acts as the service's focal point and DG ENTR is responsible for overall service governance. GIO-EMS also aims to contribute to the synergy with similar existing mechanisms at national and international level. The usage of satellite data for emergency mapping has increased during the last years and this trend is expected to continue because of easier accessibility to suitable satellite and other relevant data in the near future. Furthermore, the data and analyses coming from volunteer emergency mapping communities are expected to further enrich the content of such cartographic products. In the case of major disasters the parallel activity of more providers is likely to generate non-optimal use of resources, e.g. unnecessary duplication; whereas coordination may lead to reduced time needed to cover the disaster area. Furthermore the abundant number of geospatial products of different characteristics and quality can become confusing for users. The urgent need for a better coordination has led to establishment of the International Working Group on Satellite Based Emergency Mapping (IWG-SEM). Members of the IWG-SEM, which include JRC, USGS, DLR-ZKI, SERVIR, Sentinel Asia, UNOSAT, UN-SPIDER, GEO, ITHACA and SERTIT have recognized the need to establish the best practice between operational satellite-based emergency mapping programs. The group intends to: work with the appropriate organizations on definition of professional standards for emergency mapping, guidelines for product generation and reviewing relevant technical standards and protocols facilitate communication and collaboration during the major emergencies stimulate coordination of expertise and capacities. The existence of the group and the cooperation among members already brought benefits during recent disasters in Africa and Europe in 2012 in terms of faster and effective satellite data provision and better product generation.

  8. EM-ANIMATE: A Computer Program for Displaying and Animating Electromagnetic Near-Field and Surface-Current Solutions: Video Supplement to NASA Technical Memorandum 4539

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1994-01-01

    In this video, several examples of electromagnetic field and surface-current animation sequences are shown to demonstrate the visualization capabilities of the EM-ANIMATE computer program. These examples show the animation of total and scattered electric near fields from test bodies of a flat plate, a corner reflector, and a sphere. These test cases show the electric-field behavior caused by different scattering mechanisms through the animation of electromagnetic data from the EM-ANIMATE routine.

  9. Cryo-EM reveals the conformation of a substrate analogue in the human 20S proteasome core

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Paula C.A.; Morris, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    The proteasome is a highly regulated protease complex fundamental for cell homeostasis and controlled cell cycle progression. It functions by removing a wide range of specifically tagged proteins, including key cellular regulators. Here we present the structure of the human 20S proteasome core bound to a substrate analogue inhibitor molecule, determined by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at a resolution of around 3.5?. Our map allows the building of protein coordinates as well as defining the location and conformation of the inhibitor at the different active sites. These results open new prospects to tackle the proteasome functional mechanisms. Moreover, they also further demonstrate that cryo-EM is emerging as a realistic approach for general structural studies of proteinligand interactions. PMID:26133119

  10. A study of the strategic alliance for EMS industry: the application of a hybrid DEA and GM (1, 1) approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia Nan; Nguyen, Nhu Ty; Tran, Thanh Tuyen; Huong, Bui Bich

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a partner is a critical factor for success in international strategic alliances, although criteria for partner selection vary between developed and transitional markets. This study aims to develop effective methods to assist enterprise to measure the firms' operation efficiency, find out the candidate priority under several different inputs and outputs, and forecast the values of those variables in the future. The methodologies are constructed by the concepts of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and grey model (GM). Realistic data in four consecutive years (2009-2012) a total of 20 companies of the Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) industry that went public are completely collected. This paper tries to help target company-DMU1-to find the right alliance partners. By our proposed approach, the results show the priority in the recent years. The research study is hopefully of interest to managers who are in manufacturing industry in general and EMS enterprises in particular. PMID:25821859

  11. A Parallel EM Algorithm for Model-Based Clustering Applied to the Exploration of Large Spatio-Temporal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Ostrouchov, George; Pugmire, Dave; Prabhat,; Wehner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We develop a parallel EM algorithm for multivariate Gaussian mixture models and use it to perform model-based clustering of a large climate data set. Three variants of the EM algorithm are reformulated in parallel and a new variant that is faster is presented. All are implemented using the single program, multiple data (SPMD) programming model, which is able to take advantage of the combined collective memory of large distributed computer architectures to process larger data sets. Displays of the estimated mixture model rather than the data allow us to explore multivariate relationships in a way that scales to arbitrary size data. We study the performance of our methodology on simulated data and apply our methodology to a high resolution climate dataset produced by the community atmosphere model (CAM5). This article has supplementary material online.

  12. Cryo-EM reveals different coronin binding modes for ADP- and ADP-BeFx actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Ge, Peng; Durer, Zeynep A Oztug; Kudryashov, Dmitri; Zhou, Z Hong; Reisler, Emil

    2014-12-01

    Essential cellular processes involving the actin cytoskeleton are regulated by auxiliary proteins that can sense the nucleotide state of actin. Here we report cryo-EM structures for ADP-bound and ADP-beryllium fluoride (ADP-BeFx, an ADP-Pi mimic)-bound actin filaments in complex with the β-propeller domain of yeast coronin 1 (crn1), at 8.6-Å resolution. Our structures reveal the main differences in the interaction of coronin with the two nucleotide states of F-actin. We derived pseudoatomic models by fitting the atomic structures of actin and coronin into the EM envelopes and confirmed the identified interfaces on actin by chemical cross-linking, fluorescence spectroscopy and actin mutagenesis. The models offer a structural explanation for the nucleotide-dependent effects of coronin on cofilin-assisted remodeling of F-actin. PMID:25362487

  13. Cryo-EM reveals the conformation of a substrate analogue in the human 20S proteasome core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.

    2015-07-01

    The proteasome is a highly regulated protease complex fundamental for cell homeostasis and controlled cell cycle progression. It functions by removing a wide range of specifically tagged proteins, including key cellular regulators. Here we present the structure of the human 20S proteasome core bound to a substrate analogue inhibitor molecule, determined by electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at a resolution of around 3.5 Å. Our map allows the building of protein coordinates as well as defining the location and conformation of the inhibitor at the different active sites. These results open new prospects to tackle the proteasome functional mechanisms. Moreover, they also further demonstrate that cryo-EM is emerging as a realistic approach for general structural studies of protein-ligand interactions.

  14. Electron counting and beam-induced motion correction enable near atomic resolution single particle cryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueming; Mooney, Paul; Zheng, Shawn; Booth, Chris; Braunfeld, Michael B.; Gubbens, Sander; Agard, David A.; Cheng, Yifan

    2013-01-01

    In recent work with large high symmetry viruses, single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) has reached the milestone of determining near atomic resolution structures by allowing direct fitting of atomic models into experimental density maps. However, achieving this goal with smaller particles of lower symmetry remains extraordinarily challenging. Using a newly developed single electron counting detector, we confirm that electron beam induced motion significantly degrades resolution and, importantly, show how the combination of rapid readout and nearly noiseless electron counting allow image blurring to be corrected to subpixel accuracy. Thus, intrinsic image information can be restored to high resolution (Thon rings visible to ~3 ). Using this approach we determined a 3.3 resolution structure of a ~700 kDa protein with D7 symmetry showing clear side chain density. Our method greatly enhances image quality and data acquisition efficiency - key bottlenecks in applying near atomic resolution cryoEM to a broad range of protein samples. PMID:23644547

  15. Vínculos observacionais para o processo-S em estrelas gigantes de Bário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, R. H. S.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; da Silva, L.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas de bário são gigantes vermelhas de tipo GK que apresentam excessos atmosféricos dos elementos do processo-s. Tais excessos são esperados em estrelas na fase de pulsos térmicos do AGB (TP-AGB). As estrelas de bário são, no entanto, menos massivas e menos luminosas que as estrelas do AGB, assim, não poderiam ter se auto-enriquecido. Seu enriquecimento teria origem em uma estrela companheira, inicialmente mais massiva, que evolui pelo TP-AGB, se auto-enriquece com os elementos do processo-s e transfere material contaminado para a atmosfera da atual estrela de bário. A companheira evolui então para anã branca deixando de ser observada diretamente. As estrelas de bário são, portanto, úteis como testes observacionais para teorias de nucleossíntese pelo processo-s, convecção e perda de massa. Análises detalhadas de abundância com dados de alta qualidade para estes objetos são ainda escassas na literatura. Neste trabalho construímos modelos de atmosferas e, procedendo a uma análise diferencial, determinamos parâmetros atmosféricos e evolutivos de uma amostra de dez gigantes de bário e quatro normais. Determinamos seus padrões de abundância para Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu e Gd, concluindo que algumas estrelas classificadas na literatura como gigantes de bário são na verdade gigantes normais. Comparamos dois padrões médios de abundância, para estrelas com grandes excessos e estrelas com excessos moderados, com modelos teóricos de enriquecimento pelo processo-s. Os dois grupos de estrelas são ajustados pelos mesmos parâmetros de exposição de nêutrons. Tal resultado sugere que a ocorrência do fenômeno de bário com diferentes intensidades não se deve a diferentes exposições de nêutrons. Discutimos ainda efeitos nucleossintéticos, ligados ao processo-s, sugeridos na literatura para os elementos Cu, Mn, V e Sc.

  16. Elimination of the numerical Cerenkov instability for spectral EM-PIC codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peicheng; Xu, Xinlu; Decyk, Viktor K.; Fiuza, Frederico; Vieira, Jorge; Tsung, Frank S.; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Lu, Wei; Silva, Luis O.; Mori, Warren B.

    2015-07-01

    When using an electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) code to simulate a relativistically drifting plasma, a violent numerical instability known as the numerical Cerenkov instability (NCI) occurs. The NCI is due to the unphysical coupling of electromagnetic waves on a grid to wave-particle resonances, including aliased resonances, i.e., ω + 2 πμ / Δt =(k1 + 2 πν1 / Δx1) v0, where μ and ν1 refer to the time and space aliases and the plasma is drifting relativistically at velocity v0 in the 1 ˆ -direction. We extend our previous work Xu et al. (2013) by recasting the numerical dispersion relation of a relativistically drifting plasma into a form which shows explicitly how the instability results from the coupling modes which are purely transverse electromagnetic (EM) modes and purely longitudinal modes in the rest frame of the plasma for each time and space aliasing. The dispersion relation for each μ and ν1 is the product of the dispersion relation of these two modes set equal to a coupling term that vanishes in the continuous limit. The new form of the numerical dispersion relation provides an accurate method of systematically calculating the growth rate and location of the mode in the fundamental Brillouin zone for any Maxwell solver for each μ and ν1. We then focus on the spectral Maxwell solver and systematically discuss its NCI modes. We show that the second fastest growing NCI mode for the spectral solver corresponds to μ =ν1 = 0, that it has a growth rate approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the fastest growing μ = 0 and ν1 = 1 mode, and that its location in the k space fundamental Brillouin zone is sensitive to the grid size and time step. Based on these studies, strategies to systematically eliminate the NCI modes for a spectral solver are developed. We apply these strategies to both relativistic collisionless shock and LWFA simulations, and demonstrate that high-fidelity multi-dimensional simulations of drifting plasmas can be carried out with a spectral Maxwell solver with no evidence of numerical Cerenkov instability.

  17. Hydrothermal Venting at Kick'Em Jenny Submarine Volcano (West Indies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, S.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Roman, C.; Smart, C.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Ballard, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Kick'em Jenny is a frequently-erupting, shallow submarine volcano located ~8 km off the northwest coast of Grenada in the West Indies. The last eruption took place in 2001 but did not breach the sea surface. Focused and diffuse hydrothermal venting is taking place mainly within a small (~100 x 100 m) depression within the 300 m diameter crater of the volcano at depths of about 265 meters. Near the center of the depression clear fluids are being discharged from a focused mound-like vent at a maximum temperature of 180o C with the simultaneous discharge of numerous bubble streams. The gas consists of 93-96% CO2 with trace amounts of methane and hydrogen. A sulfur component likely contributes 1-4% of the gas total. Gas flux measurements on individual bubble streams ranged from 10 to 100 kg of CO2 per day. Diffuse venting with temperatures 5 to 35o C above ambient occurs throughout the depression and over large areas of the main crater. These zones are extensively colonized by reddish-yellow bacterial mats with the production of loose Fe-oxyhydroxides largely as a surface coating and in some cases, as fragile spires up to several meters in height. A high-resolution photo mosaic of the crater depression was constructed using the remotely operated vehicle Hercules on cruise NA039 of the E/V Nautilus. The image revealed prominent fluid flow patterns descending the sides of the depression towards the base. We speculate that the negatively buoyant fluid flow may be the result of second boiling of hydrothermal fluids at Kick'em Jenny generating a dense saline component that does not rise despite its elevated temperature. Increased density may also be the result of high dissolved CO2 content of the fluids, although we were not able to measure this directly. The low amount of sulphide mineralization on the crater floor suggests that deposition may be occurring mostly subsurface, in accord with models of second boiling mineralization from other hydrothermal vent systems.

  18. EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as{sup 18}F or {sup 11}C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as {sup 38}K or {sup 60}Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections improves the accuracy of DIPET reconstructions for static acquisitions so they reach almost the benchmark level calculated for perfectly separated tracers.

  19. Recent advancements in the electromechanical (E/M) impedance method for structural health monitoring and NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor; Rogers, Craig A.

    1998-07-01

    The emerging electro-mechanical impedance technology has high potential for in-situ health monitoring and NDE of structural systems and complex machinery. At first, the fundamental principles of the electro-mechanical impedance method are briefly reviewed and ways for practical implementation are highlighted. The equations of piezo- electric material response are given, and the coupled electro-mechanical impedance of a piezo-electric wafer transducer as affixed to the monitored structure is discussed. Due to the high frequency operation of this NDE method, wave propagation phenomena are identified as the primary coupling method between the structural substrate and the piezo-electric wafer transducer. Attention is then focused on several recent advancements that have extended the electro-mechanical impedance method into new areas of applications and/or have developed its underlying principles. US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory used the electro-mechanical impedance method to monitor damage development in composite overlaid civil infrastructure specimens under full-scale static testing. A simplified E/M impedance measuring technique was employed at the Polytechnic University of Madrid, Spain, to detect damage in GFRP composite specimens. The development of miniaturized `bare-bones' impedance analyzer equipment that could be easily packaged into transponder-size dimensions is being studied at the University of South Carolina. US Army Research Laboratory developed novel piezo-composite film transducers for embedment into composite structures. Disbond gauges for monitoring the structural joints of adhesively bonded rotor blades have been studies in the Mechanical Engineering Department at the University of South Carolina. These recent developments accentuate the importance and benefits of using the electro-mechanical impedance method for on-line health monitoring and damage detection in a variety of applications. Further investigation of the electro-mechanical impedance method is warranted. A further examination of the complex interaction between wave propagation, drive-point impedance, structural damage and electro-mechanical impedance of the piezo-electric wafer transducer is needed. Once these aspects are better understood, the E/M impedance method has the potential to become a widely used NDE technique with large applicability in diverse engineering fields (aerospace, automotive, infrastructure and biomedical implants).

  20. EM reconstruction of dual isotope PET using staggered injections and prompt gamma positron emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The aim of dual isotope positron emission tomography (DIPET) is to create two separate images of two coinjected PET radiotracers. DIPET shortens the duration of the study, reduces patient discomfort, and produces perfectly coregistered images compared to the case when two radiotracers would be imaged independently (sequential PET studies). Reconstruction of data from such simultaneous acquisition of two PET radiotracers is difficult because positron decay of any isotope creates only 511 keV photons; therefore, the isotopes cannot be differentiated based on the detected energy. Methods: Recently, the authors have proposed a DIPET technique that uses a combination of radiotracer A which is a pure positron emitter (such as{sup 18}F or {sup 11}C) and radiotracer B in which positron decay is accompanied by the emission of a high-energy (HE) prompt gamma (such as {sup 38}K or {sup 60}Cu). Events that are detected as triple coincidences of HE gammas with the corresponding two 511 keV photons allow the authors to identify the lines-of-response (LORs) of isotope B. These LORs are used to separate the two intertwined distributions, using a dedicated image reconstruction algorithm. In this work the authors propose a new version of the DIPET EM-based reconstruction algorithm that allows the authors to include an additional, independent estimate of radiotracer A distribution which may be obtained if radioisotopes are administered using a staggered injections method. In this work the method is tested on simple simulations of static PET acquisitions. Results: The authors’ experiments performed using Monte-Carlo simulations with static acquisitions demonstrate that the combined method provides better results (crosstalk errors decrease by up to 50%) than the positron-gamma DIPET method or staggered injections alone. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that the authors’ new EM algorithm which combines information from triple coincidences with prompt gammas and staggered injections improves the accuracy of DIPET reconstructions for static acquisitions so they reach almost the benchmark level calculated for perfectly separated tracers.

  1. Xyz Airborne Time Domain Em: P-Them Test in Reid Mahaffy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical axis transmitter loop and receiver coil combination is widely used in Airborne Time-Domain EM systems. In such configurations the largest portion of the transmitter magnetic moment, which is distributed in a vertical direction, is transmitted to the subsurface, and the strongest vertical response from underground conductors is acquired with a vertical axis (Z) receiver coil. However, the horizontal axis (X and Y) components carry valuable information about target body geometry and their borders/edges. Most Airborne Time Domain systems currently in use are configured such that the X component is aligned with the flight direction. At typical survey speeds (60 to 80 kph) towed bird systems may expect to be subject to vibration that results in movement of horizontal and vertical receiver's axis from its desired nominal position. The mechanical design of the P-THEM transmitter and receiver is based on Bernard Kremer's (THEM Geophysics) developments finished and improved by Pico Envirotec Inc. The P-THEM system consists of a loop-transmitter assembly, powered by a motor generator and a 3-axis (XYZ) coil receiver attached at the midpoint of a tow cable between transmitter and a helicopter. The suspension system of the receiver coils assembly allows the Z-coil to remain horizontal at all the time during the flight. Pico Envirotec has developed methodology to recalculate the data from three axis of the receiver that allows mechanical vibration influence to be eliminated from the acquired data. The recalculated X-component gives very useful information for interpretation of the observation results. The P-THEM system has been test flown over the Reid Mahaffy geological test site located in Northern Ontario in Canada. The test site, created by the Ontario Geological Survey, contains the main conductor formed with three sub-vertical sliced conductive bodies. Three lines (L30, L40 and L50) over the test site have been flown in North and South direction with the P-THEM system. The acquired results from these tests show the conductor and its location. The asymmetrical anomalies of the X-component give good visual representation of the conductor body sliced structure. The X-component anomalies are distinctively shifted depending on the flight direction. The observed results show the significance of horizontal axis components in Airborne Time Domain EM observations for compensation of mechanical movements of the survey system as well as for interpretation of the data set.; Z and X component response over Reid Mahaffy conductor body

  2. Mapping soil variability at the East Branch Pecatonica River Restoration Observatory using GPR and EM Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.; Loheide, S. P.; Gangrade, S.; Mangel, A. R.; Creighton, A.; Booth, E. G.; Weber, M.; Striegl, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Floodplain restoration activities were undertaken at the East Branch Pecatonica River Restoration Observatory in 2006 to remove sediments deposited as a result of historical upstream agricultural practices. A goal of the sediment removal was to promote the establishment of native wetland vegetation in the restored area by decreasing the depth of the water table from the land surface. Monitoring of soil moisture along a transect perpendicular to the stream using distributed temperature sensing (DTS) and water content probes has revealed non-uniform changes in soil water content as a result of the restoration, with distinct wet and dry zones emerging during seasonal dry periods. To further investigate these zones, electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were completed at the site in early June and late July of 2011 when overall wet and dry conditions are prevalent. The EMI surveys were performed using an EM38-MK2 instrument, which has two coils (spaced at 0.5 and 1m) making it sensitive to changes in electrical conductivity over depths of approximately 35 and 70cm. Transects of data were collected across the entire site. Patterns in the resulting conductivity maps indicate different soil zones at the site. In particular, difference maps between the surveys highlight the region of the dry zone observed in the DTS transect and can be used to estimate the spatial extent of this feature parallel to the stream. The GPR surveys were primarily conducted to evaluate variations in EM wave velocity related to changes in water content and secondarily to identify soil structure affecting the hydroecology of the site. A novel approach to profiling with a multi-channel GPR allowed for the simultaneous collection of data with 12 different antenna offsets ranging from 0.2-1.5m. In principle, normal moveout analysis of this data can be used to estimate wave velocity at each location along the GPR transects. Initial analysis of these data suggests that overall trends in water content are qualitatively consistent with those observed along the DTS transect, however, the GPR results also suggest a greater degree of small-scale variability. We are working to evaluate whether this variability is significant or a result of challenges encountered at the site, including noise in the GPR data and weak reflection strength. Overall, our results to date indicate that GPR and EMI are useful tools for evaluating large-scale variations in soil characteristics that are important controls on the hydroecology of the site.

  3. Integrated induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers for EM analysis and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanstein, T.; Strack, K.; Jiang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The concept of a full field array electromagnetic system is an ideal tool to support hydrocarbon and geothermal E & P as well as various engineering monitoring applications. Some of the key questions are defining the reservoir, mapping of the fractures and reservoir depletion monitoring. The reservoirs are all too often relative thin and give an anomalous electromagnetic (EM) response, which is often small in amplitude and challenging for the EM measuring system. A digital fluxgate magnetometer (32-bit) is connected to the KMS magnetotelluric acquisition system with analogue induction coils and electrodes to extend the range of application of a single recording site. Since the noise level is above that of the induction coil for periods shorter than 20 s, the apparent resistivity is biased. For longer periods the apparent resistivity is consistent and eventually better than the induction coil. However, phase and tipper are not biased and agree well with the induction data even for shorter periods. This allows us to develop algorithms that significantly extend the range of application of the fluxgate beyond what was done in the past. The highest frequency of the fluxgate magnetometer is about 180 Hz and the hightest sampling of the FG-board is 4 kHz.The different induction coils and fluxgate magnetometer have intensively been tested in the magnetic chamber and at the field test site near Houston for noise performance by parallel recordings. They show that even in an environment with high cultural noise, the specification can be met. In Northeast China, a 30-day monitoring test with MT was carried out for seismologic applications. Acquisitition schedule included different recordings times and sampling rates. Daily, the data was collected and processed via the internet from either Europe or the US. Even with long recording, we still had to select the time windows for data averaging and coherences are not a good threshhold criteria in this case. During another MT sounding in India, an earthquake with magnitude 5 at a distance of about 200 km was recorded. The event is very strong in amplitude and visible in all magnetic and electric field components.

  4. EM Earthquake Precursor Detection Associated with Fluid Injection for Hydraulic Fracturing and Tectonic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth B., II

    2015-04-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine an earthquake forecasting method and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but only two seemed to take shape with the most interesting one requiring a magnetometer of a unique design. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, results have had wide variability and problems still reside with what exactly is forecastable and the investigative direction of a true precursor. After a number of custom rock experiments, the two hypotheses were thoroughly tested to correlate the EM wave model. The first hypothesis involved sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio wave generation. The second hypothesis resulted best with highly reproducible data, radio wave generation and detection, and worked numerous times with each laboratory test administered. In addition, internally introduced force on a small scale stressed a number of select rock types to emit radio waves well before catastrophic failure, and failure always went to completion. Comparatively, at a larger scale, highly detailed studies were procured to establish legitimate wave guides from potential hypocenters to epicenters and map the results, accordingly. Field testing in Southern California from 2006 to 2011 and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013 was conducted for detecting similar, laboratory generated, radio wave sources. At the Southern California field sites, signals were detected in numerous directions with varying amplitudes; therefore, a reactive approach was investigated in hopes of detecting possible aftershocks from large, tectonically related M5.0+ earthquakes. At the Timpson, Texas field sites, a proactive detection approach was taken, due to the heavy presence of hydraulic fracturing activity for regional hydrocarbon extraction, which appeared to be causing several rare M4.0+ earthquakes. As a result, detailed Southern California and Timpson, Texas field studies led to the improved design of two newer, prototype antennae and the first ever earthquake epicenter map. With more antennae and continuous monitoring, more fracture cycles can be established well ahead of the next earthquake. In addition, field data could be ascertained longer by the proper authorities and lead to significantly improved earthquake forecasting. The EM precursor determined by this method appears to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public may finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  5. The influence of effective microorganisms (EM) and yeast on the degradation of strobilurins and carboxamides in leafy vegetables monitored by LC-MS/MS and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wo?ejko, El?bieta; ?ozowicka, Bo?ena; Kaczy?ski, Piotr; Jankowska, Magdalena; Piekut, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the behaviour of strobilurin and carbocyamides commonly used in chemical protection of lettuce depending on carefully selected effective microorganisms (EM) and yeast (Y). Additionally, the assessment of the chronic health risk during a 2-week experiment was performed. The statistical method for correlation of physico-chemical parameters and time of degradation for pesticides was applied. In this study, the concentration of azoxystrobin, boscalid, pyraclostrobin and iprodione using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the matrix of lettuce plants was performed, and there was no case of concentration above maximum residues levels. Before harvest, four fungicides and their mixture with EM (1% and 10%) and/or yeast 5% were applied. In our work, the mixtures of 1%EM?+?Y and 10%EM?+?Y both stimulated and inhibited the degradation of the tested active substances. Adding 10%EM to the test substances strongly inhibited the degradation of iprodione, and its concentration decreased by 30%, and in the case of other test substances, the degradation was approximately 60%. Moreover, the addition of yeast stimulated the distribution of pyraclostrobin and boscalid in lettuce leaves. The risk assessment for the pesticides ranged from 0.4 to 64.8% on day 1, but after 14days, it ranged from 0.0 to 20.9% for children and adults, respectively. It indicated no risk of adverse effects following exposure to individual pesticides and their mixtures with EM and yeast. PMID:26718945

  6. Investigation on High Performance of 10m Semi Anechoic Chamber by using Open-Top Hollow Pyramidal Hybrid EM Wave Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Hashimoto, Osamu

    The emission radiated from electric and electronic equipments is evaluated through OATS. Recently, it is not fully prepared the environment for OATS because of a variety of communication radiation sources (e.g., digital television broadcast and cellular phone station). Therefore, the EM anechoic chambers are becoming more and more important as EMI test site. On the other hand, the EM anechoic chambers are needed high performance in order to cut down EMI countermeasure cost and calculate the antenna factor. The objective of this paper is mainly to present the EM wave absorber design in order to obtain within ±2dB against the theoretical site attenuation values in the 10m semi anechoic chamber at 30MHz to 300MHz. We get the necessary reflectivity of EM wave absorber by the basic site attenuation equation. We design the open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber consisted of 180cm long dielectric loss foam and ferrite tiles. Then, we design the 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the ray-tracing simulation and construct it in the size of L24m×W15.2m×H11.2m. More over, we measure the site attenuation of the constructed 10m semi anechoic chamber by using the broadband calculable dipole antennas. As the result, we confirm the validity of the designed open-top hollow pyramidal new hybrid EM wave absorber.

  7. On implementation of EM-type algorithms in the stochastic models for a matrix computing on GPU

    SciTech Connect

    Gorshenin, Andrey K.

    2015-03-10

    The paper discusses the main ideas of an implementation of EM-type algorithms for computing on the graphics processors and the application for the probabilistic models based on the Cox processes. An example of the GPU’s adapted MATLAB source code for the finite normal mixtures with the expectation-maximization matrix formulas is given. The testing of computational efficiency for GPU vs CPU is illustrated for the different sample sizes.

  8. 3.5Å cryoEM Structure of Hepatitis B Virus Core Assembled from Full-Length Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuekui; Jin, Lei; Jih, Jonathan; Shih, Chiaho; Hong Zhou, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid shell of infectious hepatitis B virus (HBV) is composed of 240 copies of a single protein called HBV core antigen (HBc). An atomic model of a core assembled from truncated HBc was determined previously by X-ray crystallography. In an attempt to obtain atomic structural information of HBV core in a near native, non-crystalline environment, we reconstructed a 3.5Å-resolution structure of a recombinant core assembled from full-length HBc by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) and derived an atomic model. The structure shows that the 240 molecules of full-length HBc form a core with two layers. The outer layer, composed of the N-terminal assembly domain, is similar to the crystal structure of the truncated HBc, but has three differences. First, unlike the crystal structure, our cryoEM structure shows no disulfide bond between the Cys61 residues of the two subunits within the dimer building block, indicating such bond is not required for core formation. Second, our cryoEM structure reveals up to four more residues in the linker region (amino acids 140-149). Third, the loops in the cryoEM structures containing this linker region in subunits B and C are oriented differently (~30° and ~90°) from their counterparts in the crystal structure. The inner layer, composed of the C-terminal arginine-rich domain (ARD) and the ARD-bound RNAs, is partially-ordered and connected with the outer layer through linkers positioned around the two-fold axes. Weak densities emanate from the rims of positively charged channels through the icosahedral three-fold and local three-fold axes. We attribute these densities to the exposed portions of some ARDs, thus explaining ARD’s accessibility by proteases and antibodies. Our data supports a role of ARD in mediating communication between inside and outside of the core during HBV maturation and envelopment. PMID:24039702

  9. EM fields generated by finite-length wire sources in 1D media: comparison with point dipole solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streich, R.; Becken, M.

    2009-12-01

    In present-day land and marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys, EM fields are commonly generated using wires that can be hundreds of meters long. Nevertheless, when simulating CSEM data, e.g., for the purpose of feasibility studies or within inversion algorithms, these sources are often approximated as point dipoles. Such an approximation is justified if the source-receiver distance is sufficiently large and the frequency sufficiently low. However, real surveys often include frequencies and distances at which the dipole approximation is inaccurate. We consider horizontally layered media, for which EM fields can be computed using well-known quasi-analytical solutions that involve numerical evaluation of Bessel function integrals. Using these 1D solutions, EM fields due to finite-length wire sources can be synthesized by representing the wire as a line of infinitesimal dipoles and integrating over the dipole fields. However, this procedure is computationally expensive, since it requires a large number of numerical integrations. We employ a more efficient formulation that contains explicit contributions from the end points of the wire and involves fewer integrals over the wire itself than a corresponding integration over point dipole fields. With our formulation, we can efficiently simulate complicated wire geometries by segmenting the wire and computing responses for each segment separately. This is particularly important for real field conditions on land, where kilometre-long current cables can usually not be laid out in an exactly straight line. Furthermore, our formulation permits to place both the wire and the receivers at any depth within the layered medium, an important aspect for marine applications as well as for borehole geometries. We will show examples of EM fields due to finite-length wires in various settings over the frequency and distance ranges of typical CSEM surveys and discuss differences to the fields due to infinitesimal dipoles.

  10. Application of gamma ray spectrometric measurements and VLF-EM data for tracing vein type uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    This study is an attempt to use the gamma ray spectrometric measurements and VLF-EM data to identify the subsurface structure and map uranium mineralization along El Sela shear zone, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Many injections more or less mineralized with uranium and associated with alteration processes were recorded in El Sela shear zone. As results from previous works, the emplacement of these injections is structurally controlled and well defined by large shear zones striking in an ENE-WSW direction and crosscut by NW-SE to NNW-SSE fault sets. VLF method has been applied to map the structure and the presence of radioactive minerals that have been delineated by the detection of high uranium mineralization. The electromagnetic survey was carried out to detect the presence of shallow and deep conductive zones that cross the granites along ENE-WSW fracturing directions and to map its spatial distribution. The survey comprised seventy N-S spectrometry and VLF-EM profiles with 20 m separation. The resulted data were displayed as composite maps for K, eU and eTh as well as VLF-Fraser map. Twelve profiles with 100 m separation were selected for detailed description. The VLF-EM data were interpreted qualitatively as well as quantitatively using the Fraser and the Karous-Hjelt filters. Fraser filtered data and relative current density pseudo-sections indicate the presence of shallow and deep conductive zones that cross the granites along ENE-WSW shearing directions. High uranium concentrations found just above the higher apparent current-density zones that coincide with El-Sela shear zone indicate a positive relation between conductivity and uranium minerals occurrence. This enables to infer that the anomalies detected by VLF-EM data are due to the highly conductive shear zone enriched with uranium mineralization extending for more than 80 m.

  11. Expecting the unexpected: A mixed methods study of violence to EMS responders in an urban fire department

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Brittany; Davis, Andrea L.; Wright, Jasmine; Widman, Shannon; LeVasseur, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Struck by injuries experienced by females were observed to be higher compared to males in an urban fire department. The disparity was investigated while gaining a grounded understanding of EMS responder experiences from patient‐initiated violence. Methods A convergent parallel mixed methods design was employed. Using a linked injury dataset, patient‐initiated violence estimates were calculated comparing genders. Semi‐structured interviews and a focus group were conducted with injured EMS responders. Results Paramedics had significantly higher odds for patient‐initiated violence injuries than firefighters (OR 14.4, 95%CI: 9.2–22.2, P < 0.001). Females reported increased odds of patient‐initiated violence injuries compared to males (OR = 6.25, 95%CI 3.8–10.2), but this relationship was entirely mediated through occupation (AOR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.94–2.85). Qualitative data illuminated the impact of patient‐initiated violence and highlighted important organizational opportunities for intervention. Conclusions Mixed methods greatly enhanced the assessment of EMS responder patient‐initiated violence prevention. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:150–163, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26725756

  12. emPHasis-10: development of a health-related quality of life measure in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yorke, Janelle; Corris, Paul; Gaine, Sean; Gibbs, J Simon R; Kiely, David G; Harries, Carl; Pollock, Val; Armstrong, Iain

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a measure of the impact of pulmonary hypertension (PH) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as there is a need for a short, validated instrument that can be used in routine clinical practice. Interviews were conducted with 30 PH patients to derive 32 statements, which were presented as a semantic differential six-point scale (0-5), with contrasting adjectives at each end. This item list was completed by patients attending PH clinics across the UK and Ireland. Rasch analysis was applied to identify items fitting a uni-dimensional model. 226 patients (mean age 55.614 years; 70% female) with PH (82% had pulmonary arterial hypertension) completed the study questionnaires. 10 of the 32 items demonstrated fit to the Rasch model (Chi-squared 16; p>0.05) and generated the emPHasis-10 questionnaire. Test-retest (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.95, n=33) and internal consistency (Chronbach's ?=0.9) were strong. emPHasis-10 scores correlated consistently with other relevant measures and discriminated subgroups of patients stratified by World Health Organization functional class (ANOVA F=1.73; p<0.001). The emPHasis-10 is a short questionnaire for assessing HRQoL in pulmonary arterial hypertension. It has excellent measurement properties and is sensitive to differences in relevant clinical parameters. It is freely available for clinical and academic use. PMID:24232702

  13. Cryo-EM structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to the anti-protozoan drug emetine

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wilson; Bai, Xiao-chen; Brown, Alan; Fernandez, Israel S; Hanssen, Eric; Condron, Melanie; Tan, Yan Hong; Baum, Jake; Scheres, Sjors HW

    2014-01-01

    Malaria inflicts an enormous burden on global human health. The emergence of parasite resistance to front-line drugs has prompted a renewed focus on the repositioning of clinically approved drugs as potential anti-malarial therapies. Antibiotics that inhibit protein translation are promising candidates for repositioning. We have solved the cryo-EM structure of the cytoplasmic ribosome from the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, in complex with emetine at 3.2 resolution. Emetine is an anti-protozoan drug used in the treatment of ameobiasis that also displays potent anti-malarial activity. Emetine interacts with the E-site of the ribosomal small subunit and shares a similar binding site with the antibiotic pactamycin, thereby delivering its therapeutic effect by blocking mRNA/tRNA translocation. As the first cryo-EM structure that visualizes an antibiotic bound to any ribosome at atomic resolution, this establishes cryo-EM as a powerful tool for screening and guiding the design of drugs that target parasite translation machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03080.001 PMID:24913268

  14. Interference harmonics and rigorous EM spectrum analysis method for low-k1 CD Bossung tilt correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Shuo-Yen; Ng, Hoi-Tou; Chen, Yi-Yin; Lee, Chien-Fu; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses the CD Bossung tilt phenomena in low-k1 lithography using interference harmonics and rigorous EM spectrum analysis. Interference harmonics analysis is introduced to explain the interaction of diffraction orders in the focal region leading to this abnormal CD behavior. This method decomposes the vector image formula into a superposition of cosine components to describe the interference of diffraction orders. The symmetry properties of components of an optical projection system were investigated to find out three potential sources for the asymmetric Bossung behavior, namely mask 3D (M3D) effect, lens aberration, and wafer reflectivity. Under good lens aberration and substrate reflectivity controls, the M3D effect accounts for most of the CD Bossung tilt. A rigorous EM mask spectral analysis was performed to reveal the impact of mask topography on the near-field intensity of mask transmission and the far-field image formation. From the analysis, the asymmetric phase distribution in the mask spectrum is the root cause for CD Bossung tilt. Using both the interference harmonics and the rigorous EM spectrum analysis, the effect of various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) to the Bossung tilt is also studied to find the best RET combination for M3D immunity. In addition, a pupil optimization algorithm based on these two analyses is proposed to generate the phase compensation map for M3D effect counteraction.

  15. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Cal, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehvslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:23-38, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26599697

  16. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    PubMed

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. PMID:26179415

  17. 2.3 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of human p97 and mechanism of allosteric inhibition.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soojay; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Merk, Alan; Rao, Prashant; Bulfer, Stacie L; Yan, Yongzhao; Green, Neal; Mroczkowski, Barbara; Neitz, R Jeffrey; Wipf, Peter; Falconieri, Veronica; Deshaies, Raymond J; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Huryn, Donna; Arkin, Michelle; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-02-19

    p97 is a hexameric AAA+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that is an attractive target for cancer drug development. We report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound, full-length, hexameric wild-type p97 in the presence and absence of an allosteric inhibitor at resolutions of 2.3 and 2.4 angstroms, respectively. We also report cryo-EM structures (at resolutions of ~3.3, 3.2, and 3.3 angstroms, respectively) for three distinct, coexisting functional states of p97 with occupancies of zero, one, or two molecules of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPγS) per protomer. A large corkscrew-like change in molecular architecture, coupled with upward displacement of the N-terminal domain, is observed only when ATPγS is bound to both the D1 and D2 domains of the protomer. These cryo-EM structures establish the sequence of nucleotide-driven structural changes in p97 at atomic resolution. They also enable elucidation of the binding mode of an allosteric small-molecule inhibitor to p97 and illustrate how inhibitor binding at the interface between the D1 and D2 domains prevents propagation of the conformational changes necessary for p97 function. PMID:26822609

  18. Induced EM field in a layered eccentric spheres model of the head: Plane-wave and localized source exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Skaropoulos, N.C.; Ioannidou, M.P.; Chrissoulidis, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Understanding the interaction of EM radiation with humans is essential in a number of contemporary applications. Special attention is paid to the absorption of EM energy by the human head, which exhibits a resonant behavior in the frequency band 0.1--3 GHz. The use of handheld transceivers for wireless communications, which operate in close proximity to the head, has raised safety-related questions and questions concerning the effect of the head on the performance of the mobile phone antenna. The induced electromagnetic (EM) field in a layered eccentric spheres structure is determined through a concise analytical formulation based on indirect mode-matching (IMM). The exact analytical solution is applied to a six-layer model of the head. This model allows for eccentricity between the inner and outer sets of concentric spherical layers which simulate brain and skull, respectively. Excitation is provided by a nearby localized source or by an incident plane wave. The numerical application provides information about the total absorbed power, the absorption in each layer, and the spatial distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) at frequencies used by cellular phones. The effects of excitation frequency, eccentricity, exposure configuration, and antenna-head separation are investigated.

  19. Clustering dynamic textures with the hierarchical em algorithm for modeling video.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Adeel; Coviello, Emanuele; Lanckriet, Gert R G; Chan, Antoni B

    2013-07-01

    Dynamic texture (DT) is a probabilistic generative model, defined over space and time, that represents a video as the output of a linear dynamical system (LDS). The DT model has been applied to a wide variety of computer vision problems, such as motion segmentation, motion classification, and video registration. In this paper, we derive a new algorithm for clustering DT models that is based on the hierarchical EM algorithm. The proposed clustering algorithm is capable of both clustering DTs and learning novel DT cluster centers that are representative of the cluster members in a manner that is consistent with the underlying generative probabilistic model of the DT. We also derive an efficient recursive algorithm for sensitivity analysis of the discrete-time Kalman smoothing filter, which is used as the basis for computing expectations in the E-step of the HEM algorithm. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of the clustering algorithm on several applications in motion analysis, including hierarchical motion clustering, semantic motion annotation, and learning bag-of-systems (BoS) codebooks for dynamic texture recognition. PMID:23681990

  20. Deploying electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) codes on Xeon Phi accelerators boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of the phenomena involved in several relevant plasma physics scenarios, where highly nonlinear and kinetic processes dominate, makes purely theoretical descriptions impossible. Further understanding of these scenarios requires detailed numerical modeling, but fully relativistic particle-in-cell codes such as OSIRIS are computationally intensive. The quest towards Exaflop computer systems has lead to the development of HPC systems based on add-on accelerator cards, such as GPGPUs and more recently the Xeon Phi accelerators that power the current number 1 system in the world. These cards, also referred to as Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture (MIC) offer peak theoretical performances of >1 TFlop/s for general purpose calculations in a single board, and are receiving significant attention as an attractive alternative to CPUs for plasma modeling. In this work we report on our efforts towards the deployment of an EM-PIC code on a Xeon Phi architecture system. We will focus on the parallelization and vectorization strategies followed, and present a detailed performance evaluation of code performance in comparison with the CPU code.

  1. ITER ICRF Antenna Reduced-Scale Mock-up EM Simulations and Comparisons with the Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrytsya, V.; Dumortier, P.; Messiaen, A.; Louche, F.; Vervier, M.

    2009-11-26

    A reduced-scale mock-up of one ITER ICRF antenna triplet has been recently built, featuring the optimized front-end geometry, an optimized 4-port junction and the implementation of a service stub. Provision is made to adapt the frequency response of the antenna by acting on the 4-port junction arms lengths, the service stub length as well as the position of its inclusion in the circuit. Variable antenna loading is achieved by moving a salted water tank in front of the antenna. A summary of the first measurements carried out on this mockup is reported in a companion paper. The EM simulations of the mock-up are done with CST Microwave Studio registered. The geometry of the mock-up is converted from a CAD file and all essential details are included in the model. S parameters of the mock-up are calculated in a large frequency range covering the ITER ICRF antenna frequency band for different geometries of the mock-up and distances to the load. Results of the simulations and systematic comparisons with the measurements are presented.

  2. EM induction and magnetic surveys at large landfill sites using GPS for postitional control

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.B.; Kirkpatrick, T.M.; Holtzclaw, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) induction and magnetic surveys were conducted at two large landfill sites, totaling 76 acres, using a global positioning system (GPS) as the positional control method. The surveys were conducted at Tinker AFB in Oklahoma, as part of a Phase II Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation. The objectives of the investigation were to delineate the boundaries of known landfill trenches and determine whether features seen in aerial photographs represented previously unidentified trenches. The GPS method of survey control was chosen rather than the conventional local grid approach because site conditions included extremely rugged surface topography, thick vegetation, and several swampy areas that precluded the establishment of precisely spaced, straight lines. The alternative would have required civil surveying and extensive vegetation removal. The GPS allowed local navigation and re-orientation to avoid obstacles and field hazards while continuing to collect valid, accurately located geophysical data. The use of differentially corrected GPS data for this investigation proved to be an excellent way to obtain geophysical survey control at a reduced level of effort; however, it added complexity to the surveys that had to be planned for both in the field and during data processing. Specialized processing techniques were developed to overcome minor satellite signal {open_quote}dropouts,{close_quote} and to allow for proper time-synchronization and merging of the geophysical and GPS data.

  3. EM-21 ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROGRAM FOR SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.; Martino, C.

    2009-12-18

    Preliminary studies in the EM-21 Alternative Chemical Cleaning Program have focused on understanding the dissolution of Hematite (a primary sludge heel phase) in oxalic acid, with a focus on minimizing oxalic acid usage. Literature reviews, thermodynamic modeling, and experimental results have all confirmed that pH control, preferably using a supplemental proton source, is critical to oxalate minimization. With pH control, iron concentrations as high as 0.103 M have been obtained in 0.11 M oxalic acid. This is consistent with the formation of a 1:1 (iron:oxalate) complex. The solubility of Hematite in oxalic acid has been confirmed to increase by a factor of 3 when the final solution pH decreases from 5 to below 1. This is consistent with literature predictions of a shift in speciation from a 1:3 to 1:1 as the pH is lowered. Above a solution pH of 6, little Hematite dissolves. These results emphasize the importance of pH control in optimizing Hematite dissolution in oxalic acid.

  4. Characterization and Reconstruction of Nanolipoprotein Particles (Nlps) by Cryo-EM and Image Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Pesavento, J B; Morgan, D; Bermingham, R; Zamora, D; Chromy, B; Segelke, B; Coleman, M; Xing, L; Cheng, H; Bench, G; Hoeprich, P

    2007-06-07

    Nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) are small 10-20 nm diameter assemblies of apolipoproteins and lipids. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), they have constructed multiple variants of these assemblies. NLPs have been generated from a variety of lipoproteins, including apolipoprotein Al, apolipophorin III, apolipoprotein E4 22K, and MSP1T2 (nanodisc, Inc.). Lipids used included DMPC (bulk of the bilayer material), DMPE (in various amounts), and DPPC. NLPs were made in either the absence or presence of the detergent cholate. They have collected electron microscopy data as a part of the characterization component of this research. Although purified by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), samples are somewhat heterogeneous when analyzed at the nanoscale by negative stained cryo-EM. Images reveal a broad range of shape heterogeneity, suggesting variability in conformational flexibility, in fact, modeling studies point to dynamics of inter-helical loop regions within apolipoproteins as being a possible source for observed variation in NLP size. Initial attempts at three-dimensional reconstructions have proven to be challenging due to this size and shape disparity. They are pursuing a strategy of computational size exclusion to group particles into subpopulations based on average particle diameter. They show here results from their ongoing efforts at statistically and computationally subdividing NLP populations to realize greater homogeneity and then generate 3D reconstructions.

  5. Acceleration of EM-Based 3D CT Reconstruction Using FPGA.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Kyu; Cong, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Reducing radiation doses is one of the key concerns in computed tomography (CT) based 3D reconstruction. Although iterative methods such as the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm can be used to address this issue, applying this algorithm to practice is difficult due to the long execution time. Our goal is to decrease this long execution time to an order of a few minutes, so that low-dose 3D reconstruction can be performed even in time-critical events. In this paper we introduce a novel parallel scheme that takes advantage of numerous block RAMs on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Also, an external memory bandwidth reduction strategy is presented to reuse both the sinogram and the voxel intensity. Moreover, a customized processing engine based on the FPGA is presented to increase overall throughput while reducing the logic consumption. Finally, a hardware and software flow is proposed to quickly construct a design for various CT machines. The complete reconstruction system is implemented on an FPGA-based server-class node. Experiments on actual patient data show that a 26.9 × speedup can be achieved over a 16-thread multicore CPU implementation. PMID:26462240

  6. Perturbative and nonperturbative EM lepton pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Oberacker, V.E.; Wells, J.C.; Umar, A.S. |; Strayer, M.R.

    1993-12-31

    In this talk, the authors focus on electromagnetic dilepton production from the QED-vacuum in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Heavy ions in relativistic motion generate strong time-dependent EM fields with large Fourier components which give rise to sizable pair production. There are several motivations for this study: Lepton pair production by hadronic (Drell-Yan) processes has been widely discussed as a possible signature of the quark-gluon plasma formation. The dominant background will come from electromagnetic sources and could even mask the signals from the plasma phase. Electromagnetically produced lepton pairs also impose severe constraints on the design of relativistic heavy-ion colliders such as RHIC and LHC. In addition to the free pair production discussed above, pair-production with capture of the negatively charged lepton into a bound state is also possible. This change of the charge state of the ions is the leading mechanism for beam loss of relativistic colliders. Accurate predictions of the cross section for this process are important because the cross section increases with energy.

  7. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Alberts, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT).

  8. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  9. Cryo-EM Structures of the Magnesium Channel CorA Reveal Symmetry Break upon Gating.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Doreen; Dalmas, Olivier; Borgnia, Mario J; Dominik, Pawel K; Merk, Alan; Rao, Prashant; Reddy, Bharat G; Islam, Shahidul; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Perozo, Eduardo; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-02-11

    CorA, the major Mg(2+) uptake system in prokaryotes, is gated by intracellular Mg(2+) (KD ∼1-2 mM). X-ray crystallographic studies of CorA show similar conformations under Mg(2+)-bound and Mg(2+)-free conditions, but EPR spectroscopic studies reveal large Mg(2+)-driven quaternary conformational changes. Here, we determined cryo-EM structures of CorA in the Mg(2+)-bound closed conformation and in two open Mg(2+)-free states at resolutions of 3.8, 7.1, and 7.1 Å, respectively. In the absence of bound Mg(2+), four of the five subunits are displaced to variable extents (∼10-25 Å) by hinge-like motions as large as ∼35° at the stalk helix. The transition between a single 5-fold symmetric closed state and an ensemble of low Mg(2+), open, asymmetric conformational states is, thus, the key structural signature of CorA gating. This mechanism is likely to apply to other structurally similar divalent ion channels. PMID:26871634

  10. Characterization of novel Sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Scott E; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F

    2014-11-01

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Overall, most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles. PMID:25187038

  11. Solving protein nanocrystals by cryo-EM diffraction: multiple scattering artifacts.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Ganesh; Basu, Shibom; Liu, Haiguang; Zuo, Jian-Min; Spence, John C H

    2015-01-01

    The maximum thickness permissible within the single-scattering approximation for the determination of the structure of perfectly ordered protein microcrystals by transmission electron diffraction is estimated for tetragonal hen-egg lysozyme protein crystals using several approaches. Multislice simulations are performed for many diffraction conditions and beam energies to determine the validity domain of the required single-scattering approximation and hence the limit on crystal thickness. The effects of erroneous experimental structure factor amplitudes on the charge density map for lysozyme are noted and their threshold limits calculated. The maximum thickness of lysozyme permissible under the single-scattering approximation is also estimated using R-factor analysis. Successful reconstruction of density maps is found to result mainly from the use of the phase information provided by modeling based on the protein data base through molecular replacement (MR), which dominates the effect of poor quality electron diffraction data at thicknesses larger than about 200 . For perfectly ordered protein nanocrystals, a maximum thickness of about 1000 is predicted at 200 keV if MR can be used, using R-factor analysis performed over a subset of the simulated diffracted beams. The effects of crystal bending, mosaicity (which has recently been directly imaged by cryo-EM) and secondary scattering are discussed. Structure-independent tests for single-scattering and new microfluidic methods for growing and sorting nanocrystals by size are reviewed. PMID:25461585

  12. The Cryo-EM Structure of a Complete 30S Translation Initiation Complex from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Julin, Patricia; Milon, Pohl; Agirrezabala, Xabier; Lasso, Gorka; Gil, David; Rodnina, Marina V.; Valle, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Formation of the 30S initiation complex (30S IC) is an important checkpoint in regulation of gene expression. The selection of mRNA, correct start codon, and the initiator fMet-tRNAfMet requires the presence of three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3) of which IF3 and IF1 control the fidelity of the process, while IF2 recruits fMet-tRNAfMet. Here we present a cryo-EM reconstruction of the complete 30S IC, containing mRNA, fMet-tRNAfMet, IF1, IF2, and IF3. In the 30S IC, IF2 contacts IF1, the 30S subunit shoulder, and the CCA end of fMet-tRNAfMet, which occupies a novel P/I position (P/I1). The N-terminal domain of IF3 contacts the tRNA, whereas the C-terminal domain is bound to the platform of the 30S subunit. Binding of initiation factors and fMet-tRNAfMet induces a rotation of the head relative to the body of the 30S subunit, which is likely to prevail through 50S subunit joining until GTP hydrolysis and dissociation of IF2 take place. The structure provides insights into the mechanism of mRNA selection during translation initiation. PMID:21750663

  13. Expectation maximization (EM) algorithms using polar symmetries for computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Alvarez, M J; Soriano, A; Iborra, A; Snchez, F; Gonzlez, A J; Conde, P; Hernndez, L; Moliner, L; Orero, A; Vidal, L F; Benlloch, J M

    2013-09-01

    We suggest a symmetric-polar pixellation scheme which makes possible a reduction of the computational cost for expectation maximization (EM) iterative algorithms. The proposed symmetric-polar pixellation allows us to deal with 3D images as a whole problem without dividing the 3D problem into 2D slices approach. Performance evaluation of each approach in terms of stability and image quality is presented. Exhaustive comparisons between all approaches were conducted in a 2D based image reconstruction model. From these 2D approaches, that showing the best performances were finally implemented and evaluated in a 3D based image reconstruction model. Comparison to 3D images reconstructed with FBP is also presented. Although the algorithm is presented in the context of computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction, it can be applied to any other tomographic technique as well, due to the fact that the only requirement is a scanning geometry involving measurements of an object under different projection angles. Real data have been acquired with a small animal (CT) scanner to verify the proposed mathematical description of the CT system. PMID:23706690

  14. Identification of EMS-induced mutations in Drosophila melanogaster by whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Blumenstiel, Justin P; Noll, Aaron C; Griffiths, Jennifer A; Perera, Anoja G; Walton, Kendra N; Gilliland, William D; Hawley, R Scott; Staehling-Hampton, Karen

    2009-05-01

    Next-generation methods for rapid whole-genome sequencing enable the identification of single-base-pair mutations in Drosophila by comparing a chromosome bearing a new mutation to the unmutagenized sequence. To validate this approach, we sought to identify the molecular lesion responsible for a recessive EMS-induced mutation affecting egg shell morphology by using Illumina next-generation sequencing. After obtaining sufficient sequence from larvae that were homozygous for either wild-type or mutant chromosomes, we obtained high-quality reads for base pairs composing approximately 70% of the third chromosome of both DNA samples. We verified 103 single-base-pair changes between the two chromosomes. Nine changes were nonsynonymous mutations and two were nonsense mutations. One nonsense mutation was in a gene, encore, whose mutations produce an egg shell phenotype also observed in progeny of homozygous mutant mothers. Complementation analysis revealed that the chromosome carried a new functional allele of encore, demonstrating that one round of next-generation sequencing can identify the causative lesion for a phenotype of interest. This new method of whole-genome sequencing represents great promise for mutant mapping in flies, potentially replacing conventional methods. PMID:19307605

  15. Two ray shooting methods for computing the EM scattering by large open-ended cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, R. J.; Chou, R.-C.; Pathak, P. H.

    1991-11-01

    Two ray shooting approaches are presented for analyzing the high frequency external EM scattering by open-ended waveguide cavities of relatively arbitrary shape and with a planar interior termination. The contribution to the external scattering arising from the interior cavity region is found by (i) the shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) method, and (ii) the generalized ray expansion (GRE) method. The basic difference between the two methods is in the way the rays are initially launched into the cavity interior via the open end which is directly illuminated. While the SBR method tracks only the incident geometrical optics field which enters the cavity, the GRE method also intrinsically includes the fields diffracted into the cavity by the edges at the open end. Also, in the SBR method a new set of rays needs to be tracked for each incidence angle, while in the GRE method only one set of rays needs to be tracked independent of the incidence angles, although this is generally a much larger set than that used in SBR for a single incidence angle. Therefore, it is found that the SBR method is preferable for analyzing the scattering from cavities which are very large electrically and for relatively few incidence angles. On the other hand the GRE method is preferable for analyzing not only large but also moderately large cavities and for cases where a large number of incidence angles are needed. Numerical results and comparisons based on these methods are presented.

  16. 3D MRI brain image segmentation based on region restricted EM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Fan, Jianping

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm of 3D human brain tissue segmentation and classification in magnetic resonance image (MRI) based on region restricted EM algorithm (RREM). The RREM is a level set segmentation method while the evolution of the contours was driven by the force field composed by the probability density functions of the Gaussian models. Each tissue is modeled by one or more Gaussian models restricted by free shaped contour so that the Gaussian models are adaptive to the local intensities. The RREM is guaranteed to be convergency and achieving the local minimum. The segmentation avoids to be trapped in the local minimum by the split and merge operation. A fuzzy rule based classifier finally groups the regions belonging to the same tissue and forms the segmented 3D image of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) which are of major interest in numerous applications. The presented method can be extended to segment brain images with tumor or the images having part of the brain removed with the adjusted classifier.

  17. Cryo-EM structure of isomeric molluscan hemocyanin triggered by viral infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongtao; Zhuang, Jun; Feng, Hongli; Liang, Rongfeng; Wang, Jiangyong; Xie, Lianhui; Zhu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins (Hcs) of arthropods and mollusks function not only as oxygen transporters, but also as phenoloxidases (POs). In invertebrates, PO is an important component in the innate immune cascade, where it functions as the initiator of melanin synthesis, a pigment involved in encapsulating and killing of pathogenic microbes. Although structures of Hc from several species of invertebrates have been reported, the structural basis for how PO activity is triggered by structural changes of Hc in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we report a 6.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the isomeric form of hemocyanin, which was isolated from Abalone Shriveling syndrome-associated Virus (AbSV) infected abalone (Halitotis diversicolor), and build a pseudoatomic model of isomeric H. diversicolor hemocyanin 1 (HdH1). Our results show that, compared with native form of HdH1, the architecture of isomeric HdH1 turns into a more relaxed form. The interactions between certain functional units (FUs) present in the native form of Hc either decreased or were totally abolished in the isomeric form of Hc. As a result of that, native state Hc switches to its isomeric form, enabling it to play its role in innate immune responses against invading pathogens. PMID:24887432

  18. Cryo-EM Structure of Isomeric Molluscan Hemocyanin Triggered by Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hongli; Liang, Rongfeng; Wang, Jiangyong; Xie, Lianhui; Zhu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Hemocyanins (Hcs) of arthropods and mollusks function not only as oxygen transporters, but also as phenoloxidases (POs). In invertebrates, PO is an important component in the innate immune cascade, where it functions as the initiator of melanin synthesis, a pigment involved in encapsulating and killing of pathogenic microbes. Although structures of Hc from several species of invertebrates have been reported, the structural basis for how PO activity is triggered by structural changes of Hc in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we report a 6.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the isomeric form of hemocyanin, which was isolated from Abalone Shriveling syndrome-associated Virus (AbSV) infected abalone (Halitotis diversicolor), and build a pseudoatomic model of isomeric H. diversicolor hemocyanin 1 (HdH1). Our results show that, compared with native form of HdH1, the architecture of isomeric HdH1 turns into a more relaxed form. The interactions between certain functional units (FUs) present in the native form of Hc either decreased or were totally abolished in the isomeric form of Hc. As a result of that, native state Hc switches to its isomeric form, enabling it to play its role in innate immune responses against invading pathogens. PMID:24887432

  19. World's largest gathering. Muslim mass pilgrimage poses EMS logistical & planning challenges.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Kenneth; Leggio, William J; Al Mubaireek, Hisham

    2013-09-01

    The Hajj is a "mega-gathering" event attended yearly by millions of Muslims from across the world. Planning, communications and logistical support are the foundations of its success. EMS systems and major event planners throughout the world can learn from studying the special challenges involved with managing such a large multilingual, multicultural crowd. Current studies predict that by 2020 there will be more than 10 million pilgrims in attendance for the event. New construction and supportive infrastructures are already underway to meet the ever-growing needs of the pilgrims. With the improvement of systems and design, there is already a steady decrease in the number of accidents and requests for help. Continuous monitoring of emerging health situations ensures that a simple case of the flu does not become a worldwide epidemic. There will always be a need for emergent care during the Hajj and the Saudi Red Crescent Authority and supportive agencies will be ready to serve those who come to participate. PMID:24404691

  20. The role of journals in building up communities: the experience of Cincia em Tela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Isabel; de Souza Barros, Susana

    2015-11-01

    Cincia em Tela is an open access Brazilian science teacher education online journal that has been published twice a year since 2008 and which encourages the participation of professionals with different backgrounds and the submission of a variety of textual genres, besides research papers. Another feature is that the journal includes practicing schoolteachers not only as authors but also as reviewers, which not only provides those who submit contributions to the journal with an early feedback from their target audience but also helps empower schoolteachers by placing them in a discursive situation in which they are producers, as opposed to consumers, of discourses about science education. In this paper we describe the background to and main aspects of the journal's innovative editorial policy, which seeks to bridge gaps between communities and institutions linked to science education, as well as to discuss the challenges that arise from it, in particular, issues concerning internationalisation and funding, as well as the role of journals in times of colonisation and commodification of knowledge and of discourses.