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Sample records for paleolithic black pigments

  1. Discovery of Unusual Minerals in Paleolithic Black Pigments from Lascaux (France) and Ekain (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmin, E.; Farges, F.; Vignaud, C.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Brown, G.E., Jr.; /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-13

    Analyses of archaeological materials aim to rediscover the know-how of Prehistoric people by determining the nature of the painting matter, its preparation mode, and the geographic origin of its raw materials. This study deals with identification of manganese oxides in black pigments by micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) based on previous TEM (transmission electron microscopy) studies. Complex mixtures of the manganese oxides studied are present in some of mankind's oldest known paintings, namely those from the caves of Lascaux (Dordogne, France) and Ekain (Basque country, Spain). Scarce manganese oxide minerals, including groutite, hausmannite, and manganite, were found for the first time in Paleolithic art at these archaeological sites. Because there are no known deposits of such minerals in these areas, more distant origins and trade routes are inferred. The closest known Mn-rich geological province for Lascaux is the central Pyrenees, which is {approx} 250 km from the Dordogne area.

  2. Raman Spectroscopy for the Investigation of Carbon Based Black Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, A.; Jehlicka, J.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.

    2014-06-01

    Carbon based black pigments play an important role among artists' materials. The disordered structure of these materials is investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy, which helps in the comprehension of their production processes.

  3. Stereochemistry of the Black Tea Pigments Theacitrins A and C.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Okuda, Keita; Morikawa, Hitomi; Oowatashi, Ryosuke; Saito, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    Theacitrins A-C are yellow pigments of black tea that are produced by oxidative coupling of gallocatechins, i.e., flavan-3-ols with pyrogallol-type B-rings. However, their stereostructures have not yet been determined. In this study, DFT calculations of NMR chemical shifts of theacitrin C (1) and TDDFT calculations of the ECD spectra of theacitrinin A (5), a degradation product of theacitrin C (1), were used to determine the stereostructure of the theacitrins. Furthermore, the preparation of theacitrins A (4) and C (1) by enzymatic oxidation of an epigallocatechin (7) and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) mixture confirmed their structural relationship. PMID:26689950

  4. Characterization of black pigment used in 30 BC fresco wall paint using instrumental methods and chemometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods Several standard powdered black pigments were characterized by means of thermogravimetry TG-DTG and allied techniques. These pigments were used to make standard plaster frescoes at this purpose prepared. The latter ones were subjected to Raman and reflectance analysis. The results obtained, together with TG data, were chemometrically processed and used to identify an analogous standard fresco fabricated by an unknown commercial black pigment, obtaining excellent results. Results The same colorimetric and reflectometric techniques, coupled with suitable chemometric techniques, were then successfully used to identify the type of black pigment present in an ancient roman fresco of the Imperial Age (30 B.C.). Conclusion TG-DTG resulted useful techniques to autenticate powdered black pigments.Colorimetry and Raman, but also the only colorimetry, were useful to identify an ancient black pigment in situ. PMID:22594437

  5. Synthesis and characterization of black, red and yellow nanoparticles pigments from the iron sand

    SciTech Connect

    Mufti, Nandang Atma, T. Fuad, A.; Sutadji, E.

    2014-09-25

    The aim of this research is to synthesize nanoparticles of black pigment of Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), red pigment of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and yellow pigment of ghoetite (α-FeOOH) from the iron sand. The black pigment of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the yellow pigment α-FeOOH nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method with variation of pH. Whereas, the red pigment Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was synthesized by sintering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at temperature between 400 °C and 700 7°C for 1 hour. All the pigments has been characterized using X-ray diffraction and SEM. The XRD results shown that the particle size of the black pigmen Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, red pigment Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and yellow pigment α-FeOOH are around 12, 32, and 30 nm respectively. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles increase by increasing sintering temperature from 32 nm at 400 °C to 39 nm at 700 °C. For yellow pigment of α-FeOOH, the particle size increase by increasing pH from 30,54 nm at pH 4 to 48,60 nm at pH 7. The SEM results shown that the morphologies of black, yellow and red pigments are aglomarated.

  6. Melanin pigmentation gives rise to black spots on the wings of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, Katsuhiko; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Fujii, Takeshi; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Several mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori show body color variation at the larval and adult stages. The Wild wing spot (Ws) mutant exhibits a phenotype in which the moth has a spot on the apex of the forewing. In this study, we investigated this trait to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the color pattern. Microscopy of the black spot of Ws mutants showed that the pigment emerges in the scales of the wing, and accumulation of the pigment becomes strong just before eclosion. We next examined the relationship between the black spot of the Ws mutant and melanin. The spectrophotometry using alkaline extracts from the black spot in the wing showed the highest absorption intensity at 405nm, which is the absorbance wavelength of melanin. Moreover, inhibition assays for enzymes implicated in melanin synthesis using 3-iodo-l-tyrosine (a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor) and L-α-methyl-DOPA (a dopa decarboxylase inhibitor) revealed that treatment with each inhibitor disrupted the pigmentation of the wing of the Ws mutant. On the basis of these results, we analyzed the expression pattern of five genes involved in melanin formation, and found that the expression levels of yellow and laccase2 were increased just before pigmentation, whereas those of DDC, tan, and TH were increased when the apex of the wing turned black. These results showed that melanin pigmentation gives rise to the black spot on the wing. PMID:27405010

  7. Estimation of phytoplankton biomass using HPLC pigment analysis in the southwestern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ediger, D.; Soydemir, N.; Kideys, A. E.

    2006-08-01

    The phytoplankton population of the southwestern Black Sea in May 2001 was studied by taxonomic analysis using microscopic examination and by pigment analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pigment data, which identified phytoplankton assemblages dominated by dinoflagellates, diatoms and coccolithophores in May 2001, were compared to phytoplankton cell counts and biomass. There were significant ( p<0.002-0.01, r=0.56-0.67) relationships between the taxon-specific pigment concentrations and the taxon-specific cell numbers during this sampling period. The ratios of chlorophyll- a to the dominant accessory pigments calculated by multiple linear regressions were 1.2 (chlorophyll- a: peridinin) in dinoflagellates, 1.8 (chlorophyll- a: fucoxanthin) in diatoms, and 2.66 (chlorophyll- a: 19'-hexonoyloxyfucoxanthin) in coccolithophores. HPLC-determined chlorophyll- a biomass correlated well with the sum of the group-specific pigment biomass ( p<0.001, r2=0.95). The phytoplankton assemblage as revealed by the microscopic and HPLC analyses was thus made up of common Black Sea groups showing that HPLC pigment analysis can be used to quantify phytoplankton assemblages in the Black Sea based on simple ratios.

  8. Black sesame pigment: DPPH assay-guided purification, antioxidant/antinitrosating properties, and identification of a degradative structural marker.

    PubMed

    Panzella, Lucia; Eidenberger, Thomas; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2012-09-12

    An improved purification procedure leading to black sesame ( Sesamum Indicum L.) pigment was developed involving fat removal by treatment of ground black sesame seeds with dichloromethane followed by an optimized hydrolytic protocol with 6 M HCl, at 100 °C, overnight. The black pigment thus obtained displayed good antioxidant efficiency by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay (82% reduction at 0.5 mg/mL), good ferric ion-reducing capacity (61 μM Trolox equivalent concentration at 0.5 mg/mL), and potent antinitrosating properties (74% inhibition of 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) nitrosation at gastric pH at 2.5 mg/mL). A synthetic pigment obtained by oxidative polymerization of coniferyl alcohol (polyconiferyl alcohol, PCA), the putative biosynthetic precursor to the sesame pigment, was characterized as a reference standard. FT IR spectra of the purified sesame pigment and PCA supported the structural similarity. HPLC analysis of degradation products by alkaline hydrogen peroxide of purified black sesame pigment showed the formation of vanillic acid (VA) as the main isolable fragment. Similar yields of VA were obtained by degradation of PCA. A positive correlation between VA yields and DPPH activity was determined in samples of different purities. It is suggested that VA is a structural marker of black sesame pigment, confirming the biosynthetic origin from coniferyl alcohol and pointing to the o-methoxyphenol motif as the key factor accounting for the potent antioxidant properties of the pigment. PMID:22423623

  9. Production of brown and black pigments by using flotation waste from copper slag.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Emel; Turan, Servet; Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2006-04-01

    One of the major problems in copper-producing countries is the treatment of the large amount of copper slag or copper flotation waste generated from copper slag which contains significant amounts of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Pb and Co. Dumping or disposal of such large quantities of flotation waste from copper slag causes environmental and space problems. In this study, the treatment of flotation waste from copper slag by a thermal method and its use as an iron source in the production of inorganic brown and black pigments that are used in the ceramic industry were investigated. The pigments were produced by calcining different amounts of flotation waste and chromite, Cr2O3, ZnO and CoO mixtures. The pigments obtained were added to transparent ceramic glazes and porcelainized tile bodies. Their colours were defined by L*a*b* measurements with a spectrophotometer. The results showed that flotation waste from copper slag could be used as an iron source to produce brown and black pigments in both ceramic body and glazes. PMID:16634227

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Black-Pigmented Corynebacterium sp. from a Woman with Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjay K.; Vevea, Dirk N.; Frank, Daniel N.; Pace, Norman R.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2001-01-01

    An unusual black-pigmented coryneform bacterium was isolated from the urogenital tract of a woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month 6 of pregnancy. Biochemical and chemotaxonomic analyses demonstrated that the unknown bacterium belonged to the genus Corynebacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences (GenBank accession no. AF220220) revealed that the organism was a member of a distinct subline which includes uncultured Corynebacterium MTcory 1P (GenBank accession no. AF115934), derived from prostatic fluid, and Corynebacterium CDC B8037 (GenBank accession no. AF033314), an uncharacterized black-pigmented coryneform bacterium. On the basis of chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic evidence, this organism probably represents a new species and is most closely related to the uncharacterized Centers for Disease Control and Prevention group 4 coryneforms. Our strain is designated CN-1 (ATCC 700975). PMID:11230435

  11. Was skin cancer a selective force for black pigmentation in early hominin evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Mel

    2014-01-01

    Melanin provides a crucial filter for solar UV radiation and its genetically determined variation influences both skin pigmentation and risk of cancer. Genetic evidence suggests that the acquisition of a highly stable melanocortin 1 receptor allele promoting black pigmentation arose around the time of savannah colonization by hominins at some 1–2 Ma. The adaptive significance of dark skin is generally believed to be protection from UV damage but the pathologies that might have had a deleterious impact on survival and/or reproductive fitness, though much debated, are uncertain. Here, I suggest that data on age-associated cancer incidence and lethality in albinos living at low latitudes in both Africa and Central America support the contention that skin cancer could have provided a potent selective force for the emergence of black skin in early hominins. PMID:24573849

  12. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black-pigment-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Saunders, Lauren P; Schisler, David A; Leathers, Timothy D; Naeem, Naveed; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-08-01

    Two isolates of a Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a dark pigment on tryptic soy agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains were related most closely to Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum (99.7 % similarity) and Bacillus axarquiensis (99.7 %). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strains were found to grow between 17 and 50 °C and can tolerate up to 9 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strains grew in media of pH 5.5-10 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (34.8 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (21.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome of both strains was completed. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis on the core genome of these two new strains and all members of the Bacillus subtilis group revealed these two strains formed a distinct monophyletic clade with the nearest neighbour Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. DNA-DNA relatedness studies using in silico DNA-DNA hybridizations showed the two strains were conspecific (93.8 %), while values with all other species (<31.5 %) were well below the species threshold of 70 %. Based on the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, these strains are considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41091T (=CCUG 68786T). PMID:27150918

  13. Frequency of black pigment in livers and spleens of coal workers: correlation with pulmonary pathology and occupational information

    SciTech Connect

    LeFevre, M.E.; Green, F.H.; Joel, D.D.; Laqueur, W.

    1982-12-01

    Histologic sections of liver and spleen from 99 retired coal workers and nine non-coal workers were obtained at autopsy and scored for black pigment. Pigment was minimal in the non-coal workers, with the exception of one person with silicosis. Moderate or heavy pigment was seen in 10.4 per cent of liver sections and 19.5 per cent of spleen sections from coal workers. The extrapulmonary pigment was not associated with any pathologic tissue response. Information on pulmonary pathology and occupational exposure to dust was available for most workers. Highly significant positive correlation was found between the severity of pneumoconiosis and the black pigment score in both liver and spleen; the correlation between emphysema and pigment score was lower, but still significant for liver. Significant positive correlations were found between years spent underground, years of retirement, and age at death versus pigment scores. Significant negative correlation was found between smoking and pigment. The positive association of extrapulmonary pigment with age at death, years of underground mining, and severity of pneumoconiosis suggests that cumulative lifetime exposure to coal mine dust may be the most important factor in the release of dust into the general circulation.

  14. Frequency of black pigment in livers and spleens of coal workers: correlation with pulmonary pathology and occupational information

    SciTech Connect

    LeFevre, M.E.; Green, F.H.Y.; Joel, D.D.; Laqueur, W.

    1982-01-01

    Histologic sections of liver and spleen from 99 retired coal workers and nine non-coal workers were obtained at autopsy and scored for black pigment. Pigment was minimal in the non-coal workers, with the exception of one person with silicosis. Moderate or heavy pigment was seen in 10.4 per cent of liver sections and 19.5 per cent of spleen sections from coal workers. The extrapulmonary pigment was not associated with any pathologic tissue response. Information on pulmonary pathology and occupational exposure to dust was available for most workers. Highly significant positive correlation was found between the severity of pnuemoconiosis and the black pigment score in both liver and spleen; the correlation between emphysema and pigment score was lower, but still significant for liver. Significant positive correlations were found between years spent underground, years of retirement, and age at death versus pigment scores. Significant negative correlation was found between smoking and pigment. The positive association of extrapulmonary pigment with age at death, years of underground mining, and severity of pneumoconiosis suggests that cumulative lifetime exposure to coal mine dust may be the most important factor in the release of dust into the general circulation.

  15. Preparation of nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment by recycling of blast furnace flue dust.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lazhen; Qiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Yong; Tan, Junru

    2010-05-15

    Blast furnace (BF) flue dust is one of pollutants emitted by iron and steel plants. The recycling of BF flue dust can not only reduce pollution but also bring social and environmental benefits. In this study, leaching technique was employed to the treatment of BF flue dust at first. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric sulfate was obtained and used as raw material to prepare nanometer-sized black iron oxide pigment (Fe(3)O(4), magnetite) with NaOH as precipitant. The optimal technological conditions including total iron ion concentration, Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) mole ratio, precipitant concentration and reaction temperature were studied and discussed carefully. The spectral reflectance and oil absorption were used as major parameters to evaluate performance of pigment. Furthermore, Fe(3)O(4) particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under optimized conditions obtained pigment has low average spectral reflectance (<4%), good oil absorption ( approximately 23%), high black intensity, and narrow size distribution 60-70 nm. PMID:20064689

  16. The Functional Significance of Black-Pigmented Leaves: Photosynthesis, Photoprotection and Productivity in Ophiopogon planiscapus ‘Nigrescens’

    PubMed Central

    Hatier, Jean-Hugues B.; Clearwater, Michael J.; Gould, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Black pigmented leaves are common among horticultural cultivars, yet are extremely rare across natural plant populations. We hypothesised that black pigmentation would disadvantage a plant by reducing photosynthesis and therefore shoot productivity, but that this trait might also confer protective benefits by shielding chloroplasts against photo-oxidative stress. CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll a fluorescence, shoot biomass, and pigment concentrations were compared for near isogenic green- and black-leafed Ophiopogonplaniscapus ‘Nigrescens’. The black leaves had lower maximum CO2 assimilation rates, higher light saturation points and higher quantum efficiencies of photosystem II (PSII) than green leaves. Under saturating light, PSII photochemistry was inactivated less and recovered more completely in the black leaves. In full sunlight, green plants branched more abundantly and accumulated shoot biomass quicker than the black plants; in the shade, productivities of the two morphs were comparable. The data indicate a light-screening, photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins. However, limitations to photosynthetic carbon assimilation are relatively small, insufficient to explain the natural scarcity of black-leafed plants. PMID:23826347

  17. Black tongue secondary to bismuth subsalicylate: case report and review of exogenous causes of macular lingual pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2009-12-01

    Macular pigmentation of the tongue can be acquired following exposure to exogenous agents. Black lingual hyperpigmentation was observed during the full body skin examination of a man with a history of recurrent metastatic malignant melanoma. His tongue spontaneously returned to its normal pink color later that day. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) was suspected as the pigment-inducing agent; subsequently, re-challange with the antacid confirmed it to be the cause of his acquired, albeit transient, black tongue. The ingestion of medications, including other antacids, analgesics, antidepressants, antihypertensives and several antimicrobials has been associated with the development of acquired macular lingual pigmentation. In addition, hyperpigmentation of the tongue has been observed following the deposition of amalgam and the injection of local anesthesia or doxorubicin or interferon alpha and ribavirin. Also, inhalation of heroin and methaqualone vapors or tobacco has resulted in lingual hyperpigmentation. All of the patients with acquired macular lingual hyperpigmentation had tongues with a smooth surface without enlargement of the filiform papillae. Many of the individuals with hyperpigmented tongue had either black or dark skin color. The onset of tongue pigmentation varied from less than one day to several years after initial exposure to the associated exogenous agent. The color of the tongue usually returned to normal after the pigment-inducing agent was discontinued. PMID:20027942

  18. Efficient Binding of Heavy Metals by Black Sesame Pigment: Toward Innovative Dietary Strategies To Prevent Bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Manini, Paola; Panzella, Lucia; Eidenberger, Thomas; Giarra, Antonella; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

    2016-02-01

    Black sesame pigment (BSP) was shown to bind lead, cadmium, and mercury at pH 7.0 and to a lower extent at pH 2.0. BSP at 0.05 mg/mL removed the metals at 15 μM to a significant extent (>65% for cadmium and >90% for mercury and lead), with no changes following simulated digestion. The maximum binding capacities at pH 7.0 were 626.0 mg/g (lead), 42.2 mg/g (cadmium), and 69.3 mg/g (mercury). In the presence of essential metals, such as iron, calcium, and zinc, BSP retained high selectivity toward heavy metals. Model pigments from caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferyl alcohol showed lower or comparable binding ability, suggesting that the marked properties of BSP may result from cooperativity of different sites likely carboxy groups and o-diphenol and guaiacyl functionalities. Direct evidence for the presence of such units was obtained by structural analysis of BSP by solid-state Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:26752477

  19. Pigments, size and distribution of Synechococcus spp. in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Zahit

    2000-03-01

    Pigments, size and distribution of Phycoerythrin-containing unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. within the euphotic zone were studied for the first time in April-May 1994 in the western and southwestern Black Sea by epifluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometry. Synechococcus was present in varying quantities at every station and depth studied. Surface spatial distribution of Synechococcus revealed that cells were much more abundant in offshore waters than near coastal regions under the direct influence of the Danube river. Minimum and maximum cell concentrations ranged between 9×10 2 and 1.45×10 5 cells/ml at the surface, between 2×10 3 and 1.23×10 5 cells/ml at the chlorophyll sub-maximum layer, and between 1.3×10 2 and 3.5×10 2 at the nitrite maximum layer. Cells at the chlorophyll sub-maximum layer (based on in-situ fluorometer readings) fluoresce brighter and longer than the ones at the surface and lower depths. Spectral properties of chromophore pigment types of total 64 clonal isolates from different depths down to the lower layer of the euphotic zone (˜60 m) in the southern Black Sea coast revealed that all have type 2 phycoerythrobilin in common, lacking in phycourobilin. In vivo fluorescence emission maxima for the phycoerythrobilin were about the same (˜578 nm) for all isolates. All isolates examined showed in vivo absorption maxima at between 435 and 442 nm and at about 681 nm due to chlorophyll- a. Based on the flow cytometer mean forward light scatter data for size distribution, it could be concluded that cells at the surface mixed layer (0-10 m) were larger in cell size than the cells at lower depths (20-60 m).

  20. Gastroprotective effect of red pigments in black chokeberry fruit (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) on acute gastric hemorrhagic lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Hara, Hiroshi; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kasai, Takanori

    2004-04-21

    It has been reported that the fruits and leaves of berries such as the blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry contain a high level of scavenging activity for chemically generated active oxygen species. This study investigated the antioxidative activities of black chokeberry fruit (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) both in vitro and in vivo using the DPPH stable radical and rats with ethanol-induced gastric injury, respectively. The red pigment fraction of the black chokeberry contained three main components, one of which was identified as cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucoside by HPLC analysis and (1)H NMR. The black chokeberry red pigment fraction scavenged >44% of DPPH radicals at a concentration of 25 microg/mL compared to the control solution. The black chokeberry extract and its hydrolysate administrated at 2 g/kg of body weight each had nearly the same protective effect as quercetin administrated at 100 mg/kg of body weight in suppressing the area of gastric mucosal damage caused by the subsequent application of ethanol to <30% compared to the control group. The black chokeberry red pigment fraction had a similarly significant protective effect on gastric mucosa in a dose-dependent manner when administered at 30-300 mg/kg of body weight, and the administration of 30 mg/kg of body weight could suppress ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage by approximately 50% (ID(50) = 30 mg/kg of body weight). PMID:15080625

  1. Unlinked Mendelian inheritance of red and black pigmentation in snakes: Implications for Batesian mimicry.

    PubMed

    Davis Rabosky, Alison R; Cox, Christian L; Rabosky, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of mimetic signals is critical to understanding both the origin and dynamics of mimicry over time. For species not amenable to large laboratory breeding studies, widespread color polymorphism across natural populations offers a powerful way to assess the relative likelihood of different genetic systems given observed phenotypic frequencies. We classified color phenotype for 2175 ground snakes (Sonora semiannulata) across the continental United States to analyze morph ratios and test among competing hypotheses about the genetic architecture underlying red and black coloration in coral snake mimics. We found strong support for a two-locus model under simple Mendelian inheritance, with red and black pigmentation being controlled by separate loci. We found no evidence of either linkage disequilibrium between loci or sex linkage. In contrast to Batesian mimicry systems such as butterflies in which all color signal components are linked into a single "supergene," our results suggest that the mimetic signal in colubrid snakes can be disrupted through simple recombination and that color evolution is likely to involve discrete gains and losses of each signal component. Both outcomes are likely to contribute to the exponential increase in rates of color evolution seen in snake mimicry systems over insect systems. PMID:26959901

  2. Effects and mechanism of action of naphthalene, a petroleum-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on black pigment dispersion in the salt marsh fiddler crab, UCA pugilator

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    At a concentration of approximately 8 ppm, naphthalene inhibited circadian black pigment dispersion in the integumentary chromatophores of the fiddler crab no matter what the initial state of the black pigment. The inhibition was concentration dependent. Naphthalene was not toxic to fiddler crabs under these conditions at any concentration up to 16.69 ppm. No chemically induced phase shift in the circadian rhythm of naphthalene exposed crabs occurs. In addition there is no difference in the mean black chromatophore index at midnight between control and naphthalene exposed crabs, indicating that the release of black pigment concentrating hormone (BPCH) is not being influenced by naphthalene. The only possibility remaining is that naphthalene must interfere with some aspect of the control of BPDH release by NE. Exposure to naphthalene does not inhibit black pigment dispersion when crabs are placed on a black background or kept on a black background throughout the experiment. This argues against naphthalene acting to inhibit the synthesis of NE, or to promote its metabolism, since NE is involved in adaptation to a black background. Naphthalene, therefore, must act to prevent the release of BPDH by interfering with some aspect of the presynaptic control of BPDH release by NE.

  3. Possible Calendrical Inscriptions on Paleolithic Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, Michael A.

    During the Upper Paleolithic (40-12 ka BP) people used observation-based and early kinds of rule-based astronomical systems of time reckoning. Paleolithic versions of almanacs and calendars based on lunar, solar, lunisolar, and sidereal time reckoning are recorded on mobile objects and cave walls. Typical are combinations and synchronizations of astronomical periods with biological cycles of certain animals and the human female.

  4. Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov.: Proposed Name for a Black-Pigmented Corynebacterium Species Recovered from the Human Female Urogenital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjay K.; Bernard, Kathryn A.; Harney, Mary; Frank, Daniel N.; Reed, Kurt D.

    2003-01-01

    Six independent isolates of an unusual black-pigmented Corynebacterium species (strains CN-1, CN-2, CN-3415, W70124, 91-0032, and 92-0360) were recovered from the human female urogenital tract. Four of the six source patients had complications of pregnancy, including spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and low amniotic fluid volume at the time of the pathogen isolation. One isolate was recovered from a vaginal ulcer. All six strains yielded black-pigmented colonies on sheep blood agar, chocolate agar, and colistin-nalidixic acid agar after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 35°C. The dry, adherent colonies pitted the agar surface. The cells were coccobacillary to rod-shaped, catalase positive, nonmotile, and nonlipophilic. Only five of six isolates were available for characterization. Biochemical and chemotaxonomic studies revealed that the strains belong to the genus Corynebacterium but differ from known corynebacterial species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strains are closely related and form a new subline within the genus Corynebacterium. We propose the name Corynebacterium nigricans sp. nov. for this group of coryneforms. The type strain of Corynebacterium nigricans is CN-1. It is deposited in the American Type Culture Collection (assigned strain number ATCC 700975) and in the Institute Pasteur collection (assigned strain number CIP 107346). PMID:12958268

  5. Black perithecial pigmentation in Fusarium species is due to the accumulation of 5-deoxybostrycoidin-based melanin.

    PubMed

    Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Rasmussen, Silas A; Knudsen, Peter B; Uhlig, Silvio; Petersen, Dirk; Lysøe, Erik; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Giese, Henriette; Larsen, Thomas O

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the black perithecial pigment in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is dependent on the polyketide synthase PGL1 (oPKS3). A seven-membered PGL1 gene cluster was identified by over-expression of the cluster specific transcription factor pglR. Targeted gene replacement showed that PGL1, pglJ, pglM and pglV were essential for the production of the perithecial pigment. Over-expression of PGL1 resulted in the production of 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin (1), 5-deoxybostrycoidin (2), and three novel compounds 5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (3), 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (4) and purpurfusarin (5). The novel dimeric bostrycoidin purpurfusarin (5) was found to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans with an IC50 of 8.0 +/- 1.9 μM. The results show that Fusarium species with black perithecia have a previously undescribed form of 5-deoxybostrycoidin based melanin in their fruiting bodies. PMID:27193384

  6. Black perithecial pigmentation in Fusarium species is due to the accumulation of 5-deoxybostrycoidin-based melanin

    PubMed Central

    Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.; Rasmussen, Silas A.; Knudsen, Peter B.; Uhlig, Silvio; Petersen, Dirk; Lysøe, Erik; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.; Giese, Henriette; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of the black perithecial pigment in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is dependent on the polyketide synthase PGL1 (oPKS3). A seven-membered PGL1 gene cluster was identified by over-expression of the cluster specific transcription factor pglR. Targeted gene replacement showed that PGL1, pglJ, pglM and pglV were essential for the production of the perithecial pigment. Over-expression of PGL1 resulted in the production of 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin (1), 5-deoxybostrycoidin (2), and three novel compounds 5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (3), 6-O-demethyl-5-deoxybostrycoidin anthrone (4) and purpurfusarin (5). The novel dimeric bostrycoidin purpurfusarin (5) was found to inhibit the growth of Candida albicans with an IC50 of 8.0 +/− 1.9 μM. The results show that Fusarium species with black perithecia have a previously undescribed form of 5-deoxybostrycoidin based melanin in their fruiting bodies. PMID:27193384

  7. Obesity in the paleolithic era.

    PubMed

    Jozsa, Laszlo G

    2011-01-01

    Photos and/or copies of one hundred Upper Paleolithic (45,000-40,000 to 10,000 BP) statues were studied, the photos having been taken from the frontal, lateral and back view. Among the 97 female idols studied, 24 were skinny (mainly young women), 15 were of normal weight, while more than half of them (51) represented overweight or very obese females whose breasts were also extremely large. The figurine analysis revealed various types of obesity. Increased fat tissue deposition can be seen in the following body parts: belly only in 2 Venus figurines, belly + hip in 10, belly + gluteal + hip in 14, belly + hip + gluteal + femora in 24 and diffuse obesity in one. Steatopygia (derived from the Greek "steato" meaning fat, and "pygia" meaning buttocks and describing excessive fat of the buttocks) was observable in 7 idols, although these females were not particularly overweight and had a reasonably thin waist and legs. Only seven statues were in the state of advanced gravidity (pregnancy). The presence of such a small number of gravidity statuettes challenges the general view concerning Venus idols, namely, that they all represent female fertility. PMID:22001136

  8. Identification and profiling of microRNAs associated with white and black plumage pigmentation in the white and black feather bulbs of ducks by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Apopo, S; Liu, H; Jing, L; Du, X; Xie, S; Gong, Y; Xu, R; Li, S

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in many biological processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. However, the mechanism by which specific miRNAs may regulate plumage pigmentation has remained largely elusive. In this study, we sequenced miRNAs using Solexa sequencing and then performed a detailed analysis of their expression profiles between the black and white feather bulbs of ducks from Cui Hei, Kaiya, Liancheng pure breeds and a Kaiya-Liancheng F2 population. mirdeep2 software identified 121 conserved and eight novel miRNAs. Five differentially expressed miRNAs between the two tissues types were also identified by degseq software. Notably, miR-204 was predominantly expressed in black feather bulbs. To further validate the sequencing data, we applied stem-loop quantitative PCR of ten known miRNAs based on the identified sequences. Furthermore, in exploring the temporal expression pattern of miR-204, we performed profiling in nine duck tissues. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted using a PITA algorithm and were later grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis using the DAVID website. The melanogenesis pathway was among the identified signalling pathways, implying key roles of these miRNAs in plumage pigmentation. Expression analysis of the target genes in the melanogenesis pathways was also performed. This study provides the foundation for subsequent studies on the prospective practical role for such miRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation linked to plumage pigmentation. PMID:26369256

  9. Not just black and white: pigment pattern development and evolution in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Margaret G.; Patterson, Larissa B.

    2009-01-01

    Animals display diverse colors and patterns that vary within and between species. Similar phenotypes appear in both closely related and widely divergent taxa. Pigment patterns thus provide an opportunity to explore how development is altered to produce differences in form and whether similar phenotypes share a common genetic basis. Understanding the development and evolution of pigment patterns requires knowledge of the cellular interactions and signaling pathways that produce those patterns. These complex traits provide unparalleled opportunities for integrating studies from ecology and behavior to molecular biology and biophysics. PMID:19073271

  10. Paleolithic vs. Epipaleolithic fisheries in northern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrero, Pablo; Ardura, Alba; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2014-07-01

    A comparison of Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic fisheries in NW Iberia shows an overall high trophic level of catch. Freshwater fisheries (and thus their impacts) are ca. 8000 yr older than marine fisheries and have suffered virtually no changes in the region except for the increase in numbers, being focused on two families (Salmonidae, and Anguillidae to a very minor extent). Marine fisheries in the Paleolithic likely had a low impact but rapidly increased in importance, raising the average trophic level of the catch, the number of affected taxa and the proportion of marine to freshwater fisheries with time.

  11. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  12. Altamira cave Paleolithic paintings harbor partly unknown bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2002-05-21

    Since it has been reported that microorganisms can affect painting pigments, Paleolithic painting microbiology deserves attention. The present study is the first report on the bacterial colonization of the valuable Paleolithic paintings in the famous Altamira cave (Spain). One sample taken from a painting area in the Polychromes Hall was analyzed culture-independently. This was the first time microbiologists were allowed to take sample material directly from Altamira paintings. Identification methods included PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) and community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The applied approach gave insight into a great bacterial taxonomic diversity, and allowed the detection of unexpected and unknown bacteria with potential effects on the conservation of the painting. Regarding the number of 29 visible DGGE bands in the community fingerprint, the numbers of analyzed clones described about 72% of the phylogenetic diversity present in the sample. Thirty-eight percent of the sequences analyzed were phylogenetically most closely related to cultivated bacteria, while the majority (62%) were most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones. Bacteria identified in Altamira were related with sequence similarities between 84.8 and 99.4% to members of the cosmopolitan Proteobacteria (52.3%), to members of the Acidobacterium division (23.8%), Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides phylum (9.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (4.8%), Planctomycetales (4.8%) and Actinobacteria (4.8%). The high number of clones most closely related to environmental 16S rDNA clones showed the broad spectrum of unknown and yet to be cultivated bacteria in Altamira cave. PMID:12052543

  13. Chemical investigation on black pigments in the carved decoration of sixteenth century alabaster tombs from Zaragoza (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina; Ribechini, Erika; Pardos, Carlos; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2009-12-01

    An analytical protocol based on optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses, analytical pyrolysis in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane followed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis (Py-silylation-GC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after alkaline hydrolysis, solvent extraction and trimethylsilylation was used to study the origin and nature of black pigments from the carved inscriptions of several panels of two alabaster tombs dated from the mid-sixteenth century. Optical microscopy and SEM observation showed the presence of an amorphous very dark-brown substance, from translucent to opaque. EDX analyses revealed that the samples were mainly made up of C and O, thus highlighting the organic nature of the material used in the inscriptions. Py-silylation-GC/MS and GC/MS analyses provided detailed molecular compositions, highlighting the presence of a wide range of compound classes including diterpenoid acids, tricyclic abietanes, mid- and long-chain monocarboxylic fatty acids, n-alkanols and nalkanes. The pyrograms, the chromatographic profiles and the presence of characteristic biomarkers indicated that a mixture of pine pitch and beeswax had been used to make the black inscriptions. PMID:19662388

  14. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  15. Obesity: A Venusian story of Paleolithic proportions

    PubMed Central

    Seshadri, Krishna G.

    2012-01-01

    Art through the ages has been a marker of societal trends and fashion. Obesity is proscribed by physicians and almost reviled by today's society. While Venus (Aphrodite) continues to be the role model for those to aspire to free themselves from the clutches of obesity, Paleolithic humans had a different view of the perfect female form. Whether the Venus of Willendorf was a fashion symbol will be never answered, but the fact is that she remains testimony to the fact that obesity has been with us for several millennia. PMID:22276264

  16. Cognitive Demands of Lower Paleolithic Toolmaking

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin; Khreisheh, Nada; Bradley, Bruce; Chaminade, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Stone tools provide some of the most abundant, continuous, and high resolution evidence of behavioral change over human evolution, but their implications for cognitive evolution have remained unclear. We investigated the neurophysiological demands of stone toolmaking by training modern subjects in known Paleolithic methods (“Oldowan”, “Acheulean”) and collecting structural and functional brain imaging data as they made technical judgments (outcome prediction, strategic appropriateness) about planned actions on partially completed tools. Results show that this task affected neural activity and functional connectivity in dorsal prefrontal cortex, that effect magnitude correlated with the frequency of correct strategic judgments, and that the frequency of correct strategic judgments was predictive of success in Acheulean, but not Oldowan, toolmaking. This corroborates hypothesized cognitive control demands of Acheulean toolmaking, specifically including information monitoring and manipulation functions attributed to the "central executive" of working memory. More broadly, it develops empirical methods for assessing the differential cognitive demands of Paleolithic technologies, and expands the scope of evolutionary hypotheses that can be tested using the available archaeological record. PMID:25875283

  17. Cognitive demands of lower paleolithic toolmaking.

    PubMed

    Stout, Dietrich; Hecht, Erin; Khreisheh, Nada; Bradley, Bruce; Chaminade, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Stone tools provide some of the most abundant, continuous, and high resolution evidence of behavioral change over human evolution, but their implications for cognitive evolution have remained unclear. We investigated the neurophysiological demands of stone toolmaking by training modern subjects in known Paleolithic methods ("Oldowan", "Acheulean") and collecting structural and functional brain imaging data as they made technical judgments (outcome prediction, strategic appropriateness) about planned actions on partially completed tools. Results show that this task affected neural activity and functional connectivity in dorsal prefrontal cortex, that effect magnitude correlated with the frequency of correct strategic judgments, and that the frequency of correct strategic judgments was predictive of success in Acheulean, but not Oldowan, toolmaking. This corroborates hypothesized cognitive control demands of Acheulean toolmaking, specifically including information monitoring and manipulation functions attributed to the "central executive" of working memory. More broadly, it develops empirical methods for assessing the differential cognitive demands of Paleolithic technologies, and expands the scope of evolutionary hypotheses that can be tested using the available archaeological record. PMID:25875283

  18. Additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P.; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:19717433

  19. Diring Yuriakh: A lower paleolithic site in central Siberia.

    PubMed

    Waters, M R; Forman, S L; Pierson, J M

    1997-02-28

    Lower Paleolithic artifacts have been recovered from a single occupation surface within stratified deposits at Diring Yuriakh, an archaeological site in central Siberia. Thermoluminescence age estimates from eolian sediments indicate that the cultural horizon is greater than 260,000 years old. Diring Yuriakh is an order of magnitude older than documented Paleolithic sites in Siberia and is important for understanding the timing of human expansion into the far north, early adaptations to cold climates, and the peopling of the Americas. PMID:9036846

  20. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  1. Possible Astronomical Depictions in Franco-Cantabrian Paleolithic Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, Michael A.

    In some cases there is evidence for astronomical depictions among the rock art of the Franco-Cantabrian Upper Paleolithic (40-12 ka BP). Phenological almanacs, some kind of lunar time reckoning, certain asterisms, and manifestations of cosmovisions are probably present.

  2. [Evaluation of biological and clinical potential of paleolithic diet].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Lukasz M; Bujko, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidences suggest that foods that were regularly consumed during the human primates and evolution, in particular during the Paleolithic era (2.6-0.01 x 10(6) years ago), may be optimal for the prevention and treatment of some chronic diseases. It has been postulated that fundamental changes in the diet and other lifestyle conditions that occurred after the Neolithic Revolution, and more recently with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution are too recent taking into account the evolutionary time scale for the human genome to have completely adjust. In contemporary Western populations at least 70% of daily energy intake is provided by foods that were rarely or never consumed by Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, including grains, dairy products as well as refined sugars and highly processed fats. Additionally, compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets, based on recently published estimates of macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet, contained more proteins and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and less linoleic acid. Observational studies of hunter-gatherers and other non-western populations lend support to the notion that a Paleolithic type diet may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cancer, acne vulgaris and myopia. Moreover, preliminary intervention studies using contemporary diet based on Paleolithic food groups (meat, fish, shellfish, fresh fruits and vegetables, roots, tubers, eggs, and nuts), revealed promising results including favorable changes in risk factors, such as weight, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, glycated haemoglobin (HbAlc), blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles. Low calcium intake, which is often considered as a potential disadvantage of the Paleolithic diet model, should be weighed against the low content of phytates and the low content of sodium chloride, as well as the high

  3. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1) isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans) continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1) was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in the vaginal environment

  4. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans.

    PubMed

    Marom, Anat; McCullagh, James S O; Higham, Thomas F G; Sinitsyn, Andrey A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2012-05-01

    Archaeological bones are usually dated by radiocarbon measurement of extracted collagen. However, low collagen content, contamination from the burial environment, or museum conservation work, such as addition of glues, preservatives, and fumigants to "protect" archaeological materials, have previously led to inaccurate dates. These inaccuracies in turn frustrate the development of archaeological chronologies and, in the Paleolithic, blur the dating of such key events as the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Here we describe a method to date hydroxyproline found in collagen (~10% of collagen carbon) as a bone-specific biomarker that removes impurities, thereby improving dating accuracy and confidence. This method is applied to two important sites in Russia and allows us to report the earliest direct ages for the presence of anatomically modern humans on the Russian Plain. These dates contribute considerably to our understanding of the emergence of the Mid-Upper Paleolithic and the complex suite of burial behaviors that begin to appear during this period. PMID:22517758

  5. Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Zilhão, João; Angelucci, Diego E.; Badal-García, Ernestina; d’Errico, Francesco; Daniel, Floréal; Dayet, Laure; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Martínez-Sánchez, María José; Montes-Bernárdez, Ricardo; Murcia-Mascarós, Sonia; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roldán-García, Clodoaldo; Vanhaeren, Marian; Villaverde, Valentín; Wood, Rachel; Zapata, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Two sites of the Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic of Iberia, dated to as early as approximately 50,000 years ago, yielded perforated and pigment-stained marine shells. At Cueva de los Aviones, three umbo-perforated valves of Acanthocardia and Glycymeris were found alongside lumps of yellow and red colorants, and residues preserved inside a Spondylus shell consist of a red lepidocrocite base mixed with ground, dark red-to-black fragments of hematite and pyrite. A perforated Pecten shell, painted on its external, white side with an orange mix of goethite and hematite, was abandoned after breakage at Cueva Antón, 60 km inland. Comparable early modern human-associated material from Africa and the Near East is widely accepted as evidence for body ornamentation, implying behavioral modernity. The Iberian finds show that European Neandertals were no different from coeval Africans in this regard, countering genetic/cognitive explanations for the emergence of symbolism and strengthening demographic/social ones. PMID:20080653

  6. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  7. Use of barley in the egyptian late paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, F; Schild, R; El Hadidi, N; Close, A E; Kobusiewicz, M; Wieckowska, H; Issawi, B; Haas, H

    1979-09-28

    Several grains of barley have been recovered from archeological sites at Wadi Kubbaniya, near Aswan in Egypt. The sites are typical Late Paleolithic and are firmly dated between 18,300 and 17,000 years ago. They seem to represent a very early use of ground grain in the Nile Valley, and evidence is presented for its continued use over the subsequent 6000 years. The Egyptian findings possibly record an initial stage of food production, and if they indeed do, then they suggest that food production may not have been brought about by environmental stress and may not have led inevitably to radical social changes. PMID:17732313

  8. Single amino acid radiocarbon dating of Upper Paleolithic modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Anat; McCullagh, James S. O.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Sinitsyn, Andrey A.; Hedges, Robert E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeological bones are usually dated by radiocarbon measurement of extracted collagen. However, low collagen content, contamination from the burial environment, or museum conservation work, such as addition of glues, preservatives, and fumigants to “protect” archaeological materials, have previously led to inaccurate dates. These inaccuracies in turn frustrate the development of archaeological chronologies and, in the Paleolithic, blur the dating of such key events as the dispersal of anatomically modern humans. Here we describe a method to date hydroxyproline found in collagen (∼10% of collagen carbon) as a bone-specific biomarker that removes impurities, thereby improving dating accuracy and confidence. This method is applied to two important sites in Russia and allows us to report the earliest direct ages for the presence of anatomically modern humans on the Russian Plain. These dates contribute considerably to our understanding of the emergence of the Mid-Upper Paleolithic and the complex suite of burial behaviors that begin to appear during this period. PMID:22517758

  9. Birthmarks - pigmented

    MedlinePlus

    ... its own appearance: Cafe-au-lait spots are light tan, the color of coffee with milk. Moles are small clusters of colored skin cells. Mongolian spots (also called Mongolian blue ... dark or light skin Growth of hair from pigmented skin Skin ...

  10. Natural pigments and sacred art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelekian, Lena, ,, Lady

    2010-05-01

    Since the dawn of mankind, cavemen has expressed himself through art. The earliest known cave paintings date to some 32,000 years ago and used 4 colours derived from the earth. These pigments were iron oxides and known as ochres, blacks and whites. All pigments known by the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans and Renaissance man were natural and it was not until the 18th century that synthetic pigments were made and widely used. Until that time all art, be it sacred or secular used only natural pigments, of which the preparation of many have been lost or rarely used because of their tedious preparation. As a geologist, a mineralogist and an artist specializing in iconography, I have been able to rediscover 89 natural pigments extracted from minerals. I use these pigments to paint my icons in the traditional Byzantine manner and also to restore old icons, bringing back their glamour and conserving them for years to come. The use of the natural pigments in its proper way also helps to preserve the traditional skills of the iconographer. In the ancient past, pigments were extremely precious. Many took an exceedingly long journey to reach the artists, and came from remote countries. Research into these pigments is the work of history, geography and anthropology. It is an interesting journey in itself to discover that the blue aquamarines came from Afghanistan, the reds from Spain, the greens Africa, and so on. In this contribution I will be describing the origins, preparation and use of some natural pigments, together with their history and provenance. Additionally, I will show how the natural pigments are used in the creation of an icon. Being a geologist iconographer, for me, is a sacrement that transforms that which is earthly, material and natural into a thing of beauty that is sacred. As bread and wine in the Eucharist, water during baptism and oil in Holy Union transmit sanctification to the beholder, natural pigments do the same when one considers an icon. The

  11. Magnetic, paleomagnetic and palynologic studies of Paleolithic depositions of the Akhshtyrskaya cave (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, Genrietta; Król, Elżbieta; Levkovskaya, Galina; Kruczyk, Jadwiga; Kądziałko-Hofmokl, Magdalena; Kulakov, Sergey

    2007-12-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental rock-magnetic, paleomagnetic and palynologic study of Paleolithic sediments sampled along two profiles in the Akhshtyrskaya cave, situated in the vicinity of Black Sea shore. In the upper part of profiles, some magnetite was observed; in the middle and lower parts, strongly oxidized non-stoichiometric magnetite and hematite prevail. Thin maghemite covers on the surface of fine magnetite grains are present in the majority of specimens. Natural remanence has one characteristic component (CHRM), mostly of chemical origin, although in few specimens containing magnetite it may be sedimentary. Directions of CHRM obtained by standard paleomagnetic methods revealed anomalous pattern only in layer 3/2, which is slightly older than the overlying layer 3/1 whose age was established as (35±2)×103 years BP by the U-Th method. This suggests that this paleomagnetic anomaly (PMA) can be correlated with Kargapolovo excursion dated on about (45-39)×103 years BP. In the remaining overlying and underlying layers, directions of CHRM are grouped around the present geomagnetic field. Depth distributions of scalar magnetic parameters generally coincide with the lithological division of the profiles. Palynologic study revealed the presence of 22 pollen zones. Five thermomers separated with colder periods were found in the middle and lower parts of profile. The non-magnetite composition of magnetic fraction of the majority of studied sediments — oxidized nonstoichiometric magnetite and hematite — resulted in the lack of correlations between paleoclimatic and scalar magnetic characteristics.

  12. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  13. Cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a 3 cm black, ulcerated nodule located on the skin of the upper abdomen, just below the breast. The lesion was painful to the touch, but the patient reported no other associated symptoms and was otherwise healthy. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the affected skin was obtained and the histological diagnosis was cutaneous metastatic pigmented breast carcinoma. PMID:27136637

  14. Predetermined Flake Production at the Lower/Middle Paleolithic Boundary: Yabrudian Scraper-Blank Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shimelmitz, Ron; Kuhn, Steven L.; Ronen, Avraham; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While predetermined débitage technologies are recognized beginning with the middle Acheulian, the Middle Paleolithic is usually associated with a sharp increase in their use. A study of scraper-blank technology from three Yabrudian assemblages retrieved from the early part of the Acheulo-Yabrudian complex of Tabun Cave (ca. 415–320 kyr) demonstrates a calculated and preplanned production, even if it does not show the same complexity and elaboration as in the Levallois technology. These scraper dominated assemblages show an organization of production based on an intensive use of predetermination blank technology already in place at the end of the Lower Paleolithic of the Levant. These results provide a novel perspective on the differences and similarities between the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries. We suggest that there was a change in the paradigm in the way hominins exploited stone tools: in many Middle Paleolithic assemblages the potential of the stone tools for hafting was a central feature, in the Lower Paleolithic ergonometric considerations of manual prehension were central to the design of blanks and tools. PMID:25192429

  15. Diet of upper paleolithic modern humans: evidence from microwear texture analysis.

    PubMed

    El Zaatari, Sireen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-04-01

    This article presents the results of the occlusal molar microwear texture analysis of 32 adult Upper Paleolithic modern humans from a total of 21 European sites dating to marine isotope stages 3 and 2. The occlusal molar microwear textures of these specimens were analyzed with the aim of examining the effects of the climatic, as well as the cultural, changes on the diets of the Upper Paleolithic modern humans. The results of this analysis do not reveal any environmentally driven dietary shifts for the Upper Paleolithic hominins indicating that the climatic and their associated paleoecological changes did not force these humans to significantly alter their diets in order to survive. However, the microwear texture analysis does detect culturally related changes in the Upper Paleolithic humans' diets. Specifically, significant differences in diet were found between the earlier Upper Paleolithic individuals, i.e., those belonging to the Aurignacian and Gravettian contexts, and the later Magdalenian ones, such that the diet of the latter group was more varied and included more abrasive foods compared with those of the former. PMID:24449141

  16. Modern hunting behavior in the early Middle Paleolithic: faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel.

    PubMed

    Yeshurun, Reuven; Bar-Oz, Guy; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the behavioral adaptations and subsistence strategies of Middle Paleolithic humans is critical in the debate over the evolution and manifestations of modern human behavior. The study of faunal remains plays a central role in this context. Until now, the majority of Levantine archaeofaunal evidence was derived from late Middle Paleolithic sites. The discovery of faunal remains from Misliya Cave, Mount Carmel, Israel (>200 ka), allowed for detailed taphonomic and zooarchaeological analyses of these early Middle Paleolithic remains. The Misliya Cave faunal assemblage is overwhelmingly dominated by ungulate taxa. The most common prey species is the Mesopotamian fallow deer (Dama mesopotamica), followed closely by the mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella). Some aurochs (Bos primigenius) remains are also present. Small-game species are rare. The fallow deer mortality pattern is dominated by prime-aged individuals. A multivariate taphonomic analysis demonstrates (1) that the assemblage was created solely by humans occupying the cave and was primarily modified by their food-processing activities; and (2) that gazelle carcasses were transported complete to the site, while fallow deer carcasses underwent some field butchery. The new zooarchaeological data from Misliya Cave, particularly the abundance of meat-bearing limb bones displaying filleting cut marks and the acquisition of prime-age prey, demonstrate that early Middle Paleolithic people possessed developed hunting capabilities. Thus, modern large-game hunting, carcass transport, and meat-processing behaviors were already established in the Levant in the early Middle Paleolithic, more than 200 ka ago. PMID:17669471

  17. Identification of Some Charcoal-Black-Pigmented CDC Fermentative Coryneform Group 4 Isolates as Rothia dentocariosa and Some as Corynebacterium aurimucosum: Proposal of Rothia dentocariosa emend. Georg and Brown 1967, Corynebacterium aurimucosum emend. Yassin et al. 2002, and Corynebacterium nigricans Shukla et al. 2003 pro synon. Corynebacterium aurimucosum

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Maryam I.; Hollis, Dannie G.; Weyant, Robbin S.; Jordan, Jean G.; MacGregor, John P.; Morey, Roger E.; Whitney, Anne M.; Brenner, Don J.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Helsel, Leta O.; Raney, Patti M.; Patel, Jean B.; Levett, Paul N.; Brown, June M.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-three clinical isolates of charcoal-black-pigmented, gram-positive coryneform rods were received for identification by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and were provisionally designated CDC fermentative coryneform group 4 (FCG4). Forty-five of these were characterized by morphological, physiologic, antimicrobial susceptibility, cellular fatty acids, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Nitrate reduction, cellular fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization studies segregated these strains into two groups: FCG4a (8 strains) and FCG4b (37 strains). The FCG4a strains, only one of which was from a female genitourinary source, produced cellular fatty acid and biochemical profiles similar to those observed with reference strains of Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa, while the FCG4b strains were similar to Corynebacterium species. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated species-level relatedness among six FCG4a tested strains and showed that they were a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of R. dentocariosa. Sixteen isolates of the FCG4b group, mainly from female genitourinary tract specimens, as well as the type strains of two recently named species, Corynebacterium aurimucosum and Corynebacterium nigricans, were shown by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to be related at the species level and unrelated to the type strain of R. dentocariosa; therefore, the Corynebacterium-like strains were classified as a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of C. aurimucosum, because this name has nomenclatural priority over C. nigricans. These findings indicate that FCG4 represents a heterogeneous group that contains pigmented variants of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum; hence, the descriptions of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum have been amended to include charcoal-black-pigmented variants, and C. nigricans is a pro synonym of C. aurimucosum. PMID

  18. Oral pigmented lesions: Clinicopathologic features and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Jorge, Rogério; Jorge, Jacks; Lopes, Márcio A.; Vargas, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of pigmented lesions of the oral cavity and perioral tissues is challenging. Even though epidemiology may be of some help in orientating the clinician and even though some lesions may confidently be diagnosed on clinical grounds alone, the definitive diagnosis usually requires histopathologic evaluation. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Color, location, distribution, and duration as well as drugs use, family history, and change in pattern are important for the differential diagnosis. Dark or black pigmented lesions can be focal, multifocal or diffuse macules, including entities such as racial pigmentation, melanotic macule, melanocytic nevus, blue nevus, smoker’s melanosis, oral melanoacanthoma, pigmentation by foreign bodies or induced by drugs, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Addison´s disease and oral melanoma. The aim of this review is to present the main oral black lesions contributing to better approach of the patients. Key words:Pigmentation, melanin, oral, diagnosis, management. PMID:22549672

  19. Characterization of Sorolla's gouache pigments by means of spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán, Clodoaldo; Juanes, David; Ferrazza, Livio; Carballo, Jorgelina

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the Joaquín Sorolla's gouache sketches for the oil on canvas series "Vision of Spain" commissioned by A. M. Huntington to decorate the library of the Hispanic Society of America in New York. The analyses were focused on the identification of the elemental composition of the gouache pigments by means of portable EDXRF spectrometry in a non-destructive mode. Additionally, SEM-EDX and FTIR analyses of a selected set of micro-samples were carried out to identify completely the pigments, the paint technique and the binding media. The obtained results have confirmed the identification of lead and zinc white, vermillion, earth pigments, ochre, zinc yellow, chrome yellow, ultramarine, Prussian blue, chromium based and copper-arsenic based green pigments, bone black and carbon based black pigments, and the use of gum arabic as binding media in the gouache pigments.

  20. Characterization of a novel anthocyanin profile in wild black raspberry mutants: an opportunity for studying the genetic control of pigment and color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type and amount of anthocyanins in raspberries, and other small fruits, has recently received increased attention. Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), in particular, has long been recognized as a rich source of anthocyanins and has been the focus of many recent studies examining their poten...

  1. Shanidar 3 Neandertal rib puncture wound and paleolithic weaponry.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Franciscus, Robert G; McKean-Peraza, Hilary A; Daniel, Julie A; Warren, Brittany R

    2009-08-01

    Since its discovery and initial description in the 1960s, the penetrating lesion to the left ninth rib of the Shanidar 3 Neandertal has been a focus for discussion about interpersonal violence and weapon technology in the Middle Paleolithic. Recent experimental studies using lithic points on animal targets suggest that aspects of weapon system dynamics can be inferred from the form of the bony lesions they produce. Thus, to better understand the circumstances surrounding the traumatic injury suffered by Shanidar 3, we conducted controlled stabbing experiments with replicas of Mousterian and Levallois points directed against the thoraces of pig carcasses. Stabs were conducted under both high and low kinetic energy conditions, in an effort to replicate the usual impact forces associated with thrusting spear vs. long-range projectile weapon systems, respectively. Analysis of the lesions produced in the pig ribs, along with examination of goat ribs subjected primarily to high kinetic energy stabs from an independent experiment, revealed consistent differences in damage patterns between the two conditions. In the case of Shanidar 3, the lack of major involvement of more than one rib, the lack of fracturing of the affected and adjacent ribs, and the lack of bony defects associated with the lesion (such as wastage, hinging, and radiating fracture lines) suggests that the weapon that wounded him was carrying relatively low kinetic energy. While accidental injury or attack with a thrusting spear or knife cannot absolutely be ruled out, the position, angulation, and morphology of the lesion is most consistent with injury by a low-mass, low-kinetic energy projectile weapon. Given the potential temporal overlap of Shanidar 3 with early modern humans in western Asia, and the possibility that the latter were armed with projectile weapon systems, this case carries more than simple paleoforensic interest. PMID:19615713

  2. [Evolution of the diet from the paleolithic to today: progress or regress?].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Fouque, Denis; Combe, Christian; Aparicio, Michel

    2013-07-01

    The changes in eating habits and decreased physical activity have been responsible for part of the high prevalence of chronic diseases such as hypertension or diabetes, currently observed in the so-called civilized societies. These diseases are less prevalent in previous civilizations and several decades of nutrition research have enabled better understanding of the eating habits of our ancestors, and have demonstrated the value of diet called "Mediterranean or Paleolithic". This review provides an update on the latest research. What dietary changes since the Paleolithic period, and finally how can we adapt our current diet? Several animal studies or human clinical demonstrate the value of historical research and nutrition. PMID:23685112

  3. [A woman with a pigmentation of the hard palate].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Erik H; Nieken, Judith; de Visscher, Jan G A M

    2013-01-01

    A bluish flat pigmented lesion of the hard palate of a 51-year-old woman was excised to exclude malignancy, in particular oral malignant melanoma. On histopathological examination, depositions of black pigment were seen accompanied by several foreign body giant cells. Probably due to a childhood trauma, a pencil point had penetrated the hard palate. PMID:24330792

  4. Color me bad: microbial pigments as virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, George Y; Nizet, Victor

    2009-09-01

    A hallmark feature of several pathogenic microbes is the distinctive color of their colonies when propagated in the clinical laboratory. Such pigmentation comes in a variety of hues, and has often proven useful in presumptive clinical diagnosis. Recent advances in microbial pigment biochemistry and the genetic basis of pigment production have sometimes revealed a more sinister aspect to these curious materials that change the color of reflected light by selective light absorbance. In many cases, the microbial pigment contributes to disease pathogenesis by interfering with host immune clearance mechanisms or by exhibiting pro-inflammatory or cytotoxic properties. We review several examples of pigments that promote microbial virulence, including the golden staphyloxanthin of Staphylococcusaureus, the blue-green pyocyanin of Pseudomonas spp., and the dark brown or black melanin pigments of Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. Targeted pigment neutralisation might represent a viable concept to enhance treatment of certain difficult infectious disease conditions. PMID:19726196

  5. Minocycline and the thyroid: antithyroid effects of the drug, and the role of thyroid peroxidase in minocycline-induced black pigmentation of the gland.

    PubMed

    Taurog, A; Dorris, M L; Doerge, D R

    1996-06-01

    Minocycline (MN), a member of the tetracycline family of antibiotics, is known to induce a black discoloration of the thyroid in several species, including humans. Antithyroid effects of MN have also been reported. The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to determine whether thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is involved in the MN-induced black thyroid, and (2) to obtain information on the effect of MN on TPO-catalyzed iodination and coupling in model systems containing highly purified TPO. Treatment of MN with TPO in the presence of the H2O2 generating system, glucose-glucose oxidase, resulted in the formation of a black product (or products). In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, the color intensity reached its peak in about 90 min. Control samples without TPO showed little or no color change during this interval. Formation of the black product(s) did not require the presence of iodide. Other members of the tetracycline family were not oxidized to dark products by the TPO system. These results provide definitive evidence that TPO is involved in the MN-induced black thyroid. MN is an inhibitor of TPO-catalyzed iodination in model systems, with a potency comparable to that of MMI and PTU. At low drug concentrations (approximately 25 microM), MN appeared to act as a competitive inhibitor, as previously shown for lower concentrations of MMI and PTU. However, when the drug concentration was increased, MN and the thioureylene drugs inhibited iodination by different mechanisms. With PTU and MMI, iodination was irreversibly inhibited through inactivation of TPO. However, inhibition of iodination by MN (100 microM) was not associated with inactivation of TPO and was at least partially reversible. The most potent inhibitory effect of MN was on TPO-catalyzed coupling. This was demonstrated both in a coupling test system, designed to measure coupling in the absence of iodination, and in an iodination system, in which iodination and coupling occurred simultaneously. In both systems, MN

  6. Black Endobronchial Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Samjot S; Harris, Kassem; Ylagan, Lourdes

    2015-10-01

    The infrequent bronchoscopic finding of black airway pigmentation due to a variety of causes has been labeled as "Black Bronchoscopy." Black bronchioalveolar lavage has been sometimes described in tobacco, marijuana, and crack cocaine smokers. To add to this interesting panorama of bronchoscopic findings, we describe cases of black endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspirates due to metastatic melanoma and anthracotic lymph nodes. PMID:26348692

  7. The feasibility of a Paleolithic diet for low-income consumers.

    PubMed

    Metzgar, Matthew; Rideout, Todd C; Fontes-Villalba, Maelan; Kuipers, Remko S

    2011-06-01

    Many low-income consumers face a limited budget for food purchases. The United States Department of Agriculture developed the Thrifty Food Plan to address this problem of consuming a healthy diet given a budget constraint. This dietary optimization program uses common food choices to build a suitable diet. In this article, the United States Department of Agriculture data sets are used to test the feasibility of consuming a Paleolithic diet given a limited budget. The Paleolithic diet is described as the diet that humans are genetically adapted to, containing only the preagricultural food groups of meat, seafood, fruits, vegetables, and nuts. Constraints were applied to the diet optimization model to restrict grains, dairy, and certain other food categories. Constraints were also applied for macronutrients, micronutrients, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results show that it is possible to consume a Paleolithic diet given the constraints. However, the diet does fall short of meeting the daily recommended intakes for certain micronutrients. A 9.3% increase in income is needed to consume a Paleolithic diet that meets all daily recommended intakes except for calcium. PMID:21745626

  8. Tall guys and fat ladies: Grimaldi's Upper Paleolithic burials and figurines in an historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Formicola, Vincenzo; Holt, Brigitte

    2015-07-20

    The importance of the Grimaldi complex of caves and rock shelters is twofold: scientific and historical. Scientifically, it is one of the major Upper Paleolithic sites, considering the variety of mobiliary and parietal art, the number of single and multiple burials and associated grave goods, and the abundant lithic and fauna remains. Historically, the documentation of activity that took place in this site starting from the second half of the 19 th century and the studies carried out on the materials that have been recovered in the decades between 1870s-1910s, provide instructive examples of methods and goals of Paleolithic archeology and anthropology of the epoch. This paper combines the scientific and the historic interest of the site through a chronicle of the events that took place during the period of the most sensational discoveries, i.e. beginning with the identification in 1872 of the first Upper Paleolithic burial and ending with the results of the excavations carried out in 1901 at Grotte des Enfants published in four volumes a few years later. The paper discusses early interpretations and modern views on the different findings and documents changes in perspectives and goals of paleoanthropological research in over a century, raising some of the major issues of contemporary Upper Paleolithic studies. PMID:25992636

  9. Comprehensive Bibliography of Pakistan Archaeology: Paleolithic to Historic Times. South Asia Series, Occasional Paper No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Denise E.

    The comprehensive bibliography is a compilation of twentieth century documents about Pakistan prehistory from Paleolithic times to the arrival of the Greeks in approximately 330 B.C., also includes some of the major archaeological studies in adjacent countries which have a bearing on the interpretation and comparative analysis of Pakistan…

  10. Estimated macronutrient and fatty acid intakes from an East African Paleolithic diet.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Eaton, S Boyd; Crawford, Michael A; Cordain, Loren; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2010-12-01

    Our genome adapts slowly to changing conditions of existence. Many diseases of civilisation result from mismatches between our Paleolithic genome and the rapidly changing environment, including our diet. The objective of the present study was to reconstruct multiple Paleolithic diets to estimate the ranges of nutrient intakes upon which humanity evolved. A database of, predominantly East African, plant and animal foods (meat/fish) was used to model multiple Paleolithic diets, using two pathophysiological constraints (i.e. protein < 35 energy % (en%) and linoleic acid (LA) >1.0 en%), at known hunter-gatherer plant/animal food intake ratios (range 70/30-30/70 en%/en%). We investigated selective and non-selective savannah, savannah/aquatic and aquatic hunter-gatherer/scavenger foraging strategies. We found (range of medians in en%) intakes of moderate-to-high protein (25-29), moderate-to-high fat (30-39) and moderate carbohydrates (39-40). The fatty acid composition was SFA (11.4-12.0), MUFA (5.6-18.5) and PUFA (8.6-15.2). The latter was high in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (3.7-4.7 en%), low in LA (2.3-3.6 en%), and high in long-chain PUFA (LCP; 4.75-25.8 g/d), LCP n-3 (2.26-17.0 g/d), LCP n-6 (2.54-8.84 g/d), ALA/LA ratio (1.12-1.64 g/g) and LCP n-3/LCP n-6 ratio (0.84-1.92 g/g). Consistent with the wide range of employed variables, nutrient intakes showed wide ranges. We conclude that compared with Western diets, Paleolithic diets contained consistently higher protein and LCP, and lower LA. These are likely to contribute to the known beneficial effects of Paleolithic-like diets, e.g. through increased satiety/satiation. Disparities between Paleolithic, contemporary and recommended intakes might be important factors underlying the aetiology of common Western diseases. Data on Paleolithic diets and lifestyle, rather than the investigation of single nutrients, might be useful for the rational design of clinical trials. PMID:20860883

  11. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  12. The Acheulian and Early Middle Paleolithic in Latium (Italy): Stability and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Villa, Paola; Soriano, Sylvain; Grün, Rainer; Marra, Fabrizio; Nomade, Sebastien; Pereira, Alison; Boschian, Giovanni; Pollarolo, Luca; Fang, Fang; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We present here the results of a technological and typological analysis of the Acheulian and early Middle Paleolithic assemblages from Torre in Pietra (Latium, Italy) together with comparisons with the Acheulian small tools of Castel di Guido. The assemblages were never chronometrically dated before. We have now 40Ar/39Ar dates and ESR-U-series dates, within a geomorphological framework, which support correlations to marine isotope stages. The Acheulian (previously correlated to MIS 9) is now dated to MIS 10 while the Middle Paleolithic is dated to MIS 7. Lithic analyses are preceded by taphonomic evaluations. The Levallois method of the Middle Paleolithic assemblage is an innovation characterized by the production of thin flake blanks without cortex. In contrast, the small tool blanks of the Acheulian were either pebbles or thick flakes with some cortex. They provided a relatively easy manual prehension. The choice of Levallois thin flake blanks in the Middle Paleolithic assemblage suggest that the new technology is most likely related to the emergence of hafting. Accordingly, the oldest direct evidence of hafting technology is from the site of Campitello Quarry in Tuscany (Central Italy) where birch-bark tar, found on the proximal part of two flint flakes, is dated to the end of MIS 7. Nevertheless, a peculiar feature of the Middle Paleolithic at Torre in Pietra is the continuous presence of small tool blanks on pebbles and cores and on thick flake albeit at a much lower frequency than in the older Acheulian industries. The adoption of the new technology is thus characterized by innovation combined with a degree of stability. The persistence of these habits in spite of the introduction of an innovative technique underlies the importance of cultural transmission and conformity in the behavior of Neandertals. PMID:27525705

  13. The Acheulian and Early Middle Paleolithic in Latium (Italy): Stability and Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Sylvain; Grün, Rainer; Marra, Fabrizio; Nomade, Sebastien; Pereira, Alison; Boschian, Giovanni; Pollarolo, Luca; Fang, Fang; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We present here the results of a technological and typological analysis of the Acheulian and early Middle Paleolithic assemblages from Torre in Pietra (Latium, Italy) together with comparisons with the Acheulian small tools of Castel di Guido. The assemblages were never chronometrically dated before. We have now 40Ar/39Ar dates and ESR-U-series dates, within a geomorphological framework, which support correlations to marine isotope stages. The Acheulian (previously correlated to MIS 9) is now dated to MIS 10 while the Middle Paleolithic is dated to MIS 7. Lithic analyses are preceded by taphonomic evaluations. The Levallois method of the Middle Paleolithic assemblage is an innovation characterized by the production of thin flake blanks without cortex. In contrast, the small tool blanks of the Acheulian were either pebbles or thick flakes with some cortex. They provided a relatively easy manual prehension. The choice of Levallois thin flake blanks in the Middle Paleolithic assemblage suggest that the new technology is most likely related to the emergence of hafting. Accordingly, the oldest direct evidence of hafting technology is from the site of Campitello Quarry in Tuscany (Central Italy) where birch-bark tar, found on the proximal part of two flint flakes, is dated to the end of MIS 7. Nevertheless, a peculiar feature of the Middle Paleolithic at Torre in Pietra is the continuous presence of small tool blanks on pebbles and cores and on thick flake albeit at a much lower frequency than in the older Acheulian industries. The adoption of the new technology is thus characterized by innovation combined with a degree of stability. The persistence of these habits in spite of the introduction of an innovative technique underlies the importance of cultural transmission and conformity in the behavior of Neandertals. PMID:27525705

  14. Melanin pigmented solar absorbing surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gallas, J.M.; Eisner, M.

    1980-01-01

    Selectivity enhancement is shown to result for melanin, a black biopolymer pigment, for sufficiently low sample density. The effect is proposed to follow from a consideration of the evanescent waves associated with the total internal reflection phenomenon. A relationship is discussed among powder density, pH and the paramagnetic properties of melanin; this relationship is shown to be consistent with, and offer support to an amino-acid side group proposed earlier as part of the melanin structure. A brief discussion is also presented on the optical properties of melanin and the relative importance of quinhydrone, a change transfer complex believed to exist in the polymeric structure of melanin.

  15. Analytical Investigation Of Pigments, Ground Layer And Media Of Cartonnage Fragments From Greek Roman Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifi, Hala. A. M.

    Some cartonnage fragments from Hawara, Fayoum Excavation were examined to identify pigments, media and grounds. It belonged to the Greek-Roman period. They were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X ray analysis (EDS) equipped with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These techniques were used to identify the composition and morphology of grounds, nature of pigments and media used in cartonnage fragments. The coarse ground layer was composed of calcite and traces of quartz. The fine ground layer used under the pigments directly was composed of calcite only. Carbon black was used as black pigment while lead oxide as red pigment, showing the influence of Roman and Greek pigments on Egyptian art in these later periods. Blue colorant was identified as cuprorivaite and yellow pigment was goethite. Animal glue was used in the four pigments as medium colored.

  16. Overview of plant pigments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  17. Phenolic compounds and bioactivities of pigmented rice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Gan, Ren-You; Li, Hua-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The pigmented rice has been consumed in China, Japan, and Korea for a long time. It has been used for strengthening kidney function, treating anemia, promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, treating diabetes, and ameliorating sight in traditional Chinese medicine. The extracts from pigmented rice are used as natural food colorants in bread, ice cream, and liquor as well as functional food. The pigmented rice is mainly black, red, and dark purple rice, and contains a variety of flavones, tannin, phenolics, sterols, tocols, γ-oryzanols, amino acids, and essential oils. Anthocyanins are thought as major functional components of pigmented rice. Several anthocyanins have been isolated and identified from the pigmented rice, including cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-galactoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, malvidin 3-galactoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside. This review provides up-to-date coverage of pigmented rice in regard to bioactive constituents, extraction and analytical methods, and bioactivities. Special attention is paid to the bioactivities including antioxidant and free radical scavenging, antitumor, antiatherosclerosis, hypoglycemic, and antiallergic activities. PMID:23216001

  18. Dental maturational sequence and dental tissue proportions in the early Upper Paleolithic child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Bayle, Priscilla; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Trinkaus, Erik; Duarte, Cidália; Mazurier, Arnaud; Zilhão, João

    2010-01-01

    Neandertals differ from recent and terminal Pleistocene human populations in their patterns of dental development, endostructural (internal structure) organization, and relative tissue proportions. Although significant changes in craniofacial and postcranial morphology have been found between the Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic modern humans of western Eurasia and the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene inhabitants of the same region, most studies of dental maturation and structural morphology have compared Neandertals only to later Holocene humans. To assess whether earlier modern humans contrasted with later modern populations and possibly approached the Neandertal pattern, we used high-resolution microtomography to analyze the remarkably complete mixed dentition of the early Upper Paleolithic (Gravettian) child from Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, and compared it to a Neandertal sample, the late Upper Paleolithic (Magdalenian) child of La Madeleine, and a worldwide extant human sample. Some aspects of the dental maturational pattern and tooth endostructural organization of Lagar Velho 1 are absent from extant populations and the Magdalenian specimen and are currently documented only among Neandertals. Therefore, a simple Neandertal versus modern human dichotomy is inadequate to accommodate the morphostructural and developmental variation represented by Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic populations. These data reinforce the complex nature of Neandertal-modern human similarities and differences, and document ongoing human evolution after the global establishment of modern human morphology. PMID:20080622

  19. Effect of cadmium chloride on the distal retinal pigment cells of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P.S.; Fingerman, M.; Nguyen, L.K.; Obih, P.

    1997-03-01

    Crustaceans have two sets of pigmentary effectors, chromatophores and retinal pigment cells. Retinal pigments control the amount of light striking the rhabdom, the photosensitive portion of each ommatidium, screening the rhabdom in bright light and uncovering it in darkness or dim light. Migration of the distal pigment in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilalor, is regulated by a light-adapting hormone and a dark-adapting hormone. The black chromatophores of this crab are also controlled by a pair of hormones. Both pigmentary effectors exhibit circadian rhythms. The effects of some organic and inorganic pollutants on the ability of Uca pugilator to change color have been described. Exposure of this crab to naphthalene or cadmium results in decreased ability to disperse the pigment in their black chromatophores, the exposed crabs becoming paler than the unexposed crabs. Norepinephrine triggers release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone. In view of the facts that (a) these hormones which regulate the black chromatophores and distal pigment are synthesized in and released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex, (b) the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone may actually be the same hormone. having two different activities and (c) release of both the black pigment-dispersing hormone and the light-adapting hormone is triggered by norepinephrine, the present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium on distal pigment migration in Uca pugilator. More specifically, for comparison with the previously reported effect of cadmium on pigment migration in the black chromatophores, we wished to determine whether the distal pigment of fiddler crabs exposed to cadmium chloride is capable of as wide a range of movement as in unexposed crabs, and if not what might be the explanation. This is the first report of the effect of a pollutant on a retinal pigment of any crustacean. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Richards, M P; Pettitt, P B; Stiner, M C; Trinkaus, E

    2001-05-22

    New carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values for human remains dating to the mid-Upper Paleolithic in Europe indicate significant amounts of aquatic (fish, mollusks, and/or birds) foods in some of their diets. Most of this evidence points to exploitation of inland freshwater aquatic resources in particular. By contrast, European Neandertal collagen carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values do not indicate significant use of inland aquatic foods but instead show that they obtained the majority of their protein from terrestrial herbivores. In agreement with recent zooarcheological analyses, the isotope results indicate shifts toward a more broad-spectrum subsistence economy in inland Europe by the mid-Upper Paleolithic period, probably associated with significant population increases. PMID:11371652

  1. 3D Digital Surveying and Modelling of Cave Geometry: Application to Paleolithic Rock Art

    PubMed Central

    González-Aguilera, Diego; Muñoz-Nieto, Angel; Gómez-Lahoz, Javier; Herrero-Pascual, Jesus; Gutierrez-Alonso, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    3D digital surveying and modelling of cave geometry represents a relevant approach for research, management and preservation of our cultural and geological legacy. In this paper, a multi-sensor approach based on a terrestrial laser scanner, a high-resolution digital camera and a total station is presented. Two emblematic caves of Paleolithic human occupation and situated in northern Spain, “Las Caldas” and “Peña de Candamo”, have been chosen to put in practise this approach. As a result, an integral and multi-scalable 3D model is generated which may allow other scientists, pre-historians, geologists…, to work on two different levels, integrating different Paleolithic Art datasets: (1) a basic level based on the accurate and metric support provided by the laser scanner; and (2) a advanced level using the range and image-based modelling. PMID:22399958

  2. Stable isotope evidence for increasing dietary breadth in the European mid-Upper Paleolithic

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Michael P.; Pettitt, Paul B.; Stiner, Mary C.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2001-01-01

    New carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values for human remains dating to the mid-Upper Paleolithic in Europe indicate significant amounts of aquatic (fish, mollusks, and/or birds) foods in some of their diets. Most of this evidence points to exploitation of inland freshwater aquatic resources in particular. By contrast, European Neandertal collagen carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values do not indicate significant use of inland aquatic foods but instead show that they obtained the majority of their protein from terrestrial herbivores. In agreement with recent zooarcheological analyses, the isotope results indicate shifts toward a more broad-spectrum subsistence economy in inland Europe by the mid-Upper Paleolithic period, probably associated with significant population increases. PMID:11371652

  3. Acquisition of Paleolithic toolmaking abilities involves structural remodeling to inferior frontoparietal regions.

    PubMed

    Hecht, E E; Gutman, D A; Khreisheh, N; Taylor, S V; Kilner, J; Faisal, A A; Bradley, B A; Chaminade, T; Stout, D

    2015-07-01

    Human ancestors first modified stones into tools 2.6 million years ago, initiating a cascading increase in technological complexity that continues today. A parallel trend of brain expansion during the Paleolithic has motivated over 100 years of theorizing linking stone toolmaking and human brain evolution, but empirical support remains limited. Our study provides the first direct experimental evidence identifying likely neuroanatomical targets of natural selection acting on toolmaking ability. Subjects received MRI and DTI scans before, during, and after a 2-year Paleolithic toolmaking training program. White matter fractional anisotropy (FA) showed changes in branches of the superior longitudinal fasciculus leading into left supramarginal gyrus, bilateral ventral precentral gyri, and right inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis. FA increased from Scan 1-2, a period of intense training, and decreased from Scan 2-3, a period of reduced training. Voxel-based morphometry found a similar trend toward gray matter expansion in the left supramarginal gyrus from Scan 1-2 and a reversal of this effect from Scan 2-3. FA changes correlated with training hours and with motor performance, and probabilistic tractography confirmed that white matter changes projected to gray matter changes and to regions that activate during Paleolithic toolmaking. These results show that acquisition of Paleolithic toolmaking skills elicits structural remodeling of recently evolved brain regions supporting human tool use, providing a mechanistic link between stone toolmaking and human brain evolution. These regions participate not only in toolmaking, but also in other complex functions including action planning and language, in keeping with the hypothesized co-evolution of these functions. PMID:24859884

  4. Radiocarbon dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the Aurignacian of the Swabian Jura.

    PubMed

    Conard, Nicholas J; Bolus, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Many lines of evidence point to the period between roughly 40 and 30 ka BP as the period in which modern humans arrived in Europe and displaced the indigenous Neandertal populations. At the same time, many innovations associated with the Upper Paleolithic--including new stone and organic technologies, use of personal ornaments, figurative art, and musical instruments--are first documented in the European archaeological record. Dating the events of this period is challenging for several reasons. In the period about six to seven radiocarbon half-lives ago, variable preservation, pre-treatment, and sample preparation can easily lead to a lack of reproducibility between samples and laboratories. A range of biological, cultural, and geological processes can lead to mixing of archaeological strata and their contents. Additionally, some data sets point to this period as a time of significant spikes in levels of atmospheric radiocarbon. This paper assesses these questions in the context of the well-excavated and intensively studied caves of Geissenklösterle and Hohle Fels in the Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany. We conclude that variable atmospheric radiocarbon production contributes to the problems of dating the late Middle Paleolithic and the early Upper Paleolithic. To help establish a reliable chronology for the Swabian Aurignacian, we are beginning to focus our dating program on short-lived, stratigraphically secure features to see if they yield reproducible results. This approach may help to test competing explanations for the noisy and often non-reproducible results that arise when trying to date the transition from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic. PMID:18926559

  5. Beyond the Paleolithic prescription: incorporating diversity and flexibility in the study of human diet evolution.

    PubMed

    Turner, Bethany L; Thompson, Amanda L

    2013-08-01

    Evolutionary paradigms of human health and nutrition center on the evolutionary discordance or "mismatch" model in which human bodies, reflecting adaptations established in the Paleolithic era, are ill-suited to modern industrialized diets, resulting in rapidly increasing rates of chronic metabolic disease. Though this model remains useful, its utility in explaining the evolution of human dietary tendencies is limited. The assumption that human diets are mismatched to the evolved biology of humans implies that the human diet is instinctual or genetically determined and rooted in the Paleolithic era. This review looks at current research indicating that human eating habits are learned primarily through behavioral, social, and physiological mechanisms that start in utero and extend throughout the life course. Adaptations that appear to be strongly genetic likely reflect Neolithic, rather than Paleolithic, adaptations and are significantly influenced by human niche-constructing behavior. Several examples are used to conclude that incorporating a broader understanding of both the evolved mechanisms by which humans learn and imprint eating habits and the reciprocal effects of those habits on physiology would provide useful tools for structuring more lasting nutrition interventions. PMID:23865796

  6. Paleolithic Contingent in Modern Japanese: Estimation and Inference using Genome-wide Data

    PubMed Central

    He, Yungang; Wang, Wei R.; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; SNP Consortium, Pan-Asia

    2012-01-01

    The genetic origins of Japanese populations have been controversial. Upper Paleolithic Japanese, i.e. Jomon, developed independently in Japanese islands for more than 10,000 years until the isolation was ended with the influxes of continental immigrants about 2,000 years ago. However, the knowledge of origin of Jomon and its contribution to the genetic pool of contemporary Japanese is still limited, albeit the extensive studies using mtDNA and Y chromosomes. In this report, we aimed to infer the origin of Jomon and to estimate its contribution to Japanese by fitting an admixture model with missing data from Jomon to a genome-wide data from 94 worldwide populations. Our results showed that the genetic contributions of Jomon, the Paleolithic contingent in Japanese, are 54.3∼62.3% in Ryukyuans and 23.1∼39.5% in mainland Japanese, respectively. Utilizing inferred allele frequencies of the Jomon population, we further showed the Paleolithic contingent in Japanese had a Northeast Asia origin. PMID:22482036

  7. Ancient astronomical culture in Ukraine. 1: Finds relating to the Paleolithic era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilova, Irina B.; Artemenko, Tetyana G.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we describe some archaeological finds in the territory of modern Ukraine which are thought to provide evidence of the ancient astronomical culture of our ancestors. These finds date to Upper and Middle Paleolithic times (i.e. 100,000-12,000 BCE). Among the finds unearthed at the Gontsy and Kiev-Kirillovskaya archaeological sites are mammoth tusk fragments which feature engraved patterns that have been interpreted as tables of lunar phase observations. More remarkable are two mammoth ivory bracelets from the site of Mezin which contain elaborate engraved ornamentation that also has been connected with a lunar calendar. In this paper we also mention astronomical finds at Paleolithic sites on the Crimean peninsula, including the famous solar petroglyph at Chokcurcha-1 and a possible 'star map' engraved on a mammoth shoulder bone that was found at Chokurcha-2. After briefly discussing the problems associated with trying to assign astronomical meaning to these types of archaeological finds, we conclude that a complicated lunar mythology was indeed developed in Paleolithic times.

  8. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite

    PubMed Central

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group. PMID:26629824

  9. Mitochondrial genome evidence reveals successful Late Paleolithic settlement on the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mian; Kong, Qing-Peng; Wang, Hua-Wei; Peng, Min-Sheng; Xie, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Jiayang; Duan, Jian-Guo; Cai, Ming-Cui; Zhao, Shi-Neng; Cidanpingcuo; Tu, Yuan-Quan; Wu, Shi-Fang; Yao, Yong-Gang; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Due to its numerous environmental extremes, the Tibetan Plateau—the world's highest plateau—is one of the most challenging areas of modern human settlement. Archaeological evidence dates the earliest settlement on the plateau to the Late Paleolithic, while previous genetic studies have traced the colonization event(s) to no earlier than the Neolithic. To explore whether the genetic continuity on the plateau has an exclusively Neolithic time depth, we studied mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome variation within 6 regional Tibetan populations sampled from Tibet and neighboring areas. Our results confirm that the vast majority of Tibetan matrilineal components can trace their ancestry to Epipaleolithic and Neolithic immigrants from northern China during the mid-Holocene. Significantly, we also identified an infrequent novel haplogroup, M16, that branched off directly from the Eurasian M founder type. Its nearly exclusive distribution in Tibetan populations and ancient age (>21 kya) suggest that M16 may represent the genetic relics of the Late Paleolithic inhabitants on the plateau. This partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and the contemporary Tibetan populations bridges the results and inferences from archaeology, history, and genetics. PMID:19955425

  10. BEYOND THE PALEOLITHIC PRESCRIPTION: INCORPORATING DIVERSITY AND FLEXIBILITY IN THE STUDY OF HUMAN DIET EVOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Bethany L.; Thompson, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary paradigms of human health and nutrition center on the evolutionary discordance or “mismatch” model whereby human bodies, reflecting adaptations established in the Paleolithic era, are ill-suited to modern industrialized diets resulting in rapidly increasing rates of chronic metabolic disease. Whereas this model remains useful, we argue that its utility in explaining the evolution of human dietary tendencies is limited. The assumption that human diets are mismatched to our evolved biology implies that they are instinctual or genetically determined and rooted in the Paleolithic. We review current research indicating that human eating habits are primarily learned through behavioral, social and physiological mechanisms starting in utero and extending throughout the life course. Those adaptations that appear to be strongly genetic likely reflect Neolithic, rather than Paleolithic, adaptations and are significantly influenced by human niche-constructing behavior. Incorporating a broader understanding of the evolved mechanisms by which humans learn and imprint eating habits and the reciprocal effects of those habits on physiology would provide useful tools for structuring more lasting nutrition interventions. PMID:23865796

  11. Multi-method chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic stratigraphic context in Eastern Transylvania, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Daniel; Cosac, Marian; Muratoreanu, George; Niţǎ, Loredana; Schmidt, Christoph; Hambach, Ulrich; Hubay, Katalin; Alexandru, Radu; Cuculici, Roxana; Lucian Buzea, Dan; Dumitraşcu, Valentin

    2016-04-01

    The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition is one of the crucial periods of change in the prehistory of Europe due to the full emergence, continent-wide, of modern human technologies, detrimental of Neanderthal survival. Knowledge about the transition is vast, however, the evidence for cultural and technological developments in the Carpathian - Lower Danube area is still rather sparse. Here we discuss latest results arising from an archaeological-chronological investigation of a Middle Paleolithic context within the Varghis karst, eastern Transylvania, Romania. Combining our results with these of previous excavations, we can distinguish several stages of habitation in the area comprising a rock shelter connected to a newly discovered filled-in cave entrance. Reanalysis of the deeper stratigraphy previously unexcavated shows that at least two main habitation levels have been preserved. In both levels, the bone assemblages (Bos/Bison, Capra, Canis lupus, Ursus spaeleus) directly associated with lithics point to human-accumulation of material. In order to augment the typological cultural considerations, we applied direct radiocarbon dating on bones from within the occupation layers and on scattered charcoal, for the latter following a two-step combustion protocol (1). Radiocarbon dating on bones suggests the lowermost occupation layer is >43.4 radiocarbon kyr BP old, whereas the preliminary infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) ages on the lowermost productive layer and above it indicate surprisingly old ages of ca. 120 kyr and respectively, ca. 70 kyr. Multiple-protocol dating of charcoal found within the two habitation layers produced ages >38 radiocarbon kyr BP, suggesting that the lowermost habitation layer unequivocally pertains to the Middle Paleolithic industries. For the upper productive layer, radiocarbon dating of charcoal found 20 cm above it produced a surprisingly young age of 17.4 radiocarbon kyr BP. However, as the carbon content of this sample was

  12. Pigments in avocado tissue and oil.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Ofelia B O; Wong, Marie; McGhie, Tony K; Vather, Rosheila; Wang, Yan; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Woolf, Allan B

    2006-12-27

    Pigments are important contributors to the appearance and healthful properties of both avocado fruits and the oils extracted from these fruits. This study determined carotenoid and chlorophyll pigment concentrations in the skin and three sections of the flesh (outer dark green, middle pale green, and inner yellow flesh-nearest the seed) and anthocyanin concentrations in the skin of Hass avocado during ripening at 20 degrees C. Pigments were extracted from frozen tissue with acetone and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pigments were also measured in the oil extracted from freeze-dried tissue sections by an accelerated solvent extraction system using hexane. Carotenoids and chlorophylls identified in the skin, flesh, and oil were lutein, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, chlorophylls a and b, and pheophytins a and b with the highest concentrations of all pigments in the skin. Chlorophyllides a and b were identified in the skin and flesh tissues only. As the fruit ripened and softened, the skin changed from green to purple/black, corresponding to changes in skin hue angle, and a concomitant increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and the loss of chlorophyllide a. In flesh tissue, chroma and lightness values decreased with ripening, with no changes in hue angle. The levels of carotenoids and chlorophylls did not change significantly during ripening. As fruit ripened, the total chlorophyll level in the oil from the flesh sections remained constant but declined in the oil extracted from the skin. PMID:17177553

  13. Blackberry pigment (whitlockite) gallstones in uremic patient.

    PubMed

    Cariati, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Black pigment gallstones represent nearly the 15% of all gallstones and are usually related with the typical "hyperbilirubinbilia" factors as hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, pathologic enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin, cirrhosis and with gallbladder mucosa (parietal) factors as adenomyomatosis. During a prospective study on 179 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease a 69-year-old female with predialysis chronic kidney disease was operated for symptomatic gallstone. The removed gallstones were black pigment gallstones, with an irregular (as small blackberry) surface. Analysis of the stones revealed a great amount of whitlockite (Ca Mg)3 (PO4)2. Recent studies on chronic renal failure patients found that chronic uremia is associated with an increased risk of gallstones formation (22%) as it seems in women affected by primary hyperparathyroidism (30%). The presence of calcium phosphate gallstones in these patients have been never described. In conclusion, further studies could be necessary to establish the role of chronic renal failure and of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism in gallstones formation and, in particular, if dialysis and predialysis patients have an higher risk to develop cholesterol and black pigment gallstones in particular of the "blackberry" (whitlockite) subtype. PMID:22959097

  14. Ion transport in pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Oancea, Elena V.

    2014-01-01

    Skin melanocytes and ocular pigment cells contain specialized organelles called melanosomes, which are responsible for the synthesis of melanin, the major pigment in mammals. Defects in the complex mechanisms involved in melanin synthesis and regulation result in vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired development of the visual system,, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Ion transport across cellular membranes is critical for many biological processes, including pigmentation, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates melanin synthesis, storage, and transfer are not understood. In this review we first discuss ion channels and transporters that function at the plasma membrane of melanocytes; in the second part we consider ion transport across the membrane of intracellular organelles, with emphasis on melanosomes. We discuss recently characterized lysosomal and endosomal ion channels and transporters associated with pigmentation phenotypes. We then review the evidence for melanosomal channels and transporters critical for pigmentation, discussing potential molecular mechanisms mediating their function. The studies investigating ion transport in pigmentation physiology open new avenues for future research and could reveal novel molecular mechanisms underlying melanogenesis. PMID:25034214

  15. Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet pattern scores and risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Kristine A; McCullough, Marji; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Judd, Suzanne; Bostick, Roberd M

    2014-12-01

    The Western dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of colorectal neoplasms. Evolutionary discordance could explain this association. We investigated associations of scores for 2 proposed diet patterns, the "Paleolithic" and the Mediterranean, with incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of colorectal polyps conducted in Minnesota (1991-1994). Persons with no prior history of colorectal neoplasms completed comprehensive questionnaires prior to elective, outpatient endoscopy; of these individuals, 564 were identified as cases and 1,202 as endoscopy-negative controls. An additional group of community controls frequency-matched on age and sex (n = 535) was also recruited. Both diet scores were calculated for each participant and categorized into quintiles, and associations were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios comparing persons in the highest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores relative to the lowest quintiles were, respectively, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.02; Ptrend = 0.02) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.03; Ptrend = 0.05) when comparing cases with endoscopy-negative controls and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.26; Ptrend = 0.14) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.11; Ptrend = 0.13) when comparing cases with community controls. These findings suggest that greater adherence to the Paleolithic diet pattern and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern may be similarly associated with lower risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas. PMID:25326623

  16. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  17. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  18. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  19. Early Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe and implications for the dispersal of modern humans.

    PubMed

    Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Forman, Steven L; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Kuz'mina, I E; Burova, N D; Goldberg, Paul; Macphail, Richard I; Giaccio, Biagio; Praslov, N D

    2007-01-12

    Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating and magnetic stratigraphy indicate Upper Paleolithic occupation-probably representing modern humans-at archaeological sites on the Don River in Russia 45,000 to 42,000 years ago. The oldest levels at Kostenki underlie a volcanic ash horizon identified as the Campanian Ignimbrite Y5 tephra that is dated elsewhere to about 40,000 years ago. The occupation layers contain bone and ivory artifacts, including possible figurative art, and fossil shells imported more than 500 kilometers. Thus, modern humans appeared on the central plain of Eastern Europe as early as anywhere else in northern Eurasia. PMID:17218523

  20. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing. PMID:17632802

  1. Paleomagnetic studies of Paleolithic site deposits in the Matzuka Cave (Northern Caucasus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, G. A.; Golovanova, L. V.; Sharonova, Z. V.; Semenov, V. V.

    2006-07-01

    As a result of detailed paleomagnetic and magnetic studies of Paleolithic site deposits in the Matuzka Cave, a record of the Matuzka geomagnetic excursion in lithologic layer 7 has been discovered and studied. Such characteristic features as the geomagnetic field direction, position of the virtual geomagnetic pole, geomagnetic field intensity (roughly estimated) after and during the excursion, and climatic conditions coeval with its existence make the Matuzka excursion similar to the ˜130-ka Blake excursion. This dates at ˜130 ka the formation of layer 7 with ancient archaeological findings.

  2. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  3. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  4. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  5. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer. PMID:15685954

  6. The Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition: dating, stratigraphy, and isochronous markers.

    PubMed

    Blockley, S P E; Ramsey, C Bronk; Higham, T F G

    2008-11-01

    Accurate and precise dating is vital to our understanding of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. There are, however, a number of uncertainties in the chronologies currently available for this period. We attempt to examine these uncertainties by utilizing a number of recent developments in the field. These include: the precise dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) tephra by 40Ar/39Ar; the tracing of this tephra to a number of deposits that are radiocarbon dated; the publication of revised radiocarbon calibration data for the period, showing a much better convergence with other available data than during the recent IntCal comparison; and a layer-counted ice-core chronology extending beyond 40,000cal BP. Our data comparisons suggest that a reasonable overall convergence between calibrated radiocarbon ages and calendar dates is possible using the new curves. Additionally, we suggest that charcoal-based radiocarbon ages, as well as bone-based radiocarbon determinations, require cautious interpretation in this period. Potentially, these issues extend far beyond the sites in this study and should be of serious concern to archaeologists studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic. We conclude by outlining a strategy for moving the science forward by a closer integration of archaeology, chronology, and stratigraphy. PMID:18926557

  7. The Persistence of Mode 1 Technology in the Korean Late Paleolithic

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Woo

    2013-01-01

    Ssangjungri (SJ), an open-air site with several Paleolithic horizons, was recently discovered in South Korea. Most of the identified artifacts are simple core and flake tools that indicate an expedient knapping strategy. Bifacially worked core tools, which might be considered non-classic bifaces, also have been found. The prolific horizons at the site were dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to about 30 kya. Another newly discovered Paleolithic open-air site, Jeungsan (JS), shows a homogeneous lithic pattern during this period. The dominated artifact types and usage of raw materials are similar in character to those from SJ, although JS yielded a larger number of simple core and flake tools with non-classic bifaces. Chronometric analysis by AMS and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicate that the prime stratigraphic levels at JS also date to approximately 30 kya, and the numerous conjoining pieces indicate that the layers were not seriously affected by post-depositional processes. Thus, it can be confirmed that simple core and flake tools were produced at temporally and culturally independent sites until after 30 kya, supporting the hypothesis of a wide and persistent use of simple technology into the Late Pleistocene. PMID:23724113

  8. Lower Paleolithic bone tools from the 'Spear Horizon' at Schöningen (Germany).

    PubMed

    Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Parfitt, Simon A; Serangeli, Jordi; Bello, Silvia M

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Paleolithic locality of Schöningen 13 II-4 is famous for the discovery of wooden spears found amongst the butchered remains of numerous horses and other large herbivores. Although the spears have attracted the most interest, other aspects of the associated artifact assemblage have received less attention. Here we describe an extraordinary assemblage of 88 bone tools from the 'Spear Horizon.' This sample includes numerous long-bone shaft fragments (mostly of horse), three ribs used as 'retouchers' to resharpen flint tools, and a complete horse innominate that was used as an anvil in bipolar knapping. Most of the retouchers were prepared by scraping the diaphysis of fresh and dry long-bones. Technological analysis of the associated lithic assemblage demonstrates exhaustive resharpening to maintain functional cutting edges. Whereas the flint tools were brought to the site, curated, and maintained, the retouchers had a shorter use-history and were either discarded after a limited period or broken to extract marrow. Horse and bison metapodials with flaked and rounded epiphyses are interpreted as hammers used to break marrow bones. Several of the 'metapodial hammers' were additionally used as knapping percussors. These constitute the earliest evidence of multi-purpose bone tools in the archeological record. Our results highlight the advanced knowledge in the use of bones as tools during the Lower Paleolithic, with major implications for understanding aspects of non-lithic technology and planning depth in early hominins. PMID:26653208

  9. Integration of the response to a dietary potassium load: a paleolithic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Kamel S; Schreiber, Martin; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2014-05-01

    Our purpose is to integrate new insights in potassium (K(+)) physiology to understand K(+) homeostasis and illustrate some of their clinical implications. Since control mechanisms that are essential for survival were likely developed in Paleolithic times, we think the physiology of K(+) homeostasis can be better revealed when viewed from what was required to avoid threats and achieve balance in Paleolithic times. Three issues will be highlighted. First, we shall consider the integrative physiology of the gastrointestinal tract and the role of lactic acid released from enterocytes following absorption of sugars (fruit and berries) to cause a shift of this K(+) load into the liver. Second, we shall discuss the integrative physiology of WNK kinases and modulation of delivery of bicarbonate to the distal nephron to switch the aldosterone response from sodium chloride retention to K(+) secretion when faced with a K(+) load. Third, we shall emphasize the role of intra-renal recycling of urea in achieving K(+) homeostasis when the diet contains protein and K(+). PMID:24789504

  10. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-04-01

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000-19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region. PMID:23509257

  11. Fine Dissection of Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup HV Lineages Reveals Paleolithic Signatures from European Glacial Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Sevini, Federica; Vianello, Dario; Tamm, Erika; Metspalu, Ene; van Oven, Mannis; Hübner, Alexander; Sazzini, Marco; Franceschi, Claudio; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Genetic signatures from the Paleolithic inhabitants of Eurasia can be traced from the early divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages still present in contemporary human populations. Previous studies already suggested a pre-Neolithic diffusion of mitochondrial haplogroup HV*(xH,V) lineages, a relatively rare class of mtDNA types that includes parallel branches mainly distributed across Europe and West Asia with a certain degree of structure. Up till now, variation within haplogroup HV was addressed mainly by analyzing sequence data from the mtDNA control region, except for specific sub-branches, such as HV4 or the widely distributed haplogroups H and V. In this study, we present a revised HV topology based on full mtDNA genome data, and we include a comprehensive dataset consisting of 316 complete mtDNA sequences including 60 new samples from the Italian peninsula, a previously underrepresented geographic area. We highlight points of instability in the particular topology of this haplogroup, reconstructed with BEAST-generated trees and networks. We also confirm a major lineage expansion that probably followed the Late Glacial Maximum and preceded Neolithic population movements. We finally observe that Italy harbors a reservoir of mtDNA diversity, with deep-rooting HV lineages often related to sequences present in the Caucasus and the Middle East. The resulting hypothesis of a glacial refugium in Southern Italy has implications for the understanding of late Paleolithic population movements and is discussed within the archaeological cultural shifts occurred over the entire continent. PMID:26640946

  12. Revised direct radiocarbon dating of the Vindija G1 Upper Paleolithic Neandertals

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Tom; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Karavanić, Ivor; Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The 1998/1999 direct dating of two Neandertal specimens from level G1 of Vindija Cave in Croatia to ≈28,000 and ≈29,000 radiocarbon (14C) years ago has led to interpretations concerning the late survival of Neandertals in south-central Europe, patterns of interaction between Neandertals and in-dispersing early modern humans in Europe, and complex biocultural scenarios for the earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic. Given improvements, particularly in sample pretreatment techniques for bone radiocarbon samples, especially ultrafiltration of collagen samples, these Vindija G1 Neandertal fossils are redated to ≈32,000–33,000 14C years ago and possibly earlier. These results and the recent redating of a number of purportedly old modern human skeletal remains in Europe to younger time periods highlight the importance of fine chronological control when studying this biocultural time period and the tenuous nature of monolithic scenarios for the establishment of modern humans and earlier phases of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe. PMID:16407102

  13. Accurate radiocarbon age estimation using "early" measurements: a new approach to reconstructing the Paleolithic absolute chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Takayuki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Yoneda, Minoru

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents new correction approaches for "early" radiocarbon ages to reconstruct the Paleolithic absolute chronology. In order to discuss time-space distribution about the replacement of archaic humans, including Neanderthals in Europe, by the modern humans, a massive data, which covers a wide-area, would be needed. Today, some radiocarbon databases focused on the Paleolithic have been published and used for chronological studies. From a viewpoint of current analytical technology, however, the any database have unreliable results that make interpretation of radiocarbon dates difficult. Most of these unreliable ages had been published in the early days of radiocarbon analysis. In recent years, new analytical methods to determine highly-accurate dates have been developed. Ultrafiltration and ABOx-SC methods, as new sample pretreatments for bone and charcoal respectively, have attracted attention because they could remove imperceptible contaminates and derive reliable accurately ages. In order to evaluate the reliability of "early" data, we investigated the differences and variabilities of radiocarbon ages on different pretreatments, and attempted to develop correction functions for the assessment of the reliability. It can be expected that reliability of the corrected age is increased and the age applied to chronological research together with recent ages. Here, we introduce the methodological frameworks and archaeological applications.

  14. The Middle Pleistocene tunnel valley at Schöningen as a Paleolithic archive.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jörg; Böhner, Utz; Polom, Ulrich; Serangeli, Jordi; Winsemann, Jutta

    2015-12-01

    Schöningen represents one of the key sites for Lower Paleolithic archaeology in central Europe, where a Middle to Late Pleistocene sedimentary succession, locally up to 45 m thick, has been preserved in an Elsterian tunnel valley. After deglaciation, the tunnel valley remained underfilled and provided the accommodation space for Holsteinian interglacial deposition and also kept the artifact-bearing strata below base level for subsequent erosion. The Holsteinian (MIS 9) succession consists of laterally and vertically stacked lacustrine delta systems, which were controlled by repeated lake-level changes. In the face of changing climatic and environmental conditions the long-lived interglacial lake provided an attractive site for animals and early humans. Artifacts were deposited on the subaerial delta plain and became embedded during lake-level rise. Although the area was considerably affected by erosion and glacitectonic deformation during the subsequent Saalian glaciation, the artifact-bearing Holsteinian strata were preserved in the deeper part of the tunnel valley. Tunnel valleys should be regarded as potential archives for interglacial deposits, which may contain important Paleolithic sites. Tunnel valleys may provide accommodation space and also have a high preservation potential. Interglacial lakes situated within underfilled tunnel valleys represented attractive sites for animals and early human hunter-gatherers. PMID:25747317

  15. Skhodnya, Khvalynsk, Satanay, and Podkumok calvariae: possible Upper Paleolithic hominins from European Russia.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Ekaterina; Gunz, Philipp

    2011-02-01

    European Russia has been at the fringe of the hominin dispersal for most of the late Pleistocene. However, by about 20,000 BP this area was settled by modern humans who had highly sophisticated and sometimes unique technologies. Not many Upper Paleolithic human fossils have been described from this area and consequently the morphology of these people remains largely unknown. Here, we present descriptions and a comparative morphological analysis of four possibly late Pleistocene fossils from European Russia: Skhodnya, Khvalynsk, Satanay, and Podkumok. The frontal bone is chosen for study because it is preserved in all of these fossils and is known to provide good discrimination among groups of Pleistocene hominins. All four fossils have been previously claimed to possess 'archaic' features of frontal morphology, such as developed supraorbital relief and a flat frontal squama. The results of a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of frontal bone landmarks and semilandmarks indicate that these fossils indisputably belong to modern humans. However, there are good reasons to associate Khvalynsk, Skhodnya, and Podkumok with Upper Paleolithic fossils from central and western Europe, whereas Satanay is more similar to a pooled sample of recent modern humans. PMID:21093015

  16. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  17. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  18. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

  19. Subjective satiety and other experiences of a Paleolithic diet compared to a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We found marked improvement of glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes given advice to follow a Paleolithic diet, as compared to a diabetes diet. We now report findings on subjective ratings of satiety at meal times and participants’ other experiences of the two diets from the same study. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes (3 women and 10 men), were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts, and a diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines, during two consecutive 3-month periods. In parallel with a four-day weighed food record, the participants recorded their subjective rating of satiety. Satiety quotients were calculated as the intra-meal quotient of change in satiety during a meal and consumed energy or weight of food and drink for that specific meal. All participants answered the same three open-ended questions in a survey following each diet: “What thoughts do you have about this diet?”, “Describe your positive and negative experiences with this diet” and “How do you think this diet has affected your health?”. Results The participants were equally satiated on both diets. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater satiety quotients for energy per meal (p = 0.004), energy density per meal (p = 0.01) and glycemic load per meal (p = 0.02). The distribution of positive and negative comments from the survey did not differ between the two diets, and the comments were mostly positive. Among comments relating to recurring topics, there was no difference in distribution between the two diets for comments relating to tastelessness, but there was a trend towards more comments on the Paleolithic diet being satiating and improving blood sugar values, and significantly more comments on weight loss and difficulty adhering to the Paleolithic diet. Conclusions A

  20. Biology of pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.

    1981-01-01

    The many factors involved in the normal pigmentation of human skin are highly complex involving anatomic, biochemical, and genetic aspects of melanocytes in the skin and the influence of UV light and various hormones on the melanocytes. It is probably more than just coincidence that the melanocytes, which are of neurogenic origin, are so responsive to several trophic hormones produced in the brain. Understanding of the various factors involved in the normal pigmentary process is crucial to explaining the many alterations and anomalies in human pigmentation.

  1. Magnetic and mineralogical characteristics of rocks at the Mezmaiskaya cave Paleolithic site (Northern Caucasus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, G. A.; Golovanova, L. V.; Dronochev, V. B.; Tselmovich, V. A.

    2011-07-01

    The results of magnetic and microprobe studies of the rock sequences in the Mezmaiskaya cave at the unique multilayer Paleolithic site are discussed. The magnetic properties of rocks are analyzed for 17 layers (upwards from layer 4 to layer 11) dated from over 73 ka ago to recent times. The rocks of layer 1C (Early Upper Paleolithic, ˜38 ka) are found to have the highest magnetic susceptibility ( K) (up to 2500 × 10-6 SI), which is related to the intensive activity of [Homo sapiens]. The minimum K corresponds to the rocks of layer 2, which is overlain by layer 1D. The sizes of magnetic grains vary throughout the rock section. The largest grains are found in the middle part of the section in the Middle Paleolithic layers 2B3, 2B2, 2B1, 2A, and 2. The superparamagnetic fraction is identified in all layers. This fact supports the view that the cave was open as early as the formation of layer 4. According to the thermomagnetic data on the saturation magnetization and the temperature curves of magnetic susceptibility, magnetite is the main carrier of the rock magnetization; some samples contain iron hydroxides. Samples with iron sulfides (pyrite) are abundant. The study of the hysteresis parameters of rocks showed that the question on whether sulfide-bearing rocks are suitable for reliable paleomagnetic determinations requires further laboratory research into the origin of magnetite in the rocks. The chemical composition of rocks composing layer 2B3 and layers 1D (˜39 ka) and 2B1 (˜45 ka), in which the presence of volcanic ash has been previously established according to the presence of volcanic glass, was determined by detailed microprobe analysis. A wide variety of chemical elements (up to 18 items) was recognized in layers 1D and 2B1. The iron, titan, chrome, manganese content, and concentrations of other components vary from grain to grain. The microprobe analysis of samples from layers 1D and 2B1 revealed a set of magnetic particles with compositions

  2. U-series dating of Paleolithic art in 11 caves in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pike, A W G; Hoffmann, D L; García-Diez, M; Pettitt, P B; Alcolea, J; De Balbín, R; González-Sainz, C; de las Heras, C; Lasheras, J A; Montes, R; Zilhão, J

    2012-06-15

    Paleolithic cave art is an exceptional archive of early human symbolic behavior, but because obtaining reliable dates has been difficult, its chronology is still poorly understood after more than a century of study. We present uranium-series disequilibrium dates of calcite deposits overlying or underlying art found in 11 caves, including the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage sites of Altamira, El Castillo, and Tito Bustillo, Spain. The results demonstrate that the tradition of decorating caves extends back at least to the Early Aurignacian period, with minimum ages of 40.8 thousand years for a red disk, 37.3 thousand years for a hand stencil, and 35.6 thousand years for a claviform-like symbol. These minimum ages reveal either that cave art was a part of the cultural repertoire of the first anatomically modern humans in Europe or that perhaps Neandertals also engaged in painting caves. PMID:22700921

  3. Throwing in the Middle and Upper Paleolithic: inferences from an analysis of humeral retroversion.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Jill A; Churchill, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    When in evolutionary history did long-range projectile weapons become an important component of hunting toolkits? The archeological evidence for the development of projectile weaponry is complex and generally indirect, and has led to different conclusions about the origin and spread of this technology. Lithic evidence from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) has led some researchers to suggest that true long- range projectile weaponry developed in Africa perhaps as early as 80,000 years ago, and was part of the subsistence toolkit carried by modern humans who expanded out of Africa after 50,000 years ago. Alternatively, temporal patterns in the morphology of pointed lithics has led others to posit an independent, convergent origin of projectile weaponry in Africa, the Near East, and Europe during the interval between 50,000-40,000 years ago. By either scenario, projectile weapons would not have been a component of the hunting arsenal of Neandertals, but may have been in use by European early modern humans and thus, projectile technology may have entered into the competitive dynamics that existed between these two groups. The origins of projectile weapons can be addressed, in part, through analyses of the skeletal remains of the prehistoric humans who made and used them. Habitual behavior patterns--including those related to the production and use of technology--can be imprinted on the skeleton through both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Recent studies in the field of sports medicine indicate that individuals who engage in habitual throwing have increased humeral retroversion angles in their throwing arms and a greater degree of bilateral asymmetry in retroversion angles than do non-throwers. This contribution investigates humeral torsion through analysis of the retroversion angle in samples of Eurasian Neandertals, European early modern humans of the middle and late Upper Paleolithic, and comparative samples of recent humans. This analysis was conducted under the

  4. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta Da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Willman, John C; Maki, Julia; Bayle, Priscilla; Trinkaus, Erik; Zilhão, João

    2012-09-01

    Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 (Oliveira 5), a partial postcanine tooth (Oliveira 6), a humeral diaphysis (Oliveira 7), a distal mandibular molar (Oliveira 8), and a mandibular premolar (P(3) ) (Oliveira 9). Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans. The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European (including Iberian) Neandertals. The Oliveira 9 P(3) has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P(3) s in having relatively thin enamel. These join the Oliveira 1 to 4 remains in further documenting early MIS 3 Neandertal morphology in western Iberia. PMID:22610966

  5. Early Levallois technology and the Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition in the Southern Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Adler, D S; Wilkinson, K N; Blockley, S; Mark, D F; Pinhasi, R; Schmidt-Magee, B A; Nahapetyan, S; Mallol, C; Berna, F; Glauberman, P J; Raczynski-Henk, Y; Wales, N; Frahm, E; Jöris, O; MacLeod, A; Smith, V C; Cullen, V L; Gasparian, B

    2014-09-26

    The Lower to Middle Paleolithic transition (~400,000 to 200,000 years ago) is marked by technical, behavioral, and anatomical changes among hominin populations throughout Africa and Eurasia. The replacement of bifacial stone tools, such as handaxes, by tools made on flakes detached from Levallois cores documents the most important conceptual shift in stone tool production strategies since the advent of bifacial technology more than one million years earlier and has been argued to result from the expansion of archaic Homo sapiens out of Africa. Our data from Nor Geghi 1, Armenia, record the earliest synchronic use of bifacial and Levallois technology outside Africa and are consistent with the hypothesis that this transition occurred independently within geographically dispersed, technologically precocious hominin populations with a shared technological ancestry. PMID:25258079

  6. The mitochondrial lineage U8a reveals a Paleolithic settlement in the Basque country

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M; García, Oscar; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2006-01-01

    Background It is customary, in population genetics studies, to consider Basques as the direct descendants of the Paleolithic Europeans. However, until now there has been no irrefutable genetic proof to support this supposition. Even studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), an ideal molecule for constructing datable maternal genealogies, have failed to achieve this. It could be that incoming gene flow has replaced the Basque ancient lineages but it could also be that these lineages have not been detected due to a lack of resolution of the Basque mtDNA genealogies. To assess this possibility we analyzed here the mtDNA of a large sample of autochthonous Basques using mtDNA genomic sequencing for those lineages that could not be unequivocally classified by diagnostic RFLP analysis and control region (HVSI and HVSII) sequencing. Results We show that Basques have the most ancestral phylogeny in Europe for the rare mitochondrial subhaplogroup U8a. Divergence times situate the Basque origin of this lineage in the Upper Palaeolithic. Most probably, their primitive founders came from West Asia. The lack of U8a lineages in Africa points to an European and not a North African route of entrance. Phylogeographic analysis suggest that U8a had two expansion periods in Europe, the first, from a south-western area including the Iberian peninsula and Mediterranean France before 30,000 years ago, and the second, from Central Europe around 15,000–10,000 years ago. Conclusion It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that Basques show the oldest lineages in Europe for subhaplogroup U8a. Coalescence times for these lineages suggest their presence in the Basque country since the Upper Paleolithic. The European U8 phylogeography is congruent with the supposition that Basques could have participated in demographic re-expansions to repopulate central Europe in the last interglacial periods. PMID:16719915

  7. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores and Risk of Incident, Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Kristine A.; McCullough, Marji; Flanders, W. Dana; Hartman, Terryl J.; Judd, Suzanne; Bostick, Roberd M.

    2014-01-01

    The Western dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of colorectal neoplasms. Evolutionary discordance could explain this association. We investigated associations of scores for 2 proposed diet patterns, the “Paleolithic” and the Mediterranean, with incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of colorectal polyps conducted in Minnesota (1991–1994). Persons with no prior history of colorectal neoplasms completed comprehensive questionnaires prior to elective, outpatient endoscopy; of these individuals, 564 were identified as cases and 1,202 as endoscopy-negative controls. An additional group of community controls frequency-matched on age and sex (n = 535) was also recruited. Both diet scores were calculated for each participant and categorized into quintiles, and associations were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios comparing persons in the highest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores relative to the lowest quintiles were, respectively, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.02; Ptrend = 0.02) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.03; Ptrend = 0.05) when comparing cases with endoscopy-negative controls and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.26; Ptrend = 0.14) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.11; Ptrend = 0.13) when comparing cases with community controls. These findings suggest that greater adherence to the Paleolithic diet pattern and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern may be similarly associated with lower risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas. PMID:25326623

  8. Tephra studies and the reconstruction of Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic cultural trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Banks, William E.

    2015-06-01

    This study describes an approach which combines tephra records with archaeological and contextual data in order to propose best fit scenarios for past cultural changes and population events. With this goal in mind, we critically examine the environmental, archaeological, anthropological, and chronometric records of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic (MUP) Transition (45-35 ka) in Europe and identify a number of shortcomings that make it difficult to correlate and interpret current evidence with respect to historical processes. The utility and limitations of tephra records are highlighted and an heuristic strategy, designed to merge evidence from tephra and other proxies, is described. Such a strategy is used to explore the stratigraphic and chronological relationship between the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption and the cultural changes that occurred during the MUP Transition in Southern Europe. Uncertainties pertaining to the timing of this volcanic event are discussed before summarizing the stratigraphic and cultural sequences of the eleven archaeological sites (Haua Fteah, Kozarnica, Franchthi Cave, Klissoura, Golema Pesht, Cavallo, Serino, Castelcivita, Tabula Traiana, Temnata, Kostenki 14) where the CI tephra has been reliably identified, along with three sites (Uluzzo, Uluzzo C, Bernardini) where such an identification remains tentative. We conclude that if one discards as inconclusive the recent attribution of the Uluzzian to modern humans, the best fit historical scenario that stems from a critical reading of the evidence identifies the Uluzzian as the result of in-situ cultural evolution of late Mousterian populations in this region of Southern Europe. Such evolution, which entails the independent development of cultural innovations typically found in subsequent cultures of the Upper Paleolithic, would have been truncated, before the CI event, by the arrival of modern or Neanderthal-modern hybrid populations bearing the Proto-Aurignacian material culture.

  9. A spontaneous eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) color mutant conditions anthocyanin-free fruit pigmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced or spontaneously occuring color mutants in plants provide valuable tools for elucidating the genetic and developmental regulation of genes that influence pigmentation. We identified a single plant of the eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivar Black Beauty bearing green fruit. Black Beauty no...

  10. Clinicopathologic correlate of a fresh eyelid pigment implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, D.T.; Folberg, R.; Moore, K.

    1985-10-01

    An eyelid with freshly applied black eyeliner pigment was examined histologically. X-ray microanalysis of the pigment suspension from the manufacturer's vial indicated that its composition was 98% iron and 2% titanium. Transmission electron microscopic examination disclosed that particles were in the extracellular matrix; intracellular particles were not seen. By light microscopy, implant material was detected in various levels of the dermis and was found in dermal lymphatics as well as within and surrounding a hair follicle. This study suggests that systemic exposure to the implant material is possible and offers explanations for permanent eyelash loss, which the authors have seen following this procedure.

  11. Identification of colorants in pigmented pen inks by laser desorption mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papson, Kaitlin; Stachura, Sylwia; Boralsky, Luke; Allison, John

    2008-01-01

    Pigments are rapidly replacing dyes as colorants in pen and printer inks, due to their superior colors and stability. Unfortunately, tools commonly used in questioned document examination for analyzing pen inks, such as TLC, cannot be used for the analysis of insoluble pigments on paper. Laser desorption mass spectrometry is demonstrated here as a tool for analyzing pigment-based pen inks. A pulsed nitrogen laser can be focused onto a pen stroke from a pigmented ink pen on paper, and positive and negative ions representative of the pigment can be generated for subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. Targeted pens for this work were a set of Uni-ball 207 pigmented ink pens containing blue, light blue, orange, green, violet, red, pink, and black inks. Copper phthalocyanine was identified as the pigment used to make both blue inks. A mixture of halogenated copper phthalocyanines were identified in the green ink. Unexpectedly, the pink ink was found to contain a red pigment, Pigment Red 12, treated with a mixture of water-soluble dyes. Each sample yielded ions representative of the pigments present. PMID:18279246

  12. Paleolithic hominin remains from Eshkaft-e Gavi (southern Zagros Mountains, Iran): description, affinities, and evidence for butchery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeremiah E; Marean, Curtis W

    2009-09-01

    Eshkaft-e Gavi is a cave located in the southern Zagros Mountains of Iran and is one of the few archaeological sites in the region to preserve both Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic occupations. Excavation of the site in the 1970s yielded an assemblage of lithic and faunal remains, including ten hominin specimens: a mandibular molar, four cranial fragments, a clavicular diaphysis, the proximal half of a metacarpal, a fragment of os coxa, the proximal diaphysis of a juvenile femur, and a patella. The bones derive from a minimum of four individuals, including two juveniles. Although many of these remains could be Epi-Paleolithic in age, one of the juvenile specimens-the mandibular molar-occurs at the base of the cave's Upper Paleolithic sequence. The remains are very fragmentary, but those that preserve diagnostic morphology indicate that they represent modern humans. The molar is taxonomically diagnostic, thus confirming the association of the Aurignacian-like Baradostian Industry with modern humans. Four of the specimens-a piece of frontal bone, the clavicle, the juvenile femur, and the patella-display clear evidence for intentional butchery in the form of stone-tool cutmarks. These cutmarked specimens, along with a fragment of parietal bone, are also burned. Although this evidence is consistent with cannibalism, the small sample makes it difficult to say whether or not the individuals represented by the hominin remains were butchered and cooked for consumption. Nevertheless, the cutmarked Eshkaft-e Gavi specimens add to a growing sample of hominin remains extending back into the Plio-Pleistocene that display evidence of intentional defleshing. PMID:19660782

  13. Characterizing the Lower Paleolithic bone industry from Schöningen 12 II: A multi-proxy study.

    PubMed

    Julien, Marie-Anne; Hardy, Bruce; Stahlschmidt, Mareike C; Urban, Brigitte; Serangeli, Jordi; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-12-01

    Although preservation of Paleolithic faunal assemblages from open-air settings is often poor, the Lower Paleolithic sites of Schöningen provide exceptionally well-preserved mammalian faunal material for investigating hominin/animal relationships. Pleistocene fossil assemblages, however, usually reflect a complex taphonomic history in which natural and anthropogenic processes are often superimposed. A number of examples of osseous finds that resemble tools were recently discovered in the MIS 9 deposits of Schöningen 12 II. Non-anthropogenic agents are known to produce surface modifications mimicking human artifacts and the identification of osseous remains used and/or deliberately modified by ancient hominins is often controversial in such old contexts. Multiple lines of evidence are thus useful for distinguishing between osseous artifacts and "eco-facts". In this paper, the recognition of the use of bone for different technological purposes by late Middle Pleistocene hominins is addressed through a multi-proxy study combining geoarcheology, bone taphonomy, zooarcheology, and use-wear analysis. This allowed the identification of the processes and agents responsible for the formation and modification of the different bone assemblages of Schöningen 12 II. Our analysis points to different types of bones having been likely used as tools. These results expand the diversity of the organic technological repertoire of the Middle Pleistocene hominins, making Schöningen 12 II a remarkable new source of information on osseous technology long before the Upper Paleolithic, the period traditionally viewed as the start of the systematic use of bone tools. Together with other observations of bone tools documented during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic, the results from Schöningen show that archeologists may have underestimated the diversity and importance of osseous technology among archaic hominins. PMID:26651609

  14. Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans.

    PubMed

    Laokuldilok, Thunnop; Shoemaker, Charles F; Jongkaewwattana, Sakda; Tulyathan, Vanna

    2011-01-12

    This study investigated the antioxidant content and activity of phenolic acids, anthocyanins, α-tocopherol and γ-oryzanol in pigmented rice (black and red rice) brans. After methanolic extraction, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity were measured. The pigmented rice bran extract had a greater reducing power than a normal rice bran extract from a long grain white rice. All bran extracts were highly effective in inhibiting linoleic acid peroxidation (60-85%). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of antioxidants in rice bran found that γ-oryzanol (39-63%) and phenolic acids (33-43%) were the major antioxidants in all bran samples, and black rice bran also contained anthocyanins 18-26%. HPLC analysis of anthocyanins showed that pigmented bran was rich in cyanidin-3-glucoside (58-95%). Ferulic acid was the dominant phenolic acid in the rice bran samples. Black rice bran contained gallic, hydroxybenzoic, and protocatechuic acids in higher contents than red rice bran and normal rice bran. Furthermore, the addition of 5% black rice bran to wheat flour used for making bread produced a marked increase in the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity compared to a control bread. PMID:21141962

  15. On the evolution of diet and landscape during the Upper Paleolithic through Mesolithic at Franchthi Cave (Peloponnese, Greece).

    PubMed

    Stiner, Mary C; Munro, Natalie D

    2011-05-01

    Franchthi Cave in southern Greece preserves one of the most remarkable records of socioeconomic change of the Late Pleistocene through early Holocene. Located on the southern end of the Argolid Peninsula, the area around the site was greatly affected by climate variation and marine transgression. This study examines the complex interplay of site formation processes (material deposition rates), climate-driven landscape change, and human hunting systems during the Upper Paleolithic through Mesolithic at Franchthi Cave based on the H1B faunal series. Building on earlier work, we establish the full spectrum of the meat diet using taphonomic evidence, and we analyze these data for trends in socioeconomic reorganization. Foraging patterns during the Aurignacian and "Gravettoid" occupations at Franchthi were terrestrial and already rather diversified in comparison to Middle Paleolithic diets in southern Greece. Hunting shifted abruptly to a mixed marine-terrestrial pattern during the Final Paleolithic, and fishing activities intensified though the Mesolithic. The zooarchaeological data indicate two consecutive trends of increasing dietary breadth, the first within an exclusively terrestrial context, and the second as marine habitats came into use through the end of the Mesolithic. The intensity of the human occupations at this site increased in tandem with intensified use of animal and plants. Comparison to the inland site of Klissoura Cave 1 indicates that the trend toward broader diets was regional as well as local. PMID:21371735

  16. [Spectral analysis of pottery-painting pigments from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Zhang; Zhang, Ju-Zhong; Zuo, Jian; Kan, Xu-Hang; Zhou, Qun

    2010-04-01

    Based on the analysis of Raman spectroscopy and XRD methods, the structures of different pigments on the painted pottery from the Monarch Bai Tomb of Zhongli State in the middle and late Spring and Autumn period at Shungdun Village, Bengbu City, Anhui Province were analyzed. The result shows that all the pigments, including red, yellow and black pigments, have been well preserved, and these three pigments were identified as cinnabar, goethite and carbon black respectively. Both Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis show that the crystal composition of red pigments, cinnabar, is very pure without quartz crystal, the associated crystal of natural cinnabar, and at the same time the crystal size of cinnabar is possibly at the nanometer scale. It suggests that this red pigments perhaps were a synthetic material or processed and purified by our ancestors. The discovery of goethite shows that this mineral has been used as pigments as early as in the Spring and Autumn period. This is the earliest example that goethite was used as yellow pigments. PMID:20545178

  17. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) METHODS: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) RESULTS: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (-1.99 kg, 95% CI -2.9, -1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (-14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI -19.5, -9.7), sodium (-1055 mg/day, 95% CI -1593, -518), calcium (-292 mg/day 95% CI -486.0, -99.0) and iodine (-47.9 μg/day, 95% CI -79.2, -16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  18. Seasonal variations of the middle-upper paleolithic transition at El castillo, Cueva Morín and El pendo (Cantabria, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pike-Tay, A; Cabrera Valdés, V; Bernaldo de Quirós, F

    1999-03-01

    With debate escalating in regard to the prolonged contemporaneity of neandertal and modern human groups in the Franco-Cantabrian region on the one hand, and the late persistence of neandertals (until ca. 28-30,000 B.P.) and Mousterian industries in southern Iberia on the other; sites with Mousterian-Upper Paleolithic sequences from northern Spain play a pivotal role in the ongoing investigation of the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition in western Europe. An important line of inquiry into the nature of social and economic change from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic is the monitoring of shifts in land use and resource procurement patterns. The recognition of short-term, seasonal patterning in settlement and resource provisioning may provide insights into changes in mobility, territoriality, and social organization that might otherwise be missed. This paper presents results of a seasonality study of fauna from archaeological levels spanning the Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition from the sites of El Castillo, El Pendo, and Cueva Morín in Cantabrian Spain. Data concerning season of death and age at death of prey animals presented here are derived from dental growth mark (increment, annuli) analysis. These data, along with other artifactual and faunal evidence suggest to us that: (1) economic strategies and technologies pervasive in the Upper Paleolithic are rooted in the Cantabrian Middle Paleolithic; and, (2) the apparent increase in deposits from the Middle through Upper Paleolithic may be the signature of a gradual increase in logistical economic strategies including the heightened level of social organization required for their implementation. PMID:10074385

  19. Cardiovascular, Metabolic Effects and Dietary Composition of Ad-Libitum Paleolithic vs. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets: A 4-Week Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The Paleolithic diet is popular in Australia, however, limited literature surrounds the dietary pattern. Our primary aim was to compare the Paleolithic diet with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, with a secondary aim to examine the macro and micronutrient composition of both dietary patterns; (2) Methods: 39 healthy women (mean ± SD age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to either the Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for four weeks. Three-day weighed food records, body composition and biochemistry data were collected pre and post intervention; (3) Results: Significantly greater weight loss occurred in the Paleolithic group (−1.99 kg, 95% CI −2.9, −1.0), p < 0.001). There were no differences in cardiovascular and metabolic markers between groups. The Paleolithic group had lower intakes of carbohydrate (−14.63% of energy (E), 95% CI −19.5, −9.7), sodium (−1055 mg/day, 95% CI −1593, −518), calcium (−292 mg/day 95% CI −486.0, −99.0) and iodine (−47.9 μg/day, 95% CI −79.2, −16.5) and higher intakes of fat (9.39% of E, 95% CI 3.7, 15.1) and β-carotene (6777 μg/day 95% CI 2144, 11410) (all p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: The Paleolithic diet induced greater changes in body composition over the short-term intervention, however, larger studies are recommended to assess the impact of the Paleolithic vs. AGHE diets on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy populations. PMID:27223304

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of Microbial Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid nondestructive technique providing spectroscopic and structural information on both organic and inorganic molecular compounds. Extensive applications for the method in the characterization of pigments have been found. Due to the high sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy for the detection of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scytonemin, and a range of other pigments found in the microbial world, it is an excellent technique to monitor the presence of such pigments, both in pure cultures and in environmental samples. Miniaturized portable handheld instruments are available; these instruments can be used to detect pigments in microbiological samples of different types and origins under field conditions. PMID:24682303

  1. Anthocyanin content of wild black raspberry germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its intense anthocyanin pigments, black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has a long history of use as a natural colorant and dye. Recent studies showing black raspberries to be a rich source of anthocyanins and other dietary phytochemicals have led to renewed interest in breeding better ...

  2. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-01

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks.

  3. Micro-Raman analysis of the pigments on painted pottery figurines from two tombs of the Northern Wei Dynasty in Luoyang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaojun; Han, Yunxia; Han, Ligang; Cheng, Yongjian; Ma, Yiqiang; Fang, Li

    2013-05-15

    The pigments on the painted pottery figurines from two tombs of Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) in Luoyang were analyzed by Raman microscopy. All the pigments were identified compared with the Raman spectra of standard pigments. The red pigments were identified as haematite, the blue pigment as lapis lazuli, the green pigment as malachite, the black pigment as carbon black and the white pigment as calcite. Similar pigments were used in the two tombs despite the pottery figurines were very different in artistic style. The use of lapis lazuli as blue pigment on Chinese painted pottery figurines was found for the first time. This pigment and the painted pottery figurine of Sogdians are of great archaeological significance because it demonstrated that the trade and cultural exchanges via the Silk Road had extended to Luoyang city in the Northern Wei Dynasty. The result also confirms that micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful analytical method for the identification of pigments on ancient artworks. PMID:23501716

  4. Modeling Effects of Local Extinctions on Culture Change and Diversity in the Paleolithic

    PubMed Central

    Premo, L. S.; Kuhn, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of early stone tool technologies has puzzled archaeologists for decades. Cognitively based explanations, which presume either lack of ability to innovate or extreme conformism, do not account for the totality of the empirical patterns. Following recent research, this study explores the effects of demographic factors on rates of culture change and diversification. We investigate whether the appearance of stability in early Paleolithic technologies could result from frequent extinctions of local subpopulations within a persistent metapopulation. A spatially explicit agent-based model was constructed to test the influence of local extinction rate on three general cultural patterns that archaeologists might observe in the material record: total diversity, differentiation among spatially defined groups, and the rate of cumulative change. The model shows that diversity, differentiation, and the rate of cumulative cultural change would be strongly affected by local extinction rates, in some cases mimicking the results of conformist cultural transmission. The results have implications for understanding spatial and temporal patterning in ancient material culture. PMID:21179418

  5. New Neanderthal remains from Mani peninsula, Southern Greece: the Kalamakia Middle Paleolithic cave site.

    PubMed

    Harvati, Katerina; Darlas, Andreas; Bailey, Shara E; Rein, Thomas R; El Zaatari, Sireen; Fiorenza, Luca; Kullmer, Ottmar; Psathi, Eleni

    2013-06-01

    The Kalamakia cave, a Middle Paleolithic site on the western coast of the Mani peninsula, Greece, was excavated in 1993-2006 by an interdisciplinary team from the Ephoreia of Paleoanthropology and Speleology (Greek Ministry of Culture) and the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Paris). The site is dated to between ca. 100,000 and >39,000 years BP (Before Present) and has yielded Mousterian lithics, a rich fauna, and human remains from several layers. The latter include 10 isolated teeth, a cranial fragment and three postcranial elements. The remains represent at least eight individuals, two of them subadults, and show both carnivore and anthropogenic modifications. They can be identified as Neanderthal on the basis of diagnostic morphology on most specimens. A diet similar to that of Neanderthals from mixed habitat is suggested by our analysis of dental wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis) and microwear (occlusal texture microwear analysis), in agreement with the faunal and palynological analyses of the site. These new fossils significantly expand the Neanderthal sample known from Greece. Together with the human specimens from Lakonis and Apidima, the Kalamakia human remains add to the growing evidence of a strong Neanderthal presence in the Mani region during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:23490263

  6. Hunter-gatherer mobility and embedded raw-material procurement strategies in the mediterranean upper paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Tomasso, Antonin; Porraz, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    Since the early 1980s, the sourcing of lithic raw materials has become central to studies of the territorial range and mobility strategies of Pleistocene foraging societies. Results have been fruitful but somehow repetitive. We will discuss the embedded procurement strategy, which presumes that raw material acquisition was part of other subsistence activities rather than an autonomous technological task. We argue that this theoretical assumption, when taken as dogma, restricts the role of technology in human history and also underestimates the way some lithic resources may have affected the organization of past hunter-gatherers. We base our discussion on the Upper Paleolithic (UP) from the Liguro-Provençal arc, with examples from the Proto-Aurignacian and the Epigravettian. Our regional record shows that in this context the movement of rocks over distances greater than 100 km was the norm rather than the exception. We argue that these long-distance procurements mirror technical needs that were oriented toward the selection of high-quality flints. We support the hypothesis that indirect procurement was an important component of regional socio-economic networks. PMID:27312188

  7. Environmental conditions and geomorphologic changes during the Middle-Upper Paleolithic in the southern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Clive; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Carrión, José S.; García-Alix, Antonio; Paytan, Adina; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Fa, Darren A.; Finlayson, Geraldine; Cortés-Sánchez, Miguel; Rodrigo Gámiz, Marta; González-Donoso, José M.; Linares, M. Dolores; Cáceres, Luis M.; Fernández, Santiago; Iijima, Koichi; Martínez Aguirre, Aranzazu

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes geomorphology, marine sediment data, environmental reconstructions and the Gorham's Cave occupational record during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition to illustrate the impacts of climate changes on human population dynamics in the Western Mediterranean. Geomorphologic evolution has been dated and appears to be driven primarily by coastal dune systems, sea-level changes and seismo-tectonic evolution. Continental and marine records are well correlated and used to interpret the Gorham's Cave sequence. Specific focus is given to the three hiatus sections found in Gorham's Cave during Heinrich periods 4, 3 and 2. These time intervals are compared with a wide range of regional geomorphologic, climatic, paleoseismic, faunal and archeological records. Our data compilations indicate that climatic and local geomorphologic changes explain the Homo sapiens spp. occupational hiatuses during Heinrich periods 4 and 3. The last hiatus corresponds to the replacement of Homo neanderthalensis by H. sapiens. Records of dated cave openings, slope breccias and stalactite falls suggest that marked geomorphologic changes, seismic activity and ecological perturbations occurred during the period when Homo replacement took place.

  8. mtDNA analysis reveals a major late Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern to northeastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Torroni, A; Bandelt, H J; D'Urbano, L; Lahermo, P; Moral, P; Sellitto, D; Rengo, C; Forster, P; Savontaus, M L; Bonné-Tamir, B; Scozzari, R

    1998-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 419 individuals from nine Eurasian populations, by high-resolution RFLP analysis, and it was followed by sequencing of the control region of a subset of these mtDNAs and a detailed survey of previously published data from numerous other European populations. This analysis revealed that a major Paleolithic population expansion from the "Atlantic zone" (southwestern Europe) occurred 10,000-15,000 years ago, after the Last Glacial Maximum. As an mtDNA marker for this expansion we identified haplogroup V, an autochthonous European haplogroup, which most likely originated in the northern Iberian peninsula or southwestern France at about the time of the Younger Dryas. Its sister haplogroup, H, which is distributed throughout the entire range of Caucasoid populations and which originated in the Near East approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, also took part in this expansion, thus rendering it by far the most frequent (40%-60%) haplogroup in western Europe. Subsequent migrations after the Younger Dryas eventually carried those "Atlantic" mtDNAs into central and northern Europe. This scenario, already implied by archaeological records, is given overwhelming support from both the distribution of the autochthonous European Y chromosome type 15, as detected by the probes 49a/f, and the synthetic maps of nuclear data. PMID:9545392

  9. New insights on the wooden weapons from the Paleolithic site of Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Werner H; Bigga, Gerlinde; Böhner, Utz; Richter, Pascale; Terberger, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    The Paleolithic site of Schöningen is famous for the earliest known, completely preserved wooden weapons. Here we present recent results of an ongoing analysis of the nine spears, one lance, a double pointed stick, and a burnt stick dating to the Holsteinian, c. 300 kyr. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses, as well as studies of thin sections, contribute to a better understanding of the manufacture of the wooden weapons. They were deposited in organic sediments at a former lakeshore among numerous bones of butchered horses. In general, the spears are extremely well-preserved and show no or little sign of taphonomic alteration, although some of the weapons are broken and parts were slightly moved, probably by water action. The excellent preservation conditions provide considerable information on the operational sequence of production. The hunters selected thin trunks of spruce or pine and initially stripped off the bark. Traces of cutting, scraping, and smoothing can be observed on the spear surfaces in detail. In the case of spear X, repeated use of the weapon is implied by re-sharpening of the tip. Analyses of wood anatomy provide information on climatic conditions and contribute to the better understanding of the development of the site. PMID:26442632

  10. Nonphotosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures.

    PubMed

    Schwieterman, Edward W; Cockell, Charles S; Meadows, Victoria S

    2015-05-01

    Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. PMID:25941875

  11. Comparative chromatography of chloroplast pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandolfo, M.; Sherma, J.; Strain, H. H.

    1969-01-01

    Methods for isolation of low concentration pigments of the cocklebur species are described. The methods entail two step chromatography so that the different sorption properties of the various pigments in varying column parameters can be utilized. Columnar and thin layer methods are compared. Many conditions influence separability of the chloroplasts.

  12. Nonphotosynthetic Pigments as Potential Biosignatures

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous work on possible surface reflectance biosignatures for Earth-like planets has typically focused on analogues to spectral features produced by photosynthetic organisms on Earth, such as the vegetation red edge. Although oxygenic photosynthesis, facilitated by pigments evolved to capture photons, is the dominant metabolism on our planet, pigmentation has evolved for multiple purposes to adapt organisms to their environment. We present an interdisciplinary study of the diversity and detectability of nonphotosynthetic pigments as biosignatures, which includes a description of environments that host nonphotosynthetic biologically pigmented surfaces, and a lab-based experimental analysis of the spectral and broadband color diversity of pigmented organisms on Earth. We test the utility of broadband color to distinguish between Earth-like planets with significant coverage of nonphotosynthetic pigments and those with photosynthetic or nonbiological surfaces, using both 1-D and 3-D spectral models. We demonstrate that, given sufficient surface coverage, nonphotosynthetic pigments could significantly impact the disk-averaged spectrum of a planet. However, we find that due to the possible diversity of organisms and environments, and the confounding effects of the atmosphere and clouds, determination of substantial coverage by biologically produced pigments would be difficult with broadband colors alone and would likely require spectrally resolved data. Key Words: Biosignatures—Exoplanets—Halophiles—Pigmentation—Reflectance spectroscopy—Spectral models. Astrobiology 15, 341–361. PMID:25941875

  13. Pigmented Pheochromocytoma: an Unusual Variant of a Common Tumor.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Kaur, Kavneet; Kumar, Tarun; Cherian, Libin Babu; Kaushal, Rohit; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Dhar, Anita; Seth, Amlesh; Jain, Deepali

    2016-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal medulla. A number of variants of pheochromocytoma are known; however, pigmented pheochromocytoma is extremely rare, with only few cases reported in literature. We report the cases of two patients with pigmented pheochromocytoma. Case 1 was a 28-year-old female who presented with complaints of breathlessness, palpitations, and anxiety for 5 years, which had worsened over the last 8 months. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed a right suprarenal mass. Case 2 was that of an 18-year-old girl who presented with similar complaints and was diagnosed with hypertension. CT abdomen showed bilateral adrenal masses. Urinary vanillyl mandelic acid was raised in both patients. Sections examined from all three tumors showed cells arranged in Zellballen pattern, separated by thin fibrovascular septae. Tumor cells showed moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism in case 1. Mitoses were, however, not seen. There was no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. Many of the tumor cells showed intracytoplasmic black pigment, which was positive for Fontana-Masson and was bleach-labile, confirming it as melanin. Hemosiderin deposition was also identified. Large areas of hemorrhagic necrosis were seen in case 1. Tumor cells were immunopositive for chromogranin and synaptophysin, while they were negative for HMB-45. Electron microscopy was performed. A final diagnosis of pigmented pheochromocytoma was rendered in both cases. Pigmented pheochromocytoma is a very rare tumor, which needs to be differentiated from other pigmented tumors like malignant melanoma of adrenal gland and pigmented adrenal adenoma. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry help in making this distinction. PMID:26578456

  14. Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigments on 16-17th c. Persian manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralha, Vânia S. F.; Burgio, Lucia; Clark, Robin J. H.

    2012-06-01

    The palette of four Persian manuscripts of the 16th and 17th centuries were established by Raman microscopy to include lazurite, red lead, vermilion, orpiment, a carbon-based black, lead white, malachite, haematite, indigo, carmine and pararealgar. The first five pigments were identified on all four manuscripts, as previously found for other Islamic manuscripts of this period. The findings were compared with information available in treatises on Persian painting techniques. Red lead, although identified on all of the manuscripts analysed in this study as the main red pigment, is seldom mentioned in the literature. Two unusual pigments were also identified: the intermediate phase between realgar and pararealgar in the manuscript Timur namah, and carmine in the manuscript Shah namah. Although the established palette comprises few pigments, it was found that the illuminations were enhanced by the use of pigment mixtures, the components of which could be identified by Raman microscopy.

  15. New directions in phthalocyanine pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Diep VO

    1994-01-01

    Phthalocyanines have been used as a pigment in coatings and related applications for many years. These pigments are some of the most stable organic pigments known. The phthalo blue and green pigments have been known to be ultraviolet (UV) stable and thermally stable to over 400 C. These phthalocyanines are both a semiconductor and photoconductor, exhibiting catalytic activity and photostabilization capability of polymers. Many metal free and metallic phthalocyanine derivatives have been prepared. Development of the new classes of phthalocyanine pigment could be used as coating on NASA spacecraft material such as glass to decrease the optical degradation from UV light, the outside of the space station modules for UV protection, and coating on solar cells to increase lifetime and efficiency.

  16. [INHERITANCE OF EPIDERMIS PIGMENTATION IN SUNFLOWER ACHENES].

    PubMed

    Gorohivets, N A; Vedmedeva, E V

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance of epidermis pigmentation in the pericarp of sunflower seeds was studied. Inheritance of pigmentation was confirmed by three alleles Ew (epidermis devoid of pigmentation), Estr (epidermal pigmentation in strips), Edg (solid pigmentation). Dominance of the lack of epidermis pigmentation over striped epidermis and striped epidermis over solid pigmentation was established. It was shown that the striped epidermis pigmentation and the presence of testa layer are controlled by two genes, expression of which is independent from each other. Yellowish hypodermis was discovered in the sample I2K2218, which is inherited monogenically dominantly. PMID:27281924

  17. Pigment Identification on "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa" Painting by Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marano, D.; Marmontelli, M.; De Benedetto, G. E.; Catalano, I. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Vona, F.

    A study of the pigments of "The Ecstasy of St. Theresa," a seventeenth century oil painting on canvas, was performed by Raman microscopy. Lazurite was identified in both Jesus Christ's and St. Theresa's mantles as the pigment responsible for the blue coloration. Litharge was identified inside the black bitumen layer. Usually the bitumen needed a lot of time to dry in the air when mixed with drying oil. Litharge was used by the artist to decrease the oil drying time. A complementary study, using micro-Raman and SEM, allowed us to identify red ochre as the pigment responsible for the red coloration in the altar on the left side of the painting.

  18. [Sepsis caused by pigmented and no pigmented Chromobacterium violaceum].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Armando; Salomón, Marlly; Oliveros, María; Guevara, Esmirna; Guevara, Milarys; Medina, Laida

    2007-10-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum sepsis is rare but associated with a high mortality rate. We report a fatal case of C. violaceum sepsis in a 6 years old Venezuelan indian boy. Clinical manifestations were fever and swelling in the right inguinal region. The initial diagnosis was an appendicular plastron. Appendicectomy was performed and during surgery a right psoas abscess was identified that resulted culture positive for pigmented C. violaceum. Blood cultures were positive for a pigmented and non pigmented C. violaceum strain. Imipenem and amikacin were administered despite of which the child died 9 days after hospital admission. PMID:17989847

  19. Circulation of whale-bone artifacts in the northern Pyrenees during the late Upper Paleolithic.

    PubMed

    Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    The importance of coastal resources in the late Upper Paleolithic of western Europe has been reevaluated in recent years thanks to a growing body of new archeological evidence, including the identification of more than 50 implements made of whale bone in the Magdalenian level of the Isturitz cave (western Pyrenees). In the present study, the assemblages of osseous industry from 23 Magdalenian sites and site clusters in the northern Pyrenees were investigated, systematically searching for whale-bone implements. The objective of this research was to determine if, and how, tools and weapons of coastal origin were circulated beyond Isturitz into the inland, and if similar implements existed on the eastern, Mediterranean side of the Pyrenees. A total of 109 whale-bone artifacts, mostly projectile heads of large dimensions, were identified in 11 sites. Their geographic distribution shows that whale bone in the Pyrenean Magdalenian is exclusively of Atlantic origin, and that objects made of this material were transported along the Pyrenees up to the central part of the range at travel distances of at least 350 km from the seashore. This phenomenon seems to have taken place during the second half of the Middle Magdalenian and the first half of the Late Magdalenian, ca. 17,500-15,000 cal BP (calibrated years before present). The existence of a durable, extended coastal-inland interaction network including the circulation of regular tools is thus demonstrated. Additionally, differences between the whale-bone projectile heads of the Middle Magdalenian and those of the Late Magdalenian document an evolutionary process in the design of hunting weapons. PMID:24103459

  20. Die Pigmente der antiken Malerei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, J.

    1982-02-01

    Scientific analysis of painted antique objects provides us with information about the pigments used in earlier periods of history. Beginning in prehistoric times, coloured earths and minerals were used exclusively until the 3rd millenium B.C. when an extensive production of artificial pigments started. Following Egyptian Blue, a potassium copper chloride, cobalt blue, and a cobalt aluminium oxide was invented but used only over a short period, until it was reinvented 200 years ago. In the Greecian and Roman times the palette was considerably enlarged by the use of other coloured minerals and artificially prepared pigments.

  1. Site formation and chronology of the new Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehl, Martin; Burow, Christoph; Cantalejo, Pedro; Domínguez-Bella, Salvador; Durán, Juan José; Henselowsky, Felix; Klasen, Nicole; Linstädter, Jörg; Medianero, Javier; Pastoors, Andreas; Ramos, José; Reicherter, Klaus; Schmidt, Christoph; Weniger, Gerd-Christian

    2016-03-01

    The newly identified Paleolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba hosts an almost seven-m-thick sediment profile investigated here to elucidate the rock shelter's chronostratigraphy and formation processes. At its base, the sediment sequence contains rich archeological deposits recording intensive occupation by Neanderthals. Luminescence provides a terminus ante quem of 39.4 ± 2.6 ka or 44.9 ± 4.1 ka (OSL) and 51.4 ± 8.4 ka (TL). This occupation ended with a rockfall event followed by accumulation of archeologically sterile sediments. These were covered by sediments containing few Middle Paleolithic artifacts, which either indicate ephemeral occupation by Neanderthals or reworking as suggested by micromorphological features. Above this unit, scattered lithic artifacts of undiagnostic character may represent undefined Paleolithic occupations. Sediment burial ages between about 23.0 ± 1.5 ka (OSL) and 40.5 ± 3.4 ka (pIRIR) provide an Upper Paleolithic chronology for sediments deposited above the rockfall. Finally, a dung-bearing Holocene layer in the uppermost part of the sequence contains a fragment of a human mandible dated to 4032 ± 39 14C yr BP. Overall, the sequence represents an important new site for studying the end of Neanderthal occupation in southern Spain. Supplementary Figure S2: Preheat-plateau and dose-recovery test results for OSL on fine-grained quartz of samples CP7. Aliquots for the dose-recovery test were administered a dose of 40 Gy after removing the natural signal by blue stimulation for 150 s at 125°C and 80% optical power. Supplementary Figure S3: Dependence of equivalent dose on prior IR stimulation temperature for samples CP1, CP3 and CP7. For each sample and pIRIR protocol six aliquots were used while increasing the first IR stimulation temperature in steps of 30°C from 50°C to 140°C and to 180°C. Data are normalized to the pIRIR De obtained with a first IR stimulation at 50°C. Supplementary Figure S4: Regenerative TL glow

  2. [Nondestructive analysis and identification of pigments on colored relics by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-qin; Dang, Gao-chao; Zhao, Jing

    2008-08-01

    Identifying pigments on colored relics is an important part of relic analysis and protection. In order to meet the special demands of protecting relics, taking into account the situation in China, we have refitted a domestic instrument to a fiber optics reflectance spectrophotometer with low price and good function to identify pigments without any damage. It consists of a tungsten lamp, a monochromator, an optical fiber, a shielding chamber, a photomultiplier tube, a reading meter, and a high voltage supply source. Through analysis of a great variety of Chinese ancient pigments, we have deduced three reflectance spectrum shapes of pigments, bell-shaped, s-shaped and oblique line-shaped. The blue or green pigments with bell-shaped spectra can be identified by the characteristic reflectance peak. The pigments with s-shaped spectra are usually red, yellow or brown. Although there are no characteristic reflectance peaks on the plots of the reflectance-wavelength, there is a peak in the first derivative (D) here. Then, the related pigments of this sort can be analyzed and identified with their derivative peaks. For the pigments with oblique line-shaped spectra, their reflectance and first derivative spectra are nearly linear and there are no peaks. The related pigments are usually white, black or gray. With our self-made fiber optics reflectance spectrophotometer, we analyzed the composition of pigments on colored pottery figurines and frescoes of Tang dynasty tombs in Xi'an by comparing their reflectance spectroscopic curves and characteristic reflectance peaks or first derivative peaks with those of standard pigments. The deep red pigment in sample 1#, the green pigment in sample 2#, and the orange and deep red pigments in sample 3# have been identified to be hematite with high purity, malachite and the mixtures of cinnabar/red lead and a little hematite, respectively. It has been indicated that the analytical results of relic pigments from this method are accurate

  3. Yolk pigments of the Mexican leaf frog.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, G V; Bagnara, J T

    1983-02-25

    Eggs of the Mexican leaf frog contain blue and yellow pigments identified as biliverdin and lutein, respectively. Both pigments are bound to proteins that occur in crystalline form in the yolk platelet. The major blue pigment is biliverdin IX alpha. The eggs vary in color from brilliant blue to pale yellow-green depending on the amount of each pigment. These pigments may provide protective coloration to the eggs. PMID:6681678

  4. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    PubMed

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave. PMID:26083419

  5. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave

    PubMed Central

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave. PMID:26083419

  6. Magnetostratigraphic age of the Xiantai Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human colonization of Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chenglong; Wei, Qi; Zhu, Rixiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Rui; Ao, Hong; Chang, Liao; Pan, Yongxin

    2006-04-01

    Timing of the early habitation and stone technologies in the Nihewan Basin, North China has provided insights into our understanding of early human adaptability to high northern latitudes in East Asia. Here we contribute to this topic with detailed magnetostratigraphic investigation, coupled with mineral magnetic measurements and palynological analyses on a lacustrine sequence in this basin, which contains the Xiantai Paleolithic site. Magnetite and hematite were identified as the main carriers for the characteristic remanent magnetizations. Magnetostratigraphic results show that the Xiantai lacustrine sequence recorded the Brunhes chron, the Jaramillo and the Olduvai subchrons, and successive reverse polarity portions of the intervening Matuyama chron. Stratigraphic correlation in terms of lithology, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic polarity sequences between the Xiantai and Xiaochangliang sections indicates that the Xiantai artefact layer is readily contemporary with the Xiaochangliang artefact layer, which has been previously estimated to be about 1.36 Ma [R.X. Zhu, K.A. Hoffman, R. Potts, C.L. Deng, Y.X. Pan, B. Guo, C.D. Shi, Z.T. Guo, B.Y. Yuan, Y.M. Hou, W.W. Huang, Earliest presence of humans in northeast Asia, Nature 413 (2001) 413-417.]. Early humans of the Xiantai Paleolithic site lived in a steppe paleoenvironment indicated from fossil pollens. Furthermore, the combined evidence of our magnetostratigraphy and previously published magnetochronology and paleoclimate data documents that early humans of North China were able to adjust to an increasing variability of paleoclimates and paleoenvironments over the Early Pleistocene.

  7. Dancing to the rhythms of the Pleistocene? Early Middle Paleolithic population dynamics in NW Iberia (Duero Basin and Cantabrian Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Yustos, Policarpo; Diez Martín, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The Northwest of Iberia has yielded one of the most complete European Middle Paleolithic records. Despite this wealth of information, very little is known about population dynamics during this period. For that reason, the main concern of this paper is to provide socio-environmental models that may help explain Early Middle Paleolithic (EMP) population dynamics in NW Iberia, assessing to what extent they were shaped by climate forces. The archaeological record is analyzed on the basis of the heuristics of ecological models, already employed in the European Pleistocene record but never at a regional scale, in order to detect long-term changes in the composition of EMP populations, and the environmental, biological and sociocultural process influencing those changes. According to the models proposed, we have detected a long-term population dynamic between MIS 11 and MIS 6, characterized by low environmental stress, high biological productivity, interaction among populations and sociocultural complexity. Eventually, this population dynamic was broken due to an extreme climate phase in late MIS 6 that had a profound impact on populations and sociocultural structures. As a result, the Upper Pleistocene population of NW Iberia was concentrated in the Cantabrian region. This area became an isolated Neanderthal glacial refugium that hosted a population with different origins and fragile long-term demographic stability.

  8. A new room temperature gas sensor based on pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film for amines determination.

    PubMed

    Yanxiao, Li; Xiao-bo, Zou; Xiao-wei, Huang; Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Holmes, Mel; Hao, Limin

    2015-05-15

    A new room temperature gas sensor was fabricated with pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film as the sensing layer. Four natural pigments were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) by ethanol. Natural pigment-sensitized TiO2 sensor was prepared by immersing porous TiO2 films in an ethanol solution containing a natural pigment for 24h. The hybrid organic-inorganic formed films here were firstly exposed to atmospheres containing methylamine vapours with concentrations over the range 2-10 ppm at room temperature. The films sensitized by the pigments from black-rice showed an excellent gas-sensitivity to methylamine among the four natural pigments sensitized films due to the anthocyanins. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of methylamine (r=0.931). At last, the black rice pigment sensitized TiO2 thin film was used to determine the biogenic amines generated by pork during storage. The developed films had good sensitivity to analogous gases such as putrscine, and cadaverine that will increase during storage. PMID:24934102

  9. Effect of wavelength on cutaneous pigment using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, K.A.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.; Tan, O.T.

    1989-05-01

    Several reports have been published over the last two decades describing the successful removal of benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe au lait macules' nevi, nevus of Ota, and lentigo maligna by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO/sub 2/ (10,600 nm). Laser treatment has been applied to lesions with a range of pigment depths from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to the nevus of Ota in the reticular dermis. Widely divergent laser parameters of wavelength, pulse duration, energy density, and spotsizes have been used, but the laser parameters used to treat this range of lesions have been arbitrary, with little effort focused on defining optimal laser parameters for removal of each type. In this study, miniature black pig skin was exposed to five wavelengths (504, 590, 694, 720, and 750 nm) covering the absorption spectrum of melanin. At each wavelength, a range of energy densities was examined. Skin biopsies taken from laser-exposed sites were examined histologically in an attempt to establish whether optimal laser parameters exist for destroying pigment cells in skin. Of the five wavelengths examined, 504 nm produced the most pigment specific injury; this specificity being maintained even at the highest energy density of 7.0 J/cm2. Thus, for the destruction of melanin-containing cells in the epidermal compartment, 504 nm wavelength appears optimal.

  10. Loess deposition and Paleolithic human activity in late Pleistocene in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Loess is one of the best geological records in the world for reconstruction of paleoenvironment. Loess deposited widely in North China in Quaternary, composing the famous Chinese Loess Plateau where loess sections could be as thick as 200 m. In these thick loess profiles, various archaeological remains including human fossils are found across the Chinese Loess Plateau, which indicates the aeolian loess deposition provides a good preservation environment for archaeological remains or the environment when loess is deposited in North China is favorable for human subsistence. Therefore, well developed loess studies using conventional methods such as grain size, magnetism, carbonate contents, TOC and biological or chemical methods like pollen, phytolith, stable isotopes, could provide important information for archaeologists about site formation process, human subsistence environment and human adaptation behaviors. This study focuses on late Pleistocene environment change and human adaptation in Chinese Western Loess Plateau. Over fifty Paleolithic sites were found buried in loess sections in two small rive catchments about 400 km2 in Chinese Western Loess Plateau in this study. Based on the well loess study in this region, the ages of most of the sites could be easily assumed in the field, which were usually confirmed by later radiocarbon or OSL dating results. Paleoenvironment of human subsistence is reconstructed using pollen, grain size, magnetism studies on the loess profiles producing archaeological remains. The chronological framework built with absolute dating results and loess-paleosol sequence comparison shows that humans first appear in the study area during warm and humid MIS5, may have abandoned the area in cold MIS4, reappeared in cool but humid MIS3 and continued thereafter, even extremely cold and dry LGM. A comprehensive study of 3727 pieces of stone artifacts shows that small-flake-tool industry is dominant through most of the late Pleistocene and

  11. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) SUBJECTS/METHODS: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m²) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) RESULTS: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) CONCLUSIONS: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  12. The beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in the Iranian Zagros. A taphonomic approach and techno-economic comparison of Early Baradostian assemblages from Warwasi and Yafteh (Iran).

    PubMed

    Tsanova, Tsenka

    2013-07-01

    Southwest Asia is a key region in current debates surrounding the appearance of the first cultures attributed to anatomically modern humans, particularly the Aurignacian and preceding cultural units of the Iranian Zagros, Levant, and the Balkans (Baradostian, Ahmarien, Kozarnikien, etc.). The Zagros mountain range encompasses an immense territory that remains understudied with regard to the Upper Paleolithic as well as the first bladelet industries traditionally presumed to be the work of anatomically modern humans. Concerning the emergence of the Aurignacian, the sites of Warwasi rockshelter and Yafteh cave in the central Zagros are considered to show evidence of in situ evolution of the Upper Paleolithic from the local Mousterian. This hypothesis is tested by way of a taphonomic, techno-typological and economic approach applied to the Upper Paleolithic levels of Warwasi (spits LL-AA) and Yafteh (the series from the lower part of the sequence). A comparison of the techno-economic features of both assemblages demonstrates a conceptual bond with contemporaneous techno-complexes from Levant and Europe (Ahmarian, Protoaurignacian, etc.). The techno-typological Middle Paleolithic character of the Warwasi lithic assemblage permits a discussion of a possible in situ dependence/continuum from the Mousterian or perhaps particular activities linked to the type of the occupation of the site. However, bladelet technology cannot be considered as rooted in the Zagros Mousterian. Consequently the origin of the Aurignacian sensu stricto has to be reconsidered. PMID:23742933

  13. Compliance, Palatability and Feasibility of PALEOLITHIC and Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Diets in Healthy Women: A 4-Week Dietary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Genoni, Angela; Lo, Johnny; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Devine, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background/Objectives: The Paleolithic diet has been receiving media coverage in Australia and claims to improve overall health. The diet removes grains and dairy, whilst encouraging consumption of fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and nuts. Our aim was to compare the diet to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) in terms of compliance, palatability and feasibility; (2) Subjects/Methods: 39 healthy women (age 47 ± 13 years, BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomised to an ad-libitum Paleolithic (n = 22) or AGHE diet (n = 17) for 4-weeks. A food checklist was completed daily, with mean discretionary consumption (serves/day) calculated to assess compliance. A 12-item questionnaire was administered post intervention to assess palatability and feasibility; (3) Results: The AGHE group reported greater daily consumption of discretionary items (1.0 + 0.6 vs. 0.57 + 0.6 serves/day, p = 0.03). Compared to the AGHE group, the Paleolithic group reported a significantly greater number of events of diarrhoea (23%, 0%, p = 0.046), costs associated with grocery shopping (69%, 6% p < 0.01) and belief that the diet was not healthy (43%, 0% p < 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Compliance to both diets was high but the potential side effects and increased cost suggest that the Paleolithic diet may not be practical in clinical/public health settings. Further studies are required to assess longer term feasibility. PMID:27509519

  14. Limewashing paintings in Alentejo urban heritage: pigment characterization and differentiation by WDXRF and XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Carvalho, M. L.; Seruya, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Mirão, J.

    2008-01-01

    Pigments used in traditional limewashing paintings in Alentejo urban Heritage are inorganic materials and can be grouped into four categories: a) reds red ochre (from terras rossas, red schists and iron ore deposits weathering), almagres, terra roxa (natural processed red ochres) and synthetic red iron oxides; b) yellows yellow ochre (from schists and iron ore deposits), processed natural ochres, yellow iron synthetic oxides, c) blacks black earths and black iron synthetic oxides and d) blues artificial ultramarine. The present work proposes to characterize natural, natural processed and synthetic pigments by comparing phase and elemental compositions. The results reveal differences in Fe, Si, K and Al total content according to their origin and fabrication process and reveal intentional addition of white charges like carbonates. Elements like Zr, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ca and Zn are present in all categories. Under optical microscopy, some samples of processed natural pigments do not exhibit optical activity, thus revealing mixtures with synthetic pigments, while natural pigments present a strong birefringence colorless due to optically active minerals.

  15. Multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Lee, J; Hong, S H; Oh, C H; Kim, W K; Bhawan, J

    1998-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common of all skin cancers and the most prevalent one among Caucasians. Rarely, these tumors are seen in other races. We report a 77-year-old Korean woman who presented with multiple darkly pigmented enlarging nodules on her scalp, face, trunk, and extremities. The patient had first noted a 6-mm pigmented lesion on her left eyebrow 10 years previously. Since then, other lesions had appeared in many locations on her body. She had been otherwise healthy and without a history of exposure to arsenic or radiation. There was no family history of skin cancer, xeroderma pigmentosum, or basal cell nevus syndrome. On physical examination, multiple darkly pigmented dome-shaped papules and nodules were present on her scalp, face, right forearm, lower abdomen, and inguinal areas. They ranged in size from 0.5 mm to 2 cm. The larger ones showed central ulceration. Multiple biopsy specimens from different sites showed pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, there was no evidence of nevus sebaceus, xeroderma pigmentosum, basal cell nevus syndrome, or immunodeficiency. Clinical workup including chest radiography, abdominal ultrasound, bone scan, and brain computerized axial tomography scan did not demonstrate primary or secondary tumors. The results of serologic and hematologic tests were also within normal limits. This is an unusual case report of multiple pigmented basal cell carcinomas in an Asian woman without any predisposing risk factors. PMID:9557792

  16. Exogenous pigment in Peyer's patches

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, N.A.; Crocker, P.R.; Smith, A.P.; Levison, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dark brown granular pigment was found consistently in macrophages in the deep aspect of adult Peyer's patches. Tissue sections from intestinal resections of 35 patients with a variety of pathologic diagnoses and of seven postmortem cases with no evidence of gastrointestinal disease were examined for the presence of this pigment. It was found in all patients over the age of 6 years (34 cases) but was not found in any children below that age (eight cases). Scanning electron microscopy with secondary and backscattered electron imaging and x-ray energy spectroscopy were performed on routine histologic sections. The pigmented macrophages contained aluminum and silicon, diffusely present throughout the cytoplasm, and numerous discrete foci of titanium. Pigment containing these same elements has also been found around dilated submucosal lymphatics, in mesenteric lymph nodes, and in some transmural inflammatory aggregates of Crohn's disease. The pigment probably is derived from the diet and actively taken up by Peyer's patches, which are able to incorporate inert particulate matter.

  17. Pigment Analysis of Chloroplast Pigment-Protein Complexes in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Eskins, Kenneth; Duysen, Murray E.; Olson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Pigment-protein complexes separated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L. selection ND96-25 by two gel electrophoresis techniques were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for chlorophylls and carotenoids. The two techniques are compared, and pigment analyses are given for the major reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes. Reaction centers contain mostly chlorophyll a, carotene, and lutein, whereas light-harvesting complexes contain chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lutein, and neoxanthin. The amounts of violaxanthin are variable. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16662906

  18. Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopic study of pigments in native American Indian rock art: Seminole Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Drummond, L.; Russ, J.

    1998-10-01

    Samples of rock art (ca. 3000-4200 years BP) from the Lower Pecos region of Texas, near the confluences of the Pecos and Devils rivers with the Rio Grande, have been analysed using Raman microscopy. This rock art represents some of the finest pictographs known in North America. The red pigment is confirmed to be red ochre (iron (III) oxide and clay) whereas the black pigment is manganese (IV) oxide. White areas of the paintings are identified as calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite), whose presence could indicate the previous colonisation of the shelter walls by lichens. The black pigmented areas only contained Raman spectroscopic evidence for organic matter which was probably used as a binding agent.

  19. Pigments, Parasites and Personalitiy: Towards a Unifying Role for Steroid Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Øverli, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or “animal personalities”. Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  20. Towards the limiting of health risks associated with tattooing: whitelists for tattoo pigments and preservatives.

    PubMed

    Blume, Annegret; Platzek, Thomas; Vieth, Bärbel; Hutzler, Christoph; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The number of pigments that could potentially be used in tattoo inks is vast. However, pigments are generally not manufactured for the purpose of being injected into subepidermal layers of the skin. Assuming 100% bioavailability after injection means that pigments can be imminently hazardous to human health. Given the ever-increasing number of pigments being circulated on the market or through the internet, a 'negative list' ('black' list) containing pigments with known adverse effects will never be finalised. If incriminated, substances could easily be replaced by structurally similar pigments that might be even more deleterious to human health. Therefore, we and others suggest the establishment of a whitelist ('positive list') that would only contain pigments that had undergone a risk assessment specifically for their application into the dermis. Some of the problems associated with such a 'positive list' are discussed. Another important issue with regard to tattoo safety is related to the preservatives used in ink preparations. Notwithstanding the demand for sterile tattoo inks, a whitelist for these compounds would be beneficial. At present, many technical preservatives are being used, despite their known detrimental effects to human health. Criteria for the inclusion of preservatives in a 'positive list' are also discussed. PMID:25833642

  1. Somatic RET mutation in a patient with pigmented adrenal pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Maison, Nicole; Korpershoek, Esther; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors arising from chromaffin cells of the neural crest. Mutations in the RET-proto-oncogene are associated with sporadic pheochromocytoma, familial or sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. In the past, only few cases of pigmented PCCs, PGLs, and one case of pigmented MTC have been reported in the literature. Herein, we present the case of a 77-year old woman with a history of Tako-tsubo-cardiomyopathy and laboratory, as well as radiological, high suspicion of pheochromocytoma, who underwent left-sided adrenalectomy. The 3 cm tumor, which was located on the upper pole of the left adrenal, appeared highly pigmented with dark red to black color. Histologic examinations revealed highly pleomorphic cells with bizarre, huge hyperchromatic nuclei, that immunohistochemically were positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, focally positive for HMB45 and negative for melan A. These clinical and pathological features led to the diagnosis of the rare variant of a melanotic ‘black’ pheochromocytoma. In our case a somatic RET mutation in exon 16 (RET c.2753T>C, p.Met918Thy) was detected by targeted next generation sequencing. In summary, this case represents a rare variant of catecholamine-producing tumor with distinct histological features. A potential relationship between the phenotype, the cellular origin and the genetic alterations is discussed. Learning points Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor. Pigmentation is seen in several types of tumors arising from the neural crest. The macroscopic black aspect can mislead to the diagnosis of a metastasis deriving from a malignant melanoma. RET mutation are seen in catecholamine and non-catecholamine producing tumors of the same cellular origin. PMID:26843961

  2. Pigmented Porokeratosis. A Further Variant?

    PubMed

    Tan, Tracy S P; Tallon, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Porokeratosis is a clonal disorder of keratinization characterized by the presence of the cornoid lamella. A number of variants of porokeratosis have been described, based on the clinical features and histologic features of the lesions. The authors present a case of porokeratosis with prominent melanocytic hyperplasia, which was biopsied to clinically exclude melanoma. The authors retrospectively studied cases of porokeratosis to look for the presence of melanocytic hyperplasia. Melanocytic hyperplasia was identified in 8 of 31 cases (25.8%). All of the cases except the index case were clinically nonpigmented but arose in solar damaged skin. This case represents a distinct variant of porokeratosis, and the authors propose the designation pigmented porokeratosis. Melanocytic hyperplasia is a benign condition, and it is important that this is not histologically confused with melanoma in situ, particularly in a context of clinically pigmented lesion. Increased recognition of pigmented porokeratosis is essential to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of melanoma in situ. PMID:26894774

  3. Microprobe analysis of chlorpromazine pigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, T.L.; McCormack, K.M.; Ingram, P.; Kaplan, D.L.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    We describe the histochemical, ultrastructural, and microanalytical features of a skin biopsy specimen obtained from a patient with chlorpromazine pigmentation. Golden-brown pigment granules were present in the dermis, predominantly in a perivascular arrangement. The granules stained positively with the Fontana-Masson stain for silver-reducing substances and negatively with Perl's stain for iron. Electron microscopy revealed dense inclusion bodies in dermal histiocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, and Schwann cells, as well as lying free in the extracellular matrix. These ''chlorpromazine bodies'' were quite dense even in unosmicated, unstained ultrathin sections, indicating that the pigmentation is related, at least in part, to the inclusions. Microprobe analysis of the chlorpromazine bodies revealed a striking peak for sulfur, which strongly suggests the presence of the drug or its metabolite within these inclusions.

  4. Structurally assisted blackness in butterfly scales.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, P; Sambles, J R; Lawrence, C R

    2004-05-01

    Surfaces of low reflectance are ubiquitous in animate systems. They form essential components of the visual appearance of most living species and can explicitly influence other biological functions such as thermoregulation. The blackness associated with all opaque surfaces of low reflectivity has until now been attributed to strongly absorbing pigmentation alone. Our present study challenges this assumption, demonstrating that in addition to the requirement of absorbing pigmentation, complex nano-structures contribute to the low reflectance of certain natural surfaces. We describe preliminary findings of an investigation into the nature of the black regions observed on the dorsal wings of several Lepidoptera. Specifically, we quantify the optical absorption associated with black wing regions on the butterfly Papilio ulysses and find that the nanostructure of the wing scales of these regions contributes significantly to their black appearance. PMID:15252994

  5. Determination of pigments in colour layers on walls of some selected historical buildings using optical and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Skapin, A. Sever Ropret, P. Bukovec, P.

    2007-11-15

    For successful restoration of painted walls and painted coloured finishing coats it is necessary to determine the composition of the original colour layers. Identification of the pigments used in The Cistercian Abbey of Sticna and The Manor of Novo Celje was carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples of wall paintings were inspected by the combined application of an optical microscope and a low-vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope to determine their colour and structural features and to identify the position of individual pigment grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy was used to determine the elemental distribution on selected surfaces and elemental composition of individual pigments. It was found that the most abundantly used pigments were iron oxide red, cinnabar, green earth, umber, calcium carbonate white, ultramarine, yellow ochre and carbon black. These identifications have allowed us to compare the use of various pigments in buildings from different historical periods.

  6. The larger mammal fauna from the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen Spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence.

    PubMed

    Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Buhrs, Elfi; Verheijen, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    The locality Schöningen (Germany) is an important source of knowledge about Lower Paleolithic hominin subsistence. The locality includes a series of sites dated to the late Middle Pleistocene with a Holsteinian (MIS 11) and Reinsdorf Interglacial (MIS 9) age. One of the youngest sites is Schöningen 13 II-4, the Spear Horizon site also known as the Horse Butchery site. The organic remains excavated here are exceptionally well-preserved as they were embedded in anaerobic, waterlogged sediments in an area where the groundwater is rich in calcium carbonate. The fossil assemblage is ideal for the study of patterns in hominin interference with the mammalian species encountered at the site. The vertebrate record is extensive and very diverse. The fossil larger carnivore guild of the Spear Horizon faunal assemblage includes saber-toothed cat, fox, and wolf. Herbivores are represented by an elephant species, two equid species, two rhinoceros species, two cervid species, and two large bovid species. Evidence of hominin interference presents itself as either marks on skeletal remains related to the use of bones as knapping tools or hammers, or as marks that indicate butchering activities such as skinning, dismembering, defleshing, filleting, and marrow extraction. The humerus of the saber-toothed cat clearly shows that the bone has been used as a knapping tool. The fossil remains of the other larger carnivores do not show any signs of hominin interference or exploitation. This also applies to the limited number of elephant and rhinoceros remains found at the site. The large horse Equus mosbachensis dominates the larger mammal record and played a major role in hominin subsistence. Marks on the horse bones indicate that a large number of carcasses have been butchered. Traces on the fossil remains of both red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the large bovids also indicate exploitation by Lower Paleolithic hominins. PMID:26607346

  7. Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

    2012-07-01

    A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

  8. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in food-contact materials....

  12. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  13. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  14. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  15. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  16. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  17. 21 CFR 73.352 - Paracoccus pigment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paracoccus pigment. 73.352 Section 73.352 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.352 Paracoccus pigment. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive paracoccus pigment consists of the heat-killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain...

  18. Derived immune and ancestral pigmentation alleles in a 7,000-year-old Mesolithic European.

    PubMed

    Olalde, Iñigo; Allentoft, Morten E; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Santpere, Gabriel; Chiang, Charleston W K; DeGiorgio, Michael; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Rasmussen, Simon; Quilez, Javier; Ramírez, Oscar; Marigorta, Urko M; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; Prada, María Encina; Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal; Nielsen, Rasmus; Netea, Mihai G; Novembre, John; Sturm, Richard A; Sabeti, Pardis; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Navarro, Arcadi; Willerslev, Eske; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-03-13

    Ancient genomic sequences have started to reveal the origin and the demographic impact of farmers from the Neolithic period spreading into Europe. The adoption of farming, stock breeding and sedentary societies during the Neolithic may have resulted in adaptive changes in genes associated with immunity and diet. However, the limited data available from earlier hunter-gatherers preclude an understanding of the selective processes associated with this crucial transition to agriculture in recent human evolution. Here we sequence an approximately 7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León, Spain, to retrieve a complete pre-agricultural European human genome. Analysis of this genome in the context of other ancient samples suggests the existence of a common ancient genomic signature across western and central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. The La Braña individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer. PMID:24463515

  19. Derived Immune and Ancestral Pigmentation Alleles in a 7,000-Year-old Mesolithic European

    PubMed Central

    Olalde, Iñigo; Allentoft, Morten E.; Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Santpere, Gabriel; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; DeGiorgio, Michael; Prado-Martínez, Javier; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Rasmussen, Simon; Quilez, Javier; Ramírez, Oscar; Marigorta, Urko M.; Fernández-Callejo, Marcos; Prada, María Encina; Encinas, Julio Manuel Vidal; Nielsen, Rasmus; Netea, Mihai G.; Novembre, John; Sturm, Richard A.; Sabeti, Pardis; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Navarro, Arcadi; Willerslev, Eske; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Ancient genomic sequences have started revealing the origin and the demographic impact of Neolithic farmers spreading into Europe1–3. The adoption of farming, stock breeding and sedentary societies during the Neolithic may have resulted in adaptive changes in genes associated with immunity and diet4. However, the limited data available from earlier hunter-gatherers precludes an understanding of the selective processes associated with this crucial transition to agriculture in recent human evolution. By sequencing a ~7,000-year-old Mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León (Spain), we retrieved the first complete pre-agricultural European human genome. Analysis of this genome in the context of other ancient samples suggests the existence of a common ancient genomic signature across Western and Central Eurasia from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic. The La Braña individual carries ancestral alleles in several skin pigmentation genes, suggesting that the light skin of modern Europeans was not yet ubiquitous in Mesolithic times. Moreover, we provide evidence that a significant number of derived, putatively adaptive variants associated with pathogen resistance in modern Europeans were already present in this hunter-gatherer. Hence, these genomic variants cannot represent novel mutations that occurred during the adaptation to the farming lifestyle. PMID:24463515

  20. Removal of black stains from teeth by photodynamic therapy: clinical and microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Larissa; Galvão, Virgilio; Damante, Carla; Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi

    2015-01-01

    Black-pigmented bacteria (BPB) are Gram-negative anaerobic, non-motile, proteolytic rods strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Although pigments are produced in vitro, black pigmentation is rarely found clinically. However, it may compromise aesthetics and contribute to gingival inflammation. The aim of this report is to describe a clinical case of a 10-year-old boy showing black pigmentation covering all teeth and to propose an alternative therapy for removal of black pigmentation, based on photodynamic therapy (PDT). In order to perform microbiological analysis, plaque samples were collected before and after PDT, and analysed by real-time-PCR (RT-PCR). The results showed a significant reduction in BPB levels after therapy, along with clinical evidence of absence of black pigmentation and reduction in gingival bleeding, although the plaque index remained unaltered. This case showed that PDT is effective for eliminating black pigmentation caused by BPB, without recurrence during a follow-up period of 7 months. PMID:26701991

  1. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons. PMID:25674822

  2. Raman spectroscopy for the identification of pigments and color measurement in Dugès watercolors.

    PubMed

    Frausto-Reyes, C; Ortiz-Morales, M; Bujdud-Pérez, J M; Magaña-Cota, G E; Mejía-Falcón, R

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic and colorimetric analysis of a representative set of Dugès watercolor paintings was performed. These paintings were the result of scientific studies carried out by the zoologist Alfredo Dugès, who recorded the fauna of the Mexican Republic between 1853 and 1910. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation wavelength of 830 nm, and colorimetric techniques were employed in order to understand if different colors with the same hue were reproduced using the same pigments. The color coordinates of the measured areas were obtained in the CIEL*a*b* color space. Raman analysis showed that, in some cases, to reproduce colors with the same hue the pigment employed was not the same. Pigments identified in the watercolors were vermilion, carbon-based black, lead white, gamboge and chrome yellow, Prussian and ultramarine blue. Some of these pigments have been used since ancient times, others as Prussian blue, chrome yellow and synthetic ultramarine blue arrived to the market at the beginning of the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively. Furthermore, regarding the white color, instead of left the paper unpainted, lead white was detected in the eye of a bird. The green color was obtained by mixing Prussian blue with chrome yellow. The results of this work show the suitability of using Raman spectroscopy for watercolor pigment analysis and colorimetric techniques to measure the color of small areas (246 microm x 246 microm) that was the case for the lead white pigment. PMID:19875330

  3. Raman spectroscopy for the identification of pigments and color measurement in Dugès watercolors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Ortiz-Morales, M.; Bujdud-Pérez, J. M.; Magaña-Cota, G. E.; Mejía-Falcón, R.

    2009-12-01

    Spectroscopic and colorimetric analysis of a representative set of Dugès watercolor paintings was performed. These paintings were the result of scientific studies carried out by the zoologist Alfredo Dugès, who recorded the fauna of the Mexican Republic between 1853 and 1910. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation wavelength of 830 nm, and colorimetric techniques were employed in order to understand if different colors with the same hue were reproduced using the same pigments. The color coordinates of the measured areas were obtained in the CIE L* a* b* color space. Raman analysis showed that, in some cases, to reproduce colors with the same hue the pigment employed was not the same. Pigments identified in the watercolors were vermilion, carbon-based black, lead white, gamboge and chrome yellow, Prussian and ultramarine blue. Some of these pigments have been used since ancient times, others as Prussian blue, chrome yellow and synthetic ultramarine blue arrived to the market at the beginning of the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively. Furthermore, regarding the white color, instead of left the paper unpainted, lead white was detected in the eye of a bird. The green color was obtained by mixing Prussian blue with chrome yellow. The results of this work show the suitability of using Raman spectroscopy for watercolor pigment analysis and colorimetric techniques to measure the color of small areas (246 μm × 246 μm) that was the case for the lead white pigment.

  4. Pigment characterization of important golden age panel paintings of the 17th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pięta, Ewa; Proniewicz, Edyta; Szmelter-Fausek, Bożena; Olszewska-Świetlik, Justyna; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2015-02-01

    Samples were obtained from two world-famous 17th century panel paintings of the Gdańsk school of panting: 'Seven Acts of Charity' (1607, in St. Mary's Church in Gdańsk, Poland) by Anton Möller and 'Angelic Concert' (1611, in Diocesan Museum in Pelplin, Poland) by Hermann Han. Micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS), optical microscopy (OM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy studies of the samples were performed to characterize the pigments present in the individual painting layers (a rich palette of white, black, blue, red, and yellow pigments) and the pictorial techniques used by the artists.

  5. Normal black kidney

    PubMed Central

    Yarmohamadi, Aliasghar; Rezayat, Ali Reza Akhavan; Memar, Bahram; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Cand, PhD

    2014-01-01

    A black kidney has 3 major differential diagnoses: hemosiderosis, lipofuscin pigment and melanotic renal cell carcinoma. Excluding lipofuscin, the other 2 are accompanied by an abnormal renal function. We report on a 25-year-old man who intended to donate a kidney to his cousin. On the operating room table when we incised the left flank region and exposed the kidney, we found a firm and black kidney so the operation was cancelled due to potential vascular injuries. Days after the incomplete procedure, we reviewed the donor’s biochemistry and imaging to reassess his renal function, but the results showed quite normal renal function again. The result of Ham test was also negative. Two weeks later, we began the operation, removed the same left kidney and found that it was in the same conditions as it was before. We took the opportunity to send needle biopsies of the kidney for histopathologic analysis. The analysis showed a melanotic kidney without pathological changes in glomeruli and interstitium and vessels. A black kidney may result in hemosiderin, lipofuscin or melanin deposits in the kidney, which can confirm the diagnosis; however, special tests for underlying disease and renal function should be considered. Some causes of black kidney lead to abnormal function, but our patients’s kidney returned to normal. PMID:24839502

  6. Inland human settlement in southern Arabia 55,000 years ago. New evidence from the Wadi Surdud Middle Paleolithic site complex, western Yemen.

    PubMed

    Delagnes, Anne; Tribolo, Chantal; Bertran, Pascal; Brenet, Michel; Crassard, Rémy; Jaubert, Jacques; Khalidi, Lamya; Mercier, Norbert; Nomade, Sébastien; Peigné, Stéphane; Sitzia, Luca; Tournepiche, Jean-François; Al-Halibi, Mohammad; Al-Mosabi, Ahmad; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    The recovery at Shi'bat Dihya 1 (SD1) of a dense Middle Paleolithic human occupation dated to 55 ka BP sheds new light on the role of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of the alleged expansion of modern humans out of Africa. SD1 is part of a complex of Middle Paleolithic sites cut by the Wadi Surdud and interstratified within an alluvial sedimentary basin in the foothills that connect the Yemeni highlands with the Tihama coastal plain. A number of environmental proxies indicate arid conditions throughout a sequence that extends between 63 and 42 ka BP. The lithic industry is geared toward the production of a variety of end products: blades, pointed blades, pointed flakes and Levallois-like flakes with long unmodified cutting edges, made from locally available rhyolite. The occasional exploitation of other local raw materials, that fulfill distinct complementary needs, highlights the multi-functional nature of the occupation. The slightly younger Shi'bat Dihya 2 (SD2) site is characterized by a less elaborate production of flakes, together with some elements (blades and pointed flakes) similar to those found at SD1, and may indicate a cultural continuity between the two sites. The technological behaviors of the SD1 toolmakers present similarities with those documented from a number of nearly contemporaneous assemblages from southern Arabia, the Levant, the Horn of Africa and North Africa. However, they do not directly conform to any of the techno-complexes typical of the late Middle Paleolithic or late Middle Stone Age from these regions. This period would have witnessed the development of local Middle Paleolithic traditions in the Arabian Peninsula, which suggests more complex settlement dynamics and possible population interactions than commonly inferred by the current models of modern human expansion out of Africa. PMID:22766480

  7. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  8. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-01

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times. PMID:23215240

  9. Qualitative determination of carbon black in food products.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Bermudez, E; Belai, N; Harp, B Petigara; Yakes, B J; Barrows, J N

    2012-01-01

    Carbon black (C.I. 77266) is an insoluble pigment produced by the partial combustion of hydrocarbons. The pigment is known by several synonyms, including vegetable carbon, lamp black and carbon ash, that correspond to the raw materials and methods used for its production. Vegetable carbon (E153) is permitted for use in colouring food in the European Union. The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) has not approved the use of any type of carbon black for colouring food, although the agency batch certifies the pigment as D&C Black No. 2 for use in colouring certain cosmetics. Since carbon black (as vegetable carbon) may be present in food products offered for import into the United States, the USFDA's district laboratories need a qualitative analytical method for determining its presence. We have developed an extraction method for this purpose. A sample is broken down and dissolved with nitric acid. The resulting solution is filtered and treated with hydrochloric acid to dissolve any black iron oxide also present as a colour additive. A black residue remaining on the filter paper indicates the presence of carbon black in the food. We confirmed the presence of carbon black in residues from several standards and food products using Raman spectroscopy. The limit of detection for this method is 0.0001%. PMID:22035229

  10. From the Bay of Naples to the River Don: the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Hoffecker, John F; Holliday, Vance T; Anikovich, M V; Sinitsyn, A A; Popov, V V; Lisitsyn, S N; Levkovskaya, G M; Pospelova, G A; Forman, Steven L; Giaccio, Biagio

    2008-11-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) eruption, dated by 40Ar/39Ar and various stratigraphic methods to ca. 39,000 cal BP, generated a massive ash plume from its source in southern Italy across Southeastern and Eastern Europe. At the Kostenki-Borshchevo open-air sites on the Middle Don River in Russia, Upper Paleolithic artifact assemblages are buried below, within, and above the CI tephra (which is redeposited by slope action at most sites) on the second terrace. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating, paleomagnetism, and soil and pollen stratigraphy provide further basis for correlation with the Greenland and North Atlantic climate stratigraphy. The oldest Upper Paleolithic occupation layers at Kostenki-Borshchevo may be broadly correlated with warm intervals that preceded the CI event and Heinrich Event 4 (HE4; Greenland Interstadial: GI 12-GI 9) dating to ca. 45,000-41,000 cal BP. These layers contain an industry not currently recognized in other parts of Europe. Early Upper Paleolithic layers above the CI tephra are correlated with HE4 and warm intervals that occurred during 38,000-30,000 cal BP (GI 8-GI 5), and include an assemblage that is assigned to the Aurigancian industry, associated with skeletal remains of modern humans. PMID:18937961

  11. High-resolution record of geomagnetic excursions in the Matuyama chron constrains the ages of the Feiliang and Lanpo Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; An, Zhisheng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Wei, Qi; Pei, Shuwen; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Hongli; Xiao, Guoqiao; Qiang, Xiaoke; Wu, Dacheng; Chang, Hong

    2012-08-01

    The Nihewan Basin (40°N) in North China is a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites and thus a key area for studying early human evolution in high-latitude (from an early human perspective) East Asia. Here a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic investigation is carried out on a fluvio-lacustrine section in the northeastern Nihewan Basin, which contains the Feiliang and Lanpo Paleolithic sites. Paleomagnetic results suggest that this section records the lower portion of the Brunhes polarity chron and the upper Matuyama polarity chron. Furthermore, the Jaramillo polarity subchron and seven of the nine validated geomagnetic excursions within the Matuyama polarity chron are identified, including the Kamikatsura, Santa Rosa, Intra-Jaramillo, Cobb Mountain, Bjorn, Gardar and Gilsa excursions. The Feiliang artifact layer is located just at the bottom of the Cobb Mountain excursion, thus its age is estimated to be ˜1.2 Ma. The Lanpo artifact layer appears to be coeval with the Gilsa excursion, yielding an estimated age of ˜1.6 Ma. This study provides new evidence for the presence of early humans in North China before 1.5 Ma and documents the powerful role of geomagnetic excursions: they provide valuable age control points for ongoing efforts to date the early Paleolithic sites.

  12. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Goral, T.; Edwards, N. P.; Wogelius, R. A.; Henkel, T.; de Oliveira, L. F. C.; Maia, L. F.; Strekopytov, S.; Speiser, D. I.; Marsden, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this

  13. Identification of Shell Colour Pigments in Marine Snails Clanculus pharaonius and C. margaritarius (Trochoidea; Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Williams, S T; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Goral, T; Edwards, N P; Wogelius, R A; Henkel, T; de Oliveira, L F C; Maia, L F; Strekopytov, S; Jeffries, T; Speiser, D I; Marsden, J T

    2016-01-01

    Colour and pattern are key traits with important roles in camouflage, warning and attraction. Ideally, in order to begin to understand the evolution and ecology of colour in nature, it is important to identify and, where possible, fully characterise pigments using biochemical methods. The phylum Mollusca includes some of the most beautiful exemplars of biological pigmentation, with the vivid colours of sea shells particularly prized by collectors and scientists alike. Biochemical studies of molluscan shell colour were fairly common in the last century, but few of these studies have been confirmed using modern methods and very few shell pigments have been fully characterised. Here, we use modern chemical and multi-modal spectroscopic techniques to identify two porphyrin pigments and eumelanin in the shell of marine snails Clanculus pharaonius and C margaritarius. The same porphyrins were also identified in coloured foot tissue of both species. We use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to show definitively that these porphyrins are uroporphyrin I and uroporphyrin III. Evidence from confocal microscopy analyses shows that the distribution of porphyrin pigments corresponds to the striking pink-red of C. pharaonius shells, as well as pink-red dots and lines on the early whorls of C. margaritarius and yellow-brown colour of later whorls. Additional HPLC results suggest that eumelanin is likely responsible for black spots. We refer to the two differently coloured porphyrin pigments as trochopuniceus (pink-red) and trochoxouthos (yellow-brown) in order to distinguish between them. Trochopuniceus and trochoxouthos were not found in the shell of a third species of the same superfamily, Calliostoma zizyphinum, despite its superficially similar colouration, suggesting that this species has different shell pigments. These findings have important implications for the study of colour and pattern in molluscs specifically, but in other taxa more generally, since this

  14. Black Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  15. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  16. Views to the past: Faunal and geophysical analysis of the open-air Upper Paleolithic site of Verberie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jason Randall

    AN ABSTRACT This dissertation builds upon previous Magdalenian research to reframe a logistical subsistence posture as an active risk-mitigation structure premised upon ensuring predictable surplus economic production at the French Upper Paleolithic site of Verberie le Buisson Campin (hereinafter VBC). Using a detailed faunal and statistical analysis of two faunal datasets to assess taphonomically the role of bone density-mediated vs. anthropogenic taphonomic agencies, this research also correlates bone survivorship with both limb element marrow cavity volume and the meat drying index. A limited program of bone refits attempted to provide evidence for the distribution of meat at the site. Age profiles generated from dental crown height measurements provide strong evidence that younger, perhaps more nutritious and valuable, carcasses were treated quite differently than were geriatric carcasses. There also appears to be a spatial component to the differential age-mediated treatment of reindeer carcasses at VBC. In essence, it appears that seasonal reindeer hunts at VBC were concerned with two eventualities: 1) the attainment of predictable and adequate nutrition for provisioning over winter, and 2) seeking to balance adequate nutrition with future reindeer herd viability. It appears that Magdalenian hunters essentially held young/prime prey targets as an independent variable, and treated the presence of geriatric, elder reindeer herd members as a dependent variable in meeting subsistence needs. Perhaps lower numbers of more nutritious (i.e., containing more and better quality fat reserves in meat and marrow) young/prime animals resulted in taking greater numbers of elderly reindeer to offset potential shortfall; in more abundant times, so long as herd viability could be maintained, greater numbers of more valuable young/prime would be taken along with lower numbers of geriatric reindeer. The fulcrum point of this subsistence balance appears to have been a very active

  17. Landscapes, depositional environments and human occupation at Middle Paleolithic open-air sites in the southern Levant, with new insights from Nesher Ramla, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidner, Yossi; Frumkin, Amos; Friesem, David; Tsatskin, Alexander; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Middle Paleolithic human occupation in the Levant (250-50 ka ago) has been recorded in roofed (cave and rockshelter) and open-air sites. Research at these different types of sites yielded different perspectives on the Middle Paleolithic human behavior and evolution. Until recently, open-air Middle Paleolithic sites in the Levant were found in three major sedimentary environments: fluvial, lake-margin and spring. Here we describe a unique depositional environment and formation processes at the recently discovered open-air site of Nesher Ramla (Israel) and discuss their contribution to understanding site formation processes in open-air sites in the Levant. The site is 8-m-thick Middle Paleolithic sequence (OSL dated to 170-80 ka) that is located in a karst sinkhole formed by gravitational deformation and sagging into underground voids. The sedimentary sequence was shaped by gravitational collapse, cyclic colluviation of soil and gravel into the depression, waterlogging, in situ pedogenesis and human occupation. Original bedding and combustion features are well-preserved in the Lower archaeological sequence, a rare occurrence in comparison to other open-air archaeological sites. This phenomenon coincides with episodes of fast sedimentation/burial, which also allowed better preservation of microscopic remains such as ash. The Upper archaeological sequence does not exhibit bedding or preservation of ash, despite presence of heat-affected lithic artifacts, which makes it similar to other open-air sites in the Levant. We suggest that rate of burial is the major factor that caused the difference between the Upper and Lower sequences. The differences in the burial rate may be connected to environmental and vegetation changes at the end of MIS 6. We also identified an interplay between sediment in-wash and density of human activity remains, i.e. during episodes of low natural sediment input the density of artifacts is higher relative to episodes with high rate of sediment in

  18. Black thyroid: clinical manifestations, ultrastructural findings, and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.; Herrera, G.A.; Jaffe, K.; Yu, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of three black thyroid glands showed lysosomal accumulations of lipofuscin-like pigment and granular electron-dense material in association with 1) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with normal thyroid function; 2) a minocycline-associated black thyroid with a significant inflammatory component, fibrosis, and primary hypothyroidism; and 3) a black thyroid gland with no exposure to minocycline. The deposition of the pigments in the three cases resulted in macroscopically recognizable black thyroid glands. It is speculated that an imbalance in lysosomal function accounts for this abnormality. The glandular hypofunction documented in case 2 is unique and confirms the need to monitor function carefully in patients who are receiving minocycline. In one case electrondense deposits were identified in the thyroid gland interstitium.

  19. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  20. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2011-02-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.

  1. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  2. Pigmented lesion of buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  3. The early Upper Paleolithic human skeleton from the Abrigo do Lagar Velho (Portugal) and modern human emergence in Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Cidália; Maurício, João; Pettitt, Paul B.; Souto, Pedro; Trinkaus, Erik; van der Plicht, Hans; Zilhão, João

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a ≈4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition, and postcrania present a mosaic of European early modern human and Neandertal features. The temporal bone has an intermediate-sized juxtamastoid eminence. The mandibular mentum osseum and the dental size and proportions, supported by mandibular ramal features, radial tuberosity orientation, and diaphyseal curvature, as well as the pubic proportions align the skeleton with early modern humans. Body proportions, reflected in femorotibial lengths and diaphyseal robusticity plus tibial condylar displacement, as well as mandibular symphyseal retreat and thoracohumeral muscle insertions, align the skeleton with the Neandertals. This morphological mosaic indicates admixture between regional Neandertals and early modern humans dispersing into southern Iberia. It establishes the complexities of the Late Pleistocene emergence of modern humans and refutes strict replacement models of modern human origins. PMID:10377462

  4. Splenic melanosis in agouti and black mice.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk-Wetula, Dominika; Wieczorek, Justyna; Płonka, Przemysław M

    2015-01-01

    An interesting example of extradermal deposition of melanin in vertebrates, notably in mammals, is splenic melanosis. In particular, if the phenomenon of splenic melanosis is correlated with hair or skin pigmentation, it must reflect the amount and perhaps the quality of pigment produced in hair follicle melanocytes. The present paper is our first study on splenic pigmentation in mice of phenotype agouti. We used untreated mixed background mice C57BL/6;129/SvJ (black - a/a, agouti - A/a, A/A), and as a control - black C57BL/6 and agouti fur from 129/SvJ mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). After euthanasia skin and spleen was evaluated macroscopically, photographed and collected for further analysis using Fontana-Masson and hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band. Spleens of the agouti mice revealed splenic melanosis but were slightly weaker pigmented than their black counterparts, while the presence of pheomelanin was difficult to determine. The fur of both phenotypes was of similar melanin content, with the same tendency as in the spleens. The contribution of pheomelanin in the agouti fur was on the border of detectability by EPR. Histological and EPR analysis confirmed the presence of melanin in the melanotic spleens. The shape of the EPR signal showed a dominance of eumelanin in fur and in melanized spleens in both phenotypes of mice. Therefore, splenic melanosis does reflect the hair follicle pigmentation not only in black, but also in agouti mice. PMID:26291042

  5. Ultraviolet pigments in birds evolved from violet pigments by a single amino acid change

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Radlwimmer, F. Bernhard; Blow, Nathan S.

    2000-01-01

    UV vision has profound effects on the evolution of organisms by affecting such behaviors as mating preference and foraging strategies. Despite its importance, the molecular basis of UV vision is not known. Here, we have transformed the zebra finch UV pigment into a violet pigment by incorporating one amino acid change, C84S. By incorporating the reverse mutations, we have also constructed UV pigments from the orthologous violet pigments of the pigeon and chicken. These results and comparative amino acid sequence analyses of the pigments in vertebrates demonstrate that many avian species have achieved their UV vision by S84C. PMID:10861005

  6. Accumulation and identification of lipofuscin-like pigment in the neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    PubMed

    Robles, L J

    1978-01-01

    A few reports suggest that pigmented granules found in molluscan neurons accumulate with age as do lipofuscin granules in vertebrate cells; however, no reports on molluscan neurons include detailed descriptions of granule accumulation or histochemical tests to identify the pigment as lipofuscin-like. In this study light microscope observations of living ganglia from 1.7, 2.7, and 3.0 cm and larger (shell length) sized Bulla gouldiana showed an increasing accumulation of orange-red pigment in the perikaryon corresponding to increasing shell size (i.e. age). With the electron microscope similar results were obtained, and lipofuscin-like granules were seen in the nerve cell cytoplasm of veliger larvae and in all adult sized Bulla. Staining with Sudan black B, Nile blue, chrome alum hematoxylin, PAS reagents, and exposure of the neurons to u.v. light to observe subsequent autofluorescence, yielded positive results in the areas of pigmented granule accumulation. Thus, the brillant orange-red granules that accumulate with age in the peripheral cytoplasm of adult Bulla neurons, and which are probably also present in larval stages, chemically resemble the lipofuscin granules of vertebrates. Similarities and differences between molluscan pigmented granules and vertebrate lipofuscin granules, in relation to structure and mechanisms of development and accumulation, are discussed. PMID:625150

  7. In vivo estimation of pigmentation in ultraviolet-exposed hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, A B; Bech-Thomsen, N; Wulf, H C

    1995-02-01

    A new in vivo method of visual scoring of pigmentation in hairless hr/hr mice with a C3H/Tif background is described. The mice were placed under a bank of 6 Philips TL08 fluorescent ultraviolet A (UVA) tubes in a dark room, and the pigmentation of the skin was compared with a Kodak Gray Scale with 20 different shades from white to black. The radiation from the tubes changed both the color of the back of the mouse and the gray scale into purple hues. The purple color of the back of each mouse could then be classified as one of 20 shades on the gray scale. An experiment was conducted exposing 3 groups of 20 mice to different doses of UV radiation from Philips TL01 tubes. One group of 20 mice was not irradiated and served as control. The pigmentation of each mouse was scored by one investigator every 2-3 weeks. After a few weeks of exposure a clear distinction between the groups was seen. To evaluate the inter- and intrapersonal variation of the method, 30 mice with various degrees of pigmentation were scored independently and blindly by two investigators. This was done twice during the study with a few days' interval. No interpersonal difference was found, but one investigator scored differently the first and second time by only 0.5 points. The described method provides a reproducible in vivo method, with very good discrimination, for estimation of pigmentation in hairless mice. PMID:7654561

  8. Utilizing pigment-producing fungi to add commercial value to American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C; Tudor, Daniela; Cooper, Paul A

    2012-02-01

    American beech (Fagus grandifolia) is an abundant, underutilized tree in certain areas of North America, and methods to increase its market value are of considerable interest. This research utilized pigment-producing fungi to induce color in American beech to potentially establish its use as a decorative wood. Wood samples were inoculated with Trametes versicolor, Xylaria polymorpha, Inonotus hispidus, and Arthrographis cuboidea to induce fungal pigmentation. Black pigmentation (T. versicolor, X. polymorpha, I. hispidus) was sporadic, occurred primarily on the surfaces of the heartwood, but not internally. Pink pigmentation (A. cuboidea) occurred throughout all of the tested beech samples, but was difficult to see in the heartwood due to the darker color of the wood. To increase the visibility of the pink stain, beech blocks were pretreated with T. versicolor for 4 weeks before being inoculated with A. cuboidea. This method significantly increased the saturation of the pink stain on both beech heartwood and sapwood, creating coloration similar to that found on sugar maple. This value-adding process should be particularly effective for small-scale wood pigmentation, and should help establish a market for this currently underutilized wood species. PMID:21931972

  9.  Pigmented hepatocellular adenoma with β-catenin activation: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Rosa; Gonçalves, Regina; Carneiro, Fátima; Fernandes, Margarida; Lopes, Joanne; Guimarães, Susana; Macedo, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

     Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are benign liver tumors recently characterized into 4 different types according to genetic, pathological and clinical features. The prognosis is not well established yet and malignant transformation has been recently associated with β-catenin activation. We aimed to describe a case of a pigmented HCA with β-catenin nuclear expression and inflammatory features and to review the cases of pigmented HCAs in the literature. We report a case of a young female patient without contraceptive use, with a liver tumor diagnosis. Liver biopsy revealed diffuse expression of β-catenin and a partial hepatic resection was performed. The histologic analysis revealed a hepatocellular tumor composed of uniform trabeculae of hepatocytes and solid areas, the later with a significant amount of black pigment highlighted by Masson-Fontana stain. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A in the tumor. Literature review revealed that pigmented HCAs, previously reported as dark adenomas, are rare tumors. In HCAs, the presence of β-catenin activation should be searched for due to the higher risk of malignant transformation in hepatocarcinoma. We describe a pigmented HCA with β-catenin nuclear expression and inflammatory features being the fifth case reported so far. PMID:27236161

  10. [Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Brocheriou, C; Kuffer, R; Verola, O

    1985-01-01

    Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity are of multiple origin. They can be subdivided as follows: non tumoral pigmentations, non melanin pigmented tumors or tumor-like lesions, benign melanin pigmented tumors and malignant melanomas. Among non tumoral pigmented lesions, some of them show melanin deposits: they can be associated with a systemic disease (Peutz Jeghers syndrome, Addison's disease) or have a medicamentous origin, or belong to a lichen migricans. Non tumoral and non melanin pigmentations are principally due to a heavy metal accumulation or an accidental tatoo arising after tooth treatment. Peripheral giant cell granuloma, so-called giant cell epulis is the major non pigmented non melanin pseudotumoral lesion; pigmentation is due to hemosiderin deposits. In the oral cavity nevi are principally of the intramucosal type. Blue nevus, the second type in frequency, is usually located on the hard palate. Primary malignant melanomas are rare in the oral cavity, but it is--because its very bad prognosis--the most important lesion. In order to improve the survival it is necessary to do the diagnosis as early as possible. PMID:3833244

  11. Endocrine factors as effectors of integumental pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Malek, Z A

    1988-04-01

    Normal and malignant pigment cells are known targets for many hormones. Besides alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and the steroidal hormones estrogen, testosterone, and glucocorticoids, factors produced by other epidermal cells can affect melanization and proliferation of pigment cells. Among those factors are the prostaglandins, vitamin D3, ETAF, and interleukin-1. PMID:3132340

  12. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jerry

    1984-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  13. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  14. The bioefficacy of microemulsified natural pigments in egg yolk pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Chow, P Y; Gue, S Z; Leow, S K; Goh, L B

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that microemulsified carotenoid products show improved bioavailability over corresponding regular preparations, leading to greater yolk pigmentation at lower dosages. 2. The first trial was conducted using a maize-soya bean basal diet supplemented with either 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/kg of microemulsified Red or non-microemulsified Red. The second trial involved feeding microemulsified Yellow or non-microemulsified Yellow using a similar dosage range. The layers were divided into 4 replicates of 8 layers each (32 layers per treatment). The 8 cages of layers were fed from a single feed trough. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the trial. Each week, the eggs were collected. The whole liquid egg colour was determined by means of a commercially available yolk colour fan. Where required, HPLC-(high-performance liquid chromatography) based analysis of trans-capsanthin or trans-lutein equivalents using the Association of Analytical Communities method was carried out. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA method using Statgraphics. 3. Results showed that the colour and carotenoid content of the egg yolk increased with increasing amount of carotenoids in the diet. The colour of egg yolks from layers fed similar concentrations of microemulsified versus the regular preparation was significantly different. At the commercial recommended dose of one g/kg regular Yellow or Red product, the microemulsified pigmenter is able to provide the equivalent yolk colour at a 20-30% lower dose. 4. In conclusion, the trial results supported the hypothesis that a desired yolk colour score is achievable at a significantly lower inclusion rate when carotenoid molecules are emulsified using the microemulsion nanotechnology. PMID:24783946

  15. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... that the caffeine in black tea might slow blood clotting, though this hasn’t been shown in people. ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine ...

  16. Black Ageism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Herbert M.

    1976-01-01

    Notes that attempts to apply research findings based on undifferentiated comparisons between black and white elderly toward the solution of problems faced by black elderly are doomed to ineffectiveness. (Author/AM)

  17. Black psyllium

    MedlinePlus

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  18. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    Black tea is a product made from the Camellia sinesis plant. The aged leaves and stems are ... of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness as ...

  19. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  20. Black Cohosh

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Black cohosh. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on April ... Black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt. ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on April ...

  1. Developing fungal pigments for "painting" vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sara C

    2012-02-01

    The use of fungal pigments as color additives to wood as a method to increase forest revenue is a relatively new, but quickly developing field. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) is currently the primary utilized hardwood for spalting and appears to be the best suited North American hardwood for such purposes. The combination of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta has been identified in several instances as a strong fungal pairing for zone line production; however, Xylaria polymorpha is capable of creating zone lines without the antagonism of a secondary fungus. Few fungal pigments have been developed for reliable use; Scytalidium cuboideum is capable of producing a penetrating pink/red stain, as well as a blue pigment after extended incubation, and Chlorociboria sp. produces a blue/green pigment if grown on aspen (Populus tremuloides). Several opportunities exist for stimulation of fungal pigments including the use of copper sulfate and changes in wood pH. PMID:22237673

  2. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121

  3. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  4. Eye pigments of the blood-sucking insect, Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, A S; Pimentel, E R; Rodrigues, V L C C; Mello, M L S

    2005-08-01

    The pigmentation of black (wild) and red (mutant) eyes of Triatoma infestans was studied spectrophotometrically and compared with red-eyed (wild) and white-eyed (mutant) forms of Drosophila melanogaster. The spectral absorption profiles of the black and red eye pigments of T. infestans were similar to each other and to that of the wild-type eyes of D. melanogaster. The similarity to the wild form of D. melanogaster indicated that both eye forms of T. infestans contained ommochromes of the xanthommatin type, a finding confirmed by ascending paper chromatography. Pteridines, melanins, and ommins were not detected as eye pigments in T. infestans. The eye color difference in T. infestans was assumed to be a function of the xanthommatin concentration, with a smaller content of ommochrome in red eyes, although this probably did not affect the insect's visual acuity. These data support other findings regarding the similarities between black- and red-eyed specimens of T. infestans for other characteristics. PMID:16341426

  5. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of black historian Ed Cabbell by Pat…

  6. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  7. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  8. Talking Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    This book contains essays which focus on the systems of communication that operate within and between various social segments of Afro-American communities in the United States. The essays are presented under the following headings: (1) "Getting Into It: Black Talk, Black Life and the Academic," (2) "'Talking My Talk': Black Talk Varieties and…

  9. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; He, Keyang; Huan, Xiujia

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1) the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2) the domestication rate of cereals, and (3) the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia. PMID:26840560

  10. Macro-Process of Past Plant Subsistence from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China: A Quantitative Analysis of Multi-Archaeobotanical Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Can; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; He, Keyang; Huan, Xiujia

    2016-01-01

    Detailed studies of the long-term development of plant use strategies indicate that plant subsistence patterns have noticeably changed since the Upper Paleolithic, when humans underwent a transitional process from foraging to agriculture. This transition was best recorded in west Asia; however, information about how plant subsistence changed during this transition remains limited in China. This lack of information is mainly due to a limited availability of sufficiently large, quantified archaeobotanical datasets and a paucity of related synthetic analyses. Here, we present a compilation of extensive archaeobotanical data derived from interdisciplinary approaches, and use quantitative analysis methods to reconstruct past plant use from the Upper Paleolithic to Middle Neolithic in China. Our results show that intentional exploitation for certain targeted plants, particularly grass seeds, may be traced back to about 30,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic. Subsequently, the gathering of wild plants dominated the subsistence system; however, this practice gradually diminished in dominance until about 6~5 ka cal BP during the Middle Neolithic. At this point, farming based on the domestication of cereals became the major subsistence practice. Interestingly, differences in plant use strategies were detected between north and south China, with respect to (1) the proportion of certain plant taxa in assemblages, (2) the domestication rate of cereals, and (3) the type of plant subsistence practiced after the establishment of full farming. In conclusion, the transition from foraging to rice and millet agriculture in China was a slow and long-term process spanning 10s of 1000s of years, which may be analogous to the developmental paths of wheat and barley farming in west Asia. PMID:26840560

  11. Structure of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  12. Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Pinhasi, Ron; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Golovanova, Liubov V.; Doronichev, Vladimir B.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in direct radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal and anatomically modern human (AMH) fossils and the development of archaeostratigraphic chronologies now allow refined regional models for Neanderthal–AMH coexistence. In addition, they allow us to explore the issue of late Neanderthal survival in regions of Western Eurasia located within early routes of AMH expansion such as the Caucasus. Here we report the direct radiocarbon (14C) dating of a late Neanderthal specimen from a Late Middle Paleolithic (LMP) layer in Mezmaiskaya Cave, northern Caucasus. Additionally, we provide a more accurate chronology for the timing of Neanderthal extinction in the region through a robust series of 16 ultrafiltered bone collagen radiocarbon dates from LMP layers and using Bayesian modeling to produce a boundary probability distribution function corresponding to the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya. The direct date of the fossil (39,700 ± 1,100 14C BP) is in good agreement with the probability distribution function, indicating at a high level of probability that Neanderthals did not survive at Mezmaiskaya Cave after 39 ka cal BP ("calendrical" age in kiloannum before present, based on IntCal09 calibration curve). This challenges previous claims for late Neanderthal survival in the northern Caucasus. We see striking and largely synchronous chronometric similarities between the Bayesian age modeling for the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya and chronometric data from Ortvale Klde for the end of the LMP in the southern Caucasus. Our results confirm the lack of reliably dated Neanderthal fossils younger than ∼40 ka cal BP in any other region of Western Eurasia, including the Caucasus. PMID:21555570

  13. Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Pinhasi, Ron; Higham, Thomas F G; Golovanova, Liubov V; Doronichev, Vladimir B

    2011-05-24

    Advances in direct radiocarbon dating of Neanderthal and anatomically modern human (AMH) fossils and the development of archaeostratigraphic chronologies now allow refined regional models for Neanderthal-AMH coexistence. In addition, they allow us to explore the issue of late Neanderthal survival in regions of Western Eurasia located within early routes of AMH expansion such as the Caucasus. Here we report the direct radiocarbon ((14)C) dating of a late Neanderthal specimen from a Late Middle Paleolithic (LMP) layer in Mezmaiskaya Cave, northern Caucasus. Additionally, we provide a more accurate chronology for the timing of Neanderthal extinction in the region through a robust series of 16 ultrafiltered bone collagen radiocarbon dates from LMP layers and using Bayesian modeling to produce a boundary probability distribution function corresponding to the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya. The direct date of the fossil (39,700 ± 1,100 (14)C BP) is in good agreement with the probability distribution function, indicating at a high level of probability that Neanderthals did not survive at Mezmaiskaya Cave after 39 ka cal BP ("calendrical" age in kiloannum before present, based on IntCal09 calibration curve). This challenges previous claims for late Neanderthal survival in the northern Caucasus. We see striking and largely synchronous chronometric similarities between the Bayesian age modeling for the end of the LMP at Mezmaiskaya and chronometric data from Ortvale Klde for the end of the LMP in the southern Caucasus. Our results confirm the lack of reliably dated Neanderthal fossils younger than ∼ 40 ka cal BP in any other region of Western Eurasia, including the Caucasus. PMID:21555570

  14. Dermatoscopic pitfalls in differentiating pigmented Spitz naevi from cutaneous melanomas.

    PubMed

    Argenziano, G; Scalvenzi, M; Staibano, S; Brunetti, B; Piccolo, D; Delfino, M; De Rosa, G; Soyer, H P

    1999-11-01

    Epiluminescence microscopy (ELM, skin surface microscopy, dermoscopy, dermatoscopy) is a valuable method for improving the diagnostic accuracy in pigmented skin lesions. Specific ELM criteria are already recognized for differentiating pigmented Spitz naevi (PSN) from cutaneous melanomas (CM). Our purpose was to describe the ELM appearance of a series of PSN with emphasis on PSN and CM with overlapping features. Thirty-six consecutive patients with PSN, and three cases of CM (selected from a larger database) exhibiting ELM 'spitzoid' features, were evaluated clinically, dermatoscopically and histopathologically. Most PSN (27 of 36; 75%) displayed two typical ELM patterns, namely, the starburst (19 of 36; 53%) or the globular pattern (eight of 36; 22%), which were correlated to different histopathological findings. In nine of 36 (25%) PSN, atypical ELM features which are more commonly seen in CM were observed. These PSN with an atypical pattern were characterized by an uneven distribution of colours and structures, and an irregular diffuse pigmentation resembling blue-white veil or irregular extensions (black blotches). These atypical lesions mostly occurred in children and showed no history of growth. In contrast, in three examples of CM, the typical ELM criteria of malignancy were less recognizable and either the characteristic starburst or globular pattern usually seen in PSN was present. These three lesions occurred in adults and had a recent history of change in colour, shape or size. The overlap in ELM features of some PSN and CM represents a major diagnostic pitfall when ELM examination is considered alone. In these atypical cases, clinical history including the age of the patient may be the only clue to enable a correct diagnosis. PMID:10583158

  15. The management of pigmented lesions of the nail bed.

    PubMed

    Glat, P M; Spector, J A; Roses, D F; Shapiro, R A; Harris, M N; Beasley, R W; Grossman, J A

    1996-08-01

    Pigmented lesions of the nail bed, especially without a history of trauma, represent a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. These lesions are often categorized as melanonychia striata (MS), which refers to any linear tan-brown-black pigmentation of the nail bed. The differential diagnosis of MS includes subungual hematomas, onchomycosis nigricans, junctional nevi, melanoma in situ (MIS), and malignant melanoma (MM). Our algorithm at the New York University (NYU) Medical Center for the treatment of pigmented lesions of the nail bed is presented. A histopathologic diagnosis with any evidence of melanocytic atypia, however subtle, requires absolute confirmation by complete excision. The absence of a clear margin or recurrence requires total nail bed excision and reconstruction using a full-thickness graft. The diagnosis of MIS is similarly treated. The surgical management of subungual MM is discussed. All cases of MM of the hand treated at NYU were reviewed. In all, 30 patients were treated from 1982 to 1995. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 13 years. In our series, there were 8 cutaneous and 22 subungual melanomas. There was a marked delay in treatment of both groups, with subungual melanomas more often erroneously treated as other pathology prior to correct diagnosis. The 5-year survival rate was 100% for patients with cutaneous lesions, but only 80% for those with the subungual variety. There was a statistical difference in the depths of the lesions (subungual, 3.68 mm; cutaneous, 1.36 mm) with a p-value of 0.008. The role of elective lymph node dissection in the absence of clinical metastases as well as intraoperative sentinel lymphatic mapping remains controversial and is discussed. PMID:8863970

  16. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  17. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mierlo, Camille Van; Pinto, Luis Abegão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Iatrogenic pigment dispersion syndrome generally originates from a repetitive, mechanical trauma to the pigmented posterior epithelium of the iris. This trauma can arise after intraocular surgery, most commonly due to an abnormal contact between the intraocular lens (IOL) and the iris. Whether surgical removal of this primary insult can lead to a successful intraocular pressure (IOP) control remains unclear. Methods: Case-series. Patients with IOP elevation and clinical signs of pigment dispersion were screened for a diagnosis of iatrogenic IOL-related pigment dispersion. Results: Three patients in which the IOL or the IOL-bag complex caused a pigment dispersion through a repetitive iris chafing were selected. In two cases, replacement of a sulcus-based single-piece IOL (patient 1) or a sub-luxated in-the-bag IOL (patient 2) by an anterior-chamber (AC) iris-fixed IOL led to a sustained decrease in IOP. In the third case, extensive iris atrophy and poor anatomical AC parameters for IOL implantation precluded further surgical intervention. Conclusion: IOL-exchange appears to be a useful tool in the management of iatrogenic pigment dispersion glaucoma due to inappropriate IOL implantation. This cause-oriented approach seems to be effective in controlling IOP, but should be offered only if safety criteria are met. How to cite this article: Van Mierlo C, Abegao Pinto L, Stalmans I. Surgical Management of Iatrogenic Pigment Dispersion Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):28-32. PMID:26997830

  18. Surface modification for aluminium pigment inhibition.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Philip; Palmqvist, Anders E C; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-12-21

    This review concerns surface treatment of aluminium pigments for use in water borne coatings. Aluminium pigments are commonly used in coatings to give a silvery and shiny lustre to the substrate. Such paints and inks have traditionally been solvent borne, since aluminium pigment particles react with water. For environmental and health reasons solvent borne coatings are being replaced by water borne and the aluminium pigments then need to be surface modified in order to stand exposure to water. This process is called inhibition and both organic and inorganic substances are used as inhibiting agents. The organic inhibiting agents range from low molecular weight substances, such as phenols and aromatic acids, via surfactants, in particular alkyl phosphates and other anionic amphiphiles, to high molecular weight compounds, such as polyelectrolytes. A common denominator for them all is that they contain a functional group that interacts specifically with aluminium at the surface. A particularly strong interaction is obtained if the inhibiting agent contains functional groups that form chelating complex with surface Al(III). Encapsulation of the pigment can be made by in situ polymerization at the surface of the pigment and a recent approach is to have the polymerization occur within a double layer of adsorbed surfactant. The inorganic route is dominated by coating with silica, and recent progress has been made using an alkoxide, such as tetraethoxysilane as silica precursor. Such silica coated aluminium pigments are comparable in performance to chromate inhibited pigments and thus offer a possible heavy metal-free alternative. There are obvious connections between surface modifications made to prevent the pigment to react with water and inhibition of corrosion of macroscopic aluminium surfaces. PMID:17239333

  19. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Alessandra Lo; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:26103923

  20. Exosomes released by keratinocytes modulate melanocyte pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Lo Cicero, Alessandra; Delevoye, Cédric; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Loew, Damarys; Dingli, Florent; Guéré, Christelle; André, Nathalie; Vié, Katell; van Niel, Guillaume; Raposo, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs), exosomes and microvesicles, which transfer proteins, lipids and RNAs to regulate recipient cell functions. Skin pigmentation relies on a tight dialogue between keratinocytes and melanocytes in the epidermis. Here we report that exosomes secreted by keratinocytes enhance melanin synthesis by increasing both the expression and activity of melanosomal proteins. Furthermore, we show that the function of keratinocyte-derived exosomes is phototype-dependent and is modulated by ultraviolet B. In sum, this study uncovers an important physiological function for exosomes in human pigmentation and opens new avenues in our understanding of how pigmentation is regulated by intercellular communication in both healthy and diseased states. PMID:26103923

  1. Variation in Anthocyanin Content of Wild Black Raspberry for Breeding Improved Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of its intense anthocyanin pigments, black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) has a long history of use as a natural colorant and dye. Recent studies showing black raspberries to be a rich source of anthocyanins and other dietary phytochemicals has led to renewed interest in breeding new, bet...

  2. Loess and loess-like sediments from the foothills of the Banat Mountains, Romania - Examples from loess sections and Paleolithic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkuhl, F.; Kels, H.; Hambach, U.; Protze, J.; Eckmeier, E.; Hilgers, A.; Klasen, N.

    2013-12-01

    New investigations from loess and loess-like sediments in the Western Plain of Romania provide evidences for a deeper insight and connection between long loess sections of the lowlands (Semlac) and short sections from the Carpathian foothills (Romanesti and Cosava). While the long loess sections provide evidence concerning climatic and environmental change since the middle Pleistocene the short sequences from the foothills include Paleolithic sites give information especially for the interstadial of the last glacial cycle when the first modern humans arrived in Europe. The section at Semlac is regarded as a key section for Western Romania, which offers possibilities to a) improve the understanding of the type and composition of the lowland loess sequences, b) to reconstruct the local loess-palaeosol succession and c) to connect the loesses of the region for the first time to loess-sequences in adjacent areas. The Paleolithic sites Romanesti and Cosava are situated at the foothills of the Banat Mountains in Romania and provide an important testament of life of the first European modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens) during Middle Pleniglacial. Even though these sites have been extensively excavated, little is known about the site formation of related loess-like sediments and soils. First luminescence data for the region of all these investigated sections confirm sediments from the penultimate glacial period up to the Holocene. For Semlac, a first relative dating is given by rock magnetic methods in comparison to Serbian loess sections.

  3. Early Upper Paleolithic chronology in the Levant: new ABOx-SC accelerator mass spectrometry results from the Mughr el-Hamamah Site, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Stutz, Aaron Jonas; Shea, John J; Rech, Jason A; Pigati, Jeffrey S; Wilson, Jim; Belmaker, Miriam; Albert, Rosa Maria; Arpin, Trina; Cabanes, Dan; Clark, Jamie L; Hartman, Gideon; Hourani, Fuad; White, Chantel E; Nilsson Stutz, Liv

    2015-08-01

    Methodological developments and new paleoanthropological data remain jointly central to clarifying the timing and systemic interrelationships between the Middle-Upper Paleolithic (MP-UP) archaeological transition and the broadly contemporaneous anatomically modern human-archaic biological turnover. In the recently discovered cave site of Mughr el-Hamamah, Jordan, in situ flint artifacts comprise a diagnostic early Upper Paleolithic (EUP) assemblage. Unusually well-preserved charcoal from hearths and other anthropogenic features associated with the lithic material were subjected to acid-base-wet oxidation-stepped combustion (ABOx-SC) pretreatment. This article presents the ABOx-SC accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates on nine charcoal specimens from a single palimpsest occupation layer. Date calibration was carried out using the INTCAL13 radiocarbon calibration dataset. With the bulk of the material dating to 45-39 ka cal BP (thousands of years calibrated before present), the Mughr el-Hamamah lithic artifacts reveal important differences from penecontemporaneous sites in the region, documenting greater technological variability than previously known for this time frame in the Levant. The radiocarbon data from this EUP archaeological context highlight remaining challenges for increasing chronological precision in documenting the MP-UP transition. PMID:26073075

  4. Conservation of the chromatophore pigment response.

    PubMed

    Dukovcic, Stephanie R; Hutchison, Janine R; Trempy, Janine E

    2010-08-01

    Toxicant sensing technology has evolved to include biological sensors, such as cell-based biosensors, which rely on viable cells to convey a measurable physiological signal. Chromatophores are a class of pigment cells that have been investigated as cell-based biosensors. We report the characterization of Oncorhynchus tshawytscha melanophores and describe the melanophore pigment response to neurotransmitters in terms of pigment area occupied. Compared with the previously described model, Betta splendens erythrophores, O. tshawytscha melanophores responded similarly, indicating that pigment responses are biologically conserved between these two species. Additionally, melanophores responded to mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite, similar to B. splendens erythrophores, suggesting that melanophores can be used as detectors for environmental toxicants. This report highlights the potential of O. tshawytscha melanophores to be used as cell-based biosensors to address environmental toxicity, and warrants a continued investigation to strengthen this technology and its applications. PMID:20809546

  5. Optically variable films, pigments, and inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Roger W.

    1990-12-01

    Optically variable thin film coatings have been prepared on rolls of polyester film by depositing thin multi-layers in a vacuum roll coater. Such coatings can be removed from the polyester film and ground into optically variable pigments for printing inks. Various printing inks including gravure, flexographic, and Intaglio inks have been prepared from these pigments, and printed images using these inks have been obtained from commercial printing presses. These optically variable systems have been used on various security documents to prevent counterfeiting with color copiers. Unique colors, color shifting effects, and other optical properties have been obtained by combining non-optically variable pigment and dyes with this light interference pigment. The merits of this new ink relative to other optically variable systems are color uniformity, print quality, its ready use on existing printing presses, and high security.

  6. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics. PMID:18274277

  7. A Case of Pigmented Mammary Paget's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Eun; Kang, Myung Seung; Kim, Joung Soo

    2008-01-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget's disease is a uncommon clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget's disease, and this mimics malignant melanoma both clinically and histopathologically. Herein, we report on a rare case of pigmented mammary Paget's disease. An 81-year-old woman presented with 2.5×1 cm sized, red and brown, eczematous plaque on her right areola, and she'd had this lesion for 3 years. Histopathology showed large, atypical cells with large nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm throughout the epidermis. Dispersed melanocytes were noted in the epidermis and some of the Paget's cells contained melanin within their cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the intraepidermal pagetoid cells were positive for cytokeratin 7; in contrast, they were negative for S-100, Periodic-acid Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue at PH 2.5, HMB-45 and carninoembryonic antigen (CEA). We recommend that pigmented mammary Paget's disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of pigmented lesions on the nipple. PMID:27303202

  8. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  9. New Directions in Phthalocyanine Pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) investigation of the synthesis of new phthalocyanines; (2) characterization of the new phthalocyanines synthesized; (3) investigate the properties of the newly synthesized phthalocyanines with emphasis on UV protection of plastics and coatings; and (4) utilize quantum mechanics to evaluate the structural relationships with possible properties and synthetic approaches. The proposed research targeted the synthesis of phthalocyanines containing an aromatic bridge between two phthalocyanine rings. The goal was to synthesize pigments which would protect plastics when exposed to the photodegradation effects of the sun in space. The stability and extended conjugation of the phthalocyanines offer a unique opportunity for energy absorption and numerous radiative and non-radiative energy loss mechanisms. Although the original targeted phthalocyanines were changed early in the project, several new and unique phthalocyanine compounds were prepared. The basic goals of this work were met and some unique and unexpected outcomes of the work were the result of the integral use of quantum mechanics and molecular modeling with the synthetic effort.

  10. FTIR study of primate color visual pigments

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Kota; Kandori, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    How do we distinguish colors? Humans possess three color pigments; red-, green-, and blue-sensitive proteins, which have maximum absorbance (λmax) at 560, 530, and 420 nm, respectively, and contribute to normal human trichromatic vision (RGB). Each color pigments consists of a different opsin protein bound to a common chromophore molecule, 11-cis-retinal, whereas different chromophore-protein interactions allow preferential absorption of different colors. However, detailed experimental structural data to explain the molecular basis of spectral tuning of color pigments are lacking, mainly because of the difficulty in sample preparation. We thus started structural studies of primate color visual pigments using low-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, which needs only 0.3 mg protein for a single measurement. Here we report the first structural data of monkey red- (MR) and green- (MG) sensitive pigments, in which the information about the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules is contained. Molecular mechanism of color discrimination between red and green pigments will be discussed based on the structural data by FTIR spectroscopy. PMID:27493516

  11. Microspectrophotometry of arthropod visual screening pigments.

    PubMed

    Strother, G K; Casella, A J

    1972-05-01

    Absorption spectra of visual screening pigments obtained in vitro with a microspectrophotometer using frozen sections are given for the insects Musca domestica, Phormia regina, Libellula luctuosa, Apis mellifera (worker honeybee only), Drosophila melanogaster (wild type only) and the arachnids Lycosa baltimoriana and Lycosa miami. The spectral range covered is 260-700 nm for Lycosa and Drosophila and 310-700 nm for the remainder of the arthropods. A complete description of the instrumentation is given. For the flies, Phormia and Musca, light absorption by the yellow and red pigments is high from 310 to about 610 nm. This implies that for these insects there should be no wavelength shift in electroretinogram (ERG) results due to light leakage among neighboring ommatidia for this wavelength range. The same comment applies to Calliphora erythrocephala, which is known to have similar screening pigments. For some of the insects studied a close correspondence is noted between screening pigment absorption spectra and spectral sensitivity curves for individual photoreceptors, available in the literature. In some cases the screening pigment absorption spectra can be related to chemical extraction results, with the general observation that some of the in vitro absorption peaks are shifted to the red. The Lycosa, Apis, and Libellula dark red pigments absorb strongly over a wide spectral range and therefore prevent chemical identification. PMID:4623852

  12. Dermoscopic Features of Facial Pigmented Skin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A. S.; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V.

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named “strawberry pattern” in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM “strawberry pattern” is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs. PMID:23431466

  13. Assessment of present day geomorphological dynamics to decipher landscape evolution around the Paleolithic sites of Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerker, Michael; Schillaci, Calogero; Melis, Rita; Mussi, Margherita

    2014-05-01

    The area of Melka Kunture (central Ethiopia) is one of the most important clusters of Paleolithic sites in Eastern Africa. The archaeological record spans from c. 1.7 Ma onwards, with a number of stratified occurrences of Oldowan, Acheulean, Middle Stone Age and Late Stone Age industries, together with faunal remains and human fossils. However, the archaeological sites are endangered by flooding and soil erosion. The main excavation area lies close to the convergence of the Awash river with the Atabella river, one of the main tributaries of the upper Awash catchment. In the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands, gully networks develop especially in the vicinity of the active and inactive river meanders. Various erosion processes are linked to specific driving factors such as the rainfall regime, the land use/cover changes and vertic soils with a specific hydrological behaviour. It was documented in the field and by previous research that the origin of most of the man made erosion channels is due to animal pathways and car tracks. However, paleolandscape features increase the general erosion risk. Former wetland areas and deposition zones are particularly affected by soil erosion processes. Hence, the spatial distribution and characteristics of present day geomorphic processes also reveal information on the paleolandscape. In order to assess landscape evolution and present day geomorphologic dynamics, we mapped the geomorphology describing in detail the present-day slope processes at a 10.000 scale. We performed a detailed terrain analysis based on high resolution DEMs such as SRTM-X with 25m resolution and ALOS/PRISM with 10m resolution to characterize the main erosion processes and surface runoff dynamics. The latter ones are simulated using a Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method. Landuse was delineated for a larger area using ASTER 25m multispectral data. Finally, using calibrated topographic indices and a simple hydrological model we were able to detect and

  14. Pigmented Soybean (Glycine max) Seed Coats Accumulate Proanthocyanidins during Development.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, J. J.; Vodkin, L. O.

    1993-01-01

    The dominant I gene inhibits accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in the epidermal layer of soybean (Glycine max) seed coats. Seed-coat color is also influenced by the R locus and by the pubescence color alleles (T, tawny; t, gray). Protein and RNA from cultivars with black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats are difficult to extract. To determine the nature of the interfering plant products, we examined seed-coat extracts from Clark isogenic lines for flavonoids, anthocyanins, and possible proanthocyanidins by thin-layer chromatography. We show that yellow seed-coat varieties (I) do not accumulate anthocyanins (anthocyanidin glycosides) or proanthocyanidins (polymeric anthocyanidins). Mature, black (i,R,T) and imperfect-black (i,R,t) seed coats contained anthocyanins, whereas mature, brown (i,r,T) and buff (i,r,t) seed coats did not contain anthocyanins. In contrast, all colored (i) genotypes tested positive for the presence of proanthocyanidins by butanol/ HCl and 0.5% vanillin assays. Immature, black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats contained significant amounts of procyanidin, a 3[prime],4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Immature, black (i,R,T) or brown (i,r,T) seed-coat extracts also tested positive for the ability to precipitate proteins in a radial diffusion assay and to bind RNA in vitro. Imperfect-black (i,R,t) or buff (i,r,t) seed coats contained lesser amounts of propelargonidin, a 4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Seed-coat extracts from these genotypes did not have the ability to precipitate protein or bind to RNA. In summary, the dominant I gene controls inhibition of not only anthocyanins but also proanthocyanidins in soybean seed coats. In homozygous recessive i genotypes, the T-t gene pair determines the types of proanthocyanidins present, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the T locus encodes a microsomal 3[prime]-flavonoid hydroxylase. PMID:12231856

  15. Antiadipogenic Activity of γ-Oryzanol and Its Stability in Pigmented Rice.

    PubMed

    Minatel, Igor Otavio; Lee, Yoon-Mi; Yoon, Haelim; Yoon, Young; Han, Sang-Ik; Correa, Camila Renata; Fecchio, Denise; Yeum, Kyung-Jin

    2016-07-01

    γ-Oryzanol, a prevalent compound in pigmented rice varieties, has been reported to ameliorate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Antiadipogenic activities of γ-oryzanol were determined in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and mouse-derived 3T3-L1 cells. γ-Oryzanol significantly decreased lipid accumulation and reduced glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in both adipocytes. In addition, γ-oryzanol in four pigmented rice varieties (black with giant embryo, brown, sugary brown, and red) was stable when stored at 4°C and also at room temperature for 22 weeks, whereas other bioactives such as lutein and β-carotene were stable only at -80°C. Furthermore, the yield of γ-oryzanol from these rice varieties was significantly increased through steaming and roasting processes. Therefore, γ-oryzanol exerts antiadipogenic activity by suppressing adipocyte differentiations and is stable in pigmented rice for an extended period of time during storage and after cooking. Thus, the intake of pigmented rice may be a useful strategy for preventing obesity. PMID:27309274

  16. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  17. Aspartate Decarboxylase is Required for a Normal Pupa Pigmentation Pattern in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Dai, Fangyin; Qiao, Liang; Cao, Cun; Liu, Xiaofan; Tong, Xiaoling; He, Songzhen; Hu, Hai; Zhang, Li; Wu, Songyuan; Tan, Duan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Lu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation pattern of Lepidoptera varies greatly in different development stages. To date, the effects of key genes in the melanin metabolism pathway on larval and adult body color are distinct, yet the effects on pupal pigmentation remains unclear. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the black pupa (bp) mutant is only specifically melanized at the pupal stage. Using positional cloning, we found that a mutation in the Aspartate decarboxylase gene (BmADC) is causative in the bp mutant. In the bp mutant, a SINE-like transposon with a length of 493 bp was detected ~2.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of BmADC. This insertion causes a sharp reduction in BmADC transcript levels in bp mutants, leading to deficiency of β-alanine and N-β-alanyl dopamine (NBAD), but accumulation of dopamine. Following injection of β-alanine into bp mutants, the color pattern was reverted that of the wild-type silkworms. Additionally, melanic pupae resulting from knock-down of BmADC in the wild-type strain were obtained. These findings show that BmADC plays a crucial role in melanin metabolism and in the pigmentation pattern of the silkworm pupal stage. Finally, this study contributes to a better understanding of pupa pigmentation patterns in Lepidoptera. PMID:26077025

  18. Microchemical Study of Pigments and Binders in Polychrome Relics from Maiji Mountain Grottoes in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Luyao; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Bingjian; Ma, Qian

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an integrated analytical method was developed to investigate the composition of both the inorganic pigments and organic binders of polychrome relics in Maiji Mountain Grottoes in northwestern China. Cross-sections of each sample were prepared at the beginning of the study, and all experiments were carried out on these cross-sections. Polychromic structures were revealed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy-backscattered electron imaging. Inorganic materials were determined by using SEM coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer and μ-Raman spectrometer, whereas organic materials were identified by staining techniques and highly sensitive and specific immunofluorescence microscopy. Data showed that the red colors are attributed to one or two pigments of red ochre, cinnabar, and minium; the blue pigment is natural lazurite; the green pigment is ascribed to atacamite; the white color is attributed to potassium feldspar; and the black surface is formed by the discoloration of minium to plattnerite under the influence of environmental factors. Regarding organic binders used in painting and preparation layers, mammalian animal glue and chicken egg white were both found alone or in mixture. Finally, the conclusion is made that the Secco technique is employed in polychrome relics from Maiji Mountain Grottoes. PMID:27485573

  19. Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.

    The essays in this book examine some of the major issues affecting the behavior and status of black men in the United States. The volume is divided into four sections. Part one compares black and white men on such indicators as sex ratio, age distribution, marital and family status, educational attainment, employment, income, social and political…

  20. Betalain: a particular class of antioxidant pigment.

    PubMed

    El Gharras, Hasna

    2011-10-01

    We have analyzed the stability of betalains in juices prepared from Moroccan yellow cactus pears (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) as a function of temperature and pH. The experiments were carried out at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100 degrees C with juices at pH 3.5, 5 and 6.5. The degree of pigment retention decreased when the temperature increased. The degradation constant rates were determined for thermal degradation rates of pseudo-first order. The Arrhenius plot obtained for the degradation of betaxanthin from the yellow fruits was not linear. Regardless of the temperature of treatment, the lowest degradation was obtained for pH 5. When some stabilizers were tested for the protection of pigments, the results showed that ascorbic acid was a better protective agent at pH 3.5, increasing the protection by 40%. The inhibitive action of betalain pigments extracted from cactus pears towards corrosion of stainless steel in phosphoric acid was investigated using electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the presence of natural pigments reduces the corrosion rate of the tested metal, especially on addition of the red pigments (97%). The inhibition efficiency increases as the pigment concentration of extracts increases. It was also found that the pigments tested act as mixed inhibitors. The inhibitive action of the extracts is discussed in term of adsorption and that such adsorption follows a Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated values of the free energy of adsorption indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous. PMID:22164774

  1. Maya blue: a clay-organic pigment?

    PubMed

    Van Olphen, H

    1966-11-01

    Maya Blue, a pigment used by the Mayas in Yucatan, is remarkably stable: the color is not destroyed by hot concentrated mineral acids or by heating to about 250 degrees C. The principal constituent is the colorless mineral attapulgite. It is proposed that the pigment is an adsorption complex of attapulgite and natural indigo; a synthetic equivalent may be prepared from attapulgite and either indoxylester or indigo, or by applying the vat-dyeing technique, with reduced indigo.The low dye content of the pigment (less than 0.5 percent) indicates that the dye is absorbed only on the external surfaces of the attapulgite particles and not throughout the channels in their structures. The complex as such is not stable to acids, but the stability displayed by Maya Blue is achieved simply by heating the complex to from 75 degrees to 150 degrees C for several days. An analogous stable pigment can be prepared from sepiolite and indigo. No stable pigments could be prepared from clays with platelike structures or from zeolites. PMID:17778806

  2. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Belinda S W; Jönsson, Karolina; Kazmi, Manija A; Donoghue, Michael J; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2002-09-01

    The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than 240 MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment. Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two. To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to 11-cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda(max) values of about 508 nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay. Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods. PMID:12200476

  3. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Shabnam; Prendiville, Kevin John; Martinez, Eladio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We report a case of iris pigment epithelial cysts in a newborn and discuss the importance of an accurate diagnosis for prevention of amblyopia. Methods: We describe a case of an abnormal red reflex seen on a newborn exam. Results: A full-term female born via normal spontaneous vaginal delivery without any complications was seen in the newborn nursery. She was noted to have an abnormal eye exam. Pupils were large with circular dark excrescences of the iris pigment epithelium. She was referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist where she was noted to fixate and follow faces. No afferent pupillary defect was seen. OD red reflex was normal whereas OS red reflex was blocked mostly by dark excrescences. A 2–3 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OD iris and a 3–5 mm dark brown lesion was seen in the OS iris, consistent with a pupillary iris pigment epithelial cyst. Central visual axis was clear OU. Glaucoma was not present and patching was not performed. Observations and clinical photographs were recommended with follow-up in three months. Conclusion: Iris pigment epithelial cysts are uncommonly seen in children. The primary care provider first seeing a newborn must be aware of lesions obscuring a red reflex with appropriate follow-up. Follow-up in three months with IOP measurements is recommended. Iris pigment epithelial cysts in children may be a cause of amblyopia, thus prompt evaluation is important for prognostic purposes and the prevention of amblyopia. PMID:27625966

  4. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  5. Investigations of biomimetic light energy harvesting pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Patten, P.G.; Donohoe, R.J.; Lindsey, J.S.; Bocian, D.F.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nature uses chlorophyll and other porphyrinic pigments to capture and transfer light energy as a preliminary step in photosynthesis. The design of synthetic assemblies of light harvesting and energy directing pigments has been explored through synthesis and characterization of porphyrin oligomers. In this project, pigment electronic and vibrational structures have been explored by electrochemistry and dynamic and static optical measurements. Transient absorption data reveal energy transfer between pigments with lifetimes on the order of 20--200 picoseconds, while Raman data reveal that the basic porphyrin core structure is unperturbed relative to the individual monomer units. These two findings, along with an extensive series of experiments on the oxidized oligomers, reveal that coupling between the pigments is fundamentally weak, but sufficient to allow facile energy transfer as the predominant excited state process. Modeling of the expected quantum yields for energy transfer within a variety of arrays was accomplished, thereby providing a tool to guide synthetic goals.

  6. Raman microspectroscopic analysis of decorative pigments from the Roman villa of El Ruedo (Almedinilla, Spain).

    PubMed

    Mateos, Laura Dara; Cosano, Daniel; Mora, Manuel; Muñiz, Ignacio; Carmona, Rafael; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, José Rafael

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we analysed the preparatory layer and paintings in the hypocaustum of the Roman villa of El Ruedo (Almedinilla, southern Spain). The specimens studied were from the III and IV centuries. Raman microscopy was for the first time used here to examine Roman pictures in the south of the Iberian peninsula. The results obtained allowed us to establish the chemical nature of the different pigments used by the Roman artists. All were applied over a preparatory layer consisting of limewash. The different colours used (black, white, red, yellow, green and blue) were obtained by using carbon, calcite, gypsum, hematite, goethite, green earth and Egyptian blue. Some exhibited various hues that were obtained by mixing the previous compounds. Worth special note is the incipient presence of blue pigments, which were rarely used in Roman Hispania owing to their scarcity and high price. PMID:26117196

  7. [Adverse reaction to the azo dye Pigment Red 170 in a tattoo].

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, Iris; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2004-12-01

    A 30-year old white male presented with sharply demarcated pruritic lesions in a black and red tattoo on his wrist. The strongly infiltrated and slightly scaly eruptions started four months after tattoo application and were notably restricted to the red-colored areas. Symptoms got worse after UV exposure. Patch testing and photo patch testing with the used azo dye Pigment Red 170 (C.I. 12475) was negative. Histology revealed lichenoid dermatitis without signs of a granulomatous reaction. The verification of allergic sensitization in hypersensitivity reactions to tattoos by patch testing may be difficult due to the poor penetration into the skin of the applied azo pigments. Intradermal testing may be more sensitive but bears the risk of long lasting skin reactions. PMID:16285314

  8. Pigment analyses of a portrait and paint box of Turkish artist Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970): The EDXRF, FT-IR and micro Raman spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Emre, Gulder; Gulec, Ahmet; Basaran, Sait

    2012-04-01

    The samples obtained from nine different places of Ataturk portrait (oil on canvas, 86 cm × 136 cm) by Feyhaman Duran (1886-1970), one of the famous Turkish painters of the 20th century, together with five pigment samples (two different white, two different yellow and blue), obtained as powders from artist's paint box, were analysed by EDXRF, FT-IR and micro-Raman spectroscopic methods, in order to characterise the pigments used by the artist. Informative Raman signals were not obtained from most of the samples of the portrait, due to huge fluorescence caused by the presence of impurities and organic materials in the samples, however the Raman spectrum of the sample from skin coloured part of the portrait and the pigment samples obtained from the paint box of the artist were found to be very informative to shed light on the determination of the pigments used. Analysis revealed the presences of chrome yellow (PbCrO4), strontium yellow (SrCrO4) and Cadmium yellow (CdS) as yellow, chromium oxides (Cr2O3 and Cr2O3·2H2O) as green, natural red ochre as red, brown ochre as brown and ivory black or bone black (C + Ca3(PO4)2) and manganese oxides (Mn2O3 and MnO2) as black pigments, in the composition of the Ataturk portrait. Lead white (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2), calcite (CaCO3), barite (BaSO4), zinc white (ZnO) and titanium white (TiO2) were used as extenders to lighten the colours and/or as for ground level painting. Powder pigment samples, obtained from the paint box of artist, were found to be mixed pigments rather than pure ones.

  9. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  10. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOEpatents

    Berdahl, Paul H.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  11. Reversible Conjunctival Pigmentation Associated With Prostaglandin Use.

    PubMed

    Choi, Daniel Y; Chang, Robert T; Yegnashankaran, Krishnan; Friedman, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old Indian male with a diagnosis of ocular hypertension was started on a prostaglandin analog (PGA) in both eyes to lower intraocular pressure. Six years later, he developed progressively increasing bilateral limbal conjunctival hyperpigmentation. Travoprost was discontinued and replaced with brinzolamide and over the next year, the patient's conjunctival pigmentation improved significantly in both the eyes. This case report documents with slit-lamp photography the first case of conjunctival pigmentation associated with PGA use that has been shown to have reversal with discontinuation of the PGA. Because of the widespread use of PGAs, and the evolving nature of the conjunctival pigmentation, clinicians should be aware of this reversible condition when considering biopsy or removal of conjunctival melanocytic lesions. PMID:25967530

  12. Predicting phenotype from genotype: normal pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Robert K; Henderson, Miquia S; Walsh, Monica H; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Kelch, Jessica T; Cohen-Barak, Orit; Erickson, Drew T; John Meaney, F; Bruce Walsh, J; Cheng, Keith C; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Frudakis, Tony; Thomas, Matthew; Brilliant, Murray H

    2010-03-01

    Genetic information in forensic studies is largely limited to CODIS data and the ability to match samples and assign them to an individual. However, there are circumstances, in which a given DNA sample does not match anyone in the CODIS database, and no other information about the donor is available. In this study, we determined 75 SNPs in 24 genes (previously implicated in human or animal pigmentation studies) for the analysis of single- and multi-locus associations with hair, skin, and eye color in 789 individuals of various ethnic backgrounds. Using multiple linear regression modeling, five SNPs in five genes were found to account for large proportions of pigmentation variation in hair, skin, and eyes in our across-population analyses. Thus, these models may be of predictive value to determine an individual's pigmentation type from a forensic sample, independent of ethnic origin. PMID:20158590

  13. Magnetochronology of the Feiliang Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human adaptability to high northern latitudes in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chenglong; Xie, Fei; Liu, Caicai; Ao, Hong; Pan, Yongxin; Zhu, Rixiang

    2007-07-01

    We present a new magnetostratigraphic dating of the Feiliang Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin, northern China. Partially-oxidized magnetite and hematite were identified as the main carriers for the characteristic remanent magnetizations of the fluvio-lacustrine sediments. Paleomagnetic results suggest that the sequence recorded the very early Brunhes chron and the upper Matuyama chron, including the Jaramillo subchron. The Feiliang artifact layer was determined to be within the pre-Jaramillo Matuyama chron, with an estimated age of ca. 1.2 Ma. Our finding, coupled with previously published magnetochronology, strongly indicates a prominent early human flourishing in the high northern latitudes of East Asia during or just prior to the Mid-Pleistocene climate transition.

  14. Byzantine wall paintings from Kastoria, northern Greece: spectroscopic study of pigments and efflorescing salts.

    PubMed

    Iordanidis, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Strati, Aggeliki; Gkimourtzina, Amalia; Papoulidou, Androniki

    2011-02-01

    This study concerns the investigation of pigments and efflorescence phenomena on the wall paintings of Kastoria, a rural, non-metropolitan Byzantine town. A large number of representative samples were collected from the murals of three churches, dated to post-Byzantine era (14th-17th c. AD). The identified pigments for the red colour were hematite (Fe2O3), cinnabar (HgS) and minium (Pb3O4), while brown and yellow colours were attributed to mixtures of ochres (Fe-oxides and hydroxides) and lime. The utilization of admixtures of iron, lead and mercury compounds was also attested in order to render specific tones on the painted surfaces. Black and dark blue hues were prepared using black carbon and Mn in some cases. Grey colours were assigned to a mixture of black carbon and lime. Green colour is rather attributed to admixtures of Fe-rich minerals and lime and not to the commonly used green earths. Baryte (BaSO4) was also evidenced as a filler or extender. Phosphorous was detected and connected to proteinaceous material and Mo and Sb were traced which are probably affiliated to Fe-oxides. Regarding efflorescing salts, the determined compounds are: calcite, dolomite, gypsum, halite, nitratine, natron and mirabilite, all of which are related to temperature and humidity changes and moisture fluctuations inside the wall paintings. PMID:21216188

  15. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, ... notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased. Because incoming sunlight is ...

  16. Mycosis fungoides presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Shannon; Walsh, Noreen; D'Intino, Yolanda; Langley, Richard G B

    2006-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides, a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, typically presents as indolent, progressive, and persistent erythematous patches or plaques with mild scaling and over time can evolve into tumor stage with tumor nodules. Other presentations include eczematous, psoriasiform, poikilodermatous, and hypopigmented patches. We report Mycosis fungoides in a 14-year-old boy presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis and review the relevant literature. This is a rare presentation of a condition that is uncommon in the pediatric population. In our patient, histologic features were typical of Mycosis fungoides presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis. The clinical features, pathology, molecular biology, and the relationship between these two entities are discussed. PMID:16918631

  17. Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia in a Red Pigment Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia

    2015-01-01

    Red pigment tattoos are known to cause pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in the skin, frequently simulating squamous cell carcinoma or keratoacanthoma. Herein, the authors present two additional cases of red pigment tattoo pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in which they noted a lichenoid tissue reaction. They reviewed the previously published cases and observed a lichenoid reaction in the histopathological images similar to hypertrophic lichen planus. The authors suggest that these reactions might best be referred to as “lichenoid reaction with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia” or “hypertrophic lichen planus-like reaction.” Accordingly, recognition of an inflammatory component may allow additional treatment options. PMID:26705448

  18. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  19. Accumulation of melanin in the peritoneum causes black abdomens in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Wang, Y; Luo, C; Qu, H; Shu, D

    2014-03-01

    A suspected case of localized visceral hyperpigmentation was described for a breed of broiler in China. Using optical microscopy, the accumulation of pigments in the abdominal skin and visceral peritoneum was observed. Electron microscopy was used to further study the ultrastructure of the pigmented peritoneum, and pigment granules resembling melanosomes at different stages were found, and melanocytes were present in this tissue. Infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the physical-chemical properties of pigments extracted from these broilers. Using synthetic melanin as a reference and the melanin from the peritoneum of Silkie fowls as a control, the pigments in the peritonea of these broilers were found to be melanin, and it had a chemical structure similar to that of melanin from the Silkie fowl peritoneum. In this way, the black abdomens of these broilers were found to have been caused by accumulation of melanin produced by melanocytes in visceral peritonea. PMID:24604870

  20. Structural characterization of allomelanin from black oat.

    PubMed

    Varga, Mónika; Berkesi, Ottó; Darula, Zsuzsanna; May, Nóra Veronika; Palágyi, András

    2016-10-01

    The brown to black coloration found in plants is due to the melanins, which have been relatively poorly investigated among the plant pigments. The aim of this work was to study the dark pigment extracted from the black oat hull with respect to composition and structure. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were applied for the characterization of the pigment. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed that the extracted material displays a broadband, structureless absorption profile a common feature of melanins. MALDI-TOF MS measurements demonstrated that oat melanin is a homopolymer built up from p-coumaric acid and consists mainly of low molecular weight (527-1499 Da) oligomers of 3-9 monomer units. The tetramer oligomer proved to be dominant. The results of the FT-IR analysis indicated that oat melanin is a fully conjugated aromatic system containing tetrasubstituted aromatic rings linked by CC coupling. The in vitro preparation of melanin from p-coumaric acid by horseradish peroxidase was performed for comparison. The resulting polymer consisted of oligomers of 4-9 monomer units similarly to those in oat melanin. However, the building blocks proved to be connected to each other via COC linkages in contrast with the CC linkages in oat melanin. PMID:27427433

  1. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  2. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  3. Separation of Chloroplast Pigments Using Reverse Phase Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, R. Neil

    1997-01-01

    Presents a protocol that uses reverse phase chromatography for the separation of chloroplast pigments. Provides a simple and relatively safe procedure for use in teaching laboratories. Discusses pigment extraction, chromatography, results, and advantages of the process. (JRH)

  4. The Use of HPLC for the Characterization of Phytoplankton Pigments.

    PubMed

    Garrido, José L; Roy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    HPLC is still the technique of choice for the analysis and characterization of phytoplankton pigments. In this chapter we describe procedures for sample preparation and pigment extraction, and the use of octyl silica columns and pyridine-containing mobile phases to separate chlorophylls and carotenoids. The identification of pigments on the basis of their retention times and visible spectra, the preparation of pigment standards, and the quantitative analysis by either external or internal standard procedures are also described. PMID:26108510

  5. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  6. The peripheral clock regulates human pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Jonathan A; Tobin, Desmond J; Haslam, Iain S; Farjo, Nilofer; Farjo, Bessam; Al-Nuaimi, Yusur; Grimaldi, Benedetto; Paus, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Although the regulation of pigmentation is well characterized, it remains unclear whether cell-autonomous controls regulate the cyclic on-off switching of pigmentation in the hair follicle (HF). As human HFs and epidermal melanocytes express clock genes and proteins, and given that core clock genes (PER1, BMAL1) modulate human HF cycling, we investigated whether peripheral clock activity influences human HF pigmentation. We found that silencing BMAL1 or PER1 in human HFs increased HF melanin content. Furthermore, tyrosinase expression and activity, as well as TYRP1 and TYRP2 mRNA levels, gp100 protein expression, melanocyte dendricity, and the number gp100+ HF melanocytes, were all significantly increased in BMAL1 and/or PER1-silenced HFs. BMAL1 or PER1 silencing also increased epidermal melanin content, gp100 protein expression, and tyrosinase activity in human skin. These effects reflect direct modulation of melanocytes, as BMAL1 and/or PER1 silencing in isolated melanocytes increased tyrosinase activity and TYRP1/2 expression. Mechanistically, BMAL1 knockdown reduces PER1 transcription, and PER1 silencing induces phosphorylation of the master regulator of melanogenesis, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, thus stimulating human melanogenesis and melanocyte activity in situ and in vitro. Therefore, the molecular clock operates as a cell-autonomous modulator of human pigmentation and may be targeted for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25310406

  7. Human pigmentation genes under environmental selection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and comparative genomics have established major loci and specific polymorphisms affecting human skin, hair and eye color. Environmental changes have had an impact on selected pigmentation genes as populations have expanded into different regions of the globe. PMID:23110848

  8. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  9. Retinal pigment epithelial hamartoma--unusual manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, P. R.; Walsh, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    Hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is an uncommon tumour of young adults. We have seen 2 patients with this clinical diagnosis, both with unusual manifestations. In one patient growth of the tumour was observed over a 5-year period. In the second patient arterial-arterial anastomoses were detected at a site distal to the tumour. Images PMID:6722077

  10. Production of a Sporulation Pigment by Streptomyces venezuelae

    PubMed Central

    Scribner, H. E.; Tang, Terry; Bradley, S. G.

    1973-01-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae S13 produced a pH-indicating sporulation pigment on a glucose-salts-agar medium consisting of glucose, KNO3, MgSO4, and Na2HPO4, pH 7. Pigmentation on this medium appeared to be closely associated with sporulation, which normally required 5 to 7 days at 30 C. The pigment was soluble in water as well as in a number of organic solvents. Butanol-extracted pigment exhibited absorption maxima at 430 and 520 nm at pH 3 and 12, respectively. Although many salts of organic acids and amino acids could replace glucose as the sole carbon source in basal salts-agar medium for growth and pigmentation, most sugars that were tested supported good growth but negligible pigmentation. Among the nitrogenous substances tested, KNO3 was most desirable for pigmentation. The organism did not exhibit any specific requirements for divalent cations with respect to growth and pigmentation. In the absence of MgSO4, however, glucose-salts-agar prepared by autoclaving all components together failed to support growth. The production of the sporulation pigment on glucose-salts-agar was comparable to that obtained on tomato paste-oatmeal-agar medium. Incorporation of partially purified pigment material into broth medium that did not normally support sporulation induced sporulation, and amino acid-salts-agar medium could induce vegetative mycelia to pigment when transferred from medium that did not support either pigmentation or sporulation. Images PMID:4577487

  11. Neurotized Congenital Melanocytic Nevus Resembling a Pigmented Neurofibroma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nidhi; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Kar, Rakhee; Sylvia, Mary Theresa; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus and pigmented neurofibroma (PNF) are close mimics and pose a clinicopathological challenge. We present a case of pigmented hypertrichotic plaque over lumbosacral region and discuss the differential diagnosis and its clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry features which may aid in differentiation. We highlight the difficulties faced in differentiating neurotized congenital melanocytic nevus from pigmented neurofibroma. PMID:25657396

  12. The determination and optimization of (rutile) pigment particle size distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A light scattering particle size test which can be used with materials having a broad particle size distribution is described. This test is useful for pigments. The relation between the particle size distribution of a rutile pigment and its optical performance in a gray tint test at low pigment concentration is calculated and compared with experimental data.

  13. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron... pigments listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be used as a color additive in contact lenses...

  14. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a... pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use...

  15. 21 CFR 73.3128 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.3128 Section... pigments. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive is formed by depositing titanium or iron... pigments listed in paragraph (a) of this section may be used as a color additive in contact lenses...

  16. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a... pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a...-based pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and...

  18. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a...-based pearlescent pigments may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and...

  19. Dimerization of visual pigments in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Cao, Li-Hui; Kumar, Sandeep; Enemchukwu, Nduka O; Zhang, Ning; Lambert, Alyssia; Zhao, Xuchen; Jones, Alex; Wang, Shixian; Dennis, Emily M; Fnu, Amrita; Ham, Sam; Rainier, Jon; Yau, King-Wai; Fu, Yingbin

    2016-08-01

    It is a deeply engrained notion that the visual pigment rhodopsin signals light as a monomer, even though many G protein-coupled receptors are now known to exist and function as dimers. Nonetheless, recent studies (albeit all in vitro) have suggested that rhodopsin and its chromophore-free apoprotein, R-opsin, may indeed exist as a homodimer in rod disk membranes. Given the overwhelmingly strong historical context, the crucial remaining question, therefore, is whether pigment dimerization truly exists naturally and what function this dimerization may serve. We addressed this question in vivo with a unique mouse line (S-opsin(+)Lrat(-/-)) expressing, transgenically, short-wavelength-sensitive cone opsin (S-opsin) in rods and also lacking chromophore to exploit the fact that cone opsins, but not R-opsin, require chromophore for proper folding and trafficking to the photoreceptor's outer segment. In R-opsin's absence, S-opsin in these transgenic rods without chromophore was mislocalized; in R-opsin's presence, however, S-opsin trafficked normally to the rod outer segment and produced functional S-pigment upon subsequent chromophore restoration. Introducing a competing R-opsin transmembrane helix H1 or helix H8 peptide, but not helix H4 or helix H5 peptide, into these transgenic rods caused mislocalization of R-opsin and S-opsin to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum. Importantly, a similar peptide-competition effect was observed even in WT rods. Our work provides convincing evidence for visual pigment dimerization in vivo under physiological conditions and for its role in pigment maturation and targeting. Our work raises new questions regarding a potential mechanistic role of dimerization in rhodopsin signaling. PMID:27462111

  20. New pathophysiological concepts underlying pathogenesis of pigment gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Vítek, Libor; Carey, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Pigment gallstones, which are much less frequent than cholesterol stones, are classified descriptively as ‘black’ or ‘brown’. They are composed mostly of calcium hydrogen bilirubinate, Ca(HUCB)2, which is polymerized and oxidized in ‘black‘ stones but remains unpolymerized in ‘brown’ stones. Black stones form in sterile gallbladder bile but brown stones form secondary to stasis and anaerobic bacterial infection in any part of the biliary tree, including the gallbladder. Other calcium salts coprecipitate in both stone types; crystalline calcium phosphate and/or carbonate in the case of ‘black’ stones and amorphous calcium salts of long chain saturated fatty acids (‘soaps’) in the case of ‘brown’ stones. Cholesterol is present in variable proportions in ‘brown’ more than ‘black’ stones and, in the latter, the bile sterol may be totally absent. The ‘scaffolding’ of both stone types is a mixed mucin glycoprotein matrix secreted by epithelial cells lining the biliary tree. The critical pathophysiological prerequisite for ‘black’ stone formation is ‘hyperbilirubinbilia’ (biliary hypersecretion of bilirubin conjugates). It is due principally to hemolysis, ineffective erythropoiesis, or pathologic enterohepatic cycling of unconjugated bilirubin. Endogenous biliary β-glucuronidase hydrolysis of bilirubin conjugates in gallbladder bile provides HUCB− molecules that precipitate as insoluble salts with ionized Ca. Putatively, reactive oxygen species secreted by an inflamed gallbladder mucosa are responsible for transforming the initial soft yellow precipitates into hard black [Ca(HUCB)2]n polymers. Despite ‘brown’ gallstones being soft and amenable to mechanical removal, chronic anaerobic infection of the biliary tree is often markedly resistant to eradication. PMID:21978438

  1. Phototrophic pigment diversity and picophytoplankton in permafrost thaw lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przytulska, A.; Comte, J.; Crevecoeur, S.; Lovejoy, C.; Laurion, I.; Vincent, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost thaw lakes (thermokarst lakes) are widely distributed across the northern landscape, and are known to be biogeochemically active sites that emit large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere as CH4 and CO2. However, the abundance and composition of the photosynthetic communities that fix CO2 have been little explored in this ecosystem type. In order to identify the major groups of phototrophic organisms and their controlling variables, we sampled 12 permafrost thaw lakes along a permafrost degradation gradient in northern Québec, Canada. Additional samples were taken from five rock-basin reference lakes in the region to determine if the thaw lakes differed in limnological properties and phototrophs. Phytoplankton community structure was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of their photoprotective and photosynthetic pigments, and autotrophic picoplankton concentrations were assessed by flow cytometry. One of the black-colored lakes located in a landscape of rapidly degrading palsas (permafrost mounds) was selected for high-throughput 18S rRNA sequencing to complement conclusions based on the pigment and cytometry analyses. The results showed that the limnological properties of the thaw lakes differed significantly from the reference lakes, and were more highly stratified. However, both waterbody types contained similarly diverse phytoplankton groups, with dominance of the pigment assemblages by fucoxanthin-containing taxa, as well as chlorophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacteria. Chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl a) were correlated with total phosphorus (TP), and both were significantly higher in the thaw lakes (overall means of 3.3 µg Chl a L-1 and 34 µg TP L-1) relative to the reference lakes (2.0 µg Chl a L-1 and 8.2 µg TP L-1). Stepwise multiple regression of Chl a against the other algal pigments showed that it was largely a function of alloxanthin, fucoxanthin and Chl b (R2 = 0.85). The bottom waters of two of the thaw

  2. Activation of visual pigments by light and heat.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dong-Gen; Yue, Wendy W S; Ala-Laurila, Petri; Yau, King-Wai

    2011-06-10

    Vision begins with photoisomerization of visual pigments. Thermal energy can complement photon energy to drive photoisomerization, but it also triggers spontaneous pigment activation as noise that interferes with light detection. For half a century, the mechanism underlying this dark noise has remained controversial. We report here a quantitative relation between a pigment's photoactivation energy and its peak-absorption wavelength, λ(max). Using this relation and assuming that pigment activations by light and heat go through the same ground-state isomerization energy barrier, we can predict the relative noise of diverse pigments with multi-vibrational-mode thermal statistics. The agreement between predictions and our measurements strongly suggests that pigment noise arises from canonical isomerization. The predicted high noise for pigments with λ(max) in the infrared presumably explains why they apparently do not exist in nature. PMID:21659602

  3. Age-associated glycopeptide pigment in human costal cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    van der Korst, J. K.; Willekens, F. L.; Lansink, A. G.; Henrichs, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Age-associated pigmentation of human costal cartilage is caused by the accumulation of a brown water-soluble substance which can be only be extracted after proteolytic disruption of the cartilage. After isolation by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography, the compound was identified as an acid glycopeptide. In contrast to ochronotic pigment and an artificial pigment derived by oxidation of homogentistic acid in alkaline solution, the age-associated cartilage pigment was strongly fluorescent and did not form insoluble complexes with cetylpyridinium chloride. Moreover, age-associated cartilage pigment is alkali resistant, in contrast to the ochronotic pigment. The pigment differs from lipofuscin in being strongly hydrophilic and having no affinity for fat stains. The unidentified chromophore could not be separated from the glycopeptide molecule. PMID:596418

  4. Melanin photosensitizes ultraviolet light (UVC) DNA damage in pigmented cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huselton, C.A.; Hill, H.Z. )

    1990-01-01

    Melanins, pigments of photoprotection and camouflage, are very photoreactive and can both absorb and emit active oxygen species. Nevertheless, black skinned individuals rarely develop skin cancer and melanin is assumed to act as a solar screen. Since DNA is the target for solar carcinogenesis, the effect of melanin on Ultraviolet (UV)-induced thymine lesions was examined in mouse melanoma and carcinoma cells that varied in melanin content. Cells prelabeled with 14C-dThd were irradiated with UVC; DNA was isolated, purified, degraded to bases by acid hydrolysis and analyzed by HPLC. Thymine dimers were detected in all of the extracts of irradiated cells. Melanotic and hypomelanotic but not mammary carcinoma cell DNA from irradiated cells contained hydrophilic thymine derivatives. The quantity of these damaged bases was a function of both the UVC dose and the cellular melanin content. One such derivative was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy as thymine glycol. The other appears to be derived from thymine glycol by further oxidation during acid hydrolysis of the DNA. The finding of oxidative DNA damage in melanin-containing cells suggests that melanin may be implicated in the etiology of caucasian skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Furthermore, the projected decrease in stratospheric ozone could impact in an unanticipated deleterious manner on dark-skinned individuals.

  5. Renal pigmentation due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Johnson, A L; Blaine, E T; Lewis, A D

    2015-05-01

    Renal pigmentation due to the administration of exogenous compounds is an uncommon finding in most species. This report describes renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions of the proximal convoluted tubules due to chronic bismuth administration in a rhesus macaque. An 11-year-old Indian-origin rhesus macaque with a medical history of chronic intermittent vomiting had been treated with bismuth subsalicylate, famotidine, and omeprazole singly or in combination over the course of 8 years. At necropsy, the renal cortices were diffusely dark green to black. Light and electron microscopy revealed intranuclear inclusions within the majority of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These inclusions appeared magenta to brown when stained with hematoxylin and eosin and were negative by the Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. Elemental analysis performed on frozen kidney measured bismuth levels to be markedly elevated at 110.6 ppm, approximately 500 to 1000 times acceptable limits. To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal bismuth deposition in a rhesus macaque resulting in renal pigmentation and intranuclear inclusions. PMID:24990482

  6. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G. )

    1990-06-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B{sup lt}/B{sup lt}) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B{sup lt} mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation.

  7. Biology and genetics of oculocutaneous albinism and vitiligo - common pigmentation disorders in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manga, Prashiela; Kerr, Robyn; Ramsay, Michèle; Kromberg, Jennifer G R

    2013-12-01

    Pigmentation disorders span the genetic spectrum from single-gene autosomal recessive disorders such as oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), the autosomal dominant disorder piebaldism to X-linked ocular albinism and multifactorial vitiligo. OCA connotes a group of disorders that result in hypopigmented skin due to decreased melanin production in melanocytes and loss of visual acuity. There are four non-syndromic forms, OCA1-4, which are classified based on the gene that is mutated (tyrosinase, OCA2, tyrosinase-related protein 1 and SLC45A2, respectively). Despite the fact that multiple genes account for the various forms of OCA, the phenotypes of all four forms result from disruption in the maturation and trafficking of the enzyme tyrosinase. OCA2 is the most prevalent autosomal recessive disorder among southern African blacks, affecting 1/3 900 individuals; while OCA3, although rare, is most prevalent in southern Africa. Another common pigmentation disorder in southern Africa is vitiligo, which affects 1 - 2% of people worldwide. Vitiligo is a complex, acquired disorder in which melanocytes are destroyed due to an autoimmune response. The aetiology underlying this disorder is poorly understood, although recent genetic association studies have begun to shed light on the contributing factors. Pigmentation disorders have significant psychosocial implications and co-morbidities, yet therapies are still lacking. Recent progress in our understanding of the pathobiology of both albinism and vitiligo may herald novel treatment strategies for these disorders.  PMID:24300644

  8. Cone visual pigments of monotremes: filling the phylogenetic gap.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Matthew J; Anderson, Mark; Chang, Ellen; Wei, Ke-Jun; Kaul, Rajinder; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall; Grützner, Frank; Deeb, Samir S

    2008-01-01

    We have determined the sequence and genomic organization of the genes encoding the cone visual pigment of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), and inferred their spectral properties and evolutionary pathways. We prepared platypus and echidna retinal RNA and used primers of the middle-wave-sensitive (MWS), long-wave-sensitive (LWS), and short-wave sensitive (SWS1) pigments corresponding to coding sequences that are highly conserved among mammals; to PCR amplify the corresponding pigment sequences. Amplification from the retinal RNA revealed the expression of LWS pigment mRNA that is homologous in sequence and spectral properties to the primate LWS visual pigments. However, we were unable to amplify the mammalian SWS1 pigment from these two species, indicating this gene was lost prior to the echidna-platypus divergence (21 MYA). Subsequently, when the platypus genome sequence became available, we found an LWS pigment gene in a conserved genomic arrangement that resembles the primate pigment, but, surprisingly we found an adjacent (20 kb) SWS2 pigment gene within this conserved genomic arrangement. We obtained the same result after sequencing the echidna genes. The encoded SWS2 pigment is predicted to have a wavelength of maximal absorption of about 440 nm, and is paralogous to SWS pigments typically found in reptiles, birds, and fish but not in mammals. This study suggests the locus control region (LCR) has played an important role in the conservation of photo receptor gene arrays and the control of their spatial and temporal expression in the retina in all mammals. In conclusion, a duplication event of an ancestral cone visual pigment gene, followed by sequence divergence and selection gave rise to the LWS and SWS2 visual pigments. So far, the echidna and platypus are the only mammals that share the gene structure of the LWS-SWS2 pigment gene complex with reptiles, birds and fishes. PMID:18598396

  9. Retinal pigment epithelium in incontinentia pigmenti.

    PubMed

    Mensheha-Manhart, O; Rodrigues, M M; Shields, J A; Shannon, G M; Mirabelli, R P

    1975-04-01

    An 18-month-old white girl with incontinentia pigmenti presented clinically with leukokoria of the right eye. B-scan ultrasound demonstrated a retrolental mass consistent with a detached retina. Histologic examination of the skin revealed changes compatible with the intermediate verrucous phase of the disease. Microscopic examination of the right eye showed retinal detachment and nodular proliferation of the retinal pigment epithelium. The nodules contained macrophages laden with melanin and lipofuscin. An unusually large amount of lipofuscin was present for a child of this age. The basic pigmentary abnormality may affect the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in changes in the overlying neurosensory retina that may lead to the retinal dysplasia or retinal detachemnt often associated with this condition. PMID:1119517

  10. Bleached pigment activates transduction in salamander cones

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have used suction electrode recording together with rapid steps into 0.5 mM IBMX solution to investigate changes in guanylyl cyclase velocity produced by pigment bleaching in isolated cones of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. Both backgrounds and bleaches accelerate the time course of current increase during steps into IBMX. We interpret this as evidence that the velocity of the guanylyl cyclase is increased in background light or after bleaching. Our results indicate that cyclase velocity increases nearly linearly with increasing percent pigment bleached but nonlinearly (and may saturate) with increasing back-ground intensity. In cones (as previously demonstrated for rods), light-activated pigment and bleached pigment appear to have somewhat different effects on the transduction cascade. The effect of bleaching on cyclase rate is maintained for at least 15-20 min after the light is removed, much longer than is required after a bleach for circulating current and sensitivity to stabilize in an isolated cone. The effect on the cyclase rate can be completely reversed by treatment with liposomes containing 11-cis retinal. The effects of bleaching can also be partially reversed by beta-ionone, an analogue of the chromophore 11- cis-retinal which does not form a covalent attachment to opsin. Perfusion of a bleached cone with beta-ionone produces a rapid increase in circulating current and sensitivity, which rapidly reverses when the beta-ionone is removed. Perfusion with beta-ionone also causes a partial reversal of the bleach-induced acceleration of cyclase velocity. We conclude that bleaching produces an "equivalent background" excitation of the transduction cascade in cones, perhaps by a mechanism similar to that in rods. PMID:8786347

  11. Practice and Educational Gaps in Abnormal Pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Tasneem F; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2016-07-01

    Dyschromia refers to abnormal pigmentation and is one of the most common diagnoses in dermatology. However, there are many educational and practice gaps in this area, specifically in melasma, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and vitiligo. This article aims to review the gold standard of care for these conditions as well as highlight common educational and practice gaps in these areas. Finally, possible solutions to these gaps are addressed. PMID:27363886

  12. Diet-induced pigmented purpuric dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Katharina T; Karrer, Sigrid; Landthaler, Michael; Babilas, Philipp; Schreml, Stephan

    2014-08-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) are chronic and relapsing disorders characterised by a localised or generalised purpuric rash. Even though the clinical presentation of PPD subtypes varies, they have a similar histopathology. The aetiology is largely unknown, but trigger factors, such as drugs, infections and systemic illnesses have been described. To our knowledge, this is the only case showing widespread PPD lesions not only induced but also rapidly provoked by dietary factors, namely Coca Cola and apple-cherry fruit spritzer. PMID:23574037

  13. Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Mark D; Parra, Esteban J; Dios, Sonia; Bonilla, Carolina; Norton, Heather; Jovel, Celina; Pfaff, Carrie; Jones, Cecily; Massac, Aisha; Cameron, Neil; Baron, Archie; Jackson, Tabitha; Argyropoulos, George; Jin, Li; Hoggart, Clive J; McKeigue, Paul M; Kittles, Rick A

    2003-04-01

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are genetic loci showing alleles with large frequency differences between populations. AIMs can be used to estimate biogeographical ancestry at the level of the population, subgroup (e.g. cases and controls) and individual. Ancestry estimates at both the subgroup and individual level can be directly instructive regarding the genetics of the phenotypes that differ qualitatively or in frequency between populations. These estimates can provide a compelling foundation for the use of admixture mapping (AM) methods to identify the genes underlying these traits. We present details of a panel of 34 AIMs and demonstrate how such studies can proceed, by using skin pigmentation as a model phenotype. We have genotyped these markers in two population samples with primarily African ancestry, viz. African Americans from Washington D.C. and an African Caribbean sample from Britain, and in a sample of European Americans from Pennsylvania. In the two African population samples, we observed significant correlations between estimates of individual ancestry and skin pigmentation as measured by reflectometry (R(2)=0.21, P<0.0001 for the African-American sample and R(2)=0.16, P<0.0001 for the British African-Caribbean sample). These correlations confirm the validity of the ancestry estimates and also indicate the high level of population structure related to admixture, a level that characterizes these populations and that is detectable by using other tests to identify genetic structure. We have also applied two methods of admixture mapping to test for the effects of three candidate genes (TYR, OCA2, MC1R) on pigmentation. We show that TYR and OCA2 have measurable effects on skin pigmentation differences between the west African and west European parental populations. This work indicates that it is possible to estimate the individual ancestry of a person based on DNA analysis with a reasonable number of well-defined genetic markers. The implications and

  14. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04543.001 PMID:25513726

  15. Optical tomography of pigmented human skin biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riemann, Iris; Fischer, Peter; Kaatz, Martin; Fischer, Tobias W.; Elsner, Peter; Dimitrov, Enrico; Reif, Annette; Konig, Karsten

    2004-07-01

    The novel femtosecond NIR (near infrared) laser based high resolution imaging system DermaInspect was used for non-invasive diagnostics of pigmented skin. The system provides fluorescence and SHG images of high spatial submicron resolution (3D) and 250 ps temporal resolution (4D) based on time resolved single photon counting (TCSPC). Pigmented tissue biopsies from patients with nevi and melanoma have been investigated using the tunable 80 MHz femtosecond laser MaiTai with laser wavelengths in the range of 750 - 850 nm. The autofluorescence patterns of different intratissue cell types and structures were determined. The non-linear induced autofluorescence originates from naturally endogenous fluorophores and protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, elastin, collagen, phorphyrins and melanin. In addition to autofluorescence, SHG (second harmonic generation) was used to detect dermal collagen structures. Interestingly, pigmented cells showed intense luminescence signals. Further characterization of tissue components was performed via 4D measurements of the fluorescence lifetime (x, y, z, τ). The novel multiphoton technique offers the possibility of a painless high resolution non invasive diagnostic method (optical biopsy), in particular for the early detection of skin cancer.

  16. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. PMID:25513726

  17. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tücks, A.; Beck, H. P.

    2005-04-01

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO 4 pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry Δ E ab*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and Δ E ab*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO 4 at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  18. The photochromic effect of bismuth vanadate pigments. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and lightfastness of pigment coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Tuecks, A.; Beck, H.P. . E-mail: hp.beck@mx.uni-saarland.de

    2005-04-15

    We report on investigations of the photochromic effect of BiVO{sub 4} pigments. Emphasis is placed on an approach widely used in industrial color testing. By means of colorimetry {delta}E{sub ab}*-values, which measure the perceived color difference, can be calculated from reflectance spectra of non-illuminated and illuminated pigment coatings. Pigments were prepared by either wet-chemical precipitation or solid-state reactions. Depending on the choice of starting compounds, lightfastness was found to vary significantly. Small amounts of impurity phases do not seem to affect photochromism. In contrast, impurities like Fe and Pb cause intense photochromism. The role of Fe is suggested by trace analyses, which (in case of pigments synthesized by precipitation reactions) reveal a correlation between concentration and {delta}E{sub ab}*. Indications are found that other effects like pigment-lacquer interactions might also be of importance. Difference reflectance spectra turn out to vary in shape depending on the type and concentration of impurities or dopants. For BiVO{sub 4} at least three different mechanisms of photochromism can be assumed.

  19. Iodopsin, a red-sensitive cone visual pigment in the chicken retina.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, T; Kuwata, O

    1991-12-01

    The vertebrate retina contains two kinds of visual cells: rods, responsible for twilight (scotopic) vision (black and white discrimination); and cones, responsible for daylight (photopic) vision (color discrimination). Here we attempt to explain some of their functional differences and similarities in terms of their visual pigments. In the chicken retina there are four types of single cones and a double cone; each of the single cones has its own characteristic oil droplet (red, orange, blue, or colorless) and the double cone is composed of a set of principal and accessory members, the former of which has a green-colored oil droplet. Iodopsin, the chicken red-sensitive cone visual pigment, is located at outer segments of both the red single cones and the double cones, while the other single cones and the rod contain their own visual pigments with different absorption spectra. The diversity in absorption spectra among these visual pigments is caused by the difference in interaction between chromophore (11-cis retinal) and protein moiety (opsin). However, the chromophore-binding pocket in iodopsin is similar to that in rhodopsin. The difference in absorption maxima between both pigments could be explained by the difference in distances between the protonated Schiff-bases at the chromophore-binding site and their counter ions in iodopsin and rhodopsin. Furthermore, iodopsin has a unique chloride-binding site whose chloride ion serves for the red-shift of the absorption maximum of iodopsin. Visual pigment bleaches upon absorption of light through several intermediates and finally dissociates into all-trans retinal and opsin. That the sensitivity of cones is lower than rods cannot be explained by the relative photosensitivity of iodopsin to rhodopsin, but may be understood to some extent by the short lifetime of an enzymatically active intermediate (corresponding to metarhodopsin II) produced in the photobleaching process of iodopsin. The rapid formation and decay of the

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MATP gene are associated with normal human pigmentation variation.

    PubMed

    Graf, Justin; Hodgson, Richard; van Daal, Angela

    2005-03-01

    Human physical pigmentation is determined by the type and amount of melanin and the process of pigmentation production probably involves more than 100 genes. A failure to synthesize melanin results in oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). A recently identified form of OCA results from mutations in the Membrane Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) gene. The role of MATP in human pigmentation is not clear. We investigated the role of two nonpathogenic nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MATP gene to determine if they are associated with normal human skin, hair, and eye color variation. A total of 608 individuals from four different population groups (456 Caucasians, 31 Asians, 70 African-Americans, and 51 Australian Aborigines) were genotyped for c.814G>A (p.Glu272Lys) and c.1122C>G (p.Phe374Leu). Results indicate that the allele frequencies of both polymorphisms are significantly different between population groups. The two alleles, 374Leu and 272Lys, are significantly associated with dark hair, skin, and eye color in Caucasians. The odds ratios (ORs) of the LeuLeu genotype for black hair and olive skin are 25.63 and 28.65, respectively, and for the LysLys genotype are 43.23 and 8.27, respectively. The OR for eye color is lower at 3.48 for the LeuLeu and 6.57 for LysLys genotypes. This is the first report of this highly significant association of MATP polymorphisms with normal human pigmentation variation. PMID:15714523

  1. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. PMID:26471554

  2. Tetraspanin 3c requirement for pigment cell interactions and boundary formation in zebrafish adult pigment stripes

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Shinya; Kondo, Shigeru; Parichy, David M.; Watanabe, Masakatsu

    2014-01-01

    Summary Skin pigment pattern formation in zebrafish requires pigment-cell autonomous interactions between melanophores and xanthophores, yet the molecular bases for these interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the dali mutant that exhibits stripes in which melanophores are intermingled abnormally with xanthophores. By in vitro cell culture, we found that melanophores of dali mutants have a defect in motility and that interactions between melanophores and xanthophores are defective as well. Positional cloning and rescue identified dali as tetraspanin 3c (tspan3c), encoding a transmembrane scaffolding protein expressed by melanophores and xanthophores. We further showed that dali mutant Tspan3c expressed in HeLa cell exhibits a defect in N-glycosylation and is retained inappropriately in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results are the first to identify roles for a tetraspanin superfamily protein in skin pigment pattern formation and suggest new mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of zebrafish stripe boundaries. PMID:24734316

  3. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-01

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints. PMID:26023056

  4. Genetic basis of stage-specific melanism: a putative role for a cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase in insect pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Saenko, S V; Jerónimo, M A; Beldade, P

    2012-01-01

    Melanism, the overall darkening of the body, is a widespread form of animal adaptation to particular environments, and includes bookcase examples of evolution by natural selection, such as industrial melanism in the peppered moth. The major components of the melanin biosynthesis pathway have been characterized in model insects, but little is known about the genetic basis of life-stage specific melanism such as cases described in some lepidopteran species. Here, we investigate two melanic mutations of Bicyclus anynana butterflies, called Chocolate and melanine, that exclusively affect pigmentation of the larval and adult stages, respectively. Our analysis of Mendelian segregation patterns reveals that the larval and adult melanic phenotypes are due to alleles at different, independently segregating loci. Our linkage mapping analysis excludes the pigmentation candidate gene black as the melanine locus, and implicates a gene encoding a putative pyridoxal phosphate-dependant cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase as the Chocolate locus. We show variation in coding sequence and in expression levels for this candidate larval melanism locus. This is the first study that suggests a biological function for this gene in insects. Our findings open up exciting opportunities to study the role of this locus in the evolution of adaptive variation in pigmentation, and the uncoupling of regulation of pigment biosynthesis across developmental stages with different ecologies and pressures on body coloration. PMID:22234245

  5. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  6. A high-precision chronological model for the decorated Upper Paleolithic cave of Chauvet-Pont d'Arc, Ardèche, France.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Anita; Valladas, Hélène; Bocherens, Hervé; Delqué-Količ, Emmanuelle; Kaltnecker, Evelyne; van der Plicht, Johannes; Delannoy, Jean-Jacques; Feruglio, Valérie; Fritz, Carole; Monney, Julien; Philippe, Michel; Tosello, Gilles; Clottes, Jean; Geneste, Jean-Michel

    2016-04-26

    Radiocarbon dates for the ancient drawings in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave revealed ages much older than expected. These early ages and nature of this Paleolithic art make this United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) site indisputably unique. A large, multidisciplinary dating program has recently mapped the anthropological evolution associated with the cave. More than 350 dates (by (14)C, U-Th, TL and (36)Cl) were obtained over the last 15 y. They include 259 radiocarbon dates, mainly related to the rock art and human activity in the cave. We present here more than 80 previously unpublished dates. All of the dates were integrated into a high-precision Bayesian model based on archaeological evidence to securely reconstruct the complete history of the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave on an absolute timescale. It shows that there were two distinct periods of human activity in the cave, one from 37 to 33,500 y ago, and the other from 31 to 28,000 y ago. Cave bears also took refuge in the cave until 33,000 y ago. PMID:27071106

  7. Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with Paleolithic paintings and surrounding rock walls in two Spanish caves (Llonín and La Garma).

    PubMed

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2004-02-01

    Bacterial diversity in caves is still rarely investigated using culture-independent techniques. In the present study, bacterial communities on Paleolithic paintings and surrounding rock walls in two Spanish caves (Llonín and La Garma) were analyzed, using 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis community fingerprinting and phylogenetic analyses without prior cultivation. Results revealed complex bacterial communities consisting of a high number of novel 16S rDNA sequence types and indicated a high biodiversity of lithotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Identified bacteria were related to already cultured bacteria (39 clones) and to environmental 16S rDNA clones (46 clones). The nearest phylogenetic relatives were members of the Proteobacteria (41.1%), of the Acidobacterium division (16.5%), Actinobacteria (20%), Firmicutes (10.6%), of the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides division (5.9%), Nitrospira group (3.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (1.2%), and candidate WS3 division (1.2%). Thirteen of these clones were most closely related to those obtained from the previous studies on Tito Bustillo Cave. The comparison of the present data with the data obtained previously from Altamira and Tito Bustillo Caves revealed similarities in the bacterial community components, especially in the high abundance of the Acidobacteria and Rhizobiaceae, and in the presence of bacteria related to ammonia and sulfur oxidizers. PMID:19712338

  8. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings.

  9. Graph-based pigment network detection in skin images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, M.; Razmara, M.; Ester, M.; Lee, T. K.; Atkins, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Detecting pigmented network is a crucial step for melanoma diagnosis. In this paper, we present a novel graphbased pigment network detection method that can find and visualize round structures belonging to the pigment network. After finding sharp changes of the luminance image by an edge detection function, the resulting binary image is converted to a graph, and then all cyclic sub-graphs are detected. Theses cycles represent meshes that belong to the pigment network. Then, we create a new graph of the cyclic structures based on their distance. According to the density ratio of the new graph of the pigment network, the image is classified as "Absent" or "Present". Being Present means that a pigment network is detected in the skin lesion. Using this approach, we achieved an accuracy of 92.6% on five hundred unseen images.

  10. Fuzzy logic for identifying pigments studied by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Pablo Manuel; Ferré, Joan; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S

    2004-07-01

    Fuzzy logic and linguistic variables are used for the automatic interpretation of Raman spectra obtained from pigments found in cultural heritage art objects. Featured bands are extracted from a Raman spectrum of a reference pigment and the methodology for constructing the library is illustrated. An unknown spectrum is then interpreted automatically and a process for identifying the corresponding pigment is described. A reference library consisting of 32 pigments was built and the effectiveness of the algorithm was tested by the Raman spectroscopic analysis of 10 pigments that are known to have been extensively used in Byzantine hagiography. Binary mixtures of these pigments were also tested. The algorithm's level of identification was good even though extra peaks, noise, and background signals were encountered in the spectra. PMID:15282052

  11. Mapping pigment distribution in mud samples through hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Nicula, Cosmina; Trombley, Christopher; Smith, Shane W.; Smith, Dustin K.; Shanks, Elizabeth S.; Zimba, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Mud samples collected from bodies of water reveal information about the distribution of microorganisms in the local sediments. Hyperspectral imaging has been investigated as a technology to identify phototropic organisms living on sediments collected from the Texas Coastal Bend area based on their spectral pigment profiles and spatial arrangement. The top pigment profiles identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) have been correlated with spectral signatures extracted from the hyperspectral data of mud using fast Fourier transform (FFT). Spatial distributions have also been investigated using 2D hyperspectral image processing. 2D pigment distribution maps have been created based on the correlation with pigment profiles in the FFT domain. Among the tested pigments, the results show match among four out of five pigment distribution trends between HPLC and hyperspectral data analysis. Differences are attributed mainly to the difference between area and volume of scale between the HPLC analysis and area covered by hyperspectral imaging.

  12. Phytoplankton bloom in the Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Brightly colored waters in the Black Sea give evidence of the growth of tiny marine plants called phytoplankton, which contain chlorophyll and other pigments that reflect light different ways, producing the colorful displays. The very bright blue waters could be an organism called a coccolithophores, which has a highly reflective calcium carbonate coating that appears bright blue (or sometimes white) in true-color (visible) imagery. However, other organisms, such as cyanobacteria can also appear that color, and so often scientists will compare the ratios of reflectance at one wavelength of light to another to decide what organisms might be present. This series of images shows a bloom occurring in the Black Sea from May 11, 2002, to May 18.

  13. How black holes stay black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, Reinhard

    1998-01-01

    The dimness of the black holes located at the center of galaxies surprises astrophysicists, but a possible explanation has been found in the behavior of the plasma they consume. In a hot accretion flow, the gas is ionized to form a plasma. The heavy ions carry most of the mass, and thus of the energy, whereas the electrons produce most of the radiation. But, crucially, in a low-density flow the temperatures of the ions and of the electrons may decouple. Consequently, most of the gravitational energy would be viscously converted into thermal energy of the ions and not radiated away by the electrons. Instead, the gravitational energy is carried with the flow across the event horizon of the black hole. Such a flow leads to a low radiation efficiency even in a highly dissipative accretion disk.

  14. BASIS FOR ENHANCED BARRIER FUNCTION OF PIGMENTED SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Santiago, Juan Luis; Celli, Anna; Zhong, Lily; Huang, Zhi-Ming; Roelandt, Truus; Hupe, Melanie; Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Crumrine, Debra; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Trullas, Carles; Sun, Richard; Wakefield, Joan S.; Wei, Maria L.; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans with darkly-pigmented skin display superior permeability barrier function in comparison to humans with lightly-pigmented skin. The reduced pH of the stratum corneum (SC) of darkly-pigmented skin could account for enhanced function, because acidifying lightly-pigmented human SC resets barrier function to darkly-pigmented levels. In SKH1 (non-pigmented) vs. SKH2/J (pigmented) hairless mice, we evaluated how a pigment-dependent reduction in pH could influence epidermal barrier function. Permeability barrier homeostasis is enhanced in SKH2/J vs. SKH1 mice, correlating with a reduced pH in the lower SC that co-localizes with the extrusion of melanin granules. Darkly-pigmented human epidermis also shows substantial melanin extrusion in the outer epidermis. Both acute barrier disruption and topical basic pH challenges accelerate re-acidification of SKH2/J (but not SKH1) SC, while inducing melanin extrusion. SKH2/J mice also display enhanced expression of the SC acidifying enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2f (sPLA2f). Enhanced barrier function of SKH2/J mice could be attributed to enhanced activity of two acidic pH-dependent, ceramide-generating enzymes, β-glucocerebrosidase and acidic sphingomyelinase, leading to accelerated maturation of SC lamellar bilayers. Finally, organotypic cultures of darkly-pigmented-bearing human keratinocytes display enhanced barrier function in comparison to lightly-pigmented cultures. Together, these results suggest that the superior barrier function of pigmented epidermis can be largely attributed to the pH-lowering impact of melanin persistence/extrusion and enhanced sPLA2f expression. PMID:24732399

  15. Atmospheric effects in the remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Clark, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy with which relevant atmospheric parameters must be estimated to derive photoplankton pigment concentrations of a given accuracy, from measurements of the ocean's apparent spectral radiance at satellite altitudes, is examined. A phytoplankton pigment algorithm is developed which relates the pigment concentration (c) to the three ratios of upwelling radiance just beneath the sea surface which can be formed from wavelengths (lambda) 440, 520 and 550 nm.

  16. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  17. On Responsible Black Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrakhan, Louis

    1985-01-01

    Black leaders in the United States must unite among themselves and work for the Black community. Black elected officials should know the will of their constituency before taking a particular stance. Finally, Black leaders should ally themselves with international leaders friendly to the cause of American Blacks. (GC)

  18. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  19. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, K.; Vandenabeele, P.; Rodríguez-Laso, M. D.; Moens, L.; Madariaga, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  20. Relationship of Gingival Pigmentation with Passive Smoking in Women

    PubMed Central

    Moravej-Salehi, Elahe; Moravej-Salehi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral mucosal pigmentation is among the most common findings in smokers, affecting smile esthetics. Passive smoking significantly compromises the health of non-smoker individuals particularly women. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of passive smoking with oral pigmentation in non-smoker women. Materials and Methods: This historical-cohort study was conducted on a case group of 50 married women who were unemployed, not pregnant, non-smoker, had no systemic condition causing cutaneous or mucosal pigmentation, were not taking any medication causing cutaneous or mucosal pigmentation and had a heavy smoker husband. The control group comprised of 50 matched females with no smoker member in the family. Both groups were clinically examined for presence of gingival pigmentation and the results were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression tests. Results: Gingival pigmentation was found in 27 (54%) passive smokers and 14 (28%) controls (P=0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of gingival pigmentation in women exposed to secondhand smoke of their husbands (adjusted for education and having a smoker parent at childhood) was 3 (95% confidence interval; CI: 1.26 – 7.09). House floor area was correlated with gingival pigmentation in female passive smokers (P=0.025). Conclusion: This study was the first to describe the relationship between secondhand smoke and gingival pigmentation in women and this effect was magnified in smaller houses. PMID:26528364

  1. Stain removal from a pigmented silicone maxillofacial elastomer.

    PubMed

    Yu, R; Koran, A; Craig, R G; Raptis, C N

    1982-08-01

    The removal of environmental stains from a pigmented maxillofacial elastomer was carried out by solvent extraction under network swelling. Silastic 44210 was pigmented with 11 maxillofacial pigments prior to staining. Samples were stained with lipstick, methylene blue, and disclosing solution. These stains were then removed by solvent extraction with 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Color parameter measurements both before and after staining and after solvent extraction demonstrated the effectiveness of removing these stains by solvent extraction while causing little or no change in the color of the pigmented samples. PMID:6955345

  2. Intra-Articular Pigmentation of Synovium: An Unusual Cause

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Steven; Liew, Sue M

    2016-01-01

    An unusual grayish brown discoloration of the synovium was found during a knee arthroscopy of a 72-year-old man. He also had similar pigmentation affecting the skin on the legs, arms, hands, and face. It was found he had been taking 400 mg of amiodarone hydrochloride daily for last 7 years. Amiodarone is known to cause a slate grey pigmentation of skin and cornea, but we believe this is the first report of amiodarone-induced pigmentation of the synovium. The arthroscopist should be aware of the possibility of drug-related synovial pigmentation and include this in differential diagnosis.

  3. Intra-Articular Pigmentation of Synovium: An Unusual Cause.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shobhit; Hamilton, Steven; Liew, Sue M

    2016-09-01

    An unusual grayish brown discoloration of the synovium was found during a knee arthroscopy of a 72-year-old man. He also had similar pigmentation affecting the skin on the legs, arms, hands, and face. It was found he had been taking 400 mg of amiodarone hydrochloride daily for last 7 years. Amiodarone is known to cause a slate grey pigmentation of skin and cornea, but we believe this is the first report of amiodarone-induced pigmentation of the synovium. The arthroscopist should be aware of the possibility of drug-related synovial pigmentation and include this in differential diagnosis. PMID:27583118

  4. Reflective color display using thermochromic pigments.

    PubMed

    Heo, Kyong Chan; Sohn, Youngku; Yi, Jonghoon; Kwon, Jin Hyuk; Son, Phil Kook; Gwag, Jin Seog

    2012-06-20

    A reflective thermochromic display fabricated by a very simple method using three kinds of thermochromic pigments is produced and its thermo-optical characteristics are investigated. The display exhibits maximum red, green, and blue reflectances of 38%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. The reflective display cell shows continuous gray color with changing temperature, which is crucial for multicolor displays. It also shows an excellent viewing angle above 80° without any of the additional optical components that are required in liquid crystal displays. We expect that this display technology will be used for outdoor billboard information display applications. PMID:22722305

  5. Corrosion-Indicating Pigment And Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed hydrogen-sensitive paint for metal structures changes color at onset of corrosion, involving emission of hydrogen as result of electrochemical reactions. Pigment of suitable paint includes rhodium compound RhCl(PPh3)3, known as Wilkinson's catalyst. As coating on critical parts of such structures as bridges and aircraft, paint gives early warning of corrosion, and parts thus repaired or replaced before failing catastrophically. Reveals corrosion before it becomes visible to eye. Inspection for changes in color not ordinarily necessitate removal of structure from service, and costs less than inspection by x-ray or thermal neutron radiography, ultrasonic, eddy-current, or acoustic-emission techniques.

  6. Monte Carlo modeling of pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James

    2014-03-01

    Colors observed in clinical dermoscopy are critical to diagnosis but the mechanisms that lead to the spectral components of diffuse reflectance are more than meets the eye: combinations of the absorption and scattering spectra of the biomolecules as well as the "structural color" effect of skin anatomy. We modeled diffuse remittance from skin based on histopathology. The optical properties of the tissue types were based on the relevant chromophores and scatterers. The resulting spectral images mimic the appearance of pigmented lesions quite well when the morphology is mathematically derived but limited when based on histopathology, raising interesting questions about the interaction between various wavelengths with various pathological anatomical features.

  7. Method of preparing zinc orthotitanate pigment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, D. W.; Harada, Y.; Logan, W. R.; Gilligan, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Zinc orthotitanate suitable for use as a pigment for spacecraft thermal control coatings is prepared by heating a slightly zinc deficient reaction mixture of precipitated oxalates of zinc and titanium. The reaction mixture can be formed by coprecipitation of zinc and titanium oxalates from chloride solution or by mixing separately precipitated oxalates. The mixture is first heated to 400 to 600 C to remove volatiles and is then rapidly heated at 900 to 1200 C. Zinc orthotitanate produced by this method exhibits the very fine particle size needed for thermal control coatings as well as stability in a space environment.

  8. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity.

    PubMed

    Saksens, Nicole T M; Krebs, Mark P; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B; Charette, Jeremy R; Letteboer, Stef J; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P M; Boon, Camiel J F; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P; Peachey, Neal S; Hoyng, Carel B; Nishina, Patsy M; den Hollander, Anneke I

    2016-02-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding α-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice demonstrated increased cell shedding and the presence of large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, indicates that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  9. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T.M.; Krebs, Mark P.; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E.; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B.; Charette, Jeremy R.; Letteboer, Stef J.; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W.; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Boon, Camiel J.F.; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P.; Peachey, Neal S.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Nishina, Patsy M.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here, we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the α-catenin 1 (CTNNA1) gene in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice revealed increased cell shedding and large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, suggests that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity, and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  10. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Zou, Peter; Kokoszka, John

    2009-12-01

    The effective treatment and utilization of biowaste have been emphasized in our society for environmental and economic concerns. Recently, the eggshell waste in the poultry industry has been highlighted because of its reclamation potential. This study presents an economical treatment process to recover useful bioproducts from eggshell waste and their utilization in commercial products. We developed the dissolved air floatation (DAF) separation unit, which successfully recovered 96% of eggshell membrane and 99% of eggshell calcium carbonate (ECC) particles from eggshell waste within 2 h of operation. The recovered ECC particles were utilized as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper and their impact on the ink density and paper gloss were investigated. The addition of the ECC particles as coating pigments enhances the optical density of cyan, magenta and yellow inks while decreasing the black ink density and the gloss of the coated paper. PMID:19665373

  11. Gene structure of the goldfish agouti-signaling protein: a putative role in the dorsal-ventral pigment pattern of fish.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Reverter, José Miguel; Haitina, Tatjana; Schiöth, Helgi Birgir; Peter, Richard Ector

    2005-03-01

    One of the most successful chromatic adaptations in vertebrates is the dorsal-ventral pigment pattern in which the dorsal skin is darkly colored, whereas the ventrum is light. In fish, the latter pattern is achieved because a melanization inhibition factor inhibits melanoblast differentiation and supports iridophore proliferation in the ventrum. In rodents, the patterned pigmentation results from regional production of the agouti-signaling protein (ASP). This peptide controls the switch between production of eumelanin and pheomelanin by antagonizing alphaMSH effects on melanocortin receptor (MCR) 1 in the melanocytes. In addition, ASP inhibits the differentiation and proliferation of melanoblast. Thus, the mammalian ASP may be homologous to the poikilotherm melanization inhibition factor. By screening of a genomic library, we deduced the amino acid sequence of goldfish ASP. The ASP gene is a four-exon gene spanning 3097 bp that encodes a 125-amino acid precursor. Northern blot analysis identified two different ASP mRNAs in ventral skin of red- and black-pigmented and albino fish, but no expression levels were observed in the dorsal skin of the same fish. The dorsal-ventral expression polarity was also detected in both black dorsally pigmented fish and albino fish. Pharmacological studies demonstrate that goldfish ASP acts as a melanocortin antagonist at Fugu MC1R and goldfish MC4R. In addition, goldfish ASP inhibited Nle4, D-Phe7-MSH-stimulated pigment dispersion in medaka melanophores. Our studies support agouti signaling protein as the melanization inhibition factor, a key factor in the development of the dorsal-ventral pigment pattern in fish. PMID:15591139

  12. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Black nightshade poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  13. Zinc Deficiency Leads to Lipofuscin Accumulation in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium of Pigmented Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinou, Despina; Eibl, Oliver; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult Long Evans (LE) rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE) were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm) found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4–3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. Conclusions/Significance In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane. PMID:22216222

  14. Tips and tricks in the dermoscopy of pigmented lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dermoscopy is a useful, widely used tool for examining pigmented lesions, especially helpful in cases of an uncertain nature. Nevertheless, doctors may experience diagnostic difficulties while using this method. An example of this may be found in the examination of subcorneal hematoma, dark nevi with black lamella or lesions of acral volar skin. In such cases, a few diagnostic tricks have proven to be helpful in achieving diagnostic accuracy. This paper reviews various methods of performing dermoscopy, suggesting a number of simple, yet helpful tests. These include the adhesive tape test, the skin scraping test and the ink furrow test. The adhesive tape test is helpful in differentiating between dark melanocytic nevi and melanoma. Hematoma may be more easily differentiated with the use of the so-called skin scraping test. The confirmation of benign and melanocytic lesions of acral volar skin, on the other hand, is more accurate when using the ink furrow test. These methods have been discussed here based upon a series of literature reviews, the authors’ own experience and, also, iconography. The present article describes novel methods used in dermoscopy, helping to bring about a faster, more accurate diagnostics of those lesions which have proven to be more difficult to recognize. Helpful tricks, such as have been known to professional literature, as well as the authors’ own experience (for instance, applying urea cream to hyperkeratotic lesions or using photographs of skin lesions taken with the aid of a mobile phone camera – all prior to surgery) will surely be considered beneficial to the practitioner, be it dermatologist or any other physician. PMID:22916721

  15. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung H; Kemling, Jonathan W; Feng, Liang; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-12-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of the detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically-responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Brønsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) concentration, at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials. PMID:19918616

  16. A colorimetric sensor array of porous pigments

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung H.; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Feng, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The development of a low-cost, simple colorimetric sensor array capable of detection and identification of toxic gases is reported. This technology uses a disposable printed array of porous pigments in which metalloporphyrins and chemically responsive dyes are immobilized in a porous matrix of organically modified siloxanes (ormosils) and printed on a porous membrane. The printing of the ormosil into the membrane is highly uniform and does not lessen the porosity of the membrane, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. When exposed to an analyte, these pigments undergo reactions that result in well-defined color changes due to strong chemical interactions: ligation to metal ions, Lewis or Bronsted acid-base interactions, hydrogen bonding, etc. Striking visual identification of 3 toxic gases has been shown at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health), at the PEL (permissible exposure level), and at a level well below the PEL. Identification and quantification of analytes were achieved using the color change profiles, which were readily distinguishable in a hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) dendrogram, with no misclassifications in 50 trials. PMID:19918616

  17. Biological Activities of Plant Pigments Betalains.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2016-04-25

    Betalains are a family of natural pigments present in most plants of the order Caryophyllales. They provide colors ranging from yellow to violet to structures that in other plants are colored by anthocyanins. These include not only edible fruits and roots but also flowers, stems, and bracts. The recent characterization of different bioactivities in experiments with betalain containing extracts and purified pigments has renewed the interest of the research community in these molecules used by the food industry as natural colorants. Studies with multiple cancer cell lines have demonstrated a high chemopreventive potential that finds in vitro support in a strong antiradical and antioxidant activity. Experiments in vivo with model animals and bioavailability studies reinforce the possible role played by betalains in the diet. This work provides a critical review of all the claimed biological activities of betalains, showing that the bioactivities described might be supported by the high antiradical capacity of their structural unit, betalamic acid. Although more investigations with purified compounds are needed, the current evidences suggest a strong health-promoting potential. PMID:25118005

  18. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  19. Construction of artificial pigment-protein antennae

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbald, J.

    1997-01-10

    Photosynthesis is a complex process which results in the conversion of solar radiation into chemical energy. This chemical energy is then used as the free energy source for all living organisms. In its basic form, photosynthesis can be described as the light-activated synthesis of carbohydrates from the simple molecules of water and carbon dioxide: 6H{sub 2}O + 6 CO{sub 2} light C{sub 6}H{sub 12}O{sub 6} + 6 O{sub 2} This basic mechanism actually requires numerous reaction steps. The two primary steps being: the capture of light by pigment molecules in light-harvesting antenna complexes and the transfer of this captured energy to the so-called photochemical reaction center. While the preferred pathway for energy absorbed by the chromophores in the antenna complexes is transfer to the reaction center, energy can be lost to competing processes such as internal conversion or radiative decay. Therefore, the energy transfer must be rapid, typically on the order of picoseconds, to successfully compete. The focus of the present work is on the construction of light-harvesting antenna complexes incorporating modular pigment-proteins.

  20. Photoinduced changes in photosystem II pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Atanaska S.; Busheva, Mira C.; Stoitchkova, Katerina V.; Tzonova, Iren K.

    2010-11-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in higher plants performs two seemingly opposing tasks: efficient harvest of sunlight, but also rapid and harmless dissipation of excess light energy as heat to avoid deleterious photodamage. In order to study this process in pigment-protein supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII), 77 K fluorescence and room temperature resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy were applied to investigate the changes in structure and spectral properties of the pigments in spinach PSII membranes. The high-light treatment results in a strong quenching of the fluorescence (being largest when the excitation is absorbed by carotenoids) and a red-shift of the main maximum. Decomposition of the fluorescence spectra into four bands revealed intensive quenching of F685 and F695 bands, possible bleaching of chlorophyll a, enhanced extent of light harvesting complexes (LHCII) aggregation and increased energy transfer to aggregated LHCII. The analysis of RR spectra revealed the predominant contribution of ß-carotene (ß-Car) upon 457.8 and 488 nm excitations and lutein (Lut) at 514.5 nm. During prolonged exposure to strong light no significant bleaching of ß-Car and weak photobleaching of Lut is observed. The results will contribute to the efforts to produce more efficient and robust solar cells when exposed to fluctuations in light intensity.

  1. Dispelling myths concerning pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, V; Russo, T; Giacomel, J; Lallas, A; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2016-06-01

    The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015. The remaining discussed were selected on the basis of the existing literature and our personal experience. In order to explore these misconceptions, the following are the seven most salient questions that require investigation: (i) Is it dangerous to excise moles?; (ii) Is it dangerous to traumatize moles?; (iii) Are plantar moles worrisome?; (iv) Is it necessary to selectively apply sunscreen to moles?; (v) Is it inadvisable to partially biopsy a melanoma?; (vi) Do moles turn into melanoma?; and (vii) Is it necessary to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanomas and for atypical Spitz naevi? Myths are ubiquitous, being prevalent in dermatological practice, with many of them concerning pigmented skin lesions. By encouraging critical analysis by patients and medical practitioners, the birth and perpetuation of myths can potentially be minimized, for the ultimate benefit of patients. This requires a scientific approach to be rigorously applied to dermatology, with critical questioning of unsubstantiated hypotheses including those emanating from the mass media as well as from respected sources. PMID:26840917

  2. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  3. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  4. Skin as a living coloring book: how epithelial cells create patterns of pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J; Brissette, Janice L

    2014-11-01

    The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types - pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a 'picture,' a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and 'color in' the picture. PMID:25104547

  5. SKIN AS A LIVING COLORING BOOK: HOW EPITHELIAL CELLS CREATE PATTERNS OF PIGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Lorin; Fu, Wenyu; Chirico, William J.; Brissette, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The pigmentation of mammalian skin and hair develops through the interaction of two basic cell types — pigment donors and recipients. The pigment donors are melanocytes, which produce and distribute melanin through specialized structures. The pigment recipients are epithelial cells, which acquire melanin and put it to use, collectively yielding the pigmentation visible to the eye. This review will focus on the pigment recipients, the historically less understood cell type. These end-users of pigment are now known to exert a specialized control over the patterning of pigmentation, as they identify themselves as melanocyte targets, recruit pigment donors, and stimulate the transfer of melanin. As such, this review will discuss the evidence that the skin is like a coloring book: the pigment recipients create a “picture,” a blueprint for pigmentation, which is colorless initially but outlines where pigment should be placed. Melanocytes then melanize the recipients and “color in” the picture. PMID:25104547

  6. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Various redox couple surface additives are studied which increase the photostability of coprecipitated zinc orthotitanate pigment. The electron spin resonance technique was used to examine the characteristic photodamage centers. Results indicate that cerium surface redox additive completely passivates the pigment at the surface concentrations studied. Less passivation occurs with the iridium chloride and the iron cyanide redox couples.

  7. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.; Farley, E. P.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of a matrix of 48 samples consisting of pigments and pigmented paints is described. The results obtained from testing these samples by electron spin resonance and by in situ spectral reflectance measurements in space simulation tests are presented. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are given.

  8. Betacyanins pigments as photosensitizing agents for holographic recording medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Hernández-Hernández, E.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.

    2014-02-01

    One of the natural most employed within the food industry are pigments of betalains by their solubility in water to give desired colorations in processed foods such as beverages, dairy, meat. However, this research shows that this type of pigments can be used as photosensitizing agents in the field of holographic recording materials.

  9. Stabilized pigment and method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Stanley Roy (Inventor); Freund, Thomas (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A chemical species, present in two oxidation states which differ from one another by one equivalent, is added to pigment materials to serve as a recombination center for alternately capturing electrons and holes produced by the pigment materials when they are subjected to ultraviolet light exposure.

  10. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  11. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium salts onto mica, followed by heating...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium and/or iron salts onto mica, followed...

  13. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium salts onto mica, followed by heating...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium and/or iron salts onto mica, followed...

  15. 21 CFR 73.350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.350 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium salts onto mica, followed by heating...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1350 - Mica-based pearlescent pigments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mica-based pearlescent pigments. 73.1350 Section... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1350 Mica-based pearlescent pigments. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive is formed by depositing titanium and/or iron salts onto mica, followed...

  17. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented. PMID:26988181

  18. Internal pigment cells respond to external UV radiation in frogs.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Nilsson Sköld, Helen; de Oliveira, Classius

    2016-05-01

    Fish and amphibians have pigment cells that generate colorful skins important for signaling, camouflage, thermoregulation and protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, many animals also have pigment cells inside their bodies, on their internal organs and membranes. In contrast to external pigmentation, internal pigmentation is remarkably little studied and its function is not well known. Here, we tested genotoxic effects of UVR and its effects on internal pigmentation in a neotropical frog, Physalaemus nattereri We found increases in body darkness and internal melanin pigmentation in testes and heart surfaces and in the mesenterium and lumbar region after just a few hours of UVR exposure. The melanin dispersion in melanomacrophages in the liver and melanocytes in testes increased after UV exposure. In addition, the amount of melanin inside melanomacrophages cells also increased. Although mast cells were quickly activated by UVR, only longer UVR exposure resulted in genotoxic effects inside frogs, by increasing the frequency of micronuclei in red blood cells. This is the first study to describe systemic responses of external UVR on internal melanin pigmentation, melanomacrophages and melanocytes in frogs and thus provides a functional explanation to the presence of internal pigmentation. PMID:26944494

  19. A review of polymeric dispersant stabilisation of titania pigment.

    PubMed

    Farrokhpay, Saeed

    2009-10-30

    A review of past and present published works examining the interaction of polymeric dispersants with titania pigment particles is presented. Titania is the most important white pigments currently used in the world and its suspension properties are very important for consumer industries such as paints, papermaking and plastics; if aggregates are present, the end-use properties including gloss, opacity and storage stability will be highly affected. As polymeric dispersants are generally used to disperse titania pigment particles, it is very important to understand the interactions between the pigment particles and polymeric dispersants of varying functionality. Although, in principle, the adsorption of polymers onto titania pigment and influences on pigment dispersion and stabilisation are fairly known, it is nevertheless hardly possible to forecast the behaviour of a given polymeric dispersant in advance, unless to have a broad knowledge of the interaction occurring between pigment and dispersants and effect of dispersant structure upon adsorption. While only titania pigment is discussed, the issues raised may also apply to other mineral oxides such as alumina or zirconia. PMID:19691945

  20. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming; Pan, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0-21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L (∗), a (∗), b (∗)) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380-780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L (∗) and a (∗), did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  1. Changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of pink chicken eggshells with different pigment intensity during incubation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Li, Zhanming

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in pigment, spectral transmission and element content of chicken eggshells with different intensities of pink pigment during the incubation period. We also investigated the effects of the region (small pole, equator and large pole) and pink pigment intensity of the chicken eggshell on the percent transmission of light passing through the chicken eggshells. Method. Eggs of comparable weight from a meat-type breeder (Meihuang) were used, and divided based on three levels of pink pigment (light, medium and dark) in the eggshells. During the incubation (0–21 d), the values of the eggshell pigment (ΔE, L∗, a∗, b∗) were measured. The percent transmission of light for different regions and intensities of eggshell pigmentation was measured by using the visible wavelength range of 380–780 nm. Result. Three measured indicators of eggshell color, ΔE, L∗ and a∗, did not change significantly during incubation. Compared with other regions and pigment intensities, eggshell at the small pole and with light pigmentation intensity showed the highest percent transmission of light. The transmission value varied significantly (P < 0.001) with incubation time. The element analysis of eggshells with different levels of pink pigment showed that the potassium content of the eggshells for all pigment levels decreased significantly during incubation. Conclusion. In summary, pigment intensity and the region of the eggshell influenced the percent transmission of light of eggshell. Differences in the spectral characteristics of different eggshells may influence the effects of photostimulation during the incubation of eggs. All of these results will be applicable for perfecting the design of light intensity for lighted incubation to improve productivity. PMID:27019785

  2. An mtDNA analysis in ancient Basque populations: implications for haplogroup V as a marker for a major paleolithic expansion from southwestern europe.

    PubMed Central

    Izagirre, N; de la Rúa, C

    1999-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was studied in 121 dental samples from four Basque prehistoric sites, by high-resolution RFLP analysis. The results of this study are corroborated by (1) parallel analysis of 92 bone samples, (2) the use of controls during extraction and amplification, and (3) typing by both positive and negative restriction of the linked sites that characterize each haplogroup. The absence of haplogroup V in the prehistoric samples analyzed conflicts with the hypothesis proposed by Torroni et al., in which haplogroup V is considered as an mtDNA marker for a major Paleolithic population expansion from southwestern Europe, occurring approximately 10,000-15,000 years before the present (YBP). Our samples from the Basque Country provide a valuable tool for checking the previous hypothesis, which is based on genetic data from present-day populations. In light of the available data, the most realistic scenario to explain the origin and distribution of haplogroup V suggests that the mutation defining that haplogroup (4577 NlaIII) appeared at a time when the effective population size was small enough to allow genetic drift to act-and that such drift is responsible for the heterogeneity observed in Basques, with regard to the frequency of haplogroup V (0%-20%). This is compatible with the attributed date for the origin of that mutation (10,000-15, 000 YBP), because during the postglacial period (the Mesolithic, approximately 11,000 YBP) there was a major demographic change in the Basque Country, which minimized the effect of genetic drift. This interpretation does not rely on migratory movements to explain the distribution of haplogroup V in present-day Indo-European populations. PMID:10364533

  3. Established dietary estimates of net acid production do not predict measured net acid excretion in patients with Type 2 diabetes on Paleolithic-Hunter-Gatherer-type diets

    PubMed Central

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Shi, Lijie; Schloetter, Monique; Sebastian, Anthony; Remer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Formulas developed to estimate diet-dependent net acid excretion (NAE) generally agree with measured values for typical Western diets. Whether they can also appropriately predict NAE for "Paleolithic-type" (Paleo) diets – which contain very high amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V) and concurrent high amounts of protein is unknown. Here we compare measured NAEs with established NAE-estimates in subjects with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Thirteen subjects with well controlled T2D were randomized to either a Paleo or American Diabetes Association (ADA) diet for 14 days. 24-hour urine collections were performed at baseline and end of the diet period, and analyzed for titratable acid, bicarbonate, and ammonium to calculate measured NAE. Three formulas for estimating NAE from dietary intake were used; two (NAE_diet R or L) that include dietary mineral intake and sulfate- and organic acid (OA) production, and one that is empirically-derived (NAE_diet F) only considering potassium and protein intake. Results Measured NAE on the Paleo diet was significantly lower than on the ADA diet (+31±22 vs. 112±52 mEq/day, p=0.002). Although all formula estimates showed similar and reasonable correlations (r=0.52–0.76) with measured NAE, each one underestimated measured values. The formula with the best correlation did not contain an estimate of dietary organic acid production. Conclusions Paleo diets are lower in NAE than typical Western diets. However, commonly used formulas clearly underestimate NAE, especially for diets with very high F&V (as the Paleo diet), and in subjects with T2D. This may be due to an inappropriate estimation of proton loads stemming from OAs, underlining the necessity for improved measures of OA-related proton sources. PMID:23859996

  4. In-vivo absorption properties of algal pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidigare, Robert R.; Ondrusek, Michael E.; Morrow, John H.; Kiefer, Dale A.

    1990-09-01

    Estimates of the in vivo specific absorption coefficients (m2 mg'; 400-750 nm, 2 nm intervals) for the major algal pigment groups (chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobilins) are presented. "Unpackaged" absorption coefficients were initially obtained by measuring the absorption properties of pure pigment standards spectrophotometrically and "shifting" their absorption maxima to match in vivo positions. Two approaches for estimating the phytoplankton absorption coefficient (spectral reconstruction and spectral decomposition) are compared by linear regression analysis, incorporating concurrent measurements of particulate absorption and pigmentation performed in the Sargasso Sea. Results suggest that "pigment package" effects are minimal for natural assemblages of open-oceanic phytoplankton and that accessory pigments do not always co-vary with chlorophyll a over depth and time.

  5. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  6. Structural and functional characterization of enamel pigmentation in shrews.

    PubMed

    Dumont, M; Tütken, T; Kostka, A; Duarte, M J; Borodin, S

    2014-04-01

    Pigmented tooth enamel occurs in several vertebrate clades, ranging from mammals to fish. Although an iron compound is associated with this orange to red colored pigmentation, its chemical and structural organization within the enamel is unknown. To determine the nature of the iron compound, we investigated heavily pigmented teeth of the northern short-tailed shrew Blarina brevicauda using combined characterization techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. We found that the pigmentation of the enamel with an iron content of around 8wt% results from a close to amorphous magnetite phase deposited around the nm-sized enamel crystals. Furthermore, the influence of the pigmentation on the enamel hardness was determined by nanoindentation measurements. Finally, the biomechanical function and biological context are discussed in light of the obtained results. PMID:24556576

  7. A melanosomal two-pore sodium channel regulates pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W.; Escobar, Iliana E.; Oancea, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular organelles mediate complex cellular functions that often require ion transport across their membranes. Melanosomes are organelles responsible for the synthesis of the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanin synthesis result in pigmentation defects, visual deficits, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. Although genes encoding putative melanosomal ion transporters have been identified as key regulators of melanin synthesis, melanosome ion transport and its contribution to pigmentation remain poorly understood. Here we identify two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) as the first reported melanosomal cation conductance by directly patch-clamping skin and eye melanosomes. TPC2 has been implicated in human pigmentation and melanoma, but the molecular mechanism mediating this function was entirely unknown. We demonstrate that the vesicular signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate PI(3,5)P2 modulates TPC2 activity to control melanosomal membrane potential, pH, and regulate pigmentation. PMID:27231233

  8. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Ruchi; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na+ with Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxy resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).

  9. NTBC treatment of the pyomelanogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate PA1111 inhibits pigment production and increases sensitivity to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ketelboeter, Laura M; M Ketelboeter, Laura; Potharla, Vishwakanth Y; Y Potharla, Vishwakanth; Bardy, Sonia L; L Bardy, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Pyomelanin is a brown/black extracellular pigment with antioxidant and iron acquisition properties that is produced by a number of different bacteria. Production of pyomelanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to increased resistance to oxidative stress and persistence in chronic infections. We demonstrate that pyomelanin production can be inhibited by 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC). This treatment increases sensitivity of pyomelanogenic P. aeruginosa strains to oxidative stress, without altering the growth rate or resistance to aminoglycosides. As such, NTBC has potential to function as an anti-virulence factor in treating pyomelanogenic bacterial infections. PMID:24801336

  10. Adenocarcinoma of the pigmented ciliary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sukeda, Aoi; Mori, Taisuke; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pigmented ciliary epithelium is an exceptionally rare eye tumour, with only a few cases reported to date. We encountered such a case in a 50-year-old woman who reported seeing floaters in her right eye. Fundus examination and MRI revealed an elevated lesion located in the ciliary body compressing the lens. The ciliary body was resected under the diagnosis of ciliary adenoma. On histological examination, the tumour exhibited epithelial features with glandular formation and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. The tumour invaded the subepithelial stroma of the ciliary body. Immunohistochemical findings were positive for cytokeratin OSCAR, AE1/AE3, CK7, EMA, S100, Melan A, HMB45, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. PMID:25015166

  11. Retinal pigment epithelial change and partial lipodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, T. M.; Holdright, D. R.; Schulenberg, W. E.; Turner, R. C.; Joplin, G. F.

    1988-01-01

    Cuticular drusen and retinal pigment epithelial changes were found incidentally in a 27 year old Lebanese woman during assessment of partial lipodystrophy. Her vision was normal despite involvement of both maculae. The patient had hypocomplementaemia, but serum C3 nephritic factor was absent and renal function was normal. She had impaired glucose tolerance and a continuous infusion of glucose with model assessment (CIGMA) test revealed low normal tissue insulin sensitivity and high normal pancreatic beta cell function. Mild fasting hypertriglyceridaemia (2.0 mmol/l) may have been secondary to impaired insulin sensitivity. Endocrine function was otherwise normal apart from a completely absent growth hormone response to adequate hypoglycaemia. The simultaneous occurrence of partial lipodystrophy and retinal pigmentary epithelial and basement membrane changes appears to be a newly recognized syndrome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3255937

  12. Photosynthesis-dependent anthocyanin pigmentation in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Prasanta Kumar; Geul, Bang; Choi, Sang-Bong; Yoo, Sang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Light is the ultimate energy source for photo-autotrophs on earth. For green plants, however, it can also be toxic under certain stressful environmental conditions and at critical developmental stages. Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, act as an effective screening mechanism that allows plant survival and proliferation under occasional periods of harmful irradiation through modulation of light absorption. Apart from light-sensing through photoreceptors such as phytochrome and cryptochrome, plants use the photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) chain to integrate light information. The redox status of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool of the PET chain regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, together with the plant hormone ethylene and plant hormone-like sugars. A complex signaling apparatus in acyanic cells appears to transduce information to cyanic cells to regulate anthocyanin production through an intercellular signaling pathway that remains largely uncharacterized. This review will highlight recent advances in this field and their implications for the regulation of anthocyanin pigmentation. PMID:21248473

  13. Cutaneous pigmentation secondary to amiodarone therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Trimble, J.W.; Mendelson, D.S.; Fetter, B.F.; Ingram, P.; Gallagher, J.J.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    Amiodarone (Cordarone) is an iodinated cardiac antiarrhythmic drug that causes a slate-gray discoloration of the sun-exposed skin and a yellow-brown stippling of the cornea. Histopathologically, biopsy specimens of aminodarone pigmentation sites disclose yellow-brown refractile granules in the reticular dermis. These granules were characterized by transmission electron microscopy as being concentrically arranged intralysosomal inclusions (''myelinlike'' bodies) in dermal endothelial cells and perivascular smooth-muscle cells. Electron probe x-ray analysis of these same inclusions disclosed definite peaks for iodine, evidence for the presence of amiodarone or a metabolite of the drug at these sites. Amiodarone, then, concentrates in lysosomes and causes an accumulation of lipids similar to what has been seen with other cationic amphiphilic compounds, such as the glycosphingolipid stored in Fabry's disease. Amiodarone must be recognized as a cause of a drug-induced lipid storage disease with cutaneous and corneal manifestations.

  14. [Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa].

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R; Meurer, M

    2005-06-01

    Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa are more frequent in women than in men. They represent a spectrum of different benign entities. A biopsy is always recommended when the diagnosis cannot be made with certainty on clinical examination and dermatoscopy. Differential diagnostic considerations include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi and syndromes featuring lentigines. Malignant melanomas of the penis and vulva are uncommon tumors which usually appear in elderly patients. They frequently present as painless palpable nodules at routine examination. The treatment consists of excision with histological control of the margins. An aggressive surgical approach has not been shown to prolong the poor 5-year survival. Cooperation with gynecologists and urologists is essential for the optimal management of such patients. PMID:15905972

  15. Calcium binding in pigmented and albino eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Dräger, U C

    1985-01-01

    The localization of calcium binding sites in eyes was determined autoradiographically after extracting endogenous Ca from tissue sections and replacing it with 45Ca. The strongest labeling was associated with pigmented tissues due to the high concentration of melanin, which was shown to bind Ca effectively and in a pH-dependent fashion. The second strongest binding was over the tapetum lucidum of the cat eye, and moderate labeling was associated with eye muscles and epithelium and endothelium of the cornea. The neural retina was generally more lightly labeled than the surrounding tissue of the eye; here the plexiform layers stood out in comparison to the nuclear layers, as did a band located internal to the photoreceptor outer segments. The possibility that the Ca buffering capacity of melanin may represent the common denominator for the various neurological defects found in hypopigmentation mutants is discussed. Images PMID:3863122

  16. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  17. Black Teachers on Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michele

    The importance to the black community of teaching as a profession can be seen in reference material and other literature about blacks, but this book is unique in presenting the voices of black teachers themselves. The stories of 20 black teachers, born between 1905 and 1973, are told in their own voices. These 20 life interviews collect the…

  18. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  19. High biological variability of plastids, photosynthetic pigments and pigment forms of leaf primordia in buds.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Katalin; Morandi, Dominique; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla; Schoefs, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    To study the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus in nature, the carotenoid and chlorophyllous pigment compositions of differently developed leaf primordia in closed and opening buds of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) and horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) as well as in closed buds of tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima P. Mill.) were analyzed with HPLC. The native organization of the chlorophyllous pigments was studied using 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, and plastid ultrastructure was investigated with electron microscopy. Complete etiolation, i.e., accumulation of protochlorophyllide, and absence of chlorophylls occurred in the innermost leaf primordia of common ash buds. The other leaf primordia were partially etiolated in the buds and contained protochlorophyllide (0.5-1 μg g(-1) fresh mass), chlorophyllides (0.2-27 μg g(-1) fresh mass) and chlorophylls (0.9-643 μg g(-1) fresh mass). Etio-chloroplasts with prolamellar bodies and either regular or only low grana were found in leaves having high or low amounts of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. After bud break, etioplast-chloroplast conversion proceeded and the pigment contents increased in the leaves, similarly to the greening processes observed in illuminated etiolated seedlings under laboratory conditions. The pigment contents and the ratio of the different spectral forms had a high biological variability that could be attributed to (i) various light conditions due to light filtering in the buds resulting in differently etiolated leaf primordia, (ii) to differences in the light-exposed and inner regions of the same primordia in opening buds due to various leaf folding, and (iii) to tissue-specific slight variations of plastid ultrastructure. PMID:22160501

  20. Bleaching effect of ozone on pigmented teeth

    PubMed Central

    Zanjani, Vagharedin Akhavan; Ghasemi, Amir; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Jamali, Mahbobeh; Razmavar, Sara; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There have been numerous researches on ozone application in dentistry; yet the data regarding its whitening effect is very limited. The present study compares the bleaching effect of ozone with office bleaching. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 15 maxillary premolar teeth were selected and sectioned mesio-distally and bucco-lingually. The sections were then placed in tea for 1 week according to the Sulieman method and were divided into three groups each comprised of 15 sections. The samples were bleached as followed; Group I: Bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide in three intervals of 8 min each, Group II: Underwent ozone treatment using Ozotop unite for 4 min and Group III: Bleached with a combination of both methods. The color indices of the samples, i.e., (a) green-red pigment, (b) blue-yellow pigment, (L) brightness, (ΔE) overall color change, were evaluated pre- and post-bleaching utilizing a digital camera, Photoshop software and CIE lab index. The color changes of specimens then were calculated and analyzed through randomized analysis of variance and Tukey tests. P < 0.001 was considered to be significant. Results: The color change (ΔE) in Group II was significantly lower than those in the two other groups (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the color change of Groups I and III (P = 0.639). In addition, the results of L, a and b brought forth a similar pattern to the findings obtained from ΔE. Conclusion: The hydrogen peroxide gel has a more powerful whitening effect than ozone; in addition, ozone has no synergistic effect when is used simultaneously with hydrogen peroxide. PMID:25709670

  1. Carbon black nanoparticles and other problematic constituents of black ink and their potential to harm tattooed humans.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Clausen, Per Axel

    2015-01-01

    Black is the most common tattoo color, but only a few studies have shed light on the multitude of functional and contaminating chemicals present in black inks. These studies have generally shown that black inks are a diverse group, containing anything from 5 to 50+ organic components. Little is known about the possible effects on humans of internalizing these chemicals. Analysis has shown that the production of the main component, carbon black, can lead to the formation of pigments with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents that range from very high to almost completely absent. Similar variations in PAH concentrations are observed in black inks. PAHs are known carcinogens and thus, low recommended levels have been suggested by the Council of Europe. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been a topic in scientific literature related to tattoo ink. Again, it has been shown that some inks produce deleterious ROS (e.g. singlet oxygen or peroxyl radicals), presumably via either adhered organic compounds or particle surface defects. It has been shown that black tattoo inks may contain a multitude of chemicals, including carcinogens and allergens, and some have unknown toxicologies. However, it has additionally been demonstrated that some black inks already on the market do not produce ROS and also contain PAHs at levels that are below those recommended by the Council of Europe and very few additional contaminants. PMID:25833640

  2. Lasers in tattoo and pigmentation control: role of the PicoSure® laser system

    PubMed Central

    Torbeck, Richard; Bankowski, Richard; Henize, Sarah; Saedi, Nazanin

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The use of picosecond lasers to remove tattoos has greatly improved due to the long-standing outcomes of nanosecond lasers, both clinically and histologically. The first aesthetic picosecond laser available for this use was the PicoSure® laser system (755/532 nm). Now that a vast amount of research on its use has been conducted, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to validate the continued application of the PicoSure® laser system for tattoo removal. Study design and methods A PubMed search was conducted using the term “picosecond” combined with “laser”, “dermatology”, and “laser tattoo removal”. Results A total of 13 articles were identified, and ten of these met the inclusion criteria for this review. The majority of studies showed that picosecond lasers are an effective and safe treatment mode for the removal of tattoo pigments. Several studies also indicated potential novel applications of picosecond lasers in the removal of various tattoo pigments (eg, black, red, and yellow). Adverse effects were generally mild, such as transient hypopigmentation or blister formation, and were rarely more serious, such as scarring and/or textural change. Conclusion Advancements in laser technologies and their application in cutaneous medicine have revolutionized the field of laser surgery. Computational modeling provides evidence that the optimal pulse durations for tattoo ink removal are in the picosecond domain. It is recommended that the PicoSure® laser system continue to be used for safe and effective tattoo removal, including for red and yellow pigments. PMID:27194919

  3. Goniochromatic and sparkle properties of effect pigmented samples in multidimensional configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höpe, Andreas; Hauer, Kai-Olaf; Teichert, Sven; Hünerhoff, Dirk; Strothkämper, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The effects of goniochromatism and sparkle are gaining more and more interest for surface refinement applications driven by demanding requirements from such different branches as automotive, cosmetics, printing and packaging industry. The common background and intention in all of these implementations is improvement of the visual appearance of the related commercial products. Goniochromatic materials show strong angular-dependent reflection characteristics and hence a color impression depending on the effective spatial arrangement of illumination and observation relative to the surface of the artifact. Sparkle is a texture related effect giving a surface which is irradiated directionally, like direct sun light, a bright glittering effect, similar to twinkling stars at the night sky. The prototype for this new effect is the Xirallic® pigment of MERCK KGaA, Germany. The same pigment shows in diffuse irradiation, like on a cloudy day, a different visual effect called graininess (coarseness) which appears as a granular structure of the surface. Both effects were studied on especially manufactured samples of a dilution series in pigment concentration and a tonality series with carbon black. The experiments were carried out with the robot-based gonioreflectometer and integrating sphere facilities at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in multidimensional configurations of directional and diffuse irradiation. The research is part of the European Metrology Research Program (EMRP), which is a metrology-focused program of coordinated Research & Development (R&D) funded by the European Commission and participating countries within the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET). More information and updated news concerning the project can be found on the xD-Reflect website http://www.xdreflect.eu/.

  4. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of five organic diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments and two inorganic iron-oxide-based pigments.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Rey Moreno, Maria; Neubauer, Nicole; Wohlleben, Wendel; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Veith, Ulrich; Teubner, Wera; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Diketopyrrolopyrroles (DPP) are a relatively new class of organic high-performance pigments. The present inhalation and particle characterization studies were performed to compare the effects of five DPP-based pigments (coarse and fine Pigment Red 254, coarse and fine meta-chloro DPP isomer and one form of mixed chlorinated DPP isomers) and compare it to coarse and fine inorganic Pigment Red 101. Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 h/day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 30 mg/m(3) as high dose for all compounds and selected based occupational exposure limits for respirable nuisance dust. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after 3-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers and coarse meta-chloro DPP isomer caused marginal changes in BALF, consisting of slight increases of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and in case of coarse meta-chloro DPP increased MCP-1 and osteopontin levels. Mixed chlorinated DPP isomers, Pigment Red 254, and meta-chloro DPP caused pigment deposits and phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, slight hypertrophy/hyperplasia of the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, but without evidence of inflammation. In contrast, only pigment deposition and pigment phagocytosis were observed after exposure to Pigment Red 101. All pigments were tolerated well and caused only marginal effects in BALF or no effects at all. Only minor effects were seen on the lung by microscopic examination. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation based on acute-phase protein levels in blood. PMID:27387137

  5. Rapamycin treatment causes developmental delay, pigmentation defects, and gastrointestinal malformation on Xenopus embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Yuki; Ohata, Yoshihisa; Mori, Shoko; Matsukawa, Shinya; Michiue, Tatsuo; Asashima, Makoto; Kuroda, Hiroki

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Does famous anti-aging drug rapamycin work from the beginning of life? The answer is yes. {yields} This study shows that developmental speed of frog embryo was dose-dependently decreased by rapamycin treatment. {yields} In additions, morphogenetic effects such as less pigmentations and gut malformation are occurred by rapamycin. -- Abstract: Rapamycin is a drug working as an inhibitor of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and influences various life phenomena such as cell growth, proliferation, and life span extension in eukaryote. However, the extent to which rapamycin controls early developmental events of amphibians remains to be understood. Here we report an examination of rapamycin effects during Xenopus early development, followed by a confirmation of suppression of TOR downstream kinase S6K by rapamycin treatment. First, we found that developmental speed was declined in dose-dependent manner of rapamycin. Second, black pigment spots located at dorsal and lateral skin in tadpoles were reduced by rapamycin treatment. Moreover, in tadpole stages severe gastrointestinal malformations were observed in rapamycin-treated embryos. Taken together with these results, we conclude that treatment of the drug rapamycin causes enormous influences on early developmental period.

  6. The contribution of the melanin pathway to overall body pigmentation during ontogenesis of Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Lemonds, Thomas R; Liu, Jin; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    The most prominent colors observed in insects are black or brown, whose production is attributed to the melanin pathway. At present, though, the contribution of this pathway to overall body pigmentation throughout ontogenesis is still lacking. To address this question we examined the roles of 2 key melanin genes (TH and DDC), in embryonic and postembryonic development of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Our results show that the melanin pathway does not contribute to the light brown coloration observed in the first nymphs. However, the dark brown coloration in mid nymphs and adults is produced solely from the melanin pathway. In addition, the DDC RNAi results reveal that it is dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, acts as the main contributor in this process. Overall, present study provides a new insight into insect pigmentation suggesting that genetic mechanisms of coloration can change during ontogenesis. Future studies of additional basal insect lineages will be required to assess in more details the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:27158782

  7. Oral Malignant Melanoma Initially Misdiagnosed as a Racial Pigmentation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli-Kläy, Carla Patrícia; Laporte, Marcel Leandro; Martinelli, Celso Ricardo; Martinelli, Celso; Lombardi, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is rare, representing less than 0.5% of all oral malignancies. The most affected sites are the palate and the maxillary gingiva. Histological examination is important to establish the diagnosis of any suspicious pigmented lesion in the oral cavity, mainly if a precise clinical diagnosis is not possible. We present one case of OMM that was initially diagnosed as a racial pigmentation elsewhere 2 years earlier. Clinical examination showed multiple macules and nodules located on the hard and soft palate, gingiva and superior alveolar mucosa. These lesions were painless and presented a color variation going from dark blue to black. Histological analysis showed sheets and nests of atypical melanocytes displaying a range of shapes such as plasmacytoid, epithelioid, and round cells, located in the superficial corium extending to the deep tissues. A few tumor cells contained variable amounts of melanin. There was no invasion of blood vessels or nerve fibers. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the neoplastic cells were positive for HMB-45, melan-A, S-100 and negative for AE1/AE3, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. The Ki-67 labeling index was around 25%. The patient refused any treatment and died 11 months later. PMID:27195264

  8. Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Daniel B.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Butler, Michael W.; Carrano, Matthew T.; Madden, Odile; James, Helen F.

    2014-01-01

    The broad palette of feather colours displayed by birds serves diverse biological functions, including communication and camouflage. Fossil feathers provide evidence that some avian colours, like black and brown melanins, have existed for at least 160 million years (Myr), but no traces of bright carotenoid pigments in ancient feathers have been reported. Insight into the evolutionary history of plumage carotenoids may instead be gained from living species. We visually surveyed modern birds for carotenoid-consistent plumage colours (present in 2956 of 9993 species). We then used high-performance liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy to chemically assess the family-level distribution of plumage carotenoids, confirming their presence in 95 of 236 extant bird families (only 36 family-level occurrences had been confirmed previously). Using our data for all modern birds, we modelled the evolutionary history of carotenoid-consistent plumage colours on recent supertrees. Results support multiple independent origins of carotenoid plumage pigmentation in 13 orders, including six orders without previous reports of plumage carotenoids. Based on time calibrations from the supertree, the number of avian families displaying plumage carotenoids increased throughout the Cenozoic, and most plumage carotenoid originations occurred after the Miocene Epoch (23 Myr). The earliest origination of plumage carotenoids was reconstructed within Passeriformes, during the Palaeocene Epoch (66–56 Myr), and not at the base of crown-lineage birds. PMID:24966316

  9. X-ray microfluorescence with synchrotron radiation applied in the analysis of pigments from ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calza, C.; Anjos, M. J.; Mendonça de Souza, S. M. F.; Brancaglion, A., Jr.; Lopes, R. T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, X-ray microfluorescence with the synchrotron radiation technique was applied in the analysis of pigments found in decorative paintings in the sarcophagus of an Egyptian mummy. This female mummy, from the Roman Period, which was embalmed with the arms and legs swathed separately is considered one of the most important pieces of the Egyptian Collection from the National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The measurements were performed at the XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using the white beam and a Si(Li) detector with resolution of 165 eV at 5.9 keV. The possible pigments found in the samples were: Egyptian blue, Egyptian green frit, green earth, verdigris, malachite, ochre, realgar, chalk, gypsum, bone white, ivory black and magnetite. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the results in order to verify if the samples belong to the same period of a linen wrapping fragment, whose provenance was well established.

  10. Determination of pork spoilage by colorimetric gas sensor array based on natural pigments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-wei; Zou, Xiao-bo; Shi, Ji-yong; Guo, Yanin; Zhao, Jie-wen; Zhang, Jianchun; Hao, Limin

    2014-02-15

    A new colorimetric gas-sensor array based on four natural pigments, that were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L.), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), was developed for pork freshness evaluation. A colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the images of the sensor array before and after exposure to the odour of sample. The total viable count (TVC) per gram of pork was obtained by classical microbiological plating methods, and the biogenic amines were measured by HPLC. Biogenic amine index (BAI) for the determination of meat freshness was developed from the sum of putrescine and cadaverine. The colour change profiles were analysed using principal component analysis and correlated with conventional methods (BAI, TVC). A partial least squares (PLS) prediction model was obtained with r=0.854 and 0.933 for BAI and TVC, respectively. PMID:24128513

  11. Oral Pigmentation in McCune-Albright Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pichard, Dominique C.; Boyce, Alison M.; Collins, Michael T.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The differential diagnosis for oral lentigines includes several syndromes with important associated systemic findings. McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), a mosaic condition associated with café au lait pigmentation, is not typically considered a mucosal lentiginosis syndrome. The clinical phenotype of MAS is variable because of mosaicism, but oral pigmentation developing in mid-childhood to early adulthood should be recognized as a clinical feature of MAS. OBSERVATIONS We present 4 patients with MAS who developed oral mucosal pigmentation during childhood or early adulthood. All patients had other characteristic findings of MAS including hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and café au lait pigmentation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Oral pigmentation is an underrecognized finding in MAS and presents later in development compared with the other mucosal lentiginosis syndromes. The diagnosis of MAS is most commonly a clinical diagnosis because mutational analysis is challenging in mosaic conditions. Expanding the cutaneous phenotype to include oral pigmentation further characterizes the clinical findings in this mosaic condition, broadens the differential diagnosis of syndromes with oral pigmentation, and in some cases may aid in earlier diagnosis of MAS. PMID:24671640

  12. Pigmented foils for radiative cooling and condensation irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, T.M.J.; Vargas, W.E.; Niklasson, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reports on the development of pigmented polyethylene foils for radiative cooling. The optical properties of the foils were optimized for applications in day-time radiative cooling and water condensation. The authors first study highly scattering foils used as convection shields. These cover foils combine a high solar reflectance and a high transmittance in the atmospheric window region in the infrared. Different pigment materials were studied and ZnS was the only one that could prevent heating of an underlying blackbody at noon, with the sun in its zenith. A 400 {micro}m thick ZnS pigmented polyethylene foil with a pigment volume fraction of 0.15 was tested in Tanzania. At noon the observed temperature of the covered blackbody was only 1.5 K above the ambient. Secondly, they study the potential for condensation of water in an arid region. Pigmented foils for this purpose should combine a high solar reflectance and a high infrared emittance, in order to promote condensation by the radiative cooling effect. Titanium dioxide is a fairly good infrared emitter, but the emittance can be improved by using a mixture of TiO{sub 2} and BaSO{sub 4} pigments or only employing a composite SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. Field tests with a 390 {micro}m thick polyethylene foil with TiO{sub 2} and BaSO{sub 4} pigments gave encouraging results.

  13. Antimycobacterial activity in vitro of pigments isolated from Antarctic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Philpott, Rachel; Huang, Jonathan P; Niederweis, Michael; Bej, Asim K

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we describe the antimycobacterial activity of two pigments, violacein, a purple violet pigment from Janthinobacterium sp. Ant5-2 (J-PVP), and flexirubin, a yellow-orange pigment from Flavobacterium sp. Ant342 (F-YOP). These pigments were isolated from bacterial strains found in the land-locked freshwater lakes of Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these pigments for avirulent and virulent mycobacteria were determined by the microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) and Nitrate Reductase Assay (NRA). Results indicated that the MICs of J-PVP and F-YOP were 8.6 and 3.6 μg/ml for avirulent Mycobacterium smegmatis mc²155; 5 and 2.6 μg/ml for avirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis mc²6230; and 34.4 and 10.8 μg/ml for virulent M. tuberculosis H₃₇Rv, respectively. J-PVP exhibited a ~15 times lower MIC for Mycobacterium sp. than previously reported for violacein pigment from Chromobacterium violaceum, while the antimycobacterial effect of F-YOP remains undocumented. Our results indicate these pigments isolated from Antarctic bacteria might be valuable lead compounds for new antimycobacterial drugs used for chemotherapy of tuberculosis. PMID:20556653

  14. Fluorescent thin gel films using organic dyes and pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Takashi, Tarao; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Nanto, Hidehito

    1997-10-01

    New organic-inorganic fluorescent thin gel films included with laser dyes or fluorescent organic pigments have been prepared for display application. The florescent dyes (benzoxazolium, pyrromethene, and rhodamine dyes) and super-fine particles of fluorescent pigments (coumarin and perylene) were successfully incorporated into thin silicate gel films prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), and methoxysilane oligomer (MTSO) under acid catalyzed hydrolysis. The blue, green, and red luminescence were observed from these thin films (thickness: 100 - 400 nm), respectively. Fluorescence spectra, fluorescent quantum yield and lifetime of thin gel films are examined. Fluorescent peaks for most of dyes and pigments used in gel films were similar to those in solution, and fluorescent lifetime for dyes and pigments used in gel films were 2.9 - 4.5 ns. Photostability of fluorescent gel films is dependent on fluorescent organic dyes and pigments used and/or silicate gel matrixes. Coumarin and perylene pigments have higher fluorescent quantum yield in gel film prepared from MTSO. The large Stokes shift was observed in fluorescent gel film using coumarin and benzoxazolium dyes. The coumarin and perylene pigments are significantly photo- stable in gel film prepared from MTSO, and photodegradation of perylene red after irradiation of 500 W Xi-lamp for 30 min is below 20%.

  15. Dissecting pigment architecture of individual photosynthetic antenna complexes in solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quan; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    Oligomerization plays a critical role in shaping the light-harvesting properties of many photosynthetic pigment−protein complexes, but a detailed understanding of this process at the level of individual pigments is still lacking. To study the effects of oligomerization, we designed a single-molecule approach to probe the photophysical properties of individual pigment sites as a function of protein assembly state. Our method, based on the principles of anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of single fluorescent proteins, step-wise photobleaching, and multiparameter spectroscopy, allows pigment-specific spectroscopic information on single multipigment antennae to be recorded in a nonperturbative aqueous environment with unprecedented detail. We focus on the monomer-to-trimer transformation of allophycocyanin (APC), an important antenna protein in cyanobacteria. Our data reveal that the two chemically identical pigments in APC have different roles. One (α) is the functional pigment that red-shifts its spectral properties upon trimer formation, whereas the other (β) is a “protective” pigment that persistently quenches the excited state of α in the prefunctional, monomer state of the protein. These results show how subtleties in pigment organization give rise to functionally important aspects of energy transfer and photoprotection in antenna complexes. The method developed here should find immediate application in understanding the emergent properties of other natural and artificial light-harvesting systems. PMID:26438850

  16. Synthesis of chromium containing pigments from chromium galvanic sludges.

    PubMed

    Andreola, F; Barbieri, L; Bondioli, F; Cannio, M; Ferrari, A M; Lancellotti, I

    2008-08-15

    In this work the screening results of the scientific activity conducted on laboratory scale to valorise chromium(III) contained in the galvanic sludge as chromium precursor for ceramic pigments are reported. The valorisation of this waste as a secondary raw material (SRM) is obtained by achievement of thermal and chemical stable crystal structures able to color ceramic material. Two different pigments pink CaCr(0.04)Sn(0.97)SiO(5) and green Ca(3)Cr(2)(SiO(4))(3) were synthesized by solid-state reactions using dried Cr sludge as chromium oxide precursor. The obtained pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis. Furthermore the color developed in a suitable ceramic glaze was investigated in comparison with the color developed by the pigments prepared from pure Cr(2)O(3). The characterization carried out corroborates the thermal and chemical stability of the synthesized pigments and, especially for the Cr-Sn pink pigment, the powders develop an intense color that is very similar to the color developed by the pigments obtained starting from pure Cr(2)O(3). PMID:18289775

  17. [Endoscopic image of "black esophagus"--case report].

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, Marek; Groszewski, Krzysztof

    2009-05-01

    "Black esophagus" is a typical endoscopic manifestation of acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), a rare disease. The etiology of disease is still unclear and complicated. As a serious risk factor is responsible for a high mortality. Endoscopic black pigmentation of esophageal mucosa mainly in the distal part of esophagus is observed with histological confirmed necrotic lesions of mucosa and submucosa. The gastrointestinal bleedings are the most frequent clinical manifestation of AEN. The disease mostly affects the elderly people with poor general health status having many co-morbid conditions. The condition is often preceded by hemodynamic problems and symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux. The case of 87-year-old female is presented with many risk factors. Her general health state was poor and endoscopic image of "black esophagus" was found during urgent endoscopy performed for the reason of gastrointestinal bleeding and hemodynamic dysfunction. PMID:19606700

  18. Inorganic yellow-red pigments without toxic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, M.; Letschert, H. P.

    2000-04-01

    Inorganic pigments have been utilized by mankind since ancient times, and are still widely used to colour materials exposed to elevated temperatures during processing or application. Indeed, in the case of glasses, glazes and ceramics, there is no alternative to inorganic pigments for colouring. However, most inorganic pigments contain heavy metals or transition metals that can adversely effect the environment and human health if critical levels are exceeded. Cadmium-based pigments in particular are a cause of concern: although the pigments are not toxic due to their very low solubility in water and dilute mineral acids, cadmium itself is toxic and can enter the environment in a bioavailable form through waste-disposal sites and incineration plants. This has led to regulations, based on the precautionary principle, that strongly restrict the use of cadmium pigments. And even though recent assessments have concluded that the risk to humans or the environment might be not as significant as originally feared, a strong demand for inherently safer substitutes remains. Here we demonstrate that solid solutions of the perovskites CaTaO 2N and LaTaON2 constitute promising candidates for such substitutes: their brilliance, tinting strength, opacity, dispersability, light-fastness and heat stability rival that of the cadmium pigments, while their colour can be tuned through the desired range, from yellow through orange to deep red, by simple composition adjustments. Because all the constituent elements are harmless, this perovskite-based inorganic pigment system seems a promising replacement that could eliminate one of the sources for cadmium emissions to the environment and some of the remaining concerns about pigment safety.

  19. Characterizing pigments with hyperspectral imaging variable false-color composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayem-Ghez, Anita; Ravaud, Elisabeth; Boust, Clotilde; Bastian, Gilles; Menu, Michel; Brodie-Linder, Nancy

    2015-11-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used for pigment characterization on paintings for the last 10 years. It is a noninvasive technique, which mixes the power of spectrophotometry and that of imaging technologies. We have access to a visible and near-infrared hyperspectral camera, ranging from 400 to 1000 nm in 80-160 spectral bands. In order to treat the large amount of data that this imaging technique generates, one can use statistical tools such as principal component analysis (PCA). To conduct the characterization of pigments, researchers mostly use PCA, convex geometry algorithms and the comparison of resulting clusters to database spectra with a specific tolerance (like the Spectral Angle Mapper tool on the dedicated software ENVI). Our approach originates from false-color photography and aims at providing a simple tool to identify pigments thanks to imaging spectroscopy. It can be considered as a quick first analysis to see the principal pigments of a painting, before using a more complete multivariate statistical tool. We study pigment spectra, for each kind of hue (blue, green, red and yellow) to identify the wavelength maximizing spectral differences. The case of red pigments is most interesting because our methodology can discriminate the red pigments very well—even red lakes, which are always difficult to identify. As for the yellow and blue categories, it represents a good progress of IRFC photography for pigment discrimination. We apply our methodology to study the pigments on a painting by Eustache Le Sueur, a French painter of the seventeenth century. We compare the results to other noninvasive analysis like X-ray fluorescence and optical microscopy. Finally, we draw conclusions about the advantages and limits of the variable false-color image method using hyperspectral imaging.

  20. Pigments and citrinin biosynthesis by fungi belonging to genus Monascus.

    PubMed

    Pisareva, Emiliya; Savov, Valentin; Kujumdzieva, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Citrinin is a mycotoxin, which is produced by fungi belonging to the genus Monascus, known in biotechnology as producers of azaphilone pigments. The relation between biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites was investigated in different species of the genus Monascus in batch-culture at the following cultivation conditions: T = 28 degrees C, agitation 220 rpm, and a medium, which induce citrinin production, containing ethanol as a carbon source. The screening was carried out with 16 fungal strains and the biosynthesis of citrinin and pigments was monitored quantitatively at the standard conditions mentioned above. Some kinetic parameters of the process have been determined. The values of the growth yield coefficient Y(X/C) were between 0.32 and 0.57. The amount of the extracellular red and orange pigments at the end of cultivation varied for the different strains between 0.09 and 1.33 OU/ mg dry weight, and 0.15 and 0.96 OU/mg dry weight, respectively. The amount of the total pigments measured was between 0.16 and 3.6 OU/mg dry weight, and between 0.21 and 3.39 OU/mg dry weight. The determined ratio 500 nm/400 nm, characterizing the pigment production, ranged between 0.60 and 1.06. Twelve of the investigated strains produced citrinin and pigments, two of them produced only pigments. Two strains were not able to produce neither pigments nor citrinin. Thus, the biosynthesis of citrinin appeared to be strain-specific and does not correlate with the pigments' biosynthesis by the fungal strains belonging to the genus Monascus. PMID:15787255

  1. Pigmentation development, defects, and patterning in summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus).

    PubMed

    Bolker, Jessica A; Hakala, Tanya F; Quist, Judith E

    2005-01-01

    Flounders offer unique opportunities to study the cytological basis of vertebrate pigmentation. Individual skin pigment cells are clearly visible at hatching, and flounder ontogeny includes a dramatic shift in overall pigmentation (from symmetrical to asymmetrical) during metamorphosis. Moreover, several types of malpigmentation occur in hatchery populations; although much effort has gone into reducing the frequency of such defects, their etiology remains poorly understood, and they have rarely been described at the cellular level. In this paper, we use light and fluorescence microscopy to describe the cytological basis of normal developmental changes and of common types of malpigmentation. We then discuss the implications of these observations for underlying patterning mechanisms. PMID:16351966

  2. Radiative properties of a painted layer containing nonspherical pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafey, H. M.; Kunitomo, T.

    1980-07-01

    The radiative properties of a painted layer containing nonspherical pigment particles are studied theoretically. The scattering properties are calculated using a new method based on the volume integral form of Maxwell's equations. The radiative transfer is treated by Chandrasekhar's theory. The effects of the optical properties of the pigment and the optical thickness are examined. It is found that the assumption for nonspherical pigments having the scattering properties calculated by the Mie theory for equivalent spherical particles leads to a considerable error in predicting the reflectances of an optically thin layer, and a small error in the case of a thick layer.

  3. Passivation of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.; Sancier, K. M.; Morrison, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Five powders were received for plasma calcining during this report period. The particle size using a fluid energy mill, and obtained pigments that could be plasma calcined. Optimum results are obtained in the plasma calcining of zinc orthotitanate when finely dispersed particles are subjected to a calculated plasma temperature of 1670 C. Increasing the plasma calcining time by using multiple passes through the plasma stabilized the pigment to vacuum UV irradiation was evidenced by the resulting ESR spectra but slightly decreased the whiteness of the pigment. The observed darkening is apparently associated with the formation of Ti(+3) color centers.

  4. Dermoscopic features of small size pigmented basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Asuka; Hara, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Miwa; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2016-05-01

    Dermoscopic images of histologically proven pigmented basal cell carcinomas (BCC) were retrospectively assessed to compare the dermoscopic features of BCC of 3 mm or less in diameter (n = 6) with BCC of 4-6 mm in diameter (n = 11). All lesions lacked the presence of a pigment network. BCC with a diameter of 3 mm or less had fewer positive dermoscopic features compared with the 4-6 mm in diameter BCC. Multiple blue-gray globules and large blue-gray ovoid nests were frequently present. Dermoscopy is a useful tool for early diagnosis of pigmented BCC, even when they are small. PMID:26458728

  5. Mineral resource of the month: iron oxide pigments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses iron oxide pigments, which have been used as colorants since human began painting as they resist color change due to sunlight exposure, have good chemical resistance and are stable under normal ambient conditions. Cyprus, Italy and Spain are among the countries that are known for the production of iron oxide pigments. Granular forms of iron oxides and nano-sized materials are cited as developments in the synthetic iron oxide pigment industry which are being used in computer disk drives and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Comparison of pigment cell ultrastructure and organisation in the dermis of marble trout and brown trout, and first description of erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Djurdjevič, Ida; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Sušnik Bajec, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Skin pigmentation in animals is an important trait with many functions. The present study focused on two closely related salmonid species, marble trout (Salmo marmoratus) and brown trout (S. trutta), which display an uncommon labyrinthine (marble-like) and spot skin pattern, respectively. To determine the role of chromatophore type in the different formation of skin pigment patterns in the two species, the distribution and ultrastructure of chromatophores was examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of three types of chromatophores in trout skin was confirmed: melanophores; xanthophores; and iridophores. In addition, using correlative microscopy, erythrophore ultrastructure in salmonids was described for the first time. Two types of erythrophores are distinguished, both located exclusively in the skin of brown trout: type 1 in black spot skin sections similar to xanthophores; and type 2 with a unique ultrastructure, located only in red spot skin sections. Morphologically, the difference between the light and dark pigmentation of trout skin depends primarily on the position and density of melanophores, in the dark region covering other chromatophores, and in the light region with the iridophores and xanthophores usually exposed. With larger amounts of melanophores, absence of xanthophores and presence of erythrophores type 1 and type L iridophores in the black spot compared with the light regions and the presence of erythrophores type 2 in the red spot, a higher level of pigment cell organisation in the skin of brown trout compared with that of marble trout was demonstrated. Even though the skin regions with chromatophores were well defined, not all the chromatophores were in direct contact, either homophilically or heterophilically, with each other. In addition to short-range interactions, an important role of the cellular environment and long-range interactions between chromatophores in promoting adult pigment pattern

  7. Effect of light on growth, intracellular and extracellular pigment production by five pigment-producing filamentous fungi in synthetic medium.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Yong Hoon; Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, Perumalsamy; Chae, Jong-Chan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2010-04-01

    The competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. The effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers Monascus purpureus, Isaria farinosa, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. Incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment production in all the fungi. Extracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 36.75 + or - 2.1 OD and minimum in white unscreened light 5.90 + or - 1.1 OD. Similarly, intracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 18.27 + or - 0.9 OD/g and minimum in yellow light 8.03 + or - 0.6 OD/g of substrate. The maximum biomass production was also noticed in darkness 2.51 g/L and minimum in yellow light 0.5 g/L of dry weight. In contrast, growth of fungi in green and yellow wavelengths resulted in low biomass and pigment yield. It was found that darkness, (red 780-622 nm, blue 492-455 nm) and white light influenced pigment and biomass yield. PMID:20226375

  8. Black Colouration of the Knee Articular Cartilage after Spontaneously Recurrent Haemarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Daichi; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Akiyama, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Mild discolouration of the articular cartilage is known to gradually occur during aging. However, pathological tissue pigmentation is occasionally induced under several specific conditions. In the present case, we performed total knee replacement in a patient with recurrent haemarthrosis. However, during the operation, we observed severe black colouration of the knee articular cartilage, due to the deposition of hemosiderin and lipofuscin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of severe cartilage pigmentation, due to hemosiderin and lipofuscin deposition in articular cartilage. PMID:27293933

  9. Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Puech, Antoine A.; Rebeiz, Constantin A.; Crane, Julian C.

    1976-01-01

    The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to `Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of β-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of β-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment. There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls. Images PMID:16659515

  10. Porphyromonas gingivalis and related bacteria: from colonial pigmentation to the type IX secretion system and gliding motility

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, K

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a gram-negative, non-motile, anaerobic bacterium implicated as a major pathogen in periodontal disease. P. gingivalis grows as black-pigmented colonies on blood agar, and many bacteriologists have shown interest in this property. Studies of colonial pigmentation have revealed a number of important findings, including an association with the highly active extracellular and surface proteinases called gingipains that are found in P. gingivalis. The Por secretion system, a novel type IX secretion system (T9SS), has been implicated in gingipain secretion in studies using non-pigmented mutants. In addition, many potent virulence proteins, including the metallocarboxypeptidase CPG70, 35 kDa hemin-binding protein HBP35, peptidylarginine deiminase PAD and Lys-specific serine endopeptidase PepK, are secreted through the T9SS. These findings have not been limited to P. gingivalis but have been extended to other bacteria belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Many Bacteroidetes species possess the T9SS, which is associated with gliding motility for some of these bacteria. PMID:25546073

  11. Pigment Changes Associated with Application of Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic Acid) to Fig (Ficus carica L.) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Puech, A A; Rebeiz, C A; Crane, J C

    1976-04-01

    The application of (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (Ethephon) to ;Mission' fig fruits (Ficus carica L.) during late period II of their development stimulated ripening and change in color from green to bluish black within 8 days. Chlorophylls a and b decreased rapidly within 4 days after Ethephon treatment, and degradation continued at a decreasing rate for an additional 4 days, at which time the fruits had attained their maximum diameter and were considered fully ripe. Levels of beta-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin decreased in a pattern similar to that of chlorophylls a and b. The rates of beta-carotene and lutein degradation were initially greater than those of the xanthophyll pigments. Degradation rates of the various carotenoids were comparable 4 to 8 days after treatment.There was no measurable anthocyanin synthesis during a 2- to 4-day period following Ethephon treatment. Beyond this lag phase, anthocyanin accumulation was linear, and the amount of pigment synthesized was a function of both light intensity and duration. Although Ethephon promoted the rate of anthocyanin accumulation, it did not increase the total amount of pigment synthesized in treated fruits. Etiolation of fruits from the time of Ethephon treatment until maturity stimulated an increase in growth and completely inhibited anthocyanin production in the skin. Ethephon-treated fruits which ripened while etiolated were larger in diameter and higher in both fresh and dry weights than nonetiolated controls. PMID:16659515

  12. Influence of pigments and protein aging on protein identification in historically representative casein-based paints using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fang; Atlasevich, Natalya; Baade, Brian; Loike, John; Arslanoglu, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A systematic study on the influence of pigments and sample aging on casein identification was performed on 30 reconstructed paints. The protein in all the paints was extracted into solution for analysis. The amount of protein that can be retrieved for solution-based analysis in each of the reconstructed paints was studied with a well-developed NanoOrange method before and after artificial aging. The results showed that in the paints with calcium phosphate (in bone black) and copper carbonate, hydroxide, or acetate (in verdigris and azurite), the amount of protein that can be retrieved for liquid-phase analysis is much smaller than the other paints, indicating that the protein degradation was accelerated significantly in those paints. Carbon (in vine black), calcium carbonate (in natural chalk), and calcium sulfate (terra alba gypsum and ground alabaster) did not affect much the amount of protein that can be retrieved in the paints compared to non-pigmented binder, meaning that the protein degradation rate was not affected much by those pigments. Artificial aging was observed to decrease the amount of retrievable protein in all the reconstructed paints that were studied. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was applied to the 28 reconstructed paints (except two verdigris paints) to assess the protein identification. The ELISA responses from the different paints were compared at fixed protein concentrations. Natural chalk, bone black, raw sienna, stack lead white, and cochineal red-violet lake had the lowest ELISA signal in this study, which indicated that the binding sites (epitopes) on the target protein in these paints are likely to deteriorate more than those in the other paints. Artificial aging did not influence the ELISA response as much as the pigments when the protein concentration was kept the same for the paints that were studied. PMID:26472321

  13. Anticorrosive pigments. (Latest citations from World Surface Coatings abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the composition and preparation of pigments that have good anticorrosive and weather-resistant qualities. The citations examine non-lead pigments as alternatives to lead-based pigments, and include test results. Some references describe resin compositions developed specifically for use with these pigments. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Infrared spectra of U.S. automobile original finishes (1998-2000). IX. identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments using extended range FT-IR spectroscopy, XRF spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Edward M

    2014-09-01

    Bismuth oxychloride (BiOCl) was the first viable synthetic pearl pigment developed 50 years ago. It was only used for a limited time period in automotive paint (model years 1998-2000), serving to produce luster for a single Chrysler black metallic color. Identification of this pigment in an unknown automotive paint can thus facilitate determination of the vehicle of origin. Bismuth oxychloride imparts effects similar to those produced by silver/white mica pearlescent pigments, and such a pigment was used together with bismuth oxychloride in at least one original equipment manufacturer (OEM) basecoat. Silver/white micas are now used primarily in white pearl tricoat systems. This article describes the identification of bismuth oxychloride and silver/white mica pearlescent pigments in automotive finishes using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, and SEM/EDS analysis. Data for some cadmium pigments, which were used in automotive paint several decades ago, are also presented as they produce infrared absorptions similar to that of bismuth oxychloride. PMID:24646090

  15. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Marlene; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Westhoff, Guido

    2013-05-01

    The West African Gaboon viper (Bitis rhinoceros) is a master of camouflage due to its colouration pattern. Its skin is geometrically patterned and features black spots that purport an exceptional spatial depth due to their velvety surface texture. Our study shades light on micromorphology, optical characteristics and principles behind such a velvet black appearance. We revealed a unique hierarchical pattern of leaf-like microstructures striated with nanoridges on the snake scales that coincides with the distribution of black colouration. Velvet black sites demonstrate four times lower reflectance and higher absorbance than other scales in the UV - near IR spectral range. The combination of surface structures impeding reflectance and absorbing dark pigments, deposited in the skin material, provides reflecting less than 11% of the light reflected by a polytetrafluoroethylene diffuse reflectance standard in any direction. A view-angle independent black structural colour in snakes is reported here for the first time.

  16. Snake velvet black: Hierarchical micro- and nanostructure enhances dark colouration in Bitis rhinoceros

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Marlene; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Westhoff, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The West African Gaboon viper (Bitis rhinoceros) is a master of camouflage due to its colouration pattern. Its skin is geometrically patterned and features black spots that purport an exceptional spatial depth due to their velvety surface texture. Our study shades light on micromorphology, optical characteristics and principles behind such a velvet black appearance. We revealed a unique hierarchical pattern of leaf-like microstructures striated with nanoridges on the snake scales that coincides with the distribution of black colouration. Velvet black sites demonstrate four times lower reflectance and higher absorbance than other scales in the UV – near IR spectral range. The combination of surface structures impeding reflectance and absorbing dark pigments, deposited in the skin material, provides reflecting less than 11% of the light reflected by a polytetrafluoroethylene diffuse reflectance standard in any direction. A view-angle independent black structural colour in snakes is reported here for the first time. PMID:23677278

  17. Antitumor effects of dietary black and brown rice brans in tumor-bearing mice: relationship to composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scope: We investigated the effects of oral feeding of a mouse diet supplemented with 10% (w/w) pigmented black bran from the rice variety Oryza sativa cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1 and 10% (w/w) nonpigmented brown bran from the commercial rice Oryza sativa cv. Chuchung as an internal control on the growth of t...

  18. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  19. The Byzantine Church of '40 Holy Martyrs' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Angelova, S.

    2010-01-21

    The 'St. 40 Martyrs' church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (mus-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  20. Black Hole Syndrome 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2000-08-01

    A black hole falling into the Earth would syndrome toward the center, while it would shine through mass accretion. The author has re-examined the dynamics of such a black hole in the Earth. In the case of a non-radiating black hole, the timescale of the syndrome is inversely proportional to the initial mass of the black hole. In the case of a radiating black hole, on the other hand, the syndrome time is of the order of the Eddington time. The radiating black hole in the Earth would act as a strong heat source.

  1. Bactobilin: blue bile pigment isolated from Clostridium tetanomorphum.

    PubMed Central

    Brumm, P J; Fried, J; Friedmann, H C

    1983-01-01

    A blue bile pigment, possessing four acetic and four propionic acid side chains has been isolated from extracts of the anaerobic microorganism Clostridium tetanomorphum and in smaller amounts from Propionibacterium shermanii. The compound could be prepared in larger amounts by incubation of C. tetanomorphum enzyme extracts with added delta-aminolevulinic acid. The ultraviolet-visible, infrared, and proton magnetic resonance spectra of the pigment indicate a chromophore of the biliverdin type. Field-desorption mass spectrometry of the purified methyl ester showed a strong molecular ion at m/e = 962. This corresponds to the molecular weight expected for the octamethyl ester of a bilatriene type of bile pigment structurally derived from uroporphyrin III or I. Of the five possible structures, two could be eliminated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The name bactobilin is proposed for this previously unreported bile pigment. PMID:6575387

  2. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significant reduction of b* values, TBA values and VBN values (p<0.05). Based mainly on the results of overall acceptance during 29 d storage, it could be concluded that Amaranthus pigments showed a potential as nitrite alternative for pork sausage manufacture. PMID:25049507

  3. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  4. Ion beam induced luminescence on white inorganic pigments for paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaranta, A.; Dran, J. C.; Salomon, J.; Tonezzer, M.; Scian, C.; Beck, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Della Mea, G.

    2008-05-01

    Ion beam induced luminescence (IBIL) has been used for studying the emission features and the radiation hardness of white pigments. In particular, ZnO, gypsum and basic lead sulphate pigments have been analyzed with a 3.0 MeV H+ beam at the AGLAE Louvre laboratory. The same pigments mixed with different binders have been also analyzed on a canvas, in order to evaluate the contribution of the binders both to the IBIL spectra and to the radiation hardness. It turns out that the binder affects both the IBIL spectra and the radiation hardness of pigments when the emission bands are related to point defects, as occurs for ZnO.

  5. Resonant imaging of carotenoid pigments in the human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellermann, Werner; Emakov, Igor V.; McClane, Robert W.

    2002-06-01

    We have generated high spatial resolution images showing the distribution of carotenoid macular pigments in the human retina using Raman spectroscopy. A low level of macular pigments is associated with an increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Using excised human eyecups and resonant excitation of the pigment molecules with narrow bandwidth blue light from a mercury arc lamp, we record Raman images originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of lutein and zeaxanthin, the carotenoids comprising human macular pigments. Our Raman images reveal significant differences among subjects, both in regard to absolute levels as well as spatial distribution within the macula. Since the light levels used to obtain these images are well below established safety limits, this technique holds promise for developing a rapid screening diagnostic in large populations at risk for vision loss from age-related macular degeneration.

  6. Cellulosic/wool pigment prints with remarkable antibacterial functionalities.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; Eid, B M; Khalil, H M

    2015-01-22

    Several bio-active agents namely choline chloride, triclosan derivative, PEG-600 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone were successfully included into solvent-free pigment formulations, in a single-stage process, followed by screen printing and microwave-fixation to obtain antibacterial functionalized cellulosic/wool pigment prints. Results obtained signify that both the improvement in functionalization and coloration properties are governed by type of antibacterial agent, kind of substrate as well as pigment colorant. The imparted antibacterial activity of the loaded bio-active agents follows the decreasing order: G+ve (Staphylococcus aureus)>G-ve (Escherichia coli), keeping other parameters constant. The imparted functional and coloration properties showed no significant decrease even after 15 washings. Mode of interactions among the nominated substrates, the pigment paste constituents and the bioactive agents were also proposed. PMID:25439932

  7. Pigments and photoconductive elements sensitive to infrared radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Y.; Regan, M.T.; Staudenmayer, W.J.

    1988-02-23

    A method of preparing a bromoindium phthalocyanine pigment is described which comprises reacting diiminoisoindoline of a purity of at least 99 percent by weight with indium bromide in a solvent comprising 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone.

  8. The red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Li, JingHua; Chen, Jie; Liu, XiaoYuan; Xiang, TingTing; Zhang, Lin; Wan, YongJi

    2016-05-01

    Although pigments produced by pathogenic microbes are generally hypothesized as essential virulence factors, the role of red pigment prodigiosin in the pathogenesis of entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens is not clear. In this study, we analyzed the pathogenicity of different pigmented S. marcescens strains and their non-pigmented mutants in silkworms. Each pigmented strain and the corresponding non-pigmented mutants showed very similar LD50 value (statistically no difference), but caused very different symptom (color of the dead larva). Our results clearly indicated that the red pigment prodigiosin is not an essential virulence factor in entomopathogenic S. marcescens. PMID:27000435

  9. Relation of the fractal structure of organic pigments to their performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillas, G.; Agashe, N.; Kohls, D. J.; Ilavsky, J.; Jemian, P.; Clapp, L.; Schwartz, R. J.; Beaucage, G.

    2002-05-01

    Different pigments embedded in polymer matrices were examined by small angle scattering of x- rays over 3 wave number decades. The scattering intensities show differences both in the mass fractal dimension (varying between 1.4 and 2.67) and the size of the particles. The differences are pronounced between dry pigment powders and the same powders in a polymer matrix as well as between the pigments themselves. Further, a correlation of pigment geometrical configuration and pigment performance, as perceived by the human eye, shows how pigments with a maximum color brightness per pigment mass can be created.

  10. Isolation and structures of oligomeric wine pigments by bisulfite-mediated ion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Asenstorfer, R E; Hayasaka, Y; Jones, G P

    2001-12-01

    Methods have been developed that are based on cation exchange chromatography in the absence and presence of excess bisulfite for the isolation of wine pigments from Australian red wine and grape marc extract. The pigments were identified using HPLC and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The mass spectral data indicate that these pigments are C4-substituted anthocyanins with a tetracyclic structure. The pigments form a series of closely related oligomeric pigments which include those previously described in the literature, such as pigment A and vitisin A, as well as some newly identified pigments. PMID:11743792

  11. Na(+-) Cl(-)- and HCO3(-)-dependent base uptake in the ciliary body pigment pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Butler, G A; Chen, M; Stegman, Z; Wolosin, J M

    1994-09-01

    Segments of whole ciliary body dissected from Dutch belted rabbits were incubated for 60 min at 36 degrees C in a 30 microM Ca2+ Ringer's. The inner limiting membrane with its adherent non-pigmented epithelium then was mechanically removed from the surface. The newly-exposed viable layer of pigmented cells was then loaded with the fluorescent probe 2'-7'-bis (carboxymethyl)-5(6) carboxyfluorescein by incubating the segments for 45 min at RT with the cell permeable acetoxymethoxy form of the dye. These loaded tissues were perfused in a flow-through chamber, mounted on the heated stage of a microscope equipped for quantitative epifluorescence, and the intracellular pH (pHi) of small groups of cells was derived from the ratio of emission intensities generated by excitations at 490 and 440 nm, respectively. In N[2-hydroxyethyl] piperazine-N"-[2 ethane sulfonic acid](Hepes)-buffered Ringer's the intracellular pH was 7.23 +/- 0.21 (+/- S.D., n = 20). Replacement of 28 mM Hepes by 28 mM HCO3-/5% CO2 led to a 0.14 +/- 0.04 increase in pHi. This increase required the presence of Na+ and Cl- and was inhibited by 0.2 mM diisothiocyanatostilbene-2-2'-disulfonic acid. These observations as well as characteristic pHi, responses to the removal or introduction of Na+ or Cl- indicated the presence in the pigmented cells of a Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent HCO3- transporter responsible for base uptake. PMID:7821379

  12. Monodisperse Hollow Tricolor Pigment Particles for Electronic Paper

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A general approach has been designed to blue, green, and red pigments by metal ions doping hollow TiO 2. The reaction involves initial formation of PS at TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles via a mixed-solvent method, and then mixing with metal ions solution containing PEG, followed calcining in the atmosphere. The as-prepared hollow pigments exhibit uniform size, bright color, and tunable density, which are fit for electronic paper display. PMID:20651918

  13. Color stability of thermochromic pigment in maxillofacial silicone

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Lippo V.J.; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Valittu, Pekka K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Maxillofacial silicone elastomer is usually colored intrinsically with color pigments to match skin colors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the color stability of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer, colored with a thermochromic, color changing pigment. MATERIALS AND METHODS Disc-shaped maxillofacial silicone specimens were prepared and divided into 3 groups: a conventionally colored control group, one group additionally colored with 0.2 wt% thermochromic pigment , and one group with 0.6 wt% thermochromic pigment. Half of the surface of each specimen was covered with an aluminium foil. All of the specimens were exposed to UV radiation in 6 hour cycles over 46 days. In between the UV exposures, half of the specimens were stored in darkness, at room temperature, and the other half was stored in an incubator, at a humidity of 97% and a temperature of +37℃. Color measurements were made with a spectrophotometer and registered according to the CIELAB L*a*b* color model system. The changes in L*, a* and b* values during artificial aging were statistically analyzed by using paired samples t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. P-values <.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS The UV exposure resulted in visually noticeable and statistically significant color changes in the L*, a* and b* values in both of the test groups containing thermochromic pigment. Storage in the incubator lead to statistically significant color changes in the a* and b* values of the specimens containing thermochromic pigment, compared to those stored at room temperature. CONCLUSION The specimens containing thermochromic pigment were very sensitive to UV radiation, and the thermochromic pigment is not suitable, as such, to be used in maxillofacial prostheses. PMID:23755330

  14. Pigmented papillary carcinoma: a rare tumor of the male breast.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Andrea; Istók, Roland; Székely, Eszter; Glasz, Tibor; Kulka, Janina

    2008-09-01

    Primary melanin pigment containing tumors of the breast are rare. We report a pigmented papillary carcinoma of a 60-year-old male patient who presented a firm mass 1.7 cm in diameter with an ill defined border on ultrasonography behind the mamilla. To the best of our knowledge this is the third case report of this type of tumor in male breast. PMID:18575825

  15. Pigment compositions are linked to the habitat types in dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Norico; Tanaka, Ayumi; Horiguchi, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Compared to planktonic species, there is little known about the ecology, physiology, and existence of benthic dinoflagellates living in sandy beach or seafloor environments. In a previous study, we discovered 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) from sand-dwelling benthic dinoflagellates. This enol had never been detected in phytoplankton despite the fact that it is a chlorophyll a catabolite. We speculated from this discovery that habitat selection might be linked to pigment compositions in dinoflagellates. To test the hypothesis of habitat selection linking to pigment compositions, we conducted extensive analysis of pigments with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 40 species using 45 strains of dinoflagellates including three habitat types; sand-dwelling benthic forms, tidal pool inhabitants and planktonic species. The 40 dinoflagellates are also able to be distinguished into two types based on their chloroplast origins; red alga-derived secondary chloroplasts and diatom-derived tertiary ones. By plotting the pigments profiles onto three habitats, we noticed that twelve pigments including cPPB-aE were found to occur only in benthic sand-dwelling species of red alga-derived type. The similar tendency was also observed in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts, i.e. additional sixteen pigments including chl c 3 were found only in sand-dwelling forms. This is the first report of the occurrence of chl c 3 in dinoflagellates with diatom-derived chloroplasts. These results clarify that far greater diversity of pigments are produced by the dinoflagellates living in sand regardless of chloroplast types relative to those of planktonic and tidal pool forms. Dinoflagellates seem to produce a part of their pigments in response to their habitats. PMID:26243150

  16. Chemical purity and toxicology of pigments used in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik; Lewe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The safety of tattoo inks has obviously increased in Europe since the existence of European Union Resolution ResAP(2008)1, which resulted in the improved quality control of pigment raw materials due to the definition of impurity limits that manufacturers can refer to. High-performance pigments are mostly used in tattoo inks, and these pigments are supposed to be chemically inert and offer high light fastness and low migration in solvents. However, these pigments were not developed or produced for applications involving long-term stay in the dermis or contact with bodily fluids. Therefore, these pigments often do not comply with the purity limits of the resolution; however, it is required that every distributed tattoo ink does not contain aromatic amines and not exceed the limits of heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current toxicity studies of pigments underline that no ecotoxicological threat to human health or to the environment should be expected. However, the pigment as well as its impurities and coating materials must be considered. In order to evaluate the safety of pigments according to their impurities, two different validated sample preparation methods are necessary: (1) simulation of their long-term stay in the bodily fluid of the dermis and (2) simulation of cleavage due to laser removal or ultraviolet exposure. The development of standardized, validated and well-adapted methods for this application has to be part of prospective efforts. Concerning legislation, it might be appropriate that the first regulative approaches be based on those of cosmetics. PMID:25833635

  17. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. PMID:26370651

  18. Glucose metabolism in rat retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, Víctor; Carbajal, Raymundo C; Salceda, Rocío

    2006-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the major transport pathway for exchange of metabolites and ions between choroidal blood supply and the neural retina. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism in RPE and its possible relationship to retinopathy, we studied the influence of different glucose concentrations on glycogen and lactate levels and CO(2) production in RPE from normal and streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Incubation of normal RPE in the absence of glucose caused a decrease in lactate production and glycogen content. In normal RPE, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO(2) yield, as well as reduction in lactate and glycogen production. In RPE from diabetic rats glucose accumulation did not increase in the presence of high glucose substrate, but it showed a four- and a seven-fold increase in CO(2) production through the mitochondrial and pentose phosphate pathways, respectively. We found high glycogen levels in RPE which can be used as an energy reserve for RPE itself and/or neural retina. Findings further show that the RPE possesses a high oxidative capacity. The large increase in glucose shunting to the pentose phosphate pathway in diabetic retina exposed to high glucose suggests a need for reducing capacity, consistent with increased oxidative stress. PMID:16475003

  19. Polyketides, Toxins and Pigments in Penicillium marneffei

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W. T.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei (synonym: Talaromyces marneffei) is the most important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus in China and Southeastern Asia. The HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in China and other Southeast Asian countries, has led to the emergence of P. marneffei infection as an important AIDS-defining condition. Recently, we published the genome sequence of P. marneffei. In the P. marneffei genome, 23 polyketide synthase genes and two polyketide synthase-non-ribosomal peptide synthase hybrid genes were identified. This number is much higher than those of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungi in the Western world. Phylogenetically, these polyketide synthase genes were distributed evenly with their counterparts found in Aspergillus species and other fungi, suggesting that polyketide synthases in P. marneffei did not diverge from lineage-specific gene duplication through a recent expansion. Gene knockdown experiments and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that at least four of the polyketide synthase genes were involved in the biosynthesis of various pigments in P. marneffei, including melanin, mitorubrinic acid, mitorubrinol, monascorubrin, rubropunctatin, citrinin and ankaflavin, some of which were mycotoxins and virulence factors of the fungus. PMID:26529013

  20. Analytical Raman spectroscopic discrimination between yellow pigments of the Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M

    2011-10-01

    The Renaissance represented a major advance in painting techniques, subject matter, artistic style and the use of pigments and pigment mixtures. However, most pigments in general use were still mineral-based as most organic dyes were believed to be fugitive; the historical study of artists' palettes and recipes has assumed importance for the attribution of art works to the Renaissance period. Although the application of diagnostic elemental and molecular spectroscopic techniques play vital and complementary roles in the analysis of art works, elemental techniques alone cannot definitively provide the data needed for pigment identification. The advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the definitive diagnostic characterisation of yellow pigments that were in use during the Renaissance is demonstrated here in consideration of heavy metal oxides and sulphides; these data will be compared with those obtained from analyses of synthetic yellow pigments that were available during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries which could have been used in unrecorded restorations of Renaissance paintings. PMID:21296610

  1. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications. PMID:26341482

  2. [Synthesis and characterization of mixed metal oxide pigments].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jie; Yue, Shi-juan; Liu, Cui-ge; Wei, Yong-ju; Meng, Tao; Jiang, Han-jie; Shi, Yong-zheng; Xu, Yi-zhuang; Yu, Jiang; Wu, Jin-guang

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, aluminum chloride and various soluble salts of doping ions were dissolved in water. In addition, urea and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were also dissolved in the above aqueous solution under supersonic treatments. Then the solutions were heated to induce the hydrolysis of urea so that soluble aluminum and doping ions convert into insoluble hydroxide or carbonate gels. After calcinations, the obtained gels change to mixed metal oxide pigments whose color is related to type and concentrations of the doping ions. XRD characterization demonstrates that the diffraction patterns of the products are the same as that of alpha-alumina. Diffuse reflectance spectra of samples of the samples in UV-Vis regions show that the absorption bands for d-d transitions of the doping ions undergo considerable change as the coordinate environments change. In addition, L*, a* and b* values of the pigments were measured by using UV-Vis densitometer. SEM results indicate that the size of the pigment powders is in the range 200-300 nm. The pigments are quite stable since no evidence of dissolution was observed after the synthesized pigment is soaked for 24 hours. ICP test shows that very little amount of doped metal occurs in the corresponding filtrate. The above results suggest that these new kinds of mixed metal oxide pigments are stable, non-toxic, environmental friendly and they may be applicable in molten spinning process and provide a new chance for non-aqueous printing and dyeing industry. PMID:22582641

  3. Production of diagnostic pigment by phenoloxidase activity of cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C E; Kapica, L

    1972-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans produces brown pigmented colonies when grown on agar media made from an extract of potatoes and carrots, broad beans (Vicia faba), or Guizotia abyssinica seeds. Since other yeasts do not produce the pigment, these media are useful as differential isolation media for C. neoformans. Similar specific pigment was produced by C. neoformans on chemically defined agar media which contained six different substrates of phenoloxidase (o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.1) an enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of o-diphenols to melanin. Substrates were incorporated singly into the media and included L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechol, norepinephrine, and 3-hydroxytyramine hydrochloride (dopamine). No pigment was produced on media without substrate. Phenoloxidase activity in (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitates of C. neoformans cell-free extract was assayed by measuring increases in absorbance at 480 nm produced in solutions of L-DOPA. This reaction showed oxygen uptake and was effectively inhibited by copper chelators, but not by catalase. The enzyme also oxidized the five other substrates which induced pigment formation. Electron micrographs of cells incubated in L-DOPA showed deposition of the pigment in the cell wall. PMID:4118328

  4. Effect of pretreatments on extraction of pigment from marigold flower.

    PubMed

    Sowbhagya, Halagur B; Sushma, S B; Rastogi, Navin K; Naidu, M Madhava

    2013-02-01

    Marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L) is one of the richest sources of xanthophylls. An enzymatic pretreatment method was developed for improved extraction of pigments from marigold flowers. Pretreatment with enzyme solution increased the diffusion coefficient from 1.56 x 10(-9) m(2)/s to 4.02 x 10(-9) m(2)/s and mass transfer coefficient from 0.14 h(-1) to 0.36 h(-1) coefficients. At the same time, dry yield, resin yield and pigment yield were also found to increase along with increased retention of colour. Sodium hydroxide or citric acid pretreatments increased the diffusion coefficient during drying, but resulted in lower dry yield due to loss of soluble compounds whereas, pigment yield was higher as compared to control. The enzyme treated and air dried sample, stored at 4 °C was found to be the most stable, as indicated by a low (0.0006 day(-1)) degradation constant. Pretreatment of marigold flowers with an aqueous enzyme solution (0.2%) results in improved resin, pigment yield and retention of pigment during storage. Pretreatment of marigold flowers with sodium hydroxide citric acid followed by hydraulic pressing resulted in a significant reduction of water and also indicated improved dry yield, resin yield and pigment yield as compared to control sample. PMID:24425896

  5. Host pigments: potential facilitators of photosynthesis in coral symbioses.

    PubMed

    Dove, Sophie G; Lovell, Carli; Fine, Maoz; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Anthony, Kenneth R N

    2008-11-01

    Reef-building corals occur as a range of colour morphs because of varying types and concentrations of pigments within the host tissues, but little is known about their physiological or ecological significance. Here, we examined whether specific host pigments act as an alternative mechanism for photoacclimation in the coral holobiont. We used the coral Montipora monasteriata (Forskål 1775) as a case study because it occurs in multiple colour morphs (tan, blue, brown, green and red) within varying light-habitat distributions. We demonstrated that two of the non-fluorescent host pigments are responsive to changes in external irradiance, with some host pigments up-regulating in response to elevated irradiance. This appeared to facilitate the retention of antennal chlorophyll by endosymbionts and hence, photosynthetic capacity. Specifically, net P(max) Chl a(-1) correlated strongly with the concentration of an orange-absorbing non-fluorescent pigment (CP-580). This had major implications for the energetics of bleached blue-pigmented (CP-580) colonies that maintained net P(max) cm(-2) by increasing P(max) Chl a(-1). The data suggested that blue morphs can bleach, decreasing their symbiont populations by an order of magnitude without compromising symbiont or coral health. PMID:18643952

  6. Distribution of unique red feather pigments in parrots

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Kevin J; Nogare, Mary C

    2005-01-01

    In many birds, red, orange and yellow feathers are coloured by carotenoid pigments, but parrots are an exception. For over a century, biochemists have known that parrots use an unusual set of pigments to produce their rainbow of plumage colours, but their biochemical identity has remained elusive until recently. Here, we use high-performance liquid chromatography to survey the pigments present in the red feathers of 44 species of parrots representing each of the three psittaciform families. We found that all species used the same suite of five polyenal lipochromes (or psittacofulvins) to colour their plumage red, indicating that this unique system of pigmentation is remarkably conserved evolutionarily in parrots. Species with redder feathers had higher concentrations of psittacofulvins in their plumage, but neither feather colouration nor historical relatedness predicted the ratios in which the different pigments appeared. These polyenes were absent from blood at the time when birds were replacing their colourful feathers, suggesting that parrots do not acquire red plumage pigments from the diet, but instead manufacture them endogenously at growing feathers. PMID:17148123

  7. Carotenoid binding to proteins: Modeling pigment transport to lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Reszczynska, Emilia; Welc, Renata; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2015-10-15

    Carotenoid pigments play numerous important physiological functions in human organism. Very special is a role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the retina of an eye and in particular in its central part, the macula lutea. In the retina, carotenoids can be directly present in the lipid phase of the membranes or remain bound to the protein-pigment complexes. In this work we address a problem of binding of carotenoids to proteins and possible role of such structures in pigment transport to lipid membranes. Interaction of three carotenoids, beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin with two proteins: bovine serum albumin and glutathione S-transferase (GST) was investigated with application of molecular spectroscopy techniques: UV-Vis absorption, circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Interaction of pigment-protein complexes with model lipid bilayers formed with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine was investigated with application of FTIR, Raman imaging of liposomes and electrophysiological technique, in the planar lipid bilayer models. The results show that in all the cases of protein and pigment studied, carotenoids bind to protein and that the complexes formed can interact with membranes. This means that protein-carotenoid complexes are capable of playing physiological role in pigment transport to biomembranes. PMID:26361975

  8. Fluorescence and reflectance properties of hemoglobin-pigmented skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyanova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.

    2007-06-01

    There has been growing interest in clinical application of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS) to differentiate disease from normal surrounding tissue, including skin pathologies. Pigmented cutaneous lesions diagnosis plays important role in clinical practice, as malignant melanoma, which is characterized with greatest mortality from all skin cancer types, must be carefully discriminated form other colorized pathologies. The goals of this work were investigation of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions (heamangioma, angiokeratoma, and fibroma) by the methods of LIAFS and RS. Spectra from healthy skin areas near to the lesion were detected to be used posteriori in analysis. Fluorescence and reflectance of cutaneous hemoglobin-pigmented lesions are used to develop criterion for differentiation from other pigmented pathologies. Origins of the spectral features obtained are discussed and determination of lesion types is achieved using selected spectral features. The spectral results, obtained were used to develop multispectral diagnostic algorithms based on the most prominent spectral features from the fluorescence and reflectance spectra of the lesions investigated. In comparison between normal skin and different cutaneous lesion types and between lesion types themselves sensitivities and specificities higher than 90 % were achieved. These results show a perspective possibility to differentiate hemoglobin-pigmented lesions from other pigmented pathologies using non-invasive and real time discrimination procedure.

  9. Genetic Architecture of Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dembeck, Lauren M.; Huang, Wen; Magwire, Michael M.; Lawrence, Faye; Lyman, Richard F.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentation varies within and between species and is often adaptive. The amount of pigmentation on the abdomen of Drosophila melanogaster is a relatively simple morphological trait, which serves as a model for mapping the genetic basis of variation in complex phenotypes. Here, we assessed natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in 175 sequenced inbred lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, derived from the Raleigh, NC population. We quantified the proportion of melanization on the two most posterior abdominal segments, tergites 5 and 6 (T5, T6). We found significant genetic variation in the proportion of melanization and high broad-sense heritabilities for each tergite. Genome-wide association studies identified over 150 DNA variants associated with the proportion of melanization on T5 (84), T6 (34), and the difference between T5 and T6 (35). Several of the top variants associated with variation in pigmentation are in tan, ebony, and bric-a-brac1, genes known to affect D. melanogaster abdominal pigmentation. Mutational analyses and targeted RNAi-knockdown showed that 17 out of 28 (61%) novel candidate genes implicated by the genome-wide association study affected abdominal pigmentation. Several of these genes are involved in developmental and regulatory pathways, chitin production, cuticle structure, and vesicle formation and transport. These findings show that genetic variation may affect multiple steps in pathways involved in tergite development and melanization. Variation in these novel candidates may serve as targets for adaptive evolution and sexual selection in D. melanogaster. PMID:25933381

  10. Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin) by Marine Rheinheimera spp.

    PubMed Central

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Thorwest, Marc; Plitzko, Inken; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Zeeck, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Two γ-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85) which has not yet been reported in literature. The molecule is highly symmetrically and consists of two heterocyclic halves to which aliphatic side chains are attached. The pigment has been named glaukothalin due to its blue color and its marine origin (glaukos, gr. = blue, thalatta, gr. = sea). Production of glaukothalin on MB2216 agar plates by our Rheinheimera strains is affected in the presence of other bacterial strains either increasing or decreasing pigment production. The addition of a single amino acid, arginine (5 gl−1), greatly increases pigment production by our Rheinheimera strains. Even though the production of glaukothalin leads to inhibitory activity against three bacterial strains from marine particles, our Rheinheimera isolates are inhibited by various bacteria of different phylogenetic groups. The ecological role of glaukothalin production by Rheinheimera strains, however, remains largely unknown. PMID:20016676

  11. Light-induced vegetative anthocyanin pigmentation in Petunia

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Irving, Louis J.; Jameson, Paula E.; Davies, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The Lc petunia system, which displays enhanced, light-induced vegetative pigmentation, was used to investigate how high light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis, and to assess the effects of anthocyanin pigmentation upon photosynthesis. Lc petunia plants displayed intense purple anthocyanin pigmentation throughout the leaves and stems when grown under high-light conditions, yet remain acyanic when grown under shade conditions. The coloured phenotypes matched with an accumulation of anthocyanins and flavonols, as well as the activation of the early and late flavonoid biosynthetic genes required for flavonol and anthocyanin production. Pigmentation in Lc petunia only occurred under conditions which normally induce a modest amount of anthocyanin to accumulate in wild-type Mitchell petunia [Petunia axillaris×(Petunia axillaris×Petunia hybrida cv. ‘Rose of Heaven’)]. Anthocyanin pigmentation in Lc petunia leaves appears to screen underlying photosynthetic tissues, increasing light saturation and light compensation points, without reducing the maximal photosynthetic assimilation rate (Amax). In the Lc petunia system, where the bHLH factor Leaf colour is constitutively expressed, expression of the bHLH (Lc) and WD40 (An11) components of the anthocyanin regulatory system were not limited, suggesting that the high-light-induced anthocyanin pigmentation is regulated by endogenous MYB transcription factors. PMID:19380423

  12. Endothelial Cells Promote Pigmentation through Endothelin Receptor B Activation.

    PubMed

    Regazzetti, Claire; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Ghorbel, Houda Hammami; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Ambrosetti, Damien; Bahadoran, Philippe; Chignon-Sicard, Bérengère; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Ballotti, Robert; Mahns, Andre; Passeron, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Findings of increased vascularization in melasma lesions and hyperpigmentation in acquired bilateral telangiectatic macules suggested a link between pigmentation and vascularization. Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. We then studied the role of microvascular endothelial cells in regulating skin pigmentation using an in vitro co-culture model using endothelial cells and melanocytes. These experiments showed that endothelin 1 released by microvascular endothelial cells induces increased melanogenesis signaling, characterized by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor phosphorylation, and increased tyrosinase and dopachrome tautomerase levels. Immunostaining for endothelin 1 in vascular lesions confirmed the increased expression on the basal layer of the epidermis above small vessels compared with perilesional skin. Endothelin acts through the activation of endothelin receptor B and the mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, and p38, to induce melanogenesis. Finally, culturing of reconstructed skin with microvascular endothelial cells led to increased skin pigmentation that could be prevented by inhibiting EDNRB. Taken together these results demonstrated the role of underlying microvascularization in skin pigmentation, a finding that could open new fields of research for regulating physiological pigmentation and for treating pigmentation disorders such as melasma. PMID:26308584

  13. Engineered pigments based on iridescent cellulose nanocrystal films.

    PubMed

    Bardet, Raphael; Roussel, Francine; Coindeau, Stéphane; Belgacem, Naceur; Bras, Julien

    2015-05-20

    A simple method to produce biobased iridescent pigments from cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films is reported. The process consists of forming nanostructured films from a CNC liquid-crystalline suspension and an appropriate dry grinding. The features of the iridescent pigments are described; they have a flake-like morphology with a thickness of 25 μm. However, because of the presence of sulfate groups, thermal degradation and high redispersion in water occur, which affect the iridescent property of these biobased pigments. To overcome such limitations, two post-treatments are proposed. The sulfate ester groups are removed from the iridescent pigments with vacuum overdrying. The mass loss of iridescent pigment in water is reduced with an increase of the ionic strength in the aqueous medium by NaCl addition. These post-treatments have proven to be efficient and engineered pigments based on CNC films can be used to add anticounterfeiting features to packaging manufactured by classical paper techniques or extrusion. PMID:25817681

  14. Expression of carotenoid pigments of haloarchaeal cultures exposed to aniline.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, T M; Furtado, I

    2005-04-01

    The effects of exposure to aniline on growth and pigmentation in three haloarchaeal isolates from the Indian subcontinent--GUSF (MTCC 3265), from the estuarine saltpans of Goa, India; and GURFT-1 and GURFP-1, both from continental shelf sediments of the west coast of India--were studied. In nutrient-rich tryptone yeast extract medium containing 25% NaCl/crude salt, the growth of GUSF, measured as absorbance at 600 nm, was not affected significantly at all concentrations of aniline used [0.005%-0.04% (v/v)], whereas the growth phases of GURFT-1 and GURFP-1 were affected at concentrations > 0.005%; the total yield, however, was nearly equal to the yield of cultures growing in the absence of aniline. GURFT-1 reached approximately 40% of total yield on the 7th day in the presence of 0.04% aniline, which declined thereafter. The pigmentation observed visually was completely abolished at concentrations of aniline greater than 0.01%. Spectral scans of acetone extracts of the pigment of each of the cultures exposed to concentrations of aniline > 0.01% showed that (i) the bacterioruberin component of the pigments (absorbance in the range 390-500 nm) was completely abolished and (ii) the pigment component(s) shifted toward squalene and phytofluene derivatives (320-360 nm). This is the first report examining the effect of an aromatic pollutant such as aniline on the growth and pigmentation of haloarchaeal cultures. PMID:15793825

  15. Scytonemin and Photosynthetic Pigment Proxies for Late Pleistocene/Holocene Environmental Change in the Eastern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, J. M.; Van Mooy, B. A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary pigments are biomarkers of photosynthetic organisms, most commonly derived from aquatic bacteria and algae but also with potential terrigenous sources. We detected a diverse pigment assemblage with variable down-core distributions in Great Salt Lake (GSL) sediments deposited since ca. 280 ka (GLAD1-GSL00, core 4). The most abundant pigments included derivatives of chlorophyll a, most likely from algae or cyanobacteria, bacteriochlorophyll c from green sulfur bacteria, okenone from purple sulfur bacteria, and scytonemin from UV-exposed cyanobacteria. Scytonemin is a biomarker for colonial cyanobacteria exposed to UV-radiation. In GSL it has potential sources from bioherms on the shoreline or microbiotic soil crusts from the adjacent Great Basin Desert. Scytonemin concentration was highest in the Upper Salt and Sapropel (USS) unit, deposited between 11.5-10 ka in shallow water (ca. 10 m), following deep pluvial Lake Bonneville (30-18 cal ka), the Provo lake level (ca. 18-15 cal ka), and the Gilbert transgression (11.6 cal ka). Scytonemin concentration was very low in sediments deposited during the deep lake phases, even though bioherms were prominent shoreline features. The USS was deposited under hypersaline waters and contained remarkably low concentrations of photosynthetic pigment derivatives that would be expected in organic-matter-rich sediments deposited under productive surface waters or anoxic bottom waters. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic data point toward a desert soil crust source for scytonemin in the USS, similar to what we previously observed in the Holocene Black Sea sapropel. We propose that increased aridity supported the widespread occurrence and erosion of microbiotic soil crusts during deposition of the USS. This is consistent with interpretations of Great Salt Lake hydrology, pointing toward a broader regional aridity event. Holocene sediments above the USS also contain scytonemin at relatively high concentration, consistent with

  16. WASTES FROM MANUFACTURE OF DYES AND PIGMENTS. VOLUME 2. AZO DYES AND PIGMENTS (EXCLUDING BENZIDINE AND ITS CONGENERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a study of the manufacture of azo dyes and pigments, several solid wastes that could contain hazardous material were identified. These solid wastes included filter cake from clarifying operations, wastewater treatment solids, intermediates on discarded shipping containers, and...

  17. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  18. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves.

  19. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  20. Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Edward

    2006-01-15

    We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.