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Sample records for palladium technologies enable

  1. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  2. Palladium Catalysis Enables Benzylation of α,α-Difluoroketone Enolates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Hsiu; Hunt, Jordan R; Sharifi, Niusha; Altman, Ryan A

    2016-07-25

    A palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative benzylation reaction of α,α-difluoroketone enolates is reported, in which the key C(α)-C(sp(3) ) bond is generated by reductive elimination from a palladium intermediate. The transformation provides convergent access to α-benzyl-α,α-difluoroketone-based products, and should be useful for accessing biological probes. PMID:27312868

  3. Enabling cleanup technology transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-08-12

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites.

  4. A Technology Enabled Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Pamela Albert

    2012-01-01

    This article features Point Road School, a pre-K-4 school in New Jersey that enhances student learning by integrating new and emerging technologies into the curriculum. Point Road School's technology story began in 1996 with a grant for a classroom modem so students could email their university literacy buddies. The New Jersey school has moved…

  5. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  6. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  7. Enabling Exploration: NASA's Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.

    2012-01-01

    Deputy Director of Science, Carol W. Carroll has been invited by University of Oregon's Materials Science Institute to give a presentation. Carol's Speech explains NASA's Technologies that are needed where NASA was, what NASA's current capabilities are. Carol will highlight many of NASA's high profile projects and she will explain what NASA needs for its future by focusing on the next steps in space exploration. Carol's audience will be University of Oregon's future scientists and engineer's and their professor's along with various other faculty members.

  8. A steric tethering approach enables palladium-catalysed C-H activation of primary amino alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calleja, Jonas; Pla, Daniel; Gorman, Timothy W.; Domingo, Victoriano; Haffemayer, Benjamin; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2015-12-01

    Aliphatic primary amines are a class of chemical feedstock essential to the synthesis of higher-order nitrogen-containing molecules, commonly found in biologically active compounds and pharmaceutical agents. New methods for the construction of complex amines remain a continuous challenge to synthetic chemists. Here, we outline a general palladium-catalysed strategy for the functionalization of aliphatic C-H bonds within amino alcohols, an important class of small molecule. Central to this strategy is the temporary conversion of catalytically incompatible primary amino alcohols into hindered secondary amines that are capable of undergoing a sterically promoted palladium-catalysed C-H activation. Furthermore, a hydrogen bond between amine and catalyst intensifies interactions around the palladium and orients the aliphatic amine substituents in an ideal geometry for C-H activation. This catalytic method directly transforms simple, easily accessible amines into highly substituted, functionally concentrated and structurally diverse products, and can streamline the synthesis of biologically important amine-containing molecules.

  9. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  10. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  11. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  12. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  13. Technology Enabling the First 100 Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The discoveries of the first 100 exoplanets by precise radial velocities in the late 1990's at Lick Observatory and Observatoire de Haute-Provence were enabled by several technological advances and a cultural one. A key ingredient was a cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer at a stable, coude focus, with a CCD detector, offering high spectral resolution, large wavelength coverage, and a linear response to photons. A second ingredient was a computer capable of storing the megabyte images from such spectrometers and analyzing them for Doppler shifts. Both Lick and OHP depended on these advents. A third ingredient was a stable wavelength calibration. Here, two technologies emerged independently, with iodine gas employed by Marcy's group (used first by solar physicists doing helioseismology) and simultaneous thorium-argon spectra (enabled by fiber optics) used by Mayor's group. A final ingredient was a new culture emerging in the 1990's of forward-modeling of spectra on computers, enabled by the well-behaved photon noise of CCDs, giving Poisson errors amenable to rigorous statistical algorithms for measuring millipixel Doppler shifts. The prospect of detecting the 12 meter/sec reflex velocity (1/100 pixel) of a Jupiter-like planet was considered impossible, except to a few who asked, "What actually limits Doppler precision?". Inspired insights were provided by Robert Howard, Paul Schechter, Bruce Campbell, and Gordon Walker, leading to the first 100 exoplanets.

  14. Enabling technologies to advance microbial isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of isoprenoids provides an attractive alternative to biomass extraction and chemical synthesis. Although widespread research aims for isoprenoid biosynthesis, it is still in its infancy in terms of delivering commercial products. Large barriers remain in realizing a cost-competitive process, for example, developing an optimal microbial cell factory. Here, we summarize the many tools and methods that have been developed in the metabolic engineering of isoprenoid production, with the advent of systems biology and synthetic biology, and discuss how these technologies advance to accelerate the design-build-test engineering cycle to obtain optimum microbial systems. It is anticipated that innovative combinations of new and existing technologies will continue to emerge, which will enable further development of microbial cell factories for commercial isoprenoid production. PMID:25549781

  15. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  16. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  17. Human Support Technology Research to Enable Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: Advanced life support. System integration, modeling, and analysis. Progressive capabilities. Water processing. Air revitalization systems. Why advanced CO2 removal technology? Solid waste resource recovery systems: lyophilization. ISRU technologies for Mars life support. Atmospheric resources of Mars. N2 consumable/make-up for Mars life. Integrated test beds. Monitoring and controlling the environment. Ground-based commercial technology. Optimizing size vs capability. Water recovery systems. Flight verification topics.

  18. Enabling Technologies for Petascale Electromagnetic Accelerator Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Li-Xin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-11-09

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  19. Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, B R

    2010-02-14

    The Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies (PCET) project addressed challenges arising from current trends in computer architecture that will lead to large-scale systems with many more nodes, each of which uses multicore chips. These factors will soon lead to systems that have over one million processors. Also, the use of multicore chips will lead to less memory and less memory bandwidth per core. We need fundamentally new algorithmic approaches to cope with these memory constraints and the huge number of processors. Further, correct, efficient code development is difficult even with the number of processors in current systems; more processors will only make it harder. The goal of PCET was to overcome these challenges by developing the computer science and mathematical underpinnings needed to realize the full potential of our future large-scale systems. Our research results will significantly increase the scientific output obtained from LLNL large-scale computing resources by improving application scientist productivity and system utilization. Our successes include scalable mathematical algorithms that adapt to these emerging architecture trends and through code correctness and performance methodologies that automate critical aspects of application development as well as the foundations for application-level fault tolerance techniques. PCET's scope encompassed several research thrusts in computer science and mathematics: code correctness and performance methodologies, scalable mathematics algorithms appropriate for multicore systems, and application-level fault tolerance techniques. Due to funding limitations, we focused primarily on the first three thrusts although our work also lays the foundation for the needed advances in fault tolerance. In the area of scalable mathematics algorithms, our preliminary work established that OpenMP performance of the AMG linear solver benchmark and important individual kernels on Atlas did not match the predictions of our

  20. Enabling Technology in Support of Fusion Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Charles C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes remarks made at Fusion Power Associates annual meeting, July 17, 2000 in San Diego. It describes the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fusion Enegy Sciences programs in plasma and fusion technology in support of the U. S. fusion energy sciences program.

  1. Enabling Computational Technologies for Terascale Scientific Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.

    2000-08-24

    We develop scalable algorithms and object-oriented code frameworks for terascale scientific simulations on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Our research in multigrid-based linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement enables Laboratory programs to use MPPs to explore important physical phenomena. For example, our research aids stockpile stewardship by making practical detailed 3D simulations of radiation transport. The need to solve large linear systems arises in many applications, including radiation transport, structural dynamics, combustion, and flow in porous media. These systems result from discretizations of partial differential equations on computational meshes. Our first research objective is to develop multigrid preconditioned iterative methods for such problems and to demonstrate their scalability on MPPs. Scalability describes how total computational work grows with problem size; it measures how effectively additional resources can help solve increasingly larger problems. Many factors contribute to scalability: computer architecture, parallel implementation, and choice of algorithm. Scalable algorithms have been shown to decrease simulation times by several orders of magnitude.

  2. Enabling skin vaccination using new delivery technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    The skin is known to be a highly immunogenic site for vaccination, but few vaccines in clinical use target skin largely because conventional intradermal injection is difficult and unreliable to perform. Now, a number of new or newly adapted delivery technologies have been shown to administer vaccine to the skin either by non-invasive or minimally invasive methods. Non-invasive methods include high-velocity powder and liquid jet injection, as well as diffusion-based patches in combination with skin abrasion, thermal ablation, ultrasound, electroporation, and chemical enhancers. Minimally invasive methods are generally based on small needles, including solid microneedle patches, hollow microneedle injections and tattoo guns. The introduction of these advanced delivery technologies can make the skin a site for simple, reliable vaccination that increases vaccine immunogenicity and offers logistical advantages to improve the speed and coverage of vaccination. PMID:21472533

  3. Cost Optimization and Technology Enablement COTSAT-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Lindsay, Michael C.; Klupar, Peter Damian; Swank, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) is an ongoing spacecraft research and development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The space industry was a hot bed of innovation and development at its birth. Many new technologies were developed for and first demonstrated in space. In the recent past this trend has reversed with most of the new technology funding and research being driven by the private industry. Most of the recent advances in spaceflight hardware have come from the cell phone industry with a lag of about 10 to 15 years from lab demonstration to in space usage. NASA has started a project designed to address this problem. The prototype spacecraft known as Cost Optimized Test of Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT-1) and CheapSat work to reduce these issues. This paper highlights the approach taken by NASA Ames Research center to achieve significant subsystem cost reductions. The COSTAT-1 research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing spacecraft. The COTSAT-1 team demonstrated building a fully functional spacecraft for $500K parts and $2.0M labor. The COTSAT-1 system, including a selected science payload, is described within this paper. Many of the advancements identified in the process of cost reduction can be attributed to the use of a one-atmosphere pressurized structure to house the spacecraft components. By using COTS hardware, the spacecraft program can utilize investments already made by commercial vendors. This ambitious project development philosophy/cycle has yielded the COTSAT-1 flight hardware. This paper highlights the advancements of the COTSAT-1 spacecraft leading to the delivery of the current flight hardware that is now located at NASA Ames Research Center. This paper also addresses the plans for COTSAT-2.

  4. Scientific Data Management Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vouk, Mladen A.

    2013-01-15

    Managing scientific data has been identified by the scientific community as one of the most important emerging needs because of the sheer volume and increasing complexity of data being collected. Effectively generating, managing, and analyzing this information requires a comprehensive, end-to-end approach to data management that encompasses all of the stages from the initial data acquisition to the final analysis of the data. Fortunately, the data management problems encountered by most scientific domains are common enough to be addressed through shared technology solutions. Based on community input, we have identified three significant requirements. First, more efficient access to storage systems is needed. In particular, parallel file system and I/O system improvements are needed to write and read large volumes of data without slowing a simulation, analysis, or visualization engine. These processes are complicated by the fact that scientific data are structured differently for specific application domains, and are stored in specialized file formats. Second, scientists require technologies to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis and searches over extremely large data sets. Specialized feature discovery and statistical analysis techniques are needed before the data can be understood or visualized. Furthermore, interactive analysis requires techniques for efficiently selecting subsets of the data. Finally, generating the data, collecting and storing the results, keeping track of data provenance, data post-processing, and analysis of results is a tedious, fragmented process. Tools for automation of this process in a robust, tractable, and recoverable fashion are required to enhance scientific exploration. The SDM center was established under the SciDAC program to address these issues. The SciDAC-1 Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center succeeded in bringing an initial set of advanced

  5. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  6. Enabling technologies for nanostructuring (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlinger, Hermann

    2005-06-01

    Galileo Galilei once said in the 17th century that "anyone who understands geometry can understand everything in this world." But he had never heard of molecules, atoms or even smaller components. These days we would imitate Galileo by saying "anyone who understands the processes inside atoms and molecules understands the world." This nano world has its own unique appeal: something that is invisible to the naked eye, yet has dimensions that the mind still requires images/comparisons to understand, is a source of tremendous fascination. Even if we are a long way from understanding these processes, we now know one thing for certain: these days, decisive technological progress is made in the world of the minuscule. Specific examples of this come from the areas of gene technology, materials research and electronics on a daily basis. As a result, nanotechnologies have become the focal point of research and development - not only in industry but also in politics. For example, in March 2004, the German Federal Government launched the German innovation initiative for nanotechnology under the slogan "Nanotechnology Conquers Markets". According to a press release by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), euro 200 million in funding will be made available to four leading-edge innovations over the next four years. However, there is still some debate about how to define the term "nanotechnology". While some see the essence of nanotechnology as the creation of a large entity from the minutest components by means of partly self-organizing processes, such as car paint consisting of nanoparticles, others simply regard the scale of particles or structures as the area of crucial significance. Scientists set a value of 100 nanometers as the "limit". A BMBF brochure argues: "It [nanotechnology] does not, therefore, represent a basic technology in the classical sense-one with clearly defined parameters. Instead, it describes a new interdisciplinary approach that

  7. Laser peening of metals- enabling laser technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.; Daly, J.; Harrisson, J.

    1997-11-13

    Laser peening, a surface treatment for metals, employs laser induced shocks to create deep and intense residual stresses in critical components. In many applications this technology is proving to be superior to conventional treatments such as shot peening. The laser peening process has generated sufficiently impressive results to move it from a laboratory demonstration phase into a significant industrial process. However until now this evolution has been slowed because a laser system meeting the average power requirements for a high throughput process has been lacking.

  8. Nanoimprint lithography: an enabling technology for nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wang, Yifei; Li, Yuanrui; Song, Boxiang; Bratkovsk, Alexandre; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Wu, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an indispensable tool to realize a fast and accurate nanoscale patterning in nanophotonics due to high resolution and high yield. The number of publication on NIL has increased from less than a hundred per year to over three thousand per year. In this paper, the most recent developments on NIL patterning transfer processes and its applications on nanophotonics are discussed and reviewed. NIL has been opening up new opportunities for nanophotonics, especially in fabricating optical meta-materials. With more researches on this low-cost high-throughput fabrication technology, we should anticipate a brighter future for nanophotonics and NIL.

  9. CVD-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stephan; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Weatherup, Robert S

    2015-07-16

    Integrated manufacturing is arguably the most challenging task in the development of technology based on graphene and other 2D materials, particularly with regard to the industrial demand for “electronic-grade” large-area films. In order to control the structure and properties of these materials at the monolayer level, their nucleation, growth and interfacing needs to be understood to a level of unprecedented detail compared to existing thin film or bulk materials. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as the most versatile and promising technique to develop graphene and 2D material films into industrial device materials and this Perspective outlines recent progress, trends, and emerging CVD processing pathways. A key focus is the emerging understanding of the underlying growth mechanisms, in particular on the role of the required catalytic growth substrate, which brings together the latest progress in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and classic crystal/thin-film growth. PMID:26240694

  10. CVD-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Integrated manufacturing is arguably the most challenging task in the development of technology based on graphene and other 2D materials, particularly with regard to the industrial demand for “electronic-grade” large-area films. In order to control the structure and properties of these materials at the monolayer level, their nucleation, growth and interfacing needs to be understood to a level of unprecedented detail compared to existing thin film or bulk materials. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as the most versatile and promising technique to develop graphene and 2D material films into industrial device materials and this Perspective outlines recent progress, trends, and emerging CVD processing pathways. A key focus is the emerging understanding of the underlying growth mechanisms, in particular on the role of the required catalytic growth substrate, which brings together the latest progress in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and classic crystal/thin-film growth. PMID:26240694

  11. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  12. The Role of Enabling Technologies in Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    2007-09-15

    The report provides a study of the technologies that are crucial to the success of demand response programs. It takes a look at the historical development of demand response programs and analyzes how new technology is needed to enable demand response to make the transition from a small scale pilot operation to a mass market means of improving grid reliability. Additionally, the report discusses the key technologies needed to enable a large scale demand response effort and evaluates current efforts to develop and integrate these technologies. Finally, the report provides profiles of leading developers of these key technologies.

  13. Enantioselective Aminomethylamination of Conjugated Dienes with Aminals Enabled by Chiral Palladium Complex-Catalyzed C-N Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xie, Yinjun; Wang, Hongli; Huang, Hanmin

    2016-04-01

    A novel highly enantioselective aminomethylamination of conjugated dienes with aminals catalyzed by a chiral palladium complex ligated with BINOL-derived chiral diphosphinite has been successfully developed. This reaction proceeds via a Pd-catalyzed cascade C-N bond activation, aminomethylation, and asymmetric allylic amination reaction under mild reaction conditions, providing a unique and efficient strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure allylic 1,3-diamines. PMID:26998813

  14. A survey of enabling technologies in synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Realizing constructive applications of synthetic biology requires continued development of enabling technologies as well as policies and practices to ensure these technologies remain accessible for research. Broadly defined, enabling technologies for synthetic biology include any reagent or method that, alone or in combination with associated technologies, provides the means to generate any new research tool or application. Because applications of synthetic biology likely will embody multiple patented inventions, it will be important to create structures for managing intellectual property rights that best promote continued innovation. Monitoring the enabling technologies of synthetic biology will facilitate the systematic investigation of property rights coupled to these technologies and help shape policies and practices that impact the use, regulation, patenting, and licensing of these technologies. Results We conducted a survey among a self-identifying community of practitioners engaged in synthetic biology research to obtain their opinions and experiences with technologies that support the engineering of biological systems. Technologies widely used and considered enabling by survey participants included public and private registries of biological parts, standard methods for physical assembly of DNA constructs, genomic databases, software tools for search, alignment, analysis, and editing of DNA sequences, and commercial services for DNA synthesis and sequencing. Standards and methods supporting measurement, functional composition, and data exchange were less widely used though still considered enabling by a subset of survey participants. Conclusions The set of enabling technologies compiled from this survey provide insight into the many and varied technologies that support innovation in synthetic biology. Many of these technologies are widely accessible for use, either by virtue of being in the public domain or through legal tools such as non

  15. Enabling Science and Technology Research Teams: A Breadmaking Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Deana

    2010-01-01

    Anyone who has been involved with a cross-disciplinary team that combines scientists and information technology specialists knows just how tough it can be to move these efforts forward. Decades of experience point to the transformative potential of technology-enabled science efforts, and the success stories offer hope for future efforts. But for…

  16. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  17. Coupling and Decoupling Approach Enables Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Bimolecular Carbocyclizations of Enediynes to 2,6-Diacylnaphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Wan, Yanjun; Wang, Dongxu; Ma, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    A formal palladium-catalyzed aerobic bimolecular carbocyclization reaction of (Z)-hexa-1,5-diyn-3-ene scaffolds has been successfully developed for the construction of 2,6-diacylnaphthalenes, wherein copper salts play a critical role in accomplishing the oxygenative homo- and hetero-dimerization processes of readily accessible enediyne-carboxylic acids and esters, respectively. The enediyne dimerization protocol provides a flexible and regiospecific approach to a variety of functionalized naphthalenes with up to six differentiated substituents in good yields by using a directing-group-assisted coupling and decoupling strategy. Mechanistic studies indicated that the two oxygen atoms being selectively incorporated into the crossover-annulation products of enediynecarboxylic acid and ester directly originate from atmospheric molecular oxygen and H2O, respectively. PMID:26954582

  18. Critical Issues of Web-Enabled Technologies in Modern Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi; Herman, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses results of a Delphi study that explored issues related to the utilization and management of Web-enabled technologies by modern organizations. Topics include bandwidth restrictions; security; data integrity; inadequate search facilities; system incompatibilities; failure to adhere to standards; email; use of metadata; privacy and…

  19. A Successful Infusion Process for Enabling Lunar Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.; Klem, Mark K.; Motil, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration begins with a more reliable flight capability to the International Space Station and ends with sending humans to Mars. An important stepping stone on the path to Mars encompasses human missions to the Moon. There is little doubt throughout the stakeholder community that new technologies will be required to enable this Vision. However, there are many factors that influence the ability to successfully infuse any technology including the technical risk, requirement and development schedule maturity, and, funds available. This paper focuses on effective infusion processes that have been used recently for the technologies in development for the lunar exploration flight program, Constellation. Recent successes with Constellation customers are highlighted for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Projects managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Following an overview of the technical context of both the flight program and the technology capability mapping, the process is described for how to effectively build an integrated technology infusion plan. The process starts with a sound risk development plan and is completed with an integrated project plan, including content, schedule and cost. In reality, the available resources for this development are going to change over time, necessitating some level of iteration in the planning. However, the driving process is based on the initial risk assessment, which changes only when the overall architecture changes, enabling some level of stability in the process.

  20. Enabling Technologies for the Future of Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Technology is evolving at breakneck pace, changing the way we communicate, travel, find out information, and live our lives. Yet chemistry as a science has been slower to adapt to this rapidly shifting world. In this Outlook we use highlights from recent literature reports to describe how progresses in enabling technologies are altering this trend, permitting chemists to incorporate new advances into their work at all levels of the chemistry development cycle. We discuss the benefits and challenges that have arisen, impacts on academic–industry relationships, and future trends in the area of chemical synthesis. PMID:27163040

  1. Enabling Technologies for the Future of Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ley, Steven V

    2016-03-23

    Technology is evolving at breakneck pace, changing the way we communicate, travel, find out information, and live our lives. Yet chemistry as a science has been slower to adapt to this rapidly shifting world. In this Outlook we use highlights from recent literature reports to describe how progresses in enabling technologies are altering this trend, permitting chemists to incorporate new advances into their work at all levels of the chemistry development cycle. We discuss the benefits and challenges that have arisen, impacts on academic-industry relationships, and future trends in the area of chemical synthesis. PMID:27163040

  2. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  3. Palladium coated porous anodic alumina membranes for gas reforming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeremy P.; Brown, Ian W. M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Kemmitt, Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Nanostructured ceramic membranes with ultrathin coatings of palladium metal have been demonstrated to separate hydrogen gas from a gas mixture containing nitrogen with 10% carbon dioxide and 10% hydrogen at temperatures up to 550 °C. The mechanically robust and thermally durable membranes were fabricated using a combination of conventional and high-efficiency anodisation processes on high purity aluminium foils. A pH-neutral plating solution has also been developed to enable electroless deposition of palladium metal on templates which were normally prone to chemical corrosion in strong acid or base environment. Activation and thus seeding of palladium nuclei on the surface of the template were essential to ensure uniform and fast deposition, and the thickness of the metal film was controlled by time of deposition. The palladium coated membranes showed improved hydrogen selectivity with increased temperature as well as after prolonged exposure to hydrogen, demonstrating excellent potential for gas separation technologies.

  4. Volume CT (VCT) enabled by a novel diode technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhlef, Aziz; Zeman, Greg; Hoffman, David; Li, Wen; Possin, George

    2005-04-01

    One of the results of the latest developments in x-ray tube and detector technology, is the enabling of computed tomography (CT) as a strong non-invasive imaging modality for a new set of clinical applications including cardiac and brain imaging. A common theme among the applications is an ability to have wide anatomical coverage in a single rotation. Large coverage in CT is expected to bring significant diagnostic value in clinical field, especially in cardiac, trauma, pediatric, neuro, angiography, Stroke WorkUp and pulmonary applications. This demand, in turn, creates a need for tile-able and scalable detector design. In this paper, we introduce the design of a new diode, a crucial part of the detector, discuss how it enables wide coverage, its performance in terms of cross-talk, light output response, maximized geometric efficiency, and other CT requirements, and compare it to the traditional design which is front-illuminated diode. We ran extensive simulation and measurement experiments to study the geometric efficiency and assess the cross talk and all other performance parameters Critical To Quality (CTQs) with both designs. We modeled x-ray scattering in the scintillator, light scattering through the septa and optical coupler, and electrical cross talk. We tested the design with phantoms and clinical experiments on a scanner (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI, USA). Our preliminary results indicate that the new diode design performs as well as the traditional in terms of cross talk and other CTQs. It, also, yields better geometric efficiency and enables tile-able detector design, which is crucial for the VCT. We introduced a new diode design, which is an essential enabler for VCT. We demonstrated the new design is superior to the traditional design for the clinically relevant performance measures.

  5. Key Enabling Physical Layer Technologies for LTE-Advanced

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Meilong; Prasad, Narayan; Xin, Yan; Yue, Guosen; Khojastepour, Amir; Liu, Le; Inoue, Takamichi; Koyanagi, Kenji; Kakura, Yoshikazu

    The 3GPP Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) system, as compared to the LTE system, is anticipated to include several new features and enhancements, such as the usage of channel bandwidth beyond 20MHz (up 100MHz), higher order multiple input multiple output (MIMO) for both downlink and uplink transmissions, larger capacity especially for cell edge user equipment, and voice over IP (VoIP) users, and wider coverage and etc. This paper presents some key enabling technologies including flexible uplink access schemes, advanced uplink MIMO receiver designs, cell search, adaptive hybrid ARQ, and multi-resolution MIMO precoding, for the LTE-A system.

  6. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  7. Solar Sail Propulsion: An Enabling Technology for Fundamental Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    Solar sails enable a wide range of high-energy missions, many of which are difficult or even impossible to accomplish with any other type of conventional propulsion system. They are also an enabling propulsion technology for two types of deep-space missions that are very favorable for testing current gravitational theories and the large-scale gravitational field of the solar system: the first type comprises missions that go very close to the Sun (<8 solar radii) and the second one comprises missions that go fast very far away from the Sun (~200AU). Being propelled solely by the freely available solar radiation pressure, solar sails do not consume any propellant. Therefore, their capability to gain (or reduce) orbital energy is theoretically unlimited and practically only limited by their lifetime in the space environment and their distance from the Sun (because the solar radiation pressure decreases with the square of solar distance). Nevertheless, solar sails make also missions that go far away from the Sun feasible because they can gain a large amount of orbital energy by first making one or more close solar approaches that turn the trajectory hyperbolic. For both mission types, the temperature limit of the sail film is a critical issue. In this chapter, we briefly review the physics and the current technological status of solar sails, and then present mission outlines and trade-offs for both mission types. Thereby, we will show that even near- or medium-term solar sails with a relatively moderate performance enable these kinds of missions.

  8. Technology Innovation Enabling Falls Risk Assessment in a Community Setting.

    PubMed

    Ni Scanaill, Cliodhna; Garattini, Chiara; Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Approximately one in three people over the age of 65 will fall each year, resulting in significant financial, physical, and emotional cost on the individual, their family, and society. Currently, falls are managed using on-body sensors and alarm pendants to notify others when a falls event occurs. However these technologies do not prevent a fall from occurring. There is now a growing focus on falls risk assessment and preventative interventions. Falls risk is currently assessed in a clinical setting by expert physiotherapists, geriatricians, or occupational therapists following the occurrence of an injurious fall. As the population ages, this reactive model of care will become increasingly unsatisfactory, and a proactive community-based prevention strategy will be required. Recent advances in technology can support this new model of care by enabling community-based practitioners to perform tests that previously required expensive technology or expert interpretation. Gait and balance impairment is one of the most common risk factors for falls. This paper reviews the current technical and non-technical gait and balance assessments, discusses how low-cost technology can be applied to objectively administer and interpret these tests in the community, and reports on recent research where body-worn sensors have been utilized. It also discusses the barriers to adoption in the community and proposes ethnographic research as a method to investigate solutions to these barriers. PMID:21660088

  9. Environmental and policy analysis of renewable energy enabling technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denholm, Paul L.

    For intermittent electricity generation sources such as wind and solar energy to meet a large fraction (>20%) of the nation's electricity supply, two enabling technologies, energy storage and long distance transmission, will need to be deployed on a large scale. A life-cycle study was performed to evaluate the environmental performance of energy storage and transmission technologies in terms of compatibility with the goals of deploying renewable energy systems. Metrics were developed to evaluate net efficiency, fossil fuel use, and greenhouse gas emissions that result from the use of enabling technologies with conventional and renewable energy sources. Storage technologies evaluated in this study include pumped hydro storage, compressed air energy storage, and battery energy storage. Three combinations of renewable energy generation and storage were evaluated. Wind/CAES is a likely candidate for large scale deployment, and delivers more than 5 times the amount of electrical energy from a unit of fossil fuel than the most efficient combustion system available, with about 20% of GHG emissions. Both wind/PHS and Solar PVBES also demonstrate superior performance to fossil energy systems in terms of energy sustainability and GHG emissions. Near term deployment of energy storage will likely take advantage of low cost off-peak energy from existing coal plants, which can result in increases in harmful air emissions. The "grandfathering" provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act allow for increased output from these older plants that produce high levels of emissions. Energy storage provides a loophole that could be used to increase output from these plants, instead of building cleaner alternatives. The unique hybrid-CAES system has lower life-cycle emissions than any other storage technologies when coupled to coal, but effectively produces emissions that far exceed standards for any new source. A new CAES plant in the Midwestern U.S. will effectively produce SO2 at a rate more

  10. Enabling Technologies for Characterizing Exoplanet Systems with Exo-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Kerri Lynn; Belikov, Ruslan; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Trauger, John T.; Serabyn, Eugene; McElwain, Michael W.; Pong, Christopher M.; Brugarolas, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Exoplanet Science and Technology Definition Team's Internal Coronagraph mission design, called 'Exo-C', utilizes several technologies that have advanced over the past decade with support from the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Following the flow of photons through the telescope, the science measurement is enabled by (i) a precision pointing system to keep the target exoplanet system precisely positioned on the detector during the integration time, (ii) high-performance coronagraphs to block the parent star's light so that the planet's reflected light can be detected, (iii) a wavefront control system to compensate for any wavefront errors such as those due to thermal or mechanical deformations in the optical path, especially errors with high spatial frequencies that could cause contrast-reducing speckles, and (iv) an integral field spectrograph (IFS) that provides moderate resolution spectra of the target exoplanets, permitting their characterization and comparison with models and other data sets. Technologies such as the wavefront control system and coronagraphs will also benefit from other funded efforts in progress, such as the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) program. Similarly, the Exo-C IFS will benefit from the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) demonstration. We present specific examples for each of these technologies showing that the state of the art has advanced to levels that will meet the overall scientific, cost, and schedule requirements of the Exo-C mission. These capabilities have matured with testbed and/or ground-telescope demonstrations and have reached a technological readiness level (TRL) that supports their inclusion in the baseline design for potential flight at the end of this decade. While additional work remains to build and test flight-like components (that concurrently meet science as well as size, weight, power, and environmental

  11. Extending green technology innovations to enable greener fabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahisa, Kenji; Yoo, Young Sun; Fukuda, Hitomi; Minegishi, Yuji; Enami, Tatsuo

    2015-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing industry has growing concerns over future environmental impacts as fabs expand and new generations of equipment become more powerful. Especially rare gases supply and price are one of prime concerns for operation of high volume manufacturing (HVM) fabs. Over the past year it has come to our attention that Helium and Neon gas supplies could be unstable and become a threat to HVM fabs. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green technologies under its EcoPhoton program. One of the initiatives is GigaTwin deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography laser design which enables highly efficient and stable operation. Under this design laser systems run with 50% less electric energy and gas consumption compared to conventional laser designs. In 2014 we have developed two technologies to further reduce electric energy and gas efficiency. The electric energy reduction technology is called eGRYCOS (enhanced Gigaphoton Recycled Chamber Operation System), and it reduces electric energy by 15% without compromising any of laser performances. eGRYCOS system has a sophisticated gas flow design so that we can reduce cross-flow-fan rotation speed. The gas reduction technology is called eTGM (enhanced Total gas Manager) and it improves gas management system optimizing the gas injection and exhaust amount based on laser performances, resulting in 50% gas savings. The next steps in our roadmap technologies are indicated and we call for potential partners to work with us based on OPEN INNOVATION concept to successfully develop faster and better solutions in all possible areas where green innovation may exist.

  12. An Enabling Technology for New Planning and Scheduling Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Night Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called ?ask models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that are to be scheduled. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next, a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, the models are modified to be compatible with the scheduling engine. Then the models are submitted to the scheduling engine for automatic scheduling or, when requirements are expressed in notes, the timeline is built manually. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components: (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphical methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models without the

  13. Ultrasound elastography: enabling technology for image guided laparoscopic prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Ioana N.; Rivaz, Hassan; Macura, Katarzyna; Su, Li-Ming; Hamper, Ulrike; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L., II; Lotan, Tamara; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2009-02-01

    Radical prostatectomy using the laparoscopic and robot-assisted approach lacks tactile feedback. Without palpation, the surgeon needs an affordable imaging technology which can be easily incorporated into the laparoscopic surgical procedure, allowing for precise real time intraoperative tumor localization that will guide the extent of surgical resection. Ultrasound elastography (USE) is a novel ultrasound imaging technology that can detect differences in tissue density or stiffness based on tissue deformation. USE was evaluated here as an enabling technology for image guided laparoscopic prostatectomy. USE using a 2D Dynamic Programming (DP) algorithm was applied on data from ex vivo human prostate specimens. It proved consistent in identification of lesions; hard and soft, malignant and benign, located in the prostate's central gland or in the peripheral zone. We noticed the 2D DP method was able to generate low-noise elastograms using two frames belonging to the same compression or relaxation part of the palpation excitation, even at compression rates up to 10%. Good preliminary results were validated by pathology findings, and also by in vivo and ex vivo MR imaging. We also evaluated the use of ultrasound elastography for imaging cavernous nerves; here we present data from animal model experiments.

  14. Stratified charge rotary engine critical technology enablement. Volume 2: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This second volume of appendixes is a companion to Volume 1 of this report which summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation; and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems. A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that required only two locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.

  15. Exploration of Terminal Procedures Enabled by NASA Wake VAS Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunsford, Clark R.; Smith, Arthur P., III; Cooper, Wayne W., Jr.; Mundra, Anand D.; Gross, Amy E.; Audenaerd, Laurence F.; Killian, Bruce E.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) tasked The MITRE Corporation's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD) to investigate potential air traffic control (ATC) procedures that could benefit from technology used or developed in NASA's Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS). The task also required developing an estimate of the potential benefits of the candidate procedures. The main thrust of the investigation was to evaluate opportunities for improved capacity and efficiency in airport arrival and departure operations. Other procedures that would provide safety enhancements were also considered. The purpose of this investigation was to provide input to the WakeVAS program office regarding the most promising areas of development for the program. A two-fold perspective was desired: First, identification of benefits from possible procedures enabled by both incremental components and the mature state of WakeVAS technology; second identification of procedures that could be expected to evolve from the current Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures. The evolution of procedures should provide meaningful increments of benefit and a low risk implementation of the WakeVAS technologies.

  16. Stratified Charge Rotary Engine Critical Technology Enablement, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irion, C. E.; Mount, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes results of a critical technology enablement effort with the stratified charge rotary engine (SCRE) focusing on a power section of 0.67 liters (40 cu. in.) per rotor in single and two rotor versions. The work is a continuation of prior NASA Contracts NAS3-23056 and NAS3-24628. Technical objectives are multi-fuel capability, including civil and military jet fuel and DF-2, fuel efficiency of 0.355 Lbs/BHP-Hr. at best cruise condition above 50 percent power, altitude capability of up to 10Km (33,000 ft.) cruise, 2000 hour TBO and reduced coolant heat rejection. Critical technologies for SCRE's that have the potential for competitive performance and cost in a representative light-aircraft environment were examined. Objectives were: the development and utilization of advanced analytical tools, i.e. higher speed and enhanced three dimensional combustion modeling; identification of critical technologies; development of improved instrumentation, and to isolate and quantitatively identify the contribution to performance and efficiency of critical components or subsystems.

  17. A review of the Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing program

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.H.; Neal, R.E.; Cobb, C.K.

    1996-10-01

    Addressing a technical plan developed in consideration with major US manufacturers, software and hardware providers, and government representatives, the Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing (TEAM) program is leveraging the expertise and resources of industry, universities, and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy leap-ahead manufacturing technologies. One of the TEAM program`s goals is to transition products from design to production faster, more efficiently, and at less cost. TEAM`s technology development strategy also provides all participants with early experience in establishing and working within an electronic enterprise that includes access to high-speed networks and high-performance computing and storage systems. The TEAM program uses the cross-cutting tools it collects, develops, and integrates to demonstrate and deploy agile manufacturing capabilities for three high-priority processes identified by industry: material removal, sheet metal forming, electro-mechanical assembly. This paper reviews the current status of the TEAM program with emphasis upon TEAM`s information infrastructure.

  18. Enabling technologies for the rapid dechlorination of polychloroarenes and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Garella, Davide; Beltramo, Lara; Carnaroglio, Diego; Mantegna, Stefano; Roggero, Carlo Maria

    2013-07-01

    Dielectric heating and acoustic cavitation (ultrasound or high-performance disperser) may all dramatically enhance conversion rates and yields in heterogeneous metal-assisted organic reactions even when low reagent excesses are used. These so called "enabling technologies" bring with them process intensification, safer protocols, cost reduction and energy savings. We herein describe a series of rapid polychlorinated aromatic and PCBs dechlorinations (15min) carried out in a moderate excess of metallic sodium and using non-conventional techniques. We compared the results with those obtained for reactions carried out under conventional heating and with those performed with less reactive metals such as magnesium and zinc. In this comparison, high-intensity ultrasound stands out as the technique of choice. PMID:23601125

  19. Voice recognition: an enabling technology for modern health care?

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    Recent performance breakthroughs in affordable, large vocabulary, speaker independent voice recognition systems have rekindled widespread interest in using voice recognition technology to enhance the palatability and effectiveness of clinician-mediated computing. However, even if industry fully addresses the formidable hardware requirements, less than perfect recognition accuracies, discrete voice recognition requirements, and throughput limitations, there are significant cognitive and implementation issues that must be adequately resolved before voice can become a ubiquitous input modality. Cognitive issues include making allowances for individual differences in verbal communication style and skill levels, the relative cognitive load of using a voice enabled interface compared to alternative modalities, and the user's cognitive style. Implementation issues include a significant training requirement, limited portability, lengthy user switching time, questionable privacy, satisfying hardware requirements and the suitability of voice recognition in specific work environments. The inevitable resolution of these issues coupled with continuously improving voice recognition performance, promises a new era for voice recognition in medicine. PMID:8947776

  20. Enabling technologies and green processes in cyclodextrin chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Caporaso, Marina; Jicsinszky, Laszlo; Martina, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The design of efficient synthetic green strategies for the selective modification of cyclodextrins (CDs) is still a challenging task. Outstanding results have been achieved in recent years by means of so-called enabling technologies, such as microwaves, ultrasound and ball mills, that have become irreplaceable tools in the synthesis of CD derivatives. Several examples of sonochemical selective modification of native α-, β- and γ-CDs have been reported including heterogeneous phase Pd- and Cu-catalysed hydrogenations and couplings. Microwave irradiation has emerged as the technique of choice for the production of highly substituted CD derivatives, CD grafted materials and polymers. Mechanochemical methods have successfully furnished greener, solvent-free syntheses and efficient complexation, while flow microreactors may well improve the repeatability and optimization of critical synthetic protocols. PMID:26977187

  1. Enabling nanomaterial, nanofabrication and cellular technologies for nanoneuromedicines

    PubMed Central

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Brenza, Timothy M.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Sakaguchi, Donald S.; Sharma, Anup D.; Zbarska, Svitlana; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can regenerate damaged tissue through control of stem cell fates. These, taken together, can improve disease burden and limit systemic toxicities. Such enabling technologies serve to protect the nervous system against a broad range of degenerative, traumatic, metabolic, infectious and immune disorders. PMID:25652894

  2. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Bockelman, Brian; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Swanson, David

    2011-12-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  3. Enabling technologies and green processes in cyclodextrin chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Caporaso, Marina; Jicsinszky, Laszlo; Martina, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Summary The design of efficient synthetic green strategies for the selective modification of cyclodextrins (CDs) is still a challenging task. Outstanding results have been achieved in recent years by means of so-called enabling technologies, such as microwaves, ultrasound and ball mills, that have become irreplaceable tools in the synthesis of CD derivatives. Several examples of sonochemical selective modification of native α-, β- and γ-CDs have been reported including heterogeneous phase Pd- and Cu-catalysed hydrogenations and couplings. Microwave irradiation has emerged as the technique of choice for the production of highly substituted CD derivatives, CD grafted materials and polymers. Mechanochemical methods have successfully furnished greener, solvent-free syntheses and efficient complexation, while flow microreactors may well improve the repeatability and optimization of critical synthetic protocols. PMID:26977187

  4. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  5. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  6. Enabling nanomaterial, nanofabrication and cellular technologies for nanoneuromedicines.

    PubMed

    Mallapragada, Surya K; Brenza, Timothy M; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Narasimhan, Balaji; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Sharma, Anup D; Zbarska, Svitlana; Gendelman, Howard E

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can regenerate damaged tissue through control of stem cell fates. These, taken together, can improve disease burden and limit systemic toxicities. Such enabling technologies serve to protect the nervous system against a broad range of degenerative, traumatic, metabolic, infectious and immune disorders. From the clinical editor: Nanoneuromedicine is a branch of nanomedicine that specifically looks at the nervous system. In the clinical setting, a fundamental hurdle in nervous system disorders is due to an inherent inability of nerve cells to regenerate after damage. Nanotechnology can offer new approaches to overcome these challenges. This review describes recent developments in nanomedicine delivery systems that would affect stem cell repair and regeneration in the nervous system. PMID:25652894

  7. In-Situ Geochronology as a Mission-Enabling Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Max; Hecht, Michael; Hurowitz, Joel; Neidholdt, Evan; Polk, James; Sinha, Mahadeva P.; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Zimmerman, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Although there are excellent estimates of ages of terrains on Mars from crater counting, even a few absolute ages would serve to validate the calibration. Results with uncertainties, although much larger than those that could be achieved in labs on Earth, would be extremely valuable. While there are other possibilities for in-situ geochronology instruments, we describe here to alternative technologies, being developed in JPL. There are two common features of both. The first is analysis by means of miniature mass spectrometer. The second is use of laser sampling to reduce or avoid sample handling, preparation and pre-treatment and equally importantly, to allow analysis of individual, textually resolved minerals in coarse-grained rocks. This textural resolved minerals in coarse-grained rocks. This textural resolution will aid in selection of grains more or less enriched in the relevant elements and allow construction of isochrons for more precise dating. Either of these instruments could enable missions to Mars and other planetary bodies.

  8. Instrument Technology Development: Key Enabling-Technologies for the Future of Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J. P.; Piepmeier, J. R.

    2001-11-01

    What are the enabling technologies for the next decade of planetary exploration? The Instrumentation Technology Development Panel (ITD) is working to identify the areas of recent innovation and continuing deficiency in instrument technology as it pertains to planetary science goals and missions. Collaboration between science and technology aspects of all planetary science disciplines is crucial to the success of this task. While it is obvious that mission success, even mission plausibility, is strongly dependent on technical capability, it is, perhaps, less obvious that improvements in technology can also lead to a greater number and/or new types of missions. Therefore, we are interested not only in identifying new types of instrumentation, but also in improving existing (even mature) technologies by reducing size, complexity, and cost. Improvements of this type not only lower mission costs, but also enable more complex instrument suites to be considered for advanced data fusion measurement concepts. We need to identify the short-term and long-term technological needs (new instruments) and bottlenecks (better instruments) for each of the planetary science disciplines and we need input from every discipline to do this. Certain disciplines may feel little pressure to invest time and money into ITD since their instruments are mature. However, if mature technologies can be made less expensive and smaller, more opportunities for science will become available by enabling previously impossible secondary mission instruments. Currently identified areas requiring technology development: - Deployable large (10's of meters) microwave antennas - FIR (sub/mmwave) detectors and antennas - Extreme-temperature semiconductors for Venus (high-temp), Titan (low-temp) - Low power rad-hard electronics - Rad-hard on-board processing power - Increased DSN capacity - Optical interplanetary communications - Lightweight deployable optics - Lightweight, inexpensive, in-situ atmospheric probes

  9. Review of Enabling Technologies to Facilitate Secure Compute Customization

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholdt, Ferrol; Caldwell, Blake A; Hicks, Susan Elaine; Koch, Scott M; Naughton, III, Thomas J; Pelfrey, Daniel S; Pogge, James R; Scott, Stephen L; Shipman, Galen M; Sorrillo, Lawrence

    2014-12-01

    High performance computing environments are often used for a wide variety of workloads ranging from simulation, data transformation and analysis, and complex workflows to name just a few. These systems may process data for a variety of users, often requiring strong separation between job allocations. There are many challenges to establishing these secure enclaves within the shared infrastructure of high-performance computing (HPC) environments. The isolation mechanisms in the system software are the basic building blocks for enabling secure compute enclaves. There are a variety of approaches and the focus of this report is to review the different virtualization technologies that facilitate the creation of secure compute enclaves. The report reviews current operating system (OS) protection mechanisms and modern virtualization technologies to better understand the performance/isolation properties. We also examine the feasibility of running ``virtualized'' computing resources as non-privileged users, and providing controlled administrative permissions for standard users running within a virtualized context. Our examination includes technologies such as Linux containers (LXC [32], Docker [15]) and full virtualization (KVM [26], Xen [5]). We categorize these different approaches to virtualization into two broad groups: OS-level virtualization and system-level virtualization. The OS-level virtualization uses containers to allow a single OS kernel to be partitioned to create Virtual Environments (VE), e.g., LXC. The resources within the host's kernel are only virtualized in the sense of separate namespaces. In contrast, system-level virtualization uses hypervisors to manage multiple OS kernels and virtualize the physical resources (hardware) to create Virtual Machines (VM), e.g., Xen, KVM. This terminology of VE and VM, detailed in Section 2, is used throughout the report to distinguish between the two different approaches to providing virtualized execution environments

  10. Science, engineering and enabling technologies for exploration of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Mankins, John C.

    1992-01-01

    This report by NASA's Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology identifies a list of critical technologies needed to support the exploration of the universe. The concept of the Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is introduced with specific attention given to the strategic planning framework for NASA and other participants involved in the development of space technologies. The required technologies are identified for the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Exploration Initiative, information systems, spacecraft advancement, and critical astrophysics issues. The ITP presents the basis for strategically planning the development of such technologies as observation systems, on-board processing, EVA systems, aerobraking, nuclear propulsion, scientific information acquisition, and high-energy sensors. The ITP is a significant step towards the planned and prioritized advancement of critical technologies related to the exploration of the universe.

  11. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  12. How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Belcher, John

    2005-01-01

    Educational technology supports meaningful learning and enables the presentation of spatial and dynamic images, which portray relationships among complex concepts. The Technology-Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman…

  13. Technology Mentors: Enablers of ICT Uptake in Australian Small Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Carolyn J.; Burgess, Stephen; Paguio, Rafael; Bingley, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the innovative employment of students as technology mentors as part of a Blended Learning Program (BLP) that supported a group of owner-managers of small businesses to adopt appropriate information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance their work practices. Design/methodology/approach:…

  14. Factors Enabling the Use of Technology in Subject Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubukcuoglu, Begum

    2013-01-01

    The importance of information and communication technologies in the teaching and learning process has been proven by many research studies to be an effective way of supporting teaching and learning. Although many teachers do not use new technologies as instructional tools, some are integrating information and communication technologies…

  15. Technology Professional Development Enabled by an Electronic Management System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.; Smith, Ben L.; Davis, Trina J.; Strader, Roy Arlen; Clark, Francis E.

    The need is clear for colleges of education to prepare student and teachers for a technological world. Most Texas institutions of higher education are struggling with integrating technology into courses and content areas an in offering online courses. This project was undertaken to address the need for increased faculty proficiency in technology…

  16. Virtual Laboratory Enabling Collaborative Research in Applied Vehicle Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Cronin, Catherine K.; Scott, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    The virtual laboratory is a new technology, based on the internet, that has had wide usage in a variety of technical fields because of its inherent ability to allow many users to participate simultaneously in instruction (education) or in the collaborative study of a common problem (real-world application). The leadership in the Applied Vehicle Technology panel has encouraged the utilization of this technology in its task groups for some time and its parent organization, the Research and Technology Agency, has done the same for its own administrative use. This paper outlines the application of the virtual laboratory to those fields important to applied vehicle technologies, gives the status of the effort, and identifies the benefit it can have on collaborative research. The latter is done, in part, through a specific example, i.e. the experience of one task group.

  17. Technologically Reflective Individuals as Enablers of Social Innovation*

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Christiane; Gassmann, Oliver; van den Hende, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies technologically reflective individuals and demonstrates their ability to develop innovations that benefit society. Technological reflectiveness (TR) is the tendency to think about the societal impact of an innovation, and those who display this capability in public are individuals who participate in online idea competitions focused on technical solutions for social problems (such as General Electric's eco‐challenge, the James Dyson Award, and the BOSCH Technology Horizon Award). However, technologically reflective individuals also reflect in private settings (e.g., when reading news updates), thus requiring a scale to identify them. This paper describes the systematic development of an easy‐to‐administer multi‐item scale to measure an individual's level of TR. Applying the TR scale in an empirical study on a health monitoring system confirmed that individuals' degree of TR relates positively to their ability to generate (1) more new product features and uses, (2) features with higher levels of societal impact, and (3) features that are more elaborated. This scale allows firms seeking to implement co‐creation in their new product development (NPD) process and sustainable solutions to identify such individuals. Thus, this paper indicates that companies wishing to introduce new technological products with a positive societal impact may profit from involving technologically reflective individuals in the NPD process. PMID:27134342

  18. A Technology Plan for Enabling Commercial Space Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry M.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Space Transportation Program is a customer driven, focused technology program that supports the NASA Strategic Plan and considers future commercial space business projections. The initial cycle of the Advanced Space Transportation Program implementation planning was conducted from December 1995 through February 1996 and represented increased NASA emphasis on broad base technology development with the goal of dramatic reductions in the cost of space transportation. The second planning cycle, conducted in January and February 1997, updated the program implementation plan based on changes in the external environment, increased maturity of advanced concept studies, and current technology assessments. The program has taken a business-like approach to technology development with a balanced portfolio of near, medium, and long-term strategic targets. Strategic targets are influenced by Earth science, space science, and exploration objectives as well as commercial space markets. Commercial space markets include those that would be enhanced by lower cost transportation as well as potential markets resulting in major increases in space business induced by reductions in transportation cost. The program plan addresses earth-to-orbit space launch, earth orbit operations and deep space systems. It also addresses all critical transportation system elements; including structures, thermal protection systems, propulsion, avionics, and operations. As these technologies are matured, integrated technology flight experiments such as the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator programs support near-term (one to five years) development or operational decisions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program and the flight demonstrator programs combine business planning, ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrations that will permit industry and NASA to commit to revolutionary new space transportation systems

  19. Photonic microsystems: an enabling technology for light deflection and modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Harald; Wolter, Alexander; Dauderstadt, Ulrike A.; Gehner, Andreas; Grueger, Heinrich; Drabe, Christian; Lakner, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    Light and electricity are said to be the all purpose tools for the next decades. Photonic Microsystems combine this tools in an ideal manner: They are electronically addressable devices with an optical functionality allowing to modulate light temporally and/or spatially. Further, they take advantage of high integration density, high reliability, high bandwidth and low cost fabrication for serial production. While in some cases Photonic Microsystem Technology is focused on the replacement of conventional devices, the majority of developments uses the unique potential of this technology to create devices based on novel principles with extended or even new functionality for advanced applications. Products based on Photonic Microsystem Technology have already entered or are only a few steps away from entering the market in various fields e.g. in information and communication technology, medicine, biology and metrology. This paper gives an overview of the Photonic Microsystems development activities with special emphasis on devices for light deflection and light modulation. Single micro mirrors e.g. for scanning or laser beam positioning are as well presented and discussed as micro mirror arrays and membrane mirrors for image generation and phase modulation. Technology trends are derived from the current development activities and an outlook to future work is given.

  20. Advanced Exploration Technologies: Micro and Nano Technologies Enabling Space Missions in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    Some of the many new and advanced exploration technologies which will enable space missions in the 21st century and specifically the Manned Mars Mission are explored in this presentation. Some of these are the system on a chip, the Computed-Tomography imaging Spectrometer, the digital camera on a chip, and other Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology for space. Some of these MEMS are the silicon micromachined microgyroscope, a subliming solid micro-thruster, a micro-ion thruster, a silicon seismometer, a dewpoint microhygrometer, a micro laser doppler anemometer, and tunable diode laser (TDL) sensors. The advanced technology insertion is critical for NASA to decrease mass, volume, power and mission costs, and increase functionality, science potential and robustness.

  1. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  2. Enabling instrumentation and technology for 21st century light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Shea, T.J.; Denes, P.; Siddons, P.; Attwood, D.; Kaertner, F.; Moog, L.; Li, Y.; Sakdinawat, A.; Schlueter, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the summary from the Accelerator Instrumentation and Technology working group, one of the five working groups that participated in the BES-sponsored Workshop on Accelerator Physics of Future Light Sources held in Gaithersburg, MD September 15-17, 2009. We describe progress and potential in three areas: attosecond instrumentation, photon detectors for user experiments, and insertion devices.

  3. Management as the enabling technology for space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.; Griffin, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the dilemma which NASA faces in starting a major new initiative within the constraints of the current national budget. It addressed the fact that unlike previous NASA programs, the major mission constraints come from management factors as opposed to technologies. An action plan is presented, along with some results from early management simplification processes.

  4. How Information Technology Can Enable 21st Century Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolderie, Ted; McDonald; Tim

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the information technology (IT) revolution has transformed American industry--leading to new types of work processes and business organizations, and increased productivity and consumer innovations--but by and large, this game-changer has bypassed America's schools. Virtually all K-12 schools in the country are connected to the…

  5. Collaboration forum: an innovation in information exchange for enabling technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Mark M.

    2001-09-01

    Collaboration technologies represent a new approach for performing distributed experiments using multiple and disparate simulations. While Collaboration technologies provide potential solutions, there is also a problem in understanding the capabilities of the many technologies in existence, technologies under development, and new concepts. The problem now is keeping up with the rapidly evolving products and concepts within the collaboration community. A new non-commercial web site (www.CollaborationForum.org) has just come on-line to support the collaboration community. This unique web site is designed exclusively by and for the collaboration community. The web site has three primary goals: 1) to be the portal for all information about electronic collaboration. For example, the site includes links to most other related web sites, lists of conferences, and a list of collaboration tools. 2) To promote collaboration as a way of doing business. This web site, will educate industry and the Department of Defense on the tremendous gains that can be realized through proper implementation of electronic collaboration. 3) To support organizations in the development and incorporation of collaboration technology into their enterprises. This may take a variety of forms such as learning from others who have used and commented on a collaboration tool, linking tools vendors with collaboration experts, on-line teaching, and more. The web site itself is a collaboration. Most of the sections within the site itself is a collaboration. Most of the sections within the site offer the user the opportunity to participate by providing their knowledge, experience, and opinions. The site also offers on-line discussion forums where users can discuss a variety of different topics in a free from discussion format. Topics range from getting started in collaboration to advanced collaboration science research. Get on-line and join us in this collaboration of collaborators.

  6. Preparation of fibrous palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Leahy, B.T.; Werkmeister, D.W.; Martin, F.S.; Friedlander, H.N.

    1988-06-15

    Acrylic fibers (pan fibers) absorb palladium from a hot solution of palladium nitrate in nitric acid. When palladium-loaded acrylic fibers are burned, fibers consisting of palladium and palladium oxide are formed. Reduction of this mixture with hydrogen produces fibers of palladium metal. The fibers may be compressed into pellets which offer less resistance to flowing hydrogen than similar pellets prepared by compressing commercial palladium powder. 9 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Enabling technologies for web-based ubiquitous supercomputing

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.

    1996-12-31

    We use the term ubiquitous supercomputing to refer to systems that integrate low- and mid-range computing systems, advanced networks, and remote high-end computers with the goal of enhancing the computational power accessible from local environments. Such systems promise to enable new applications in areas as diverse as smart instruments and collaborative environments. However, they also demand tools for transporting code between computers and for establishing flexible, dynamic communication structures. In this paper, we propose that these requirements be satisfied by enhancing the Java programming language with global pointer and remote service request mechanisms from a communication library called Nexus. Java supports transportable code; Nexus provides communication support. We explain how this Nexus Java library is implemented and illustrate its use with examples.

  8. Enabling Smart Workflows over Heterogeneous ID-Sensing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Giner, Pau; Cetina, Carlos; Lacuesta, Raquel; Palacios, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Sensing technologies in mobile devices play a key role in reducing the gap between the physical and the digital world. The use of automatic identification capabilities can improve user participation in business processes where physical elements are involved (Smart Workflows). However, identifying all objects in the user surroundings does not automatically translate into meaningful services to the user. This work introduces Parkour, an architecture that allows the development of services that match the goals of each of the participants in a smart workflow. Parkour is based on a pluggable architecture that can be extended to provide support for new tasks and technologies. In order to facilitate the development of these plug-ins, tools that automate the development process are also provided. Several Parkour-based systems have been developed in order to validate the applicability of the proposal. PMID:23202193

  9. Enabling smart workflows over heterogeneous ID-sensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Giner, Pau; Cetina, Carlos; Lacuesta, Raquel; Palacios, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Sensing technologies in mobile devices play a key role in reducing the gap between the physical and the digital world. The use of automatic identification capabilities can improve user participation in business processes where physical elements are involved(Smart Workflows). However, identifying all objects in the user surroundings does not automatically translate into meaningful services to the user. This work introduces Parkour,an architecture that allows the development of services that match the goals of each of the participants in a smart workflow. Parkour is based on a pluggable architecture that can be extended to provide support for new tasks and technologies. In order to facilitatethe development of these plug-ins, tools that automate the development process are also provided. Several Parkour-based systems have been developed in order to validate the applicability of the proposal. PMID:23202193

  10. Stroke education for nurses through a technology-enabled program.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen; Kelloway, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Today's nurse faces many challenges in the workplace. Required to keep up in a constantly changing knowledge-based environment, he or she must balance complex professional responsibilities, staffing shortages, and increased acuity among the patient population. Continuing education must, therefore, be highly flexible and responsive to the personal and professional needs of the nurse learner. Technology-supported continuing education is suggested to be an appropriate way of meeting the learning needs of busy working nurses. The Stroke Best Practices for Nursing project used three complementary and integrated educational technologies-a-Web-based learning site, Web casting (live and archived), and two-way interactive videoconferencing--to deliver a minicourse focused on best practice stroke care to nurses working in northeastern and northwestern Ontario, a geographical area of approximately 600 km. In total, 96 nurses participated in the educational part of the program; 46 of the 96 (47%) took part in the assessment of the program. On the basis of this assessment strategy and the nurses' requests for other programs that do not use traditional face-to-face classrooms and lecture, the value of using educational technologies in health-based continuing education was strongly identified. This article describes key components of the project and celebrates the partnership among the organizing stakeholders: faculty in the school of nursing at the Laurentian University, the West Greater Toronto Area Stroke Network, and the Ontario Telemedicine Network. The article further describes findings related to the program's impact on participants' perceptions of competence as caregivers for stroke patients, participants' confidence using technology for educational purposes, and participants' satisfaction with the overall program. PMID:19998685

  11. Enabling Detailed Energy Analyses via the Technology Performance Exchange: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, D.; Fleming, K.; Lee, E.; Livingood, W.

    2014-08-01

    One of the key tenets to increasing adoption of energy efficiency solutions in the built environment is improving confidence in energy performance. Current industry practices make extensive use of predictive modeling, often via the use of sophisticated hourly or sub-hourly energy simulation programs, to account for site-specific parameters (e.g., climate zone, hours of operation, and space type) and arrive at a performance estimate. While such methods are highly precise, they invariably provide less than ideal accuracy due to a lack of high-quality, foundational energy performance input data. The Technology Performance Exchange was constructed to allow the transparent sharing of foundational, product-specific energy performance data, and leverages significant, external engineering efforts and a modular architecture to efficiently identify and codify the minimum information necessary to accurately predict product energy performance. This strongly-typed database resource represents a novel solution to a difficult and established problem. One of the most exciting benefits is the way in which the Technology Performance Exchange's application programming interface has been leveraged to integrate contributed foundational data into the Building Component Library. Via a series of scripts, data is automatically translated and parsed into the Building Component Library in a format that is immediately usable to the energy modeling community. This paper (1) presents a high-level overview of the project drivers and the structure of the Technology Performance Exchange; (2) offers a detailed examination of how technologies are incorporated and translated into powerful energy modeling code snippets; and (3) examines several benefits of this robust workflow.

  12. The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Focusing Technologies on Climate Datasets and Resource Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2007-09-26

    This report discusses a project that used prototyping technology to access and analyze climate data. This project was initially funded under the DOE’s Next Generation Internet (NGI) program, with follow-on support from BER and the Mathematical, Information, and Computational Sciences (MICS) office. In this prototype, we developed Data Grid technologies for managing the movement and replication of large datasets, and applied these technologies in a practical setting (i.e., an ESG-enabled data browser based on current climate data analysis tools), achieving cross-country transfer rates of more than 500 Mb/s. Having demonstrated the potential for remotely accessing and analyzing climate data located at sites across the U.S., we won the “Hottest Infrastructure” award in the Network Challenge event. While the ESG I prototype project substantiated a proof of concept (“Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources”), the SciDAC Earth System Grid (ESG) II project made this a reality. Our efforts targeted the development of metadata technologies (standard schema, XML metadata extraction based on netCDF, and a Metadata Catalog Service), security technologies (Web-based user registration and authentication, and community authorization), data transport technologies (GridFTPenabled OPeNDAP-G for high-performance access, robust multiple file transport and integration with mass storage systems, and support for dataset aggregation and subsetting), as well as web portal technologies to provide interactive access to climate data holdings. At this point, the technology was in place and assembled, and ESG II was poised to make a substantial impact on the climate modelling community.

  13. Miniaturized Power Processing Unit Study: A Cubesat Electric Propulsion Technology Enabler Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghassemieh, Shakib M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates High Voltage Power Processing Unit (PPU) technology and driving requirements necessary to enable the Microfluidic Electric Propulsion technology research and development by NASA and university partners. This study provides an overview of the state of the art PPU technology with recommendations for technology demonstration projects and missions for NASA to pursue.

  14. Three-Dimensional Printing: An Enabling Technology for IR.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Rahul; Balesh, Elie R; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Hirsch, Joshua A; Khademhosseini, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi

    2016-06-01

    Rapid prototyping, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a recent technologic advancement with tremendous potential for advancing medical device design. A wide range of raw materials can be incorporated into complex 3D structures, including plastics, metals, biocompatible polymers, and even living cells. With its promise of highly customized, adaptable, and personalized device design at the point of care, 3D printing stands to revolutionize medical care. The present review summarizes the methods for 3D printing and their current and potential roles in medical device design, with an emphasis on their potential relevance to interventional radiology. PMID:27117948

  15. Enabling Telescopes of the Future: Long-Range Technology Investing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters has a current staff of about 60 professionals (aka, scientists, engineers, budget analysts) and an annual budget of $2.5 B out of NASA s $15.0 B. About 35 missions or programs in various stages of development or operation are managed by OSS, notable among them are Hubble Space Telescope, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars 2001 Odyssey, Chandra X-ray Observatory, TRACE (solar observatory), Cassini (mission to Saturn), Galileo (mission at Jupiter), and Next Generation Space Telescope. OSS has an annual technology budget of several hundred million dollars. So, what is it that we are doing?

  16. Synthetic Biology as an Enabling Technology for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth.

  17. Adaptive Nulling: A New Enabling Technology for Interferometric Exoplanet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Jeganathan, Muthu; Peters, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Deep, stable nulling of starlight requires careful control of the amplitudes and phases of the beams that are being combined. The detection of earth-like planets using the interferometer architectures currently being considered for the Terrestrial Planet Finder mission require that the E-field amplitudes are balanced at the level of approx. 0.1%, and the phases are controlled at the level of 1 mrad (corresponding to approx.1.5 nm for a wavelength of 10 microns). These conditions must be met simultaneously at all wavelengths across the science band, and for both polarization states, imposing unrealistic tolerances on the symmetry between the optical beamtrains. We introduce the concept of a compensator that is inserted into the beamtrain, which can adaptively correct for the mismatches across the spectrum, enabling deep nulls with realistic, imperfect optics. The design presented uses a deformable mirror to adjust the amplitude and phase of each beam as an arbitrary function of wavelength and polarization. A proof-of-concept experiment will be conducted at visible/near-IR wavelengths, followed by a system operating in the Mid-IR band.

  18. Thin film metal surface micromachining: a new enabling foundry technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Andringa, Toon; Attenborough, K.; Eisenberg, Martin; Meeuws, P.

    2003-01-01

    A new generation of products has been developed at research institutes needing a combination of thin film metal processing and surface micromachining. Especially RF MEMS switches and related products are now entering the market. These products are not only complex in architecture, they also feature relative thick metal layers. The thicknesses of the metal layers give rise to problems in the field of step coverage, dimension control and limited resistance to etching agents. Reliability and yield in production is therefore a major concern. To make robust, compact and reliable structures, combinations of electroplating and Chemical Mechanical Polishing are used. The combinations are not only new in this area; they are rather different from the standards in the semiconductor industry, where the technology was developed. The process modules are used in RF MEMS to create the thick signal lines, as well as the delicate switch and varactor structures. The basic processes, tried and tested in the production of magnetic heads, had to be modified to meet the special demands of RF MEMS. Also new processes had to be introduced to create free hanging membranes. Due to the fragility of the structures, a special technology is being developed in the backend processing: wafer scale packaging. This article gives an overview of the processes, the challenges met and the results of the work on RF MEMS at the OnStream MST foundry.

  19. Can wireless technology enable new diabetes management tools?

    PubMed

    Hedtke, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Mobile computing and communications technology embodied in the modern cell phone device can be employed to improve the lives of diabetes patients by giving them better tools for self-management. Several companies are working on the development of diabetes management tools that leverage the ubiquitous cell phone to bring self-management tools to the hand of the diabetes patient. Integration of blood glucose monitoring (BGM) technology with the cell phone platform adds a level of convenience for the person with diabetes, but, more importantly, allows BGM data to be automatically captured, logged, and processed in near real time in order to provide the diabetes patient with assistance in managing their blood glucose levels. Other automatic measurements can estimate physical activity, and information regarding medication events and food intake can be captured and analyzed in order to provide the diabetes patient with continual assistance in managing their therapy and behaviors in order to improve glycemic control. The path to realization of such solutions is not, however, without obstacles. PMID:19885187

  20. Enabling Technologies for Microfluidic Flow Control and Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Daniel Christopher

    Advances in microfluidic technologies have expanded conventional chemical and biological techniques to the point where we can envision rapid, inexpensive and portable analysis. Among the numerous challenges in the development of portable, chip-based technologies are simple flow control and detection strategies, which will be essential to widespread acceptance and implementation at both the point-of-care and in locales with limited facilities/resources. The research presented in this dissertation is focused on the development of precise flow control techniques and new, simplified detection technologies aimed at addressing these challenges. An introduction to the concepts important to microfluidics and a brief history to the field are presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 will present the development of a technique for the precise control of small volumes of liquids, where well-studied electrical circuit concepts are employed to create frequency-dependent microfluidic circuits. In this system, elastomeric thin films act as fluidic capacitors and diodes, which, when combined with resistors (channels), make fluidic circuits that are described by analytical models. Metering of two separate chemical inputs with a single oscillatory pneumatic control line is demonstrated by combining simple fluidic circuits (i.e., band-pass filters) to significantly reduce the external hardware required for microfluidic flow control. In order to quantify multiple flow profiles in microfluidic circuits, a novel multiplexed flow measurement method using visible dyes is introduced in Chapter 3 and rapidly determines individual flow in connected channels, post-fabrication device quality and solution viscosity. Another thrust of this dissertation research has been to develop miniaturized bioanalytical systems. Chapter 4 describes the adaption of a nucleic-acid-tagged antibody protein detection reaction to a microfluidic platform for detection of down to 5 E. coli O157:H7 cells. Furthermore, a

  1. SAR data exploitation: computational technology enabling SAR ATR algorithm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Uttam K.; Casteel, Curtis H., Jr.; Buxa, Peter; Minardi, Michael J.; Zelnio, Edmund G.; Nehrbass, John W.

    2007-04-01

    A fundamental issue with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) application development is data processing and exploitation in real-time or near real-time. The power of high performance computing (HPC) clusters, FPGA, and the IBM Cell processor presents new algorithm development possibilities that have not been fully leveraged. In this paper, we will illustrate the capability of SAR data exploitation which was impractical over the last decade due to computing limitations. We can envision that SAR imagery encompassing city size coverage at extremely high levels of fidelity could be processed at near-real time using the above technologies to empower the warfighter with access to critical information for the war on terror, homeland defense, as well as urban warfare.

  2. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  3. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will

  4. GeoPro: Technology to Enable Scientific Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    C. Juan

    2004-02-09

    Development of the ground-water flow model for the Death Valley Regional Groundwater Flow System (DVRFS) required integration of numerous supporting hydrogeologic investigations. The results from recharge, discharge, hydraulic properties, water level, pumping, model boundaries, and geologic studies were integrated to develop the required conceptual and 3-D framework models, and the flow model itself. To support the complex modeling process and the needs of the multidisciplinary DVRFS team, a hardware and software system called GeoPro (Geoscience Knowledge Integration Protocol) was developed. A primary function of GeoPro is to manage the large volume of disparate data compiled for the 100,000-square-kilometer area of southern Nevada and California. The data are primarily from previous investigations and regional flow models developed for the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain projects. GeoPro utilizes relational database technology (Microsoft SQL Server{trademark}) to store and manage these tabular point data, groundwater flow model ASCII data, 3-D hydrogeologic framework data, 2-D and 2.5-D GIS data, and text documents. Data management consists of versioning, tracking, and reporting data changes as multiple users access the centralized database. GeoPro also supports the modeling process by automating the routine data transformations required to integrate project software. This automation is also crucial to streamlining pre- and post-processing of model data during model calibration. Another function of GeoPro is to facilitate the dissemination and use of the model data and results through web-based documents by linking and allowing access to the underlying database and analysis tools. The intent is to convey to end-users the complex flow model product in a manner that is simple, flexible, and relevant to their needs. GeoPro is evolving from a prototype system to a production-level product. Currently the DVRFS pre- and post-processing modeling tools are being re

  5. Organozinc Chemistry Enabled by Micellar Catalysis. Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings between Alkyl and Aryl Bromides in Water at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Duplais, Christophe; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Lipshutz, Bruce H.

    2012-01-01

    Negishi-like cross-couplings between (functionalized) alkyl and aryl bromides are described. Despite the fact that organozinc reagents are intolerant of water, their formation as well as their use in an aqueous micellar environment is discussed herein. Each component of this complex series of events leading up to C–C bond formation has an important role which has been determined insofar as the type of zinc, amine ligand, surfactant, and palladium catalyst are concerned. In particular, the nature of the surfactant has been found to be crucial in order to obtain synthetically useful results involving highly reactive, moisture-sensitive organometallics. Neither organic solvent nor heat is required for these cross-couplings to occur; just add water. PMID:23539206

  6. Controlled motion: an enabling technology for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Galen D.; Fasick, John C.; Xu, Qin

    2002-07-01

    Assembly and measurement of photonic subsystems or integrated optical components is transitioning from manual to semi-automated and fully automated configurations. Controlled motion, which allows movement in the 10-millimeter range with resolution of nanometers, is a critical requirement for successful assembly or functional verification of an assembly. Application specific requirements may include holding position at sub-micrometer levels for hours, repeatability of 0.1 percent over 100 micrometers to 0.005 percent over 10 millimeters, and simple controls for systems as basic as 2 degrees of freedom to multiple robots with 6 degrees of freedom each. New clamping technology, in an INCHWORM(brand motor, utilizes a combination of MEMS fabricated features and proprietary clamp interface materials to increase the clamp friction. This allows much higher push forces to be generated or the design freedom to trade force for size. Power versus Force curves are presented. Resolution, velocity, stiffness, and simple control are maintained in a much smaller package. Single mode fiber optic devices have active areas in the 5-10 micrometer range. Assembly needs are going smaller. A relatively powerful motor with dimensional resolution and time stability that can be incorporated into ever smaller robots will be needed to meet future photonic automation requirements.

  7. Results of DIII-D operation with new enabling technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C.

    1997-03-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have been carried out to understand and explore optimized tokamak operating modes by exploiting control of the plasma current and pressure profiles using new RF current drive and divertor technology. DIII-D emphasizes plasma shape and divertor experiments using a digital plasma control system and extensive diagnostics to develop improved understanding and control of transport barriers in high performance plasmas. The emphasis of the program is to extend the duration of high performance operating modes beyond the plasma current relaxation time by using ICRF and ECH current drive. Engineering features of the new RF systems being developed for these experiments as well as new divertor results are described. DIII-D employs multi-element ICRF antennas for fast-wave electron heating and on-axis current drive and is beginning 110 GHz ECH experiments with MW-level gyrotrons for off-axis current drive. DIII-D employs active cryogenic divertor neutral particle pumping for plasma density and plasma pressure profile control. A divertor modification is now being implemented on DIII-D to pump higher triangularity plasmas and to better baffle neutral backflow from the recycling divertor region.

  8. Novel Serial Positive Enrichment Technology Enables Clinical Multiparameter Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Tschulik, Claudia; Piossek, Christine; Bet, Jeannette; Yamamoto, Tori N.; Schiemann, Matthias; Neuenhahn, Michael; Martin, Klaus; Schlapschy, Martin; Skerra, Arne; Schmidt, Thomas; Edinger, Matthias; Riddell, Stanley R.; Germeroth, Lothar; Busch, Dirk H.

    2012-01-01

    A general obstacle for clinical cell preparations is limited purity, which causes variability in the quality and potency of cell products and might be responsible for negative side effects due to unwanted contaminants. Highly pure populations can be obtained best using positive selection techniques. However, in many cases target cell populations need to be segregated from other cells by combinations of multiple markers, which is still difficult to achieve – especially for clinical cell products. Therefore, we have generated low-affinity antibody-derived Fab-fragments, which stain like parental antibodies when multimerized via Strep-tag and Strep-Tactin, but can subsequently be removed entirely from the target cell population. Such reagents can be generated for virtually any antigen and can be used for sequential positive enrichment steps via paramagnetic beads. First protocols for multiparameter enrichment of two clinically relevant cell populations, CD4high/CD25high/CD45RAhigh ‘regulatory T cells’ and CD8high/CD62Lhigh/CD45RAneg ‘central memory T cells’, have been established to determine quality and efficacy parameters of this novel technology, which should have broad applicability for clinical cell sorting as well as basic research. PMID:22545138

  9. Recce and UAV: mass memory an enabling technology for merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Walter J., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    In the era of Declining Defense Dollars, the cost of sophisticated aircraft and highly trained personnel has heightened interest in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). The obvious lure is the lower vehicle cost (no crew station and crew support systems) and reduced needs for highly skilled air crews. Reconnaissance (commonly called recce) aircraft and their missions are among the commonly sighted applications for UAVs. Today's UAV recce aircraft (such as the Predator) are the genesis of much more sophisticated UAVs of the future. The evolution of the UAV will not be constrained to recce aircraft, but the recce mission will be significant for UAVs. The recce hole has historically been that of a battlefield data collector for post mission review and planning. In the electronic battlefield of the future, that role will be expanded. Envisioned mission for future recce aircraft include real-time scout, target location and fire coordination, battle damage assessment, and large area surveillance. Associated with many of these new roles is the need to store or assess much higher volumes of data. The higher volume data requirements are the result of higher resolution sensors (the Advanced Helicopter Pilotage infrared sensor has a data rate of near 1.2 Gigabits per second) and multi-sensor applications (the Multi-Sensor Aided Targeting program considered infrared, TV, and radar). The evolution of the UAV recce role, and associated increased data storage needs (from higher data rates and increased coverage requirements), requires the development of new data storage equipment. One solution to the increased storage needs is solid-state memory. As solid-state memories become faster, smaller, and cheaper they will enable the UAV recce mission capability to expand. Because of the speed of the memory, it will be possible to buffer and assess (identify the existence of targets or other points of interest) data before committing to consumption of limited storage assets. Faster memory

  10. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. This effort will provide the framework to mature both on-orbit and earth-to-orbit avionics and propulsion technologies while also providing dedicated, affordable access to LEO for cubesat class payloads.

  11. Paradigm shifts in clinical trials enabled by information technology.

    PubMed

    Marks, R G; Conlon, M; Ruberg, S J

    The use of the world wide web for clinical trials changes the processes of performing clinical research in several fundamental ways. Greatly improved security, monitoring capability, and accuracy and timeliness of study conduct can be achieved while lowering cost. Data quality is enhanced while co-ordinating centre effort is reduced. The web provides a natural environment for linking the various components of clinical research, leading to new levels of simplicity and efficiency. It also enhances opportunities for recruitment of study investigators and patients. Other information technology tools and databases can be used to assist in this regard as well. Web-based trials change the relationship of the investigator site to the study and the site to the co-ordinating centre. Different roles and responsibilities lead to simplified processes and more and higher quality data. Many standard co-ordinating centre activities, such as randomization, protocol implementation and amending, document tracking, adverse event reporting, site monitoring, report generation and data analysis are all fundamentally changed in a web-based trial. Opportunities are enhanced to identify potential investigators and support their successful study conduct. As the role of investigator sites is changed in web-based research, more primary care medical providers can be attracted to research, providing more typical patients to studies than those sometimes available through more traditional research sites, especially those at academic study sites. Other activities can now be co-ordinated electronically with the advent of the web. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) can use online tools to control investigator participation, resulting in improved study efficiency and patient safety. A web-based research pharmacy provides tremendous efficiencies in managing and distributing study medications. Financial payments to the sites can be performed and recorded electronically, or even administered based on

  12. Solid Freeform Fabrication: An Enabling Technology for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.; Dicus, Dennis L.

    2002-01-01

    The emerging class of direct manufacturing processes known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) employs a focused energy beam and metal feedstock to build structural parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data. Some variations on existing SFF techniques have potential for application in space for a variety of different missions. This paper will focus on three different applications ranging from near to far term to demonstrate the widespread potential of this technology for space-based applications. One application is the on-orbit construction of large space structures, on the order of tens of meters to a kilometer in size. Such structures are too large to launch intact even in a deployable design; their extreme size necessitates assembly or erection of such structures in space. A low-earth orbiting satellite with a SFF system employing a high-energy beam for high deposition rates could be employed to construct large space structures using feedstock launched from Earth. A second potential application is a small, multifunctional system that could be used by astronauts on long-duration human exploration missions to manufacture spare parts. Supportability of human exploration missions is essential, and a SFF system would provide flexibility in the ability to repair or fabricate any part that may be damaged or broken during the mission. The system envisioned would also have machining and welding capabilities to increase its utility on a mission where mass and volume are extremely limited. A third example of an SFF application in space is a miniaturized automated system for structural health monitoring and repair. If damage is detected using a low power beam scan, the beam power can be increased to perform repairs within the spacecraft or satellite structure without the requirement of human interaction or commands. Due to low gravity environment for all of these applications, wire feedstock is preferred to powder from a containment, handling, and safety

  13. Enabling medication management through health information technology (Health IT).

    PubMed Central

    McKibbon, K Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Handler, Steve M; Dolovich, Lisa R; Holbrook, Anne M; O'Reilly, Daria; Tamblyn, Robyn; J Hemens, Brian; Basu, Runki; Troyan, Sue; Roshanov, Pavel S; Archer, Norman P; Raina, Parminder

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of the report was to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) on all phases of the medication management process (prescribing and ordering, order communication, dispensing, administration and monitoring as well as education and reconciliation), to identify the gaps in the literature and to make recommendations for future research. DATA SOURCES We searched peer-reviewed electronic databases, grey literature, and performed hand searches. Databases searched included MEDLINE®, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Compendex, Inspec (which includes IEEE Xplore), Library and Information Science Abstracts, E-Prints in Library and Information Science, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, and Business Source Complete. Grey literature searching involved Internet searching, reviewing relevant Web sites, and searching electronic databases of grey literatures. AHRQ also provided all references in their e-Prescribing, bar coding, and CPOE knowledge libraries. METHODS Paired reviewers looked at citations to identify studies on a range of health IT used to assist in the medication management process (MMIT) during multiple levels of screening (titles and abstracts, full text and final review for assignment of questions and data abstrction). Randomized controlled trials and cohort, case-control, and case series studies were independently assessed for quality. All data were abstracted by one reviewer and examined by one of two different reviewers with content and methods expertise. RESULTS 40,582 articles were retrieved. After duplicates were removed, 32,785 articles were screened at the title and abstract phase. 4,578 full text articles were assessed and 789 articles were included in the final report. Of these, 361 met only content criteria and were listed without further abstraction. The final report included data

  14. Enabling kinetic micro-penetrator technology for Solar System research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R. A.

    2008-09-01

    Whilst the concept of high speed impacting penetrator probes is not new, recent highly successful ground test results have considerably improved the perception that these can be a viable and useful addition to the current toolbox of planetary probes. Previous developments only led to a single deployment (Deep Space-2 to Mars on the ill fated NASA Mars Polar Lander mission in 1999) where neither the soft lander nor penetrator was ever heard from, which is not a logical basis for dismissing penetrator technology. Other space penetrator programmes have included the Russian Mars'96 ~80m/s penetrators for which the whole mission was lost before the spacecraft left Earth orbit, and the Japanese Lunar-A program which was cancelled after a lengthy development program which however saw multiple successful ground trials. The Japanese penetrators were designed for ~300m/s impact. The current UK penetrator developments are actively working towards full space qualification for a Lunar penetrators (MoonLITE mission), which would also provide a significant technical demonstration towards the development of smaller, shorter lived penetrators for exploring other solar system objects. We are advocating delivered micro-penetrators in the mass range ~4-10Kg, (preceded by ~13Kg Lunar penetrator MoonLITE development program), impacting at around 100-500m/s and carrying a scientific payload of around 2Kg. Additional mass is required to deliver the probes from `orbit' to surface which is dependent upon the particular planetary body in question. The mass per descent module therefore involves and additional element which, for a descent through an atmosphere could be quite modest, while for a flyby deployment, can be substantial. For Europa we estimate a descent module mass of ~13 Kg, while for Enceladus the value is ~40Kg for Enceladus since a deceleration of ~3.8 kms-1 is needed from a Titan orbit. The delivery system could consist of a rocket deceleration motor and attitude control system

  15. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  16. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science and Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA’s George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a study to assess what low-thrust advanced propulsion system candidates, existing and near term, could deliver a small, Voyager-like satellite to our solar system’s heliopause, approximately 100 AU from the sun, within 10 years. The advanced propulsion system trade study consisted of three candidates, including a Magnetically Shielded Miniature Hall thruster, a solar sail and an electric sail. A second analysis was conducted to determine which solid rocket motor kick stage(s) would be required to provide additional thrust at various points in the trajectory, assuming a characteristic energy capability provided by a Space Launch System Block 1B vehicle architecture carrying an 8.4 meter payload fairing. Two trajectory profiles were considered, including an escape trajectory using a Jupiter gravity assist and an escape trajectory first performing a Jupiter gravity assist followed by an Oberth maneuver around the sun and an optional Saturn gravity assist. Results indicated that if the Technology Readiness Level of an electric sail could be increased in time, this technology could not only enable a satellite to reach 100 AU in 10 years but it could potentially do so in even less time.

  17. Federated executable architecture technology as an enabling technology for simulation of large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Gregory A.; Hutt, Russell; Kern, Howard S.; Saidi, Salaheddine; Young, Christopher A.

    2006-05-01

    Federated Executable Architecture Technology is an enabling technology, supportive of the construction, execution and analysis of application-oriented simulations. Using HLA to link distributed simulations allows a hybrid system to be created that best simulates a particular scenario. Under control of a top-level Executable Architecture representation of a particular scenario or application, the various models of entities in the system interoperate to test, verify and validate the static architecture of the system. Various resolutions of models may be used throughout to provide appropriate simulation of doctrine and decisions as well as entities in the scenario. Messaging in the scenario between the entities and the decision swimlanes are modeled in appropriate federated networking simulators. As a whole, the ability to bring a static architecture to life through simulation allows optimization of the doctrine reflected in the architecture. We present the results of applying FEAT to simulation of a large-scale training exercise and show how it can be used to enhance the integration and composition of training events.

  18. Enabling Communication and Navigation Technologies for Future Near Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Heckler, Gregory; Menrad, Robert; Hudiburg, John; Boroson, Don; Robinson, Bryan; Cornwell, Donald

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) proposed an architectural concept and technologies that evolve to enable space science and exploration missions out to the 2040 timeframe. The architectural concept evolves the current instantiations of the Near Earth Network and Space Network with new technologies to provide a global communication and navigation network that provides communication and navigation services to a wide range of space users in the near Earth domain. The technologies included High Rate Optical Communications, Optical Multiple Access (OMA), Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), User Initiated Services (UIS), and advanced Position, Navigation, and Timing technology. This paper describes the key technologies and their current technology readiness levels. Examples of science missions that could be enabled by the technologies and the projected operational benefits of the architecture concept to missions are also described.

  19. Enabling Laser and Lidar Technologies for NASA's Science and Exploration Mission's Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Laser Risk Reduction Program, begun in 2002, has achieved many technology advances in only 3.5 years. The recent selection of several lidar proposals for Science and Exploration applications indicates that the LRRP goal of enabling future space-based missions by lowering the technology risk has already begun to be met.

  20. Connectivism: Its Place in Theory-Informed Research and Innovation in Technology-Enabled Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The sociotechnical context for learning and education is dynamic and makes great demands on those trying to seize the opportunities presented by emerging technologies. The goal of this paper is to explore certain theories for our plans and actions in technology-enabled learning. Although presented as a successor to previous learning theories,…

  1. Space power systems technology enablement study. [for the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. D.; Stearns, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The power system technologies which enable or enhance future space missions requiring a few kilowatts or less and using the space shuttle were assessed. The advances in space power systems necessary for supporting the capabilities of the space transportation system were systematically determined and benefit/cost/risk analyses were used to identify high payoff technologies and technological priorities. The missions that are enhanced by each development are discussed.

  2. Enabling Communication and Navigation Technologies for Future Near Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, David J.; Heckler, Greg; Menrad, Robert J.; Hudiburg, John J.; Boroson, Don M.; Robinson, Bryan S.; Cornwell, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the Earth Regimes Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) Team proposed a fundamentally new architectural concept, with enabling technologies, that defines an evolutionary pathway out to the 2040 timeframe in which an increasing user community comprised of more diverse space science and exploration missions can be supported. The architectural concept evolves the current instantiations of the Near Earth Network and Space Network through implementation of select technologies resulting in a global communication and navigation network that provides communication and navigation services to a wide range of space users in the Near Earth regime, defined as an Earth-centered sphere with radius of 2M Km. The enabling technologies include: High Rate Optical Communications, Optical Multiple Access (OMA), Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN), User Initiated Services (UIS), and advanced Position, Navigation, and Timing technology (PNT). This paper describes this new architecture, the key technologies that enable it and their current technology readiness levels. Examples of science missions that could be enabled by the technologies and the projected operational benefits of the architecture concept to missions are also described.

  3. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science and Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Baysinger, Michael F.; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    's Solar Probe Plus mission, which is slated to launch in July 2018. With respect to a SLS Block 1B earth departure characteristic energy capability of 100 km2/sq s for the E-Ju trajectory option, results indicated that compared to having no advanced propulsion system onboard, both the MaSMi Hall thruster and solar sail options subtract approximately 8 to 10 years from the total trip time while the electric sail outperforms all options by subtracting up to 20 years. With respect to an average kick stage velocity capability of 2.5 to 3.5 km/s at perihelion, the most sensitive segment of the E-Ju-Su-Sa trajectory option, results indicated that both the MaSMi Hall thrust and solar sail options only subtract 1 to 3 years from the total trip time whereas the electric sail again outperforms all other options by subtracting up to 5 years. In other words, if the Technology Readiness Level of an electric sail could be increased in time, this propulsion technology could not only enable a satellite to reach 100 AU in 10 years but it could potentially do so even faster. Completing such an ambitious mission in that short of a timespan would be very attractive to many as it would be well within the average career span of any of those involved.

  4. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science and Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Baysinger, Michael F.; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    maneuver was assumed to be similar to that of NASA’s Solar Probe Plus mission, which is slated to launch in July 2018. With respect to a SLS Block 1B earth departure characteristic energy capability of 100 km(exp 2)/s(exp 2) for the E-Ju trajectory option, results indicated that compared to having no advanced propulsion system onboard, both the MaSMi Hall thruster and solar sail options subtract approximately 8 to 10 years from the total trip time while the electric sail outperforms all options by subtracting up to 20 years. With respect to an average kick stage velocity capability of 2.5 to 3.5 km/s at perihelion, the most sensitive segment of the E-Ju-Su-Sa trajectory option, results indicated that both the MaSMi Hall thrust and solar sail options only subtract 1 to 3 years from the total trip time whereas the electric sail again outperforms all other options by subtracting up to 5 years. In other words, if the Technology Readiness Level of an electric sail could be increased in time, this propulsion technology could not only enable a satellite to reach 100 AU in 10 years but it could potentially do so even faster. Completing such an ambitious mission in that short of a timespan would be very attractive to many as it would be well within the average career span of any of those involved.

  5. Propulsion Technology Assessment: Science & Enabling Technologies to Explore the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Thomas, Herbert D.; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Johnson, Les; Baysinger, Michael F.; Beers, Benjamin R.

    2015-01-01

    similar to that of NASA's Solar Probe Plus mission, which is slated to launch in July 2018. With respect to a SLS Block 1B earth departure characteristic energy capability of 100 sq km/s2 for the E-Ju trajectory option, results indicated that compared to having no advanced propulsion system onboard, both the MaSMi Hall thruster and solar sail options subtract approximately 8 to 10 years from the total trip time while the electric sail outperforms all options by subtracting up to 20 years. With respect to an average kick stage velocity capability of 2.5 to 3.5 km/s at perihelion, the most sensitive segment of the E-Ju-Su-Sa trajectory option, results indicated that both the MaSMi Hall thrust and solar sail options only subtract 1 to 3 years from the total trip time whereas the electric sail again outperforms all other options by subtracting up to 5 years. In other words, if the Technology Readiness Level of an electric sail could be increased in time, this propulsion technology could not only enable a satellite to reach 100 AU in 10 years but it could potentially do so even faster. Completing such an ambitious mission in that short of a timespan would be very attractive to many as it would be well within the average career span of any of those involved.

  6. Pointing and control system enabling technology for future automated space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlgren, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Future automated space missions present challenging opportunities in the pointing-and-control technology disciplines. The enabling pointing-and-control system technologies for missions from 1985 to the year 2000 were identified and assessed. A generic mission set including Earth orbiter, planetary, and other missions which predominantly drive the pointing-and-control requirements was selected for detailed evaluation. Technology candidates identified were prioritized as planning options for future NASA-OAST advanced development programs. The primary technology thrusts in each candidate program were cited, and advanced development programs in pointing-and-control were recommended for the FY 80 to FY 87 period, based on these technology thrusts.

  7. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.; Zimmerle. D.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  8. Heat Treatment Used to Strengthen Enabling Coating Technology for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Brian J.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    The PS304 high-temperature solid lubricant coating is a key enabling technology for Oil- Free turbomachinery propulsion and power systems. Breakthroughs in the performance of advanced foil air bearings and improvements in computer-based finite element modeling techniques are the key technologies enabling the development of Oil-Free aircraft engines being pursued by the Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center. PS304 is a plasma spray coating applied to the surface of shafts operating against foil air bearings or in any other component requiring solid lubrication at high temperatures, where conventional materials such as graphite cannot function.

  9. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Zimmerle, D.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and trans-forming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electricity grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  10. Utilizing Fission Technology to Enable Rapid and Affordable Access to any Point in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bonometti, Joe; Morton, Jeff; Hrbud, Ivana; Bitteker, Leo; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, T.; Pedersen, K.; Dobson, C.; Patton, B.; Martin, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation systems can build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost.

  11. Palladium contamination in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polignano, M. L.; Mica, I.; Ceresoli, M.; Codegoni, D.; Somaini, F.; Bianchi, I.; Volonghi, D.

    2015-04-01

    In this work palladium is characterized as a silicon contaminant by recombination lifetime, DLTS, C-V and C-t measurements of palladium-implanted wafers. Palladium introduced by ion implantation is found to remain in the solid solution in silicon after rapid thermal treatments, and to be a very effective recombination center. For this reason recombination lifetime measurements are the most sensitive method to detect palladium in silicon. Two palladium-related levels were found by DLTS in p-type material. One of these levels corresponds to a level reported in the literature as the single donor level of substitutional palladium. For what concerns MOS capacitors, palladium is responsible for negative oxide charge and for degradation of the generation lifetime. In addition, palladium is confirmed to be a very fast diffuser, which segregates at the wafer surface even with low temperature treatments (250 °C). Microscopy inspections showed that palladium precipitates and surface defects were formed upon segregation.

  12. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jermey; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier.

    2007-06-30

    The Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) focuses on leveraging scientific visualization andanalytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasingscientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technologyhave resulted in an 'information big bang,' which in turn has created asignificant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widelyacknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporaryscience. The vision of VACET is to adapt, extend, create when necessary,and deploy visual data analysis solutions that are responsive to theneeds of DOE'scomputational and experimental scientists. Our center isengineered to be directly responsive to those needs and to deliversolutions for use in DOE's large open computing facilities. The researchand development directly target data understanding problems provided byour scientific application stakeholders. VACET draws from a diverse setof visualization technology ranging from production quality applicationsand application frameworks to state-of-the-art algorithms forvisualization, analysis, analytics, data manipulation, and datamanagement.

  13. Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL) in Introductory Physics: Impact on Genders and Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Ruey S.; Chang, Wheijen; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of "Technology Enabled Active Learning" (TEAL) on students learning general physics, focusing on differences between genders and among various achievement levels. A quasi-experimental investigation was conducted on two semesters of courses offered in 2008. Data sources consisted of pre-tests, post-tests, self-report…

  14. Supporting Pre-Service Teachers' Technology-Enabled Learning Design Thinking through Whole of Programme Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Highfield, Kate; Furney, Pam; Mowbray, Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a development and evaluation project aimed at transforming two pre-service teacher education programmes at Macquarie University to more effectively cultivate students' technology-enabled learning design thinking. The process of transformation was based upon an explicit and sustained focus on developing university academics'…

  15. Technology Enabled Assessments: An Investigation of Scoring Models for Scaffolded Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Brooke L.

    2012-01-01

    While significant progress has been made in recent years on technology enabled assessments (TEAs), including assessment systems that incorporate scaffolding into the assessment process, there is a dearth of research regarding psychometric scoring models that can be used to fully capture students' knowledge, skills and abilities as measured by…

  16. A Case Study of Enabling Factors in the Technology Integration Change Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Sui; Sharma, Priya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to analyze enabling factors in the technology integration change process in a multi-section science methods course, SCIED 408 (pseudonym), from 1997 to 2003 at a large northeastern university in the United States. We used two major data collection methods, in-depth interviewing and document reviews.…

  17. Technology-Enabled Content in Engineering Technology and Applied Science Curriculum: Implications for Online Content Development in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Joyce; Rutz, Eugene; Elkins, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This preliminary study compared the effects of technology-enabled courses and face-to-face instruction using student learning styles and student preferences for content types. Two groups of students enrolled in problem-based courses (one in the College of Engineering and the other in the College of Applied Science) were included in this…

  18. Flight Deck Technologies to Enable NextGen Low Visibility Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence (Lance) J., III; Arthur, Jarvis (Trey) J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Norman, Robert M.; Bailey, Randall E.; Jones, Denise R.; Karwac, Jerry R., Jr.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.

    2013-01-01

    Many key capabilities are being identified to enable Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) . replicating the capacity and safety of today.s visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual operational concept. This operational concept envisions an .equivalent visual. paradigm where an electronic means provides sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable Visual Flight Rules (VFR)-like operational tempos while maintaining and improving safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. The Langley Research Center (LaRC) has recently completed preliminary research on flight deck technologies for low visibility surface operations. The work assessed the potential of enhanced vision and airport moving map displays to achieve equivalent levels of safety and performance to existing low visibility operational requirements. The work has the potential to better enable NextGen by perhaps providing an operational credit for conducting safe low visibility surface operations by use of the flight deck technologies.

  19. Using Multi Criteria Decision Making in Analysis of Alternatives for Selection of Enabling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Daniel

    Prior to Milestone A, the Department of Defense (DoD) requires that service sponsors conduct an Analysis of Alternatives (AoA), an analytical comparison of multiple alternatives, to be completed prior to committing and investing costly resources to one project or decision. Despite this requirement, sponsors will circumvent or dilute the process in an effort to save money or schedule, and specific requirements are proposed that can effectively eliminate all but the preselected alternatives. This research focuses on identifying decision aiding methods which can lead to the selection of specific criteria that are key performance drivers thus enabling an informed selection of the enabling technology. This work defines the enabling technology as the sub-system which presents the most risk within the system design. After a thorough literature review of available Multi Criteria Decision Making methods, a case study example is presented demonstrating the selection of the enabling technology of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system. Using subjective criteria in the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is shown to successfully account for tacit knowledge of expert practitioners.

  20. VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathon; Duchaineau, Mark; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom,Peter; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-06-19

    This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.

  1. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  2. Advanced light source technologies that enable high-volume manufacturing of DUV lithography extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacouris, Theodore; Rao, Rajasekhar; Rokitski, Rostislav; Jiang, Rui; Melchior, John; Burfeindt, Bernd; O'Brien, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Deep UV (DUV) lithography is being applied to pattern increasingly finer geometries, leading to solutions like double- and multiple-patterning. Such process complexities lead to higher costs due to the increasing number of steps required to produce the desired results. One of the consequences is that the lithography equipment needs to provide higher operating efficiencies to minimize the cost increases, especially for producers of memory devices that experience a rapid decline in sales prices of these products over time. In addition to having introduced higher power 193nm light sources to enable higher throughput, we previously described technologies that also enable: higher tool availability via advanced discharge chamber gas management algorithms; improved process monitoring via enhanced on-board beam metrology; and increased depth of focus (DOF) via light source bandwidth modulation. In this paper we will report on the field performance of these technologies with data that supports the desired improvements in on-wafer performance and operational efficiencies.

  3. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier

    2006-11-28

    The SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) began operation on 10/1/2006. This document, dated11/27/2006, is the first version of the VACET project management plan. Itwas requested by and delivered to ASCR/DOE. It outlines the Center'saccomplishments in the first six weeks of operation along with broadobjectives for the upcoming future (12-24 months).

  4. Ranking of enabling technologies for oxy-fuel based carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.L.; Ciferno, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    The USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has begun a process to identify and rank enabling technologies that have significant impacts on pulverized coal oxy-fuel systems. Oxy-fuel combustion has been identified as a potential method for effectively capturing carbon in coal fired power plants. Presently there are a number of approaches for carbon capture via oxy-fuel combustion and it is important to order those approaches so that new research can concentrate on those technologies with high potentials to substantially lower the cost of reduced carbon electricity generation. NETL evaluates these technologies using computer models to determine the energy use of each technology and the potential impact of improvements in the technologies on energy production by a power plant. Near-term sub-critical boiler technologies are targeted for this analysis because: • most of the world continues to build single reheat sub-critical plants; • the overwhelming number of coal fired power plants requiring retrofit for CO2 capture are sub-critical plants. In addition, even in the realm of new construction, subcritical plants are common because they are well understood, easy to operate and maintain, fuel tolerant, and reliable. Following the initial investigation into sub-critical oxy-fuel technology, future investigations will move into the supercritical range.

  5. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-09-30

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

  6. HTS machines as enabling technology for all-electric airborne vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, P. J.; Brown, G. V.; Soban, D. S.; Luongo, C. A.

    2007-08-01

    Environmental protection has now become paramount as evidence mounts to support the thesis of human activity-driven global warming. A global reduction of the emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere is therefore needed and new technologies have to be considered. A large part of the emissions come from transportation vehicles, including cars, trucks and airplanes, due to the nature of their combustion-based propulsion systems. Our team has been working for several years on the development of high power density superconducting motors for aircraft propulsion and fuel cell based power systems for aircraft. This paper investigates the feasibility of all-electric aircraft based on currently available technology. Electric propulsion would require the development of high power density electric propulsion motors, generators, power management and distribution systems. The requirements in terms of weight and volume of these components cannot be achieved with conventional technologies; however, the use of superconductors associated with hydrogen-based power plants makes possible the design of a reasonably light power system and would therefore enable the development of all-electric aero-vehicles. A system sizing has been performed both for actuators and for primary propulsion. Many advantages would come from electrical propulsion such as better controllability of the propulsion, higher efficiency, higher availability and less maintenance needs. Superconducting machines may very well be the enabling technology for all-electric aircraft development.

  7. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2005-12-01

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, was re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for coal/IGCC powerplants. The new program was re-titled ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants''. This final report summarizes the work accomplished from March 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004 on the four original tasks, and the work accomplished from April 1, 2004 to July 30, 2005 on the two re-directed tasks. The program Tasks are summarized below: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: The first task was refocused to address IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials used in gas turbines. This task screened material performance and quantified the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in coal/IGCC applications. The materials of interest included those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: The second task was reduced in scope to demonstrate new technologies to determine the inservice health of advanced technology coal/IGCC powerplants. The task focused on two critical sensing needs for advanced coal/IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation. (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware. Task 3--Advanced Methods for Combustion Monitoring and Control: The third task was originally to develop and validate advanced monitoring and control methods for coal/IGCC gas turbine combustion systems. This task was

  8. Laser Ranging to the Moon: How Evolving Technology Enables New Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faller, James

    2010-03-01

    Technological advances have long been the enabler of scientific progress. The invention of the laser is a prime example of this symbiotic relationship between technical progress and scientific advances. The laser, which today is omnipresent in each of our lives, made its first appearance during the time that I was a graduate student in Professor Dicke's group at Princeton. A major change occurring during that time period was that technology was transforming the study of gravitational physics from just a theoretical subject into also an experimental subject where one could hope to measure things using by-then-available laboratory technologies and techniques. During this same time, the idea for the lunar laser ranging experiment was born. The history and accomplishments of this experiment--a still ongoing experiment which is one of the real scientific triumphs of NASA's Apollo program--will be given.

  9. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying in Any Earth Orbit Through Spaceborne GPS and Enhanced Autonomy Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.; Bristow, J. O.; Carpenter, J. R.; Garrison, J. L.; Hartman, K. R.; Lee, T.; Long, A. C.; Kelbel, D.; Lu, V.; How, J. P.; Busse, F.

    2000-01-01

    Formation flying is quickly revolutionizing the way the space community conducts autonomous science missions around the Earth and in space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for this community to gather scientific information, share this information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, this technology will result in swarms of space vehicles flying as a virtual platform and gathering significantly more and better science data than is possible today. Formation flying will be enabled through the development and deployment of spaceborne differential Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and through innovative spacecraft autonomy techniques, This paper provides an overview of the current status of NASA/DoD/Industry/University partnership to bring formation flying technology to the forefront as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve the formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe some of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate these innovative GPS sensing and formation control technologies.

  10. Measuring Cognition of Students with Disabilities Using Technology-Enabled Assessments: Recommendations for a National Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechard, Sue; Sheinker, Jan; Abell, Rosemary; Barton, Karen; Burling, Kelly; Camacho, Christopher; Cameto, Renee; Haertel, Geneva; Hansen, Eric; Johnstone, Chris; Kingston, Neal; Murray, Elizabeth; Parker, Caroline E.; Redfield, Doris; Tucker, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This article represents one outcome from the "Invitational Research Symposium on Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessments," which examined technology-enabled assessments (TEA) and universal design (UD) as they relate to students with disabilities (SWD). It was developed to stimulate research into TEAs designed to better understand…

  11. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Schwab, M.J.; Thoma, D.J.; Teter, D.F.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1998-04-19

    A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system ({approximately}0.1 nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

  12. Imaging Exoplanets with the Exo-S Starshade Mission: Key Enabling Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Lisman, Doug; Shaklan, Stuart; Thomson, Mark; Webb, David; Cady, Eric; Exo-S Science; Technology Definition Team, Exoplanet Program Probe Study Design Team

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of a starshade, a spacecraft employing a large screen flying in formation with a space telescope, for providing the starlight suppression needed to detect and characterize exoplanets. In particular, Exo-S is a NASA study directed at designing a probe-scale exoplanet mission employing a starshade. In this poster we present the enabling technologies needed to make a starshade mission a reality: flight-like petals, a deployable truss to support the petals, optical edges, optical diffraction studies, and formation sensing and control. We show the status of each technology gap and summarize our progress over the past 5 years with plans for the next 3 years in demonstrating feasibility in all these areas. In particular, since no optical end-to-end test is possible, it is necessary to both show that a starshade can be built and deployed to the required accuracy and, via laboratory experiments at smaller scale, that the optical modeling upon which the accuracy requirements are based is validated. We show our progress verifying key enabling technologies, including demonstrating that a starshade petal made from flight-like materials can be manufactured to the needed accuracy and that a central truss with attached petals can be deployed with the needed precision. We also summarize our sub-scale lab experiments that demonstrate we can achieve the contrast predicted by our optical models.

  13. The future of drug discovery: enabling technologies for enhancing lead characterization and profiling therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R

    2014-08-01

    Technology often serves as a handmaiden and catalyst of invention. The discovery of safe, effective medications depends critically upon experimental approaches capable of providing high-impact information on the biological effects of drug candidates early in the discovery pipeline. This information can enable reliable lead identification, pharmacological compound differentiation and successful translation of research output into clinically useful therapeutics. The shallow preclinical profiling of candidate compounds promulgates a minimalistic understanding of their biological effects and undermines the level of value creation necessary for finding quality leads worth moving forward within the development pipeline with efficiency and prognostic reliability sufficient to help remediate the current pharma-industry productivity drought. Three specific technologies discussed herein, in addition to experimental areas intimately associated with contemporary drug discovery, appear to hold particular promise for strengthening the preclinical valuation of drug candidates by deepening lead characterization. These are: i) hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry for characterizing structural and ligand-interaction dynamics of disease-relevant proteins; ii) activity-based chemoproteomics for profiling the functional diversity of mammalian proteomes; and iii) nuclease-mediated precision gene editing for developing more translatable cellular and in vivo models of human diseases. When applied in an informed manner congruent with the clinical understanding of disease processes, technologies such as these that span levels of biological organization can serve as valuable enablers of drug discovery and potentially contribute to reducing the current, unacceptably high rates of compound clinical failure. PMID:24965547

  14. Advances in Front-end Enabling Technologies for Thermal Infrared ` THz Torch' Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangjing; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2016-09-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands (typically 20-40 and 60-100 THz) are best known for remote sensing applications that include temperature measurement (e.g. non-contacting thermometers and thermography), night vision and surveillance (e.g. ubiquitous motion sensing and target acquisition). This unregulated part of the electromagnetic spectrum also offers commercial opportunities for the development of short-range secure communications. The ` THz Torch' concept, which fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation by partitioning thermally generated spectral radiance into pre-defined frequency channels, was recently demonstrated by the authors. The thermal radiation within each channel can be independently pulse-modulated, transmitted and detected, to create a robust form of short-range secure communications within the thermal infrared. In this paper, recent progress in the front-end enabling technologies associated with the THz Torch concept is reported. Fundamental limitations of this technology are discussed; possible engineering solutions for further improving the performance of such thermal-based wireless links are proposed and verified either experimentally or through numerical simulations. By exploring a raft of enabling technologies, significant enhancements to both data rate and transmission range can be expected. With good engineering solutions, the THz Torch concept can exploit nineteenth century physics with twentieth century multiplexing schemes for low-cost twenty-first century ubiquitous applications in security and defence.

  15. Advances in Front-end Enabling Technologies for Thermal Infrared `THz Torch' Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangjing; Lucyszyn, Stepan

    2016-05-01

    The thermal (emitted) infrared frequency bands (typically 20-40 and 60-100 THz) are best known for remote sensing applications that include temperature measurement (e.g. non-contacting thermometers and thermography), night vision and surveillance (e.g. ubiquitous motion sensing and target acquisition). This unregulated part of the electromagnetic spectrum also offers commercial opportunities for the development of short-range secure communications. The `THz Torch' concept, which fundamentally exploits engineered blackbody radiation by partitioning thermally generated spectral radiance into pre-defined frequency channels, was recently demonstrated by the authors. The thermal radiation within each channel can be independently pulse-modulated, transmitted and detected, to create a robust form of short-range secure communications within the thermal infrared. In this paper, recent progress in the front-end enabling technologies associated with the THz Torch concept is reported. Fundamental limitations of this technology are discussed; possible engineering solutions for further improving the performance of such thermal-based wireless links are proposed and verified either experimentally or through numerical simulations. By exploring a raft of enabling technologies, significant enhancements to both data rate and transmission range can be expected. With good engineering solutions, the THz Torch concept can exploit nineteenth century physics with twentieth century multiplexing schemes for low-cost twenty-first century ubiquitous applications in security and defence.

  16. Maturation of enabling technologies for the next generation reignitable cryogenic upper stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Mark

    Following the ESA decision in November 2008, a pre-development phase (Phase 1) of a future evolution of the Ariane 5 launcher (named Ariane 5 Midlife Evolution, A5ME) was started under Astrium Prime leadership. This upgraded version of the Ariane 5 launcher is based on an enhanced performance Upper Stage including the cryogenic re-ignitable VINCI engine. Thanks to this reignition capability, this new Upper Stage shall be "versatile" in the sense that it shall fulfil customer needs on a broader spectrum of orbits than the "standard" orbits (i.e. Geosynchronous Transfer Orbits, GTO) typically used for commercial telecommunications satellites. In order to meet the challenges of versatility, new technologies are currently being investigated. These technologies are mainly related -but not limited-to propellant management during the extended coasting phases with the related heat transfer into the tanks and the required multiple engine re-ignitions. Within the frame of the ESA Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (Period 2 Slice 1), the Cryogenic Upper Stage Technology project (CUST) aims to mature critical technologies to such a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) that they can be integrated into the baseline A5ME Upper Stage development schedule. In addition to A5ME application, these technologies can also be used on the future next generation European launcher. This paper shows the down-selection process implemented to identify the most crucial enabling technologies for a future versatile Upper Stage and gives a description of each technology finally selected for maturation in the frame of CUST. These include -amongst others-a Sandwich Common Bulkhead for the propellant tank, an external thermal insulation kit and various propellant management devices for the coasting phase. The paper also gives an overview on the related development and maturation plan including the tests to be conducted, as well as first results of the maturation activities themselves.

  17. Real time calibration and testing of chemical sensors enabled by precision micro-dispensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Donald J.; Taylor, David W.

    2005-05-01

    Precision micro-dispensing based upon ink jet technology has been used in medical diagnostics since the early nineties, and now is moving into a wide range of applications. Ink-jet printing technology can reproducibly dispense micro-droplets of fluid with diameters of 15 to 100 μm (2pl to 5nl) at rates of 0 - 25,000 per second from a single drop-on-demand printhead. The deposition is non-contact, data-driven and can dispense a wide range of fluids. It is a key enabling technology in the development of Bio-MEMS devices, Sensors, Micro-fluidic devices and Micro-optical systems. In this paper, we will discuss the use of this technology for real time calibration and testing of chemical sensors. The technology is based upon test systems developed for olfaction testing which are capable of precisely dispensing chemical aromas in concentration that vary over 6 orders of magnitude. The droplets of each chemical are thermally converted into a vapor that is fed directly into the sensor under test.

  18. Effect of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: Enabling Thought Leadership and Social Capital through Technology Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalhoub, Michel S.

    The present paper studies the relationship between social networks enabled by technological advances in social software, and overall business performance. With the booming popularity of online communication and the rise of knowledge communities, businesses are faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity - should they monitor the use of social software or encourage it and learn from it? We introduce the concept of user-autonomy and user-fun, which go beyond the traditional user-friendly requirement of existing information technologies. We identified 120 entities out of a sample of 164 from Mediterranean countries and the Gulf region, to focus on the effect of social exchange information systems in thought leadership.

  19. New silicon technologies enable high-performance arrays of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Gulinatti, Angelo; Rech, Ivan; Maccagnani, Piera; Cova, Sergio; Ghioni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    In order to fulfill the requirements of many applications, we recently developed a new technology aimed at combining the advantages of traditional thin and thick silicon Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD). In particular we demonstrated single-pixel detectors with a remarkable improvement in the Photon Detection Efficiency at the longer wavelengths (e.g. 40% at 800nm) while maintaining a timing jitter better than 100ps. In this paper we will analyze the factors the currently prevent the fabrication of arrays of SPADs by adopting such a Red-Enhanced (RE) technology and we will propose further modifications to the device structure that will enable the fabrication of high performance RE-SPAD arrays for photon timing applications. PMID:24353395

  20. Distributed network, wireless and cloud computing enabled 3-D ultrasound; a new medical technology paradigm.

    PubMed

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Medical technologies are indispensable to modern medicine. However, they have become exceedingly expensive and complex and are not available to the economically disadvantaged majority of the world population in underdeveloped as well as developed parts of the world. For example, according to the World Health Organization about two thirds of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In this paper we introduce a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing that was designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs. We demonstrate the value of the concept with an example; the design of a wireless, distributed network and central (cloud) computing enabled three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of producing a 3-D high end ultrasound scan at a central computing facility using the raw data acquired at the remote patient site with an inexpensive low end ultrasound transducer designed for 2-D, through a mobile device and wireless connection link between them. Producing high-end 3D ultrasound images with simple low-end transducers reduces the cost of imaging by orders of magnitude. It also removes the requirement of having a highly trained imaging expert at the patient site, since the need for hand-eye coordination and the ability to reconstruct a 3-D mental image from 2-D scans, which is a necessity for high quality ultrasound imaging, is eliminated. This could enable relatively untrained medical workers in developing nations to administer imaging and a more accurate diagnosis, effectively saving the lives of people. PMID:19936236

  1. Distributed Network, Wireless and Cloud Computing Enabled 3-D Ultrasound; a New Medical Technology Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Rubinsky, Boris

    2009-01-01

    Medical technologies are indispensable to modern medicine. However, they have become exceedingly expensive and complex and are not available to the economically disadvantaged majority of the world population in underdeveloped as well as developed parts of the world. For example, according to the World Health Organization about two thirds of the world population does not have access to medical imaging. In this paper we introduce a new medical technology paradigm centered on wireless technology and cloud computing that was designed to overcome the problems of increasing health technology costs. We demonstrate the value of the concept with an example; the design of a wireless, distributed network and central (cloud) computing enabled three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of producing a 3-D high end ultrasound scan at a central computing facility using the raw data acquired at the remote patient site with an inexpensive low end ultrasound transducer designed for 2-D, through a mobile device and wireless connection link between them. Producing high-end 3D ultrasound images with simple low-end transducers reduces the cost of imaging by orders of magnitude. It also removes the requirement of having a highly trained imaging expert at the patient site, since the need for hand-eye coordination and the ability to reconstruct a 3-D mental image from 2-D scans, which is a necessity for high quality ultrasound imaging, is eliminated. This could enable relatively untrained medical workers in developing nations to administer imaging and a more accurate diagnosis, effectively saving the lives of people. PMID:19936236

  2. Chemical mechanical polishing: An enabling fabrication process for surface micromachining technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1998-08-01

    Chemical-Mechanical-Polishing (CMP), first used as a planarization technology in the manufacture of multi-level metal interconnects for high-density Integrated Circuits (IC), is readily adapted as an enabling technology in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication, particularly polysilicon surface micromachining. The authors have demonstrated that CMP enhances the design and manufacturability of MEMS devices by eliminating several photolithographic definition and film etch issues generated by severe topography. In addition, CMP planarization readily allows multi-level polysilicon structures comprised of 4- or more levels of polysilicon, eliminates design compromise generated by non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. A recent investigation has also shown that CMP is a valuable tool for assuring acceptable optical flatness of micro-optical components such as micromirrors. Examples of these enhancements include: an extension of polysilicon surface-micromachining fabrication to a 5-level technology, a method of monolithic integration of electronics and MEMS, and optically flat micromirrors.

  3. Annotated Bibliography of Enabling Technologies for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2002-01-01

    The following collection of research summaries are submitted as fulfillment of a request from NASA LaRC to conduct research into existing enabling technologies that support the development of the Small Aircraft Transportation System aircraft and accompanying airspace management infrastructure. Due to time and fiscal constraints, the included studies focus primarily on visual systems and architecture, flight control design, instrumentation and display, flight deck design considerations, Human-Machine Interface issues, and supporting augmentation technologies and software. This collation of summaries is divided in sections in an attempt to group similar technologies and systems. However, the reader is advised that many of these studies involve multiple technologies and systems that span across many categories. Because of this fact, studies are not easily categorized into single sections. In an attempt to help the reader more easily identify topics of interest, a SATS application description is provided for each summary. In addition, a list of acronyms provided at the front of the report to aid the reader.

  4. A colorimetric and fluorescent dual probe for palladium in aqueous medium and live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin-Wu; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Tan, Qi-Feng; Yao, Pei-Fen; Tan, Jia-Heng; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-21

    A colorimetric and fluorescent dual probe for palladium species was rationally developed by combining the resorufin fluorophore with allyl chloroformate. The probe enables the visual detection of palladium based on its vivid color change from pale yellow to pink and its fluorescence off-on response to palladium in PBS solution. The detection limit was calculated to be as low as 2.1 nM. The live cell imaging results showed that this probe could be used as an effective fluorescent probe for detecting intracellular palladium species. All these results featured its promising application prospects in the palladium analytical field. PMID:26990285

  5. Catalysis in the Service of Green Chemistry: Nobel Prize-Winning Palladium-Catalysed Cross-Couplings, Run in Water at Room Temperature: Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura and Negishi reactions carried out in the absence of organic solvents, enabled by micellar catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lipshutz, Bruce H; Taft, Benjamin R; Abela, Alexander R; Ghorai, Subir; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Duplais, Christophe

    2012-04-01

    Palladium-catalysed cross-couplings, in particular Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura and Negishi reactions developed over three decades ago, are routinely carried out in organic solvents. However, alternative media are currently of considerable interest given an increasing emphasis on making organic processes 'greener'; for example, by minimising organic waste in the form of organic solvents. Water is the obvious leading candidate in this regard. Hence, this review focuses on the application of micellar catalysis, in which a 'designer' surfactant enables these award-winning coupling reactions to be run in water at room temperature. PMID:23555153

  6. Aerospace laser communications technology as enabler for worldwide quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, Florian; Weinfurter, Harald; Rau, Markus; Schmidt, Christopher; Melén, Gwen; Vogl, Tobias; Nauerth, Sebastian; Fuchs, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A worldwide growing interest in fast and secure data communications pushes technology development along two lines. While fast communications can be realized using laser communications in fiber and free-space, inherently secure communications can be achieved using quantum key distribution (QKD). By combining both technologies in a single device, many synergies can be exploited, therefore reducing size, weight and power of future systems. In recent experiments we demonstrated quantum communications over large distances as well as between an aircraft and a ground station which proved the feasibility of QKD between moving partners. Satellites thus may be used as trusted nodes in combination with QKD receiver stations on ground, thereby enabling fast and secure communications on a global scale. We discuss the previous experiment with emphasis on necessary developments to be done and corresponding ongoing research work of German Aerospace Center (DLR) and Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU). DLR is performing research on satellite and ground terminals for the high-rate laser communication component, which are enabling technologies for the QKD link. We describe the concept and hardware of three generations of OSIRIS (Optical High Speed Infrared Link System) laser communication terminals for low Earth orbiting satellites. The first type applies laser beam pointing solely based on classical satellite control, the second uses an optical feedback to the satellite bus and the third, currently being in design phase, comprises of a special coarse pointing assembly to control beam direction independent of satellite orientation. Ongoing work also targets optical terminals for CubeSats. A further increase of beam pointing accuracy can be achieved with a fine pointing assembly. Two ground stations will be available for future testing, an advanced stationary ground station and a transportable ground station. In parallel the LMU QKD source size will be reduced by more than an

  7. In Space Nuclear Power as an Enabling Technology for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Houts, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Deep Space Exploration missions, both for scientific and Human Exploration and Development (HEDS), appear to be as weight limited today as they would have been 35 years ago. Right behind the weight constraints is the nearly equally important mission limitation of cost. Launch vehicles, upper stages and in-space propulsion systems also cost about the same today with the same efficiency as they have had for many years (excluding impact of inflation). Both these dual mission constraints combine to force either very expensive, mega systems missions or very light weight, but high risk/low margin planetary spacecraft designs, such as the recent unsuccessful attempts for an extremely low cost mission to Mars during the 1998-99 opportunity (i.e., Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander). When one considers spacecraft missions to the outer heliopause or even the outer planets, the enormous weight and cost constraints will impose even more daunting concerns for mission cost, risk and the ability to establish adequate mission margins for success. This paper will discuss the benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor as the basis for providing both sufficient electric power and high performance space propulsion that will greatly reduce mission risk and significantly increase weight (IMLEO) and cost margins. Weight and cost margins are increased by enabling much higher payload fractions and redundant design features for a given launch vehicle (higher payload fraction of IMLEO). The paper will also discuss and summarize the recent advances in nuclear reactor technology and safety of modern reactor designs and operating practice and experience, as well as advances in reactor coupled power generation and high performance nuclear thermal and electric propulsion technologies. It will be shown that these nuclear power and propulsion technologies are major enabling capabilities for higher reliability, higher margin and lower cost deep space missions design to reliably

  8. Effectiveness and Impact of Technology-Enabled Project-Based Learning with the Use of Process Prompts in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ching-Huei; Chan, Lim-Ha

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness and impacts of process prompts on students' learning and computer self-efficacy within the technology-enabled project-based learning (PBL) context in an undergraduate educational technology course. If the aim is to prepare prospective teachers to effectively, efficiently, and engagingly use technologies in…

  9. Visible quality aluminum and nickel superpolish polishing technology enabling new missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, Keith G.

    2011-06-01

    It is now well understood that with US Department of Defense (DoD) budgets shrinking and the Services and Agencies demanding new systems which can be fielded more quickly, cost and schedule are being emphasized more and more. At the same time, the US has ever growing needs for advanced capabilities to support evolving Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance objectives. In response to this market demand for ever more cost-effective, faster to market, single-channel, athermal optical systems, we have developed new metal polishing technologies which allow for short-lead, low-cost metal substrates to replace more costly, longer-lead material options. In parallel, the commercial marketplace is being driven continually to release better, faster and cheaper electronics. Growth according to Moore's law, enabled by advancements in photolithography, has produced denser memory, higher resolution displays and faster processors. While the quality of these products continues to increase, their price is falling. This seeming paradox is driven by industry advancements in manufacturing technology. The next steps on this curve can be realized via polishing technology which allows low-cost metal substrates to replace costly Silicon based optics for use in ultra-short wavelength systems.

  10. The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Enabling Computational Technologies FY09 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L F; Garaizar, F X; Henson, V E; Pope, G

    2009-10-12

    In this document we report on the status of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) effort. In particular, we provide the context for ECT In the broader NEAMS program and describe the three pillars of the ECT effort, namely, (1) tools and libraries, (2) software quality assurance, and (3) computational facility (computers, storage, etc) needs. We report on our FY09 deliverables to determine the needs of the integrated performance and safety codes (IPSCs) in these three areas and lay out the general plan for software quality assurance to meet the requirements of DOE and the DOE Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). We conclude with a brief description of our interactions with the Idaho National Laboratory computer center to determine what is needed to expand their role as a NEAMS user facility.

  11. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Aircraft Wings: State-of-the-Art and Potential Enabling Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutte, Christine; Stanford, Bret K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art for aeroelastic tailoring of subsonic transport aircraft and offers additional resources on related research efforts. Emphasis is placed on aircraft having straight or aft swept wings. The literature covers computational synthesis tools developed for aeroelastic tailoring and numerous design studies focused on discovering new methods for passive aeroelastic control. Several new structural and material technologies are presented as potential enablers of aeroelastic tailoring, including selectively reinforced materials, functionally graded materials, fiber tow steered composite laminates, and various nonconventional structural designs. In addition, smart materials and structures whose properties or configurations change in response to external stimuli are presented as potential active approaches to aeroelastic tailoring.

  12. Reconfigurable Computing As an Enabling Technology for Single-Photon-Counting Laser Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Wesley; Hicks, Edward; Pinchinat, Maxime; Dabney, Philip; McGarry, Jan; Murray, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Single-photon-counting laser altimetry is a new measurement technique offering significant advantages in vertical resolution, reducing instrument size, mass, and power, and reducing laser complexity as compared to analog or threshold detection laser altimetry techniques. However, these improvements come at the cost of a dramatically increased requirement for onboard real-time data processing. Reconfigurable computing has been shown to offer considerable performance advantages in performing this processing. These advantages have been demonstrated on the Multi-KiloHertz Micro-Laser Altimeter (MMLA), an aircraft based single-photon-counting laser altimeter developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center with several potential spaceflight applications. This paper describes how reconfigurable computing technology was employed to perform MMLA data processing in real-time under realistic operating constraints, along with the results observed. This paper also expands on these prior results to identify concepts for using reconfigurable computing to enable spaceflight single-photon-counting laser altimeter instruments.

  13. A home-centered ICT architecture for health-enabling technologies.

    PubMed

    Song, Bianying; Marschollek, Michael; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Gietzelt, Matthias; Franken, Thomas; Haux, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    Population ageing needs health-enabling technologies for delivering pervasive health care. Home care plays an import role in pervasive health care. In this paper, we aim to construct a home-centered health information system architecture which can efficiently manage multi sensors, actuators and decision support systems. Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGI) was used for constructing the service oriented architecture. HL 7 Arden Syntax for medical logic module (MLM) was used to describe the medical knowledge; An Arden compiler was used to interpret the MLMs. The Arden compiler was packed in an OSGI bundle. All of the knowledge bases can share the compiler within the OSGI platform. System within the OSGI-based architecture can change their behaviors during runtime. The proposed prototype architecture was deployed in a case study. PMID:20841648

  14. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    Commercial aviation has become an integral part of modern society and enables unprecedented global connectivity by increasing rapid business, cultural, and personal connectivity. In the decades following World War II, passenger travel through commercial aviation quickly grew at a rate of roughly 8% per year globally. The FAA's most recent Terminal Area Forecast predicts growth to continue at a rate of 2.5% domestically, and the market outlooks produced by Airbus and Boeing generally predict growth to continue at a rate of 5% per year globally over the next several decades, which translates into a need for up to 30,000 new aircraft produced by 2025. With such large numbers of new aircraft potentially entering service, any negative consequences of commercial aviation must undergo examination and mitigation by governing bodies so that growth may still be achieved. Options to simultaneously grow while reducing environmental impact include evolution of the commercial fleet through changes in operations, aircraft mix, and technology adoption. Methods to rapidly evaluate fleet environmental metrics are needed to enable decision makers to quickly compare the impact of different scenarios and weigh the impact of multiple policy options. As the fleet evolves, interdependencies may emerge in the form of tradeoffs between improvements in different environmental metrics as new technologies are brought into service. In order to include the impacts of these interdependencies on fleet evolution, physics-based modeling is required at the appropriate level of fidelity. Evaluation of environmental metrics in a physics-based manner can be done at the individual aircraft level, but will then not capture aggregate fleet metrics. Contrastingly, evaluation of environmental metrics at the fleet level is already being done for aircraft in the commercial fleet, but current tools and approaches require enhancement because they currently capture technology implementation through post

  15. CMOS-Technology-Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Internet of Everything Applications.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aftab M; Hussain, Muhammad M

    2016-06-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics can dramatically enhance the application of electronics for the emerging Internet of Everything applications where people, processes, data and devices will be integrated and connected, to augment quality of life. Using naturally flexible and stretchable polymeric substrates in combination with emerging organic and molecular materials, nanowires, nanoribbons, nanotubes, and 2D atomic crystal structured materials, significant progress has been made in the general area of such electronics. However, high volume manufacturing, reliability and performance per cost remain elusive goals for wide commercialization of these electronics. On the other hand, highly sophisticated but extremely reliable, batch-fabrication-capable and mature complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based technology has facilitated tremendous growth of today's digital world using thin-film-based electronics; in particular, bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) which is used in most of the electronics existing today. However, one fundamental challenge is that state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are physically rigid and brittle. Therefore, in this work, how CMOS-technology-enabled flexible and stretchable electronics can be developed is discussed, with particular focus on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100). A comprehensive information base to realistically devise an integration strategy by rational design of materials, devices and processes for Internet of Everything electronics is offered. PMID:26607553

  16. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  17. Using Vision System Technologies to Enable Operational Improvements for Low Visibility Approach and Landing Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis, Kyle K. E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.; Severance, Kurt; Le Vie, Lisa R.; Comstock, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Flight deck-based vision systems, such as Synthetic and Enhanced Vision System (SEVS) technologies, have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable the implementation of operational improvements for low visibility surface, arrival, and departure operations in the terminal environment with equivalent efficiency to visual operations. To achieve this potential, research is required for effective technology development and implementation based upon human factors design and regulatory guidance. This research supports the introduction and use of Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (SVS/EFVS) as advanced cockpit vision technologies in Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. Twelve air transport-rated crews participated in a motion-base simulation experiment to evaluate the use of SVS/EFVS in NextGen low visibility approach and landing operations. Three monochromatic, collimated head-up display (HUD) concepts (conventional HUD, SVS HUD, and EFVS HUD) and two color head-down primary flight display (PFD) concepts (conventional PFD, SVS PFD) were evaluated in a simulated NextGen Chicago O'Hare terminal environment. Additionally, the instrument approach type (no offset, 3 degree offset, 15 degree offset) was experimentally varied to test the efficacy of the HUD concepts for offset approach operations. The data showed that touchdown landing performance were excellent regardless of SEVS concept or type of offset instrument approach being flown. Subjective assessments of mental workload and situation awareness indicated that making offset approaches in low visibility conditions with an EFVS HUD or SVS HUD may be feasible.

  18. Enabling Remote Activity: Using mobile technology for remote participation in geoscience fieldwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Sarah; Collins, Trevor; Gaved, Mark; Bartlett, Jessica; Valentine, Chris; McCann, Lewis

    2010-05-01

    Field-based activities are regarded as essential to the development of a range of professional and personal skills within the geosciences. Students enjoy field activities, preferring these to learning with simulations (Spicer and Stratford 2001), and these improve deeper learning and understanding (Kern and Carpenter, 1984; Elkins and Elkins, 2007). However, some students find it difficult to access these field-based learning opportunities. Field sites may be remote and often require travel across uneven, challenging or potentially dangerous terrain. Mobility-impaired students are particularly limited in their opportunities to participate in field-based learning activities and, as higher education institutions have a responsibility to provide inclusive opportunities for students (UK Disability Discrimination Act 1995, UK Special Education Needs and Disability Rights Act 2001), the need for inclusive fieldwork learning is being increasingly recognised. The Enabling Remote Activity (ERA) project has been investigating how mobile communications technologies might allow field learning experiences to be brought to students who would otherwise find it difficult to participate, and also to enhance activities for all participants. It uses a rapidly deployable, battery-powered wireless network to transmit video, audio, and high resolution still images to connect participants at an accessible location with participants in the field. Crucially, the system uses a transient wireless network, allowing multiple locations to be explored during a field visit, and for plans to be changed dynamically if required. Central to the concept is the requirement for independent investigative learning: students are enabled to participate actively in the learning experience and to direct the investigations, as opposed to being simply remote viewers of the experience. Two ways of using the ERA system have been investigated: remote access and collaborative groupwork. In 2006 and 2008 remote

  19. SENSE IT: Student Enabled Network of Sensors for the Environment using Innovative Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Stolkin, R.; Kirkey, W.; Bonner, J. S.; Lowes, S.; Lin, P.; Ojo, T.

    2010-12-01

    SENSE IT is a project funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) which strives to enrich science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education by providing teacher professional development and classroom projects in which high school students build from first principles, program, test and deploy sensors for water quality monitoring. Sensor development is a broad and interdisciplinary area, providing motivating scenarios in which to teach a multitude of STEM subjects, from mathematics and physics to biology and environmental science, while engaging students with hands on problems that reinforce conventional classroom learning by re-presenting theory as practical tools for building real-life working devices. The SENSE IT program is currently developing and implementing a set of high school educational modules which teach environmental science and basic engineering through the lens of fundamental STEM principles, at the same time introducing students to a new set of technologies that are increasingly important in the world of environmental research. Specifically, the project provides students with the opportunity to learn the engineering design process through the design, construction, programming and testing of a student-implemented water monitoring network in the Hudson and St. Lawrence Rivers in New York. These educational modules are aligned to state and national technology and science content standards and are designed to be compatible with standard classroom curricula to support a variety of core science, technology and mathematics classroom material. For example, while designing, programming and calibrating the sensors, the students are led through a series of tasks in which they must use core mathematics and physics theory to solve the real problems of making their sensors work. In later modules, students can explore environmental science and environmental engineering curricula while deploying and monitoring their sensors in local rivers. This

  20. Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies: Building a Global Infrastructure for Climate Change Research

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.; Ahrens, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Bell, G.; Bharathi, S.; Brown, D.; Chen, M.; Chervenak, A. L.; Cinquini, L.; Drach, R.; Foster, I. T.; Fox, P.; Hankin, S.; Harper, D.; Hook, N.; Jones, P.; Middleton, D. E.; Miller, R.; Nienhouse, E.; Schweitzer, R.; Schuler, R.; Shipman, G.; Shoshani, A.; Siebenlist, F.; Sim, A.; Strand, W. G.; Wang, F.; Wilcox, H.; Wilhelmi, N.

    2010-08-16

    Established within DOE’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC-) 2 program, with support from ASCR and BER, the Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) is a consortium of seven laboratories (Argonne National Laboratory [ANL], Los Alamos National Laboratory [LANL], Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory [LBNL], Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], National Center for Atmospheric Research [NCAR], Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL], and Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory [PMEL]), and two institutes (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute [RPI] and the University of Southern California, Information Sciences Institute [USC/ISI]). The consortium’s mission is to provide climate researchers worldwide with a science gateway to access data, information, models, analysis tools, and computational capabilities required to evaluate extreme-scale data sets. Its stated goals are to (1) make data more useful to climate researchers by developing collaborative technology that enhances data usability; (2) meet the specific needs that national and international climate projects have for distributed databases, data access, and data movement; (3) provide a universal and secure web-based data access portal for broad-based multi-model data collections; and (4) provide a wide range of climate data-analysis tools and diagnostic methods to international climate centers and U.S. government agencies. To this end, the ESG-CET is working to integrate all highly publicized climate data sets—from climate simulations to observations—using distributed storage management, remote high-performance units, high-bandwidth wide-area networks, and user desktop platforms in a collaborative problem-solving environment.

  1. The CYGNSS flight segment; A major NASA science mission enabled by micro-satellite technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, R.; Ruf, C.; Rose, D.; Brummitt, M.; Ridley, A.

    While hurricane track forecasts have improved in accuracy by ~50% since 1990, there has been essentially no improvement in the accuracy of intensity prediction. This lack of progress is thought to be caused by inadequate observations and modeling of the inner core due to two causes: 1) much of the inner core ocean surface is obscured from conventional remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the inner rain bands and 2) the rapidly evolving stages of the tropical cyclone (TC) life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. NASA's most recently awarded Earth science mission, the NASA EV-2 Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) has been designed to address these deficiencies by combining the all-weather performance of GNSS bistatic ocean surface scatterometry with the sampling properties of a satellite constellation. This paper provides an overview of the CYGNSS flight segment requirements, implementation, and concept of operations for the CYGNSS constellation; consisting of 8 microsatellite-class spacecraft (<; 100kg) each hosting a GNSS receiver, operating in a 500 km orbit, inclined at 35° to provide 70% coverage of the historical TC track. The CYGNSS mission is enabled by modern electronic technology; it is an example of how nanosatellite technology can be applied to replace traditional "old school" solutions at significantly reduced cost while providing an increase in performance. This paper provides an overview of how we combined a reliable space-flight proven avionics design with selected microsatellite components to create an innovative, low-cost solution for a mainstream science investigation.

  2. The ``Micro'' Aethalometer - an enabling technology for new applications in the measurement of Aerosol Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A. D.; Močnik, G.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol Black Carbon (BC) is a tracer for combustion emissions; a primary indicator of adverse health effects; and the second leading contributor to Global Climate Change. The “Micro” Aethalometer is a recently-developed miniature instrument that makes a real-time measurement of BC on a very short timebase in a self-contained, battery-powered package that is lightweight and pocket sized. This technological development critically enables new areas of research: Measurements of the vertical profile of BC, by carrying the sampler aloft on a balloon (tethered or released) or aircraft (piloted or UAV); Estimates of the concentration of BC in the troposphere and lower stratosphere in the 8 - 12 km. altitude range, by measurements in the passenger cabin during commercial air travel; Epidemiological studies of personal exposure to BC, by carrying the sampler on a subject person in health studies; Measurements of the concentration of BC in rural and remote regions, by means of a small, battery-powered instrument that is convenient to deploy; measurements of high concentrations of “smoke” in indoor and outdoor environments in developing countries; Unobtrusive monitoring of BC infiltration into indoor environments, by means of a small, quiet instrument that can be placed in publicly-used spaces, school classrooms, museums, and other potentially-impacted locations; Adaptation of the technology to the direct source measurement of BC concentrations in emissions from diesel exhausts, combustion plumes, and other sources. We will show examples of data from various recent projects to illustrate the capabilities and applications of this new instrument.

  3. Global biosurveillance: enabling science and technology. Workshop background and motivation: international scientific engagement for global security

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Helen H

    2011-01-18

    Through discussion the conference aims to: (1) Identify core components of a comprehensive global biosurveillance capability; (2) Determine the scientific and technical bases to support such a program; (3) Explore the improvement in biosurveillance to enhance regional and global disease outbreak prediction; (4) Recommend an engagement approach to establishing an effective international community and regional or global network; (5) Propose implementation strategies and the measures of effectiveness; and (6) Identify the challenges that must be overcome in the next 3-5 years in order to establish an initial global biosurveillance capability that will have significant positive impact on BioNP as well as public health and/or agriculture. There is also a look back at the First Biothreat Nonproliferation Conference from December 2007. Whereas the first conference was an opportunity for problem solving to enhance and identify new paradigms for biothreat nonproliferation, this conference is moving towards integrated comprehensive global biosurveillance. Main reasons for global biosurveillance are: (1) Rapid assessment of unusual disease outbreak; (2) Early warning of emerging, re-emerging and engineered biothreat enabling reduced morbidity and mortality; (3) Enhanced crop and livestock management; (4) Increase understanding of host-pathogen interactions and epidemiology; (5) Enhanced international transparency for infectious disease research supporting BWC goals; and (6) Greater sharing of technology and knowledge to improve global health.

  4. Flame spray pyrolysis: An enabling technology for nanoparticles design and fabrication.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose; Mädler, Lutz

    2010-08-01

    Combustion of appropriate precursor sprays in a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process is a highly promising and versatile technique for the rapid and scalable synthesis of nanostuctural materials with engineered functionalities. The technique was initially derived from the fundamentals of the well-established vapour-fed flame aerosols reactors that was widely practised for the manufacturing of simple commodity powders such as pigmentary titania, fumed silica, alumina, and even optical fibers. In the last 10 years however, FSP knowledge and technology was developed substantially and a wide range of new and complex products have been synthesised, attracting major industries in a diverse field of applications. Key innovations in FSP reactor engineering and precursor chemistry have enabled flexible designs of nanostructured loosely-agglomerated powders and particulate films of pure or mixed oxides and even pure metals and alloys. Unique material morphologies such as core-shell structures and nanorods are possible using this essentially one step and continuous FSP process. Finally, research challenges are discussed and an outlook on the next generation of engineered combustion-made materials is given. PMID:20820719

  5. Flame spray pyrolysis: An enabling technology for nanoparticles design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, Wey Yang; Amal, Rose; Mädler, Lutz

    2010-08-01

    Combustion of appropriate precursor sprays in a flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) process is a highly promising and versatile technique for the rapid and scalable synthesis of nanostuctural materials with engineered functionalities. The technique was initially derived from the fundamentals of the well-established vapour-fed flame aerosols reactors that was widely practised for the manufacturing of simple commodity powders such as pigmentary titania, fumed silica, alumina, and even optical fibers. In the last 10 years however, FSP knowledge and technology was developed substantially and a wide range of new and complex products have been synthesised, attracting major industries in a diverse field of applications. Key innovations in FSP reactor engineering and precursor chemistry have enabled flexible designs of nanostructured loosely-agglomerated powders and particulate films of pure or mixed oxides and even pure metals and alloys. Unique material morphologies such as core-shell structures and nanorods are possible using this essentially one step and continuous FSP process. Finally, research challenges are discussed and an outlook on the next generation of engineered combustion-made materials is given.

  6. A Palladium-Binding Deltarhodopsin for Light-Activated Conversion of Protonic to Electronic Currents.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rodríguez, Jessica; Hemmatian, Zahra; Josberger, Erik E; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2016-08-01

    Fusion of a palladium-binding peptide to an archaeal rhodopsin promotes intimate integration of the lipid-embedded membrane protein with a palladium hydride protonic contact. Devices fabricated with the palladium-binding deltarhodopsin enable light-activated conversion of protonic currents to electronic currents with on/off responses complete in seconds and a nearly tenfold increase in electrical signal relative to those made with the wild-type protein. PMID:27185384

  7. Simulation Evaluation of Synthetic Vision as an Enabling Technology for Equivalent Visual Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2008-01-01

    Enhanced Vision (EV) and synthetic vision (SV) systems may serve as enabling technologies to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept ? that is, the ability to achieve or even improve on the safety of Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations, maintain the operational tempos of VFR, and even, perhaps, retain VFR procedures independent of actual weather and visibility conditions. One significant challenge lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. A piloted simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the presence or absence of Synthetic Vision, the location of this information during an instrument approach (i.e., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Primary Flight Display), and the type of airport lighting information on landing minima. The quantitative data from this experiment were analyzed to begin the definition of performance-based criteria for all-weather approach and landing operations. Objective results from the present study showed that better approach performance was attainable with the head-up display (HUD) compared to the head-down display (HDD). A slight performance improvement in HDD performance was shown when SV was added, as the pilots descended below 200 ft to a 100 ft decision altitude, but this performance was not tested for statistical significance (nor was it expected to be statistically significant). The touchdown data showed that regardless of the display concept flown (SV HUD, Baseline HUD, SV HDD, Baseline HDD) a majority of the runs were within the performance-based defined approach and landing criteria in all the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested. For this visual flight maneuver, RVR appeared to be the most significant influence in touchdown performance. The approach lighting system clearly impacted the pilot's ability to descend to 100 ft

  8. Stress management as an enabling technology for high-field superconducting dipole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Eddie Frank, III

    This dissertation examines stress management and other construction techniques as means to meet future accelerator requirement demands by planning, fabricating, and analyzing a high-field, Nb3Sn dipole. In order to enable future fundamental research and discovery in high energy accelerator physics, bending magnets must access the highest fields possible. Stress management is a novel, propitious path to attain higher fields and preserve the maximum current capacity of advanced superconductors by managing the Lorentz stress so that strain induced current degradation is mitigated. Stress management is accomplished through several innovative design features. A block-coil geometry enables an Inconel pier and beam matrix to be incorporated in the windings for Lorentz Stress support and reduced AC loss. A laminar spring between windings and mica paper surrounding each winding inhibit any stress transferral through the support structure and has been simulated with ALGORRTM. Wood's metal filled, stainless steel bladders apply isostatic, surface-conforming preload to the pier and beam support structure. Sufficient preload along with mica paper sheer release reduces magnet training by inhibiting stick-slip motion. The effectiveness of stress management is tested with high-precision capacitive stress transducers and strain gauges. In addition to stress management, there are several technologies developed to assist in the successful construction of a high-field dipole. Quench protection has been designed and simulated along with full 3D magnetic simulation with OPERARTM. Rutherford cable was constructed, and cable thermal expansion data was analysed after heat treatment. Pre-impregnation analysis techniques were developed due to elemental tin leakage in varying quantities during heat treatment from each coil. Robust splicing techniques were developed with measured resistivites consistent with nO joints. Stress management has not been incorporated by any other high field dipole

  9. Using Enabling Technologies to Advance Data Intensive Analysis Tools in the JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knosp, B.; Gangl, M. E.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Kim, R. M.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Niamsuwan, N.; Shen, T. P. J.; Turk, F. J.; Vu, Q. A.

    2014-12-01

    Automated Rotational Center Hurricane Eye Retrieval (ARCHER) tools. In this presentation, we will compare the enabling technologies we tested and discuss which ones we selected for integration into the TCIS' data analysis tool architecture. We will also show how these techniques have been automated to provide access to NRT data through our analysis tools.

  10. Robotic Planetary Science Missions Enabled with Small NTR Engine/Stage Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-01-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a

  11. Enabling heterogenous multi-scale database for emergency service functions through geoinformation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanumurthy, V.; Venugopala Rao, K.; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Ram Mohan Rao, K.; Chandra, P. Satya; Vidhyasagar, J.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    emergency database systems. These include aspects such as i) data integration procedures namely standard coding scheme, schema, meta data format, spatial format ii) database organisation mechanism covering data management, catalogues, data models iii) database dissemination through a suitable environment, as a standard service for effective service dissemination. National Database for Emergency Management (NDEM) is such a comprehensive database for addressing disasters in India at the national level. This paper explains standards for integrating, organising the multi-scale and multi-source data with effective emergency response using customized user interfaces for NDEM. It presents standard procedure for building comprehensive emergency information systems for enabling emergency specific functions through geospatial technologies.

  12. Robotic planetary science missions enabled with small NTR engine/stage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1995-10-01

    The high specific impulse (Isp) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio of liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engines makes them ideal for upper stage applications to difficult robotic planetary science missions. A small 15 thousand pound force (klbf) NTR engine using a uranium-zirconium-niobium 'ternary carbide' fuel (Isp approximately 960 seconds at approximately 3025K) developed in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is examined and its use on an expendable injection stage is shown to provide major increases in payload delivered to the outer planets (Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto). Using a single 'Titan IV-class' launch vehicle, with a lift capability to low Earth orbit (LEO) of approximately 20 metric tons (t), an expendable NTR upper stage can inject two Pluto 'Fast Flyby' spacecraft (PFF/SC) plus support equipment-combined mass of approximately 508 kg--on high energy, '6.5-9.2 year' direct trajectory missions to Pluto. A conventional chemical propulsion mission would use a liquid oxygen (LOX)/LH2 'Centaur' upper stage and two solid rocket 'kick motors' to inject a single PFF/SC on the same Titan IV launch vehicle. For follow on Pluto missions, the NTR injection stage would utilize a Jupiter 'gravity assist' (JGA) maneuver to launch a LOX/liquid methane (CH4) capture stage (Isp approximately 375 seconds) and a Pluto 'orbiter' spacecraft weighing between approximately 167-312 kg. With chemical propulsion, a Pluto orbiter mission is not a viable option because c inadequate delivered mass. Using a 'standardized' NTR injection stage and the same single Titan IV launch scenario, 'direct flight' (no gravity assist) orbiter missions to Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are also enabled with transit times of 2.3, 6.6, and 12.6 years, respectively. Injected mass includes a storable, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (N2O4/MMH) capture stage (Isp approximately 330 seconds) and orbiter payloads 340 to 820% larger than that achievable using a

  13. Emerging Therapeutic Enhancement Enabling Health Technologies and Their Discourses: What Is Discussed within the Health Domain?

    PubMed Central

    Wolbring, Gregor; Diep, Lucy; Yumakulov, Sophya; Ball, Natalie; Leopatra, Verlyn; Yergens, Dean

    2013-01-01

    So far, the very meaning of health and therefore, treatment and rehabilitation is benchmarked to the normal or species-typical body. We expect certain abilities in members of a species; we expect humans to walk but not to fly, but a bird we expect to fly. However, increasingly therapeutic interventions have the potential to give recipients beyond species-typical body related abilities (therapeutic enhancements, TE). We believe that the perfect storm of TE, the shift in ability expectations toward beyond species-typical body abilities, and the increasing desire of health consumers to shape the health system will increasingly influence various aspects of health care practice, policy, and scholarship. We employed qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate among others how human enhancement, neuro/cognitive enhancement, brain machine interfaces, and social robot discourses cover (a) healthcare, healthcare policy, and healthcare ethics, (b) disability and (c) health consumers and how visible various assessment fields are within Neuro/Cogno/Human enhancement and within the BMI and social robotics discourse. We found that health care, as such, is little discussed, as are health care policy and ethics; that the term consumers (but not health consumers) is used; that technology, impact and needs assessment is absent; and that the imagery of disabled people is primarily a medical one. We submit that now, at this early stage, is the time to gain a good understanding of what drives the push for the enhancement agenda and enhancement-enabling devices, and the dynamics around acceptance and diffusion of therapeutic enhancements. PMID:27429129

  14. Enabling Remote Activity: Using mobile technology for remote participation in geoscience fieldwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Sarah; Collins, Trevor; Gaved, Mark; Bartlett, Jessica; Valentine, Chris; McCann, Lewis

    2010-05-01

    Field-based activities are regarded as essential to the development of a range of professional and personal skills within the geosciences. Students enjoy field activities, preferring these to learning with simulations (Spicer and Stratford 2001), and these improve deeper learning and understanding (Kern and Carpenter, 1984; Elkins and Elkins, 2007). However, some students find it difficult to access these field-based learning opportunities. Field sites may be remote and often require travel across uneven, challenging or potentially dangerous terrain. Mobility-impaired students are particularly limited in their opportunities to participate in field-based learning activities and, as higher education institutions have a responsibility to provide inclusive opportunities for students (UK Disability Discrimination Act 1995, UK Special Education Needs and Disability Rights Act 2001), the need for inclusive fieldwork learning is being increasingly recognised. The Enabling Remote Activity (ERA) project has been investigating how mobile communications technologies might allow field learning experiences to be brought to students who would otherwise find it difficult to participate, and also to enhance activities for all participants. It uses a rapidly deployable, battery-powered wireless network to transmit video, audio, and high resolution still images to connect participants at an accessible location with participants in the field. Crucially, the system uses a transient wireless network, allowing multiple locations to be explored during a field visit, and for plans to be changed dynamically if required. Central to the concept is the requirement for independent investigative learning: students are enabled to participate actively in the learning experience and to direct the investigations, as opposed to being simply remote viewers of the experience. Two ways of using the ERA system have been investigated: remote access and collaborative groupwork. In 2006 and 2008 remote

  15. Developments in remote sensing technology enable more detailed urban flood risk analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniss, A.; Tewkesbury, A.

    2009-04-01

    Spaceborne remote sensors have been allowing us to build up a profile of planet earth for many years. With each new satellite launched we see the capabilities improve: new bands of data, higher resolution imagery, the ability to derive better elevation information. The combination of this geospatial data to create land cover and usage maps, all help inform catastrophe modelling systems. From Landsat 30m resolution to 2.44m QuickBird multispectral imagery; from 1m radar data collected by TerraSAR-X which enables rapid tracking of the rise and fall of a flood event, and will shortly have a twin satellite launched enabling elevation data creation; we are spoilt for choice in available data. However, just what is cost effective? It is always a question of choosing the appropriate level of input data detail for modelling, depending on the value of the risk. In the summer of 2007, the cost of the flooding in the UK was approximately £3bn and affected over 58,000 homes and businesses. When it comes to flood risk, we have traditionally considered rising river levels and surge tides, but with climate change and variations in our own construction behaviour, there are other factors to be taken into account. During those summer 2007 events, the Environment Agency suggested that around 70% of the properties damaged were the result of pluvial flooding, where high localised rainfall events overload localised drainage infrastructure, causing widespread flooding of properties and infrastructure. To create a risk model that is able to simulate such an event requires much more accurate source data than can be provided from satellite or radar. As these flood events cause considerable damage within relatively small, complex urban environments, therefore new high resolution remote sensing techniques have to be applied to better model these events. Detailed terrain data of England and Wales, plus cities in Scotland, have been produced by combining terrain measurements from the latest

  16. The Flipped Classroom, Disruptive Pedagogies, Enabling Technologies and Wicked Problems: Responding to "The Bomb in the Basement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchings, Maggie; Quinney, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of enabling technologies by universities provides unprecedented opportunities for flipping the classroom to achieve student-centred learning. While higher education policies focus on placing students at the heart of the education process, the propensity for student identities to shift from partners in learning to consumers of…

  17. Enabling Students with Multiple Disabilities to Request and Choose among Environmental Stimuli through Microswitch and Computer Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Baccani, Simona

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of enabling two students with multiple disabilities to request and choose among environmental stimuli through microswitch and computer technology. Each student was provided with two basic microswitches the activation of which made a computer system present a sample of a preferred or non-preferred stimulus. The…

  18. Enabling Self-Directed Computer Use for Individuals with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review of Assistive Devices and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, T. Claire; Mudge, Suzie; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Stott, N. Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to systematically review published evidence on the development, use, and effectiveness of devices and technologies that enable or enhance self-directed computer access by individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Nine electronic databases were searched using keywords "computer", "software", "spastic",…

  19. Enabling Technology for the Exploration of the Arctic Ocean - Multi Channel Seismic Reflection data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, B.; Anderson, R.; Chayes, D. N.; Goemmer, S.; Oursler, M.

    2009-12-01

    Great advances in mapping the Arctic Ocean have recently been made through the relatively routine acquisition of multibeam data from icebreakers operating on various cruise. The USCGC Healy, the German icebreaker Polarstern, the Canadian icebreaker Amundsen and the Swedish icebreaker Oden all routinely collect multibeam data, even while in heavy ice pack. This increase in data has substantially improved our knowledge of the form of the Arctic Ocean seafloor. Unfortunately, it is not possible to routinely collect Multi Channel Seismic Reflection (MCS) data while underway in the ice pack. Our inability to simply collect these data restricts how we understand many of the features that segment the basin by depriving us of the historical information that can be obtained by imaging the stratigraphy. Without these data, scientific ocean drilling, the ultimate ground truth for Marine Geology, cannot be done. The technology and expertise to collect MCS must be adapted for the particular circumstances of the Arctic Ocean. While MCS data have been collected in the Arctic Ocean, the procedures have relied on icebreakers towing equipment. Since icebreakers follow the path of least resistance through the pack, data are acquired in locations that are not scientifically optimal and rarely in the relatively straight lines necessary for optimal processing. Towing in the ice pack is also difficult, inefficient and puts this equipment at substantial risk of crushing or loss. While icebreakers are one means to collect these data, it is time to conduct a systematic evaluation of the costs and benefits of different platforms for MCS data acquisition. This evaluation should enable collection of high-quality data set at selected locations to solve scientific problems. Substantial uncertainties exist about the relative capabilities, costs and limitations for acquisition of MCS data from various platforms in the Arctic Ocean. For example; - Is it possible to collect multi-channel seismic

  20. ArrayWiki: an enabling technology for sharing public microarray data repositories and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Todd H; Torrance, JT; Li, Henry; Wang, May D

    2008-01-01

    Background A survey of microarray databases reveals that most of the repository contents and data models are heterogeneous (i.e., data obtained from different chip manufacturers), and that the repositories provide only basic biological keywords linking to PubMed. As a result, it is difficult to find datasets using research context or analysis parameters information beyond a few keywords. For example, to reduce the "curse-of-dimension" problem in microarray analysis, the number of samples is often increased by merging array data from different datasets. Knowing chip data parameters such as pre-processing steps (e.g., normalization, artefact removal, etc), and knowing any previous biological validation of the dataset is essential due to the heterogeneity of the data. However, most of the microarray repositories do not have meta-data information in the first place, and do not have a a mechanism to add or insert this information. Thus, there is a critical need to create "intelligent" microarray repositories that (1) enable update of meta-data with the raw array data, and (2) provide standardized archiving protocols to minimize bias from the raw data sources. Results To address the problems discussed, we have developed a community maintained system called ArrayWiki that unites disparate meta-data of microarray meta-experiments from multiple primary sources with four key features. First, ArrayWiki provides a user-friendly knowledge management interface in addition to a programmable interface using standards developed by Wikipedia. Second, ArrayWiki includes automated quality control processes (caCORRECT) and novel visualization methods (BioPNG, Gel Plots), which provide extra information about data quality unavailable in other microarray repositories. Third, it provides a user-curation capability through the familiar Wiki interface. Fourth, ArrayWiki provides users with simple text-based searches across all experiment meta-data, and exposes data to search engine crawlers

  1. Enabling pulsed power technologies for the generation of intense, nanosecond electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jason M.

    This dissertation focuses on the design and implementation of pulsed power systems with an emphasis on systems that generate high peak powers on nanosecond and subnanosecond timescales. These systems are an enabling technology for many areas of scientific research focused on the effects of intense, nanosecond pulsed electric fields or pulsed discharges on physical processes. Researchers at USC use these systems in a variety of diverse application areas, including research into ignition and combustion using nanosecond discharges, research into the effects of pulsed electric fields on biological systems, and research into the efficacy of cold plasma discharges for disinfection. Each of these applications has its own set of pulsed power parameters, and in most cases these parameters necessitate that the systems be custom developed. The bulk of what follows will address the design methodologies, materials, and implementation techniques required for systems capable of generating high current (20 -- 500 Amperes), high voltage (1 kV -- 100 kV), nanosecond pulses. These principles culminate in the presentation of a new, compact, solid state architecture, which has been implemented into a system called the Rapid Pulser. This architecture uses diode opening switches at the output to switch inductively stored energy into a resistive load. To switch properly, these diodes must be pumped in the forward and reverse directions by a current, and this new architecture introduces a pumping circuit that significantly improves pulse shape as well as reduces amplitude jitter, time jitter, complexity, cost, and size. At 1.6 kg, this is the lightest pulsed power system developed at USC's Pulsed Power Lab, which is significant because minimizing size and weight is necessary for applications focused on the ignition and combustion of fuels. A summary of research focused on magnetic and dielectric materials for nonlinear energy compression will also be presented. Nonlinearities inherent to

  2. Practical performance and enabling technologies in immersion scanners for the double patterning generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Kohno, Hirotaka; Sato, Shinji; Kosugi, Junichi; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2011-04-01

    At SPIE2010, excellent performance of the cutting edge immersion lithography scanner, the NSR-S620D, which is based on the new "Streamlign" platform was demonstrated. Last year's work focused mainly on machine evaluation data[1]. Now, many S620Ds are employed at customers' sites and being used in device manufacturing. In this paper, the authors will introduce the latest factory data, as well as various techniques that enable superior yield and enhance productivity in IC manufacturing. It is well understood, that in order to achieve further device shrinks without using traditional techniques such as NA expansion or wavelength reduction, several practical issues must be overcome. Extremely tight overlay performance will be required for pitch splitting double patterning, for example. In addition, it is also necessary to control the image plane and the aberration of the optics much more carefully. Of course these improvements must also be achieved with sufficient productivity (throughput). In order to satisfy all of the requirements for mass production at customer factories, many variable factors must be dealt with. One of these variable factors is the characteristics of the processed wafers that include on-flatness, grid distortion, steep topology around the edge, or topography of the previous layers' patterns. These factors typically impact overlay and/or auto focus accuracy. Another variable is the difference in exposure conditions between layers, which include illumination conditions, dose, reticle transmittance, and the alignment marks. Exposure induced heating in particular is the key issue for today's enhanced throughput capabilities, with regards to achieving both optimal accuracy and productivity. In some IC production facilities, and often foundries, many different kinds of products are manufactured in parallel. However, in order to enhance performance and accuracy, it is sometimes necessary to optimize machine parameters for each product. Cleary this

  3. Improving Accountability Models by Using Technology-Enabled Knowledge Systems (TEKS). CSE Report 656

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses accountability and the role emerging technologies can play in improving education. The connection between accountability and technology can be best summarized in one term: feedback. Technological supports provide ways of designing, collecting and sharing information in order to provide the basis for the improvement of systems…

  4. Cas-enabled technologies as `agents provocateurs' in teaching and learning mathematical modelling in secondary school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Vince; Faragher, Rhonda; Goos, Merrilyn

    2010-09-01

    This paper draws on a one year study of three secondary school classrooms to examine the nature of student-student-technology interaction when working in partnership with computer algebra systems (CAS) on mathematical modelling tasks and the classroom affordances and constraints that influence such interaction. The analysis of these data indicates that CAS enabled technologies have a role to play as provocateurs of productive student-student-teacher interaction in both small group and whole class settings. Our research indicates that technologies that incorporate CAS capabilities have the potential to mediate collaborative approaches to mathematical enquiry within life-related mathematical tasks.

  5. Self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: can they successfully prevent and treat diabetes?

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Neal D; Woodley, Paula D Patnoe

    2011-05-01

    Patients with diabetes need a complex set of services and supports. The challenge of integrating these services into the diabetes regimen can be successfully overcome through self-management support interventions that are clinically linked and technology enabled: self-management support because patients need help mastering the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors so necessary for good outcomes; interventions because comprehensive theory-based, evidence-proven, long-term, longitudinal interventions work better than direct-to-consumer or nonplanned health promotion approaches; clinically linked because patients are more likely to adopt new behaviors when the approach is in the context of a trusted therapeutic relationship and within an effective medical care system; and technology enabled because capitalizing on the amazing power of information technology leads to the delivery of cost-effective, scalable, engaging solutions that prevent and manage diabetes. PMID:21722596

  6. Emerging issues and current trends in assistive technology use 2007-2010: practising, assisting and enabling learning for all.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Chris; Brown, David; Evett, Lindsay; Standen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Following an earlier review in 2007, a further review of the academic literature relating to the uses of assistive technology (AT) by children and young people was completed, covering the period 2007-2011. As in the earlier review, a tripartite taxonomy: technology uses to train or practise, technology uses to assist learning and technology uses to enable learning, was used in order to structure the findings. The key markers for research in this field and during these three years were user involvement, AT on mobile mainstream devices, the visibility of AT, technology for interaction and collaboration, new and developing interfaces and inclusive design principles. The paper concludes by locating these developments within the broader framework of the Digital Divide. PMID:24083780

  7. Sustained Manned Mars Presence Enabled by E-sail Technology and Asteroid Water Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janhunen, Pekka; Merikallio, Sini; Toivanen, Petri; Envall, M. Jouni

    would be reduced because of intermediate tankings plus opening up the possibility of making the craft reusable for several back and forth trips. The manned spacecraft can be tanked first time at Earth C3, second time in Mars orbit for the return trip, and again in Earth C3 for the next trip if the spacecraft is reusable. When propellant is cheap in Mars orbit, it may also make sense to perform an all-propulsive landing which would make thermal shielding unnecessary. In this case the manned spacecraft would be tanked in Mars orbit two times plus once on the surface per each bidirectional mission. We estimate that the dry mass of cryogenic propellant factories and their associated temporary storage tanks that can process 50 tonnes of water per year is 20 tonnes. By developing the E-sail as enabling technology and by employing asteroid water mining, we think that sustained bidirectional Earth-Mars manned transportation could be created which would asymptotically require no more resources than what running the International Space Station requires today. References [1] Janhunen, P., et. al, Electric solar wind sail: Towards test missions (Invited article), Rev. Sci. Instrum., 81, 111301, 2010. [2] Janhunen, P., A. Quarta and G. Mengali G., Electric solar wind sail mass budget model, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 2, 85-95, 2013.

  8. Single-Electron Transmetalation: An Enabling Technology for Secondary Alkylboron Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Primer, David N.; Karakaya, Idris; Tellis, John C.; Molander, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Single-electron-mediated alkyl transfer affords a novel mechanism for transmetalation, enabling cross-coupling under mild conditions. Here, general conditions are reported for cross-coupling of secondary alkyltrifluoroborates with an array of aryl bromides mediated by an Ir photoredox catalyst and a Ni cross-coupling catalyst. PMID:25650892

  9. DOE SciDAC's Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-09-27

    The mission of the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is to provide the worldwide climate-research community with access to the data, information, model codes, analysis tools, and intercomparison capabilities required to make sense of enormous climate data sets. Its specific goals are to (1) provide an easy-to-use and secure web-based data access environment for data sets; (2) add value to individual data sets by presenting them in the context of other data sets and tools for comparative analysis; (3) address the specific requirements of participating organizations with respect to bandwidth, access restrictions, and replication; (4) ensure that the data are readily accessible through the analysis and visualization tools used by the climate research community; and (5) transfer infrastructure advances to other domain areas. For the ESGF, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technologies (ESG-CET) team has led international development and delivered a production environment for managing and accessing ultra-scale climate data. This production environment includes multiple national and international climate projects (such as the Community Earth System Model and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), ocean model data (such as the Parallel Ocean Program), observation data (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate, Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center, Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, etc.), and analysis and visualization tools, all serving a diverse user community. These data holdings and services are distributed across multiple ESG-CET sites (such as ANL, LANL, LBNL/NERSC, LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, and ORNL) and at unfunded partner sites, such as the Australian National University National Computational Infrastructure, the British Atmospheric Data Centre, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, the German Climate Computing

  10. Visual Literacy and Just-In-Time-Training: Enabling Learners through Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Terry

    Quality education is often impeded by lack of instructor time and by a failure to provide instruction that is individualized and at the point of need. Integration technology into course development can alleviate these problems, but only if the technology is easy to learn and supports a systems approach. In implementing a Web-based Technical…

  11. Removing Obstacles to the Pedagogical Changes Required by Jonassen's Vision of Authentic Technology-Enabled Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Educators have been striving to achieve meaningful technology use in our K-12 classrooms for over 30 years. Yet, despite significant investments of time and money in infrastructure, training, and support "we have few assurances that [educators] are able to use technology for teaching and learning" (NEA, 2008, p. 1). In this article, we call for a…

  12. The Australian e-Health Research Centre: enabling the health care information and communication technology revolution.

    PubMed

    Hansen, David P; Gurney, Phil; Morgan, Gary; Barraclough, Bruce

    2011-02-21

    The CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) and the Queensland Government have jointly established the Australian e-Health Research Centre (AEHRC) with the aim of developing innovative information and communication technologies (ICT) for a sustainable health care system. The AEHRC, as part of the CSIRO ICT Centre, has access to new technologies in information processing, wireless and networking technologies, and autonomous systems. The AEHRC's 50 researchers, software engineers and PhD students, in partnership with the CSIRO and clinicians, are developing and applying new technologies for improving patients' experience, building a more rewarding workplace for the health workforce, and improving the efficiency of delivering health care. The capabilities of the AEHRC fall into four broad areas: smart methods for using medical data; advanced medical imaging technologies; new models for clinical and health care interventions; and tools for medical skills development. Since its founding in 2004, new technology from the AEHRC has been adopted within Queensland (eg, a mobile phone-based cardiac rehabilitation program), around Australia (eg, medical imaging technologies) and internationally (eg, our clinical terminology tools). PMID:21401490

  13. Emerging technology: A key enabler for modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing and advancing product quality.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas F; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Sau L

    2016-07-25

    Issues in product quality have produced recalls and caused drug shortages in United States (U.S.) in the past few years. These quality issues were often due to outdated manufacturing technologies and equipment as well as lack of an effective quality management system. To ensure consistent supply of safe, effective and high-quality drug products available to the patients, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supports modernizing pharmaceutical manufacturing for improvements in product quality. Specifically, five new initiatives are proposed here to achieve this goal. They include: (i) advancing regulatory science for pharmaceutical manufacturing; (ii) establishing a public-private institute for pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation; (iii) creating incentives for investment in the technological upgrade of manufacturing processes and facilities; (iv) leveraging external expertise for regulatory quality assessment of emerging technologies; and (v) promoting the international harmonization of approaches for expediting the global adoption of emerging technologies. PMID:27260134

  14. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, D.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzaes, G.; Hamm, K.; Kazemba, C.; Ma, J.; Mahzari, M.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; Peterson, K.; Poteet, C.; Prabhu, D.; Splinter, S.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.; Young, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASAs Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Venus or Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  15. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) - Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, D.; Beerman, A.; Blosser, M.; Boghozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gage, P.; Gasch, M.; Gonzales, G.; Hamm, K.; Ma, J.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; Poteet, C.; Splinter, S.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.; Young, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASA's Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Venus or Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  16. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  17. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Power Systems: Enabling Technology for European Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Samara-Ratna, P.; Tinsley, T. P.; Rice, T.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Cordingley, L.; Slade, R.; Deacon, T.; Jorden, A.; Johnson, W.; Stephenson, K.

    2012-09-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have proved critical enablers for many of the most demanding space and planetary science missions. US systems, fuelled by 238Pu, have returned extraordinary science from missions such as the Pioneer and Voyager probes, Galileo (Jupiter) and Cassini (Saturn). At the time of writing, New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory are en route to Pluto and Mars respectively and are equipped with Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). RPSs can provide electrical power to spacecraft systems independently of solar energy, permitting more capable and productive spacecraft and missions. Europe is focused on developing 241Am powered RPSs.

  18. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  19. Remote patient management: technology-enabled innovation and evolving business models for chronic disease care.

    PubMed

    Coye, Molly Joel; Haselkorn, Ateret; DeMello, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Remote patient management (RPM) is a transformative technology that improves chronic care management while reducing net spending for chronic disease. Broadly deployed within the Veterans Health Administration and in many small trials elsewhere, RPM has been shown to support patient self-management, shift responsibilities to non-clinical providers, and reduce the use of emergency department and hospital services. Because transformative technologies offer major opportunities to advance national goals of improved quality and efficiency in health care, it is important to understand their evolution, the experiences of early adopters, and the business models that may support their deployment. PMID:19124862

  20. Technology-Enabled Knowledge Translation: Frameworks to Promote Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Kendall; Bloch, Ralph; Gondocz, Tunde; Laprise, Rejean; Perrier, Laure; Ryan, David; Thivierge, Robert; Wenghofer, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge translation articulates how new scientific insights can be implemented efficiently into clinical practice to reap maximal health benefits. Modern information and communication technologies can be effective tools to help in the collection, processing, and targeted distribution of information from which clinicians, researchers,…

  1. The DOE SunShot Initiative: Science and Technology to enable Solar Electricity at Grid Parity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2012-02-01

    The SunShot Initiative's mission is to develop solar energy technologies through a collaborative national push to make solar Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) energy technologies cost-competitive with fossil fuel based energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by ˜ 75 percent before 2020. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour (1/Watt) without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States and the world. Achieving this goal will require significant reductions and technological innovations in all PV system components, namely modules, power electronics, and balance of systems (BOS), which includes all other components and costs required for a fully installed system including permitting and inspection costs. This investment will re-establish American technological and market leadership, improve the nation's energy security, strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness and catalyze domestic economic growth in the global clean energy race. SunShot is a cooperative program across DOE, involving the Office of Science, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and ARPA-E.

  2. Technology developments to enable the commercial viability of the Fischer-Tropsch process

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, A.H.; Oukaci, R.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The well established Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technologies for catalytic conversion of coal-based synthesis gas to hydrocarbon liquid and wax products have been practiced for many years in locations (such as South Africa) where political reasons have forced the production operations even though unusual commercial competitive economics would not be sufficiently attractive to justify the process. This has generated a substantive technical experience with F-T technologies and products that is currently being adapted to use with syngas produced from coal, natural gas, and other sources of hydrocarbon gas in many niche markets over the world. Energy International, one of the Williams Companies, is currently developing this process for use in near-term commercial applications based on improvements in catalyst and process design that can substantially reduce the economic cost of producing hydrocarbon fuels, chemicals, and waxes. This improved economic basis for use of F-T technology derives from on-going efforts supported by the Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and Energy International. In important laboratory developments and evaluations, the use of cobalt catalysts has been shown to have the potential for greater products yields and better controls on the reactor operating conditions so as to produce the more desirable and economically effective sets of quality products. This presentation will review the technical improvements achieved with the new catalysts and the impact on the economic viability of the F-T process.

  3. The Ground Control Room as an Enabling Technology in the Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gear, Gary; Mace, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of the ground control room as an required technology for the use of an Unmanned Aerial system. The Unmanned Aerial system is a strategic component of the Global Observing System, which will serve global science needs. The unmanned aerial system will use the same airspace as manned aircraft, therefore there will be unique telemetry needs.

  4. Enabling Secondary Level Teachers to Integrate Technology through ICT Integrated Instructional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Sutapa

    2010-01-01

    Institutions providing pre-service teacher education are responsible for preparing teachers capable of functioning in the knowledge society, which India aspires to be. Schools of a knowledge society would require teachers to integrate technology into the instructional system and they are to be prepared for it accordingly through teacher education…

  5. The Mobile Learning Training Needs of Educators in Technology-Enabled Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; Olszewski, Brandon; Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2016-01-01

    Mobile learning (mlearning) is an emerging trend in schools, utilizing mobile technologies that offer the greatest amount of flexibility in teaching and learning. Researchers have found that one of the main barriers to effective mlearning in schools is the lack of teacher professional development. Results from a needs-assessment survey and a…

  6. Dialogue and Structure: Enabling Learner Self-Regulation in Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    Distance learning that incorporates technology-enhanced learning environments provides a solution to the ever-increasing global demand for higher education. To be successful in these contexts, learners must be self-regulated, or have the ability to control the factors affecting their learning. Based on the theories of transactional distance,…

  7. Leadership Knowledge and Skill: An Enabler for Success as a Technology Education Teacher-Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenig, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    While the technological society has rapidly moved into the digital-information age leadership has emerged as even more distinctive and essential for success. Experience teaches everyone that leadership can be exercised through noble uplifting pursuits or driven by corrupting repressive power. Leadership when positive creates a stimulating…

  8. Livening up Foreign Language: Technology Enables Language Learning in Authentic Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Harry Grover

    2007-01-01

    Technology has long been associated with language learning: everyone is familiar with seeing children wearing headsets, reciting in unison recordings of Spanish or French vocabulary words. Nowadays, students can experience real life in real time across the globe, thanks to a host of new Internet applications. In this article, the author envisions…

  9. Enabling Problem Based Learning through Web 2.0 Technologies: PBL 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambouris, Efthimios; Panopoulou, Eleni; Tarabanis, Konstantinos; Ryberg, Thomas; Buus, Lillian; Peristeras, Vassilios; Lee, Deirdre; Porwol, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), particularly the so-called Web 2.0, are affecting all aspects of our life: How we communicate, how we shop, how we socialise, how we learn. Facilitating learning through the use of ICT, also known as eLearning, is a vital part of modern educational systems. Established pedagogical…

  10. Space Technology 5: Enabling Future Micro-Sat Constellation Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Candace C.; Webb, Evan H.; Slavin, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA s New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three micro-satellites, each approximately 25 kg in mass. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft, to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable micro-satellites with new technologies. ST-5 is designed to measurably raise the utility of small satellites by providing high functionality in a low mass, low power, and low volume package. The whole of ST-5 is greater than the sum of its parts: the collection of components into the ST-5 spacecraft allows it to perform the functionality of a larger scientific spacecraft on a micro-satellite platform. The ST-5 mission was originally designed to be launched as a secondary payload into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). Recently, the mission has been replanned for a Pegasus XL dedicated launch into an elliptical polar orbit. A three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST- 5 s technologies and concepts will then be transferred to future micro-sat science missions.

  11. Space Technology 5: Enabling Future Micro-Sat Constellation Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Candace C.; Webb, Evan H.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA s New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three micro-satellites, each approximately 25 kg in mass. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable micro-satellites with new technologies. ST-5 is designed to measurably raise the utility of small satellites by providing high functionality in a low mass, low power, and low volume package. The whole of ST-5 is greater than the sum of its parts: the collection of components into the ST-5 spacecraft allows it to perform the functionality of a larger scientific spacecraft on a micro-satellite platform. The ST-5 mission was originally designed to be launched as a secondary payload into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). Recently, the mission has been replanned for a Pegasus XL dedicated launch into an elliptical polar orbit. A three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST- 5 s technologies and concepts will then be transferred to future micro-sat science missions.

  12. Technology as the Enabler of a New Wave of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollag, Keith; Billsberry, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Education has always been slow on the uptake of new technology. Instructors have established time-worn methods of teaching, and the performance nature of the job puts an emphasis on reliability and predictability. The last thing an instructor wants to be doing is fumbling around trying to make something work in front of an audience of 200…

  13. Enabling technologies for robot assisted ultrasound tomography: system setup and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Khurana, Rishabh; Cheng, Alexis; Taylor, Russell H.; Iordachita, Iulian; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we are proposing a robot-assisted ultrasound tomography system that can offer soft tissue tomographic imaging and deeper or faster scan of the anatomy. This system consists of a robot-held ultrasound probe that tracks the position of another freehand probe, trying to align with it. One of the major challenges is achieving proper alignment of the two ultrasound probes. To enable proper alignment, two ultrasound calibrations and one hand-eye calibration are required. However, the system functionality and design is such that the ultrasound calibrations have become a challenge. In this paper, after providing an overview of the proposed robotic ultrasound tomography system, we focus on the calibrations problem. The results of the calibrations show a point reconstruction precision of a few millimeters for the current prototype, and the two images have at least 50% overlap visually; confirming the feasibility of such a system relying on accurate probe alignments.

  14. Development of the RIOT web service and information technologies to enable mechanism reduction for HCCI simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Karen; Oluwole, Oluwayemisi; Pitz, William; Rahn, Larry A.; Green, William H., Jr.; Leahy, David; Pancerella, Carmen; Sjöberg, Magnus; Dec, John

    2005-01-01

    New approaches are being explored to facilitate multidisciplinary collaborative research of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. In this paper, collaborative sharing of the Range Identification and Optimization Toolkit (RIOT) and related data and models is discussed. RIOT is a developmental approach to reduce the computational complexity of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, enabling their use in modeling kinetically controlled combustion applications such as HCCI. These approaches are being developed and piloted as a part of the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Sciences (CMCS) project. The capabilities of the RIOT code are shared through a portlet in the CMCS portal that allows easy specification and processing of RIOT inputs, remote execution of RIOT, tracking of data pedigree, and translation of RIOT outputs to a table view and to a commonly-used chemical model format.

  15. Enabling technologies for space exploration systems: The STEPS project results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messidoro, Piero; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Boggiatto, Dario

    2013-05-01

    The project STEPS (Sistemi e Tecnologie per l'EsPlorazione Spaziale) is a joint development of technologies and systems for Space Exploration supported by Regione Piemonte, the European Regional Development Fund (E.R.D.F.) 2007-2013, Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I), SMEs, Universities and public Research Centres belonging to the network "Comitato Distretto Aerospaziale del Piemonte" the Piedmont Aerospace District (PAD) in Italy. The project first part terminated in May 2012 with a final demonstration event that summarizes the technological results of research activities carried-out during a period the three years and half. The project developed virtual and hardware demonstrators for a range of technologies for the descent, soft landing and surface mobility of robotic and manned equipment for Moon and Mars exploration. The two key hardware demonstrators—a Mars Lander and a Lunar Rover—fit in a context of international cooperation for the exploration of Moon and Mars, as envisaged by Space Agencies worldwide. The STEPS project included also the development and utilization of a system of laboratories equipped for technology validation, teleoperations, concurrent design environments, and virtual reality simulation of the Exploration Systems in typical Moon and Mars environments. This paper presents the reached results in several technology domains like: vision-based GNC for the last portion of Mars Entry, Descent and Landing sequence, Hazard avoidance and complete spacecraft autonomy; Autonomous Rover Navigation, based on the determination of the terrain morphology by a stereo camera; Mobility and Mechanisms providing an Integrated Ground Mobility System, Rendezvous and Docking equipment, and protection from Environment effects; innovative Structures such as Inflatable, Smart and Multifunction Structures, an Active Shock Absorber for safe landing, balance restoring and walking; Composite materials Modelling and Monitoring; Human-machine interface features of a

  16. Positron emission tomography imaging as a key enabling technology in drug development.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, T J

    2007-01-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) in drug development has become more common in the pharmaceutical industry in recent years. One of the biggest challenges to gaining acceptance of this technology is for project teams to understand when to use PET. This chapter reviews the usage of PET in drug development in the context of target, mechanism and efficacy biomarkers. Examples are drawn from a number of therapeutic areas, but we also show that the relative penetration of this technology beyond CNS and oncology applications has been relatively small. However, with the increasing availability of PET and development of novel radiotracers it is expected that the utilization will be much broader in future years, with the additional expectation that the use of PET as an efficacy biomarker will also become more evident. PMID:17172162

  17. Enabling technologies for transition to utilization of space-based resources and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadin, S. R.; Litty, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    This article explores a potential scenario for the further development of space infrastructure resources and operations management. It is a scenario that transitions from the current ground-based system to an architecture that is predominantly space-based by exploiting key mission systems in an operational support role. If this view is accurate, an examination of the range of potential infrastructure elements and how they might interact in a maximally productive space-based operations complex is needed, innovative technologies beyond the current Shuttle and Space Station legacy need to be identified, and research programs pursued. Development of technologies within the areas of telerobotics, machine autonomy, human autonomy, in-space manufacturing and construction, propulsion and energy is discussed.

  18. On the cutting edge technology enabling the challenging missions to asteroids and comets, our primitive neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, J.

    2014-07-01

    The world's first sample-and-return mission from an object orbiting outside the sphere of influence of the Earth was successfully performed through Hayabusa in 2010, an engineering demonstration mission of JAXA. And it was followed by another technology demonstrator, Ikaros, the world's first solar-sail mission launched in 2010, the same year of the Hayabusa return. These two demonstrations represent the significance of the technology development that shall precede the real science missions that will follow. The space-exploration community focuses its attention on the use of asteroids and comets as one of the most immediate destinations. Humans will perform voyages to those objects sooner or later. And we will initiate a kind of research as scientific activity for those objects. The missions may include even sample-and-return missions to those bodies for assessing the chance of possible resource utilization in future. The first step for it is, needless to say, science. Combining the sample-and-return technology using the ultra-high-speed reentry for sample recovery with the new propulsion system using both electric and photon force will be the direct conclusion from Hayabusa and Ikaros. And key elements such as autonomy are also among the essential factors in making the sophisticated operation possible around asteroids and comets avoiding the communication difficulty. This presentation will comprehensively touch on what those technology skills are, and how they are applicable to the subsequent new missions, from the mission leader's point of view. They are probably real requisites for planning brand-new innovative challenges in the ACM community.

  19. Palladium catalysis for energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, L. D.; Datye, Abhaya

    2001-03-01

    Palladium (Pd) is an attractive catalyst for a range of new combustion applications comprising primary new technologies for future industrial energy needs, including gas turbine catalytic combustion, auto exhaust catalysts, heating and fuel cells. Pd poses particular challenges because it changes both chemical state and morphology as a function of temperature and reactant environment and those changes result in positive and negative changes in activity. Interactions with the support, additives, water, and contaminants as well as carbon formation have also been observed to affect Pd catalyst performance. This report describes the results of a 3.5 year project that resolves some of the conflicting reports in the literature about the performance of Pd-based catalysis.

  20. PACFEST : enabling technologies in the war on terrorism in the Pacific region.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Sugimura, Tak; Chellis, Craig

    2003-12-01

    On October 22-24, 2003, about 40 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the United States and four other Pacific region countries meet in Kihei, Hawaii to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorm (a 'fest') of the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result of this exercise is a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrators of advanced technological solutions to these issues. In this approach, the participants were asked to view the problem and their potential solutions from multiple perspectives, and then to identify barriers (especially social and policy barriers) to any proposed technological solution. The final step was to create a roadmap for further action. This roadmap includes plans to: (1) create a conceptual monitoring and tracking system for people and things moving around the region that would be 'scale free', and develop a simple concept demonstrator; (2) pursue the development of a system to improve local terrorism context information, perhaps through the creation of an information clearinghouse for Pacific law enforcement; (3) explore the implementation of a Hawaii based pilot system to explore hypothetical terrorist scenarios and the development of fusion and analysis tools to work with this data (Sandia); and (4) share information concerning the numerous activities ongoing at various organizations around the understanding and modeling of terrorist behavior.

  1. Health geomatics: an enabling suite of technologies in health and healthcare.

    PubMed

    Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Carson, E R

    2001-06-01

    This Methodolical Review describes how health geomatics can improve our understanding of the important relationship between location and health, and thus assist us in Public Health tasks like disease prevention, and also in better healthcare service planning. The reader is first introduced to health geography and its two main divisions, disease ecology and healthcare delivery, followed by an overview of the basic concepts and principles of health geomatics. Topics covered include geographical information systems (GIS), GIS modeling, and GIS-related technologies (remote sensing and the global positioning system). We also present a number of real-life health geomatics applications and projects, with pointers to further studies and resources. Finally, we discuss the barriers facing the adoption of GIS technology in the health sector, including data availability/quality issues. The authors believe that we still need to combat many cultural and organizational barriers, including "spatial illiteracy" among healthcare workers, while making the tools cheaper and easier to learn and use, before health geomatics can become a mainstream technology in the health sector like today's spreadsheets and databases. PMID:11723701

  2. Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessment: Considering Access in Measuring the Achievement of Students with Disabilities--A Foundation for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Patricia; Winter, Phoebe; Cameto, Renee; Russell, Michael; Sato, Edynn; Clarke-Midura, Jody; Torres, Chloe; Haertel, Geneva; Dolan, Robert; Beddow, Peter; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents one outcome from the "Invitational Research Symposium on Technology-Enabled and Universally Designed Assessments," which examined technology-enabled assessments (TEA) and universal design (UD) as they relate to students with disabilities (SWD). It was developed to stimulate research into TEAs designed to make tests…

  3. Enabling the space exploration initiative: NASA's exploration technology program in space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Cull, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    Space power requirements for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are reviewed, including the results of a NASA 90-day study and reports by the National Research Council, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), NASA, the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, and the Synthesis Group. The space power requirements for the SEI robotic missions, lunar spacecraft, Mars spacecraft, and human missions are summarized. Planning for exploration technology is addressed, including photovoltaic, chemical and thermal energy conversion; high-capacity power; power and thermal management for the surface, Earth-orbiting platform and spacecraft; laser power beaming; and mobile surface systems.

  4. Synthetic biology meets bioprinting: enabling technologies for humans on Mars (and Earth)

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth. PMID:27528764

  5. Synthetic biology meets bioprinting: enabling technologies for humans on Mars (and Earth).

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Lynn J

    2016-08-15

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth. PMID:27528764

  6. Visual Prostheses: The Enabling Technology to Give Sight to the Blind

    PubMed Central

    Maghami, Mohammad Hossein; Sodagar, Amir Masoud; Lashay, Alireza; Riazi-Esfahani, Hamid; Riazi-Esfahani, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Millions of patients are either slowly losing their vision or are already blind due to retinal degenerative diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or because of accidents or injuries. Employment of artificial means to treat extreme vision impairment has come closer to reality during the past few decades. Currently, many research groups work towards effective solutions to restore a rudimentary sense of vision to the blind. Aside from the efforts being put on replacing damaged parts of the retina by engineered living tissues or microfabricated photoreceptor arrays, implantable electronic microsystems, referred to as visual prostheses, are also sought as promising solutions to restore vision. From a functional point of view, visual prostheses receive image information from the outside world and deliver them to the natural visual system, enabling the subject to receive a meaningful perception of the image. This paper provides an overview of technical design aspects and clinical test results of visual prostheses, highlights past and recent progress in realizing chronic high-resolution visual implants as well as some technical challenges confronted when trying to enhance the functional quality of such devices. PMID:25709777

  7. TEAM (Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing) macro planner requirements guide: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-28

    The Macro Planner will provide required resource identities, bill of material list, routing sequences and identities of all supporting information to the Shop Floor Control System to enable the actual manufacturing activities. The Macro Planner must also collect manufacturing performance data from the shop floor to effectively measure the plan`s performance. The critical feedback will be evaluated during closure of the business cycle and provide the metrics on cost and quality to the planning function. This document is intended to describe the requirements for a Macro Planner system which supports the above environment. The Macro planner should progress to a logically, rule driven processor to automate major portions of the planning cycle. It should do the following: support concurrent product/process design; define a globally optimized manufacturing plan for realization of product; compile a complete manufacturing plan script (routing and operational detail documentation); be based on 3-D CAD models imported via STEP standards; and define an Enterprise Resource Base that maps manufacturing capabilities to component features.

  8. Automated image processing and analysis of cartilage MRI: enabling technology for data mining applied to osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tameem, Hussain Z.; Sinha, Usha S.

    2011-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous and multi-factorial disease characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been established as an accurate technique to assess cartilage damage through both cartilage morphology (volume and thickness) and cartilage water mobility (Spin-lattice relaxation, T2). The Osteoarthritis Initiative, OAI, is a large scale serial assessment of subjects at different stages of OA including those with pre-clinical symptoms. The electronic availability of the comprehensive data collected as part of the initiative provides an unprecedented opportunity to discover new relationships in complex diseases such as OA. However, imaging data, which provides the most accurate non-invasive assessment of OA, is not directly amenable for data mining. Changes in morphometry and relaxivity with OA disease are both complex and subtle, making manual methods extremely difficult. This chapter focuses on the image analysis techniques to automatically localize the differences in morphometry and relaxivity changes in different population sub-groups (normal and OA subjects segregated by age, gender, and race). The image analysis infrastructure will enable automatic extraction of cartilage features at the voxel level; the ultimate goal is to integrate this infrastructure to discover relationships between the image findings and other clinical features. PMID:21785520

  9. The Role of Instrumentation and Controls Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the needs of much of the world that lacks highly stable, densely interconnected electrical grids. SMRs can present lower capital and operating costs than large reactors, allow incremental additions to power generation capacity that closely match load growth and support multiple energy applications (i.e., electricity and process heat). Taking advantage of their smaller size and modern design methodology, safety, security, and proliferation resistance may also be increased. Achieving the benefits of SMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management to address multi-unit, multi-product-stream generating stations. Realizing the goals of SMR deployment also depends on the resolution of technical challenges related to the unique characteristics of these reactor concepts. This paper discusses the primary issues related to SMR deployment that can be addressed through crosscutting research, development, and demonstration involving instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies.

  10. The Role of Instrumentation and Control Technology in Enabling Deployment of Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) will provide the United States with another economically viable energy option, diversify the available nuclear power alternatives for the country, and enhance U.S. economic competitiveness by ensuring a domestic capability to supply demonstrated reactor technology to a growing global market for clean and affordable energy sources. Smaller nuclear power plants match the needs of much of the world that lacks highly stable, densely interconnected electrical grids. SMRs can present lower capital and operating costs than large reactors, allow incremental additions to power generation capacity that closely match load growth and support multiple energy applications (i.e., electricity and process heat). Taking advantage of their smaller size and modern design methodology, safety, security, and proliferation resistance may also be increased. Achieving the benefits of SMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management to address multi-unit, multi-product-stream generating stations. Realizing the goals of SMR deployment also depends on the resolution of technical challenges related to the unique characteristics of these reactor concepts. This paper discusses the primary issues related to SMR deployment that can be addressed through crosscutting research, development, and demonstration involving instrumentation and controls (I&C) technologies.