Science.gov

Sample records for palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Aminocarbonylation of Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoquan; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2016-07-11

    A benign and efficient palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction of allylic alcohols is presented. The generality of this novel process is demonstrated by the synthesis of β,γ-unsaturated amides including aliphatic, cinnamyl, and terpene derivatives. The choice of ligand is crucial for optimal carbonylation processes: Whereas in most cases the combination of PdCl2 with Xantphos (L6) gave best results, sterically hindered substrates performed better in the presence of simple triphenylphosphine (L10), and primary anilines gave the best results using cataCXium® PCy (L8). The reactivity of the respective catalyst system is significantly enhanced by addition of small amounts of water. Mechanistic studies and control experiments revealed a tandem allylic alcohol amination/C-N bond carbonylation reaction sequence. PMID:27283958

  2. Enantioselective synthesis of dialkylated N-heterocycles by palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation.

    PubMed

    Numajiri, Yoshitaka; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Wang, Bo; Houk, K N; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-03-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of α-disubstituted N-heterocyclic carbonyl compounds has been accomplished using palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation. These catalytic conditions enable access to various heterocycles, such as morpholinone, thiomorpholinone, oxazolidin-4-one, 1,2-oxazepan-3-one, 1,3-oxazinan-4-one, and structurally related lactams, all bearing fully substituted α-positions. Broad functional group tolerance was explored at the α-position in the morpholinone series. We demonstrate the utility of this method by performing various transformations on our useful products to readily access a number of enantioenriched compounds. PMID:25714704

  3. Kinetic resolution of 2-substituted 2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones by palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation: catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of indolizidine (-)-209I.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bai-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Song; Yu, Wei-Hua; Ding, Qiu-Ping; Ding, Chang-Hua; Hou, Xue-Long

    2014-04-01

    The kinetic resolution of 2-substituted-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones was realized via a Pd-catalyzed allylic substitution reaction using a commercially available (S)-P-Phos as a ligand, affording optically active dihydropyridones and C-allylated dihydropyridones in high yields and good enantioselectivities with the S-factor up to 43. With this protocol, a catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of indolizidine (-)-209I was realized for the first time. PMID:24661080

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic C-H Bond Functionalization of Olefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guosheng; Wu, Yichen

    Transition metal-mediated carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage and functionalization is a mechanistically interesting and synthetically attractive process. One of the important cases is the removal of a allylic hydrogen from an olefin by a PdII salt to yield a π-allylpalladium complex, followed by nucleophilic attack to efficient produce allylic derivatives. In contrast to the well-known allylic acetoxylation of cyclohexene, the reaction of open-chain olefins is fairly poor until recent several years. Some palladium catalytic systems have been reported to achieve allylic C-H functionalization, including acetoxylation, amination and alkylation of terminal alkenes. In the most of cases, ligand is crucial to the success of the transformation. This review surveys the recent development of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H functionalziation of alkenes. These results promise a significant increase in the scope of olefin transformation.

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Dearomative Allylic Alkylation of Indoles with Alkynes To Synthesize Indolenines with C3-Quarternary Centers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Wu, Zijun; Fang, Xinxin; Lin, Aijun; Yao, Hequan

    2016-08-01

    A palladium-catalyzed dearomative allylic alkylation of indoles with alkynes to construct indolenines with C3-quarternary centers was reported. The in situ formed arylallene intermediate omitted the need to install leaving groups on the allylic compounds and employ extra oxidants to oxidize the allylic C-H bonds. The reaction exhibited good functional group tolerance and high atom economy. Moreover, the reaction was further expanded to synthesize pyrroloindolines and furanoindolines. PMID:27442021

  6. Expanding insight into asymmetric palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of N-heterocyclic molecules and cyclic ketones.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nathan B; Duquette, Douglas C; Kim, Jimin; Liu, Wen-Bo; Marziale, Alexander N; Behenna, Douglas C; Virgil, Scott C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2013-04-01

    Eeny, meeny, miny ... enaminones! Lactams and imides have been shown to consistently provide enantioselectivities substantially higher than other substrate classes previously investigated in the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric decarboxylative allylic alkylation. Several new substrates have been designed to probe the contributions of electronic, steric, and stereoelectronic factors that distinguish the lactam/imide series as superior alkylation substrates (see scheme). These studies culminated in marked improvements on carbocyclic allylic alkylation substrates. PMID:23447555

  7. Synthesis of 9-Fluorenylidenes and 9,10-Phenanthrenes through Palladium-Catalyzed Aryne Annulation by ortho-Halostyrenes and ortho-Halo Allylic Benzenes

    PubMed Central

    Worlikar, Shilpa A.; Larock, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    A number of functionally substituted 9-fluorenylidenes and 9,10-phenanthrenes have been synthesized from substituted ortho-halostyrenes and ortho-halo allylic benzenes respectively in good yields by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of arynes. The methodology tolerates a variety of functional groups, including cyano, ester, aldehyde and ketone groups, occurs under relatively mild reaction conditions, and involves the generation of two new carbon-carbon bonds, thus providing these important carbocyclic ring systems in a single synthetic step. PMID:19902957

  8. Synthesis of chiral biphenol-based diphosphonite ligands and their application in palladium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination reactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ce; Chien, Chih-Wei; Ojima, Iwao

    2011-02-01

    A library of new 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphinoyloxy)-1,1'-binaphthyl (binapo)-type chiral diphosphonite ligands was designed and synthesized based on chiral 3,3',5,5',6,6'-hexasubstituted biphenols. These bop ligands have exhibited excellent efficiency in a palladium-catalyzed intermolecular allylic amination reaction, which provides a key intermediate for the total synthesis of Strychnos indole alkaloids with enantiopurities of up to 96% ee. PMID:21254441

  9. Preparation of Allyl and Vinyl Silanes via the Palladium-Catalyzed Silylation of Terminal Olefins: A Silyl-Heck Reaction**

    PubMed Central

    McAtee, Jesse R.; Martin, Sara E. S.; Ahneman, Derek T.; Johnson, Keywan A.

    2012-01-01

    A high-yielding protocol for the palladium-catalyzed silylation of terminal alkenes using silyl halides is reported. This method allows facile conversion of styrenes to E-β-silyl styrenes using either TMSI or TMSCl/LiI. Terminal allyl silanes with good E:Z ratios are also readily accessed from α-olefins by this method. When combined with existing technology, this transformation provides a powerful strategy to selectively functionalize the vinyl or allylic position of terminal alkenes. PMID:22383447

  10. Palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of oximes with allylic alcohols: synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meifang; Chen, Pengquan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-01-01

    We describe herein a palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of O-acetyl ketoximes and allylic alcohols to synthesise pyridines. This protocol allows the robust synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones in good to excellent yields with tolerance of various functional groups under mild conditions. The reaction is supposed to go through an oxidative addition of oximes to palladium(0) complexes, generating an alkylideneamino-palladium(II) species, which is utilized as a key intermediate to capture the nonbiased alkenes for carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:26496814

  11. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Quaternary Mannich Adducts by Palladium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation: Total Synthesis of (+)-Sibirinine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A catalytic enantioselective method for the synthesis of α-quaternary Mannich-type products is reported. The two-step sequence of (1) Mannich reaction followed by (2) decarboxylative enantioselective allylic alkylation serves as a novel strategy to in effect access asymmetric Mannich-type products of “thermodynamic” enolates of substrates possessing additional enolizable positions and acidic protons. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylic alkylation enables the enantioselective synthesis of five-, six-, and seven-membered ketone, lactam, and other heterocyclic systems. The mild reaction conditions are notable given the acidic free N–H groups and high functional group tolerance in each of the substrates. The utility of this method is highlighted in the first total synthesis of (+)-sibirinine. PMID:25578104

  12. Chiral N-1-adamantyl-N-trans-cinnamylaniline type ligands: synthesis and application to palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of indoles.

    PubMed

    Mino, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kenji; Asano, Moeko; Shima, Yamato; Ebisawa, Toshibumi; Yoshida, Yasushi; Sakamoto, Masami

    2016-08-21

    Such chiral phosphine-internal olefin hybrid type ligands as N-1-adamantyl-N-cinnamylaniline derivatives 1 with C(aryl)-N(amine) bond axial chirality were synthesized and utilized for the palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of indoles to afford the desired products in high enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). PMID:27425209

  13. Direct conversion of allyl arenes to aryl ethylketones via a TBHP-mediated palladium-catalyzed tandem isomerization-Wacker oxidation of terminal alkenes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, JinWu; Liu, Li; Xiang, ShiJian; Liu, Qiang; Chen, HuoJi

    2015-05-28

    A TBHP-mediated palladium-catalyzed tandem isomerization-Wacker oxidation of terminal alkenes was developed. This methodology provides a new efficient and simple route for conversion of a range of allyl arenes directly into aryl ethylketones in good yields with high chemoselectivity. PMID:25884269

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Formal [3+2]-Cycloadditions of Substituted Vinylcyclopropanes

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Morris, Patrick J.; Sprague, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a palladium-catalyzed diastereo- and enantioselective formal [3+2]-cycloaddition between substituted vinyl-cyclopropanes and electron deficient olefins in the form of azlactone- and Meldrum’s acid alkylidenes to give highly-substituted cyclo-pentane products. By modulation of the electronic properties of the vinylcyclopropane and the electron-deficient olefin, high levels of stereoselectivity were obtained. The remote stereoinduction afforded by the catalyst, distal from the chiral pocket generated by the ligand, is proposed to be the result of a new mechanism invoking the Curtin-Hammett principle. PMID:23030714

  15. Palladium-catalyzed reactions in the synthesis of 3- and 4-substituted indoles. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, L.S.; Sestrick, M.R.; Michaelson, E.T.; Harrington, P.J. )

    1989-08-18

    4-Bromo-1-tosylindole (1) was converted to tricyclic indole enone 11, a potential intermediate in the synthesis of tetracyclic ergot alkaloids, by a series of palladium-catalyzed processes. Attempts to construct the ergot D ring by the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of enone 11 and 1-azabutadiene 12 produced not the expected (4 + 2) adduct 13 but the benz(cd)indoline derivative 14 resulting from attack of the aza diene at the indole 2-position. The thermodynamic stability of the naphthol nucleus makes enone 11 generally susceptible to attack at the indole 2-position, as evidenced by the attack of hydride and methyl cuprate nucleophiles at this portion forming indolines 16 and 17, respectively.

  16. Base-controlled selectivity in the synthesis of linear and angular fused quinazolinones by a palladium-catalyzed carbonylation/nucleophilic aromatic substitution sequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbin; Natte, Kishore; Spannenberg, Anke; Neumann, Helfried; Langer, Peter; Beller, Matthias; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-07-14

    A new approach for the facile synthesis of fused quinazolinone scaffolds through a palladium-catalyzed carbonylative coupling followed by an intramolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution is described. The base serves as the key modulator: Whereas DBU gives rise to the linear isomers, Et3N promotes the preferential formation of angular products. Interestingly, a light-induced 4+4 reaction of the product was also observed. PMID:24891190

  17. Regioselective palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1-substituted oxabicyclo[2,2,1]hepta-2,5-diene-2,3-dicarboxylates

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Michael; Raheem, Mohammed Abdul; Boutin, Rebecca; Tait, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Summary Palladium-catalyzed ring-opening reactions of C1 substituted 7-oxanorbornadiene derivatives with aryl iodides were investigated. The optimal conditions for this reaction were found to be PdCl2(PPh3)2, ZnCl2, Et3N and Zn in THF. Both steric and electronic factors played a role in the outcome of the reaction as increasing the steric bulk on the bridgehead carbon decreased the yield. These reactions were found to be highly regioselective, giving only one of the two possible regioisomers in all cases. A diverse collection of novel, highly substituted biphenyl derivatives were obtained. PMID:26977182

  18. Divergent reactivity in palladium-catalyzed annulation with diarylamines and α,β-unsaturated acids: direct access to substituted 2-quinolinones and indoles.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Rajesh; Naveen, Togati; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-06-01

    A palladium-catalyzed CH activation strategy has been successfully employed for exclusive synthesis of a variety of 3-substituted indoles. A [3+3] annulation for synthesizing substituted 2-quinolinones was recently developed by reaction of α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids with diarylamines under acidic conditions. In the present work, an analogous [3+2] annulation is achieved from the same set of starting materials under basic conditions to generate 1,3-disubstituted indoles exclusively. Mechanistic studies revealed an ortho-palladation-π-coordination-β-migratory insertion-β-hydride elimination reaction sequence to be operative under the reaction conditions. PMID:25941155

  19. Palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation/oxidative cross-coupling sequence of β-heteroatom-substituted ketones.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngtaek; Kwon, Daeil; Hong, Sungwoo

    2012-11-01

    Concise and selective: the title one-pot sequence allows formation of the enone functionality and subsequent cross-coupling. The process provides access to highly functionalized cyclic enolones and enaminones from readily accessible β-heteroatom-substituted cyclic ketones. PMID:23038616

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexenes to Substituted Arene Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Iosub, Andrei V.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-01-01

    A palladium(II) catalyst system has been identified for aerobic dehydrogenation of substituted cyclohexenes to the corresponding arene derivatives. Use of sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AMS) as a co-catalyst enhances the product yields. A wide range of functional groups are tolerated in the reactions, and the scope and limitations of the method are described. The catalytic dehydrogenation of cyclohexenes is showcased in an efficient route to a phthalimide-based TRPA1 activity modulator. PMID:25734414

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular C–H Difluoroalkyation: The Synthesis of Substituted 3,3-Difluoro-2-oxindoles**

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shi-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of 3,3-difluoro-2-oxindoles through a robust and efficient palladium-catalyzed C–H difluoroalkylation is described. This process generates a broad range of difluorooxindoles from readily prepared starting materials. The use of BrettPhos as the ligand was crucial for high efficiency. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that oxidative addition is the rate-determining step for this process. PMID:25476241

  2. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed C–N and C–O bond formation of N-substituted 4-bromo-7-azaindoles with amides, amines, amino acid esters and phenols

    PubMed Central

    Surasani, Rajendra; Rao, A V Dhanunjaya; Chandrasekhar, K B

    2012-01-01

    Summary Simple and efficient procedures for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of N-substituted 4-bromo-7-azaindole (1H-pyrrole[2,3-b]pyridine), with amides, amines, amino acid esters and phenols through C–N and C–O bond formation have been developed. The C–N cross-coupling reaction of amides, amines and amino acid esters takes place rapidly by using the combination of Xantphos, Cs2CO3, dioxane and palladium catalyst precursors Pd(OAc)2/Pd2(dba)3. The combination of Pd(OAc)2, Xantphos, K2CO3 and dioxane was found to be crucial for the C–O cross-coupling reaction. This is the first report on coupling of amides, amino acid esters and phenols with N-protected 4-bromo-7-azaindole derivatives. PMID:23209536

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Arylation of α,β-Unsaturated Imines: Catalyst-Controlled Synthesis of Enamine and Allylic Amine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Minyan; González-Esguevillas, María; Berritt, Simon; Yang, Xiaodong; Bellomo, Ana; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-02-18

    A unique chemo- and regioselective α- and γ-arylation of palladium azapentadienyl intermediates is presented. Two distinct catalysts and sets of conditions successfully controlled the regioselectivity of the arylation. These methods provide the first umpolung C-H functionalization of azapentadienyl palladium intermediates and enable the divergent synthesis of allylic amine and enamine derivatives, which are of significant interest in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26846375

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 9-Fluorenylidenes through Aryne Annulation

    PubMed Central

    Worlikar, Shilpa A.; Larock, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed annulation of arynes by substituted ortho-halostyrenes produces substituted 9- fluorenylidenes in good yields. This methodology provides this important carbocyclic ring system in a single step, which involves the generation of two new carbon-carbon bonds, occurs under relatively mild reaction conditions and tolerates a variety of functional groups, including cyano, ester, aldehyde and ketone groups. PMID:19413328

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Long-Range Deconjugative Isomerization of Highly Substituted α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds.

    PubMed

    Lin, Luqing; Romano, Ciro; Mazet, Clément

    2016-08-17

    The long-range deconjugative isomerization of a broad range of α,β-unsaturated amides, esters, and ketones by an in situ generated palladium hydride catalyst is described. This redox-economical process is triggered by a hydrometalation event and is thermodynamically driven by the refunctionalization of a primary or a secondary alcohol into an aldehyde or a ketone. Di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted carbon-carbon double bonds react with similar efficiency; the system is tolerant toward a variety of functional groups, and olefin migration can be sustained over 30 carbon atoms. The refunctionalized products are usually isolated in good to excellent yield. Mechanistic investigations are in support of a chain-walking process consisting of repeated migratory insertions and β-H eliminations. The bidirectionality of the isomerization reaction was established by isotopic labeling experiments using a substrate with a double bond isolated from both terminal functions. The palladium hydride was also found to be directly involved in the product-forming tautomerization step. The ambiphilic character of the in situ generated [Pd-H] was demonstrated using isomeric trisubstituted α,β-unsaturated esters. Finally, the high levels of enantioselectivity obtained in the isomerization of a small set of α-substituted α,β-unsaturated ketones augur well for the successful development of an enantioselective version of this unconventional isomerization. PMID:27434728

  7. The Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of Vinyl Sulfonates

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Jin; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of cyclohexenyl sulfonates has been developed. Various cyclohexenyl triflates and nonaflates underwent trifluoromethylation under mild reaction conditions using a catalyst system composed of Pd(dba)2 or [(allyl)PdCl]2 and the monodentate biaryl phosphine ligand tBuXPhos. The trifluoromethyl anion (CF3−) or its equivalent for the process was generated in situ from TMSCF3 in combination with KF or TESCF3 in combintion with RbF. PMID:22111687

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation of Fluoroalkylamines

    PubMed Central

    Brusoe, Andrew T.; Hartwig, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of fluorinated anilines by palladium-catalyzed coupling of fluoroalkylamines with aryl bromides and aryl chlorides. The products of these reactions are valuable because anilines typically require the presence of an electron-withdrawing substituent on nitrogen to suppress aerobic or metabolic oxidation, and the fluoroalkyl groups have steric properties and polarity distinct from those of more common electron-withdrawing amide and sulfonamide units. The fluoroalkylaniline products are unstable under typical conditions for C–N coupling reactions (heat and strong base). However, the reactions conducted with the weaker base KOPh, which has rarely been used in cross-coupling to form C–N bonds, occurred in high yield in the presence of a catalyst derived from commercially available AdBippyPhos and [Pd(allyl)Cl]2. Under these conditions, the reactions occur with low catalyst loadings (<0.50 mol % for most substrates) and tolerate the presence of various functional groups that react with the strong bases that are typically used in Pd-catalyzed C–N cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides. The resting state of the catalyst is the phenoxide complex, (BippyPhosPd(Ar)OPh); due to the electron-withdrawing property of the fluoroalkyl substituent, the turnover-limiting step of the reaction is reductive elimination to form the C–N bond. PMID:26065341

  9. A new color of the synthetic chameleon methoxyallene: synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol derivatives: an unusual reaction mechanism, a remarkable crystal packing, and first palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Oliver; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Brüdgam, Irene; Hartl, Hans; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2004-09-01

    Addition of lithiated methoxyallene to pivalonitrile afforded after aqueous workup the expected iminoallene 1 in excellent yield. Treatment of this intermediate with silver nitrate accomplished the desired cyclization to the electron-rich pyrrole derivative 2 in moderate yield. Surprisingly, trifluoroacetic acid converted iminoallene 1 to a mixture of enamide 3 and trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol 4 (together with its tautomer 5). A plausible mechanism proposed for this intriguing transformation involves addition of trifluoroacetate to the central allene carbon atom of an allenyl iminium intermediate as crucial step. Enamide 3 is converted to pyridinol 4 by an intramolecular aldol-type process. A practical direct synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinols 4, 10, 11, and 12 starting from typical nitriles and methoxyallene was established. Pyridinol 10 shows an interesting crystal packing with three molecules in the elementary cell and a remarkable helical supramolecular arrangement. Trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridinol 4 was converted to the corresponding pyridyl nonaflate 13, which is an excellent precursor for palladium-catalyzed reactions leading to pyridine derivatives 14-16 in good to excellent yields. The new synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridines disclosed here demonstrates a novel reactivity pattern of lithiated methoxyallene which is incorporated into the products as the unusual tripolar synthon B. PMID:15352110

  10. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of benzimidazoles and quinazolinones from common precursors.

    PubMed

    Sadig, Jessie E R; Foster, Radleigh; Wakenhut, Florian; Willis, Michael C

    2012-11-01

    N-(o-Halophenyl)imidoyl chlorides and the corresponding imidates are easily prepared and can be utilized as complementary precursors for the synthesis of important heterocycles. The synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazoles was possible from the palladium-catalyzed reaction of both classes of substrate with a variety of N-nucleophiles. The use of the imidate precursor for the synthesis of N-substituted quinazolinones by incorporation of a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation reaction has also been demonstrated. Both processes tolerate a wide range of functional groups. PMID:23030827

  11. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  12. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Douglas C [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Richland, WA; Hart,; Todd, R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  13. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Allylic Substitutions with a Hydride Nucleophile.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T N Thanh; Thiel, Niklas O; Pape, Felix; Teichert, Johannes F

    2016-05-20

    An easily accessible copper(I)/N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex enables a regioselective hydride transfer to allylic bromides, an allylic reduction. The resulting aryl- and alkyl-substituted branched α-olefins, which are valuable building blocks for synthesis, are obtained in good yields and regioselectivity. A commercially available silane, (TMSO)2Si(Me)H, is employed as hydride source. This protocol offers a unified alternative to the established metal-catalyzed allylic substitutions with carbon nucleophiles, as no adaption of the catalyst to the nature of the nucleophile is required. PMID:27151495

  14. New Palladium-Catalyzed Approaches to Heterocycles and Carbocycles

    SciTech Connect

    Qinhua Huang

    2004-12-19

    The tert-butylimines of o-(1-alkynyl)benzaldehydes and analogous pyridinecarbaldehydes have been cyclized under very mild reaction conditions in the presence of I{sub 2}, ICl, PhSeCl, PhSCl and p-O{sub 2}NC{sub 6}H{sub 4}SCl to give the corresponding halogen-, selenium- and sulfur-containing disubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines, respectively. Monosubstituted isoquinolines and naphthyridines have been synthesized by the metal-catalyzed ring closure of these same iminoalkynes. This methodology accommodates a variety of iminoalkynes and affords the anticipated heterocycles in moderate to excellent yields. The Pd(II)-catalyzed cyclization of 2-(1-alkynyl)arylaldimines in the presence of various alkenes provides an efficient way to synthesize a variety of 4-(1-alkenyl)-3-arylisoquinolines in moderate to excellent yields. The introduction of an ortho-methoxy group on the arylaldimine promotes the Pd-catalyzed cyclization and stabilizes the resulting Pd(II) intermediate, improving the yields of the isoquinoline products. Highly substituted naphthalenes have been synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed annulation of a variety of internal alkynes, in which two new carbon-carbon bonds are formed in a single step under relatively mild reaction conditions. This method has also been used to synthesize carbazoles, although a higher reaction temperature is necessary. The process involves arylpalladation of the alkyne, followed by intramolecular Heck olefination and double bond isomerization. This method accommodates a variety of functional groups and affords the anticipated highly substituted naphthalenes and carbazoles in good to excellent yields. Novel palladium migratiodarylation methodology for the synthesis of complex fused polycycles has been developed, in which one or more sequential Pd-catalyzed intramolecular migration processes involving C-H activation are employed. The chemistry works best with electron-rich aromatics, which is in agreement with the idea that

  15. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions have become a powerful tool for advanced organic synthesis. This type of reaction is of significant value for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, as well as advanced materials. Both, academic as well as industrial laboratories continuously investigate new applications of the different methodologies. Clearly, this area constitutes one of the major topics in homogeneous catalysis and organic synthesis. Among the different palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions, several carbonylations have been developed and widely used in organic syntheses and are even applied in the pharmaceutical industry on ton-scale. Furthermore, methodologies such as the carbonylative Suzuki and Sonogashira reactions allow for the preparation of interesting building blocks, which can be easily refined further on. Although carbonylative coupling reactions of aryl halides have been well established, palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation reactions are also interesting. Compared with the reactions of aryl halides, oxidative carbonylation reactions offer an interesting pathway. The oxidative addition step could be potentially avoided in oxidative reactions, but only few reviews exist in this area. In this Minireview, we summarize the recent development in the oxidative carbonylation reactions. PMID:23307763

  16. Nickel-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation with Diarylmethane Pronucleophiles: Reaction Development and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Sha, Sheng-Chun; Jiang, Hui; Mao, Jianyou; Bellomo, Ana; Jeong, Soo A; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-01-18

    Palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions are among the most efficient methods to construct C-C bonds between sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms. In contrast, much less work has been done with nickel catalysts, perhaps because of the different mechanisms of the allylic substitution reactions. Palladium catalysts generally undergo substitution by a "soft"-nucleophile pathway, wherein the nucleophile attacks the allyl group externally. Nickel catalysts are usually paired with "hard" nucleophiles, which attack the metal before C-C bond formation. Introduced herein is a rare nickel-based catalyst which promotes substitution with diarylmethane pronucleophiles by the soft-nucleophile pathway. Preliminary studies on the asymmetric allylic alkylation are promising. PMID:26756444

  17. Formation of C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) Bonds by Palladium Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of α-Diazoketones and Allylboronic Acids.

    PubMed

    Belhomme, Marie-Charlotte; Wang, Dong; Szabó, Kálmán J

    2016-05-20

    Palladium catalyzed cross-coupling of allylboronic acids with α-diazoketones was studied. The reaction selectively affords the linear allylic product. The reaction proceeds with formation of a new C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond. The reaction was performed without an external oxidant, likely without the Pd-catalyst undergoing redox reactions. PMID:27166509

  18. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of benzoxazinones from N-(o-bromoaryl)amides using paraformaldehyde as the carbonyl source.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanfang; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Carbonylation reactions have been widely used in organic synthesis. However, the manipulation of toxic and pressurized carbon monoxide limited their applications in organic laboratories. The search for alternative carbonyl sources as an important method for carbonylative organic synthesis is spreading. Herein, a series of substituted benzoxazinones were synthesized from N-(o-bromoaryl)amides by palladium-catalyzed carbonylation with paraformaldehyde as the carbonyl source, which is inexpensive, stable, and easy to use. Notably, this is the first example of using paraformaldehyde as the CO source in palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of heterocycles. PMID:25280209

  19. Mechanistically Driven Development of Iridium Catalysts for Asymmetric Allylic Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, John F.; Stanley, Levi M.

    2010-01-01

    Conspectus Enantioselective allylic substitution reactions comprise some of the most versatile methods for preparing enantiomerically enriched materials. These reactions form products that contain multiple functionalities by creating carbon–nitrogen, carbon–oxygen, carbon–carbon, and carbon–sulfur bonds. For many years, the development of catalysts for allylic substitution focused on palladium complexes. However, studies of complexes of other metals have revealed selectivities that often complement those of palladium systems. Most striking is the observation that reactions with unsymmetrical allylic electrophiles that typically occur with palladium catalysts at the less hindered site of an allylic electrophile occur at the more hindered site with catalysts based on other metals. In this Account, we describe an iridium precursor and a phosphoramidite ligand that catalyze reactions with a particularly broad scope of nucleophiles. The active form of this iridium catalyst is not generated by the simple binding of the phosphoramidite ligand to the metal precursor. Instead, the initial phosphoramidite and iridium precursor react in the presence of base to form a metallacyclic species that is the active catalyst. This species is generated either in situ or separately in isolated form by reactions with added base. The identification of the structure of the active catalyst led to the development of simplified catalysts as well as the most active form of the catalyst now available, which is stabilized by a loosely bound ethylene. Most recently, this structure was used to prepare intermediates containing allyl ligands, the structures of which provide a model for the enantioselectivities discussed here. Initial studies from our laboratory on the scope of iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution showed that reactions of primary and secondary amines, including alkylamines, benzylamines, and allylamines, and reactions of phenoxides and alkoxides occurred in high yields

  20. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ian P.; Kwon, Ohyun

    2008-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether using 0.1% palladium(0) catalyst and 1.0 equiv of tributyltin hydride. The product obtained is a mixture of regioisomers that can be carried forward with exclusive reaction of the β-isomer. This method is highly reproducible; relative to previously reported procedures, it is more economical and involves a more facile purification procedure. PMID:20011027

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Carbocyclization-Borylation of Enallenes to Cyclobutenes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Youai; Yang, Bin; Zhu, Can; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2016-05-23

    A highly efficient palladium-catalyzed oxidative borylation of enallenes was developed for the selective formation of cyclobutene derivatives and fully-substituted alkenylboron compounds. Cyclobutenes are formed as the exclusive products in MeOH in the presence of H2 O and Et3 N, whereas the use of AcOH leads to alkenylboron compounds. Both reactions showed a broad substrate scope and good tolerance for various functional groups, including carboxylic acid ester, free hydroxy, imide, and alkyl groups. Furthermore, transformations of the borylated products were conducted to show their potential applications. PMID:27088425

  2. Synthesis of C-15 Vindoline Analogues by Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Peter D.; Sohn, Jeong-Hun

    2008-01-01

    Described are general protocols for the rapid construction of various C-15-substituted analogs of vindoline using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The required bromo- and iodovindolines were prepared in high yield by the reaction of vindoline with N-bromosuccinimide or N-iodosuccinimide, respectively. The study not only led to the synthesis a number of structurally novel vindoline analogues but also opens the door to new strategies for the synthesis of vinblastine, vincristine, and related anticancer agents. Also described is the conversion of ent-tabersonine to ent-vindoline. PMID:16995709

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Trifluoromethylation of (Hetero)Arenes with CF3 Br.

    PubMed

    Natte, Kishore; Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; He, Lin; Rabeah, Jabor; Chen, Jianbin; Taeschler, Christoph; Ellinger, Stefan; Zaragoza, Florencio; Neumann, Helfried; Brückner, Angelika; Beller, Matthias

    2016-02-18

    The CF3 group is an omnipresent motif found in many pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, catalysts, materials, and industrial chemicals. Despite well-established trifluoromethylation methodologies, the straightforward and selective introduction of such groups into (hetero)arenes using available and less expensive sources is still a major challenge. In this regard, the selective synthesis of various trifluoromethyl-substituted (hetero)arenes by palladium-catalyzed C-H functionalization is herein reported. This novel methodology proceeds under comparably mild reaction conditions with good regio- and chemoselectivity. As examples, trifluoromethylations of biologically important molecules, such as melatonin, theophylline, caffeine, and pentoxifylline, are showcased. PMID:26804330

  4. Heterocycle Formation via Palladium-Catalyzed C–H Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tian-Sheng; Kou, Lei; Ma, Sandy; Engle, Keary M.; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Heterocyclic compounds are ubiquitous in natural products, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Therefore, the design of novel protocols to construct heterocycles more efficiently is a major area of focus in the organic chemistry. In the past several years, cyclization reactions based upon palladium-catalyzed C–H activation have received substantial attention due to their capacity for expediting heterocycle synthesis. This review discusses strategies for heterocycle synthesis via palladium-catalyzed C–H bond activation and highlights recent examples from the literature. PMID:27397938

  5. A palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbonylative annulation reaction for the synthesis of 4,5-fused tricyclic 2-quinolones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiwu; Liu, Haichao; Jia, Yanxing

    2016-06-01

    A concise and efficient synthetic route to 4,5-fused tricyclic 2-quinolones through the palladium-catalyzed carbonylative annulation of alkyne-tethered N-substituted o-iodoanilines has been developed. This reaction proceeds smoothly under mild reaction conditions and exhibits exceptional tolerance to a variety of functional groups. It has been successfully applied to the efficient synthesis of BI 224436, an HIV integrase inhibitor. PMID:27225232

  6. Short Synthesis of Sulfur Analogues of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons through Three Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Bond Arylations.

    PubMed

    Hagui, Wided; Besbes, Néji; Srasra, Ezzeddine; Roisnel, Thierry; Soulé, Jean-François; Doucet, Henri

    2016-09-01

    An expeditious synthesis of a wide range of phenanthro[9,10-b]thiophene derivatives, which are a class of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) containing a sulfur atom, is reported. The synthetic scheme involves only two operations from commercially available thiophenes, 2-bromobenzenesulfonyl chlorides and aryl bromides. In the first step, palladium-catalyzed desulfitative arylation using 2-bromobenzenesulfonyl chlorides allows the synthesis of thiophene derivatives, which are substituted at the C4 position by an aryl group containing an ortho-bromo substituent. Then, a palladium-catalyzed one-pot cascade intermolecular C5-arylation of thiophene using aryl bromides followed by intramolecular arylation led to the corresponding phenanthro[9,10-b]thiophenes in a single operation. In addition, PAHs containing two or three sulfur atoms, as well as both sulfur and nitrogen atoms, were also designed by this strategy. PMID:27550151

  7. Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Allylic Alcohols by Catalytic Asymmetric Substitution of the OH Group with Monosubstituted Hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liang; Xu, Jing-Kun; Huang, Chao-Fan; He, Zeng-Yang; Xu, Ya-Nan; Tian, Shi-Kai

    2016-09-01

    A new strategy has been established for the kinetic resolution of racemic allylic alcohols through a palladium/sulfonyl-hydrazide-catalyzed asymmetric OH-substitution under mild conditions. In the presence of 1 mol % [Pd(allyl)Cl]2 , 4 mol % (S)-SegPhos, and 10 mol % 2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonyl hydrazide, a range of racemic allylic alcohols were smoothly resolved with selectivity factors of more than 400 through an asymmetric allylic alkylation of monosubstituted hydrazines under air at room temperature. Importantly, this kinetic resolution process provided various allylic alcohols and allylic hydrazine derivatives with high enantiopurity. PMID:27339655

  8. Enantioselective Functionalization of Allylic C-H Bonds Following a Strategy of Functionalization and Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ankit; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We report the enantioselective functionalization of allylic C-H bonds in terminal alkenes by a strategy involving the installation of a temporary functional group at the terminal carbon atom by C-H bond functionalization, followed by diversification of this intermediate with a broad scope of reagents. The method consists of a one-pot sequence of palladium-catalyzed allylic C-H bond oxidation under neutral conditions to form linear allyl benzoates, followed by iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution. This overall transformation forms a variety of chiral products containing a new C-N, C-O, C-S or C-C bond at the allylic position in good yield with high branched-to-linear selectivity and excellent enantioselectivity (ee ≤ 97%). The broad scope of the overall process results from separating the oxidation and functionalization steps; by doing so, the scope of nucleophile encompasses those sensitive to direct oxidative functionalization. The high enantioselectivity of the overall process is achieved by developing an allylic oxidation that occurs without acid to form the linear isomer with high selectivity. These allylic functionalization processes are amenable to an iterative sequence leading to (1,n)-functionalized products with catalyst-controlled diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The utility of the method in the synthesis of biologically active molecules has been demonstrated. PMID:24156776

  9. Biaryl Phosphine Ligands in Palladium-Catalyzed Amination

    PubMed Central

    Surry, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed amination of aryl halides has undergone rapid development in the last 12 years. This has been largely driven by implementation of new classes of ligands. Biaryl phosphines have proven to provide especially active catalysts in this context. This review discusses the applications that these catalysts have found in C-N cross-coupling in heterocycle synthesis, pharmaceuticals, materials science and natural product synthesis. PMID:18663711

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of N-Aryl Carbamates

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Park, Nathaniel H.; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of aryl carbamates was achieved by introducing alcohols into the reaction of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of ArX (X = Cl, OTf) with sodium cyanate. The use of aryl triflates as electrophilic components in this transformation allowed for an expanded substrate scope for direct synthesis of aryl isocyanates. This methodology provides direct access to major carbamate protecting groups, S-thiocarbamates, and diisocyanate precursors to polyurethane materials. PMID:23441814

  11. Polymerization of tellurophene derivatives via microwave-assisted palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylative polymerization**

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young S.; Wu, Qin; Nam, Chang-Yong; Grubbs, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a tellurophene-containing low bandgap polymer, PDPPTe2T, via microwave-assisted palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylative polymerization of 2,5-bis[(α-hydroxy-α,α-diphenyl)methyl]tellurophene with a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) monomer. Compared with the corresponding thiophene analog, PDPPTe2T absorbs light of longer wavelengths and has a smaller bandgap. Bulk heterojunction solar cells prepared from PDPPTe2T and PC71BM show PCE values of up to 4.4%. External quantum efficiency measurements show that PDPPTe2T produces photocurrent at wavelengths up to 1 μm. DFT calculations suggest that the atomic substitution from sulfur to tellurium increases electronic coupling to decrease the length of the carbon-carbon bonds between the tellurophene and thiophene rings, which results in the red-shift in absorption upon substitution of tellurium for sulfur. PMID:25145499

  12. Diverse methyl sulfone-containing benzo[b]thiophene library via iodocyclization and palladium-catalyzed coupling.

    PubMed

    Cho, Chul-Hee; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Larock, Richard C

    2010-03-01

    Parallel solution-phase methods for the synthesis of a 72-membered benzo[b]thiophene library are reported. Medicinally interesting, drug-like, methyl sulfone-substituted benzo[b]thiophenes have been prepared by the palladium-catalyzed substitution of 3-iodobenzo[b]thiophenes by Suzuki-Miyaura, Sonogashira, Heck, carboalkoxylation, and aminocarbonylation chemistry. The key intermediates for library generation, methyl sulfone-containing 3-iodobenzo[b]thiophenes, are readily prepared by iodocyclization and oxidation methodologies from readily available alkynes. PMID:20055500

  13. Palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed iodination of remote ortho-C-H bonds of arenes: Synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Nack, William A; Wang, Xinmou; Wang, Bo; He, Gang; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-01

    A new palladium-catalyzed picolinamide (PA)-directed ortho-iodination reaction of ε-C(sp(2))-H bonds of γ-arylpropylamine substrates is reported. This reaction proceeds selectively with a variety of γ-arylpropylamines bearing strongly electron-donating or withdrawing substituents, complementing our previously reported PA-directed electrophilic aromatic substitution approach to this transformation. As demonstrated herein, a three step sequence of Pd-catalyzed γ-C(sp(3))-H arylation, Pd-catalyzed ε-C(sp(2))-H iodination, and Cu-catalyzed C-N cyclization enables a streamlined synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines bearing diverse substitution patterns. PMID:27559375

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Trimethylenemethane Cycloaddition of Olefins Activated by the σ-Electron-Withdrawing Trifluoromethyl Group.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Debien, Laurent

    2015-09-16

    α-Trifluoromethyl-styrenes, trifluoromethyl-enynes, and dienes undergo palladium-catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloadditions under mild reaction conditions. The trifluoromethyl group serves as a unique σ-electron-withdrawing group for the activation of the olefin toward the cycloaddition. This method allows for the formation of exomethylene cyclopentanes bearing a quaternary center substituted by the trifluoromethyl group, compounds of interest for the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and materials industries. In the diene series, the cycloaddition operates in a [3 + 4] and/or [3 + 2] manner to give rise to seven- and/or five-membered rings. This transformation greatly improves the scope of the TMM cycloaddition technology and provides invaluable insights into the reaction mechanism. PMID:26291872

  15. α-Sulfonyl succinimides: versatile sulfinate donors in Fe-catalyzed, salt-free, neutral allylic substitution.

    PubMed

    Jegelka, Markus; Plietker, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    Allyl sulfones are versatile intermediates in organic chemistry. The presence of two distinct functional groups sets the stage for a plethora of subsequent transformations. However, despite these advantages the preparation of regioisomerically enriched sulfones is not easy. The use of sulfinate salts as nucleophiles in substitutions is frequently accompanied by side reactions such as π-bond migration, β-elimination, and so on. Herein we present a preparatively simple way to synthesize a variety of different aryl or alkyl allyl sulfones starting from readily accessible allylic carbonates. By employing aryl or alkyl α-sulfonyl succinimides as sulfinate synthons, mild and regioselective ipso substitution of diverse allylic carbonates was realized. PMID:21818793

  16. Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions of tetrafluoroethylene with arylzinc compounds.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Masato; Kambara, Tadashi; Hatanaka, Tsubasa; Saijo, Hiroki; Doi, Ryohei; Ogoshi, Sensuke

    2011-03-16

    Organofluorine compounds are widely used in all aspects of the chemical industry. Although tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) is an example of an economical bulk organofluorine feedstock, the use of TFE is mostly limited to the production of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) and copolymers with other alkenes. Furthermore, no catalytic transformation of TFE that involves carbon-fluorine bond activation has been reported to date. We herein report the first example of a palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction of TFE with arylzinc reagents in the presence of lithium iodide, giving α,β,β-trifluorostyrene derivatives in excellent yields. PMID:21322557

  17. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    SciTech Connect

    Roman Vladimirovich Rozhkov

    2004-12-19

    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a {beta}-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in {beta}-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the {alpha}-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Dehydration for the Synthesis of α-Vinyl Carbonyl Compounds and Total Synthesis of (-)-Aspewentins A, B, and C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiyang; Virgil, Scott C; Grubbs, Robert H; Stoltz, Brian M

    2015-09-28

    The direct α-vinylation of carbonyl compounds to form a quaternary stereocenter is a challenging transformation. It was discovered that δ-oxocarboxylic acids can serve as masked vinyl compounds and be unveiled by palladium-catalyzed decarbonylative dehydration. The carboxylic acids are readily available through enantioselective acrylate addition or asymmetric allylic alkylation. A variety of α-vinyl quaternary carbonyl compounds are obtained in good yields, and an application in the first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-aspewentins A, B, and C is demonstrated. PMID:26230413

  19. Synthesis of substituted quinolines via allylic amination and intramolecular Heck-coupling.

    PubMed

    Murru, Siva; McGough, Brandon; Srivastava, Radhey S

    2014-12-01

    A new catalytic approach for the synthesis of substituted quinolines via C-N and C-C bond formation using 2-haloaryl hydroxylamines and allylic C-H substrates is described. Fe-catalyzed allylic C-H amination followed by Pd-catalyzed intramolecular Heck-coupling and aerobic dehydrogenation deliver the valuable quinoline and naphthyridine heterocycles in good to excellent overall yields. In this process, Pd(OAc)2 plays a dual role in catalyzing Heck coupling as well as aerobic dehydrogenation of dihydroquinolines. PMID:25247637

  20. Iridium-Catalyzed Diastereoselective and Enantioselective Allylic Substitutions with Acyclic α-Alkoxy Ketones.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingyu; Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F

    2016-05-01

    The asymmetric alkylation of acyclic ketones is a longstanding challenge in organic synthesis. Reported herein are diastereoselective and enantioselective allylic substitutions with acyclic α-alkoxy ketones catalyzed by a metallacyclic iridium complex to form products with contiguous stereogenic centers derived from the nucleophile and electrophile. These reactions occur between allyl methyl carbonates and unstabilized copper(I) enolates generated in situ from acyclic α-alkoxy ketones. The resulting products can be readily converted into enantioenriched tertiary alcohols and tetrahydrofuran derivatives without erosion of enantiomeric purity. PMID:27038004

  1. Synthesis of 9,10-Phenanthrenes via Palladium-Catalyzed Aryne Annulation by o-Halostyrenes and Formal Synthesis of (±)-Tylophorine.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tuanli; Zhang, Haiming; Zhao, Yanna

    2016-06-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed annulation reaction of in situ generated arynes and o-halostyrenes has been developed. This methodology affords moderate to excellent yields of substituted phenanthrenes and is tolerant of a variety of functional groups such as nitrile, ester, amide, and ketone. This annulation chemistry has been successfully applied to the formal total synthesis of a biologically active alkaloid (±)-tylophorine. PMID:27188401

  2. Synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates from allenols through cascade carbonylations.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2015-11-21

    Novel synthesis of diversely substituted 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates via palladium-catalyzed one-pot multi-component reactions of allenols, aryl iodides, alcohols, and carbon monoxide has been developed. Notably, the formation of the title compounds features a cascade process combining carbonylation of aryl iodide, alcohoxyl carbonylation of the in situ formed allyl palladium complex, and intramolecular condensation of the α-hydroxyl enone intermediate. Moreover, the 2-(furan-3-yl)acetates obtained herein were found to be ready intermediates for the construction of the biologically significant naphtho[1,2-b]furan-5-ol scaffold. PMID:26399394

  3. PALLADIUM-CATALYZED OXIDATION OF STYRENE AND ALKENES IN PRESENCE OF IONIC LIQUIDS (WACKER REACTION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of ionic liquids in various synthetic transformations is gaining significance due to the enhanced reaction rates, potential for recycling and compatibility with various organic compounds and organometallic catalysts. Palladium-catalyzed oxidation of styrene and other alk...

  4. Synthesis of 2-Cyclopentenone Derivatives via Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Carbonyl α-Alkenylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Panpan; Meng, Yinggao; Wang, Han; Han, Feipeng; Wang, Yulong; Song, Chuanjun; Chang, Junbiao

    2016-08-01

    2-Cyclopentenone derivatives have been efficiently synthesized from 5-bromo-5-hexen-2-ones via palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbonyl α-alkenylation followed by double-bond migration under mild reaction conditions. PMID:27463262

  5. Palladium-catalyzed direct α-arylation of methyl sulfones with aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bing; Jia, Tiezheng; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-04-01

    A direct and efficient approach for palladium-catalyzed arylation of aryl and alkyl methyl sulfones with aryl bromides has been developed. The catalytic system affords arylated sulfones in good to excellent yields (73-90%). PMID:23517309

  6. Synthesis of Aryl Sulfonamides via Palladium-Catalyzed Chlorosulfonylation of Arylboronic Acids

    PubMed Central

    DeBergh, J. Robb; Niljianskul, Nootaree; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed method for the preparation of sulfonamides is described. The process exhibits significant functional group tolerance and allows for the preparation of a number of arylsulfonyl chlorides and sulfonamides under mild conditions. PMID:23837740

  7. Palladium-catalyzed one-pot synthesis of quinazolinones via tert-butyl isocyanide insertion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao; Tang, Ting; Wang, Jin-Mei; Chen, Zhong; Zhu, Yong-Ming; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2014-06-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed three-component reaction for the synthesis of quinazolin-4(3H)-ones from readily available 2-aminobenzamides and aryl halides via a palladium-catalyzed isocyanide insertion/cyclization sequence has been developed. This methodology efficiently constructs quinazolin-4(3H)-ones in moderate to excellent yields with the advantages of operational simplicity. PMID:24810598

  8. Palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed iodination of remote ortho-C−H bonds of arenes: Synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines

    PubMed Central

    Nack, William A; Wang, Xinmou; Wang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Summary A new palladium-catalyzed picolinamide (PA)-directed ortho-iodination reaction of ε-C(sp2)−H bonds of γ-arylpropylamine substrates is reported. This reaction proceeds selectively with a variety of γ-arylpropylamines bearing strongly electron-donating or withdrawing substituents, complementing our previously reported PA-directed electrophilic aromatic substitution approach to this transformation. As demonstrated herein, a three step sequence of Pd-catalyzed γ-C(sp3)−H arylation, Pd-catalyzed ε-C(sp2)−H iodination, and Cu-catalyzed C−N cyclization enables a streamlined synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines bearing diverse substitution patterns. PMID:27559375

  9. Highly regio- and enantioselective synthesis of N-substituted 2-pyridones: iridium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Ze-Peng; Huang, Lin; You, Shu-Li

    2015-02-01

    The first iridium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination reaction with 2-hydroxypyridines has been developed, thus providing a highly efficient synthesis of enantioenriched N-substituted 2-pyridone derivatives from readily available starting materials. This protocol features a good tolerance of functional groups in both the allylic carbonates and 2-hydroxypyridines, thereby delivering multifunctionalized heterocyclic products with up to 98% yield and 99% ee. PMID:25504907

  10. Sulfonyl Azides as Precursors in Ligand-Free Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sulfonyl Carbamates and Sulfonyl Ureas and Synthesis of Sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Chow, Shiao Y; Stevens, Marc Y; Odell, Luke R

    2016-04-01

    An efficient synthesis of sulfonyl carbamates and sulfonyl ureas from sulfonyl azides employing a palladium-catalyzed carbonylation protocol has been developed. Using a two-chamber system, sulfonyl azides, PdCl2, and CO gas, released ex situ from Mo(CO)6, were assembled to generate sulfonyl isocyanates in situ, and alcohols and aryl amines were exploited as nucleophiles to afford a broad range of sulfonyl carbamates and sulfonyl ureas. A protocol for the direct formation of substituted sulfonamides from sulfonyl azides and amines via nucleophilic substitution was also developed. PMID:26967791

  11. Cross-Coupling of Aromatic Bromides with Allylic Silanolate Salts

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E; Werner, Nathan S.

    2009-01-01

    The sodium salts of allyldimethylsilanol and 2-butenyldimethylsilanol undergo palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling with a wide variety of aryl bromides to afford allylated and crotylated arenes. The coupling of both silanolates required extensive optimization to deliver the expected products in high yields. The reaction of the allyldimethylsilanolate takes place at 85 °C in DME with allylpalladium chloride dimer (2.5 mol %) to afford 7–95% yields of the allylation products. Both electron-rich and sterically-hindered bromides reacted smoothly, whereas electron-poor bromides cross-coupled in poor yield because of a secondary isomerization to the 1-propenyl isomer (and subsequent polymerization). The 2-butenyldimethylsilanolate (E/Z, 80:20) required additional optimization to maximize the formation of the branched (γ-substitution product). A remarkable influence of added alkenes (dibenzylideneacetone and norbornadiene) led to good selectivities for electron-rich and electron-poor bromides in 4–83% yields. However, bromides containing coordinating groups (particularly in the ortho position) gave lower, and in one case even reversed, selectivity. Configurationally homogeneous E-silanolates gave slightly higher γ-selectivity than the pure Z-silanolates. A unified mechanistic picture involving initial γ-transmetalation followed by direct reductive elimination or σ–π isomerization can rationalize all of the observed trends. PMID:18998687

  12. Regioselective and Stepwise Syntheses of Functionalized BODIPY Dyes through Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling Reactions and Direct C-H Arylations.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zeya; Jiao, Lijuan; Feng, Yuanmei; Yu, Changjiang; Chen, Na; Wei, Yun; Mu, Xiaolong; Hao, Erhong

    2016-08-01

    Regioselective and stepwise syntheses of a series of functionalized BODIPY dyes through palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and direct C-H arylations have been developed. In particular, this method allows the straightforward synthesis of 2,6-dibromo-3,5-diarylBODIPYs and 2-bromo-3-arylBODIPYs from polybrominated BODIPYs. The X-ray structure of intermediates 5a-c indicated that the palladium was first inserted into the C-Br bonds at 3,5-positions of brominated BODIPYs. The resulting 2,6-dibromo-substituted BODIPYs are potential long wavelength photosensitizers which are not easily accessible using previous methods. PMID:27362954

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Dynamic Kinetic Asymmetric Transformations of Vinyl Aziridines with Nitrogen Heterocycles: Rapid Access to Biologically Active Pyrroles and Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Osipov, Maksim; Dong, Guangbin

    2010-01-01

    We report that nitrogen heterocycles can serve as competent nucleophiles in the palladium-catalyzed dynamic kinetic asymmetric alkylation of vinyl aziridines. The resulting alkylated products were obtained with high regio-, chemo-, and enantioselectivity. Both substituted 1H-pyrroles and 1H-indoles were successfully employed to give exclusively the branched N-alkylated products. The synthetic utility of this process was demonstrated by applying this method to the preparation of several medicinal chemistry lead compounds and bromopyrrole alkaloids including longamide B, longamide B methyl ester, hanishin, agesamides A and B, and cyclooroidin. PMID:20949972

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Carbene Insertion into C(sp(3) )-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Solé, Daniel; Mariani, Francesco; Bennasar, M-Lluïsa; Fernández, Israel

    2016-05-23

    A palladium-catalyzed carbene insertion into C(sp(3) )-H bonds leading to pyrrolidines was developed. The coupling reaction can be catalyzed by both Pd(0) and Pd(II) , is regioselective, and shows a broad functional group tolerance. This reaction is the first example of palladium-catalyzed C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) bond assembly starting from diazocarbonyl compounds. DFT calculations revealed that this direct C(sp(3) )-H bond functionalization reaction involves an unprecedented concerted metalation-deprotonation step. PMID:27079473

  15. A Convenient Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Carbonylation of Aryl Iodides with Dual Role of Formic Acid.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xinxin; Li, Chong-Liang; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-04-18

    Palladium-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of aryl halides represents a straightforward pathway for the synthesis of aromatic aldehydes. The known reductive carbonylation procedures either require CO gas or complexed compounds as CO sources. In this communication, we developed a palladium-catalyzed reductive carbonylation of aryl iodides with formic acid as the formyl source. As a convenient, practical, and environmental friendly methodology, no additional silane or H2 was required. A variety of aromatic aldehydes were isolated in moderate to excellent yields under mild reaction conditions. Notably, this is the first procedure on using formic acid as the formyl source. PMID:26934464

  16. Imparting Catalyst-Control upon Classical Palladium-Catalyzed Alkenyl C–H Bond Functionalization Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Sigman, Matthew S.; Werner, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus The functional group transformations carried out by the palladium-catalyzed Wacker and Heck reactions are radically different, but they are both alkenyl C-H bond functionalization reactions that have found extensive use in organic synthesis. The synthetic community depends heavily on these important reactions, but selectivity issues arising from control by the substrate, rather than control by the catalyst, have prevented the realization of their full potential. Because of important similarities in the respective selectivity-determining nucleopalladation and β-hydride elimination steps of these processes, we posit that the mechanistic insight garnered through the development of one of these catalytic reactions may be applied to the other. In this Account, we detail our efforts to develop catalyst-controlled variants of both the Wacker oxidation and the Heck reaction to address synthetic limitations and provide mechanistic insight into the underlying organometallic processes of these reactions. In contrast to previous reports, we discovered that electrophilic palladium catalysts with non-coordinating counterions allowed for the use of a Lewis basic ligand to efficiently promote TBHP-mediated Wacker oxidation reactions of styrenes. This discovery led to the mechanistically guided development of a Wacker reaction catalyzed by a palladium complex with a bidentate ligand. This ligation may prohibit coordination of allylic heteroatoms, thereby allowing for the application of the Wacker oxidation to substrates that were poorly behaved under classical conditions. Likewise, we unexpectedly discovered that electrophilic Pd-σ-alkyl intermediates are capable of distinguishing between electronically inequivalent C–H bonds during β-hydride elimination. As a result, we have developed E-styrenyl selective oxidative Heck reactions of previously unsuccessful electronically non-biased alkene substrates using arylboronic acid derivatives. The mechanistic insight gained

  17. The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by Bromine at Low Concentrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for bromination at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular bromine with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)

  18. Synthesis of Nitriles via Palladium-Catalyzed Water Shuffling from Amides to Acetonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wandi; Haskins, Christopher W.; Yang, Yang; Dai, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of nitriles from amides has been described. Two similar, but complementary reaction conditions have been identified to convert various amides including α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated amides, cinnamides, aromatic amides and alkyl amides to the corresponding nitriles in good to excellent yield. PMID:25316145

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Construction of Amidines from Arylboronic Acids under Oxidative Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Li, Yahui; Wang, Zechao; Orru, Romano V A; Maes, Bert U W; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-06-01

    A valuable palladium-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction for the synthesis of amidines has been developed. Using arylboronic acids, isocyanides, and anilines as the reactants under oxidative conditions, various amidines were isolated in good yields with good functional group tolerances. PMID:27061735

  20. A Palladium-Catalyzed Vinylcyclopropane (3 + 2) Cycloaddition Approach to the Melodinus Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Alexander F. G.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2011-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed (3 + 2) cycloaddition of a vinylcyclopropane and a β-nitrostyrene are employed to rapidly assemble the cyclopentane core of the Melodinus alkaloids. The ABCD ring system of the natural product family is prepared in six steps from commercially available materials. PMID:21786746

  1. Chemoselective and Sequential Palladium-Catalyzed Couplings for the Generation of Stilbene Libraries via Immobilized Substrates.

    PubMed

    Traficante, Carla I; Fagundez, Catherine; Serra, Gloria L; Mata, Ernesto G; Delpiccolo, Carina M L

    2016-05-01

    A versatile palladium-catalyzed tandem synthetic sequence to afford E-stilbenes libraries has been developed. Excellent regio- and stereocontrol have been achieved by means of the sequence of Hiyama and Heck cross-couplings. Undesirable homocoupling byproducts were avoided employing immobilized substrates. PMID:27073985

  2. One-Pot Synthesis of Arylketones from Aromatic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki Coupling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongxiang; Xu, Baiping; Li, Yue; Hong, Fengying; Zhu, Dezhao; Jian, Junsheng; Pu, Xiaoer; Zeng, Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    A palladium-catalyzed one-pot procedure for the synthesis of aryl ketones has been developed. Triazine esters when coupled with aryl boronic acids provided aryl ketones in moderate to excellent yields (up to 95%) in the presence of 1 mol % Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 for 30 min. PMID:26949103

  3. Enantioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative β,β-Fluoroarylation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Miró, Javier; Del Pozo, Carlos; Toste, F Dean; Fustero, Santos

    2016-07-25

    The site-selective palladium-catalyzed three-component coupling of deactivated alkenes, arylboronic acids, and N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide is disclosed herein. The developed methodology establishes a general, modular, and step-economical approach to the stereoselective β-fluorination of α,β-unsaturated systems. PMID:27272390

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Selective α-Alkenylation of Pyridylmethyl Ethers with Vinyl Bromides.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodong; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Li, Minyan; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-05-20

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed α-alkenylation of pyridylmethyl ethers with vinyl bromides is presented. A Pd/NIXANTPHOS-based catalyst system enables a mild and chemoselective coupling between a variety of pyridylmethyl ethers and vinyl bromides in good to excellent yields. Under the mild conditions, β,γ-unsaturated products are obtained without isomerization or Heck byproducts observed. PMID:27160421

  5. Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H arylation of arenes using tosylates and mesylates as electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Nervig, Christine S; Waller, Peter J; Kalyani, Dipannita

    2012-09-21

    This paper describes a method for the palladium catalyzed intramolecular C-H arylation using tosylates and mesylates as electrophiles. The transformation is efficient for the synthesis of various heterocyclic motifs including furans, carbazoles, indoles, and lactams. Additionally, a protocol for the one-pot sequential tosylation/arylation of phenol derivatives is presented. PMID:22974229

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Ortho-Arylation of Carbamate-Protected Estrogens.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Robin B; Brenner, Peter B; Durrant, Steven J; Gallagher, Timothy; Méndez-Gálvez, Carolina; Montgomery, Michelle

    2016-05-01

    The palladium-catalyzed ortho-arylation of diethyl carbamate-protected estrone and estriol with aryl iodides gives the 2-arylated analogues. Subsequent removal of the carbamate directing group furnishes 2-arylated estrone, estradiol, or estriol depending on the method used. PMID:27057762

  7. Pyridine-NHC: effective ligand in Pd-catalyzed cyclopropanation of esters with substituted allyl carbonates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Chang-Hua; Hou, Xue-Long

    2014-12-19

    By consideration of the mechanism of Pd-catalyzed cyclopropanation and allylation, NHC-pyridine compounds were adopted as the ligand in Pd-catalyzed cyclopropanation of esters and monosubstituted allylic reagents. The corresponding cyclopropanes were afforded as major products in moderate to good yields with high cyclopropane/allylation selectivity. PMID:25284365

  8. Syntheses of hydroxamic acid-containing bicyclic β-lactams via palladium-catalyzed oxidative amidation of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Jobbins, Maria O; Miller, Marvin J

    2014-02-21

    Palladium-catalyzed oxidative amidation has been used to synthesize hydroxamic acid-containing bicyclic β-lactam cores. Oxidative cleavage of the pendant alkene provides access to the carboxylic acid in one step. PMID:24483144

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed Highly Chemoselective Intramolecular C-H Aminocarbonylation of Phenethylamines to Six-Membered Benzolactams.

    PubMed

    Taneda, Hiroshi; Inamoto, Kiyofumi; Kondo, Yoshinori

    2016-06-01

    A palladium-catalyzed highly selective intramolecular C-H aminocarbonylation of Br-functionalized phenethylamines in the presence of CO was achieved while leaving the C-Br bond unreacted to afford six-membered benzolactams with good to high yields. The remaining C-Br group in the cyclized product was successfully used as a reactive center for further functionalization through various palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. PMID:27214155

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Aryl Acetic Acid Derivatives via Dienolate Intermediates with Aryl Chlorides and Bromides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To date, examples of α-arylation of carboxylic acids remain scarce. Using a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP), a method for palladium-catalyzed γ-arylation of aryl acetic acids with aryl halides has been developed. This protocol is applicable to a wide range of aryl bromides and chlorides. A procedure for the palladium-catalyzed α-arylation of styryl acetic acids is also described. PMID:25582024

  11. Regioselective synthesis of novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole and 2,2‧-(1,3-phenylene)bis(3-substituted-2-imino-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole) derivatives as antibacterial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi Shiran, Jafar; Yahyazadeh, Asieh; Mamaghani, Manouchehr; Rassa, Mehdi

    2013-05-01

    Several novel 3-allyl-2-(substituted imino)-4-phenyl-3H-thiazole derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of allyl-thioureas and 2-bromoacetophenone. We also report the synthesis of bis-allyl-3H thiazoles using the reaction of various isothiocyanates and 1,3-phenylenediamine. The structures of all compounds were characterized by spectral and elemental analysis. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited efficient antibacterial activities against Salmonella enterica, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  12. Mechanistic Insights into the Palladium-Catalyzed Aziridination of Aliphatic Amines by C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Smalley, Adam P; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2015-08-26

    Detailed kinetic studies and computational investigations have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of a palladium-catalyzed C-H activation aziridination. A theoretical rate law has been derived that matches with experimental observations and has led to an improvement in the reaction conditions. Acetic acid was found to be beneficial in controlling the formation of an off-cycle intermediate, allowing a decrease in catalyst loading and improved yields. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were performed to examine the selectivities observed in the reaction. Evidence for electronic-controlled regioselectivity for the cyclopalladation step was obtained by a distortion-interaction analysis, whereas the aziridination product was justified through dissociation of acetic acid from the palladium(IV) intermediate preceding the product-forming reductive elimination step. The understanding of this reaction mechanism under the synthesis conditions should provide valuable assistance in the comprehension and design of palladium-catalyzed reactions on similar systems. PMID:26247373

  13. Aqueous-Phase Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling. A Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Brandy A.; Chance Rainwater, J.; Birdwhistell, Kurt; Knight, D. Andrew

    2002-06-01

    An upper-level inorganic/organic experiment presents important concepts in modern green chemistry. A water-soluble modified triphenylphosphine ligand is prepared and used to prepare a water-soluble palladium catalyst. The palladium catalyst is formed in situ and used for the aqueous, homogenous, palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of iodobenzene and diethyl phosphite. The product is diethyl phenylphosphonate.

    Featured on the Cover

  14. Modular synthesis of triarylmethanes through palladium-catalyzed sequential arylation of methyl phenyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Nambo, Masakazu; Crudden, Cathleen M

    2014-01-13

    Triarylmethanes, which are valuable structures in materials, sensing and pharmaceuticals, have been synthesized starting from methyl phenyl sulfone as an inexpensive and readily available template. The three aryl groups were installed through two sequential palladium-catalyzed C-H arylation reactions, followed by an arylative desulfonation. This method provides a new synthetic approach to multisubstituted triarylmethanes using readily available haloarenes and aryl boronic acids, and is also valuable for the preparation of unexplored triarylmethane-based materials and pharmaceuticals. PMID:24307286

  15. A Stereoselective Synthesis of Digitoxin and Digitoxigen Monoand Bisdigitoxoside from Digitoxigenin via a Palladium Catalyzed Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Maoquan; O’Doherty, George A.

    2008-01-01

    A convergent and stereocontrolled route to trisaccharide natural product digitoxin has been developed. The route is amenable to the preparation of both the digitoxigen mono-and bisdigitoxoside. This route featured the iterative application of the palladium catalyzed glycosylation reaction, reductive 1,3-transposition, diastereoselective dihydroxylation and regioselective protection. The natural product digitoxin was fashioned in 15 steps starting from digitoxigenin 2 and pyranone 8a or 18 steps from achiral acylfuran. PMID:16956221

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed One-Pot Approach to 3-(Diarylmethylene)oxindoles from Propiolamidoaryl Triflate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dahye; Park, Sunhwa; Yu, Yoseb; Shin, Kye Jung; Seo, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    3-(Diarylmethylene)oxindoles have been synthesized from propiolamidoaryl triflate utilizing a palladium-catalyzed one-pot reaction consisting of three successive reactions: Sonogashira, Heck, and Suzuki-Miyaura. This method allows for the production of a complex skeleton of 3-(diarylmethylene)oxindole from propiolamidoaryl triflate using a commercially available aryl iodide and arylboronic acid in a simple and efficient way with moderate yield and stereoselectivity. PMID:26247925

  17. Palladium-catalyzed cross-dehydrogenative functionalization of C(sp(2))-H Bonds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinuo; Wang, Jun; Mao, Fei; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reaction has received intense attention in recent years. The attractive feature of this coupling process is the formation of a C-C bond from two C-H moieties under oxidative conditions. In this Focus Review, recent advances in the palladium-catalyzed CDC reactions of C(sp(2) )-H bond are summarized, with a focus on the period from 2011 to early 2013. PMID:24123795

  18. Synthesis of Cyclooctatetraenes through a Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Sarah; Gandon, Vincent; Blond, Gaëlle; Suffert, Jean

    2016-06-13

    Reported is a cascade reaction leading to fully substituted cyclooctatetraenes. This unexpected transformation likely proceeds through a unique 8π electrocyclization reaction of a ene triyne. DFT computations provide the mechanistic basis of this surprizing reaction. PMID:27135905

  19. Mutual Cooperation in the Formal Allyl Alcohol Nucleophilic Substitution and Hydration of Alkynes for the Construction of γ-Substituted Ketones.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaimeng; Wang, Hongkai; Liu, Lingyan; Chang, Weixing; Li, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Mutual cooperation in the formal allyl alcohol nucleophilic substitution reaction and hydration of an alkyne has been utilized in the presence of a gold catalyst to give a series of γ-functionalized ketones with high to excellent yields. This reaction actually involved an intramolecular O-H insertion cyclization of an alkyne to form the dihydrofuran intermediate, which was followed by the nucleophilic addition ring-opening of a dihydrofuran to give the target compound. PMID:26946315

  20. Expanding the scope of Metal-Free enantioselective allylic substitutions: Anthrones

    PubMed Central

    Ceban, Victor; Tauchman, Jiří; Meazza, Marta; Gallagher, Greg; Light, Mark E.; Gergelitsová, Ivana; Veselý, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The highly enantioselective asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates with anthrones is presented. The reaction is simply catalyzed by cinchona alkaloid derivatives affording the final alkylated products in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:26592555

  1. Palladium-catalyzed N-acylation of monosubstituted ureas using near-stoichiometric carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Bjerglund, Klaus; Lindhardt, Anders T; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2012-04-20

    The palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of urea derivatives with aryl iodides and bromides afforded N-benzoyl ureas (20 examples) in yields attaining quantitative via the application of near-stoichiometric amounts of carbon monoxide generated from the decarbonylation of the CO precursor, 9-methylfluorene-9-carbonyl chloride. The synthetic protocol displayed good functional group tolerance. The methodology is also highly suitable for (13)C isotope labeling, which was demonstrated through the synthesis of three benzoyl ureas, including the insecticide triflumuron, whereby (13)CO was incorporated into the core structure. PMID:22458554

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Alkoxycarbonylation of Unactivated Secondary Alkyl Bromides at Low Pressure.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Brendon T; Alexanian, Erik J

    2016-06-22

    Catalytic carbonylations of organohalides are important C-C bond formations in chemical synthesis. Carbonylations of unactivated alkyl halides remain a challenge and currently require the use of alkyl iodides under harsh conditions and high pressures of CO. Herein we report a palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of secondary alkyl bromides that proceeds at low pressure (2 atm CO) under mild conditions. Preliminary mechanistic studies are consistent with a hybrid organometallic-radical process. These reactions efficiently deliver esters from unactivated alkyl bromides across a diverse range of substrates and represent the first catalytic carbonylations of alkyl bromides with carbon monoxide. PMID:27267421

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Negishi Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl Halides with (Difluoromethyl)zinc Reagent.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Serizawa, Hiroki; Ishii, Koki; Mikami, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    The palladium-catalyzed Negishi cross-coupling reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with (difluoromethyl)zinc reagent bearing a diamine such as TMEDA is achieved to provide the difluoromethylated aromatic compounds in good to excellent yields. The advantages of (difluoromethyl)zinc reagent are that (1) the derivatives, which possess different stability and reactivity, can be readily prepared via ligand screening and (2) transmetalation of a difluoromethyl group from the zinc reagent to palladium catalyst efficiently proceeds without an activator. PMID:27442347

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed syn-Stereocontrolled Ring-Opening of Oxabicyclic Alkenes with Sodium Arylsulfinates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Yang, Wen; Cheng, Guo; Yang, Dingqiao

    2016-06-01

    Palladium-catalyzed syn-stereocontrolled ring-opening reactions of oxabenzonorbornadienes with a wide range of sodium arylsulfinates were investigated, affording the desired products in good to excellent yields under an air atmosphere. This protocol provides a low-cost new viable and convenient method toward the synthesis of cis-2-aryl-1,2-dihydronaphthalen-1-ol with good functional group tolerance. In addition, the cis configuration of 3da was established by X-ray diffraction analysis, and a plausible mechanism for the ring-opening reaction was proposed. PMID:27150019

  5. Palladium-Catalyzed Deaminative Phenanthridinone Synthesis from Aniline via C-H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Yedage, Subhash L; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2016-05-20

    This work reports palladium-catalyzed phenanthridinone synthesis using the coupling of aniline and amide by formation of C-C and C-N bonds in a one-pot fashion via dual C-H bond activation. It involves simultaneous cleavage of four bonds and the formation of two new bonds. The present protocol is ligand-free, takes place under mild reaction conditions, and is environmentally benign as nitrogen gas and water are the only side products. This transformation demonstrates a broad range of aniline and amide substrates with different functional groups and has been scaled up to gram level. PMID:27088815

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Diarylation of o-Carboranes By Direct Cage B-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2016-01-22

    Palladium-catalyzed intermolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics by direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of cage B(4,5)-diarylated-o-carboranes in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. Traceless directing group -COOH plays a crucial role for site- and di-selectivity of such intermolecular coupling reaction. A Pd(II)-Pd(IV)-Pd(II) catalytic cycle is proposed to be responsible for the stepwise arylation. PMID:26463595

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Annulation of Internal Alkynes: Direct Access to π-Conjugated Ullazines.

    PubMed

    Wan, Danyang; Li, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Ruyong; Feng, Boya; Lan, Jingbo; Wang, Ruilin; You, Jingsong

    2016-06-17

    A palladium-catalyzed cyclization reaction of 1-(2,6-dibromophenyl)-1H-pyrroles with alkynes has been developed to construct various π-conjugated indolizino[6,5,4,3-ija]quinolones (ullazines) with a reactive functional group tolerance. As illustrative examples, three new ullazine-based sensitizers are synthesized, and the performance of these dyes is examined in DSSC devices, which demonstrates the potential of direct C-H functionalization in the construction of organic optoelectronic materials. PMID:27227659

  8. Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Acetoxylation of Benzene using NOx-Based Redox Mediators‡

    PubMed Central

    Zultanski, Susan L.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2015-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed methods for C–H oxygenation with O2 as the stoichiometric oxidant are limited. Here, we describe the use of nitrite and nitrate sources as NOx-based redox mediators in the acetoxylation of benzene. The conditions completely avoid formation of biphenyl as a side product, and strongly favor formation of phenyl acetate over nitrobenzene (PhOAc:PhNO2 ratios up to 40:1). Under the optimized reaction conditions, with 0.1 mol% Pd(OAc)2, 136 turnovers of Pd are achieved with only 1 atm of O2 pressure. PMID:25843978

  9. Assembly of 3-Sulfenylbenzofurans and 3-Sulfenylindoles by Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade Annulation/Arylthiolation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianxiao; Li, Chunsheng; Yang, Shaorong; An, Yanni; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-04-01

    A novel and efficient palladium-catalyzed cascade annulation/arylthiolation reaction has been developed to afford functionalized 3-sulfenylbenzofuran and 3-sulfenylindole derivatives in moderate to good yields from readily available 2-alkynylphenols and 2-alkynylamines in ionic liquids. This protocol provides a valuable synthetic tool for the assembly of a wide range of 3-sulfenylbenzofuran and 3-sulfenylindole derivatives with high atom- and step-economy and exceptional functional group tolerance. Moreover, the employment of ionic liquids under mild reaction conditions makes this transformation green and practical. Furthermore, this approach enriched current C-S bond formation chemistry, making a valuable and practical method in synthetic and medicinal chemistry. PMID:26980622

  10. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed 1,3-Difunctionalization Using Terminal Alkenes with Alkenyl Nonaflates and Aryl Boronic Acids.

    PubMed

    McCammant, Matthew S; Shigeta, Takashi; Sigman, Matthew S

    2016-04-15

    A Pd-catalyzed 1,3-difunctionalization of terminal alkenes using 1,1-disubstituted alkenyl nonaflates and arylboronic acid coupling partners is reported. This transformation affords allylic arene products that are difficult to selectively access using traditional Heck cross-coupling methodologies. The evaluation of seldom employed 1,1-disubstituted alkenyl nonaflate coupling partners led to the elucidation of subtle mechanistic features of π-allyl stabilized Pd-intermediates. Good stereo- and regioselectivity for the formation of 1,3-addition products can be accessed through a minimization of steric interactions that emanate from alkenyl nonaflate substitution. PMID:27019228

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Nitration of Meyer-Schuster Intermediates with tBuONO as Nitrogen Source at Ambient Temperature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanguang; Kong, Weiguang; Song, Qiuling

    2016-08-01

    A novel domino palladium-catalyzed nitration of Meyer-Schuster intermediates which were generated in situ from propargylic alcohols was developed, by the use of t-BuONO, leading to α-nitro enones in good to excellent yields at room temperature with a broad functional group tolerance. PMID:27434133

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Phenanthridine/Benzoxazine-Fused Quinazolinones by Intramolecular C-H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Puneet K; Yadav, Nisha; Jaiswal, Subodh; Asad, Mohd; Kant, Ruchir; Hajela, Kanchan

    2015-09-14

    A highly efficient synthesis of phenanthridine/benzoxazine-fused quinazolinones by ligand-free palladium-catalyzed intramolecular C-H bond activation under mild conditions has been developed. The C-C coupling provides the corresponding N-fused polycyclic heterocycles in good to excellent yields and with wide functional group tolerance. PMID:26230355

  14. Palladium-catalyzed dual C–H or N–H functionalization of unfunctionalized indole derivatives with alkenes and arenes

    PubMed Central

    Beccalli, Egle M; Fasana, Andrea; Gazzola, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the development of palladium-catalyzed C–H and N–H functionalization reactions involving indole derivatives. These procedures require unactivated starting materials and are respectful of the basic principle of sustainable chemistry tied to atom economy. PMID:23209507

  15. Palladium-catalyzed Saegusa-Ito oxidation: synthesis of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds from trimethylsilyl enol ethers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingdong; Nguyen, Pierre Long; Lévaray, Nicolas; Lebel, Hélène

    2013-01-18

    Palladium-catalyzed Saegusa-Ito oxidation of trimethylsilyl enol ethers is possible using Oxone as a stoichiometric oxidant and sodium hydrogen phosphate as a buffer. Cyclic and acyclic enones as well as α,β-unsaturated aldehydes are obtained in good to excellent yields. PMID:23256839

  16. Palladium-catalyzed regioselective intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H activation.

    PubMed

    Quan, Yangjian; Xie, Zuowei

    2015-03-18

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular coupling of o-carborane with aromatics via direct cage B-H bond activation has been achieved, leading to the synthesis of a series of o-carborane-functionalized aromatics in high yields with excellent regioselectivity. In addition, the site selectivity can also be tuned by the substituents on cage carbon atom. PMID:25747772

  17. Regioselective Transition-Metal-Free Allyl-Allyl Cross-Couplings.

    PubMed

    Ellwart, Mario; Makarov, Ilya S; Achrainer, Florian; Zipse, Hendrik; Knochel, Paul

    2016-08-22

    Readily prepared allylic zinc halides undergo SN 2-type substitutions with allylic bromides in a 1:1 mixture of THF and DMPU providing 1,5-dienes regioselectively. The allylic zinc species reacts at the most branched end (γ-position) of the allylic system furnishing exclusively γ,α'-allyl-allyl cross-coupling products. Remarkably, the double bond stereochemistry of the allylic halide is maintained during the cross-coupling process. Also several functional groups (ester, nitrile) are tolerated. This cross-coupling of allylic zinc reagents can be extended to propargylic and benzylic halides. DFT calculations show the importance of lithium chloride in this substitution. PMID:27430745

  18. Palladium Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Five-Membered Heterocyclic Silanolates

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Baird, John D.; Regens, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of π-rich 2-aryl heterocycles by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of sodium heteroarylsilanolates with aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides is described. The cross-coupling process was developed through extensive optimization of the follow key variables: (1) identification of stable, isolable alkali metal silanolates, (2) identification of conditions for preformation and isolation of silanolate salts, (3) judicious choice in the palladium catalyst/ligand combination, and (4) selection of the protecting group on the nitrogen of indole. It was found that the alkali metal silanolates, either isolated or formed in situ, offered a significant rate enhancement and broader substrate scope over the use of silanols activated by Brønsted bases such as NaOt-Bu. In addition, the optimized conditions for the cross-coupling of 2-indolylsilanolates were readily applied to the cross-coupling of 2-pyrrolyl-, 2-furyl-, and 2-thienylsilanolates. PMID:18205384

  19. Development of Safe and Scalable Continuous-Flow Methods for Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuan; Johnson, Martin D; Diao, Tianning; Yates, Matthew H; Stahl, Shannon S

    2010-01-01

    The synthetic scope and utility of Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidation reactions has advanced significantly over the past decade, and these reactions have potential to address important green-chemistry challenges in the pharmaceutical industry. This potential has been unrealized, however, because safety concerns and process constraints hinder large-scale applications of this chemistry. These limitations are addressed by the development of a continuous-flow tube reactor, which has been demonstrated on several scales in the aerobic oxidation of alcohols. Use of a dilute oxygen gas source (8% O(2) in N(2)) ensures that the oxygen/organic mixture never enters the explosive regime, and efficient gas-liquid mixing in the reactor minimizes decomposition of the homogeneous catalyst into inactive Pd metal. These results provide the basis for large-scale implementation of palladium-catalyzed (and other) aerobic oxidation reactions for pharmaceutical synthesis. PMID:20694169

  20. The syn/anti-Dichotomy in the Palladium-Catalyzed Addition of Nucleophiles to Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Kočovský, Pavel; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-01-01

    In this review the stereochemistry of palladium-catalyzed addition of nucleophiles to alkenes is discussed, and examples of these reactions in organic synthesis are given. Most of the reactions discussed involve oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles; the Wacker oxidation of ethylene has been reviewed in detail. An anti-hydroxypalladation in the Wacker oxidation has strong support from both experimental and computational studies. From the reviewed material it is clear that anti-addition of oxygen and nitrogen nucleophiles is strongly favored in intermolecular addition to olefin–palladium complexes even if the nucleophile is coordinated to the metal. On the other hand, syn-addition is common in the case of intramolecular oxy- and amidopalladation as a result of the initial coordination of the internal nucleophile to the metal. PMID:25378278

  1. A General Palladium-Catalyzed Hiyama Cross-Coupling Reaction of Aryl and Heteroaryl Chlorides.

    PubMed

    Yuen, On Ying; So, Chau Ming; Man, Ho Wing; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2016-05-01

    A general palladium-catalyzed Hiyama cross-coupling reaction of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides with aryl and heteroaryl trialkoxysilanes by a Pd(OAc)2 /L2 catalytic system is presented. A newly developed water addition protocol can dramatically improve the product yields. The conjugation of the Pd/L2 system and the water addition protocol can efficiently catalyze a broad range of electron-rich, -neutral, -deficient, and sterically hindered aryl chlorides and heteroaryl chlorides with excellent yields within three hours and the catalyst loading can be down to 0.05 mol % Pd for the first time. Hiyama coupling of heteroaryl chlorides with heteroaryl silanes is also reported for the first time. The reaction can be easily scaled up 200 times (100 mmol) without any degasification and purification of reactants; this facilitates the practical application in routine synthesis. PMID:26998586

  2. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  3. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  4. Toluene derivatives as simple coupling precursors for cascade palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-H bond acylation of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinuo; Choy, Pui Ying; Mao, Fei; Kwong, Fuk Yee

    2013-01-25

    A palladium-catalyzed cascade cross-coupling of acetanilide and toluene for the synthesis of ortho-acylacetanilide is described. Toluene derivatives can act as effective acyl precursors (upon sp(3)-C-H bond oxidation by a Pd/TBHP system) in the oxidative coupling between two C-H bonds. This dehydrogenative Pd-catalyzed ortho-acylation proceeds under mild reaction conditions. PMID:23230572

  5. "One-Pot" Approach to 8-Acylated 2-Quinolinones via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie

    2016-05-20

    A "one-pot" facile and efficient protocol for 8-acylated 2-quinolinones has been developed through palladium-catalyzed acylation of quinoline N-oxides, which proceeds with high selectivity at the C8-position. The desired products were isolated in up to 95% yield and good functional group tolerance. A palladacycle was isolated from the catalytic process and proposed as a key intermediate. PMID:27153298

  6. A stereoselective synthesis of digitoxin and digitoxigen mono- and bisdigitoxoside from digitoxigenin via a palladium-catalyzed glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Maoquan; O'Doherty, George A

    2006-09-14

    A convergent and stereocontrolled route to trisaccharide natural product digitoxin has been developed. The route is amenable to the preparation of both the digitoxigen mono- and bisdigitoxoside. This route featured the iterative application of the palladium-catalyzed glycosylation reaction, reductive 1,3-transposition, diastereoselective dihydroxylation, and regioselective protection. The natural product digitoxin was fashioned in 15 steps starting from digitoxigenin 2 and pyranone 8a or 18 steps from achiral acylfuran. PMID:16956221

  7. Exercising Regiocontrol in Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Prenylations and Geranylation: Unifying Strategy Towards Flustramines A and B

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sushant; Chan, Walter H.

    2011-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric prenylation of oxindoles to selectively afford either the prenyl or the reverse prenyl product has been demonstrated. Control of regioselectivity in this transformation is governed by choice of ligand, solvent, and halide additive. The resulting prenylated and reverse prenylated products have been transformed into ent-flustramides and ent-flustramines A and B. Additionally, control in regio- and diastereoselectivity has been obtained using π-geranylpalladium complexes. PMID:21520958

  8. Palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative annulation of 2-arylbenzoic acids with [60]fullerene via C-H bond activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dian-Bing; Wang, Guan-Wu

    2015-03-01

    A convenient and highly efficient palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative annulation of 2-arylbenzoic acids with [60]fullerene has been exploited to synthesize the novel and scarce [60]fullerene-fused dihydrophenanthrenes. The use of Lewis acid ZnCl2 is crucial for the success of the present formal [4 + 2] annulation reaction. Plausible reaction pathways leading to the observed products have been proposed, and the electrochemistry of the fullerene products has also been investigated. PMID:25700187

  9. Regioselectivity switch achieved in the palladium catalyzed α-arylation of enones by employing the modified Kuwajima-Urabe conditions.

    PubMed

    Kale, Ajit Prabhakar; Pawar, Govind Goroba; Kapur, Manmohan

    2012-04-01

    A new regioselective approach to the synthesis of α-aryl enones is reported. This represents an important application of the Kuwajima-Urabe protocol toward the synthesis of this simple albeit complex functional array. Several α-aryl enones were synthesized by the palladium catalyzed arylation of triethylsilylenol ethers of enones with high regioselectivity and broad scope, utilizing sterically encumbered electron-rich phosphine ligands to drive the reaction. PMID:22432858

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Benzylic Arylation of Pyridylmethyl Silyl Ethers: One-Pot Synthesis of Aryl(pyridyl)methanols.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Alexandra R; Kim, Byeong-Seon; Walsh, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed direct arylation of pyridylmethyl silyl ethers with aryl bromides is described. A Pd(OAc)2/NIXANTPHOS-based catalyst provides aryl(pyridyl)methyl alcohol derivatives in good to excellent yields (33 examples, 57-100% yield). This protocol is compatible with different silyl ether protecting groups, affording either the protected or the free alcohols in an effective one-pot process. The scalability of the reaction is demonstrated. PMID:27004592

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Zinc Enolates of Esters: Reaction Conditions and Substrate Scope

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Takuo; Ge, Shaozhong; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The intermolecular α-arylation of esters by palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl bromides with zinc enolates of esters is reported. Reactions of three different types of zinc enolates have been developed. α-Arylation of esters occurs in high yields with isolated Reformatsky reagents, with Reformatsky reagents generated from α-bromo esters and activated zinc, and with zinc enolates generated by quenching lithium enolates of esters with zinc chloride. The use of zinc enolates, instead of alkali metal enolates, greatly expands the scope of the arylation of esters. The reactions occur at room temperature or at 70 °C with bromoarenes containing cyano, nitro, ester, keto, fluoro, enolizable hydrogen, hydroxyl or amino functionality and with bromopyridines. The scope of esters encompasses acyclic acetates, propionates, and isobutyrates, α-alkoxyesters, and lactones. The arylation of zinc enolates of esters was conducted with catalysts bearing the hindered pentaphenylferrocenyl di-tert-butylphosphine (Q-phos) or the highly reactive dimeric Pd(I) complex {[P(t-Bu)3]PdBr}2. PMID:23931445

  12. Pyrrolidine synthesis via palladium-catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloaddition and related studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The palladium catalyzed trimethylenemethane cycloaddition has been extended to the synthesis of pyrrolidines and azepines. In contrast to previous attempts with N-alkyl and N-aryl imine, successful cycloadditions were recorded with several aromatic and aliphatic electron-deficient imines. Sulfonimines were found to be excellent acceptors, yielding pyrrolidine cycloadducts in excellent yields. Aromatic sulfonimines were observed to undergo cycloaddition very rapidly at or below room temperature. Some aliphatic nitrimine and N-phenyl, C-carbalkoxy imines were also found to be useful acceptors. Azepines were obtained from the cycloaddition of cisoid lockeed [alpha],[beta] unsaturated sulfonimines. In order to support the cycloaddition studies, a novel synthetic method was developed for the synthesis of sulfonimines. bis(Toluene-sulfonylimido)tellurium, Te(=N-Ts)[sub 2], generated from tellurium metal and anhydrous chloramine-t, was found to convert both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes into the corresponding sulfonimines. Chiral ligands were examined in this cyclization and an enantiomeric excess of 35% was achieved with Hayashi's bidentate ferrocenyl ligand (BPFA). In support of this effort, the total synthesis of [+-] nicotine was accomplished in seven steps starting from pyridine 3-carboxaldehyde using these methodologies in order to verify the enantiomeric excess. Finally, the trimethylenemethane cycloaddition was examined with tropone irontricarbonyl complex. A novel [5+3] cycloaddition was observed to proceed in good yield, which upon decomplexation from the iron tricarbonyl moiety yielded the tricyclo[3.2.0] system. The scope and generality were briefly examined. Extended Huekel calculations were performed in order to help rationalize the unexpected regiochemistry.

  13. Allyl astatide

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Syuch, Z.

    1988-11-01

    Allyl astatide was prepared by the interhalogen exchange method, by replacement of the bromine in allyl bromide with astatide ion. The most favorable conditions for the synthesis were found by variations of the method that uses hydrazine hydrate and sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate as reductants. A by-product is formed by the reaction of allyl bromide with excited astatine-211 which forms by disintegration of radon-211. Allyl astatide was identified by radio gas-liquid chromatography. Its retention indexes on nonpolar and weakly polar liquid phases were found. The stability of this newly prepared astatine compound was studied. The extrapolated boiling point of allyl astatide is 129 +/- 2/sup 0/C.

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Sulfenylation of Indoles and Related Electron-Rich Heteroarenes with Aryl Boronic Acids and Elemental Sulfur.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianxiao; Li, Chunsheng; Yang, Shaorong; An, Yanni; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-09-01

    An efficient and convenient palladium-catalyzed C-H bond oxidative sulfenylation of indoles and related electron-rich heteroarenes with aryl boronic acids and elemental sulfur has been described. This procedure provides a useful and direct approach for the assembly of a wide range of structurally diverse 3-sulfenylheteroarenes with moderate to excellent yields from simple and readily available starting materials. Moreover, this synthetic protocol is suitable for N-protected and unprotected indoles. Notably, the construction of two C-S bonds in one step was also achieved in this transformation. PMID:27500941

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Defluorinative Coupling of 1-Aryl-2,2-Difluoroalkenes and Boronic Acids: Stereoselective Synthesis of Monofluorostilbenes.

    PubMed

    Thornbury, Richard T; Toste, F Dean

    2016-09-12

    The palladium-catalyzed defluorinative coupling of 1-aryl-2,2-difluoroalkenes with boronic acids is described. Broad functional-group tolerance arises from a redox-neutral process by a palladium(II) active species which is proposed to undergo a β-fluoride elimination to afford the products. The monofluorostilbene products were formed with excellent diastereoselectivity (≥50:1) in all cases, and it is critical, as traditional chromatographic techniques often fail to separate monofluoroalkene isomers. As a demonstration of this method's unique combination of reactivity and functional-group tolerance, a Gleevec® analogue, using a monofluorostilbene as an amide isostere, was synthesized. PMID:27511868

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Ullmann Cross-Coupling/Tandem Reductive Cyclization Route to Key Members of the Uleine Alkaloid Family.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fei; Banwell, Martin G; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-04-01

    The trisubstituted cyclohexenone 12, generated through a palladium-catalyzed Ullmann cross-coupling reaction between o-iodonitrobenzene and a 4,5-trans-disubstituted 2-iodo-2-cyclohexen-1-one, engaged in a tandem reductive cyclization process upon exposure to hydrogen gas in the presence of Raney cobalt. As a result, the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole 13 was obtained and this could be readily elaborated to the racemic modifications of the alkaloids uleine, dasycarpidone, noruleine, and nordasycarpidone (1-4, respectively). PMID:26914482

  17. Direct Access to α,α-Difluoroacylated Arenes by Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of (Hetero)Aryl Boronic Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Thomas L; Frederiksen, Mette W; Domino, Katrine; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2016-08-22

    A palladium-catalyzed carbonylative coupling of (hetero)aryl boronates or boronic acid salts with carbon monoxide and α-bromo-α,α-difluoroamides and bromo-α,α-difluoroesters is described herein. The method is useful for the synthesis of a diverse selection of (hetero)aryl α,α-difluoro-β-ketoamides and α,α-difluoro-β-ketoesters, which are useful building blocks for the generation of functionalized difluoroacylated and difluoroalkyl arenes. The method could be further extended to a one-pot protocol for the formation of difluoroacetophenones. PMID:27346239

  18. Synthesis of [60]Fullerene-Fused Spiroindanes by Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Annulation of [60]Fullerene with 2-Aryl Cyclic 1,3-Dicarbonyl Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dian-Bing; Wang, Guan-Wu

    2016-06-01

    A convenient and facile palladium-catalyzed reaction of [60]fullerene (C60) with 2-aryl cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds via the enolate-directed sp(2) C-H activation and sp(3) C-H functionalization has been exploited to synthesize the novel and rare C60-fused spiroindanes for the first time. This reaction is easy to perform with broad substrate scope and provides diversified products in 20-50% yields. A plausible reaction mechanism involving the palladium-catalyzed enolate-directed C-H activation and subsequent cyclization has been proposed, and the electrochemistry of the C60-fused spiroindanes has also been investigated. PMID:27192615

  19. Stereochemistry of C7-allyl yohimbine explored by X-ray crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Natsuko; Masuda, Yoshitake; Morimoto, Tsumoru; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi

    2013-03-01

    X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the palladium-catalyzed β-allylation of yohimbine proceeded in a (7S)-selective manner. The crystal structure had an indolenine unit that was generally unstable in air. A stereoselective outcome was obtained when the palladium π-allyl complex approached yohimbine from the less-hindered pro-S side. However, during reserpine allylation—because the structure of reserpine is that of a transoid-3, 15-ring junction—the palladium π-allyl complex approached from both sides: pro-S and pro-R. A computational method was developed to discuss this selectivity. Experimental details and considerations of the reaction are provided.

  20. Synthesis of functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones via adscititious xanthate-promoted radical cyclization of allyl(alkyl/aryl)dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Gao, Simiao; Zhang, Yu; Dong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Xu, Jiaxi

    2016-01-21

    Functionalized 5-substituted thiazolidine-2-thiones were synthesized efficiently from alkyl allyl(alkyl/aryl)-dithiocarbamates via radical cyclization with the corresponding S-alkyl O-ethyl xanthates as the adscititious radical precursors. The application of the adscititious radical precursors improves not only the yields, but also the efficiency in the radical cyclization reaction significantly. The current adscititious radical precursor method provides a new strategy for the achievement and improvement of some radical reactions which are hardly or difficultly realized by the traditional direct methods. PMID:26626401

  1. Synthesis of Substituted Benzenes via Bi(OTf)3-Mediated Intramolecular Carbonyl Allylation of α-Prenyl or α-Geranyl β-Arylketosulfones.

    PubMed

    Chang, Meng-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Lu, Yi-Ju

    2015-06-19

    Intramolecular carbonyl allylation of α-prenyl or α-geranyl β-arylketosulfones 5 in the presence of molecule sieves (MS) affords substituted benzenes 6-7 in moderate to good yields. The facile transformation proceeds by a synthetic sequence starting with the α-prenylation or α-geranylation of 1 and the Bi(OTf)3-mediated annulation of 5 followed by a sequential desulfonative aromatization or then an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation. A plausible mechanism has been studied and proposed. PMID:26068123

  2. Isovanillin derived N-(un)substituted hydroxylamines possessing an ortho-allylic group: valuable precursors to bioactive N-heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Dulla, Balakrishna; Tangellamudi, Neelima D; Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Yellanki, Swapna; Medishetti, Raghavender; Kumar Banote, Rakesh; Hari Chaudhari, Girish; Kulkarni, Pushkar; Iqbal, Javed; Reiser, Oliver; Pal, Manojit

    2014-04-28

    The intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of isovanillin derived N-aryl hydroxylamines possessing ortho-allylic dipolarophiles affords novel benzo analogues of tricyclic isoxazolidines that can be readily transformed into functionalized lactams, γ-aminoalcohols and oxazepines. The corresponding N-unsubstituted hydroxylamines give rise to tetrahydroisoquinolines. Anxiogenic properties of these compounds are tested in zebra fish. PMID:24576957

  3. [1,2]- and [1,4]-Wittig Rearrangements of α-Alkoxysilanes: Effect of Substitutions at both the Migrating Benzylic Carbon and the Terminal sp2 Carbon of the Allyl Moiety

    PubMed Central

    Onyeozili, Edith N.; Mori-Quiroz, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Substituted α-alkoxysilanes can be deprotonated by alkyllithium bases and made to undergo Wittig rearrangements to afford the #x0005B;1,4]- and [1,2]-rearranged products in varying ratios. Substitution at the benzylic migrating carbon and/or at the allylic carbon of the allyl moiety impacts the rearrangement reaction, influencing the reactivity as well as the [1,4]-/[1,2]-selectivity. Diastereomeric α-alkoxysilanes show different reactivities with the syn diastereomer being the more reactive isomer. PMID:23459008

  4. Direct preparation of N-quaternized and N-oxidized polycyclic azines by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling. An unequivocal isomer synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zoltewicz, J.A.; Cruskie, M.P. Jr.; Dill, C.D.

    1995-01-13

    The authors report several examples of unequivocal isomer preparations using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling to yield N-oxides and N-quaternized polycyclic azines. This approach serves as a model for such syntheses where selective N-quaternization, N-oxidation, or other types of N-functionalization of several rings is now possible in a regioncontrolled manner.

  5. C8-Selective Acylation of Quinoline N-Oxides with α-Oxocarboxylic Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective C-H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaopei; Cui, Xiuling; Wu, Yangjie

    2016-08-01

    A facile and efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed C8-selective acylation of quinoline N-oxides with α-oxocarboxylic acids has been developed. In this approach, N-oxide was utilized as a stepping stone for the remote C-H functionalization. The reactions proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions with excellent regioselectivity and broad functional group tolerance. PMID:27441527

  6. One-step synthesis of quinazolino[3,2-a]quinazolinones via palladium-catalyzed domino addition/carboxamidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanlong; Alper, Howard

    2010-08-20

    A highly efficient palladium-catalyzed domino process has been developed for the synthesis of quinazolino[3,2-a]quinazolinones by forming five new bonds in a single step. Despite the high density and variety of functional groups on the substrates, the tetracyclic quinazolinones were obtained in good to excellent yields. PMID:20666363

  7. Palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization of allylamine-tethered alkylidenecyclopropanes: facile access to iodine/difluoromethylene- and perfluoroalkyl-containing 1-benzazepine scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liu-Zhu; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Hu, Xu-Bo; Tang, Xiang-Ying; Shi, Min

    2016-05-01

    The unprecedented palladium-catalyzed cascade cyclization of allylamine-tethered alkylidenecyclopropanes with an ethyl difluoroiodoacetate or perfluoroalkylated reagent is developed, providing facile access to a variety of synthetically and medicinally valuable iodine/difluoromethylene- and perfluoroalkyl-containing 1-benzazepine frameworks. These reactions exhibited good yields and functional group tolerance via a radical mechanism. PMID:27109032

  8. Total synthesis of protosappanin A and its derivatives via palladium catalyzed ortho C-H activation/C-C cyclization under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Chenglong; Fu, Wanyong; Chu, Wenyi; Sun, Zhizhong

    2016-04-14

    A total synthesis method for protosappanin A, which is a complex natural product with many biological activities, was developed with 6 linear steps. Dibenzo[b,d]oxepinones as the key intermediates of the synthetic route were prepared by a palladium-catalyzed ortho C-H activation/C-C cyclization under microwave irradiation. 25 derivatives of protosappanin A were obtained. PMID:26997503

  9. A Convenient Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative Synthesis of Benzofuran-2(3 H)-ones with Formic Acid as the CO Source.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xinxin; Li, Hao-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2016-09-01

    A general and convenient palladium-catalyzed carbonylation procedure for the synthesis of benzofuran-2(3 H)-ones from phenols and aldehydes has been developed. With formic acid as the CO source, a variety of benzofuran-2(3 H)-ones were obtained in moderate to good yields. PMID:27539230

  10. Enantioselective Construction of Pyrrolidines by Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric [3+2] Cycloaddition of Trimethylenemethane with Imines

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Silverman, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for the enantioselective [3+2] cycloaddition of trimethylenemethane (TMM) with imines has been developed. Central to this effort were the novel phosphoramidite ligands developed in our laboratories. The conditions developed to effect an asymmetric TMM reaction using 2-trimethylsilylmethyl allyl acetate were shown to be tolerant of a wide variety of imine acceptors to provide the corresponding pyrrolidine cycloadducts with excellent yields and selectivities. Use of a bis-2-naphthyl phosphoramidite allowed the successful cycloaddition of the parent TMM with N-Boc imines, and has further permitted the reaction of substituted donors with N-tosyl aldimines and ketimines in high regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Use of a diphenylazetidine ligand allows the complimentary synthesis of the exocyclic nitrile product shown, and we demonstrate control of the regioselectivity of the product based on manipulation of the reaction parameters. PMID:22309214

  11. Highly efficient four-component synthesis of 4(3H)-quinazolinones: palladium-catalyzed carbonylative coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Li, Haoquan; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2014-01-27

    Given the importance of quinazolinones and carbonylative transformations, a palladium-catalyzed four-component carbonylative coupling system for the synthesis of diverse 4(3H)-quinazolinone in a concise and convergent fashion has been developed. Starting from 2-bromoanilines (1 mmol), trimethyl orthoformate (2 mmol), and amines (1.1 mmol), under 10 bar of CO, the desired products were isolated in good yields in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 (2 mol %), BuPAd2 (6 mol %) in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL) at 100 °C, using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (2 mmol) as the base. Notably, the process tolerates the presence of various reactive functional groups and is very selective for quinazolinones, and was used in the synthesis of the precursor to the bioactive dihydrorutaempine. PMID:24338922

  12. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of 2H-chromene: a new entry to pyrano[2,3-c]carbazoles.

    PubMed

    Ranjith Reddy, K; Siva Reddy, A; Dhaked, Devendra K; Rasheed, S K; Pathania, Anup Singh; Shankar, Ravi; Malik, Fayaz; Das, Parthasarathi

    2015-09-21

    Pyrano[2,3-c]carbazoles which are biologically valuable and synthetically challenging frameworks are synthesized in high yields over five steps from commercially available resorcinol. Palladium-catalyzed arylation remains a key step in this novel strategy. The versatility of this protocol has been demonstrated by the synthesis of naturally occurring alkaloid clauraila C and 7-methoxyglycomaurin. The anti-proliferative activity of these designed compounds (5a, 5f, and 5l) has been evaluated in a cancer cell line (MOLT-4). The molecular docking study revealed that this pyrano[2,3-c]carbazole class of molecules selectively occupies the colchicine binding site of the tubulin-polymer. PMID:26235231

  13. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied. PMID:20175511

  14. The Enantioselective Construction of Tetracyclic Diterpene Skeletons with Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Palladium-catalyzed Cycloalkenylation Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sarah J.; Mehta, Sharan K.; Appenteng, Roselyn

    2015-01-01

    Due to the profound extent to which natural products inspire medicinal chemists in drug discovery, there is demand for innovative syntheses of these often complex materials. This article describes the synthesis of tricarbocyclic natural product architectures through an extension of the enantioselective Birch-Cope sequence with intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions. Additionally, palladium-catalyzed enol silane cycloalkenylation of the tricarbocyclic structures afforded the challenging bicyclo[3.2.1]octane C/D ring system found in the gibberellins and the ent-kauranes, two natural products with diverse medicinal value. In the case of the ent-kaurane derivative, an unprecedented alkene rearrangement converted four alkene isomers to one final product. PMID:25598198

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylative Cyclization of Arenes by C-H Bond Activation with DMF as the Carbonyl Source.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbin; Feng, Jian-Bo; Natte, Kishore; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-11-01

    A novel palladium-catalyzed CO-gas- and autoclave-free protocol for the synthesis of 11H-pyrido[2,1-b]quinazolin-11-ones has been developed. Quinazolinones, which are omnipresent motif in many pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, were prepared in good yields by C-H bond activation and annulation using DMF as the CO surrogate. A (13) CO-labelled DMF control experiment demonstrated that CO gas was released from the carbonyl of DMF with acid as the promotor. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) value indicated that the C-H activation step may not be involved in the rate-determining step. This methodology is operationally simple and showed a broad substrate scope with good to excellent yields. PMID:26406903

  16. Coupling and Decoupling Approach Enables Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Bimolecular Carbocyclizations of Enediynes to 2,6-Diacylnaphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Fei; Wan, Yanjun; Wang, Dongxu; Ma, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    A formal palladium-catalyzed aerobic bimolecular carbocyclization reaction of (Z)-hexa-1,5-diyn-3-ene scaffolds has been successfully developed for the construction of 2,6-diacylnaphthalenes, wherein copper salts play a critical role in accomplishing the oxygenative homo- and hetero-dimerization processes of readily accessible enediyne-carboxylic acids and esters, respectively. The enediyne dimerization protocol provides a flexible and regiospecific approach to a variety of functionalized naphthalenes with up to six differentiated substituents in good yields by using a directing-group-assisted coupling and decoupling strategy. Mechanistic studies indicated that the two oxygen atoms being selectively incorporated into the crossover-annulation products of enediynecarboxylic acid and ester directly originate from atmospheric molecular oxygen and H2O, respectively. PMID:26954582

  17. Synthesis of diverse β-quaternary ketones via palladium-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic enones

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Emmett D.; Kikushima, Kotaro; Gatti, Michele; Marziale, Alexander N.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    The development and optimization of a palladium-catalyzed asymmetric conjugate addition of arylboronic acids to cyclic enone conjugate acceptors is described. These reactions employ air-stable and readily-available reagents in an operationally simple and robust transformation that yields β-quaternary ketones in high yields and enantioselectivities. Notably, the reaction itself is highly tolerant of atmospheric oxygen and moisture and therefore does not require the use of dry or deoxygenated solvents, specially purified reagents, or an inert atmosphere. The ring size and β-substituent of the enone are highly variable, and a wide variety of β-quaternary ketones can be synthesized. More recently, the use of NH4PF6 has further expanded the substrate scope to include heteroatom-containing arylboronic acids and β-acyl enone substrates. PMID:26461082

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed Reaction of Haloarenes with Diarylethynes: Synthesis, Structural Analysis, and Properties of Methylene-Bridged Arenes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Che-Wei; Liu, En-Chih; Wu, Yao-Ting

    2015-11-01

    Fluorenes and methylene-bridged polyarenes were easily and efficiently synthesized from haloarenes (or aryl triflates) and diarylethynes by a one-pot, two-step procedure. This protocol involves the palladium-catalyzed cycloisomerization and a subsequent base-mediated retro-aldol condensation. A major advantage is that the starting materials need not have ortho functional groups to complete the annulation. The backbone of the designed products was enlarged using dihaloarenes, highly π-conjugated haloarenes, or diarylalkynes. The mechanism of the formation of benzo[a]fluorene was investigated. The bowl-shaped structure of methylene-bridged indenocorannulene was verified by X-ray crystallography. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of the products thus prepared were investigated. PMID:26451853

  19. Site- and Enantioselective Formation of Allene-Bearing Tertiary or Quaternary Carbon Stereogenic Centers through NHC–Cu-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Byunghyuck; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic enantioselective allylic substitutions that result in exclusive addition of an allenyl group (<2% propargyl addition) and formation of tertiary or quaternary C–C bonds are described. Commercially available allenylboronic acid pinacol ester is used (preparation of a more reactive but less stable boronate derivative not required). Reactions are promoted by 5.0–10 mol % of sulfonate-bearing chiral bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of copper, which exhibit the unique ability to furnish chiral products arising from SN2′ mode of addition. The desired allenyl-containing products are generated in up to 95% yield, >98% SN2′ selectivity and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio (er). Site-selective NHC–Cu-catalyzed hydroboration of enantiomerically enriched allenes and conversion to the corresponding β-vinyl ketones demonstrates utility. PMID:22214185

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed 6-Endo Selective Alkyl-Heck Reactions: Access to 5-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xu; Han, Ying; Yan, Fachao; Liu, Qing; Wang, Ping; Chen, Kexun; Li, Yueyun; Zhao, Zengdian; Dong, Yunhui; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    A new type of palladium-catalyzed 6-endo-selective alkyl-Heck reaction of unactivated alkyl iodides has been described. This strategy provides efficient access to a variety of 5-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine derivatives, which are important structural motifs for bioactive molecules. This process displays a broad substrate scope with excellent 6-endo selectivity. Mechanistic investigations reveal that this alkyl-Heck reaction performs via a hybrid palladium-radical process. PMID:27409716

  1. One-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4(3H)-quinazolinones via ring-opening of isatoic anhydride and palladium-catalyzed oxidative isocyanide-insertion.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fei; Lv, Mei-Fang; Yi, Wen-Bin; Cai, Chun

    2014-08-14

    An efficient and practical two-step process has been developed for the synthesis of 2-amino-4(3H)-quinazolinones via ring-opening of isatoic anhydride and palladium-catalyzed oxidative isocyanide-insertion in one pot. This regioselective procedure could construct a wide range of 2-amino-4(3H)-quinazolinones in moderate to excellent yields. Furthermore, the methodology also had distinct advantages of easily accessible starting materials and operational simplicity. PMID:24968809

  2. Phosphine-Free, Heterogeneous Palladium-Catalyzed Atom-Efficient Carbonylative Cross-Coupling of Triarylbismuths with Aryl Iodides: Synthesis of Biaryl Ketones.

    PubMed

    Hao, Wenyan; Liu, Haiyi; Yin, Lin; Cai, Mingzhong

    2016-05-20

    A novel and highly efficient heterogeneous palladium-catalyzed carbonylative cross-coupling of aryl iodides with triarylbismuths has been developed that proceeds smoothly at atmospheric CO pressure and provides a general and powerful tool for the preparation of various valuable biaryl ketones with high atom economy, good to excellent yield, and recyclability of the catalyst. The reaction is the first example of Pd-catalyzed carbonylative cross-coupling for the construction of biaryl ketones using triarylbismuths as substrates. PMID:27129099

  3. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of 4-oxaspiro[2.4]heptanes via central attack of oxygen nucleophiles to π-allylpalladium intermediates.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Ryo; Ito, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Tamio

    2012-05-01

    A palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative cyclopropanation of γ-methylidene-δ-valerolactones with aromatic aldehydes has been developed to give 4-oxaspiro[2.4]heptanes with high selectivity. The site of nucleophilic attack to a π-allylpalladium intermediate has been controlled with a sterically demanding phosphine ligand. The course of the reaction is highly dependent on ligands and solvents, and selective formation of methylenetetrahydropyrans has also been realized. PMID:22530604

  4. Synthesis and structural characterization of [eta superscript 3]-allyl([alpha]-diimine)nickel(II) complexes bearing trimethylsilyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ionkin, Alex S.; Marshall, William J.

    2012-02-10

    A set of isomeric para- and meta-trimethylsilylphenyl ortho-substituted N,N-phenyl {alpha}-diimine ligands [(Ar-N C(Me)-(Me)C N-Ar) Ar=2,6-di(4-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl (16); Ar=2,6-di(3-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl (17)] have been synthesized through a two-step procedure. The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between 2,6-dibromophenylamine (7) and 4-trimethylsilylphenylboronic acid (8), 3-trimethylsilylphenylboronic acid (9) was used to prepare 4,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-[1,1;3,1]terphenyl-2-ylamine (10) and 3,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-[1,1;3,1]terphenyl-2-ylamine (11). The di-1-adamantylphosphine oxide Ad{sub 2}P(O)H (13) and di-tert-butyl-trimethylsilylanylmethylphosphine tert-Bu{sub 2}P-CH{sub 2}-SiMe{sub 3} (14) were used for the first time as ligands for the Suzuki coupling. The condensation of 2,2,3,3-tetramethoxybutane (15) with anilines 10 and 11 afforded {alpha}-diimines 16 and 17. The reaction of {pi}-allylnickel chloride dimer (18), {alpha}-diimines (16), (17) and sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BAF) (19) or silver hexafluoroantimonate (20) led to two sets of isomeric complexes [{eta}{sup 3}-allyl(Ar-N C(Me)-(Me)C N-Ar)Ni]{sup +} X{sup -}, [Ar=2,6-di(4-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl, X=BAF (3), X=SbF6 (4); Ar=2,6-di(3-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl, X=BAF (5), X=SbF6 (6)]. The steric repulsion of closely positioned trimethylsilyl groups in 4 caused the distortion of the nickel square planar coordination by 17.6{sup o} according to X-ray analysis.

  5. Catalytic deallylation of allyl- and diallylmalonates.

    PubMed

    Necas, David; Turský, Matyás; Kotora, Martin

    2004-08-25

    Substituted allylmalonates undergo the selective C-C bond cleavage in the presence of triethylaluminum and a catalytic amount of nickel and ruthenium phosphine complexes, resulting in the loss of the allyl moiety and formation of monosubstituted malonates. Comparison of reactivity of the nickel and ruthenium complexes showed that the use of the former is general with respect to the structure of the substituted allylmalonates, and the activity of the latter depended on the substitution pattern of the double bond of the allylic moiety. The smooth deallylation may encourage the use of the allyl group as a protective group for the acidic hydrogen in malonates. PMID:15315416

  6. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  7. Allyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl chloride ; CASRN 107 - 05 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Reversed-Polarity Synthesis of Diaryl Ketones through Palladium-Catalyzed Direct Arylation of 2-Aryl-1,3-dithianes

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Baris; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    An umpolung approach to the synthesis of diaryl ketones has been developed based on in situ generation of acyl anion equivalents and their catalytic arylation. This method entails the base promoted palladium catalyzed direct C–H arylation of 2 The resulting 2,2-diaryl-1,3-dithianes with aryl bromides. Use of MN(SiMe3)2 (M=Li, Na) base results in reversible deprotonation of the weakly acidic dithiane. In the presence of a Pd(NiXantphos)-based catalyst and aryl bromide, cross-coupling of the metallated 2-aryl-1,3-dithiane takes place under mild conditions (2 h at rt) with yields as high as 96%. The resulting 2,2-diaryl-1,3-dithianes were converted into diaryl ketones by either molecular iodine, N-bromo succinimide (NBS) or Selectfluor in the presence of water. The dithiane arylation/hydrolysis can be performed in a one-pot procedure to yield a good to excellent yields. This method is suitable for rapid and large-scale synthesis of diaryl ketones. A one-pot preparation of anti-cholesterol drug fenofibrate (TriCor®) has been achieved on 10.0 mmol scale in 86% yield. PMID:26185491

  9. NiXantphos: A Deprotonatable Ligand for Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Aryl Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-α-, and C(sp2)–H arylations. The advantages and importance of the Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides. PMID:24745758

  10. Polymer complexes. LVII. Supramolecular assemblies of novel polymer complexes of dioxouranium(VI) with some substituted allyl azo dye compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, M. A.; El-Sonbati, A. Z.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Balboula, M. Z.

    2013-05-01

    A novel method to synthesize some dioxouranium(VI) polymer complexes of the general formula [UO2(Ln)2(OAc)2] (where HLn = azo allyl rhodanine). The structure of the novel mononuclear dioxoutranium(VI) polymer complexes was characterized using elemental analysis, spectral (electronic, infrared, 1H &13C NMR) studies, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analysis. The molar conductivities show that all the polymer complexes are non-electrolytes. The IR showed that the ligand HLn act as bidentate neutral through carbonyl group and imine group nitrogen atom forming thereby a six-membered chelating ring and concomitant formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The υ3 frequency of UO2+2 has been shown to be an excellent molecular probe for studying the coordinating power of the ligands. The values of υ3 of the prepared complexes containing UO2+2 were successfully used to calculate the force constant, FUO (10-8 N/Å) and the bond length RUO (Å) of the Usbnd O bond. A strategy based upon both theoretical and experimental investigations has been adopted. The theoretical aspects are described in terms of the well-known theory of 5d-4f transitions. Wilson's, matrix method, Badger's formula, and Jones and El-Sonbati equations were used to calculate the Usbnd O bond distances from the values of the stretching and interaction force constants. The most probable correlation between Usbnd O force constant to Usbnd O bond distance were satisfactorily discussed in term of Badger's rule and the equations suggested by Jones and El-Sonbati. The effect of Hammet constant is also discussed.

  11. A Palladium-Catalyzed Method for the Synthesis of 2-(α-Styryl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones and 3-(α-Styryl)-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide: Access to 2-(α-Styryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones and 3-(α-Styryl)-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Priyanka; Mondal, Amrita; Chowdhury, Chinmay

    2016-08-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2-(α-styryl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones and 3-(α-styryl)-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides has been achieved in 39-94% yield through palladium-catalyzed cyclocondensation of aryl/vinyl iodides with allenamides 13-15 and 22, respectively. Base treatment of the N-tosylated products provides an easy access to 2-(α-styryl)quinazolin-4(3H)-ones and 3-(α-styryl)-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxides, hitherto unknown heterocycles. The method has been tested with phenyl substituted allenamides, applied for bis-heteroannulation, and used in the preparation of analogues of the natural product Luotonin F. PMID:27454621

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction of 2-Amino-N'-arylbenzohydrazides with Triethyl Orthobenzoates To Construct Indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiguang; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Jiuxi; Huang, Xiaobo; Liu, Miaochang; Gao, Wenxia; Ding, Jinchang; Wu, Huayue

    2015-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed sequential cyclization/C-H activation cascade reaction of 2-amino-N'-arylbenzohydrazides with triethyl orthobenzoates has been developed, providing indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinones in good to high yields. Two key intermediates of the reaction, 2-phenyl-3-(phenylamino)quinazolinone and C-H insertion palladacycle, were isolated, and their structures were unambiguously confirmed by X-ray crystallography. This method represents an unprecedented example of a halogen-free protocol to access indazolo[3,2-b]quinazolinones. Moreover, this chemistry also provides a useful tool for the discovery of fluorescent materials. PMID:25437529

  13. Synthesis of Benzofuro- and Indolo[3,2-b]indoles via Palladium-Catalyzed Double N-Arylation and Their Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Truong, Minh Anh; Nakano, Koji

    2015-11-20

    Two kinds of ladder-type π-conjugated compounds, benzofuro[3,2-b]indoles (BFIs) and indolo[3,2-b]indoles (IIs), were successfully synthesized using palladium-catalyzed double N-arylation of anilines with the corresponding dihalobiaryls. Photophysical properties were evaluated by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopies and theoretical calculations. BFI derivatives showed higher quantum yields (33-39%) than the II derivative (29%). The absorption bands of the II derivative were more red-shifted compared to BFI derivatives. PMID:26506120

  14. Palladium-catalyzed β-C(sp(3))-H arylation of phthaloyl alanine with hindered aryl iodides: synthesis of complex β-aryl α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuekai; He, Gang; Chen, Gong

    2016-06-28

    An efficient protocol for palladium-catalyzed β-C(sp(3))-H arylation of aliphatic carboxamides equipped with a 2-(2-pyridyl) ethylamine (PE) auxiliary was developed. The PE auxiliary is uniquely effective at facilitating the arylation of primary C(sp(3))-H bonds with sterically hindered aryl iodides. A variety of aryl iodides bearing alkoxyl, carbonyl, nitro and halogen groups on the ortho position can react with the PE-coupled phthaloyl alanine substrate in moderate to excellent yield. These reactions offer a useful solution for preparing complex β-aryl α-amino acid products from readily accessible starting materials. PMID:26781005

  15. B-N, B-O, and B-CN Bond Formation via Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of B-Bromo-Carboranes.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Rafal M; Saleh, Liban M A; Axtell, Jonathan C; Martin, Joshua L; Stevens, Simone L; Royappa, A Timothy; Rheingold, Arnold L; Spokoyny, Alexander M

    2016-07-27

    Carboranes are boron-rich molecules that can be functionalized through metal-catalyzed cross-coupling. Here, for the first time, we report the use of bromo-carboranes in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling for efficient B-N, B-O, and unprecedented B-CN bond formation. In many cases bromo-carboranes outperform the traditionally utilized iodo-carborane species. This marked difference in reactivity is leveraged to circumvent multistep functionalization by directly coupling small nucleophiles (-OH, -NH2, and -CN) and multiple functional groups onto the boron-rich clusters. PMID:27384544

  16. Facile Assembly of Benzo[b]naphtho[2,3-d]azocin-6(5 H)-ones by a Palladium-Catalyzed Double Carbometalation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xinxing; Chen, Mo; Yao, Liangqing; Wu, Jie

    2016-05-20

    The palladium-catalyzed reaction of 2-alkynylanilines with 2-(2-bromobenzylidene)cyclobutanone as an efficient route to 7,8-dihydrobenzo[b]naphtho[2,3-d]azocin-6(5 H)-ones was developed. The fused eight-membered ring was constructed conveniently. During the reaction process, double carbometalation was involved, which resulted in excellent selectivity with the formation of three new bonds. This transformation is highly efficient and leads to fused polycycles in good to excellent yields with good functional group tolerance. PMID:26991867

  17. Sequential Processes in Palladium-Catalyzed Silicon-Based Cross-Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Liu, Jack H.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Although developed somewhat later, silicon-based cross-coupling has become a viable alternative to the more conventional Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille-Kosugi-Migita, and Negishi cross-coupling reactions because of its broad substrate scope, high stability of silicon-containing reagents, and low toxicity of waste streams. An empowering and yet underappreciated feature unique to silicon-based cross-coupling is the wide range of sequential processes available. In these processes, simple precursors are first converted to complex silicon-containing cross-coupling substrates, and the subsequent silicon-based cross-coupling reaction affords an even more highly functionalized product in a stereoselective fashion. In so doing, structurally simple and inexpensive starting materials are quickly transformed into value-added and densely substituted products. Therefore, sequential processes are often useful in constructing the carbon backbones of natural products. In this review, studies of sequential processes involving silicon-based cross-coupling are discussed. Additionally, the total syntheses that utilize these sequential processes are also presented. PMID:23293392

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of α-chiral allylic silanes by enantioconvergent γ-selective copper(I)-catalyzed allylic silylation.

    PubMed

    Delvos, Lukas B; Vyas, Devendra J; Oestreich, Martin

    2013-04-22

    Gamma way: Regio- and enantioselective allylic substitution with a silicon nucleophile generated by copper(I)-catalyzed Si-B bond activation provides direct access to α-chiral allylic silanes from linear acceptors. The enantioconvergent catalysis employing McQuade's six-membered N-heterocyclic-carbene-copper(I) catalyst is applicable to aryl- and alkyl-substituted allylic phosphates (see scheme). PMID:23512610

  19. A tetra-substituted chrysene: orientation of multiple electrophilic substitution and use of a tetra-substituted chrysene as a blue emitter for OLEDs.

    PubMed

    Ionkin, Alex S; Marshall, William J; Fish, Brian M; Bryman, Lois M; Wang, Ying

    2008-05-28

    The first tetra-substituted non-fused chrysene, 3,6,9,12-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)chrysene with blue electroluminescence at 450 nm, and with a radiance of 500 cd m(-2), was synthesized by a two-step procedure: direct bromination of chrysene in trimethyl phosphate, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of tetrabromochrysene and tert-butylphenylboronic acid . PMID:18473056

  20. Regiodivergent Addition of Phenols to Allylic Oxides

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarello, David N.; Moschitto, Matthew J.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    The regiodivergent addition of substituted phenols to allylic-oxides has been demonstrated using C2-symmetric palladium complexes. Complex phenol donors tyrosine, estradiol, and griseofulvin follow the predictive model. The Tsuji-Trost reaction is a powerful method to append both O- and C-donors to η3-allyl systems.1 The η3-allyl progenitor structures include allylic esters, carbonates, halides, and oxides. Internal allylic oxides2 remain one of the few systems that retain a marker of stereochemical induction with the newly liberated carbinol. The origin of the products can be traced to the diastereomeric η3-allyl intermediate and stereoisomer of oxide employed. We have recently identified3 a system capable of the conversion of racemic allylic oxides to distinct enantioenriched regioisomers using achiral phenol donors (Scheme 1). The allylic oxide regio-resolution (AORR) allowed the preparation of enantioenriched carbasugar natural products. We have now expanded this study to include a diverse array of achiral and chiral phenol donors. PMID:25933102

  1. Spiro-fused carbohydrate oxazoline ligands: Synthesis and application as enantio-discrimination agents in asymmetric allylic alkylation.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Jochen; Golkowski, Martin; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we describe a convenient synthesis of spiro-fused D-fructo- and D-psico-configurated oxazoline ligands and their application in asymmetric catalysis. The ligands were synthesized from readily available 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose and 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-psicopyranose, respectively. The latter compounds were partially deprotected under acidic conditions followed by condensation with thiocyanic acid to give an anomeric mixture of the corresponding 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones. The anomeric 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones were separated after successive benzylation, fully characterized and subjected to palladium catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with 2-pyridineboronic acid N-phenyldiethanolamine ester to give the corresponding 2-pyridyl spiro-oxazoline (PyOx) ligands. The spiro-oxazoline ligands showed high asymmetric induction (up to 93% ee) when applied as chiral ligands in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallyl acetate with dimethyl malonate. The D-fructo-PyOx ligand provided mainly the (R)-enantiomer while the D-psico-configurated ligand gave the (S)-enantiomer with a lower enantiomeric excess. PMID:26877819

  2. Spiro-fused carbohydrate oxazoline ligands: Synthesis and application as enantio-discrimination agents in asymmetric allylic alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Jochen; Golkowski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary In the present work, we describe a convenient synthesis of spiro-fused D-fructo- and D-psico-configurated oxazoline ligands and their application in asymmetric catalysis. The ligands were synthesized from readily available 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-fructopyranose and 3,4,5-tri-O-benzyl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-β-D-psicopyranose, respectively. The latter compounds were partially deprotected under acidic conditions followed by condensation with thiocyanic acid to give an anomeric mixture of the corresponding 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones. The anomeric 1,3-oxazolidine-2-thiones were separated after successive benzylation, fully characterized and subjected to palladium catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura coupling with 2-pyridineboronic acid N-phenyldiethanolamine ester to give the corresponding 2-pyridyl spiro-oxazoline (PyOx) ligands. The spiro-oxazoline ligands showed high asymmetric induction (up to 93% ee) when applied as chiral ligands in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallyl acetate with dimethyl malonate. The D-fructo-PyOx ligand provided mainly the (R)-enantiomer while the D-psico-configurated ligand gave the (S)-enantiomer with a lower enantiomeric excess. PMID:26877819

  3. An Electron-Poor C64 Nanographene by Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade C-C Bond Formation: One-Pot Synthesis and Single-Crystal Structure Analysis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Sabine; Shoyama, Kazutaka; Schmidt, David; Würthner, Frank

    2016-05-23

    Herein, we report the one-pot synthesis of an electron-poor nanographene containing dicarboximide groups at the corners. We efficiently combined palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and dehydrohalogenation to synthesize an extended two-dimensional π-scaffold of defined size in a single chemical operation starting from N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-4,5-dibromo-1,8-naphthalimide and a tetrasubstituted pyrene boronic acid ester as readily accessible starting materials. The reaction of these precursors under the conditions commonly used for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling afforded a C64 nanographene through the formation of ten C-C bonds in a one-pot process. Single-crystal X-ray analysis unequivocally confirmed the structure of this unique extended aromatic molecule with a planar geometry. The optical and electrochemical properties of this largest ever synthesized planar electron-poor nanographene skeleton were also analyzed. PMID:27058998

  4. Double C-H functionalization in sequential order: direct synthesis of polycyclic compounds by a palladium-catalyzed C-H alkenylation-arylation cascade.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hiroaki; Iuchi, Mutsumi; Kojima, Naoto; Yoshimitsu, Takehiko; Fujii, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Tetsuaki

    2012-04-23

    Palladium-catalyzed cascade C-H alkenylation and arylation provides convenient access to polycyclic aromatic compounds. Treatment of 3-bromoaniline derivatives bearing a bromocinnamyl group on the nitrogen atom with a catalytic amount of [Pd(OAc)(2)] and PCy(3)·HBF(4) in the presence of Cs(2)CO(3) in dioxane affords naphthalene-fused indole derivatives in good yields. This double cyclization reaction is also applicable to heterocyclic substrates, giving fused indoles containing a heteroaromatic ring such as dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, carbazole, indole, or benzofuran through heterocyclic C-H arylation. When using a 2,6-unsubstituted aniline derivative, the first C-H arylation preferentially proceeds at the more hindered position of the aniline ring. PMID:22422703

  5. Synthesis of steroid-ferrocene conjugates of steroidal 17-carboxamides via a palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation--copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction sequence.

    PubMed

    Szánti-Pintér, Eszter; Balogh, János; Csók, Zsolt; Kollár, László; Gömöry, Agnes; Skoda-Földes, Rita

    2011-11-01

    Steroids with the 17-iodo-16-ene functionality were converted to ferrocene labeled steroidal 17-carboxamides via a two step reaction sequence. The first step involved the palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of the alkenyl iodides with prop-2-yn-1-amine as the nucleophile in the presence of the Pd(OAc)(2)/PPh(3) catalyst system. In the second step, the product N-(prop-2-ynyl)-carboxamides underwent a facile azide-alkyne cycloaddition with ferrocenyl azides in the presence of CuSO(4)/sodium ascorbate to produce the steroid-ferrocene conjugates. The new compounds were obtained in good yield and were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis. PMID:21787798

  6. Accessing Molecularly Complex Azaborines: Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Couplings of Brominated 2,1-Borazaronaphthalenes and Potassium Organotrifluoroborates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential applications in both medicinal chemistry and materials science, there have been limited reports on the functionalization of 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes since their discovery in 1959. To access new chemical space and build molecular complexity, the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling of brominated 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes has been investigated. The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling proceeds with an array of potassium (hetero)aryltrifluoroborates in high yield with low catalyst loadings under mild reaction conditions. By the use of a high-yielding bromination of various 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes to generate electrophilic azaborine species, a library of 3-(hetero)aryl and 3,6-diaryl-2,1-borazaronaphthalenes has been synthesized. PMID:24984003

  7. Rapid Access to 2,2'-Bithiazole-Based Copolymers via Sequential Palladium-Catalyzed C-H/C-X and C-H/C-H Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiang; Jiang, Ruyong; Wu, Di; You, Jingsong

    2016-05-01

    A rapid access to 2,2'-bithiazole-based copolymers has been developed on the basis of the sequential palladium-catalyzed CH/CX and CH/CH coupling reactions. To assemble a "copolymer" through homopolymerization, a type of symmetric A-B-A-type building block is designed as the monomer and prepared via the regioselective C5H arylation of thiazole. A PdCl2 /CuCl-cocatalyzed oxidative CH/CH homopolymerization has been established to afford the 2,2'-bithiazole-based copolymers with high Mn (up to 69400). The current protocol features atom- and step-economy and exhibits a potential in the highly efficient construction of conjugated copolymers. PMID:27000723

  8. Temperature-controlled redox-neutral ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed regioselective allylation of benzamides with allylic acetates.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Rajendran; Jeganmohan, Masilamani

    2016-08-10

    Substituted aromatic amides reacted efficiently with allylic acetates in the presence of a cationic ruthenium complex in ClCH2CH2Cl at room temperature providing ortho allylated benzamides in a highly regioselective manner without any oxidant and base. The whole catalytic reaction occurred in a Ru(ii) oxidation state and thus the oxidation step is avoided. By tuning the reaction temperature, ortho allyl and vinyl benzamides were prepared exclusively. Later, ortho allyl and vinylated benzamides were converted into biologically useful six- and five-membered benzolactones in the presence of HCl. PMID:27456467

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed C8-Selective C–H Arylation of Quinoline N-Oxides: Insights into the Electronic, Steric, and Solvation Effects on the Site Selectivity by Mechanistic and DFT Computational Studies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report herein a palladium-catalyzed C–H arylation of quinoline N-oxides that proceeds with high selectivity in favor of the C8 isomer. This site selectivity is unusual for palladium, since all of the hitherto described methods of palladium-catalyzed C–H functionalization of quinoline N-oxides are highly C2 selective. The reaction exhibits a broad synthetic scope with respect to quinoline N-oxides and iodoarenes and can be significantly accelerated to subhour reaction times under microwave irradiation. The C8-arylation method can be carried out on a gram scale and has excellent functional group tolerance. Mechanistic and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies provide evidence for the cyclopalladation pathway and describe key parameters influencing the site selectivity. PMID:25580364

  10. 5-Methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide-Directed Palladium-Catalyzed γ-C(sp(3))-H Acetoxylation and Application to the Synthesis of γ-Mercapto Amino Acids for Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Pasunooti, Kalyan Kumar; Yang, Renliang; Banerjee, Biplab; Yap, Terence; Liu, Chuan-Fa

    2016-06-01

    Palladium-catalyzed acetoxylation of the primary γ-C(sp(3))-H bonds in the amino acids Val, Thr, and Ile was achieved using a newly discovered 5-methylisoxazole-3-carboxamide directing group. The γ-acetoxylated α-amino acid derivatives could be easily converted to γ-mercapto amino acids, which are useful for native chemical ligation (NCL). The first application of NCL at isoleucine in the semisynthesis of a Xenopus histone H3 protein was also demonstrated. PMID:27218276

  11. Palladium-catalyzed double C-H activation: one-pot synthesis of benzo[c]pyrazolo[1,2-a]cinnolin-1-ones from 5-pyrazolones and aryl iodides.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhoulong; Wu, Kui; Xing, Li; Yao, Qizheng; Zhang, Ao

    2014-02-18

    A palladium-catalyzed dual C-H activation to construct C-C/C-N bonds for one-pot synthesis of benzo[c]pyrazolo[1,2-a]cinnolin-1-ones is successfully developed. This approach involves using a pyrazolone moiety as an internal directing group for C-H activation, and provides a flexible strategy to access this polycyclic skeleton. PMID:24394189

  12. Palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of amides by carbon-nitrogen cleavage: general strategy for amide N-C bond activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Guangrong; Szostak, Michal

    2016-06-15

    The first palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of amides with boronic acids for the synthesis of ketones by sterically-controlled N-C bond activation is reported. The transformation is characterized by operational simplicity using bench-stable, commercial reagents and catalysts, and a broad substrate scope, including substrates with electron-donating and withdrawing groups on both coupling partners, steric-hindrance, heterocycles, halides, esters and ketones. The scope and limitations are presented in the synthesis of >60 functionalized ketones. Mechanistic studies provide insight into the catalytic cycle of the cross-coupling, including the first experimental evidence for Pd insertion into the amide N-C bond. The synthetic utility is showcased by a gram-scale cross-coupling and cross-coupling at room temperature. Most importantly, this process provides a blueprint for the development of a plethora of metal catalyzed reactions of typically inert amide bonds via acyl-metal intermediates. A unified strategy for amide bond activation to enable metal insertion into N-C amide bond is outlined (). PMID:26864384

  13. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Chiral Allylic Esters

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Jeffrey S.; Kirsch, Stefan F.; Overman, Larry E.

    2010-01-01

    A broadly useful catalytic enantioselective synthesis of branched allylic esters from prochiral (Z)-2-alkene-1-ols has been developed. The starting allylic alcohol is converted to its trichloroacetimidate intermediate by reaction with trichloroacetonitrile, either in situ or in a separate step, and this intermediate undergoes clean enantioselective SN2′ substitution with a variety of carboxylic acids in the presence of the palladium(II) catalyst (Rp,S)-di-μ -acetatobis[(η5-2-(2'-(4'-methylethyl)oxazolinyl)cyclopentadienyl,1-C,3'-N)(η4-tetraphenylcyclobutadiene)cobalt]dipalladium, (Rp,S)-[COP-OAc]2 or its enantiomer. The scope and limitations of this useful catalytic asymmetric allylic esterification are defined. PMID:15740118

  14. Synthesis of imides via palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of α-oxocarboxylic acids with secondary amides.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Liu, Jie; Li, Dengke; Wang, Lei

    2016-05-18

    An efficient synthesis of imides has been developed through a Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of α-oxocarboxylic acids with secondary amides. The reactions of N-substituted N-heteroarene-2-carboxamides with 2-oxo-2-arylacetic acids proceeded smoothly to generate the corresponding products in good yields in the presence of Pd(OAc)2 and K2S2O8. PMID:27143171

  15. Syntheses and Transformations of α-Amino Acids via Palladium-Catalyzed Auxiliary-Directed sp(3) C-H Functionalization.

    PubMed

    He, Gang; Wang, Bo; Nack, William A; Chen, Gong

    2016-04-19

    α-Amino acids (αAA) are one of the most useful chiral building blocks for synthesis. There are numerous general strategies that have commonly been used for αAA synthesis, many of which employ de novo synthesis focused on enantioselective bond construction around the Cα center and others that consider conversion of existing αAA precursors carrying suitable functional groups on side chains (e.g., serine and aspartic acid). Despite significant advances in synthetic methodology, the efficient synthesis of enantiopure αAAs carrying complex side chains, as seen in numerous peptide natural products, remains challenging. Complementary to these "conventional" strategies, a strategy based on the selective functionalization of side chain C-H bonds, particularly sp(3) hybridized C-H bonds, of various readily available αAA precursors may provide a more straightforward and broadly applicable means for the synthesis and transformation of αAAs. However, many hurdles related to the low reactivity of C(sp(3))-H bonds and the difficulty of controlling selectivity must be overcome to realize the potential of C-H functionalization chemistry in this synthetic application. Over the past few years, we have carried out a systematic investigation of palladium-catalyzed bidentate auxiliary-directed C-H functionalization reactions for αAA substrates. Our strategies utilize two different types of amide-linked auxiliary groups, attached at the N or C terminus of αAA substrates, to exert complementary regio- and stereocontrol on C-H functionalization reactions through palladacycle intermediates. A variety of αAA precursors can undergo multiple modes of C(sp(3))-H functionalization, including arylation, alkenylation, alkynylation, alkylation, alkoxylation, and intramolecular aminations, at the β, γ, and even δ positions to form new αAA products with diverse structures. In addition to transforming αAAs at previously unreachable positions, these palladium-catalyzed C

  16. Synthesis of a Series of γ-Keto Allyl Phosphonates.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Haitham; Ayadi, Marwa; Bouajila, Jalloul; Rezgui, Farhat

    2016-03-01

    Under solvent-free conditions and at 80 °C, a DMAP- or imidazole-mediated clean and rapid conversion of cyclic Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) acetates into the corresponding γ-keto allyl phosphonates in 70-93% yields is described herein. This allylic nucleophilic substitution works well with primary and secondary acetates bearing, at the β'-position, linear or branched alkyl groups and aryl groups. PMID:26872500

  17. Benzannulation via the Reaction of Ynamides and Vinylketenes. Application to the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Indoles

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tin Yiu; Wang, Yu-Pu

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage “tandem strategy” for the synthesis of indoles with a high level of substitution on the six-membered ring is described. Benzannulation based on the reaction of cyclobutenones with ynamides proceeds via a cascade of four pericyclic reactions to produce multiply substituted aniline derivatives in which the position ortho to the nitrogen can bear a wide range of functionalized substituents. In the second stage of the tandem strategy, highly substituted indoles are generated via acid-, base-, and palladium-catalyzed cyclization and annulation processes. PMID:23952525

  18. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed halogenation of unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinglin; Sun, Yonghui; Sun, Tian-Yu; Rao, Yu

    2016-05-11

    The direct transformation of unactivated C(sp(3))-H bonds into C-halogen bonds was achieved by palladium catalysis at room temperature with good functional group tolerance. Some drugs and natural products were readily modified by this method. Merged with substitution reaction, newly formed C-X bonds can be transformed into diverse C-O, C-S, C-C and C-N bonds. A preliminary mechanism study demonstrates that solvent is crucial for C-H activation and the C-H activation step is involved in the rate-limiting step. An isolated Pd(ii) intermediate can be transformed into a halogenated product with the retention of conformation which suggests that concerted reductive elimination from Pd(iv) to form a C-X bond was favored. PMID:27095147

  19. Ortho-Functionalized Aryltetrazines by Direct Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Halogenation: Application to Fast Electrophilic Fluorination Reactions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Christelle; Gigot, Élodie; Genc, Semra; Decréau, Richard; Roger, Julien; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille

    2016-04-25

    A general catalyzed direct C-H functionalization of s-tetrazines is reported. Under mild reaction conditions, N-directed ortho-C-H activation of tetrazines allows the introduction of various functional groups, thus forming carbon-heteroatom bonds: C-X (X=I, Br, Cl) and C-O. Based on this methodology, we developed electrophilic mono- and poly-ortho-fluorination of tetrazines. Microwave irradiation was optimized to afford fluorinated s-aryltetrazines, with satisfactory selectivity, within only ten minutes. This work provides an efficient and practical entry for further accessing highly substituted tetrazine derivatives (iodo, bromo, chloro, fluoro, and acetate precursors). It gives access to ortho-functionalized aryltetrazines which are difficult to obtain by classical Pinner-like syntheses. PMID:27010438

  20. Rapid Access to Spirocyclic Oxindole Alkaloids: Application of the Asymmetric Palladium-Catalyzed [3+2] Trimethylenemethane Cycloaddition

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Bringley, Dustin A.; Zhang, Ting; Cramer, Nicolai

    2013-01-01

    The marcfortines are complex secondary metabolites that show potent anthelmintic activity and are characterized by the presence of a bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane fused to a spirooxindole. Herein, we report the synthesis of two members of this family. The synthesis of marcfortine B utilizes a carboxylative TMM cycloaddition to establish the spirocyclic core, followed by an intramolecular Michael addition and oxidative radical cyclization to access the strained bicyclic ring system. In addition, the first asymmetric synthesis of (–)-marcfortine C is described. The key step involves a cyano-substituted TMM cycloaddition, which proceeds in nearly quantitative yield with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. The resulting chiral center was used to establish all remaining stereocenters in the natural product. PMID:24083654

  1. The Palladium Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Oxindoles and Allenes: an Atom-Economical Versatile Method for the Construction of Chiral Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Barry M.; Xie, Jia; Sieber, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    The Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) is one of the most useful and versatile methods for asymmetric synthesis known in organometallic chemistry. Development of this reaction over the past 30 years has typically relied on the use of an allylic electrophile bearing an appropriate leaving group to access the reactive Pd(π-allyl) intermediate that goes on to the desired coupling product after attack by the nucleophile present in the reaction. Our group has been interested in developing alternative approaches to access the reactive Pd(π-allyl) intermediate that does not require the use of an activated electrophile, which ultimately generates a stoichiometric byproduct in the reaction that is derived from the leftover leaving group. Along these lines, we have demonstrated that allenes can be used to generate the reactive Pd(π-allyl) intermediate in the presence of an acid cocatalyst, and this system is compatible with nucleophiles to allow for formation of formal AAA products by Pd-catalyzed additions to allenes. This article describes our work regarding the use of oxindoles as carbon-based nucleophiles in a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric addition of oxindoles to allenes (Pd-catalyzed hydrocarbonation of allenes). By using the chiral standard Trost ligand (L1) and 3-aryloxindoles as nucleophiles, this hydrocarbonation reaction provides products with two vicinal stereocenters, with one being quaternary, in excellent chemo-, regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselectivities in high chemical yields. PMID:22070545

  2. Chiral Ferrocenyl P,N-Ligands for Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Formal [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of Propargylic Esters with β-Ketoesters: Access to Functionalized Chiral 2,3-Dihydrofurans.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhen-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Mao; Hu, Xiang-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A highly enantioselective palladium-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of propargylic esters with β-ketoesters has been realized by employing a newly developed chiral ferrocene/benzimidazole-based P,N-ligand. This protocol features a good tolerance of functional groups in both propargylic esters and β-ketoesters, thereby delivering a variety of highly functionalized chiral 2,3-dihydrofurans bearing an exocyclic double bond at the 3-position in good yields and with high enantioselectivities (up to 98% ee). PMID:27194080

  3. The synthesis of substituted phosphathiahelicenes via regioselective bromination of a preformed helical scaffold: a new approach to modular ligands for enantioselective gold-catalysis.

    PubMed

    Aillard, Paul; Dova, Davide; Magné, Valentin; Retailleau, Pascal; Cauteruccio, Silvia; Licandro, Emanuela; Voituriez, Arnaud; Marinetti, Angela

    2016-09-21

    Substituted phosphathiahelicenes have been prepared via a straightforward two-step procedure involving the regioselective bromination of a preformed helical scaffold, followed by palladium catalyzed coupling reactions. The new helicenes have been used as ligands in gold(i)-catalyzed [4+2] cyclizations of 1,6-enynes. The resulting dihydro-cyclopenta[b]naphthalene derivative was obtained in excellent yields and with up to 91% ee. PMID:27534612

  4. A DFT study on PBu3-catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles for the formation of functionalized pyrrolidines: mechanisms, selectivities, and the role of catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linjie; Tang, Mingsheng; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaokang; Wei, Donghui; Qiao, Yan

    2016-03-21

    The mechanisms and chemo- and stereo-selectivities of PBu3-catalyzed intramolecular cyclizations of N-allylic substituted α-amino nitriles leading to functionalized pyrrolidines (5-endo-trig cyclization, Mechanism A) and their competing reaction leading to another kind of pyrrolidine (5-exo-trig cyclization, Mechanism B) have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Multiple possible reaction pathways associated with four different isomers (RR, SR, RS, and SS) for Mechanism A, and two isomers (R and S) for Mechanism B have been studied. The calculated results indicate that the Gibbs free energy barriers of Mechanism A are remarkably lower than those of Mechanism B, and the reaction pathway leading to the RS-configured product has the lowest Gibbs free energy barrier, which is in agreement with the experiments. A C-Hπ interaction has been identified to be responsible for the favorability of RS isomers by non-covalent interaction (NCI) analysis. Moreover, global reaction indexes (GRIs) and NBO analyses confirm that PBu3 acts as a Lewis base to strengthen the nucleophilicity of the reaction active site. The mechanistic insights gained in the present study should be valuable for the rational design of effective organocatalysts for this kind of reaction with high chemo- and stereo-selectivities. PMID:26911423

  5. Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Allylic Silanes from Allylic Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Ralph; Nishikata, Takashi; Lipshutz, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    Allylic phenyl ethers serve as electrophiles towards Pd(0) en route to a variety of allylic silanes. The reactions can be run at room temperature in water as the only medium using micellar catalysis. PMID:19950911

  6. Asymmetric allylic substitution catalyzed by C1-symmetrical complexes of molybdenum: structural requirements of the ligand and the stereochemical course of the reaction.

    PubMed

    Malkov, Andrei V; Gouriou, Laure; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; Starý, Ivo; Langer, Vratislav; Spoor, Paul; Vinader, Victoria; Kocovský, Pavel

    2006-09-01

    Application of new chiral ligands (R)-(-)-12 a and (S)-(+)-12 c (VALDY), derived from amino acids, to the title reaction, involving cinnamyl (linear) and isocinnamyl (branched) type substrates (4 and 5 --> 6), led to excellent regio- and enantioselectivities (>30:1, < or =98 % ee), showing that ligands with a single chiral center are capable of high asymmetric induction. The structural requirements of the ligand and the mechanism are discussed. The application of single enantiomers of deuterium-labeled substrates (both linear 38 c and branched 37 c) and analysis of the products (41-43) by (2)H{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy in a chiral liquid crystal matrix allowed the stereochemical pathways of the reaction to be distinguished. With ligand (S)-(+)-12 c, the matched enantiomer of branched substrate was found to be (S)-5, which was converted into (R)-6 with very high regio- and stereoselectivity via a process that involves net retention of stereochemistry. The mismatched enantiomer of the branched substrate was found to be (R)-5, which was also converted into (R)-6, that is, with apparent net inversion, but at a lower rate and with lower overall enantioselectivity. This latter feature, which may be termed a "memory effect", reduced the global enantioselectivity in the reaction of the racemic substrate (+/-)-5. The stereochemical pathway of the mismatched manifold has been shown also to be one of net retention, the apparent inversion occurring through equilibration via an Mo-allyl intermediate prior to nucleophilic attack. Incomplete equilibration leads to the memory effect and thus to lower enantioselectivity. Analysis of the mismatched manifold over the course of the reaction revealed that the memory effect is progressively attenuated with the nascent global selectivity increasing substantially as the reaction proceeds. The origin of this effect is suggested to be the depletion of CO sources in the reaction mixture, which attenuates turnover rate and thus facilitates

  7. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Allylic Dearomatization of Indoles by a Formal [4+2] Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Run-Duo; Xu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Bo; Gu, Yiting; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-08-01

    Bridged indoline derivatives were synthesized by an intermolecular Pd-catalyzed allylic dearomatization reaction of substituted indoles. The reaction between indoles and allyl carbonates bearing a nucleophilic alcohol side-chain proceeds in a cascade fashion, providing bridged indolines in excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:27321285

  8. Trifluoromethylallylation of Heterocyclic C-H Bonds with Allylic Carbonates under Rhodium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Miji; Park, Jihye; Sharma, Satyasheel; Jo, Hyeim; Han, Sangil; Jeon, Mijin; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Han, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, In Su

    2016-06-01

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed γ-trifluoromethylallylation of various heterocyclic C-H bonds with CF3-substituted allylic carbonates is described. These reactions provide direct access to linear CF3-containing allyl frameworks with complete trans-selectivity via C-H bond activation followed by a formal SN-type reaction pathway. PMID:27187625

  9. PHOTOOXIDATION OF ALLYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photooxidation of allyl chloride was studied by irradiation either in 100-L Teflon bags or in a 22.7-cu m Teflon smog chamber in the presence of added NOx. In the absence of added hydrocarbons, the reaction involves a Cl atom chain, which leads to a highly reactive system. A ...

  10. Probing the mechanism of allylic substitution of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates (MBHAs) by using the silyl phosphonite paradigm: scope and applications of a versatile transformation.

    PubMed

    Kalyva, Maria; Zografos, Alexandros L; Kapourani, Era; Giambazolias, Evaggelos; Devel, Laurent; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Dive, Vincent; Lazarou, Yannis G; Georgiadis, Dimitris

    2015-02-16

    A P-C bond-forming reaction between silyl phosphonites and Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates (MBHAs) is explored as a general alternative towards medicinally relevant β-carboxyphosphinic structural motifs. Conversion rates of diversely substituted MBHAs to phosphinic acids 9 or 14 that were recorded by using (31) P NMR spectroscopy revealed unexpected reactivity differences between ester and nitrile derivatives. These kinetic profiles and DFT calculations support a mechanistic scenario in which observed differences can be explained from the "lateness" of transition states. In addition, we provide experimental evidence suggesting that enolates due to initial P-Michael addition are not formed. Based on the proposed mechanistic scenario in conjunction with DFT calculations, an interpretation of the E/Z stereoselectivity differences between ester and nitriles is proposed. Synthetic opportunities stemming from this transformation are presented, which deal with the preparation of several synthetically capricious phosphinic building blocks, whose access through the classical P-Michael synthetic route is not straightforward. PMID:25641366

  11. Palladium Catalyzed Reduction of Nitrobenzene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangravite, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Compares two palladium (Pd/C) reducing systems to iron/tin-hydrochloric acid (Fe/HCl and Sn/HCl) reductions and suggests an efficient, clean, and inexpensive procedures for the conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline. Includes laboratory procedures used and discussion of typical results obtained. (JN)

  12. Palladium-catalyzed Reppe carbonylation.

    PubMed

    Kiss, G

    2001-11-01

    PdX2L2/L/HA (A = weakly coordinating anion, L = phosphine) complexes are active catalysts in the hydroesterification of alkenes, alkynes, and conjugated dienes. Shell, the only major corporate player in the field, recently developed two very active catalyst systems tailored to the hydroesterification of either alkenes or alkynes. The hydroesterification of propyne with their Pd(OAc)2/PN/HA (PN = (2-pyridyl)diphenylphosphine, HA = strong acid with weakly coordinating anion, like methanesulfonic acid) catalyst has been declared commercially ready. However, despite the significant progress in the activity of Pd-hydroesterification catalysts, further improvements are warranted. Thus, for example, activity maintenance still seems to be an issue. Homogeneous Pd catalysts are prone to a number of deactivation reactions. Activity and stability promoters are often corrosive and add to the complexity of the system, making it less attractive. Nonetheless, the versatility of the process and its tolerance toward the functional groups of substrates should appeal especially to the makers of specialty products. Although hydroesterification yields esters from alkenes, alkynes, and dienes in fewer steps than hydroformylation does, the latter has some advantages at the current state of the art. (1) Hydroformylation catalysts, particularly some recently published phosphine-modified Rh systems, can achieve very high regioselectivity for the linear product that hydroesterification catalysts cannot match yet. By analogy with hydroformylation, bulkier ligands ought to be tested in hydroesterification to increase normal-ester selectivity. (2) Hydroformylation is proven, commercial. Hydroesterification can only replace it if it can provide significant economic incentives. Similar or just marginally better performance could not justify the cost of development of a new technology. (3) Hydroesterification requires pure CO while hydroformylation uses syngas, a mixture of CO and H2. The latter is typically more available and less expensive (for industrial applications CO is most often separated from syngas). (4) The acid component of the hydroesterification catalyst makes the process corrosive. It would be desirable to develop new hydroesterification catalysts that do not require acid stabilizer/activity booster. Clearly, any new hydroesterification technology will directly compete with the hydroformylation route. This is especially true for olefin feeds, since both processes add one CO to the olefin, yielding oxygenates that can be converted into identical products. For some niche applications, like the production of MMA from propyne, hydroesterification seems to have an advantage as compared to hydroformylation due to the high activity and selectivity of the Pd(OAc)2/(2-pyridyl)diphenylphosphine catalyst. Since hydroesterification is an emerging technology, it is reasonable to assume that the potential for improvement is greater than in the mature hydroformylation. It is therefore possible that hydroesterification will become competitive in the future; thus, continued effort in the field is warranted. PMID:11840990

  13. A Concomitant Allylic Azide Rearrangement/Intramolecular Azide–Alkyne Cycloaddition Sequence

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An intramolecular Huisgen cycloaddition of an interconverting set of isomeric allylic azides with alkynes affords substituted triazoles in high yield. The stereoisomeric vinyl-substituted triazoloxazines formed depend on the rate of cycloaddition of the different allylic azide precursors when the reaction is carried out under thermal conditions. In contrast, dimerized macrocyclic products were obtained when the reaction was done using copper(I)-catalyzed conditions, demonstrating the ability to control the reaction products through changing conditions. PMID:24635056

  14. Mild and Site-Selective Allylation of Enol Carbamates with Allylic Carbonates under Rhodium Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Oh, Yongguk; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Han, Sangil; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Su

    2016-03-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed mild and site-selective C-H allylation of enol carbamates with 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one and allylic carbonates affords allylic alcohols and terminal allylated products, respectively. The assistance of the carbamoyl directing group provides a straightforward preparation of biologically and synthetically important allylated enol carbamates. PMID:26906724

  15. Regiodivergent Addition of Phenols to Allylic Oxides: Control of 1,2 and 1,4-Additions for Cyclitol Synthesis**

    PubMed Central

    Moschitto, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, David N.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Control of 1,2- and 1,4-addition of substituted phenols to allylic oxides is achieved by intercepting palladium π-allyl complexes. The interconversion of palladium complexes results in the total synthesis of MK7607, cyathiformine B type, streptol, and a new cyclitol. PMID:25533617

  16. The Reaction of Carbon Dioxide with Palladium Allyl Bonds

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianguo; Green, Jennifer C.; Hruszkewycz, Damian P.; Incarvito, Christopher D.; Schmeier, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    A family of palladium allyl complexes of the type bis(2-methylallyl)Pd(L) (L = PMe3 (1), PEt3 (2), PPh3 (3) or NHC (4); NHC = 1,3-Bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-imidazol-2-ylidene) have been prepared through the reaction of bis(2-methylallyl)Pd with the appropriate free ligand. Compounds 1–4 contain one η1 and one η3-2-methylallyl ligand and 3 was characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes react rapidly with CO2 at low temperature to form well defined unidentate palladium carboxylates of the type (η3-2-methylallyl)Pd(OC(O)C4H7)(L) (L = PMe3 (6), PEt3 (7), PPh3 (8) or NHC (9). The structure of 9 was elucidated using X-ray crystallography. The mechanism of the reaction of 1–4 with CO2 was probed using a combination of experimental and theoretical (density functional theory) studies. The coordination mode of the allyl ligand is crucial and whereas nucleophilic η1-allyls react rapidly with CO2, η3-allyls do not react. We propose that the reaction of η1-palladium allyls with CO2 does not proceed via direct insertion of CO2 into the Pd-C bond but through nucleophilic attack of the terminal olefin on electrophilic CO2, followed by an associative substitution at palladium. PMID:21218132

  17. Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jian; Liu, Xiaowu; Zhang, Shaolin; Jiang, Shuang; Huang, Minhao; Wu, Xiaoxing; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-04-27

    An efficient copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation of trisubstituted allylic and homoallylic alcohols with Togni's reagent has been developed. This strategy, accompanied by a double-bond migration, leads to various branched CF3-substituted alcohols by using readily available trisubstituted cyclic/acyclic alcohols as substrates. Moreover, for alcohols in which β-H elimination is prohibited, CF3-containing oxetanes are isolated as the sole product. PMID:25810003

  18. Synthesis of 2,3-Disubstituted Benzo[b]furans by the Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling of o-Iodoanisoles and Terminal Alkynes, Followed by Electrophilic Cyclization

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Dawei; Yao, Tuanli; Larock, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Disubstituted benzo[b]furans are readily prepared under very mild reaction conditions by the palladium/copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of various o-iodoanisoles and terminal alkynes, followed by electrophilic cyclization using I2, PhSeCl or p-O2NC6H4SCl. Aryl- and vinylic-substituted alkynes undergo electrophilic cyclization in excellent yields. Biologically important furopyridines can be prepared by this approach in high yields. PMID:16323837

  19. Branching Out: Rhodium-Catalyzed Allylation with Alkynes and Allenes.

    PubMed

    Koschker, Philipp; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-08-16

    We present a new and efficient strategy for the atom-economic transformation of both alkynes and allenes to allylic functionalized structures via a Rh-catalyzed isomerization/addition reaction which has been developed in our working group. Our methodology thus grants access to an important structural class valued in modern organic chemistry for both its versatility for further functionalization and the potential for asymmetric synthesis with the construction of a new stereogenic center. This new methodology, inspired by mechanistic investigations by Werner in the late 1980s and based on preliminary work by Yamamoto and Trost, offers an attractive alternative to other established methods for allylic functionalization such as allylic substitution or allylic oxidation. The main advantage of our methodology consists of the inherent atom economy in comparison to allylic oxidation or substitution, which both produce stoichiometric amounts of waste and, in case of the substitution reaction, require prefunctionalization of the starting material. Starting out with the discovery of a highly branched-selective coupling reaction of carboxylic acids with terminal alkynes using a Rh(I)/DPEphos complex as the catalyst system, over the past 5 years we were able to continuously expand upon this chemistry, introducing various (pro)nucleophiles for the selective C-O, C-S, C-N, and C-C functionalization of both alkynes and the double-bond isomeric allenes by choosing the appropriate rhodium/bidentate phosphine catalyst. Thus, valuable compounds such as branched allylic ethers, sulfones, amines, or γ,δ-unsaturated ketones were successfully synthesized in high yields and with a broad substrate scope. Beyond the branched selectivity inherent to rhodium, many of the presented methodologies display additional degrees of selectivity in regard to regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective transformations, with one example even proceeding via a dynamic kinetic resolution. Many advances

  20. Mutagenic properties of allylic and alpha, beta-unsaturated compounds: consideration of alkylating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eder, E; Henschler, D; Neudecker, T

    1982-12-01

    1. Allyl and allylic compounds may exert alkylating activities by SN1, SN2 and SN2' mechanisms. This direct alkylating potential can be determined quantitatively by a modified 4-NBP (4-nitrobenzyl pyridine) test. 2. The alkylating activities in a systematically selected series of allyl and allylic compounds correlate well with the direct mutagenic potential as determined in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 as tester strain. 3. The allylic structure is a prerequisite for these types of activities since structurally related molecules lacking the allylic moiety are inactive in this respect. 4. The potency of both the alkylating and mutagenic activity is determined by the strength of the leaving group: --OSO2CH3 greater than I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than--NCS. 5. Indirect mutagenicity, through metabolic activation of the olefinic bond (by addition of S9 mix to the tester medium), can be ruled out for practically all compounds, the only exception found being 2,3-dichloro-1-propene where an increase of mutagenicity is encountered after addition of S9 mix; mechanistic explanations for this exception are provided. 6. Analogous activation is demonstrated for benzyl halides, the alkylating potency of which is even higher than that of genuine allylic compounds. 7. A variety of methyl- and chlorine-substituted allyl compounds has been included in the study: both groups increase activity, either by +I (CH3) or by +M effects (Cl). 8. alpha, beta-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds, e.g. acrolein and crotonaldehyde, also display direct mutagenic activity which is due to a completely different mechanism: covalent binding to nucleophilic sites of DNA bases by Michael addition. Methyl and other alkyl substitutions decrease the mutagenic potential in this type of compound. The corresponding alcohols, also displaying mutagenic activity but to a lesser degree, are metabolically activated by ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) of the tester strain microbes to the

  1. α-Allyl-α-aryl α-Amino Esters in the Asymmetric Synthesis of Acyclic and Cyclic Amino Acid Derivatives by Alkene Metathesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Allylating agents were explored for the asymmetric synthesis of α-allyl-α-aryl α-amino acids by tandem N-alkylation/π-allylation. Cross-metathesis of the tandem product was developed to provide allylic diversity not afforded in the parent reaction; the synthesis of homotyrosine and homoglutamate analogues was completed. Cyclic α-amino acid derivatives could be accessed by ring-closing metathesis presenting a viable strategy to higher ring homologue of enantioenriched α-substituted proline. The eight-membered proline analogue was successfully converted to the pyrrolizidine natural product backbone. PMID:24828423

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed One-Pot Reaction of Hydrazones, Dihaloarenes, and Organoboron Reagents: Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of 1,1-Diarylethylene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Roche, Maxime; Salim, Salim Mmadi; Bignon, Jérôme; Levaique, Hélène; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Alami, Mouad; Hamze, Abdallah

    2015-07-01

    A new three-component assembly reaction between N-tosylhydrazones, dihalogenated arenes, and boronic acids or boronate esters was developed, producing highly substituted 1,1-diarylethylenes in good yields. The two C-C bonds formed through this coupling have been catalyzed by a single Pd-catalyst in a one-pot fashion. It is noted that the one-pot pinacol boronate cross-coupling reaction generally provides products in high yields, offers an expansive substrate scope, and can address a broad range of aryl, styrene, vinyl, and heterocyclic olefinic targets. The scope of this one-pot coupling has been also extended to the synthesis of the 1,1-diarylethylene skeleton of the natural product ratanhine. The new compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity, and this allowed the identification of compound 4ab that exhibits excellent antiproliferative activity in the nanomolar concentration range against HCT116 cancer cell lines. PMID:26036279

  3. Competing sigmatropic shift rearrangements in excited allyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stranges, D.; O'Keeffe, P.; Scotti, G.; Di Santo, R.; Houston, P. L.

    2008-04-21

    The competition between rearrangement of the excited allyl radical via a 1,3 sigmatropic shift versus sequential 1,2 shifts has been observed and characterized using isotopic substitution, laser excitation, and molecular beam techniques. Both rearrangements produce a 1-propenyl radical that subsequently dissociates to methyl plus acetylene. The 1,3 shift and 1,2 shift mechanisms are equally probable for CH{sub 2}CHCH{sub 2}, whereas the 1,3 shift is favored by a factor of 1.6 in CH{sub 2}CDCH{sub 2}. The translational energy distributions for the methyl and acetylene products of these two mechanisms are substantially different. Both of these allyl dissociation channels are minor pathways compared to hydrogen atom loss.

  4. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Amination Route to α-Aminoboronates: Illustration of the Decisive Role of Boron Substituents

    PubMed Central

    Touchet, Sabrina; Molander, Gary A.; Carboni, Bertrand; Bouillon, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The development of a new route to α-aminoboronates using an iridium-catalyzed allylic amination on boronated substrates is described. Unlike the boronate group, the trifluoroborato substituent was found to govern the regioselectivity exclusively in favor of branched products. The transformation of an allylic substitution product into an α-aminoboronic ester in an efficient way validated the implementation of this approach. PMID:22350584

  5. Regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lightburn, Thomas E; De Paolis, Omar A; Cheng, Ka H; Tan, Kian L

    2011-05-20

    A highly regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols is reported toward the synthesis of β-hydroxy-acid and aldehyde products. The selectivity is achieved through the use of a ligand that reversibly binds to alcohols in situ, allowing for a directed hydroformylation to occur. The application to trisubstituted olefins was also demonstrated, which yields a single diastereomer product consistent with a stereospecific addition of CO and hydrogen. PMID:21504208

  6. Regioselective Hydroformylation of Allylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Lightburn, Thomas E.; De Paolis, Omar A.; Cheng, Ka H.; Tan, Kian L.

    2011-01-01

    A highly regioselective hydroformylation of allylic alcohols is reported towards the synthesis of β-hydroxy-acid and aldehyde products. The selectivity is achieved through the use of a ligand that reversibly binds to alcohols in situ, allowing for a directed hydroformylation to occur. The application to trisubstituted olefins was also demonstrated, which yields a single diastereomer product consistent with a stereospecific addition of CO and hydrogen. PMID:21504208

  7. Interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding in dimolybdenum allyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    John, Kevin D; Martin, Richard L; Obrey, Steven J; Scott, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    Addition of PMe{sub 3} to Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4} afforded Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, in which two of the allyl groups adopt an unprecedented {mu}{sub 2{sup -}}{eta}{sup 1}, {eta}{sup 3} bonding mode; theoretical studies elucidate the role sof the {sigma}- and {pi}-donor ligands in the interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding.

  8. O-Allylation of phenols with allylic acetates in aqueous media using a magnetically separable catalytic system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic ethers were synthesized in water using magnetically recoverable heterogeneous Pd catalyst via O-allylation of phenols with allylic acetates under ambient conditions. Aqueous reaction medium, easy recovery of the catalyst using an external magnet, efficient recycling, and ...

  9. Rotational Spectroscopy of Isocyanic Molecules: Allyl Isocyanide and Diisocyanomethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motiyenko, R. A.; Margules, L.; Haykal, I.; Huet, T. R.; Cocinero, E. J.; Ecija, P.; Fernandez, J. A.; Castano, F.; Lesarri, A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2012-06-01

    Isocyanides are less stable isomers of nitriles and some of them have already been observed in the interstellar medium (HNC, CH_3NC, HCCNC). But still there exists a lack of experimental spectroscopic data on simple isocyanic molecules that can represent potential astrophysical interest. In this view we have performed high resolution studies of rotational spectra of allyl isocyanide (CH_2=CH--CH_2--NC) and diisocyanomethane (CN--CH_2--NC). The rotational spectra of allyl isocyanide have been measured in the frequency range 6 -- 18 GHz by means of FTMW spectrometer in Bilbao and in the frequency range 150 -- 945 GHz by means of classic absorption spectroscopy in Lille. Two stable confomers of allyl isocyanide have been observed in both series of measurements. In addition, all 13C-monosubstituted isotopologues and 15N isotopologues were detected in natural abundance. Due to much lower kinetic stability the rotational spectrum of diisocyanomethane has been measured only in absorption using the Lille spectrometer. The spectral assignments have been supported by high-level quantum chemical calculations. For both molecules accurate sets of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants (up to the octics) have been produced. As a result, reliable predictions of transitions frequencies suitable for astrophysical detection have been obtained for both molecules. Finally, the effective and substitution structures were determined for the two conformers of allyl isocyanide, comparing the result with ab initio data. This work is supported by Centre Nationale d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), Action sur Projet Physico-Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI-CNRS) and by the contract ANR-08-BLAN-0054. Spanish part acknowledges funding from the MICINN and the MINECO.

  10. Asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols catalyzed by vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic Acid complex.

    PubMed

    Noji, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Uechi, Yuria; Kikuchi, Asami; Kondo, Hisako; Sugiyama, Shigeo; Ishii, Keitaro

    2015-03-20

    A vanadium-binaphthylbishydroxamic acid (BBHA) complex-catalyzed asymmetric epoxidation of allylic alcohols is described. The optically active binaphthyl-based ligands BBHA 2a and 2b were synthesized from (S)-1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid and N-substituted-O-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-protected hydroxylamines via a one-pot, three-step procedure. The epoxidations of 2,3,3-trisubstituted allylic alcohols using the vanadium complex of 2a were easily performed in toluene with a TBHP water solution to afford (2R)-epoxy alcohols in good to excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:25714329

  11. Visible-Light-Mediated Alkenylation, Allylation, and Cyanation of Potassium Alkyltrifluoroborates with Organic Photoredox Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Drew R; Rizwan, Komal; Molander, Gary A

    2016-08-19

    Iridium- and ruthenium-free approaches to protected allylic amines and alkyl nitriles under photoredox conditions are reported. An inexpensive organic dye, eosin Y, catalyzes coupling of Boc-protected potassium α-aminomethyltrifluoroborates with a variety of substituted alkenyl sulfones through an α-aminomethyl radical addition-elimination pathway. Allylic and homoallylic amines were formed in moderate yields with high E/Z selectivity. The mechanistic approach was extended using tosyl cyanide as a radical trap, enabling the conversion of alkyltrifluoroborates to nitriles via a Fukuzumi acridinium-catalyzed process. PMID:27336284

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Environmentally Benign Acylation.

    PubMed

    Suchand, Basuli; Satyanarayana, Gedu

    2016-08-01

    Recent trends in research have gained an orientation toward developing efficient strategies using innocuous reagents. The earlier reported transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylations involved either toxic carbon monoxide (CO) gas as carbonylating agent or functional-group-assisted ortho sp(2) C-H activation (i.e., ortho acylation) or carbonylation by activation of the carbonyl group (i.e., via the formation of enamines). Contradicting these methods, here we describe an environmentally benign process, [Pd]-catalyzed direct carbonylation starting from simple and commercially available iodo arenes and aldehydes, for the synthesis of a wide variety of ketones. Moreover, this method comprises direct coupling of iodoarenes with aldehydes without activation of the carbonyl and also without directing group assistance. Significantly, the strategy was successfully applied to the synthesis n-butylphthalide and pitofenone. PMID:27377566

  13. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)–diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis. PMID:27398262

  14. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo antimalarial assessment of sulfide, sulfone and vinyl amide-substituted 1,2,4-trioxanes prepared via thiol-olefin co-oxygenation (TOCO) of allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Amewu, Richard; Gibbons, Peter; Mukhtar, Amira; Stachulski, Andrew V; Ward, Stephen A; Hall, Charlotte; Rimmer, Karen; Davies, Jill; Vivas, Livia; Bacsa, John; Mercer, Amy E; Nixon, Gemma; Stocks, Paul A; O'Neill, Paul M

    2010-05-01

    Thiol-Olefin Co-Oxygenation (TOCO) methodology has been applied to the synthesis of a small library of weak base and polar 1,2,4-trioxanes. The 1,2,4-trioxane units synthesised exhibit remarkable stability as they survive base catalysed hydrolysis and mixed anhydride/amine coupling reactions. This unique stability feature has enabled a range of novel substitution patterns to be incorporated within the spiro 1,2,4-trioxane unit. Selected analogues express potent in vitro nM antimalarial activity, low cytotoxicity and oral activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model of malaria. PMID:20401383

  15. Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation of β-Ketoesters with Allylic Alcohols by a Nickel/Diphosphine Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kita, Yusuke; Kavthe, Rahul D; Oda, Hiroaki; Mashima, Kazushi

    2016-01-18

    Asymmetric allylic alkylation of β-ketoesters with allylic alcohols catalyzed by [Ni(cod)2]/(S)-H8-BINAP was found to be a superior synthetic protocol for constructing quaternary chiral centers at the α-position of β-ketoesters. The reaction proceeded in high yield and with high enantioselectivity using various β-ketoesters and allylic alcohols, without any additional activators. The versatility of this methodology for accessing useful and enantioenriched products was demonstrated. PMID:26637131

  16. Synthesis of Indeno[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-11-ones and Chromeno[4',3':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-ones through Palladium-Catalyzed Cascade Reactions of 2-(2-Bromophenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Xinying; Fan, Xuesen

    2016-04-15

    A novel and efficient synthesis of 11H-indeno[1',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-11-one, a hybrid structure of indenone with imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, from the reaction of 2-(2-bromophenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine with carbon monoxide through palladium-catalyzed CO insertion and C-H bond activation, has been developed. Intriguingly, under similar conditions but in the presence of Cu(OAc)2, the reaction selectively afforded 6H-chromeno[4',3':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-one, a hybrid structure of chromenone with imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine, via a more sophisticated cascade process including acetoxylation, deacetylation, CO insertion, and C-H bond activation. PMID:26980482

  17. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Allylation of Highly Acidic and Nonnucleophilic Anilines. The Origin of Stereochemical Scrambling When Using Allylic Carbonates.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Mañas, Marcial; Morral, Lurdes; Pleixats, Roser

    1998-09-01

    Acidic anilines such as diphenylamine, phenothiazine, and nitroanilines are efficiently allylated under palladium catalysis using allyl carbonates as allylating reagents. A stereochemical study of the reactions of ethyl cis-5-methyl-2-cyclohexenylcarbonate with 4-nitro- and 2,4-dinitroaniline was performed. Bidentate phosphines as stabilizing ligands gave clean retention of configuration whereas triphenylphosphine permitted cis-trans isomerization of the allylic carbonate, the allylation reactions occurring under Curtin-Hammet preequilibrium conditions. PMID:11672246

  18. Palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysed regio and diastereoselective reaction of ketones with allyl reagents via inner-sphere mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bai, Da-Chang; Yu, Fei-Le; Wang, Wan-Ying; Chen, Di; Li, Hao; Liu, Qing-Rong; Ding, Chang-Hua; Chen, Bo; Hou, Xue-Long

    2016-01-01

    The palladium-catalysed allylic substitution reaction is one of the most important reactions in transition-metal catalysis and has been well-studied in the past decades. Most of the reactions proceed through an outer-sphere mechanism, affording linear products when monosubstituted allyl reagents are used. Here, we report an efficient Palladium-catalysed protocol for reactions of β-substituted ketones with monosubstituted allyl substrates, simply by using N-heterocyclic carbene as ligand, leading to branched products with up to three contiguous stereocentres in a (syn, anti)-mode with excellent regio and diastereoselectivities. The scope of the protocol in organic synthesis has been examined preliminarily. Mechanistic studies by both experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the reaction proceeds via an inner-sphere mechanism-nucleophilic attack of enolate oxygen on Palladium followed by C-C bond-forming [3,3']-reductive elimination. PMID:27283477

  19. Palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysed regio and diastereoselective reaction of ketones with allyl reagents via inner-sphere mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Da-Chang; Yu, Fei-Le; Wang, Wan-Ying; Chen, Di; Li, Hao; Liu, Qing-Rong; Ding, Chang-Hua; Chen, Bo; Hou, Xue-Long

    2016-01-01

    The palladium-catalysed allylic substitution reaction is one of the most important reactions in transition-metal catalysis and has been well-studied in the past decades. Most of the reactions proceed through an outer-sphere mechanism, affording linear products when monosubstituted allyl reagents are used. Here, we report an efficient Palladium-catalysed protocol for reactions of β-substituted ketones with monosubstituted allyl substrates, simply by using N-heterocyclic carbene as ligand, leading to branched products with up to three contiguous stereocentres in a (syn, anti)-mode with excellent regio and diastereoselectivities. The scope of the protocol in organic synthesis has been examined preliminarily. Mechanistic studies by both experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the reaction proceeds via an inner-sphere mechanism—nucleophilic attack of enolate oxygen on Palladium followed by C–C bond-forming [3,3']-reductive elimination. PMID:27283477

  20. N-Allylation of amines with allyl acetates using chitosan-immobilized palladium

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple procedure for N-Allylation of allyl Acetates has been developed using a biodegradable and easily recyclable heterogeneous chitosan-supported palladium catalyst. The general methodology, applicable to wide range of substrates, has sustainable features that include a ligan...

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  2. Asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via regio- and enantioselective allylation of aryl hydrazines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kun; Gilles, Thomas; Breit, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles is important for natural product synthesis and pharmaceutical research. The regio- and enantioselective N-allylation of indoles is a true challenge due to the favourable C3-allylation. We develop here a new strategy to the asymmetric synthesis of N-allylic indoles via rhodium-catalysed N-selective coupling of aryl hydrazines with allenes followed by Fischer indolization. The exclusive N-selectivities and good to excellent enantioselectivities are achieved applying a rhodium(I)/DTBM-Segphos or rhodium(I)/DTBM-Binap catalyst. This method permits the practical synthesis of valuable chiral N-allylated indoles, and avoids the N- or C-selectivity issue. PMID:26137886

  3. The stability of allyl radicals following the photodissociation of allyl iodide at 193 nm.

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, H.; Pratt, S. T.; Chemistry

    2006-01-01

    The photodissociation of allyl iodide (C{sub 3}H{sub 5}I) at 193 nm was investigated by using a combination of vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization of the allyl radical, resonant multiphoton ionization of the iodine atoms, and velocity map imaging. The data provide insight into the primary C-I bond fission process and into the dissociative ionization of the allyl radical to produce C{sub 3}H{sup 3+}. The experimental results are consistent with the earlier results of Szpunar et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5078 (2003)], in that some allyl radicals with internal energies higher than the secondary dissociation barrier are found to be stable. This stability results from the partitioning of available energy between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of the radical, the effects of a centrifugal barrier along the reaction coordinate, and the effects of the kinetic shift in the secondary dissociation of the allyl radical. The present results suggest that the primary dissociation of allyl iodide to allyl radicals plus I*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) is more important than previously suspected.

  4. The stability of allyl radicals following the photodissociation of allyl iodide at 193 nm.

    PubMed

    Fan, H; Pratt, S T

    2006-10-14

    The photodissociation of allyl iodide (C3H5I) at 193 nm was investigated by using a combination of vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization of the allyl radical, resonant multiphoton ionization of the iodine atoms, and velocity map imaging. The data provide insight into the primary C-I bond fission process and into the dissociative ionization of the allyl radical to produce C3H3+. The experimental results are consistent with the earlier results of Szpunar et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5078 (2003)], in that some allyl radicals with internal energies higher than the secondary dissociation barrier are found to be stable. This stability results from the partitioning of available energy between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom of the radical, the effects of a centrifugal barrier along the reaction coordinate, and the effects of the kinetic shift in the secondary dissociation of the allyl radical. The present results suggest that the primary dissociation of allyl iodide to allyl radicals plus I*(2P(1/2)) is more important than previously suspected. PMID:17042585

  5. Transition‐Metal‐Free Borylation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Núria; Alam, Rauful

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The base‐catalyzed allylic borylation of tertiary allylic alcohols allows the synthesis of 1,1‐disubstituted allyl boronates, in moderate to high yield. The unexpected tandem performance of the Lewis acid–base adduct, [Hbase]+[MeO‐B2pin2]− favored the formation of 1,2,3‐triborylated species from the tertiary allylic alcohols and 1‐propargylic cyclohexanol at 90 °C. PMID:26934578

  6. Transition-Metal-Free Borylation of Allylic and Propargylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Núria; Alam, Rauful; Szabó, Kálmán J; Fernández, Elena

    2016-03-18

    The base-catalyzed allylic borylation of tertiary allylic alcohols allows the synthesis of 1,1-disubstituted allyl boronates, in moderate to high yield. The unexpected tandem performance of the Lewis acid-base adduct, [Hbase](+) [MeO-B2 pin2 ](-) favored the formation of 1,2,3-triborylated species from the tertiary allylic alcohols and 1-propargylic cyclohexanol at 90 °C. PMID:26934578

  7. Enantioselective synthesis of fluorinated branched allylic compounds via Ir-catalyzed allylations of functionalized fluorinated methylene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbo; Chen, Jiteng; Zhao, Xiao-Ming

    2016-08-14

    Enantioselective introduction of the functionalized monofluorinated methylenes into the allylic fragment under Ir catalysis has been realized, which gave the fluorinated branched allyl products in good to high yields with excellent regio- and enantioselectivities. PMID:27383920

  8. Kinetic Resolution of Racemic and Branched Monosubstituted Allylic Acetates by a Ruthenium-Catalyzed Regioselective Allylic Etherification.

    PubMed

    Shinozawa, Toru; Terasaki, Shou; Mizuno, Shota; Kawatsura, Motoi

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrated the kinetic resolution of racemic and branched monosubstituted allylic acetates by a ruthenium-catalyzed regioselective allylic etherification. The reaction was effectively catalyzed by the chiral ruthenium catalyst, which was generated by [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 and (S,S)-iPr-pybox and a catalytic amount of TFA, and both the allylic etherification product and recovered allylic acetate were obtained as an enantiomerically enriched form with up to a 103 s value. PMID:27276556

  9. Chirality Transfer in Gold(I)-Catalysed Direct Allylic Etherifications of Unactivated Alcohols: Experimental and Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Graeme; Johnson, David G; Young, Paul C; Macgregor, Stuart A; Lee, Ai-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Gold(I)-catalysed direct allylic etherifications have been successfully carried out with chirality transfer to yield enantioenriched, γ-substituted secondary allylic ethers. Our investigations include a full substrate-scope screen to ascertain substituent effects on the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and efficiency of chirality transfer, as well as control experiments to elucidate the mechanistic subtleties of the chirality-transfer process. Crucially, addition of molecular sieves was found to be necessary to ensure efficient and general chirality transfer. Computational studies suggest that the efficiency of chirality transfer is linked to the aggregation of the alcohol nucleophile around the reactive π-bound Au–allylic ether complex. With a single alcohol nucleophile, a high degree of chirality transfer is predicted. However, if three alcohols are present, alternative proton transfer chain mechanisms that erode the efficiency of chirality transfer become competitive. PMID:26248980

  10. Rhodium-catalysed asymmetric allylic arylation of racemic halides with arylboronic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidera, Mireia; Fletcher, Stephen P.

    2015-11-01

    Csp2-Csp2 cross-coupling reactions between arylboronic acid and aryl halides are widely used in both academia and industry and are strategically important in the development of new agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. Csp2-Csp3 cross-coupling reactions have been developed, but enantioselective variations are rare and simply retaining the stereochemistry is a problem. Here we report a highly enantioselective Csp2-Csp3 bond-forming method that couples arylboronic acids to racemic allyl chlorides. Both enantiomers of a cyclic chloride are converted into a single enantiomer of product via a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation. This Rh-catalysed method uses readily available and inexpensive building blocks and is mild and broadly applicable. For electron-deficient, electron-rich or ortho-substituted boronic acids better results are obtained with racemic allyl bromides. Oxygen substitution in the allyl halide is tolerated and the products can be functionalized to provide diverse building blocks. The approach fills a significant gap in the methods for catalytic asymmetric synthesis.

  11. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Timoshenko, Mariya A; Kharitonov, Yurii V; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu; Shults, Elvira E

    2016-02-01

    A selective synthesis of 7- or 14-nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α-hydroxy-15,16-dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3-nitroaniline, 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α-, 7β- and 14αnitrogen-containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2-nitroaniline, 4-nitro-2-chloroaniline, 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert-butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α-nitrogen-substituted diterpenoids as the main products. PMID:27308214

  12. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives†

    PubMed Central

    Timoshenko, Mariya A.; Kharitonov, Yurii V.; Shakirov, Makhmut M.; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A selective synthesis of 7‐ or 14‐nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α‐hydroxy‐15,16‐dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3‐nitroaniline, 3‐(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4‐(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α‐, 7β‐ and 14αnitrogen‐containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2‐nitroaniline, 4‐nitro‐2‐chloroaniline, 4‐methoxy‐2‐nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert‐butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α‐nitrogen‐substituted diterpenoids as the main products. PMID:27308214

  13. Allyl Ligand Reactivity in Tantalum(V) Compounds: Experimental and Computational Evidence for Allyl Transfer to the Formamidinate Ligand in fac-Ta(NMe2)3( 1-allyl)[iPrNC(H)NHiPr] via a Metallo-Claisen Rearrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shih-Huang Huang; Wang, Xiaoping; Nesterov, Vladimir; Hrovat, David A.; Hall, Michael B.; Richmond, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of TaCl(NMe{sub 2})4 (1) with allyl MgCl furnishes the allyl-substituted compound Ta(NMe{sub 2})4({eta}{sup 1}-allyl) (2) in moderate yield. The X-ray structure of 2 reveals a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry at the tantalum center with an equatorially situated {eta}{sup 1}-allyl moiety. VT {sup 1}H NMR measurements confirm that the molecule is fluxional in solution over the temperature range 298-193 K, and DFT calculations indicate that the time-averaged environment exhibited by the allyl moiety in fluid solution derives from a rapid {eta}{sup 1}-to-{eta}{sup 3} equilibration, with Ta(NMe{sub 2})4({eta}{sup 3}-allyl) serving as the transition state for this process. 1 reacts rapidly with the formamidine {sup i}PrNC(H)N{sup i}Pr to yield fac-TaCl(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}[{sup i}PrNC(H)N{sup i}Pr] (5) and Me{sub 2}NH, and the tantalum product has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The five-coordinate compound Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}[{sup i}PrNCH(allyl)N{sup i}Pr] (7), whose origin is traced to the putative octahedral species fac-Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}({eta}{sup 1}-allyl)[{sup i}PrNC(H)N{sup i}Pr] (6), has been obtained from the reaction of 2 with {sup i}PrNC(H)N{sup i}Pr; 7 may also be prepared from the reaction of 5 with allylMgCl. The rearrangement of the allyl moiety in fac-Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}({eta}{sup 1}-allyl)[{sup i}PrNC(H)N{sup i}Pr] to the formamidinate carbon atom in 7 has been investigated by DFT calculations. Here the DFT calculations have provided crucial insight into the reaction mechanism and the composition of those transient species that do not lend themselves to direct spectroscopic observation. The computed barrier for this metallo-Claisen rearrangement is sensitive to the nature of the density functional employed, and the barrier computed using the meta-GGA TPSS functional provides the best agreement with the experimental conditions. The related alkenyl derivatives Ta(NMe{sub 2})4({eta}{sup 1}-3-butenyl) (3

  14. Domino cyclization-alkylation protocol for the synthesis of 2,3-functionalized indoles from o-alkynylanilines and allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Murugan, Vinod K; Pullarkat, Sumod A

    2012-05-21

    A practical and efficient protocol for the one-pot synthesis of 2,3-substituted indoles was developed via a palladacycle catalyzed domino cyclization-alkylation reaction involving 2-alkynylanilines and allylic alcohols under mild conditions without any additives. PMID:22526600

  15. Synthesis of 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives and their evaluation as potential GABA uptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Tim; Höfner, Georg; Wein, Thomas; Wanner, Klaus T

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we disclose the design and synthesis of novel 4-susbtituted nipecotic acid derivatives as inhibitors of the GABA transporter mGAT1. Based on molecular modeling studies the compounds are assumed to adopt a binding pose similar to that of the potent mGAT1 inhibitor nipecotic acid. As substitution in 4-position should not cause an energetically unfavorable orientation of nipecotic acid as it is the case for N-substituted derivatives this is expected to lead to highly potent binders. For the synthesis of novel 4-substituted nipecotic acid derivatives a linear synthetic strategy was employed. As a key step, palladium catalyzed cross coupling reactions were used to attach the required biaryl moieties to the ω-position of the alkenyl- or alkynyl spacers of varying length in the 4-position of the nipecotic acid scaffold. The resulting amino acids were characterized with respect to their binding affinities and inhibitory potencies at mGAT1. Though the biological activities found were generally insignificant to poor, two compounds, one of which possesses a reasonable binding affinity for mGAT1, rac-57, the other a notable inhibitory potency at mGAT4, rac-84, both displaying a slight subtype selectivity for the individual transporters, could be identified. PMID:27039250

  16. Enantioselective domino reaction of CO2, amines and allyl chlorides under iridium catalysis: formation of allyl carbamates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Xiaoming; Zheng, Shengcai

    2014-05-01

    The enantioselective domino reaction between CO2 (1 atm), amines and linear allyl chlorides in the presence of an iridium complex, DABCO and toluene at 15 °C was realized, which gave branched allyl carbamates in acceptable to high yields with up to excellent regioselectivity (99/1) and 94% ee. This is the first example of the synthesis of chiral allyl carbamates through catalytic domino reactions using CO2. PMID:24652315

  17. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  18. Mild and General Access to Diverse 1H-Benzotriazoles via Diboron-Mediated N–OH Deoxygenation and Palladium-Catalyzed C–C and C–N Bond Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gurram, Venkateshwarlu; Akula, Hari K.; Garlapati, Ramesh; Pottabathini, Narender; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Benzotriazoles are a highly important class of compounds with broad-ranging applications in such diverse areas as medicinal chemistry, as auxiliaries in organic synthesis, in metallurgical applications, in aircraft deicing and brake fluids, and as antifog agents in photography. Although there are numerous approaches to N-substituted benzotriazoles, the essentially one general method to N-unsubstituted benzotriazoles is via diazotization of o-phenylenediamines, which can be limited by the availability of suitable precursors. Other methods to N-unsubstitued benzotriazoles are quite specialized. Although reduction of 1-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazoles is known the reactions are not particularly convenient or broadly applicable. This presents a limitation for easy access to and availability of diverse benzotriazoles. Herein, we demonstrate a new, broadly applicable method to diverse 1H-benzotriazoles via a mild diboron-reagent mediated deoxygenation of 1-hydroxy-1H-benzotriazoles. We have also evaluated sequential deoxygenation and Pd-mediated C–C and C–N bond formation as a one-pot process for further diversification of the benzotriazole moiety. However, results indicated that purification of the deoxygenation product prior to the Pd-mediated reaction is critical to the success of such reactions. The overall chemistry allows for facile access to a variety of new benzotriazoles. Along with the several examples presented, a discussion of the advantages of the approaches is described, as also a possible mechanism for the deoxygenation process. PMID:25729343

  19. Palladium/N-heterocyclic carbene catalysed regio and diastereoselective reaction of ketones with allyl reagents via inner-sphere mechanism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bai, Da -Chang; Yu, Fei -Le; Wang, Wan -Ying; Chen, Di; Li, Hao; Liu, Qing -Rong; Ding, Chang -Hua; Chen, Bo; Hou, Xue -Long

    2016-06-10

    The palladium-catalysed allylic substitution reaction is one of the most important reactions in transition-metal catalysis and has been well-studied in the past decades. Most of the reactions proceed through an outer-sphere mechanism, affording linear products when monosubstituted allyl reagents are used. Here, we report an efficient Palladium-catalysed protocol for reactions of beta-substituted ketones with monosubstituted allyl substrates, simply by using N-heterocyclic carbene as ligand, leading to branched products with up to three contiguous stereocentres in a (syn, anti)-mode with excellent regio and diastereoselectivities. The scope of the protocol in organic synthesis has been examined preliminarily. As a result, mechanistic studiesmore » by both experiments and density functional theory ( DFT) calculations reveal that the reaction proceeds via an inner-sphere mechanism-nucleophilic attack of enolate oxygen on Palladium followed by C-C bond-forming [3,3']-reductive elimination.« less

  20. Decarboxylative Allylation of Amino Alkanoic Acids and Esters via Dual Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A combination of photoredox and palladium catalysis has been employed to facilitate the room temperature decarboxylative allylation of recalcitrant α-amino and phenylacetic allyl esters. This operationally simple process produces CO2 as the only byproduct and provides direct access to allylated alkanes. After photochemical oxidation, the carboxylate undergoes radical decarboxylation to site-specifically generate radical intermediates which undergo allylation. A radical dual catalysis mechanism is proposed. Free phenylacetic acids were also allylated utilizing similar reactions conditions. PMID:25228064

  1. Allyl­ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Dziuk, Błażej; Zarychta, Bartosz; Ejsmont, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    In the title hydrated mol­ecular salt, C3H8N+·C2HO4 −·0.5H2O, the water O atom lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The C=C—C—N torsion angle in the cation is 2.8 (3)° and the dihedral angle between the CO2 and CO2H planes in the anion is 1.0 (4)°. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate ions are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. The allyl­ammonium cations bond to the chains through N—H⋯O and N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds. The water mol­ecule accepts two N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and makes two O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Together, the hydrogen bonds generate (100) sheets. PMID:25249903

  2. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  3. Synthetic mucin fragments: synthesis of O-sulfo and O-methyl derivatives of allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D- galactopyranoside as potential compounds for sulfotransferases.

    PubMed

    Jain, R K; Piskorz, C F; Matta, K L

    1995-10-01

    Allyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2-deoxy-alpha-D-galact opy ranoside (1) was condensed with either 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (2) or 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-6-O-bromoacetyl-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (14) in the presence of mercuric cyanide. Selective substitution with methyl, sulfo or both at desired positions, followed by the removal of protecting groups, afforded allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-methyl-alpha -D- galactopyranoside (5), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6- O-methyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside (10), allyl O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-6-O-sulfo-alpha- D- galactopyranoside sodium salt (13), allyl O-(6-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (17) and allyl O-(3-O-sulfo-beta-D-galactopyranosyl sodium salt)-(1-->3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (22). The structures of compounds 5, 10, 13, 17 and 22 were established by 13C NMR and FAB mass spectroscopy. PMID:8529223

  4. General and modular synthesis of isomeric 5-substituted pyridin-2-yl and 6-substituted pyridin-3-yl C-ribonucleosides bearing diverse alkyl, aryl, hetaryl, amino, carbamoyl, and hydroxy groups.

    PubMed

    Štefko, Martin; Slavětínská, Lenka; Klepetářová, Blanka; Hocek, Michal

    2011-08-19

    A general modular and practical methodology for preparation of diverse 5-substituted pyridin-2-yl and 6-substituted pyridin-3-yl C-ribonucleosides was developed. Regioselective lithiation of 2,5-dibromopyridine proceeded at position 5 or 2 depending on the solvent, and the resulting bromopyridyl lithium species underwent additions to TBS-protected ribonolactone and follow-up transformations to corresponding acetylated hemiketal intermediates 7 and 10 that were diastereoselectively reduced to give either 5-bromopyridin-2-yl or 6-bromopyridin-3-yl silyl-protected C-ribonucleosides 8 or 11 in 68% and 77% overall yields as pure β-anomers. These bromopyridyl C-nucleoside intermediates were then subjected to a series of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions, aminations, aminocarbonylations, and hydroxylations to give a series of protected 1β-(5-alkyl-, 5-aryl-, 5-amino-, 5-carbamoyl-, and 5-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)-C-ribonucleosides 13a-i and β-(6-alkyl-, 6-aryl-, 6-amino-, 6-carbamoyl-, and 6-hydroxypyridin-3-yl)-C-ribonucleosides 15a-i. Deprotection of silylated nucleosides by Et(3)N·3HF, TBAF, or TFA gave a series of free C-nucleosides 14a-i and 16a-i. PMID:21739971

  5. Palladium-catalyzed dicarbonylative synthesis of tetracycle quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chaoren; Man, Nikki Y T; Stewart, Scott; Wu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-04-21

    An interesting procedure for the synthesis of isoindolo[1,2-b]quinazolin-10(12H)-ones has been developed. Starting from commercially available 2-bromoanilines and 2-bromobenzyl amines, with the assistance of a palladium catalyst, the desired products were isolated in good yields. Notably, this procedure proceeded in a highly selective manner; two molecules of CO were incorporated into the substrates selectively. PMID:25783465

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Activated Vinylcyclopropanes with CO2.

    PubMed

    Mita, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Yuki; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    By using a palladium catalyst with ZnEt2, activated vinylcyclopropanes were successfully converted into the corresponding β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids in high yields under a CO2 atmosphere (1 atm). The intermediate in this reaction is thought to be a nucleophilic η(1)-allylethylpalladium species, which would be produced from π-allylpalladium and ZnEt2 (umpolung reactivity). PMID:27184762

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Regioselective Difluoroalkylation and Carbonylation of Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; He, Yu-Tao; Zhao, Jia-Hui; Qiu, Yi-Feng; Zheng, Lan; Hu, Jing-Yuan; Yang, Yu-Chen; Liu, Xue-Yuan; Liang, Yong-Min

    2016-06-01

    A novel, four-component synthetic strategy to synthesize a series of β-difluoroalkyl unsaturated esters/amides with high regioslectivity is described. This Pd-catalyzed difluoroalkylation and carbonylation reaction can be carried out with simple starting materials. Through this protocol, two new C-C bonds (including one C-CF2 bond) and one C-O(N) bond are constructed simultaneously in a single step. The synthetic utility of this reaction system has been certified by the applicability to a wide scope of alkynes and nucleophiles. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the difluoroalkyl radical pathway is involved in this reaction. PMID:27191858

  8. Palladium-catalyzed arylation of simple arenes with iodonium salts.

    PubMed

    Storr, Thomas E; Greaney, Michael F

    2013-03-15

    The development of an arylation protocol for simple arenes with diaryliodonium salts using the Herrmann-Beller palladacycle catalyst is reported. The reaction takes simple aromatic feedstocks and creates valuable biaryls for use in all sectors of the chemical industry. PMID:23461706

  9. Palladium-Catalyzed α-Arylation of Benzylic Phosphonates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new synthetic route to access diarylmethyl phosphonates is presented. The transformation enables the introduction of aromatic groups on benzylic phosphonates via a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP). The Pd(OAc)2/CataCXium A-based catalyst afforded a reaction between benzyl diisopropyl phosphonate derivatives and aryl bromides in good to excellent isolated yields (64–92%). PMID:24520897

  10. Magnetic Mesoporous Palladium Catalyzed Selective Hydrogenation of Sunflower Oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Fei; Yu, Jingjing; Bi, Yanlan

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel magnetic mesoporous Pd catalyst is used to catalyse selective hydrogenation of sunflower oil at a mild temperature of 50°C. Effects of reaction temperature, stirring speed, time, catalyst loading and hydrogen pressure on the reaction activity, trans fatty acid (TFA) and stearic acid formation were studied. Under the condition of 3.2 mg Pd/100 g oil, 50°C, 1300 rpm stirring speed and 19.0 atm of H2, the lowest amount of TFA generated during the reaction (IV = 80) was 14.9 ± 0.4% while 11.4 ± 0.4% of stearic acid was produced. And this magnetic Pd-catalyst can be reused easily for at least six times without significant catalyst deactivation, the amount of TFA almost remained unchanged. Moreover, this Pd-catalyst shows a good magnetic separation, which provides a potential method for the facile oil modification. PMID:27086993

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of 3-fluoro-3-allyl-oxindoles via phosphine-catalyzed asymmetric γ-addition of 3-fluoro-oxindoles to 2,3-butadienoates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianli; Hoon, Ding Long; Lu, Yixin

    2015-06-25

    The first phosphine-catalyzed enantioselective γ-addition of 3-fluoro-oxindoles to 2,3-butadienoates has been developed. A range of 3-fluoro-substituted oxindole substrates were employed, and oxindoles containing a 3-fluoro quaternary center were constructed in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. The γ-addition products could be converted readily to optically enriched 3-fluoro-3-allyl oxindole derivatives. PMID:26013076

  12. Allyl-silica Hybrid Monoliths For Chromatographic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenjuan

    Column technology continues to be the most investigated topics in the separation world, since the column is the place where the chromatographic separation happens, making it the heart of the separation system. Allyl-silica hybrid monolithic material has been exploited as support material and potential stationary phases for liquid chromatography; the stationary phase anchored to the silica surface by Si-C bond, which is more pH stable than traditional stationary phase. First, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the sol in the synthesis of allyl-silica hybrid monoliths. Allyl-trimethoxysilane (allyl-TrMOS), dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) have been served as co-precursors in the sol-gel synthesis of organo-silica hybrid monolithic columns for liquid chromatography (LC). 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 1H NMR spectroscopy were employed to monitor reaction profiles for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and initial condensation reactions of the individual precursor and the hybrid system. 29Si-NMR has also been used to identify different silane species formed during the reactions. The overall hydrolysis rate has been found to follow the trend DMDMOS > allyl-TrMOS > TMOS, if each precursor is reacted individually (homo-polymerization). Precursors show different hydrolysis rate when reacted together in the hybrid system than they are reacted individually. Cross-condensation products of TMOS and DMDMOS (QD) arise about 10 minutes of initiation of the reaction. The allyl-silica monolithic columns for capillary liquid chromatography can only be prepared in capillaries with 50 im internal diameter with acceptable performance. One of the most prominent problems related to the synthesis of silica monolithic structures is the volume shrinkage. The synthesis of allylfunctionalized silica hybrid monolithic structures has been studied in an attempt to reduce the volume shrinkage during aging, drying and heat treatment

  13. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation.

    PubMed

    Horn, Evan J; Rosen, Brandon R; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D; Baran, Phil S

    2016-05-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as "classics". Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact. PMID:27096371

  14. Catalytic Asymmetric Generation of (Z)-Disubstituted Allylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Luca; Jeon, Sang-Jin; Fisher, Ethan L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    A one-pot method for the direct preparation of enantioenriched (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols is introduced. Hydroboration of 1-halo-1-alkynes with dicyclohexylborane, reaction with t-BuLi, and transmetallation with dialkylzinc reagents generates (Z)-disubstituted vinylzinc intermediates. In situ reaction of these reagents with aldehydes in the presence of a catalyst derived from (−)-MIB generates (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols. It was found that the resulting allylic alcohols were racemic, most likely due to a rapid addition reaction promoted by LiX (X = Br and Cl). To suppress the LiX promoted reaction, a series of inhibitors was screened. It was found that 20–30 mol % tetraethylethylene diamine (TEEDA) inhibited LiCl without inhibiting the chiral zinc-based Lewis acid. In this fashion, (Z)-disubstituted allylic alcohols were obtained with up to 98% ee. The asymmetric (Z)-vinylation could be coupled with tandem diastereoselective epoxidation reactions to provide epoxy alcohols and allylic epoxy alcohols with up to three contiguous stereogenic centers, enabling the rapid construction of complex building blocks with high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity. PMID:18052173

  15. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C–H oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Evan J.; Rosen, Brandon R.; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2016-05-01

    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C–H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C–H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as “classics”. Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C–H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C–H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C–H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  16. Regio- and Stereoselective Monoepoxidation of Dienes using Methyltrioxorhenium: Synthesis of Allylic Epoxides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) complexed with pyridine was shown to be a highly effective catalyst for the regioselective monoepoxidation of conjugated di- and trienes using 30% H2O2 at or below room temperature. The resultant allylic epoxides, and the triols derived from them, are versatile synthetic intermediates as well as substructures present in many bioactive natural products. The site of epoxidation was dependent upon olefin substitution, olefin geometry (Z vs E), and the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents on adjacent carbons. For 1-acyl(silyl)oxypenta-2,4-dienes, epoxidation of the distal olefin was generally favored in contrast to the adjacent regioselectivity characteristic of Sharpless, peracid, and other directed epoxidations of hydroxylated dienes. PMID:25321319

  17. Copper-catalyzed divergent kinetic resolution of racemic allylic substrates.

    PubMed

    Pineschi, Mauro; Di Bussolo, Valeria; Crotti, Paolo

    2011-10-01

    When a racemic mixture is fully consumed the products may still be enantiomerically enriched. In particular, the regiodivergent kinetic resolution is a process in which a single chiral catalyst or reagent reacts with a racemic substrate to form regioisomers possessing an opposite configuration on the newly-formed stereogenic centers. This review reports the major advances in the field of the copper-catalyzed regiodivergent and stereodivergent kinetic resolution of allylic substrates with organometallic reagents. The chiral recognition matching phenomena found with particular allylic substrates with the absolute configuration of the chiral catalyst allows in some cases an excellent control of the regio- and stereoselectivity, sheding some light on the so-called "black-box" mechanism of a copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation. PMID:21837639

  18. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9952 - Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... allyl ether (generic). 721.9952 Section 721.9952 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9952 Alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether... identified generically as alkoxylated aliphatic diisocyanate allyl ether (PMN P-00-0353) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  5. Asymmetric Enzymatic Synthesis of Allylic Amines: A Sigmatropic Rearrangement Strategy.

    PubMed

    Prier, Christopher K; Hyster, Todd K; Farwell, Christopher C; Huang, Audrey; Arnold, Frances H

    2016-04-01

    Sigmatropic rearrangements, while rare in biology, offer opportunities for the efficient and selective synthesis of complex chemical motifs. A "P411" serine-ligated variant of cytochrome P450BM3 has been engineered to initiate a sulfimidation/[2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement sequence in whole E. coli cells, a non-natural function for any enzyme, providing access to enantioenriched, protected allylic amines. Five mutations in the enzyme substantially enhance its activity toward this new function, demonstrating the evolvability of the catalyst toward challenging nitrene transfer reactions. The evolved catalyst additionally performs the highly enantioselective imidation of non-allylic sulfides. PMID:26970325

  6. Iridium-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Primary Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément

    2016-06-21

    This Account presents the development of the iridium-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Our initial interest was driven by the long-standing challenge associated with the development of a general catalyst even for the nonasymmetric version of this seemingly simple chemical transformation. The added value of the aldehyde products and the possibility to rapidly generate molecular complexity from readily accessible allylic alcohols upon a redox-economical isomerization reaction were additional sources of motivation. Certainly influenced by the success story of the related isomerization of allylic amines, most catalysts developed for the selective isomerization of allylic alcohols were focused on rhodium as a transition metal of choice. Our approach has been based on the commonly accepted precept that hydrogenation and isomerization are often competing processes, with the latter being usually suppressed in favor of the former. The cationic iridium complexes [(Cy3P)(pyridine)Ir(cod)]X developed by Crabtree (X = PF6) and Pfaltz (X = BArF) are usually considered as the most versatile catalysts for the hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Using molecular hydrogen to generate controlled amounts of the active form of these complexes but performing the reaction in the absence of molecular hydrogen enabled deviation from the typical hydrogenation manifold and favored exclusively the isomerization of allylic alcohols into aldehydes. Isotopic labeling and crossover experiments revealed the intermolecular nature of the process. Systematic variation of the ligand on the iridium center allowed us to identify the structural features beneficial for catalytic activity. Subsequently, three generations of chiral catalysts have been investigated and enabled us to reach excellent levels of enantioselectivity for a wide range of 3,3-disubstituted aryl/alkyl and alkyl/alkyl primary allylic alcohols leading to β-chiral aldehydes. The

  7. Tunable reactivity of geminal bis(silyl) enol derivatives leading to selective exo-IEDDA or Sakurai allylation with a β,γ-unsaturated ketoester.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zubao; Chu, Zhiwen; Hu, Jia; Su, Zhishan; Hu, Changwei; Gao, Lu; Song, Zhenlei

    2016-08-01

    Two contrasting pathways in a SnCl4-catalyzed reaction of geminal bis(silyl) enol derivatives with β,γ-unsaturated ketoesters have been achieved by tuning the R group in the enol moiety. While the electron-donating Bn-substituted enol ether undergoes an exo-selective inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) reaction to give dihydropyran, the electron-withdrawing Ac-substituted enol ester reacts as an allylsilane to provide a Sakurai-allylated product with predominant syn-selectivity. PMID:27457733

  8. Mechanism of copper(I)-catalyzed allylic alkylation of phosphorothioate esters: influence of the leaving group on α regioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wenhao; Wang, Mian; Lein, Matthias; Jiang, Linbin; Wei, Wanxing; Wang, Jianyi

    2013-10-11

    The mechanism of Cu(I) -catalyzed allylic alkylation and the influence of the leaving groups (OPiv, SPiv, Cl, SPO(OiPr)2 ; Piv: pivavloyl) on the regioselectivity of the reaction have been explored by using density functional theory (DFT). A comprehensive comparison of many possible reaction pathways shows that [(iPr)2 Cu](-) prefers to bind first oxidatively to the double bond of the allylic substrate at the anti position with respect to the leaving group, and this is followed by dissociation of the leaving group. If the leaving group is not taken into account, the reaction then undergoes an isomerization and a reductive elimination process to give the α- or γ-selective product. If OPiv, SPiv, Cl, or SPO(OiPr)2 groups are present, the optimal route for the formation of both α- and γ-substituted products changes from the stepwise elimination to the direct process, in which the leaving group plays a stabilizing role for the reactant and destabilizes the transition state. The differences to the energy barrier for the α- and γ-substituted products are 2.75 kcal mol(-1) with SPO(OiPr)2 , 2.44 kcal mol(-1) with SPiv, 2.33 kcal mol(-1) with OPiv, and 1.98 kcal mol(-1) with Cl, respectively; these values show that α regioselectivity in the allylic alkylation follows a SPO(OiPr)2 >SPiv>OPiv>Cl trend, which is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental findings. This trend mainly originates in the differences between the attractive electrostatic forces and the repelling steric interactions of the SPO(OiPr)2 , SPiv, OPiv, and Cl groups on the Cu group. PMID:24038319

  9. Highly Enantioselective Formation of α-Allyl-α-Arylcyclopentanones via Pd-Catalysed Decarboxylative Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation.

    PubMed

    Akula, Ramulu; Doran, Robert; Guiry, Patrick J

    2016-07-11

    A highly enantioselective Pd-catalysed decarboxylative asymmetric allylic alkylation of cyclopentanone derived α-aryl-β-keto esters employing the (R,R)-ANDEN-phenyl Trost ligand has been developed. The product (S)-α-allyl-α-arylcyclopentanones were obtained in excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to >99.9 % ee). This represents one of the most highly enantioselective formations of an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center reported to date. This reaction was demonstrated on a 4.0 mmol scale without any deterioration of enantioselectivity and was exploited as the key enantioselective transformation in an asymmetric formal synthesis of the natural product (+)-tanikolide. PMID:27191198

  10. A General Route to β-Substituted Pyrroles by Transition-Metal Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bunrit, Anon; Sawadjoon, Supaporn; Tšupova, Svetlana; Sjöberg, Per J R; Samec, Joseph S M

    2016-02-19

    An atom-efficient route to pyrroles substituted in the β-position has been achieved in four high yielding steps by a combination of Pd, Ru, and Fe catalysis with only water and ethene as side-products. The reaction is general and gives pyrroles substituted in the β-position with linear and branched alkyl, benzyl, or aryl groups in overall good yields. The synthetic route includes a Pd-catalyzed monoallylation step of amines with substituted allylic alcohols that proceeds to yield the monoallylated products in moderate to excellent yields. In a second step, unsymmetrical diallylated aromatic amines are generated from the reaction of a second allylic alcohol with high selectivity in moderate to good yields by control of the reaction temperature. Ru-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis performed on the diallylated aromatic amines yields the pyrrolines substituted in the β-position in excellent yields. By addition of ferric chloride to the reaction mixture, a selective aromatization to yield the corresponding pyrroles substituted in the β-position was achieved. A reaction mechanism involving a palladium hydride, generated from insertion of palladium to O-H of an allyl alcohol, that is responsible for the C-O bond cleavage to generate the π-allyl intermediate is proposed. PMID:26789020

  11. [Cu(NHC)]-Catalyzed C-H Allylation and Alkenylation of both Electron-Deficient and Electron-Rich (Hetero)arenes with Allyl Halides.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weilong; Chang, Sukbok

    2016-01-26

    New reactivity of a [Cu(NHC)] (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) catalyst is disclosed for the efficient C-H allylation of polyfluoroarenes using allyl halides in benzene at room temperature. The same catalyst system also promotes an isomerization-induced alkenylation of initially the generated allyl arenes when the reaction is run in tetrahydrofuran. Significantly, not only electron-deficient but also electron-rich (hetero)arenes undergo this double-bond migration process, thus leading to alkenylated products. The present system features mild reaction conditions, broad scope with respect to the arene substrates and allyl halide reactants, good functional-group tolerance, and high stereoselectivity. PMID:26695120

  12. Health and environmental effects profile for allyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for allyl chloride was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Allyl chloride has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for allyl chloride is 0.0206 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for allyl chloride is 100.

  13. Sulfonium-based Ionic Liquids Incorporating the Allyl Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dongbin; Fei, Zhaofu; Ang, Wee Han; Dyson, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    A series of sulfonium halides bearing allyl groups have been prepared and characterized. Anion metathesis with Li[Tf2N] and Ag[N(CN)2] resulted in sulfonium-based ionic liquids which exhibit low viscosities at room temperature. The solid state structure of one of the halide salts was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  14. Fluxional processes in diamagnetic and paramagnetic allyl dicarbonyl and 2-methylallyl dicarbonyl molybdenum histidinato complexes as revealed by spectroscopic data and density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    van Staveren, Dave R; Bill, Eckhard; Bothe, Eberhard; Bühl, Michael; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2002-04-01

    This work describes a detailed study on the structure and dynamics of pseudooctahedral low-valent complexes of the type [Mo(His-N(epsilon)-R)(eta-2-R'-allyl)(CO)(2)] (His=N(delta),N,O-L-histidinate; R=H, R'=H (1); R=C(2)H(4)CO(2)Me, R'=H (2); R=H, R'=Me (3); R=C(2)H(4)CO(2)Me, R'=Me (4)). These diamagnetic 18-electron complexes were comprehensively characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallography. In the solid state, the (substituted) allyl ligand is in an endo position in all compounds, but it is trans to the His-N(delta) atom in 1 and 2, whereas it is trans to the carboxylate O atom for the 2-Me-allyl compounds 3 and 4. In solution, both isomers are present in a solvent-dependent equilibrium. The third isomer (allyl trans to His-NH(2)) is not spectroscopically observed in solution. This is in agreement with the results from density functional (DFT) computations (BPW 91 functional) for 1 and 3, which predict a considerably higher energy (+6.3 and +5.9 kJ mol(-1), respectively) for this isomer. A likely path for isomerization is calculated, which is consistent with the activation energy determined by variable temperature NMR measurements. At least for 3, the preferred path involves several intermediates and a rotation of the 2-Me-allyl ligand. For the paramagnetic 17-electron congeners, DFT predicts the exo isomer of 3(+) with the 2-Me-allyl ligand trans to the carboxylate O atom to be by far the most stable isomer. For 1(+), an endo-exo equilibrium between the isomers with the allyl ligand trans to the carboxylate O atom is suggested. These suggestions are confirmed by EPR spectroscopy on the electrochemically generated species, which show signals for one- (4) and two- (2) metal-containing compounds. The appearance of the EPR spectra may be rationalized by inspection of the SOMOs from DFT calculations of the species in question. The notion of a metal-centered oxidation is also substantiated by IR spectroelectrochemistry and by UV/Vis spectra of the 17

  15. Copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative carboxylation of unactivated alkanes to allylic esters via alkenes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ba L; Driess, Matthias; Hartwig, John F

    2014-12-10

    We report copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative carboxylation (ODC) of unactivated alkanes with various substituted benzoic acids to produce the corresponding allylic esters. Spectroscopic studies (EPR, UV-vis) revealed that the resting state of the catalyst is [(BPI)Cu(O2CPh)] (1-O2CPh), formed from [(BPI)Cu(PPh3)2], oxidant, and benzoic acid. Catalytic and stoichiometric reactions of 1-O2CPh with alkyl radicals and radical probes imply that C-H bond cleavage occurs by a tert-butoxy radical. In addition, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect from reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane in separate vessels showed that the turnover-limiting step for the ODC of cyclohexane is C-H bond cleavage. To understand the origin of the difference in products formed from copper-catalyzed amidation and copper-catalyzed ODC, reactions of an alkyl radical with a series of copper-carboxylate, copper-amidate, and copper-imidate complexes were performed. The results of competition experiments revealed that the relative rate of reaction of alkyl radicals with the copper complexes follows the trend Cu(II)-amidate > Cu(II)-imidate > Cu(II)-benzoate. Consistent with this trend, Cu(II)-amidates and Cu(II)-benzoates containing more electron-rich aryl groups on the benzamidate and benzoate react faster with the alkyl radical than do those with more electron-poor aryl groups on these ligands to produce the corresponding products. These data on the ODC of cyclohexane led to preliminary investigation of copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative amination of cyclohexane to generate a mixture of N-alkyl and N-allylic products. PMID:25389772

  16. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Dehydrogenative Carboxylation of Unactivated Alkanes to Allylic Esters via Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative carboxylation (ODC) of unactivated alkanes with various substituted benzoic acids to produce the corresponding allylic esters. Spectroscopic studies (EPR, UV–vis) revealed that the resting state of the catalyst is [(BPI)Cu(O2CPh)] (1-O2CPh), formed from [(BPI)Cu(PPh3)2], oxidant, and benzoic acid. Catalytic and stoichiometric reactions of 1-O2CPh with alkyl radicals and radical probes imply that C–H bond cleavage occurs by a tert-butoxy radical. In addition, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect from reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane in separate vessels showed that the turnover-limiting step for the ODC of cyclohexane is C–H bond cleavage. To understand the origin of the difference in products formed from copper-catalyzed amidation and copper-catalyzed ODC, reactions of an alkyl radical with a series of copper–carboxylate, copper–amidate, and copper–imidate complexes were performed. The results of competition experiments revealed that the relative rate of reaction of alkyl radicals with the copper complexes follows the trend Cu(II)–amidate > Cu(II)–imidate > Cu(II)–benzoate. Consistent with this trend, Cu(II)–amidates and Cu(II)–benzoates containing more electron-rich aryl groups on the benzamidate and benzoate react faster with the alkyl radical than do those with more electron-poor aryl groups on these ligands to produce the corresponding products. These data on the ODC of cyclohexane led to preliminary investigation of copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative amination of cyclohexane to generate a mixture of N-alkyl and N-allylic products. PMID:25389772

  17. Asymmetric Synthesis of 2-Substituted Azetidin-3-ones via Metalated SAMP/RAMP Hydrazones.

    PubMed

    Pancholi, Alpa K; Geden, Joanna V; Clarkson, Guy J; Shipman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    2-Substituted azetidin-3-ones can be prepared in good yields and enantioselectivities (up to 85% ee) by a one-pot procedure involving the metalation of the SAMP/RAMP hydrazones of N-Boc-azetidin-3-one, reaction with a wide range of electrophiles, including alkyl, allyl, and benzyl halides and carbonyl compounds, followed by hydrolysis using oxalic acid. PMID:27447363

  18. Chiral Catalyst-Directed Dynamic Kinetic Diastereoselective Acylation of Lactols for De Novo Synthesis of Carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Yang, Ka; Yin, Dan; Liu, Can; Glazier, Daniel A; Tang, Weiping

    2015-11-01

    The control of the stereochemistry at the anomeric position is still one of the major challenges of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. We have developed a new strategy consisting of a chiral catalyst-directed acylation followed by a palladium-catalyzed glycosidation to achieve high α- and β-stereoselectivity on the anomeric position. The former process involves a dynamic kinetic diastereoselective acylation of lactols derived from Achmatowicz rearrangement, while the latter is a stereospecific palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation. PMID:26484422

  19. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  20. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Chen, He; Liu, Chao; Li, Chaozhong

    2016-05-01

    Direct decarboxylative radical allylation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. With K2S2O8 as the oxidant and AgNO3 as the catalyst, the reactions of aliphatic carboxylic acids with allyl sulfones in aqueous CH3CN solution gave the corresponding alkenes in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. This site-specific allylation method is applicable to all primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl acids and exhibits wide functional group compatibility. PMID:27065060

  1. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration. PMID:27453278

  2. THE CM-, MM-, AND SUB-MM-WAVE SPECTRUM OF ALLYL ISOCYANIDE AND RADIOASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS IN ORION KL AND THE SgrB2 LINE SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Haykal, I.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Motyienko, R. A.; Écija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Castaño, F.; Guillemin, J. C.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.

    2013-11-10

    Organic isocyanides have an interesting astrochemistry and some of these molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, rotational spectral data for this class of compounds are still scarce. We provide laboratory spectra of the four-carbon allyl isocyanide covering the full microwave region, thus allowing a potential astrophysical identification in the ISM. We assigned the rotational spectrum of the two cis (synperiplanar) and gauche (anticlinal) conformations of allyl isocyanide in the centimeter-wave region (4-18 GHz), resolved its {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) hyperfine structure, and extended the measurements into the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150-900 GHz) ranges for the title compound. Rotational constants for all the monosubstituted {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopologues are additionally provided. Laboratory observations are supplemented with initial radioastronomical observations. Following analysis of an extensive dataset (>11000 rotational transitions), accurate ground-state molecular parameters are reported for the cis and gauche conformations of the molecule, including rotational constants, NQC parameters, and centrifugal distortion terms up to octic contributions. Molecular parameters have also been obtained for the two first excited states of the cis conformation, with a dataset of more than 3300 lines. The isotopic data allowed determining substitution and effective structures for the title compound. We did not detect allyl isocyanide either in the IRAM 30 m line survey of Orion KL or in the PRIMOS survey toward SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided an upper limit to its column density in Orion KL.

  3. Trajectory study of energy transfer and unimolecular dissociation of highly excited allyl with argon.

    PubMed

    Conte, Riccardo; Houston, Paul L; Bowman, Joel M

    2014-09-11

    The influence of rotational excitation on energy transfer in single collisions of allyl with argon and on allyl dissociation is investigated. About 90,000 classical scattering simulations are performed in order to determine collision-induced changes in internal energy and in allyl rotational angular momentum. Dissociation is studied by means of about 50,000 additional trajectories evolved for the isolated allyl under three different conditions: allyl with no angular momentum (J = 0); allyl with the same microcanonically sampled initial conditions used for the collisions (J*); allyl evolving from the corresponding exit conditions after the collision. The potential energy surface is the sum of an intramolecular potential and an interaction one, and it has already been used in a previous work on allyl-argon scattering (Conte, R.; Houston, P. L.; Bowman, J. M. J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 14028-14041). Energy transfer data show that increased initial rotation favors, on average, increased relaxation of the excited molecule. The availability of a high-level intramolecular potential energy surface permits us to study the dependence of energy transfer on the type of starting allyl isomer. A turning point analysis is presented, and highly efficient collisions are detected. Collision-induced variations in the allyl rotational angular momentum may be quite large and are found to be distributed according to three regimes. The roles of rotational angular momentum, collision, and type of isomer on allyl unimolecular dissociation are considered by looking at dissociations times, kinetic energies of the fragments, and branching ratios. Generally, rotational angular momentum has a strong influence on the dissociation dynamics, while the single collision and the type of starting isomer are less influential. PMID:25116695

  4. Practical and Broadly Applicable Catalytic Enantioselective Additions of Allyl-B(pin) Compounds to Ketones and α-Ketoesters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Daniel W; Lee, KyungA; Silverio, Daniel L; Volkov, Alexey; Torker, Sebastian; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-08-01

    A set of broadly applicable methods for efficient catalytic additions of easy-to-handle allyl-B(pin) (pin=pinacolato) compounds to ketones and acyclic α-ketoesters was developed. Accordingly, a large array of tertiary alcohols can be obtained in 60 to >98 % yield and up to 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. At the heart of this development is rational alteration of the structures of the small-molecule aminophenol-based catalysts. Notably, with ketones, increasing the size of a catalyst moiety (tBu to SiPh3 ) results in much higher enantioselectivity. With α-ketoesters, on the other hand, not only does the opposite hold true, since Me substitution leads to substantially higher enantioselectivity, but the sense of the selectivity is reversed as well. PMID:27273249

  5. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  6. Magnetic silica supported palladium catalyst: synthesis of allyl aryl ethers in water

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and benign procedure for the synthesis of aryl allyl ethers has been developed using phenols, allyl acetates and magnetically recyclable silica supported palladium catalyst in water; performance of reaction in air and easy separation of the catalyst using an external mag...

  7. Catalyst-controlled switch of regioselectivity in the asymmetric allylic alkylation of oxazolones with MBHCs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongming; Yang, Junxian; Bao, Guangjun; Zhang, Ming; Li, Jing; Li, Yiping; Sun, Wangsheng; Hong, Liang; Wang, Rui

    2016-06-14

    A catalyst-controlled switch of regioselectivity in asymmetric allylic alkylation of oxazolones with MBHCs was described. The SN2'-SN2' reaction catalysed by a quinine-derived base produced γ-selective secondary allylic oxazolone derivatives, whereas the addition-elimination reaction catalysed by an amino acid-derived bifunctional urea catalyst provided β-selective primary adducts. PMID:27250517

  8. 1-Allyl-3-chloro-5-nitro-1H-indazole

    PubMed Central

    Chicha, Hakima; Rakib, El Mostapha; Spinelli, Domenico; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C10H8ClN3O2, the indazole ring system makes a dihedral angle of 7.9 (3)° with the plane through the nitro group. The allyl group is rotated out of the plane of the indazole ring system [N—N—C—C torsion angle = 104.28 (19)°]. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains propagating along the b-axis direction. PMID:24427047

  9. Radiolabeled n-substituted-6-iodo-3, 14-dihydroxy-4, 5alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    de Costa, B.R.; Iadarola, M.J.; Rothman, R.B.; Berman, K.F.; Rice, K.C.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to radiolabeled N-substituted-6-iodo-3,14-dihydroxy-4,5 alpha-epoxymorphinans, intermediates for producing the same, and a process for the preparation and methods of detecting opioid receptors, wherein Iodo is selected from the group consisting of (123)I and (125)I; and where the N substitution is alkyl, cycloalkylloweralkyl or allyl.

  10. Dual Palladium(II)/Tertiary Amine Catalysis for Asymmetric Regioselective Rearrangements of Allylic Carbamates.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Johannes Moritz; Frey, Wolfgang; Peters, René

    2016-04-11

    The streamlined catalytic access to enantiopure allylic amines as valuable precursors towards chiral β- and γ-aminoalcohols as well as α- and β-aminoacids is desirable for industrial purposes. In this article an enantioselective method is described that transforms achiral allylic alcohols and N-tosylisocyanate in a single step into highly enantioenriched N-tosyl protected allylic amines via an allylic carbamate intermediate. The latter is likely to undergo a cyclisation-induced [3,3]-rearrangement catalysed by a planar chiral pentaphenylferrocene palladacycle in cooperation with a tertiary amine base. The otherwise often indispensable activation of palladacycle catalysts by a silver salt is not required in the present case and there is also no need for an inert gas atmosphere. To further improve the synthetic value, the rearrangement was used to form dimethylaminosulfonyl-protected allylic amines, which can be deprotected under non-reductive conditions. PMID:26990446

  11. Practical Stannylation of Allyl Acetates Catalyzed by Nickel with Bu3 SnOMe.

    PubMed

    Komeyama, Kimihiro; Itai, Yuuhei; Takaki, Ken

    2016-06-27

    A practical and scalable nickel-catalyzed allylic stannylation of allyl acetates with Bu3 SnOMe is described. A variety of acyclic and cyclic allyl acetates, even with base-sensitive moieties, undergoes the stannylation by using NiBr2 /4,4'-di-tert-butylbipyridine (dtbpy)/Mn catalyst system to afford highly functionalized allyl stannanes with excellent regioselectivity and yields. Furthermore, the scope of protocol is also extended by the reaction of propargyl acetates, giving rise to propargyl or allenyl stannanes. Additionally, a unique diastereoselectivity using the nickel catalyst different from the palladium was demonstrated for the stannylation of cyclic allyl acetates. In the reaction, inexpensive and stable nickel complexes, abundant reductant (Mn), and atom-economical stannyl source were used. PMID:27124370

  12. Allyl alcohol activation of protein kinase C delta leads to cytotoxicity of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Jane F; Roth, Robert A; Ganey, Patricia E

    2003-05-01

    Hepatotoxicity of allyl alcohol involves its bioactivation to acrolein and subsequent protein sulfhydryl loss and lipid peroxidation. However, the links between these events and hepatocellular death are not known. The purpose of these studies was to examine whether specific signal transduction pathways are associated with allyl alcohol toxicity in hepatocytes. Inhibition or augmentation of cyclic AMP and/or protein kinase A (PKA) by Rp-Ado-3N,5N-cyclic monophosphorothioate triethylamine salt or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine had no effect on allyl alcohol-induced cell death. H-7, an inhibitor of PKA, PKC, and PKG, partially inhibited cell killing by allyl alcohol, whereas chelerythrine chloride, a nonselective PKC inhibitor, almost completely abolished allyl alcohol cytotoxicity. Neither 2,2N,3,3N,4,4N-hexahydroxy-1,1N,-biphenyl-6,6N-dimethanol-dimethyl ether, a selective PKC alpha and beta inhibitor, nor bisindolylmaleimide I, an inhibitor of PKC alpha, beta, and epsilon, had any effect on allyl alcohol cytotoxicity. In contrast, rottlerin, a selective PKCdelta inhibitor, blocked hepatocellular killing by allyl alcohol. Cytoprotection by chelerythrine chloride and rottlerin was not the result of inhibition of bioactivation of allyl alcohol because each inhibitor also prevented cell death from acrolein. Western blotting and immunohistochemical techniques revealed that allyl alcohol stimulated phosphorylation and translocation of PKCdelta to hepatocyte membranes (i.e., activation), and this activity was inhibited by rottlerin. Cell death appeared to occur via oncotic necrosis rather than apoptosis based on single-stranded DNA ELISA and propidium iodide staining. Together, these results indicate that activation of PKCdelta is a critical, early event in initiating hepatocyte injury and death from allyl alcohol. PMID:12755590

  13. Allyl vs ethyl substituted thioquinoline complexes with diiodine: Halogen bonds and iodocyclization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveychuk, Y. V.; Ilkaeva, M. V.; Vershinina, E. A.; Batalov, V. I.; Morozov, R. S.; Bartashevich, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    A comparative analysis of 2-allylthioquinoline and 2-ethylthioquinoline interactions with diiodine in solutions was performed using UV/Vis spectroscopy and molecular modelling with a TD-DFT approach. The named compounds exhibit different reactivity: 2-allylthioquinoline participates in the iodocyclization reaction and 2-ethylthioquinoline forms molecular complexes with diiodine only. The emergences of iodocyclization products and diiodine complexes of alkyl- and alkeny lsubstituted thioquinolines on spectra allow us to enable process control of interactions with diiodine.

  14. Oxidative addition of allylic halides to ruthenium(II) compounds. Preparation, reactions, and X-ray crystallographic structure of ruthenium(IV)-allyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagashima, Hideo; Mukai, Katsunori; Shiota, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Keitaro; Ara, Kenichi; Fukahori, Takahiko; Itoh, Kenji ); Suzuki, Hiroharu; Akita, Munetaka; Moro-oka, Yoshihiko )

    1990-03-01

    The oxidative addition of allylic halides to (C{sub 5}R{sub 5})RuL{sub 2}X (R = H, Me; L = CO, PPh{sub 3}) gave new Ru(IV)-{eta}{sup 3}-allyl complexes, (C{sub 5}R{sub 5})RuX{sub 2}({eta}{sup 3}-allyl). An X-ray structure determination was carried out on (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5})RuBr{sub 2}({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 3}H{sub 5}), indicating a pseudo-piano-stool structure having two Br atoms and two terminal carbons of the endo-{eta}{sup 3}-allyl ligand located at the basal positions. There is a crystal mirror plane bisecting the pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and the {pi}-allyl ligands. Crystal data: orthorhombic, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a = 22.738 (1) {angstrom}, b = 13.367 (7) {angstrom}, c = 9.383 (1) {angstrom}, Z = 4., data refined to R = 0.0695. Its {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed symmetric allyl signals, supporting that the above-described piano-stool structure is maintained even in solution.

  15. Crystal structure of bis­(allyl­ammonium) oxalate

    PubMed Central

    Dziuk, Błażej; Zarychta, Bartosz; Ejsmont, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The title salt, 2C3H8N+·C2O4 2−, crystallized with six independent allyl­ammonium cations and three independent oxalate dianions in the asymmetric unit. One of the oxalate dianions is nearly planar [dihedral angle between CO2 planes = 1.91 (19)°], while the other two are twisted with angles of 11.3 (3) and 26.09 (13)°. One cation has a synperiplanar (cis) conformation with an N—C—C—C torsion angle of 0.9 (3)°, whereas the five remaining cations are characterized by gauche arrangements, with the N—C—C—C torsion angles ranging from 115.9 (12) to 128.8 (3)°. One of the allyl­ammonium cations is positionally disordered (fixed occupancy ratio = 0.45:0.55). In the crystal, the cations and anions are connected by a number of strong N—H⋯O and N—H⋯(O,O) hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (001), with the vinyl groups protruding into the space between the layers. PMID:25553015

  16. Conformations of allylic fluorides and stereoselectivities of their diels-alder cycloadditions.

    PubMed

    Grée, D; Vallerie, L; Grée, R; Toupet, L; Washington, I; Pelicier, J P; Villacampa, M; Pérez, J M; Houk, K N

    2001-04-01

    The preparations of new allylic fluorides from the corresponding alcohols are reported. Conformational analysis is achieved by comparison of experimental NMR measurements with theoretical (B3LYP) calculations of relative energies of conformers and J(H,H) and J(H,F) coupling constants. The Diels-Alder reactions of allylic fluorides are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The stereoselectivities of the reactions were determined by NMR analysis and, in one case, by X-ray crystallography. Theoretical predictions of stereoselectivity based upon transition state modeling provided good agreement with experiment. Theoretical models for allylic fluorides and transition state conformations are reported. PMID:11281778

  17. Sequence-defined polymers via orthogonal allyl acrylamide building blocks.

    PubMed

    Porel, Mintu; Alabi, Christopher A

    2014-09-24

    Biological systems have long recognized the importance of macromolecular diversity and have evolved efficient processes for the rapid synthesis of sequence-defined biopolymers. However, achieving sequence control via synthetic methods has proven to be a difficult challenge. Herein we describe efforts to circumvent this difficulty via the use of orthogonal allyl acrylamide building blocks and a liquid-phase fluorous support for the de novo design and synthesis of sequence-specific polymers. We demonstrate proof-of-concept via synthesis and characterization of two sequence-isomeric 10-mer polymers. (1)H NMR and LCMS were used to confirm their chemical structure while tandem MS was used to confirm sequence identity. Further validation of this methodology was provided via the successful synthesis of a sequence-specific 16-mer polymer incorporating nine different monomers. This strategy thus shows promise as an efficient approach for the assembly of sequence-specific functional polymers. PMID:25204618

  18. Aerobic Linear Allylic C-H Amination: Overcoming Benzoquinone Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Pattillo, Christopher C; Strambeanu, Iulia I; Calleja, Pilar; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Mizuno, Tomokazu; White, M Christina

    2016-02-01

    An efficient aerobic linear allylic C-H amination reaction is reported under palladium(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted base catalysis. The reaction operates under preparative, operationally simple conditions (1 equiv of olefin, 1 atm O2 or air) with reduced Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide catalyst loadings while providing higher turnovers and product yields than systems employing stoichiometric benzoquinone (BQ) as the terminal oxidant. Pd(II)/BQ π-acidic interactions have been invoked in various catalytic processes and are often considered beneficial in promoting reductive functionalizations. When such electrophilic activation for functionalization is not needed, however, BQ at high concentrations may compete with crucial ligand (bis-sulfoxide) binding and inhibit catalysis. Kinetic studies reveal an inverse relationship between the reaction rate and the concentration of BQ, suggesting that BQ is acting as a ligand for Pd(II) which results in an inhibitory effect on catalysis. PMID:26730458

  19. Rhodium-Catalyzed Regiodivergent Hydrothiolation of Allyl Amines and Imines.

    PubMed

    Kennemur, Jennifer L; Kortman, Gregory D; Hull, Kami L

    2016-09-14

    The regiodivergent Rh-catalyzed hydrothiolation of allyl amines and imines is presented. Bidentate phosphine ligands with larger natural bite angles (βn ≥ 99°), for example, DPEphos, dpph, or L1, promote a Markovnikov-selective hydrothiolation in up to 88% yield and >20:1 regioselectivity. Conversely, when smaller bite angle ligands (βn ≤ 86°), for example, dppbz or dppp, are employed, the anti-Markovnikov product is formed in up to 74% yield and >20:1 regioselectivity. Initial mechanistic investigations are performed and are consistent with an oxidative addition/olefin insertion/reductive elimination mechanism for each regioisomeric pathway. We hypothesize that the change in regioselectivity is an effect of diverging coordination spheres to favor either Rh-S or Rh-H insertion to form the branched or linear isomer, respectively. PMID:27547858

  20. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  1. Cross coupling of dialkylmagnesium derivatives with allylic compounds catalyzed by copper salts

    SciTech Connect

    Ibragimov, A.G.; Dzhemilev, U.M.; Saraev, R.A.

    1985-07-20

    The reaction of allylic compounds with Grignard reagents catalyzed by salts of copper, nickel, iron and cobalt, titanium and palladium is a simple and efficient method for the preparation of unsaturated hydrocarbons. However, information concerning the use of dialkylmagnesium derivatives, which are more reactive than Grignard reagents, is extremely limited in these reactions. To continue a study of the cross-coupling of allylic compounds with dialkylmagnesium derivatives in an effort to expand the scope of this reaction and to elucidate the effect of the R/sub 2/Mg reagent structure on its reactivity, the authors investigated the reaction of dialkylmagnesium and diarlmagnesium reagents with allylic ethers and esters, thioethers, and amines, by the action of transition metal salts. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the preparation of unsaturated hydrocarbons of given structure by the cross-coupling of dialkylmagnesium derivatives with functional allylic compounds by the action of catalytic amounts of copper complexes.

  2. Total Synthesis of Enantiopure (+)-γ -Lycorane Using Highly Efficient Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Chapsal, Bruno D.; Ojima, Iwao

    2008-01-01

    Highly efficient short total synthesis of γ -lycorane (>99% ee, 41% overall yield) was achieved by using the asymmetric allylic alkylation in the key step catalyzed by palladium complexes with novel chiral biphenol-based monodentate phosphoramidite ligands. PMID:16562900

  3. Effect of Allyl Isothiocyanate on developmental toxicity in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pungent natural compound allyl isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of Cruciferous (Brassica) plants such as mustard is reported to exhibit numerous beneficial health-promoting antimicrobial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Because it is also re...

  4. Theoretical study on the mechanism of iron carbonyls mediated isomerization of allylic alcohols to saturated carbonyls.

    PubMed

    Branchadell, Vicenç; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2003-05-01

    The conversion of allylic alcohols to enols mediated by Fe(CO)(3) has been studied through density functional theoretical calculations. From the results obtained a complete catalytic cycle has been proposed in which the first intermediate is the [(allyl alcohol)Fe(CO)(3)] complex. This intermediate evolves to the [(enol)Fe(CO)(3)] complex through two consecutive 1,3-hydrogen shifts involving a pi-allyl hydride intermediate. The highest Gibbs energy transition state corresponds to the partial decoordination ot the enol ligand prior to the coordination of a new allyl alcohol molecule that regenerates the first intermediate. Alternative processes for the [(enol)Fe(CO)(3)] complex such as [Fe(CO)(3)]-mediated enol-aldehyde transformation and enol isomerization have also been considered. The results obtained show that the former process is unfavourable, whereas the enol isomerization may compete with the enol decoordination step of the catalytic cycle. PMID:12740854

  5. Total Synthesis of Clavosolide A via Tandem Allylic Oxidation/Oxa-Conjugate Addition Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph B.; Kim, Hyoungsu; Hong, Jiyong

    2015-01-01

    The tandem allylic oxidation/oxa-conjugate addition reaction promoted by the gem-disubstituent effect in conjunction with the NHC-mediated oxidative esterification was explored for the facile synthesis of clavosolide A. PMID:26236051

  6. Asymmetric Catalysis with CO2 : The Direct α-Allylation of Ketones.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Gabriele; Properzi, Roberta; List, Benjamin

    2016-05-10

    Quaternary stereocenters are found in numerous bioactive molecules. The Tsuji-Trost reaction has proven to be a powerful C-C bond forming process, and, at least in principle, should be well suited to access quaternary stereocenters via the α-allylation of ketones. However, while indirect approaches are known, the direct, catalytic asymmetric α-allylation of branched ketones has been elusive until today. By combining "enol catalysis" with the use of CO2 as a formal catalyst for asymmetric catalysis, we have now developed a solution to this problem: we report a direct, highly enantioselective and highly atom-economic Tsuji-Trost allylation of branched ketones with allylic alcohol. Our reaction delivers products bearing quaternary stereocenters with high enantioselectivity and water as the sole by-product. We expect our methodology to be of utility in asymmetric catalysis and inspire the design of other highly atom-economic transformations. PMID:27071633

  7. Immobilized catalysts for iridium-catalyzed allylic amination: rate enhancement by immobilization.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Chandi C; Helmchen, Günter

    2015-05-01

    The first immobilized catalyst for Ir-catalyzed asymmetric allylic aminations is described. The catalyst is a cationic (π-allyl)Ir complex bound by cation exchange to an anionic silica gel support. Preparation of the catalyst is facile, and the supported catalyst displayed considerably enhanced activity compared with the parent homogeneous catalyst. Up to 43 consecutive amination runs were possible in recycling experiments. PMID:25787122

  8. Control of Diastereoselectivity for Iridium-catalyzed Allylation of a Prochiral Nucleophile with a Phosphate Counterion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyong; Hartwig, John F.

    2013-01-01

    We report a highly diastereo- and enantioselective allylation of azlactones catalyzed by the combination of a metallayclic iridium complex and an optically inactive phosphate anion. The process demonstrates an approach to conduct diastereoselective reactions with prochiral nucleophiles in the presence of metallacyclic allyliridium complexes. The reaction provides access to an array of enantioenriched allylated azlactones containing adjacent tertiary and quaternary carbon centers. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the phosphate and methyl carbonate anions together induce the unusually high diastereoselectivity. PMID:23286279

  9. Enantiomerization of Allylic Trifluoromethyl Sulfoxides Studied by HPLC Analysis and DFT Calculations.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Laetitia; Petit, Emilie; Maeno, Mayaka; Shibata, Norio; Trapp, Oliver; Cardinael, Pascal; Chataigner, Isabelle; Cahard, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Enantiomerization of allylic trifluoromethyl sulfoxides occurs spontaneously at room temperature through the corresponding allylic trifluoromethanesulfenates via a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. Dynamic enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed the stereodynamics of these sulfoxides ranging from chromatographic resolution to peak coalescence at temperatures between 5 and 53 °C. The rate constant of enantiomerization and activation parameters were determined and compared with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. PMID:26689286

  10. Methyl allyl ether formation in plants: novel S-adenosyl L-methionine:coniferyl alcohol 9-O-methyltransferase from suspension cultures of three Linum species.

    PubMed

    Berim, Anna; Schneider, Bernd; Petersen, Maike

    2007-06-01

    A novel 41 kDa methyltransferase displaying high regiospecificity towards the allylic hydroxyl moiety of coniferyl alcohol was cloned from suspension cultures of Linum nodiflorum L. and expressed in E. coli. The apparent K (m) for coniferyl alcohol is 7.23 microM with a V (max) of 707.5 pkat mg(-1) protein at 30 degrees C, whereas the K (m) for the co-substrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine is 18.5 microM. Structure-function relationship studies revealed stringent structure requirements. Even minor substructure deviations as the side-chain saturation or changes in the phenyl ring substitution result in activities decreased by 75-90%. Crotyl and allyl alcohols are not substrates, confirming that the aromatic ring itself is indispensable, and solely the derivatives with a C(3) side-chain are accepted. The enzyme shares only similarities under 46% on amino acid level with other known methyltransferases. The designated reaction product, coniferyl alcohol 9-methyl ether, could be detected in suspension cells. The highest content of up to 0.02% of the dry mass is concurrent with an increase of the specific enzyme activity that reaches its maximum of 3.94 pkat mg(-1) on day 6 of the culture period. Transcript levels estimated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR remain constant until day 6 and recede thereafter. The corresponding methyltransferase from Linum flavum L. differs mainly by one short variable fragment. Biochemical characterization revealed a higher catalytic efficiency and a slightly broader substrate plasticity together with a lower sensitivity to the presence of Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+). This is to our knowledge the first report of a regiospecific allylic O-methylation of phenylpropanoids in plants. PMID:17333502

  11. Allyl-Assisted, Cu(I)-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition/Allylation Reaction: Assembly of the [1,2,3]Triazolo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyridine Core Structure.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaohu; Liang, Jimmy; Allison, Brett B; Dvorak, Curt; McAllister, Heather; Savall, Brad M; Mani, Neelakandha S

    2015-11-01

    We report a Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne-allyl halide three-component reaction for a one-pot synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 5-allyl-1,2,3-triazoles. The allyl moiety provides not only the electrophile but also a coordinating ligand to Cu, which is essential for the reaction to occur under mild conditions. A concise synthesis of a potential drug candidate 1 is realized based on this key reaction. PMID:26458051

  12. NeoPHOX – a structurally tunable ligand system for asymmetric catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Padevět, Jaroslav; Schrems, Marcus G; Scheil, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A synthesis of new NeoPHOX ligands derived from serine or threonine has been developed. The central intermediate is a NeoPHOX derivative bearing a methoxycarbonyl group at the stereogenic center next to the oxazoline N atom. The addition of methylmagnesium chloride leads to a tertiary alcohol, which can be acylated or silylated to produce NeoPHOX ligands with different sterical demand. The new NeoPHOX ligands were tested in the iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. In both reactions high enantioselectivities were achieved, that were comparable to the enantioselectivities obtained with the up to now best NeoPHOX ligand derived from expensive tert-leucine. PMID:27559370

  13. NeoPHOX - a structurally tunable ligand system for asymmetric catalysis.

    PubMed

    Padevět, Jaroslav; Schrems, Marcus G; Scheil, Robin; Pfaltz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of new NeoPHOX ligands derived from serine or threonine has been developed. The central intermediate is a NeoPHOX derivative bearing a methoxycarbonyl group at the stereogenic center next to the oxazoline N atom. The addition of methylmagnesium chloride leads to a tertiary alcohol, which can be acylated or silylated to produce NeoPHOX ligands with different sterical demand. The new NeoPHOX ligands were tested in the iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. In both reactions high enantioselectivities were achieved, that were comparable to the enantioselectivities obtained with the up to now best NeoPHOX ligand derived from expensive tert-leucine. PMID:27559370

  14. Sensory Substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrillo, Ronald T.

    The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

  15. Infrared, Raman and Microwave Spectra, Conformational Stability, Barriers to Internal Rotation, and AB Initio Calculations of Some Allyl Halides and Substituted Allyl Halides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Mengzhang

    The infrared (3500 to 40 cm^{ -1}) and Raman (3500 to 20 cm^ {-1})^ectra of gaseous and solid 3-fluoropropene and trans-1-fluoro-2-butene, trans-CH_3 HC=CHCH_2F, have been recorded. Additionally, the Raman spectra of the liquids have been recorded and qualitative depolarization values have been obtained. The spectra have been interpreted on the basis that the conformation which has the fluorine atom cis to the double bond is thermodynamically preferred for both molecules over the gauche rotamer in both the gaseous and liquid phases and is the only rotamer present in the annealed solid. An assignment of the fundamental vibrations for both conformations for both molecules, based on their infrared band contours, depolarization values and group frequencies, is given and discussed. The microwave spectrum of 3-fluoro-2-methylpropene (methallyl fluoride), CH_2C(CH _3)CH_2F, has been recorded from 18.0 to 39.0 GHz. The a-type R-branches have been observed and assigned in the ground and first two vibrationally excited states of the asymmetric torsion for both the low energy cis and high energy gauche conformers. Additionally, the c-type Q-branches for the gauche conformer and b-type Q-branches for the cis conformer have been assigned. From the Stark effect the dipole moment components were determined for the cis conformer to be | mu_ a| = 1.65 +/- 0.02, |mu_ b| = 1.13 +/- 0.01 and | mu_ t| = 2.00 +/- 0.01 D and those for the gauche conformer to be |mu_ a| = 1.36 +/- 0.03, |mu_ b| = 0-26 +/- 0.07, |mu_ c| = 0 -89 +/- 0.07 and |mu_ t| = 1.65 +/- 0.01 D. Complete equilibrium geometries for both conformers have been determined with the RHF/3-21G, RHF/6-31G* and MP2/6-31G* basis sets. A normal coordinate analysis utilizing the harmonic force constants obtained with the MP2/6-31G* basis set has been carried out for both conformers. The results are discussed and compared with the corresponding quantities obtained for some similar molecules.

  16. Allylic and Allenic Halide Synthesis via NbCl5- and NbBr5-Mediated Alkoxide Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, P. C.; Yao, Lihua; Fleming, Fraser F.

    2009-01-01

    Addition of NbCl5, or NbBr5, to a series of magnesium, lithium, or potassium allylic or propargylic alkoxides directly provides allylic or allenic halides. Halogenation formally occurs through a metalla-halo-[3,3] rearrangement although concerted, ionic, and direct displacement mechanisms appear to operate competitively. Transposition of the olefin is equally effective for allylic alkoxides prepared by nucleophilic addition, deprotonation, or reduction. Experimentally, the niobium pentahalide halogenations are rapid, afford essentially pure E-allylic or allenic halides after extraction, and are applicable to a range of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. PMID:19739606

  17. Allylic and allenic halide synthesis via NbCl(5)- and NbBr(5)-mediated alkoxide rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, P C; Yao, Lihua; Fleming, Fraser F

    2009-10-01

    Addition of NbCl(5) or NbBr(5) to a series of magnesium, lithium, or potassium allylic or propargylic alkoxides directly provides allylic or allenic halides. Halogenation formally occurs through a metalla-halo-[3,3] rearrangement, although concerted, ionic, and direct displacement mechanisms appear to operate competitively. Transposition of the olefin is equally effective for allylic alkoxides prepared by nucleophilic addition, deprotonation, or reduction. Experimentally, the niobium pentahalide halogenations are rapid, afford essentially pure (E)-allylic or -allenic halides after extraction, and are applicable to a range of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. PMID:19739606

  18. 2-Allyl-7-nitro-2H-indazole

    PubMed Central

    Kouakou, Assoman; Rakib, El Mostapha; Spinelli, Domenico; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C10H9N3O2, contains two independent mol­ecules linked by a C—H⋯N hydrogen bond. Each mol­ecule has a similar conformation, being built up from fused five- and six-membered rings, each linked to an ally and nitro group, respectively. The indazole ring system makes dihedral angles of 2.7 (2) and 2.2 (2)°, respectively, with the plane through the nitro group. The allyl group is nearly perpendicular to the indazole system, as indicated by the N—N—C—C torsion angles of −75.3 (2) and −82.2 (2)°, this being the most important difference between the conformations of the two mol­ecules. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O and π–π [inter-centroid distance = 3.6225 (8) Å] inter­actions to form a three-dimensional network. PMID:24454056

  19. Release of allyl isothiocyanate from mustard seed meal powder.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruyan; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2014-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a wide-spectrum antimicrobial compound found in mustard seeds, produced when their tissues are disrupted. The formation of AITC in mustard seed is mediated by the myrosinase enzyme which catalyzes the release of volatile AITC from a glucosinolate-sinigrin. Since water is a substrate in the reaction, humidity from the air can be used to activate the release of AITC from mustard seed. In this study, defatted and partially defatted mustard seed meals were ground into powders with particle size ranging from 5 to 300 μm. The mustard seed meal powder (MSMP) samples were enclosed within hermetically sealed glass jars wherein the headspace air was adjusted to 85% or 100% relative humidity at 5, 20, or 35 °C. Data from gas chromatography analysis showed that AITC release rate and amount increased with increasing relative humidity and temperature. Moreover, the release rate can be manipulated by particle size and lipid content of the MSMP samples. The amount of AITC released ranged from 2 to 17 mg/g MSMP within 24 h under the experimental conditions tested. In view of the antimicrobial properties of AITC, the mustard meal powder may be used as a natural antimicrobial material for extending the shelf life of food products. PMID:24313968

  20. Allyl isothiocyanate induces stomatal closure in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Sobahan, Muhammad Abdus; Akter, Nasima; Okuma, Eiji; Uraji, Misugi; Ye, Wenxiu; Mori, Izumi C; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are enzymatically produced from glucosinolates in plants, and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we investigated stomatal responses to AITC in Vicia faba. AITC-induced stomatal closure accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NO production, cytosolic alkalization and glutathione (GSH) depletion in V. faba. GSH monoethyl ester induced stomatal reopening and suppressed AITC-induced GSH depletion in guard cells. Exogenous catalase and a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid, inhibited AITC-induced stomatal closure, unlike an NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride. The peroxidase inhibitor also abolished the AITC-induced ROS production, NO production, and cytosolic alkalization. AITC-induced stomatal closure was suppressed by an NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, and an agent to acidify cytosol, butyrate. These results indicate that AITC-induced stomatal closure in V. faba as well as in A. thaliana and suggest that AITC signaling in guard cells is conserved in both plants. PMID:26027691

  1. Allyl isothiocyanate affects the cell cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Åsberg, Signe E.; Bones, Atle M.; Øverby, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are degradation products of glucosinolates present in members of the Brassicaceae family acting as herbivore repellents and antimicrobial compounds. Recent results indicate that allyl ITC (AITC) has a role in defense responses such as glutathione depletion, ROS generation and stomatal closure. In this study we show that exposure to non-lethal concentrations of AITC causes a shift in the cell cycle distribution of Arabidopsis thaliana leading to accumulation of cells in S-phases and a reduced number of cells in non-replicating phases. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed an AITC-induced up-regulation of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase A while several genes encoding mitotic proteins were down-regulated, suggesting an inhibition of mitotic processes. Interestingly, visualization of DNA synthesis indicated that exposure to AITC reduced the rate of DNA replication. Taken together, these results indicate that non-lethal concentrations of AITC induce cells of A. thaliana to enter the cell cycle and accumulate in S-phases, presumably as a part of a defensive response. Thus, this study suggests that AITC has several roles in plant defense and add evidence to the growing data supporting a multifunctional role of glucosinolates and their degradation products in plants. PMID:26042144

  2. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. PMID:25863635

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of alumina-supported bis(allyl)iridium complexes : site-isolation, reactivity, and decomposition studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Trovitch, R. J.; Guo, N.; Janicke, M. T.; Li, H.; Marshall, C. L.; Miller, J. T.; Sattelberger, A. P.; John, K. D.; Baker, R. T.; LANL; Univ. of Ottawa

    2010-01-01

    The covalent attachment of tris(allyl)iridium to partially dehydroxylated ?-alumina is found to proceed via surface hydroxyl group protonation of one allyl ligand to form an immobilized bis(allyl)iridium moiety, (?AlO)Ir(allyl)2, as characterized by CP-MAS 13C NMR, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and Ir L3 edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements taken on unsupported Ir(allyl)3 and several associated tertiary phosphine addition complexes suggest that the ?3-allyl ligands generally account for an Ir-C coordination number of 2 rather than 3, with an average Ir-C distance of 2.16 A. Using this knowledge, combined EXAFS and X-ray absorption near-edge structure studies reveal that a small amount of Ir0 is also formed upon reaction of Ir(allyl)3 with the surface. It was found that the addition of either 2,6-dimethylphenyl isocyanide or carbon monoxide to the supported complex allows spectroscopic identification of the supported bis(allyl)iridium complexes, (?AlO)Ir(allyl)2(CNAr) [Ar = 2,6-(CH3)2C6H4] and (?AlO)Ir(allyl)2(CO)2, respectively. Although samples of the supported bis(allyl)iridium complex are active for the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane to benzene at temperatures between 180 and 220C, in situ temperature-programmed reaction XAFS and continuous-flow reactor studies suggest that Ir0 nanoparticles, rather than a well-defined Ir3+ complex, are responsible for the observed activity.

  4. Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in HeLa cells by allylic compounds.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, D; Eder, E; Neudecker, T; Henschler, D

    1983-10-01

    Thirteen allylic compounds, mostly with close structural relationship, were tested for their ability to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in HeLa cells and mutations in the Ames test; 11 induced UDS in dose dependence. Allyl isothiocyanate was negative in UDS (borderline in the Ames test) and acrolein (positive in the Ames test) proved toxic to HeLa cells, therefore UDS measurement was excluded. In general, positive qualitative and quantitative correlation between UDS, Ames test and alkylating properties (as measured in the 4-nitrobenzyl-pyridine test, NBP) were found. Among structural analogs and typical allylic compounds with various leaving groups, the amount of induced DNA repair at equimolar concentrations decreased in the same order as the mutagenic and alkylating activities in the other 2 test systems: 1,3-dichloropropene (cis) greater than 1,3-dichloropropene (trans) greater than 2,3-dichloro-1-propene; 1-chloro-2-butene greater than 3-chloro-1-butene greater than 3-chloro-2-methyl-1-propene greater than allyl chloride; allyl-methane-sulfonate greater than -iodide greater than -bromide greater than -chloride. PMID:6627227

  5. Resonance interactions in acyclic systems. 1. Energies and charge distributions in allyl anions and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, K.B.; Breneman, C.M.; LePage, T.J. )

    1990-01-03

    The energies of dissociation of propane to 1-propyl cation and anion and of propene to allyl cation and anion may be satisfactorily reproduced via ab initio calculations at the MP4/6-311++G**//6-31G* level. The reaction of 1-propyl cation with propene to give the unconjugated allyl cation was found to be endothermic, whereas the corresponding reaction of the anion was exothermic. The rotational barrier for allyl cation was 36 kcal/mol, whereas that for the anion was 19 kcal/mol. These data were analyzed in terms of electron delocalization and the electrostatic energies of the ions, and it was concluded that whereas the cation had significant resonance stabilization, the anion had little stabilization. A series of allyl type anions were examined making use of 6-311++G** wave functions calculated at the 6-31G* geometries. Correction for electron correlation at the MP3 level led to calculated proton affinities which agreed well with the experimental values. Electronegative atoms at the central position had little affect on the proton affinities, but when they were at the terminal positions, there was a large change. The changes in electron population among the amions were studied via numerical integration of the charge densities within boundaries which may be assigned to the atoms in the ions. The more stable anions are characterized by a -+- charge distribution for the three atoms in the allylic system, leading to internal coulombic stabilization.

  6. The direct arylation of allylic sp3 C–H bonds via organocatalysis and photoredox catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, James D.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The direct functionalization of unactivated sp3 C–H bonds is still one of the most challenging problems facing synthetic organic chemists. The appeal of such transformations derives from their capacity to facilitate the construction of complex organic molecules via the coupling of simple and otherwise inert building blocks, without introducing extraneous functional groups. Despite notable recent efforts,1 the establishment of general and mild strategies for the engagement of sp3 C–H bonds in carbon–carbon bond forming reactions has proven difficult. Within this context, the discovery of chemical transformations that are able to directly functionalize allylic methyl, methylene, and methine carbons in a catalytic manner is a priority. While protocols for direct allylic C–H oxidation and amination have become widely established,2,3 the engagement of allylic substrates in carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions has thus far required the use of pre-functionalized coupling partners.4 In particular, the direct arylation of non-functionalized allylic systems would enable chemists to rapidly access a series of known pharmacophores, though a general solution to this longstanding challenge remains elusive. We describe herein the use of both photoredox and organic catalysis to accomplish the first mild, broadly effective direct allylic C–H arylation. This new C–C bond-forming reaction readily accommodates a broad range of alkene and electron-deficient arene reactants and has been used in the direct arylation of benzylic C–H bonds. PMID:25739630

  7. Vitreous Substitutes.

    PubMed

    Foster, William Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Modern vitreoretinal surgery is a young science. While tremendous developments have occurred in instrument design and technique since Machemer first described vitrectomy surgery in 1973[1], the application of advanced materials concepts to the development of intra-ocular compounds is a particularly exciting area of research. To date, the development of vitreous substitutes has played a significant role in enabling the dramatic and progressive improvement in surgical outcome, but perhaps no other area of research has the potential to further improve the treatment of retinal detachment and other retinal disorders. While prior research has focused solely upon the ability of a compound to re-attach the retina, future research should seek to enable the surgeon to inhibit the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and re-detachment, the integration of stem-cell therapies with surgical retina, long-term delivery of medications to the posterior segment, and the promotion of more rapid and complete visual rehabilitation. PMID:19343097

  8. Regio- and Enantioselective N-Allylations of Imidazole, Benzimidazole, and Purine Heterocycles Catalyzed by Single-Component Metallacyclic Iridium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Levi M.

    2010-01-01

    Highly regio- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed N-allylations of benzimidazoles, imidazoles, and purines have been developed. N-Allylated benzimidazoles and imidazoles were isolated in high yields (up to 97%) with high branched-to-linear selectivity (up to 99:1) and enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee) from the reactions of benzimidazole and imidazole nucleophiles with unsymmetrical allylic carbonates in the presence of single component, ethylene-bound, metallacyclic iridium catalysts. N-Allylated purines were also obtained in high yields (up to 91%) with high N9:N7 selectivity (up to 96:4), high branched-to-linear selectivity (98:2), and high enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee) under similar conditions. The reactions encompass a range of benzimidazole, imidazole, and purine nucleophiles, as well as a variety of unsymmetrical aryl, heteroaryl, and aliphatic allylic carbonates. Competition experiments between common amine nucleophiles and the heterocyclic nitrogen nucleophiles studied in this work illustrate the effect of nucleophile pKa on the rate of iridium-catalyzed N-allylation reactions. Kinetic studies on the allylation of benzimidazole catalyzed by metallacyclic iridium-phosphoramidite complexes, in combination with studies on the deactivation of these catalysts in the presence of heterocyclic nucleophiles, provide insight into the effects of the structure of the phosphoramidite ligands on the stability of the metallacyclic catalysts. The data obtained from these studies has led to the development of N-allylations of benzimidazoles and imidazoles in the absence of an exogenous base. PMID:19480431

  9. Silver-Catalyzed Allylation of Ketones and Intramolecular Cyclization through Carbene Intermediates from Cyclopropenes Under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takeo; Endo, Kohei; Ukaji, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Tandem C-C bond formation was achieved through silver-catalyzed ring-opening of cyclopropenes via carbene intermediates. The reaction of cyclopropenes in the presence of a silver catalyst gave indene derivatives under ambient conditions. In contrast, the insertion of organozinc reagents to silver carbene or allylic cation intermediates afforded allylmetal intermediates for the tandem allylation of carbonyl compounds. PMID:26611195

  10. A New Entry to Azomethine Ylides from Allylic Amines and Glyoxals: Shifting the Reliance on Amino Ester Precursors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first examples of azomethine ylides derived from allylic amine and glyoxal precursors are reported. The condensation of primary allylic and α-aryl amines with glyoxylates or α-aryl glyoxals affords conjugated azomethine ylides that undergo facile [3 + 2] cycloaddition, providing 5-alkenyl pyrrolidine cycloadducts that cannot be accessed through the classical use of amino esters as ylide precursors. PMID:25247255

  11. Rhodium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Intermolecular Hydroalkoxylation of Allenes and Alkynes with Alcohols: Synthesis of Branched Allylic Ethers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi; Breit, Bernhard

    2016-07-11

    Regio- and enantioselective additions of alcohols to either terminal allenes or internal alkynes provides access to allylic ethers by using a Rh(I) /diphenyl phosphate catalytic system. This method provides an atom-economic way to obtain chiral aliphatic and aryl allylic ethers in moderate to good yield with good to excellent enantioselectivities. PMID:27244349

  12. Iridium-catalyzed anti-diastereo- and enantioselective carbonyl (trimethylsilyl)allylation from the alcohol or aldehyde oxidation level.

    PubMed

    Han, Soo Bong; Gao, Xin; Krische, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Using the ortho-cyclometalated pi-allyl iridium precatalyst (R)-I derived from [Ir(cod)Cl](2), 4-cyano-3-nitrobenzoic acid, (R)-SEGPHOS, and allyl acetate, enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of alpha-(trimethylsilyl)allyl acetate in the presence of aldehydes 2a-i mediated by 2-propanol delivers products of (trimethylsilyl)allylation 4a-i in good isolated yields and with exceptional levels of anti-diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity (90-99% ee). In the absence of 2-propanol, but under otherwise identical reaction conditions, carbonyl (trimethylsilyl)allylation is achieved directly from the alcohol oxidation level to furnish an equivalent set of adducts 4a-i with roughly equivalent isolated yields and stereoselectivities. To evaluate the synthetic utility of the reaction products 4a-i, adduct 4g was converted to the 1,4-ene-diol 5g via dioxirane-mediated oxidative desilylation with allylic transposition, the allylic alcohol 6g via protodesilylation with allylic transposition, and the gamma-lactam 7g via chlorosulfonyl isocyanate-mediated cycloaddition. PMID:20540509

  13. Targeted allylation and propargylation of galactose-containing polysaccharides in water.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Ann-Sofie; Xu, Chunlin; Parikka, Kirsti; Eklund, Patrik; Sjöholm, Rainer; Brumer, Harry; Tenkanen, Maija; Willför, Stefan

    2014-01-16

    Galactose units of spruce galactoglucomannan (GGM), guar galactomannan (GM), and tamarind (galacto)xyloglucan (XG) were selectively allylated. Firstly aldehyde functionalities were formed at the C-6 position via enzymatic oxidation by galactose oxidase. The formed aldehydes were further derivatized by an indium mediated Barbier-Grignard type reaction, resulting in the formation of homoallylic alcohols. In addition to allylic halides, the same reaction procedure was also applicable for GGM, when using propargyl bromide as halide. All reaction steps were done in water, thus the polysaccharides were modified in a one-pot reaction. The formation of the allylated, or propargylated, product was identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. All polysaccharide products were isolated and further characterized by GC-MS or NMR spectroscopy. By this chemo-enzymatic process, we have demonstrated a novel method for derivatization of GGM and other galactose-containing polysaccharides. The derivatized polysaccharides are potential platforms for further functionalizations. PMID:24188837

  14. Influence of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate against the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxins production in pizza crust.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan M; Manyes, Lara; Luciano, Fernando; Mañes, Jordi; Meca, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which possess mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in humans. In this study, active packaging devices containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or oriental mustard flour (OMF) + water were tested to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and AFs production in fresh pizza crust after 30 d. The antimicrobial and anti-aflatoxin activities were compared to a control group (no antimicrobial treatment) and to a group added with commercial preservatives (sorbic acid + sodium propionate). A. parasiticus growth was only inhibited after 30 d by AITC in filter paper at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L and OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water. However, AFs production was inhibited by all antimicrobial treatments in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, AITC in a filter paper at 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 10 μL/L, OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water and sorbic acid + sodium propionate at 0.5-2.0 g/Kg completely inhibited AFs formation. The use of AITC in active packaging devices could be a natural alternative to avoid the growth of mycotoxinogenic fungi in refrigerated bakery products in substitution of common commercial preservatives. PMID:26146190

  15. The effects of γ-irradiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genshuan, Wei; Guanghui, Wang; Ruipu, Yang; Jilan, Wu

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effects of γ-radiation on garlic oil content in garlic bulbs and on the radiolysis of allyl trisulfide and disulfide was carried out. The content of garlic oil in fresh garlic bulbs treated by gamma ray keeps nearly constant when stored for 10 months. The main components of garlic oil are allyl trisulfide (about 60%) and allyl disulfide (about 30%). The G values of radiolysis products of allyl disulfide and trisulfide in ethanol system were determined. The results show that allyl trisulfide is a very effective solvated electron scavenger and can oxidize CH 3CHOH radical into acetaldehyde, which means that the formation of 2,3-butanediol is extensively inhibited.

  16. Allylic Amines as Key Building Blocks in the Synthesis of (E)-Alkene Peptide Isosteres

    PubMed Central

    Skoda, Erin M.; Davis, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleophilic imine additions with vinyl organometallics have developed into efficient, high yielding, and robust methodologies to generate structurally diverse allylic amines. We have used the hydrozirconation-transmetalation-imine addition protocol in the synthesis of allylic amine intermediates for peptide bond isosteres, phosphatase inhibitors, and mitochondria-targeted peptide mimetics. The gramicidin S-derived XJB-5-131 and JP4-039 and their analogs have been prepared on up to 160 g scale for preclinical studies. These (E)-alkene peptide isosteres adopt type II′ β-turn secondary structures and display impressive biological properties, including selective reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevention of apoptosis. PMID:22323894

  17. Chemoselective and stereoselective lithium carbenoid mediated cyclopropanation of acyclic allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Durán-Peña, M J; Flores-Giubi, M E; Botubol-Ares, J M; Harwood, L M; Collado, I G; Macías-Sánchez, A J; Hernández-Galán, R

    2016-03-01

    The reaction of geraniol with different lithium carbenoids generated from n-BuLi and the corresponding dihaloalkane has been evaluated. The reaction occurs in a chemo and stereoselective manner, which is consistent with a directing effect from the oxygen of the allylic moiety. Furthermore, a set of polyenes containing allylic hydroxyl or ether groups were chemoselectively and stereoselectively converted into the corresponding gem-dimethylcyclopropanes in one single step in moderate to good yields mediated by a lithium carbenoid generated in situ by the reaction of n-BuLi and 2,2-dibromopropane. PMID:26846582

  18. Transient Overexpression of adh8a Increases Allyl Alcohol Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P.; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in

  19. Transient overexpression of adh8a increases allyl alcohol toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in

  20. Synthesis of (-)-Piperitylmagnolol Featuring ortho-Selective Deiodination and Pd-Catalyzed Allylation.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Atsushi; Ogawa, Narihito; Kondo, Daiki; Kawada, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A 1,4-addition strategy using an enone and a copper reagent was studied for the synthesis of (-)-piperitylmagnolol. A MOM-protected biphenol copper reagent was added to BF3·OEt2-activated 4-isopropylcyclohexenone, whereas 1,4-addition of protected monophenol reagents possessing an allyl group was found to be unsuccessful. The allyl group was later attached to the p-,p'-diiodo-biphenol ring by Pd-catalyzed coupling with allylborate. The aforementioned iodide was synthesized using a new method for ortho-selective deiodination of o-,p-diiodophenols. PMID:27109890

  1. Kinetic Studies that Evaluate the Solvolytic Mechanisms of Allyl and Vinyl Chloroformate Esters

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Malcolm J.; Givens, Aaron F.; Lorchak, Peter A.; Greenwood, Abigail E.; Gottschall, Stacey L.; Carter, Shannon E.; Kevill, Dennis N.

    2013-01-01

    At 25.0 °C the specific rates of solvolysis for allyl and vinyl chloroformates have been determined in a wide mix of pure and aqueous organic mixtures. In all the solvents studied, vinyl chloroformate was found to react significantly faster than allyl chloroformate. Multiple correlation analyses of these rates are completed using the extended (two-term) Grunwald-Winstein equation with incorporation of literature values for solvent nucleophilicity (NT) and solvent ionizing power (YCl). Both substrates were found to solvolyze by similar dual bimolecular carbonyl-addition and unimolecular ionization channels, each heavily dependent upon the solvents nucleophilicity and ionizing ability. PMID:23549265

  2. A Practical Route to Substituted 7-Aminoindoles from Pyrrole-3-carboxaldehydes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Among privileged structures, indoles occupy a central place in medicinal chemistry and alkaloid research. Here we report a flexible and efficient conversion of pyrrole-3-carboxaldehydes to substituted 7-amino-5-cyanoindoles. Phosphine addition to fumaronitrile proceeds with prototropic rearrangement of the initially formed zwitterion to the thermodynamically favored phosphonium ylide, which is poised for in situ Wittig olefination. The predominantly E-alkene product positions the allylic nitrile for facile intramolecular Hoeben–Hoesch reaction in the presence of BF3·OEt2. Syntheses of 2,5- and 3,5-disubstituted 7-aminoindoles are illustrated. Additionally, dianion alkylation of the allylic nitrile is demonstrated to furnish, after cyclization, 5,6-disubstituted 7-aminoindoles to further exemplify this scalable and high-yielding method. PMID:25479249

  3. Solvent-Controlled, Tunable β-OAc and β-H Elimination in Rh(III)-Catalyzed Allyl Acetate and Aryl Amide Coupling via C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Huimin; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zihao; Yan, Hong; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-07-15

    The Heck reaction between arenes and allyl acetate has led to cinnamyl derivatives and allyl products depending on the regioselectivity of β-elimination. The regioselectivity can be controlled by the solvent in the Rh(III)-catalyzed arene-allyl acetate coupling via C-H activation: (1) in THF, cinnamyl derivatives via β-H elimination were generated; (2) in MeOH, allyl products via β-OAc elimination were produced. Both routes have advantages such as excellent γ-selectivity toward allyl acetate, good to excellent yields, and broad substrate scope. PMID:27351917

  4. Assessment of DNA damage and repair in adults consuming allyl isothiocyanate or Brassica vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a dietary component with potentially important anti-cancer effects, though much of the information about AITC and cancer processes has been obtained from cell studies. To investigate the effect of AITC on DNA integrity and repair in vivo, a human feeding study was con...

  5. α-Regioselective Barbier Reaction of Carbonyl Compounds and Allyl Halides Mediated by Praseodymium.

    PubMed

    Wu, San; Li, Ying; Zhang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    The first utility of praseodymium as a mediating metal in the Barbier reaction of carbonyl compounds with allyl halides was reported in this paper. In contrast to the traditional metal-mediated or catalyzed Barbier reactions, exclusive α-adducts were obtained in this one-pot reaction with a broad scope of substrates and feasible reaction conditions. PMID:27490708

  6. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on antioxidants and fruit decay of blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on flavonoids, radical scavenging capacity, fruit decay and quality of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv. Duke) was evaluated. Results from this study showed that AITC was effective in retarding blueberry decay during storage at 10 'C. AITC treatment r...

  7. Direct and Highly Regioselective and Enantioselective Allylation of β-Diketones

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, Wesley A.; Reznik, Samuel K.; Leighton, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective allylation of ketones represents both a problem of fundamental importance in asymmetric reaction design and one of only a very small number of available methods to access valuable tertiary carbinols. Despite the vast amount of attention from chemists that this problem has elicited,1-8 however, success has generally been limited to just a few simple ketone types thus limiting the utility of these methods. A method for the selective allylation of functionally complex ketones would be expected to increase the utility of ketone allylation methods in the chemical synthesis of important targets. Here we describe the operationally simple, direct, regioselective, and enantioselective allylation of β-diketones. The strong tendency of β-diketones to act as nucleophilic species was overcome by the co-optation of their enol form to provide the necessary Brønsted acid activation. This unprecedented reaction thus not only significantly expands the pool of enantiomerically enriched and functionally complex tertiary carbinols that may be easily accessed, but also overturns more than a century of received wisdom regarding the reactivity of β-diketones. PMID:22763452

  8. Amide α,β-Dehydrogenation Using Allyl-Palladium Catalysis and a Hindered Monodentate Anilide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifeng; Turlik, Aneta; Newhouse, Timothy R

    2016-02-01

    A practical and direct method for the α,β-dehydrogenation of amides is reported using allyl-palladium catalysis. Critical to the success of this process was the synthesis and application of a novel lithium N-cyclohexyl anilide (LiCyan). The reaction conditions tolerate a wide variety of substrates, including those with acidic heteroatom nucleophiles. PMID:26790471

  9. Stereoselectivity of nitrile oxide cycloadditions to chiral allylic fluorides: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Prakesch, Michael; Grée, Danielle; Grée, René; Carter, Jennifer; Washington, Ilyas; Houk, K N

    2003-11-21

    The cycloadditions of nitrile oxides with new and previously studied allylic fluorides were examined. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions were also investigated theoretically with density functional theory (B3LYP) based transition-state modelling. The predictions provided reasonable agreement with experiment, indicating that both steric and electronic effects have important influences on the stereoselectivities of these reactions. PMID:14639650

  10. Allylic and benzylic sp3 C-H oxidation in water.

    PubMed

    Ang, Wei Jie; Lam, Yulin

    2015-01-28

    A copper-catalyzed method for the oxidation of allylic and benzylic sp(3) C-H by aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (T-Hydro) in water using a recyclable fluorous ligand has been developed. The reaction procedure is tolerant to additional functional groups and the fluorous ligand could be reused with little loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25412371

  11. GALLIUM-MEDIATED ALLYLATION OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS IN WATER. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ga-mediated allylation of aldehydes or ketones in distilled or tap water generated the corresponding homoallyl alcohols in high yields without the assistance of either acidic media or sonication.


    Grap...

  12. The Defense Metabolite, Allyl Glucosinolate, Modulates Arabidopsis thaliana Biomass Dependent upon the Endogenous Glucosinolate Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A.; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) play an important role in plants as direct mediators of biotic and abiotic stress responses. Recent work is beginning to show that the GSLs can also inducing complex defense and growth networks. However, the physiological significance of these GSL-induced responses and the molecular mechanisms by which GSLs are sensed and/or modulate these responses are not understood. To identify these potential mechanisms within the plant and how they may relate to the endogenous GSLs, we tested the regulatory effect of exogenous allyl GSL application on growth and defense metabolism across sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. We found that application of exogenous allyl GSL had the ability to initiate changes in plant biomass and accumulation of defense metabolites that genetically varied across accessions. This growth effect was related to the allyl GSL side-chain structure. Utilizing this natural variation and mutants in genes within the GSL pathway we could show that the link between allyl GSL and altered growth responses are dependent upon the function of known genes controlling the aliphatic GSL pathway. PMID:27313596

  13. Biomonitoring the intake of garlic via urinary excretion of allyl mercapturic acid.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Hageman, G J; Rauma, A L; Versluis-de Haan, G; van Herwijnen, M H; de Groot, J; Törrönen, R; Mykkänen, H

    2001-08-01

    Allium vegetables (onions, leeks, chives) and in particular garlic have been claimed to have health-promoting potential. This study was conducted to get insight into the perspectives for monitoring the intake of garlic by a biomarker approach. Chemically, the biomarker results from exposure to gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine, which is first hydrolysed by gamma-glutamine-transpeptidase resulting in the formation of S-allyl-l-cysteine. The latter compound is subsequently N-acetylated by N-acetyltransferase into S-allyl-mercapturic acid (ALMA) and excreted into urine. The mercapturic acid was measured in urine using gaschromatography with mass spectrometry. Thus the intake of garlic was determined to check the compliance of garlic intake in a placebo-controlled intervention study. Results indicate that S-allyl-mercapturic acid could be detected in 15 out of 16 urine samples of garlic supplement takers, indicating good compliance. In addition, the intake of garlic was also monitored in a cross-section study of vegans versus controls in Finland, in which no differences in garlic consumption nor in ALMA output were recorded between vegans and controls. These data indicate good possibilities for further studies in the field of biomarkers to investigate the putative chemopreventive effects of garlic and garlic-containing products. PMID:11520428

  14. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of naturally occurring butenolides via hetero-allylic alkylation and ring closing metathesis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Bin; Geurts, Koen; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; van Zijl, Anthoni W; Fletcher, Stephen P; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L

    2011-03-01

    An efficient catalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral γ-butenolides was developed based on the hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) in combination with ring closing metathesis (RCM). The synthetic potential of the h-AAA-RCM protocol was illustrated with the facile synthesis of (-)-whiskey lactone, (-)-cognac lactone, (-)-nephrosteranic acid, and (-)-roccellaric acid. PMID:21268603

  15. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  16. Total synthesis of (±)-leuconolam: intramolecular allylic silane addition to a maleimide carbonyl group

    PubMed Central

    Izgu, Enver Cagri

    2014-01-01

    A concise total synthesis of the plant alkaloid (±)-leuconolam (1) has been achieved. A regio- and diastereoselective Lewis-acid mediated allylative cyclization was used to establish, simultaneously, two adjacent tetrasubstituted carbon centers. Furthermore, an essential arene cross-coupling to a hindered haloalkene was enabled by the use of a novel 2-anilinostannane. PMID:25419448

  17. The direct arylation of allylic sp3 C-H bonds via organic and photoredox catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbertson, James D.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2015-03-01

    The direct functionalization of unactivated sp3 C-H bonds is still one of the most challenging problems facing synthetic organic chemists. The appeal of such transformations derives from their capacity to facilitate the construction of complex organic molecules via the coupling of simple and otherwise inert building blocks, without introducing extraneous functional groups. Despite notable recent efforts, the establishment of general and mild strategies for the engagement of sp3 C-H bonds in C-C bond forming reactions has proved difficult. Within this context, the discovery of chemical transformations that are able to directly functionalize allylic methyl, methylene and methine carbons in a catalytic manner is a priority. Although protocols for direct oxidation and amination of allylic C-H bonds (that is, C-H bonds where an adjacent carbon is involved in a C = C bond) have become widely established, the engagement of allylic substrates in C-C bond forming reactions has thus far required the use of pre-functionalized coupling partners. In particular, the direct arylation of non-functionalized allylic systems would enable access to a series of known pharmacophores (molecular features responsible for a drug's action), though a general solution to this long-standing challenge remains elusive. Here we report the use of both photoredox and organic catalysis to accomplish a mild, broadly effective direct allylic C-H arylation. This C-C bond forming reaction readily accommodates a broad range of alkene and electron-deficient arene reactants, and has been used in the direct arylation of benzylic C-H bonds.

  18. The direct arylation of allylic sp(3) C-H bonds via organic and photoredox catalysis.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, James D; MacMillan, David W C

    2015-03-01

    The direct functionalization of unactivated sp(3) C-H bonds is still one of the most challenging problems facing synthetic organic chemists. The appeal of such transformations derives from their capacity to facilitate the construction of complex organic molecules via the coupling of simple and otherwise inert building blocks, without introducing extraneous functional groups. Despite notable recent efforts, the establishment of general and mild strategies for the engagement of sp(3) C-H bonds in C-C bond forming reactions has proved difficult. Within this context, the discovery of chemical transformations that are able to directly functionalize allylic methyl, methylene and methine carbons in a catalytic manner is a priority. Although protocols for direct oxidation and amination of allylic C-H bonds (that is, C-H bonds where an adjacent carbon is involved in a C = C bond) have become widely established, the engagement of allylic substrates in C-C bond forming reactions has thus far required the use of pre-functionalized coupling partners. In particular, the direct arylation of non-functionalized allylic systems would enable access to a series of known pharmacophores (molecular features responsible for a drug's action), though a general solution to this long-standing challenge remains elusive. Here we report the use of both photoredox and organic catalysis to accomplish a mild, broadly effective direct allylic C-H arylation. This C-C bond forming reaction readily accommodates a broad range of alkene and electron-deficient arene reactants, and has been used in the direct arylation of benzylic C-H bonds. PMID:25739630

  19. Gold(I)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydroamination of N-Allylic,N'-Aryl Ureas to form Imidazolidin-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Song, Feijie; Widenhoefer, Ross A

    2011-04-18

    Treatment of N-allylic,N'-aryl ureas with a catalytic 1:1 mixture of di-tert-butyl-o-biphenylphoshphine gold(I) chloride and silver hexafluorophosphate (1 mol %) in chloroform at room temperature led to 5-exo hydroamination to form the corresponding imidazolidin-2-ones in excellent yield. In the case of N-allylic ureas that possessed an allylic alkyl, benzyloxymethyl, or acetoxymethyl substituent, gold(I)-catalyzed 5-exo hydroamination leads to formation of the corresponding trans-3,4-disubstituted imidazolidin-2-ones in excellent yield with ≥50:1 diastereoselectivity. PMID:21709731

  20. Syntheses and biological activities of 13-substituted avermectin aglycons.

    PubMed

    Mrozik, H; Linn, B O; Eskola, P; Lusi, A; Matzuk, A; Preiser, F A; Ostlind, D A; Schaeffer, J M; Fisher, M H

    1989-02-01

    The reactions of sulfonate esters of the allylic/homoallylic 13-alcohol of 5-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a aglycon (1a) were investigated. Nucleophilic substitution gave 13 beta-chloro and 13 beta-iodo derivatives, while solvolytic reaction conditions yielded 13 alpha-methoxy, 13 alpha-fluoro, and 13 alpha-chloro products. A mixture of 13 alpha- and 13 beta-fluorides was obtained upon reaction with DAST. The 13 beta-iodide gave, upon elimination with lutidine, the 8(9),10(11),12(13),14(15)-tetraene. The 13 beta-alcohol and the rearranged 15-ol 13(14)-ene and 15-amino 13(14)-ene derivatives were obtained by substitution via the allylic carbonium ion. MEM ethers 11 and 12 of the two epimeric 13-ols were prepared by alkylation with MEM chloride. In contrast, methylation of 1a with MeI and Ag2O in CH2Cl2 occurred exclusively at the tertiary 7-hydroxy group and not at the secondary 13 alpha-ol. Oxidation of the allylic alcohol 1a proceeded under Swern conditions but not with MnO2 to the 13-oxo aglycon, which was reduced by NaBH4 exclusively to the natural 13 alpha-ol, while reductive amination with NaCNBH3-NH4OAc gave the 13 alpha-amine. The methoxime derivative was obtained in the form of the two geometric isomers. Anthelmintic activities against the sheep nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis, miticidal activities against the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae), and insecticidal activities against the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) as well as the binding constants to a free living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) derived receptor assay were obtained and compared to avermectin B1a, 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a, and the 13-deoxy-22,23-dihydroavermectin B1 aglycon related to the milbemycins. None of the newly prepared derivatives exceeded the potency of the three reference compounds. Lipophilic 13-substituents such as halogen, alkoxy, and methoxime retained high biological activities in all assays, while the more polar

  1. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of substitutions at the C-1 position of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Burdick, David; DeOrazio, Russell; Guzzo, Peter; Habershaw, Alicia; Helle, Mark; Paul, Bernard; Wolf, Mark

    2010-02-15

    A novel series of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) analogues were synthesized to determine their potential as cannabinoid receptor modulators. Chemistry focused on conversion of the phenol of Delta9-THC to other functionality through palladium catalyzed reactions with an intermediate triflate 2. Two analogues with sub 100 nM affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors were identified. PMID:20079638

  2. Unusual Allylpalladium Carboxylate Complexes: Identification of the Resting State of Catalytic Enantioselective Decarboxylative Ketone Allylic Alkylation Reactions**

    PubMed Central

    Sherden, Nathaniel H.; Behenna, Douglas C.; Virgil, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Palladium poprocks: Hold on to your CO2! Enantioselective Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative alkylation of ketone enolates proceeds via η1-σ-allyl Pd-carboxylate complexes by slow loss of CO2. PMID:19672907

  3. Gaussian density functional calculations on the allyl and polyene radicals: C3H5 to C11H13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Fiona; Salahub, Dennis R.; Chin, Steven; Dupuis, Michel

    1991-09-01

    The electronic structure of the allyl radical C3H5 and the polyene radicals C5H7, C7H9, C9H11, and C11H13 have been calculated using the linear combination of Gaussian-type orbitals-local spin density method. In contrast to the results obtained using the Hartree-Fock model, which show large errors, the geometries are in excellent agreement with multiconfiguration self-consistent-field calculations and with experiment. LSD yields a C2v symmetry for the allyl radical, while the polyenes C5H7 to C11H13 have C-C bonds alternating between single and double bonds. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated for the allyl radical and C5H7 (the 1,4-pentadienyl radical). The unscaled vibrational frequencies calculated for the allyl radical are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  4. Intramolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of six- and seven-membered cyclic N-allyl-C-arylethynyl iminium salts.

    PubMed

    Herz, H G; Schatz, J; Maas, G

    2001-05-01

    N-Allyl-2-(het)arylethynyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridinium triflates 1c,d,e and N-allyl-2-(het)aryl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3H-azepinium triflates 1g,h undergo a thermal isomerization reaction leading to derivatives of [a,f]-annulated isoindolium salts 2 in good yields. Similarly, N-allyl-2-phenylethynyl-pyridinium triflate 4 is transformed into the condensed pyridinium salt 5. An intramolecular [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction, in which the (het)arylethynyl moiety acts as the 4pi component, is considered as the key step of this transformation. In contrast, the related N-allyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrolium salts 1a,b and N-homoallyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridinium salt 1f undergo unspecific decomposition under thermal impact. PMID:11325285

  5. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative diffusion for tritium extraction from breeder-blanket fluids at low concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheazone; Buxbaum, Robert E.

    1986-11-01

    Oxidative diffusion can extract hydrogen from metal solutions at extremely low partial pressures. The hydrogen diffuses through a metal membrane and is oxidized to water. The oxidation reaction produces the very low downstream pressures that drive the flux. This method is attractive because the flux can be proportional to the square-root of upstream pressure. For fusion reactors with liquid lithium or lithium-lead alloy breeder blankets, permeation windows provide a simple, cheap tritium extraction method. Interdiffusion rates, separation flux, window size, helium contents, tritium holdup costs, and overall costs are calculated for membranes of palladium-coated zirconium, niobium, vanadium, nickel and stainless-steel. For extracting tritium from liquid lithium using the cheapest windows, Zr-Pd, the material and labor cost is 8.0 M at 1 wppm, and is inversely proportional to tritium concentration in the lithium. The tritium holdup cost for the windows is 4.8 M, and for the blanket it is proportional to the blanket volume and concentration. An overall economic optimization suggests that 1 to 1.5 wppm in lithium is optimal. For extracting tritium from 17Li83Pb at 0.26 wppb, the cheapest window is V-Pd; the cost is 2.6 M$, and the tritium holdup is negligible.

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed Chemoselective and Biocompatible Functionalization of Cysteine-Containing Molecules at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Al-Shuaeeb, Riyadh Ahmed Atto; Kolodych, Sergii; Koniev, Oleksandr; Delacroix, Sébastien; Erb, Stéphane; Nicolaÿ, Stéphanie; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Cianférani, Sarah; Alami, Mouâd; Wagner, Alain; Messaoudi, Samir

    2016-08-01

    The third generation of aminobiphenyl palladacycle pre-catalyst "G3-Xantphos" enables functionalization of peptides containing cysteine in high yields. The conjugation (bioconjugation) occurs chemoselectively at room temperature under biocompatible conditions. Extension of the method to protein functionalization allows selective bioconjugation of the trastuzumab antibody. PMID:27362372

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Intermolecular Aerobic Annulation of o-Alkenylanilines and Alkynes for Quinoline Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Li, Zun; Huang, Liangbin; Wu, Wanqing; Li, Jianxiao; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to construct 2,3-disubstituted quinolines is described via Pd-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of o-vinylanilines and alkynes with molecular oxygen. This transformation is supposed to undergo intermolecular amination of alkyne, insertion of the olefin, and oxidative cleavage of C-C bond sequence. PMID:27418021

  8. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of aryl boronic acids with aryl halides in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoyan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Hu, Zhizhi; Wang, Yue; Lei, Peng; Chi, Haijun

    2009-01-01

    An efficient Suzuki cross-coupling reaction using a variety of aryl halides in neat water was developed. The Pd-catalyzed reaction between aryl bromides or chlorides and phenyl boronic acids was compatible with various functional groups and affords biphenyls in good to excellent yields without requirement of organic cosolvents. The air stability and solubility in water of the palladium-phosphinous acid complexes were considered to facilitate operation of the coupling reaction and product isolation. The reaction conditions including Pd catalyst selection, temperature, base and catalyst recoverability were also investigated. PMID:25084408

  9. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylative synthesis of quinazolinones from 2-aminobenzamide and aryl bromides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; He, Lin; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2013-09-16

    C from CO! A straightforward procedure for the carbonylative synthesis of quinazolinones from readily available 2-aminobenzamide and aryl bromides has been developed. In the presence of a palladium catalyst, various quinazolinones were produced in moderate to excellent yields. Remarkably, no chromatography was needed for purification (see scheme). PMID:24175339

  10. Efficient synthesis of ureas by direct palladium-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of amines.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Bartolo; Salerno, Giuseppe; Mancuso, Raffaella; Costa, Mirco

    2004-07-01

    A general synthesis of symmetrically disubstituted ureas and trisubstituted ureas by direct Pd-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of primary amines or of a mixture of a primary and a secondary amine, respectively, with unprecedented catalytic efficiencies for this kind of process, is reported. Reactions are carried out at 90-100 degrees C in DME as the solvent in the presence of PdI(2) in conjunction with an excess of KI as the catalytic system and under 20 atm of a 4:1 mixture of CO and air. In some cases, working in the presence of an excess of CO(2) (40 atm) in addition to CO and air (60 atm total) had a beneficial effect on substrate reactivity and product yield. Cyclic five-membered and six-membered ureas were easily formed from primary diamines. The methodology has been successfully applied to the synthesis of pharmacologically active ureas, such as those deriving from alpha-amino esters or urea NPY5RA-972, a potent antagonist of the neuropeptide Y5 receptor. PMID:15230597

  11. Synthesis of N-acylcarbazoles through palladium-catalyzed aryne annulation of 2-haloacetanilides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chun; Markina, Nataliya A; Larock, Richard C

    2012-12-21

    N-Acylcarbazoles have been synthesized in moderate to good yields by the annulation of in situ generated arynes with 2-haloacetanilides in the presence of a palladium catalyst and CsF. Both C-C and C-N bonds are formed simultaneously, and a variety of functional groups are tolerated in this reaction. PMID:23214463

  12. Synthesis of Biheterocycles Based on Quinolinone, Chromone, and Coumarin Scaffolds by Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Couplings.

    PubMed

    Vardhan Reddy, K Harsha; Brion, Jean-Daniel; Messaoudi, Samir; Alami, Mouad

    2016-01-15

    An efficient Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling of heterocyclic carboxylic acids with heterocyclic halides to achieve the synthesis of biheterocycles of biological interest has been reported. In all cases, the cross-coupling reactions take place rapidly in DMSO in good yields and efficiently proceed in the presence of a PdBr2/DPEphos catalytic system, furnishing the novel biheterocycles based on quinolin-4-one, quinolin-2-one, chromone, and coumarin scaffolds. PMID:26691351

  13. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aromatic carboxylic acids with silacarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Friis, Stig D; Andersen, Thomas L; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2013-03-15

    Aryl iodides and bromides were easily converted to their corresponding aromatic carboxylic acids via a Pd-catalyzed carbonylation reaction using silacarboxylic acids as an in situ source of carbon monoxide. The reaction conditions were compatible with a wide range of functional groups, and with the aryl iodides, the carbonylation was complete within minutes. The method was adapted to the double and selective isotope labeling of tamibarotene. PMID:23441830

  14. Palladium-Catalyzed, Ring-Forming Aromatic C–H Alkylations with Unactivated Alkyl Halides

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Alexander R. O.; Bohan, Patrick T.; Alexanian, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    A catalytic C–H alkylation using unactivated alkyl halides and a variety of arenes and heteroarenes is described. This ring-forming process is successful with a variety of unactivated primary and secondary alkyl halides, including those with β-hydrogens. In contrast to standard polar or radical cyclizations of aromatic systems, electronic activation of the substrate is not required. The mild, catalytic reaction conditions are highly functional group tolerant and facilitate access to a diverse range of synthetically and medicinally important carbocyclic and heterocyclic systems. PMID:25746442

  15. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric 6-endo cyclization of dienamides with substituent-driven activation.

    PubMed

    Tsuchikawa, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Yuya; Katsumura, Shigeo

    2012-05-01

    Chiral 2-piperidinone compounds with various C-6 substituents were successfully synthesized via a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric 6-endo cyclization of dienamides, which were evidently activated by both N-p-toluenesulfonyl and C-3 ester substituents. PMID:22530559

  16. Palladium-catalyzed Transformations of Salvinorin A, a Neoclerodane Diterpene from Salvia divinorum

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Andrew P.; Day, Victor W.; Navarro, Hernán A.

    2013-01-01

    Transformations that selectively modify the furan ring present in a variety of naturals products would be useful in the synthesis of biological probes but remain largely underexplored. The neoclerodane diterpene salvinorin A, isolated from Salvia divinorum, is an example of a furan-containing natural product. Following selective bromination of salvinorin A, Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira couplings were accomplished in moderate to good yields without hydrolyzing the labile C-2 acetate or altering the stereochemistry of the epimerizable centers. PMID:24246026

  17. Palladium-catalyzed 2,5-diheteroarylation of 2,5-dibromothiophene derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Belkessam, Fatma; Mohand, Aidene; Soulé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Summary Conditions allowing the one pot 2,5-diheteroarylation of 2,5-dibromothiophene derivatives in the presence of palladium catalysts are reported. Using KOAc as the base, DMA as the solvent and only 0.5–2 mol % palladium catalysts, the target 2,5-diheteroarylated thiophenes were obtained in moderate to good yields and with a wide variety of heteroarenes such as thiazoles, thiophenes, furans, pyrroles, pyrazoles or isoxazoles. Moreover, sequential heteroarylation reactions allow the access to 2,5-diheteroarylated thiophenes bearing two different heteroaryl units. PMID:25550758

  18. On the Triple Role of Fluoride Ions in Palladium-Catalyzed Stille Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Marius; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Mitchell, Emily A; Maes, Bert U W; Jutand, Anny

    2015-12-01

    The mechanism of Stille reactions (cross-coupling of ArX with Ar'SnnBu3 ) performed in the presence of fluoride ions is established. A triple role for fluoride ions is identified from kinetic data on the rate of the reactions of trans-[ArPdBr(PPh3 )2 ] (Ar=Ph, p-(CN)C6 H4 ) with Ar'SnBu3 (Ar'=2-thiophenyl) in the presence of fluoride ions. Fluoride ions promote the rate-determining transmetallation by formation of trans-[ArPdF(PPh3 )2 ], which reacts with Ar'SnBu3 (Ar'=Ph, 2-thiophenyl) at room temperature, in contrast to trans-[ArPdBr(PPh3 )2 ], which is unreactive. However, the concentration ratio [F(-) ]/[Ar'SnBu3 ] must not be too high, because of the formation of unreactive anionic stannate [Ar'Sn(F)Bu3 ](-) . This rationalises the two kinetically antagonistic roles exerted by the fluoride ions that are observed experimentally, and is found to be in agreement with the kinetic law. In addition, fluoride ions promote reductive elimination from trans-[ArPdAr'(PPh3 )2 ] generated in the transmetallation step. PMID:26548772

  19. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling: a historical contextual perspective to the 2010 Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Johansson Seechurn, Carin C C; Kitching, Matthew O; Colacot, Thomas J; Snieckus, Victor

    2012-05-21

    In 2010, Richard Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, and Akira Suzuki joined the prestigious circle of Nobel Laureate chemists for their roles in discovering and developing highly practical methodologies for C-C bond construction. From their original contributions in the early 1970s the landscape of the strategies and methods of organic synthesis irreversibly changed for the modern chemist, both in academia and in industry. In this Review, we attempt to trace the historical origin of these powerful reactions, and outline the developments from the seminal discoveries leading to their eminent position as appreciated and applied today. PMID:22573393

  20. Palladium-catalyzed 2,5-diheteroarylation of 2,5-dibromothiophene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Belkessam, Fatma; Mohand, Aidene; Soulé, Jean-François; Elias, Abdelhamid; Doucet, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Conditions allowing the one pot 2,5-diheteroarylation of 2,5-dibromothiophene derivatives in the presence of palladium catalysts are reported. Using KOAc as the base, DMA as the solvent and only 0.5-2 mol % palladium catalysts, the target 2,5-diheteroarylated thiophenes were obtained in moderate to good yields and with a wide variety of heteroarenes such as thiazoles, thiophenes, furans, pyrroles, pyrazoles or isoxazoles. Moreover, sequential heteroarylation reactions allow the access to 2,5-diheteroarylated thiophenes bearing two different heteroaryl units. PMID:25550758

  1. Coverage Effects on the Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate: Comparison between Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia; Stacchiola, Dario; Neurock, Matthew; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2010-02-24

    The high adsorbate coverages that form on the surfaces of many heterogeneous catalysts under steady-state conditions can significantly lower the activation energies for reactions that involve the coupling of two adsorbed intermediates while increasing those which result in adsorbate bond-breaking reactions. The influence of the surface coverage on the kinetics of metal-catalyzed reactions is often ignored in theoretical and even in some ultrahigh vacuum experimental studies. Herein, first principle density functional theoretical calculations are combined with experimental surface titration studies carried out over well-defined Pd(111) surfaces to explicitly examine the influence of coverage on the acetoxylation of ethylene to form vinyl acetate over Pd. The activation energies calculated for elementary steps in the Samanos and Moiseev pathways for vinyl acetate synthesis carried out on acetate-saturated palladium surfaces reveal that the reaction proceeds via the Samanos mechanism which is consistent with experimental results carried out on acetate-saturated Pd(111) surfaces. The rate-limiting step involves a β-hydride elimination from the adsorbed acetoxyethyl intermediate, which proceeds with an apparent calculated activation barrier of 53 kJ/mol which is in very good agreement with the experimental barrier of 55 ± 4 kJ/mol determined from kinetic measurements.

  2. PALLADIUM CATALYZED COUPLING OF ARYL HALIDES WITH ARYLHALOSILANES IN AIR AND WATER. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of a palladium catalyst, various aryl halides reacted with arylhalosilanes in aqueous media and under an air atmosphere to give the corresponding unsymmetrical aryl–aryl coupling products conveniently.

    Efficient palladium-catalyzed aminocarbonylation of aryl iodides using palladium nanoparticles dispersed on siliceous mesocellular foam.

    PubMed

    Tinnis, Fredrik; Verho, Oscar; Gustafson, Karl P J; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Bäckvall, Jan-E; Adolfsson, Hans

    2014-05-12

    A highly dispersed nanopalladium catalyst supported on mesocellular foam (MCF), was successfully used in the heterogeneous catalysis of aminocarbonylation reactions. During the preliminary evaluation of this catalyst it was discovered that the supported palladium nanoparticles exhibited a "release and catch" effect, meaning that a minor amount of the heterogeneous palladium became soluble and catalyzed the reaction, after which it re-deposited onto the support. PMID:24687938

  3. Asymmetric Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Carboamination Reactions for the Synthesis of Cyclic Sulfamides.

    PubMed

    Garlets, Zachary J; Parenti, Kaia R; Wolfe, John P

    2016-04-18

    The synthesis of cyclic sulfamides by enantioselective Pd-catalyzed alkene carboamination reactions between N-allylsulfamides and aryl or alkenyl bromides is described. High levels of asymmetric induction (up to 95:5 e.r.) are achieved using a catalyst composed of [Pd2 (dba)3 ] and (S)-Siphos-PE. Deuterium-labelling studies indicate the reactions proceed through syn-aminopalladation of the alkene and suggest that the control of syn- versus anti-aminopalladation pathways is important for asymmetric induction. PMID:26968748

  4. Palladium-catalyzed directing group-assisted C8-triflation of naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Yuan-Ye; Li, Lei; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao

    2016-05-10

    The transition-metal-catalyzed direct triflation of naphthyl amides and naphthyl ketones has been accomplished for the first time. Benzophenone (BP) was found to be a suitable ligand for the cross-coupling reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that excessive amounts of HOTf inhibit the reductive elimination of the C-F bond to realize the unusual reductive elimination of the C-OTf bond. PMID:27117543

  5. Controlling Site Selectivity in Palladium-Catalyzed C–H Bond Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Neufeldt, Sharon R.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Conspectus Effective methodology to functionalize C–H bonds requires overcoming the key challenge of differentiating among the multitude of C–H bonds that are present in complex organic molecules. This Account focuses on our work over the past decade toward the development of site-selective Pd-catalyzed C–H functionalization reactions using the following approaches: substrate-based control over selectivity through the use of directing groups (approach 1), substrate control through the use of electronically activated substrates (approach 2), or catalyst-based control (approach 3). In our extensive exploration of the first approach, a number of selectivity trends have emerged for both sp2 and sp3 C–H functionalization reactions that hold true for a variety of transformations involving diverse directing groups. Functionalizations tend to occur at the less-hindered sp2 C–H bond ortho to a directing group, at primary sp3 C–H bonds that are β to a directing group, and, when multiple directing groups are present, at C–H sites proximal to the most basic directing group. Using approach 2, which exploits electronic biases within a substrate, our group has achieved C-2-selective arylation of indoles and pyrroles using diaryliodonium oxidants. The selectivity of these transformations is altered when the C-2 site of the heterocycle is blocked, leading to C–C bond formation at the C-3 position. While approach 3 (catalyst-based control) is still in its early stages of exploration, we have obtained exciting results demonstrating that site selectivity can be tuned by modifying the structure of the supporting ligands on the Pd catalyst. For example, by modulating the structure of N~N bidentate ligands, we have achieved exquisite levels of selectivity for arylation at the α site of naphthalene. Similarly, we have demonstrated that both the rate and site selectivity of arene acetoxylation depend on the ratio of pyridine (ligand) to Pd. Lastly, by switching the ligand on Pd from an acetate to a carbonate, we have reversed the site selectivity of a 1,3-dimethoxybenzene/benzo[h]quinoline coupling. In combination with a growing number of reports in the literature, these studies highlight a frontier of catalyst-based control of site-selectivity in the development of new C–H bond functionalization methodology. PMID:22554114

  6. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of sterically demanding boronic acids with α-bromocarbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Bettina; Dzik, Wojciech I; Himmler, Thomas; Goossen, Lukas J

    2011-10-01

    A catalyst system generated in situ from Pd(dba)(2) and tri(o-tolyl)phosphine mediates the coupling of arylboronic acids with alkyl α-bromoacetates under formation of arylacetic acid esters at unprecedented low loadings. The new protocol, which involves potassium fluoride as the base and catalytic amounts of benzyltriethylammonium bromide as a phase transfer catalyst, is uniquely effective for the synthesis of sterically demanding arylacetic acid derivatives. PMID:21863787

  7. Palladium-catalyzed combustion of methane: Simulated gas turbine combustion at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.; Weisenstein, W.; Scherer, V.; Fowles, M.

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure tests were performed in which a palladium catalyst ignites and stabilizes the homogeneous combustion of methane. Palladium exhibited a reversible deactivation at temperatures above 750 C, which acted to ``self-regulate`` its operating temperature. A properly treated palladium catalyst could be employed to preheat a methane/air mixture to temperatures required for ignition of gaseous combustion (ca. 800 C) without itself being exposed to the mixture adiabatic flame temperature. The operating temperature of the palladium was found to be relatively insensitive to the methane fuel concentration or catalyst inlet temperature over a wide range of conditions. Thus, palladium is well suited for application in the ignition and stabilization of methane combustion.

  8. Palladium-catalyzed one pot 2-arylquinazoline formation via hydrogen-transfer strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huamin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Ya; Deng, Guo-Jun

    2014-10-21

    The palladium catalytic system was first applied to 2-arylquinazoline synthesis via hydrogen transfer methodology. Various (E)-2-nitrobenzaldehyde O-methyl oximes reacted easily with alcohols or benzyl amines to provide N-heterocyclic compounds in good to high yields. Similarly, the heterocyclic products could be prepared by the reaction of 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethanone, urea and benzyl alcohols. In these reactions, the nitro group was reduced in situ by hydrogen generated from the alcohol dehydrogenation step. PMID:25156121

  9. One-pot palladium-catalyzed borrowing hydrogen synthesis of thioethers.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Navas, Javier; Ródenas, Tania; Sabater, María J

    2013-12-16

    Palladium on magnesium oxide is able to allow a one-pot reaction to synthesize thioethers from thiols and aldehydes formed in situ from the respective alcohol by means of a borrowing hydrogen method. The reaction is initiated by dehydrogenation of the alcohol to give a palladium hydride intermediate and an aldehyde. The latter reacts with a thiol involving most probably the intermediacy of a thionium ion RCH=S(+)R, which can be reduced in situ by the metal hydride to afford thioethers. PMID:24259460

  10. Synthesis of cyclic enones via direct palladium-catalyzed aerobic dehydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Diao, Tianning; Stahl, Shannon S

    2011-09-21

    α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds are versatile intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. Here, we report the discovery and application of Pd(DMSO)(2)(TFA)(2) as a catalyst for direct dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones and other cyclic ketones to the corresponding enones, using O(2) as the oxidant. The substrate scope includes heterocyclic ketones and several natural-product precursors. PMID:21851123

  11. Synthesis of Cyclic Enones via Direct Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Ketones

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Tianning

    2011-01-01

    α,β-Unsaturated carbonyl compounds are versatile intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and biologically active compounds. Here, we report the discovery and application of Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 as a catalyst for direct dehydrogenation of cyclohexanones and other cyclic ketones to the corresponding enones, using O2 as the oxidant. The substrate scope includes heterocyclic ketones and several natural-product precursors. PMID:21851123

  12. Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of dibenzophosphole oxides via intramolecular dehydrogenative cyclization.

    PubMed

    Kuninobu, Yoichiro; Yoshida, Takuya; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2011-09-16

    Dibenzophosphole oxides were obtained from secondary hydrophosphine oxides with a biphenyl group by dehydrogenation via phosphine-hydrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage in the presence of a catalytic amount of palladium(II) acetate, Pd(OAc)(2). By using this reaction, a ladder-type dibenzophosphole oxide could also be synthesized by double intramolecular dehydrogenative cyclization. PMID:21819045

  13. Formal total syntheses of classic natural product target molecules via palladium-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiyang; Liniger, Marc; McFadden, Ryan M; Roizen, Jenny L; Malette, Jacquie; Reeves, Corey M; Behenna, Douglas C; Seto, Masaki; Kim, Jimin; Mohr, Justin T; Virgil, Scott C

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pd-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation in conjunction with further synthetic elaboration enables the formal total syntheses of a number of “classic” natural product target molecules. This publication highlights recent methods for setting quaternary and tetrasubstituted tertiary carbon stereocenters to address the synthetic hurdles encountered over many decades across multiple compound classes spanning carbohydrate derivatives, terpenes, and alkaloids. These enantioselective methods will impact both academic and industrial settings, where the synthesis of stereogenic quaternary carbons is a continuing challenge. PMID:25383121

  14. Formal total syntheses of classic natural product target molecules via palladium-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiyang; Liniger, Marc; McFadden, Ryan M; Roizen, Jenny L; Malette, Jacquie; Reeves, Corey M; Behenna, Douglas C; Seto, Masaki; Kim, Jimin; Mohr, Justin T; Virgil, Scott C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2014-01-01

    Pd-catalyzed enantioselective alkylation in conjunction with further synthetic elaboration enables the formal total syntheses of a number of "classic" natural product target molecules. This publication highlights recent methods for setting quaternary and tetrasubstituted tertiary carbon stereocenters to address the synthetic hurdles encountered over many decades across multiple compound classes spanning carbohydrate derivatives, terpenes, and alkaloids. These enantioselective methods will impact both academic and industrial settings, where the synthesis of stereogenic quaternary carbons is a continuing challenge. PMID:25383121

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 2-Aryl-2H-Benzotriazoles from Azoarenes and TMSN3.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Nilufa; Modi, Anju; Ali, Wajid; Patel, Bhisma K

    2015-10-01

    Substrate-directed ortho C-H amination of azoarenes using TMSN3 as the source of nitrogen leading to the synthesis of 2-aryl-2H-benzotriazoles has been accomplished with the help of Pd/TBHP combinations. An intermolecular o-azidation (C-N bond formation) followed by an intramolecular N-N bond formation via nucleophilic attack of one of the azo nitrogen onto the o-azide nitrogen leads to cyclization with the expulsion of N2. PMID:26372371

  16. Study of palladium catalyzation for electroless copper plating on polyimide film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bin; Jung, Sang Hee; Suh, Seung Wook; Park, Byung Ki

    2013-01-01

    In order to form flexible printed circuits through inkjet printing technique, the Pd(ll) catalyst ink was printed on the surface of polyimide film modified with KOH solution and then reduced with NaBH4 solution to extract the Pd(O) catalyst nuclei. The concentration of the Pd(ll) catalyst ink and reduction time showed a significant influence on the microstructure of the Pd(O) catalyst nuclei and the formation of Cu patterns through electroless plating. When reduction time exceeded 1 minute, and as the concentration of the Pd(II) catalyst ink increased above 0.02 M, the catalyst nuclei began aggregation, resulting in Cu patterns with thick and more defects. PMID:23646765

  17. Crystalline Isotactic Polar Polypropylene from the Palladium-Catalyzed Copolymerization of Propylene and Polar Monomers.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yusuke; Ito, Shingo; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kitade, Shinichi; Sakata, Kazuya; Tayano, Takao; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2016-06-20

    Moderately isospecific homopolymerization of propylene and the copolymerization of propylene and polar monomers have been achieved with palladium complexes bearing a phosphine-sulfonate ligand. Optimization of substituents on the phosphorus atom of the ligand revealed that the presence of bulky alkyl groups (e.g. menthyl) is crucial for the generation of high-molecular-weight polypropylenes (Mw ≈10(4) ), and the substituent at the ortho-position relative to the sulfonate group influences the molecular weight and isotactic regularity of the obtained polypropylenes. Statistical analysis suggested that the introduction of substituents at the ortho-position relative to the sulfonate group favors enantiomorphic site control over chain end control in the chain propagation step. The triad isotacticity could be increased to mm=0.55-0.59, with formation of crystalline polar polypropylenes, as supported by the presence of melting points and sharp peaks in the corresponding X-ray diffraction patterns. PMID:27161896

  18. Palladium-Catalyzed ipso-Borylation of Aryl Sulfides with Diborons.

    PubMed

    Bhanuchandra, M; Baralle, Alexandre; Otsuka, Shinya; Nogi, Keisuke; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-17

    A catalytic Miyaura-type ipso-borylation of aryl sulfides with diboron reagents has been achieved, providing arylboronate esters of synthetic use. The key conditions to transform inherently reluctant C-S bonds into C-B bonds include a palladium-NHC (N-heterocyclic carbene) precatalyst, bis(pinacolato)diboron, and lithium hexamethyldisilazide. This protocol is applicable to a reasonable range of aryl alkyl sulfides. Twofold borylation was observed in the reaction of diphenyl sulfide. PMID:27267542

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroarylation and Concomitant ortho-Alkylation of Aryl Iodides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Chuanhu; Jin, Xiaojia; Zhou, Jianrong Steve

    2015-11-01

    Three-component couplings were achieved from common aryl halides, alkyl halides, and heteroarenes under palladium and norbornene co-catalysis. The reaction forges hindered aryl-heteroaryl bonds and introduces ortho-alkyl groups to aryl rings. Various heterocycles such as oxazoles, thiazoles and thiophenes underwent efficient coupling. The heteroarenes were deprotonated in situ by bases without the assistance of palladium catalysts. PMID:26358935

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbamate-Directed Regioselective Halogenation: A Route to Halogenated Anilines.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Firouz Matloubi; Tavakoli, Ghazal; Saeednia, Borna; Langer, Peter; Jafari, Behzad

    2016-05-01

    This study describes an efficient method for ortho-selective halogenation of N-arylcarbamates under mild conditions for the first time. Although being weakly coordinating, N-arylcarbamates act very well as a removable directing group for activation of C-H bonds. The developed procedure results in extremely valuable halogenated N-arylcarbmates that can further be hydrolyzed to halogenated anilines. The obtained reaction conditions showed broad scope and wide functional group tolerance. All the products were formed in good yields with extremely high selectivity. PMID:27072283

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Telomerization of Butadiene with Polyols: From Mono to Polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquillon, Sandrine; Muzart, Jacques; Pinel, Catherine; Rataboul, Franck

    The telomerization of butadiene with alcohols is an elegant way to synthesize ethers with minimal environmental impact since this reaction is 100% atom efficient. Besides telomerization of butadiene with methanol and water that is industrially developed, the modification of polyols is still under development. Recently, a series of new substrates has been involved in this reaction, including diols, pure or crude glycerol, protected or unprotected monosaccharides, as well as polysaccharides. This opens up the formation of new products having specific physicochemical properties. We will describe recent advances in this field, focusing on the reaction of renewable products and more specifically on saccharides. The efficient catalytic systems as well as the optimized reaction conditions will be described and some physicochemical properties of the products will be reported.

  3. A Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation Approach to Eight-Membered Lactam Derivatives with Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Raffaella; Raut, Dnyaneshwar S; Marino, Nadia; De Luca, Giorgio; Giordano, Cinzia; Catalano, Stefania; Barone, Ines; Andò, Sebastiano; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2016-02-24

    The reactivity of 2-(2-alkynylphenoxy)anilines under PdI2 /KI-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation conditions has been studied. Although a different reaction pathway could have been operating, N-palladation followed by CO insertion was the favored pathway with all substrates tested, including those containing an internal or terminal triple bond. This led to the formation of a carbamoylpalladium species, the fate of which, as predicted by theoretical calculations, strongly depended on the nature of the substituent on the triple bond. In particular, 8-endo-dig cyclization preferentially occurred when the triple bond was terminal, leading to the formation of carbonylated ζ-lactam derivatives, the structures of which have been confirmed by XRD analysis. These novel medium-sized heterocyclic compounds showed antitumor activity against both estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. In particular, ζ-lactam 3 j' may represent a novel and promising antitumor agent because biological tests clearly demonstrate that this compound significantly reduces cell viability and motility in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, without affecting normal breast epithelial cell viability. PMID:26821986

  4. Enantioselective Allylic C-H Oxidation of Terminal Olefins to Isochromans by Palladium(II)/Chiral Sulfoxide Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Stephen E; Liu, Wei; White, M Christina

    2016-08-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of isochroman motifs has been accomplished by palladium(II)-catalyzed allylic C-H oxidation from terminal olefin precursors. Critical to the success of this goal was the development and utilization of a novel chiral aryl sulfoxide-oxazoline (ArSOX) ligand. The allylic C-H oxidation reaction proceeds with the broadest scope and highest levels of asymmetric induction reported to date (avg. 92 % ee, 13 examples with greater than 90 % ee). PMID:27376625

  5. Methods of synthesis of acrolein and its α-substituted derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiko, Nataliya A.; Voronkov, Mikhail G.

    1993-08-01

    The methods of synthesis of acrolein and its α-alkyl-substituted derivatives are examined: (a) catalytic oxidation of propene, isobutene, propane, isobutane, propyl and tert-butyl alcohols, tert-butyl alkanoates, propionaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and allyl alcohol and its ethers: (b) condensation of formaldehyde with aliphatic aldehydes by the Mannich reactions and also in the vapour phase over heterogeneous catalysts. Both general methods (the Mannich reaction, ipso-substitution of a α-halogen in the acrylic system, and interaction of 1-brom-2-ethoxycyclopropyllithium with electrophiles) and various special methods are used in the synthesis of the α, β-unsaturated aldehydes with functional-group-substitutents. The bibliography includes 323 references.

  6. Allylic Oxidations Catalyzed by Dirhodium Caprolactamate via Aqueous tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide: The Role of the tert-Butylperoxy Radical

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Emily C.; Choi, Hojae; Wang, Kan; Chiou, Grace; Doyle, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Dirhodium(II) caprolactamate exhibits optimal efficiency for the production of the tert-butylperoxy radical, which is a selective reagent for hydrogen atom abstraction. These oxidation reactions occur with aqueous tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) without rapid hydrolysis of the caprolactamate ligands on dirhodium. Allylic oxidations of enones yield the corresponding enedione in moderate to high yields, and applications include allylic oxidations of steroidal enones. Although methylene oxidation to a ketone is more effective, methyl oxidation to a carboxylic acid can also be achieved. The superior efficiency of dirhodium(II) caprolactamate as a catalyst for allylic oxidations by TBHP (mol % catalyst, % conversion) is described in comparative studies with other metal catalysts that are also reported to be effective for allylic oxidations. That different catalysts produce essentially the same mixture of products with the same relative yields suggests that the catalyst is not involved in product forming steps. Mechanistic implications arising from studies of allylic oxidation with enones provide new insights into factors that control product formation. A previously undisclosed disproportionation pathway, catalyzed by the tert-butoxy radical, of mixed peroxides for the formation of ketone products via allylic oxidation has been uncovered. PMID:19072696

  7. [4 + 3] Cycloadditions with Bromo-Substituted Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Isatins and N-(ortho-Chloromethyl)aryl Amides.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Gu; Shi, Ming-Lin; He, Qing; Du, Wei; Chen, Ying-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Efficient construction of a challenging aza-spirocycloheptane oxindole scaffold is reported through an unprecedented [4 + 3] cycloaddition reaction with bromo-substituted Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts of isatins and N-(ortho-chloromethyl)aryl amides. Both reactive intermediates, the allylic phosphonium ylides and aza-o-quinone methides, were in situ generated, chemoselectively facilitated by a Lewis base and Brønsted base, respectively. PMID:26359687

  8. Rheology and viscosity scaling of gelatin/1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Congde; Li, Tianduo; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiaodeng; Xu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions are prepared by using the ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as solvent. The rheological properties of the gelatin solutions have been investigated by steady shear and oscillatory shear measurements. In the steady shear measurements, the gelatin solutions with high concentration show a shear-thinning flow behavior at high shear rates, while another shear thinning region can be found in the dilute gelatin solutions at low shear rates. The overlap concentration of gelatin in [amim]Cl is 1.0 wt% and the entanglement concentration is a factor of 4 larger (4.0 wt%). The high intrinsic viscosity (295 mL/g) indicates that the gelatin chains dispersed freely in the ionic liquid and no aggregation phenomenon occurs in dilute gelatin solution. The frequency dependences of modulus changed obviously with an increase in gelatin concentration. The empirical time-temperature superposition principle holds true at the experimental temperatures.

  9. Mechanistic Study on Oxorhenium-Catalyzed Deoxydehydration and Allylic Alcohol Isomerization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Yugen; Su, Haibin

    2016-05-20

    The reaction mechanism of 1,2×n-deoxydehydration (DODH; n=1, 2, 3 …) reactions with 1-butanol as a reductant in the presence of methyltrioxorhenium(VII) catalyst has been investigated by DFT. The reduced rhenium compound, methyloxodihydroxyrhenium(V), serves as the catalytically relevant species in both allylic alcohol isomerization and subsequent DODH processes. Compared with three-step pathway A, involving [1,3]-transposition of allylic alcohols, direct two-step pathway B is an alternative option with lower activation barriers. The rate-limiting step of the DODH reaction is the first hydrogen transfer in methyltrioxorhenium(VII) reduction. Moreover, the increase in the distance between two hydroxyl groups in direct 1,2×n-DODH reactions for C4 and C6 diols results in a higher barrier height. PMID:26991093

  10. Simple strategy for synthesis of optically active allylic alcohols and amines by using enantioselective organocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Holub, Nicole; Anker Jørgensen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    A simple organocatalytic one-pot protocol for the construction of optically active allylic alcohols and amines using readily available reactants and catalyst is presented. The described reaction is enabled by an enantioselective enone epoxidation/aziridination-Wharton-reaction sequence affording two highly privileged and synthetically important classes of compounds in an easy and benign way. The advantages of the described sequence include easy generation of stereogenic allylic centers, also including quaternary stereocenters, with excellent enantio- and diastereomeric-control and high product diversity. Furthermore, using monosubstituted enones as substrates, having moderate enantiomeric excess, the one-pot reaction sequence proceeds with an enantioenrichment of the products and high diastereoselectivity was achieved. PMID:20547884

  11. Experimental and Kinetic Modeling Study of 2-Methyl-2-Butene: Allylic Hydrocarbon Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K; Pitz, William J; Mehl, Marco; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Battin-Leclerc, Frederique; Mathieu, Olivier; Petersen, Eric L; Bugler, John; Curran, Henry J

    2015-07-16

    Two experimental studies have been carried out on the oxidation of 2-methyl-2-butene, one measuring ignition delay times behind reflected shock waves in a stainless steel shock tube, and the other measuring fuel, intermediate, and product species mole fractions in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR). The shock tube ignition experiments were carried out at three different pressures, approximately 1.7, 11.2, and 31 atm, and at each pressure, fuel-lean (ϕ = 0.5), stoichiometric (ϕ = 1.0), and fuel-rich (ϕ = 2.0) mixtures were examined, with each fuel/oxygen mixture diluted in 99% Ar, for initial postshock temperatures between 1330 and 1730 K. The JSR experiments were performed at nearly atmospheric pressure (800 Torr), with stoichiometric fuel/oxygen mixtures with 0.01 mole fraction of 2M2B fuel, a residence time in the reactor of 1.5 s, and mole fractions of 36 different chemical species were measured over a temperature range from 600 to 1150 K. These JSR experiments represent the first such study reporting detailed species measurements for an unsaturated, branched hydrocarbon fuel larger than iso-butene. A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism was developed to study the important reaction pathways in these experiments, with particular attention on the role played by allylic C-H bonds and allylic pentenyl radicals. The results show that, at high temperatures, this olefinic fuel reacts rapidly, similar to related alkane fuels, but the pronounced thermal stability of the allylic pentenyl species inhibits low temperature reactivity, so 2M2B does not produce "cool flames" or negative temperature coefficient behavior. The connections between olefin hydrocarbon fuels, resulting allylic fuel radicals, the resulting lack of low-temperature reactivity, and the gasoline engine concept of octane sensitivity are discussed. PMID:25822578

  12. Highly efficient aminocarbonylation of iodoarenes at atmospheric pressure catalyzed by a robust acenaphthoimidazolyidene allylic palladium complex.

    PubMed

    Fang, Weiwei; Deng, Qinyue; Xu, Mizhi; Tu, Tao

    2013-07-19

    A robust allylic palladium-NHC complex was developed and exhibited extremely high catalytic activity toward aminocarbonylation of various (hetero)aryl iodides under atmospheric carbon monoxide pressure, in which a broad range of secondary and primary amines were well tolerated. In addition, the concise synthesis of an anticancer drug tamibarotene was accomplished even in a gram scale, further highlighting the practical applicability of the protocol. PMID:23829496

  13. Asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates with α-fluoro-β-keto esters

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lin; Han, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Bo; Yang, Caiyun

    2013-01-01

    Summary In the presence of a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid as catalyst, the asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates, with α-fluoro-β-keto esters as nucleophiles, have been successfully developed. A series of important fluorinated adducts, with chiral quaternary carbon centres containing a fluorine atom, was achieved in good yields (up to 93%), with good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 96% ee) and moderate diastereoselectivities (up to 4:1 dr). PMID:24062852

  14. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylation of Chiral β-Stereogenic Alcohols: Bypassing Discrete Formation of Epimerizable Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Daniel C.; Dechert-Schmitt, Anne-Marie R.; Krische, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclometallated π-allyliridium 3,4-dinitro-C,O-benzoate complex modified by (R)- or (S)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP promotes the transfer hydrogenative coupling of allyl acetate to β-stereogenic alcohols with good to excellent levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity to furnish homoallylic alcohols. Remote electronic effects of the C,O-benzoate of the catalyst play a critical role in suppressing epimerization of the transient α-stereogenic aldehyde. PMID:23231774

  15. Chiral sulfoxides in the enantioselective allylation of aldehydes with allyltrichlorosilane: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Guglielmo; Vignes, Chiara; De Piano, Francesco; Bosco, Assunta; Massa, Antonio

    2012-12-28

    The mechanism of the allylation of aldehydes in the presence of allyltrichlorosilane employing the commercially available (R)-methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide as a Lewis base has been investigated. The combination of kinetic measurements, conductivity analysis and quantum chemical calculations indicates that the reaction proceeds through a dissociative pathway in which an octahedral cationic complex with two sulfoxides is involved. The lack of turnover is ascribed to the formation of neutral sulfurane derivatives. PMID:23139050

  16. An Iridium(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex Catalyzes Asymmetric Intramolecular Allylic Amination Reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ke-Yin; Cheng, Qiang; Zhuo, Chun-Xiang; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-07-01

    A chiral iridium(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complex was reported for the first time as the catalyst in the highly enantioselective intramolecular allylic amination reaction. The current method provides facile access to biologically important enantioenriched indolopiperazinones and piperazinones in good yields (74-91 %) and excellent enantioselectivities (92-99 % ee). Preliminary mechanistic investigations reveal that the C-H activation occurs at the position ortho to the N-aryl group of the ligand. PMID:27162135

  17. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Walter B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a microscale organic chemistry experiment which demonstrates one feasible route in preparing ortho-substituted benzoic acids and provides an example of nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry. Experimental procedures and instructor notes for this activity are provided. (CW)

  18. Dinuclear Pd(I) complexes with bridging allyl and related ligands.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Nilay; Hruszkewycz, Damian P

    2016-05-21

    There are many important synthetic methods that utilize palladium catalysts. In most of these reactions, the palladium species are proposed to exist exclusively in either the Pd(0) or Pd(II) oxidation states. However, in the last decade, dinuclear Pd(I) complexes have repeatedly been isolated from reaction mixtures previously suggested to involve only species in the Pd(0) and Pd(II) oxidation states. As a consequence, in order to design improved catalysts there is considerable interest in understanding the chemistry of dinuclear Pd(I) complexes. A significant proportion of the known dinuclear Pd(I) complexes are supported by bridging allyl or related ligands such as cyclopentadienyl or indenyl ligands. This review provides a detailed account of the synthesis, electronic structure and stoichiometric reactivity of dinuclear Pd(I) complexes with bridging allyl and related ligands. Additionally, it describes recent work where dinuclear Pd(I) complexes with bridging allyl ligands have been detected in catalytic reactions, such as cross-coupling, and discusses the potential implications for catalysis. PMID:27051890

  19. The soft X-ray absorption spectrum of the allyl free radical.

    PubMed

    Alagia, M; Bodo, E; Decleva, P; Falcinelli, S; Ponzi, A; Richter, R; Stranges, S

    2013-01-28

    The first experimental study of the X-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of the allyl free radical, CH(2)CHCH(2), is reported. A supersonic He seeded beam of hyperthermal allyl radicals was crossed by a high resolution synchrotron radiation (SR) in the focus of a 3D ion momentum imaging time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer to investigate the soft X-ray absorption and fragmentation processes. The XAS, recorded as Total-Ion-Yield (TIY), is dominated by C1s electron excitations from either the central carbon atom, C(C), or the two terminal carbon atoms, C(T), to the frontier orbitals, the semi-occupied-molecular-orbital (SOMO) and the lowest-unoccupied-molecular-orbital (LUMO). All of the intense features in the XAS could only be assigned with the aid of ab initio spectral simulation at the Multi-Configuration Self-Consistent-Field (MCSCF) level of theory, this level being required because of the multi-reference nature of the core-excited state wavefunctions of the open shell molecule. The ionization energies (IEs) of the singlet and triplet states of the C1s ionized allyl radical (XPS) were also calculated at the MCSCF level. PMID:23232557

  20. Theoretical Comparative Study of the Structure, Dynamics and Electronic Properties of Five Ally Molecules: Allicin, Methyl Propyl Disulfide (MPD), Allyl Methyl Sulfide (AMS), S-allyl cysteine (SAC) and S-allyl mercaptocysteine (SAMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz Calisir, Emine; Erkoc, Sakir; Yildirim, Handan; Kara, Abdelkader; Rahman, Talat S.; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoc, Figen

    2006-03-01

    The structural, dynamics and electronic properties of five allyl molecules have been investigated theoretically by performing semi-empirical molecular orbital (AM1 and PM3), ab-initio (RHF) and density functional theory calculations. The geometry of the molecules have been optimized, the vibrational spectra and the electronic properties of the molecules have been calculated in their ground states in gas phase. For each molecule, we found that the optimized geometries resulting from calculations based on the three levels of accuracy, to be very similar. However, we found that an accurate description of the vibrational properties of these molecules necessitates calculations at the ab-initio level. The electronic structures of these molecules were performed at the DFT level, resulting in an accurate description of the HOMO-LUMO gap and the local charges.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Some Properties of Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-allyl) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Rhett A; Holmes, Aaron S; Lefèvre, Guillaume P; Patrick, Brian O; Shree, Monica V; Wakeham, Russell J; Legzdins, Peter; Rosenfeld, Devon C

    2015-06-15

    Sequential treatment at low temperatures of Cp*W(NO)Cl2 in THF with 1 equiv of a binary magnesium allyl reagent, followed by an excess of LiBH4, affords three new Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-allyl) complexes, namely, Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCMe2) (1), Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCHPh) (2), and Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCHMe) (3). Complexes 1-3 are isolable as air-stable, analytically pure yellow solids in good to moderate yields by chromatography or fractional crystallization. In solutions, complex 1 exists as two coordination isomers in an 83:17 ratio differing with respect to the endo/exo orientation of the allyl ligand. In contrast, complexes 2 and 3 each exist as four coordination isomers, all differing by the orientation of their allyl ligands which can have either an endo or an exo orientation with the phenyl or methyl groups being either proximal or distal to the nitrosyl ligand. A DFT computational analysis using the major isomer of Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCHMe) (3a) as the model complex has revealed that its lowest-energy thermal-decomposition pathway involves the intramolecular isomerization of 3a to the 16e η(2)-alkene complex, Cp*W(NO)(η(2)-CH2═CHCH2Me). Such η(2)-alkene complexes are isolable as their 18e PMe3 adducts when compounds 1-3 are thermolyzed in neat PMe3, the other organometallic products formed during these thermolyses being Cp*W(NO)(PMe3)2 (5) and, occasionally, Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(1)-allyl)(PMe3). All new complexes have been characterized by conventional spectroscopic and analytical methods, and the solid-state molecular structures of most of them have been established by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses. PMID:26000552

  2. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  7. From allylic alcohols to aldols through a new nickel-mediated tandem reaction: synthetic and mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Cuperly, David; Petrignet, Julien; Crévisy, Christophe; Grée, René

    2006-04-12

    Nickel hydride type complexes have been successfully developed as catalysts for the tandem isomerization-aldolization reaction of allylic alcohols with aldehydes. Optimization of the reaction conditions has shown that a cocatalyst, such as MgBr2, has a very positive effect on the kinetics of the reaction and in the yields of aldols. Under such optimized conditions {[NiHCl(dppe)] + MgBr(2) at 3-5 mol %)}, this reaction affords the aldols in good to excellent yields. It is a full-atom-economy-type reaction that occurs under mild conditions. Furthermore, it has a broad scope for the allylic alcohols and it is compatible with a wide range of aldehydes, including very bulky derivatives. The reaction is completely regioselective, but it exhibits a low stereoselectivity, except for allylic alcohols with a bulky substituent at the carbinol center. The use of chiral nonracemic catalysts was not successful, affording only racemic compounds. However, it was possible to use asymmetric synthesis for the preparation of optically active aldols. Various mechanistic studies have been performed using, for instance, a deuterated alcohol or a deuterated catalyst. They gave strong support to a mechanism involving first a transition-metal-mediated isomerization of the allylic alcohol into the free enol, followed by the addition of the latter intermediate onto the aldehyde in an "hydroxyl-carbonyl-ene" type reaction. These results confirm that allylic alcohols can be considered as new and useful partners in the development of the aldol reaction. PMID:16506253

  8. Genome Wide Association Mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana Identifies Novel Genes Involved in Linking Allyl Glucosinolate to Altered Biomass and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Marta; Joseph, Bindu; Caligagan, Hart; Li, Baohua; Corwin, Jason A.; Lin, Catherine; Kerwin, Rachel E.; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL), may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth, and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s) that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 μM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis. PMID:27462337

  9. One-Pot Multicomponent Coupling Methods for the Synthesis of Diastereo- and Enantioenriched (Z)-Trisubstituted Allylic Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Kerrigan, Michael H.; Jeon, Sang-Jin; Chen, Young K.; Salvi, Luca; Carroll, Patrick J.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    (Z)-Trisubstituted allylic alcohols are widespread structural motifs in natural products and biologically active compounds but are difficult to directly prepare. Introduced herein is a general one-pot multicomponent coupling method for the synthesis of (Z)-α,α,β-trisubstituted allylic alcohols. (Z)-Trisubstituted vinylzinc reagents are formed in situ by initial hydroboration of 1-bromo-1-alkynes. Addition of dialkylzinc reagents induces a 1,2-metallate rearrangement that is followed by a boron-to-zinc transmetallation. The resulting vinylzinc reagents add to a variety of prochiral aldehydes to produce racemic (Z)-trisubstituted allylic alcohols. When enantioenriched aldehyde substrates are employed (Z)-trisubstituted allylic alcohols are isolated with high dr (>20:1 in many cases). For example, vinylation of enantioenriched benzyl protected α- and β-hydroxy propanal derivatives furnished the expected anti-Felkin addition products via chelation control. Surprisingly, silyl protected α-hydroxy aldehydes also afford anti-Felkin addition products. A protocol for the catalytic asymmetric addition of (Z)-trisubstituted vinylzinc reagents to prochiral aldehydes with a (−)-MIB-based catalyst has also been developed. Several additives were investigated as inhibitors of the Lewis acidic alkylzinc halide byproducts, which promote the background reaction to form the racemate. α-Ethyl and α-cyclohexyl (Z)-trisubstituted allylic alcohols can now be synthesized with excellent levels of enantioselectivity in the presence of diamine inhibitors. PMID:19476375

  10. S-Allyl cysteine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats via regulation of hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Kodai, Shintaro; Shinkawa, Hiroji; Tsukioka, Takuma; Okada, Shigeru; Azuma, Hideki; Kubo, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    It is important to prevent and improve diabetes mellitus and its complications in a safe and low-cost manner. S-Allyl cysteine, an aged garlic extract with antioxidant activity, was investigated to determine whether S-allyl cysteine can improve type 2 diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats and age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used and were divided into two groups at 29 weeks of age. S-Allyl cysteine (0.45% diet) was administered to rats for 13 weeks. Rats were killed at 43 weeks of age, and detailed analyses were performed. S-Allyl cysteine improved hemoglobinA1c, blood glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Furthermore, S-allyl cysteine normalized plasma insulin levels. S-Allyl cysteine activated the mRNA and protein expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, as well as inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat liver. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and forkhead box O1 proteins were normalized by S-allyl cysteine in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat liver. In conclusions, these findings support the hypothesis that S-allyl cysteine has diabetic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease therapeutic potential as a potent regulating agent against lipogenesis and glucose metabolism. PMID:24062606

  11. Characterization of two distinct allyl pyrophosphatase activities from rat liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Bansal, V S; Vaidya, S

    1994-12-01

    We have identified and characterized two novel allyl pyrophosphatase activities from rat liver microsomes. One specifically hydrolyzes farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to farnesol and the other converts geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) to geranylgeranol. Hence, we named them farnesyl pyrophosphatase (FPPase) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphatase (GGPPase) activities, respectively. Other allyl pyrophosphates, i.e., isopentenyl pyrophosphate, dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate, and geranyl pyrophosphate, did not act as substrates for these activities. Both activities are metal ion independent and exhibit acidic pH optima (5.5 and 6.0). Microsomal FPPase has a Km for FPP of 7 microM and a specific activity of 6.8 nmol/min/mg protein at pH 5.5. GGPP is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of FPPase. FPP has no inhibitory effect on GGPPase activity. Microsomal GGPPase has a Km for GGPP of 12 microM and a specific activity of 14 nmol/min/mg protein. The Km of FPPase activity for FPP increases with an increase in pH. The GGPPase activity remains unaffected with an increase in pH. Metal ions Zn2+ and Mn2+ are potent inhibitors of GGPPase activity. Zaragozic acid B is a weak inhibitor of FPPase/GGPPase activities as compared to squalene synthase. GGPPase activity is inhibited with a fourfold higher IC50 (20 microM) as compared to FPPase (5 microM). Hence, the FPPase and GGPPase activities can be differentiated by zaragozic acid B inhibition. Kinetic analysis of inhibition of FPPase by zaragozic acid B further indicates that it is a mixed type noncompetitive inhibitor. PMID:7986083

  12. Pressure-resistant plane disk viewports from allyl diglycol carbonate plastic for hyperbaric chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Stachiw, J.D.; Stachiw, M.A.

    1986-12-01

    Acrylic plastic viewports have been used for over 40 yr in pressure vessels for human occupancy without any catastrophic failure resulting in a loss of life. However, there are special applications, such as for example in hyperbaric chambers for medical purposes, where the susceptibility of flexure stressed acrylic plastic to surface crazing and cracking in the presence of common organic solvents contained in antibacterial sprays is a distinct disadvantage. To solve this problem, a search has been initiated for transparent plastics that are not attacked by organic solvents and can be cast economically in thick sections. Allyl diglycol carbonate plastic appears not only to satisfy to foregoing requirement, but also to provide better resistance to abrasion, pitting, and X-ray or gamma irradiation than acrylic plastic. Short-term, long-term, and cyclic pressure testing has been conducted on over one hundred allyl diglycol carbonate plane disk viewports with t/D/sub 0/ ratio in the 0.06 to 0.4 range and temperature in the 4/sup 0/C to +52/sup 0/C (+40F to 125/sup 0/F) range. It appears that plane disks cast from allyl diglycol carbonate plastic can perform safely as pressure-resistant viewports in pressure vessels for human occupancy. It is recommended that for such an application their design temperature be limited to under 52/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F), and that their design pressure at 52/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) design temperature not exceed 4 percent of their (STCP) short-term critical pressure at 24/sup 0/C (75/sup 0/F).

  13. A Spectroscopic and Theoretical Study of Weak Intramolecular OH\\cdots π Interactions in Allyl Carbinol and Methallyl Carbinol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Sidsel D.; Mackeprang, Kasper; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2013-06-01

    The weak intramolecular OH\\cdots π interactions in allyl carbinol and methallyl carbinol have been studied using a combination of NIR spectroscopy and theory. The third OH-stretching overtone region of vapor phase allyl carbinol and methallyl carbinol have been recorded with intracavity laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to study the effect of an enhanced OH\\cdots π interaction in methallyl carbinol arising from the electron donating methyl group. Local mode calculations were employed to assign the observed bands. The OH-stretching transition frequency of methallyl carbinol was observed to be red shifted relative to the OH-stretching transition frequency of allyl carbinol. A red shift of the transition frequency is in this context normally interpreted as a signature of hydrogen bonding. Whether the OH\\cdots π interaction can be categorized as a hydrogen bond will be discussed in this talk.

  14. A computational study on the insertion of CO2 into (PSiP)palladium allyl σ-bond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Guo, Cai-Hong; Ren, Ying; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2015-05-01

    The insertion of CO2 into the (PSiP)palladium-allyl bond has been investigated using DFT. Three possible modes of CO2 insertion into (PSiP)Pd-allyl bond have been calculated, that is, direct 1.2-insertion mode, metallo-ene mode, and SE2 mode. The metallo-ene mode is the most favorable via the six-membered ring transition state. The results of calculations are consistent with the regioselectivity observed experimentally. The steric and electronic effects of different phosphine substituents have been evaluated by ONIOM and energy decomposition analysis (EDA) methods. For the phosphine substituents P(i-Pr)2 and PPh2, the contribution of electronic effect is greater than that of steric effect for the CO2 insertion into (PSiP)Pd-allyl bond; while for the phosphine substituent PMe2, the contribution of steric effect is slightly greater than that of electronic effect. PMID:25893517

  15. Self-assembled line growth of allyl alcohol on the H-terminated Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yun-Ki; Choi, Jin-Ho; Cho, Jun-Hyung

    2012-02-01

    Using first-principles density-functional calculations, we investigate the growth mechanism of allyl alcohol (ALA) line on the H-terminated Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface. Unlike the allyl mercaptan (CH2 = CH - CH2 - SH) line, which was observed to grow across the Si dimer rows, we find that ALA (CH2 = CH - CH2 - OH) has the line growth along the Si dimer row. The self-assembled growth of ALA line occurs via the radical chain reaction mechanism, similar to the case of a typical alkene molecule, styrene. Our calculated energy profile along the reaction pathway shows that the different growth direction of ALA line compared with that of allyl mercaptan line is ascribed to the great instability of the oxygen radical intermediate, which prevents the line growth across the dimer rows.

  16. Enhanced performance of the catalytic conversion of allyl alcohol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid using bimetallic gold catalysts.

    PubMed

    Falletta, Ermelinda; Della Pina, Cristina; Rossi, Michele; He, Qian; Kiely, Christopher J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2011-01-01

    One of the strategic building blocks in organic synthesis is 3-hydroxypropionic acid, which is particularly important for the manufacture of high performance polymers. However, to date, despite many attempts using both biological and chemical routes, no large scale effective process for manufacturing 3-hydroxypropionic acid has been developed. One potentially useful starting point is from allyl alcohol, as this can be obtained in principle from the dehydration of glycerol, thereby presenting a bio-renewable green pathway to this important building block. The catalytic transformation of allyl alcohol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid presents interesting challenges in catalyst design, particularly with respect to the control of selectivity among the products that can be expected, as acrylic acid, acrolein and glyceric acid can also be formed. In this paper, we present a novel eco-sustainable catalytic pathway leading to 3-hydroxypropionic acid, which highlights the outstanding potential of gold-based and bimetallic catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of allyl alcohol. PMID:22455056

  17. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.

    2008-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  18. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Susan K; Wu, Ruilian; Silks, L A Pete

    2011-04-15

    Transition metal-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation is an attractive method for the synthesis of carbonyl compounds, but most catalytic systems feature precious metals and require pure oxygen. The vanadium complex (HQ)(2)V(V)(O)(O(i)Pr) (2 mol %, HQ = 8-quinolinate) and NEt(3) (10 mol %) catalyze the oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols with air. The catalyst can be easily prepared under air using commercially available reagents and is effective for a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols. PMID:21434606

  19. Study of intermolecular interaction of allyl chloride with acetone through dielectric and volumetric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudake, Y. S.; Kamble, S. P.; Maharolkar, A. P.; Patil, S. S.; Khirade, P. W.

    2012-06-01

    The static dielectric constant (ɛs)and relaxation time (τ) are determined from complex permittivity spectra of Allyl Chloride (ALC) with Acetone (ACE), which are obtained using the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique in microwave frequency range 10 MHz to 10 GHz. Density (ρ) and refractive index (nD) were also measured. These parameters are used to determine excess dielectric constant, excess molar volume, and excess molar refraction. The excess parameter is fitted to Redlich-Kister(RK) equation. The values of excess parameters are positive in ALC rich region whereas in ACE rich region are negative.

  20. Thermophysical properties and reaction kinetics of γ-irradiated poly allyl diglycol carbonates nuclear track detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K.; Seddik, Usama

    2015-07-01

    Kinetic thermogravimetric technique was used to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the poly allyl diglycol carbonates (PADC) within the dose range from 50 to ? Gy. The approach of Coats-Redfern was used to analyze the data. Results showed that low doses around 50 Gy make the polymer slightly more resistive to heat treatment. Higher radiation doses cause severe effects in the samples accompanied by the formation of lower molecular mass species and consequent crosslinking. Results support the domination of re-polymerization and crosslinking for the γ radiation interaction PADC at dose below about ? Gy, while the situation is inverted above ? Gy in which chain secession dominates.

  1. Comparative investigation of the mutagenicity of propenylic and allylic asarone isomers in the Ames fluctuation assay.

    PubMed

    Berg, Kerstin; Bischoff, Roland; Stegmüller, Simone; Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    α-, β- and γ-asarone are naturally occurring phenylpropenes that occur in different plant families, mainly in Aristolochiaceae, Acoraceae and Lauraceae. Plants containing asarones are used as flavouring ingredients in alcoholic beverages (bitters), traditional phytomedicines and the rhizome of e.g. Acorus calamus is used to prepare tea. Although α- and β-asarone show a potential in the treatment of several diseases, previous studies have shown carcinogenicity in rodents (duodenum, liver). However, the mechanism of action remained unclear. Studies on the mutagenicity of propenylic α- and β-asarone are inconsistent and data on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity of allylic γ-asarone are lacking completely. Thus, the present study determined the mutagenicity of the three asarone isomers using the Ames fluctuation assay with and without exogenous metabolic activation (S9 mix) in the standard Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. A concentration dependent increase in mutagenicity could be verified for α- and β-asarone in strain TA100 in the presence of rat liver homogenate. The side-chain epoxides of α- and β-asarone, major metabolites formed in liver microsomes, caused mutations in TA100, supporting the hypothesis that epoxidation of the side chain plays a key role in mutagenicity of the propenylic alkenylbenzenes. The allylic γ-asarone, not undergoing detectable side-chain epoxidation in liver microsomes, was supposed to be activated via side-chain hydroxylation and further sulphonation, a typical pathway for other allylic alkenylbenzenes like estragole or methyleugenol. However, neither y-asarone nor 1'-OH-γ-asarone showed any mutagenic effect even in the human SULT-expressing Salmonella strains (TA100-hSULT1A1 and TA100-hSULT1C2), while 1'-OH-methyleugenol used as a positive control was mutagenic under these conditions. These results indicate that the propenylic asarones are genotoxic via metabolic formation of side-chain epoxides while the side

  2. Oxidative Allylic Esterification of Alkenes by Cooperative Selenium-Catalysis Using Air as the Sole Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Ortgies, Stefan; Depken, Christian; Breder, Alexander

    2016-06-17

    A new metal-free catalysis protocol for the oxidative coupling of nonactivated alkenes with simple carboxylic acids has been established. This method is predicated on the cooperative interaction of a diselane and a photoredox catalyst, which allows for the use of ambient air or pure O2 as the terminal oxidant. Under the title conditions, a range of both functionalized and nonfunctionalized alkenes can be readily converted into the corresponding allylic ester products with good yields (up to 89%) and excellent regioselectivity as well as good functional group tolerance. PMID:27257803

  3. From a Sequential to a Concurrent Reaction in Aqueous Medium: Ruthenium-Catalyzed Allylic Alcohol Isomerization and Asymmetric Bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Liardo, Elisa; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier

    2016-07-18

    The ruthenium-catalyzed redox isomerization of allylic alcohols was successfully coupled with the enantioselective enzymatic ketone reduction (mediated by KREDs) in a concurrent process in aqueous medium. The overall transformation, formally the asymmetric reduction of allylic alcohols, took place with excellent conversions and enantioselectivities, under mild reaction conditions, employing commercially and readily available catalytic systems, and without external coenzymes or cofactors. Optimization resulted in a multistep approach and a genuine cascade reaction where the metal catalyst and biocatalyst coexist from the beginning. PMID:27258838

  4. (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibits growth of colon tumors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Choi, Min Gi; Choi, Jeong Soon; Nam, Kyung Tak; Kim, Hae Deun; Rodriguez, Kevin; Gann, Benjamin; Ham, Young Wan; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, we found that (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal showed anti-cancer effect, but it showed lack of stability and drug likeness. We have prepared several (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal analogues by Heck reaction. We selected two compounds which showed significant inhibitory effect of colon cancer cell growth. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of one compound (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner (0-15 μg/ml) through activation of Fas and death receptor (DR) 3 in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, the combination treatment with (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, Stattic (50 μM) increased the expression of Fas and DR3 more significantly. In addition, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol suppressed the DNA binding activity of both STAT3 and NF-κB. Knock down of STAT3 or NF-κB p50 subunit by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or p50 siRNA magnified (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol-induced inhibitory effect on colon cancer cell growth. Besides, the expression of Fas and DR3 was increased in STAT3 siRNA or p50 siRNA transfected cells. Moreover, docking model and pull-down assay showed that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol directly bound to STAT3 and NF-κB p50 subunit. Furthermore, (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol inhibited colon tumor growth in a dose dependent manner (2.5 mg/kg-5 mg/kg) in mice. Therefore, these findings indicated that (E)-4-(3-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)allyl)-2-methoxyphenol may be a promising anti-cancer agent for colon cancer with more advanced research. PMID

  5. Iodine-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Amidation of β,γ-Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids with Chloramine Salts Leading to Allylic Amides.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Kojima, Takumi; Hishikawa, Yusuke; Minakata, Satoshi

    2015-10-26

    The iodine-catalyzed decarboxylative amidation of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids with chloramine salts is described. This method enables the regioselective synthesis of allylic amides from various types of β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acids containing substituents at the α- and β-positions. In the reaction, N-iodo-N-chloroamides, generated by the reaction of a chloramine salt with I2 , function as a key active species. The reaction provides an attractive alternative to existing methods for the synthesis of useful secondary allylic amine derivatives. PMID:26493878

  6. Cobalt-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Grignards with Allylic and Vinylic Bromides: Use of Sarcosine as a Natural Ligand.

    PubMed

    Frlan, Rok; Sova, Matej; Gobec, Stanislav; Stavber, Gaj; Časar, Zdenko

    2015-08-01

    Sarcosine was discovered to be an excellent ligand for cobalt-catalyzed carbon-carbon cross-coupling of Grignard reagents with allylic and vinylic bromides. The Co(II)/sarcosine catalytic system is shown to perform efficiently when phenyl and benzyl Grignards are coupled with alkenyl bromides. Notably, previously unachievable Co-catalyzed coupling of allylic bromides with Grignards to linearly coupled α-products was also realized with Co(II)/sarcosine catalyst. This method was used for efficient preparation of the key intermediate in an alternative synthesis of the antihyperglycemic drug sitagliptin. PMID:26158563

  7. γ-Selective Allylation of (E)-Alkenylzinc Iodides Prepared by Reductive Coupling of Arylacetylenes with Alkyl Iodides.

    PubMed

    Zhurkin, Fedor E; Hu, Xile

    2016-07-01

    The first examples of Cu-catalyzed γ-selective allylic alkenylation using organozinc reagents are reported. (E)-Alkenylzinc iodides were prepared by Fe-catalyzed reductive coupling of terminal arylalkynes with alkyl iodides. In the presence of a copper catalyst, these reagents reacted with allylic bromides derived from Morita-Baylis-Hillman alcohols to give 1,4-dienes in high yields. The reactions are highly γ-selective (generally γ/α > 49:1) and tolerate a wide range of functional groups such as ester, cyano, keto, and nitro. PMID:27285459

  8. A SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex as a highly efficient catalyst for allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Sheets, Matthew

    2006-07-01

    An air- and moisture-stable SeCSe-Pd(II) pincer complex was synthesized and found to catalyze the nucleophilic allylation of aldehydes with allyltributyltin. The allylation of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to give the corresponding homoallyl alcohols was performed at room temperature to 60 degrees C in yields ranging from 50% (for typical aliphatic aldehydes) to up to 97% (for aromatic aldehydes) using 5 x 10(-3) to 1 mol % of the Pd catalyst. NMR spectroscopic study indicated that a sigma-allylpalladium intermediate was formed and possibly functions as the nucleophilic species that undergoes addition to the aldehydes. PMID:16808533

  9. Allyl-isatin suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bian, Weihua; An, Yukuan; Qu, Huiqing; Yang, Yue; Yang, Junhou; Xu, Yanyan

    2016-06-01

    The anticancer effect of the newly synthesized isatin derivative, N-allyl-isatin (Allyl-I), was evaluated in vitro with human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay. Acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double staining was used to observe the cell morphology. Flow cytometry was used to assess the effects of Allyl-I on the cell cycle, apoptosis rate, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Western blot analysis was performed to detect the influence of Ally1-I on the expression of cytochrome c (cyt c), Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3. Allyl-I significantly inhibited HepG2 cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Allyl-I can induce cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells at the G2/M phase. Apoptotic nuclear morphological changes were observed after AO/EB double staining. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Annexin V (Annexin V-FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) double staining showed that the apoptotic rates significantly increased in the presence of Allyl-I. Rhodamine 123 staining indicated that Allyl-I can decrease the MMP. Allyl-I also altered the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins. Protein levels of cyt c and cleaved caspase-3 were upregulated following Allyl-I treatment. By contrast, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio decreased. Results suggest that Allyl-I suppresses cell viability, induces cell cycle arrest, and promotes cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the induction of apoptosis might be correlated with the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26945926

  10. Managing Substitute Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin R.

    1999-01-01

    This news brief presents information on managing substitute teaching. The information is based on issues discussed at a summit meeting which included public school administrators and personnel directors from around the nation. The main topics of concern focused around four core components related to the management of substitute teaching:…

  11. Antiproliferative activity and synthesis of 8-prenylnaringenin derivatives by demethylation of 7-O- and 4'-O-substituted isoxanthohumols.

    PubMed

    Anioł, Mirosław; Swiderska, Anna; Stompor, Monika; Zołnierczyk, Anna Katarzyna

    2012-12-01

    Several analogues of 7-O- and 4'-O-substituted isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin, the strongest known phytoestrogen and potential anticancerogenic agent, were synthesized. Acyl, alkyl, and allyl derivatives of isoxanthohumol underwent the demethylation process using MgI(2 )× 2Et(2)O in anhydrous THF with the yields of 61-89%. Some of the compounds approached the international criteria of antiproliferative activity (4 μg/ml) for synthetic agents against the human cancer cell lines. PMID:23087590

  12. Bis[3-allyl-1-(4-cyanobenzyl)-2-methylbenzimidazolium] di-μ-bromido-bis[bromidocuprate(I)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guang-Hai; Wang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C19H18N3)2[Cu2Br4], contains one cation and one half-anion; there is a centre of symmetry mid-way between the two Cu atoms. In the cation, the nearly planar benzimidazole ring system is oriented at dihedral angles of 75.31 (3) and 21.39 (3)° with respect to the cyano­benzyl and allyl groups, respectively. The dihedral angle between cyano­benzyl and allyl groups is 87.94 (3)°. In the crystal structure, inter­molecular C—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules. There is a C—H⋯π contact between the cyano­benzyl ring and the anion; π—π contacts also exist between the benzimidazole ring systems as well as between the anion and the cyano­benzyl ring [centroid–centroid distances = 4.024 (1) and 4.617 (1) Å, respectively]. PMID:21201637

  13. Iron complexes of tetramine ligands catalyse allylic hydroxyamination via a nitroso–ene mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David; Poon, Belinda M-L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Iron(II) complexes of the tetradentate amines tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) and N,N′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N,N′-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (BPMEN) are established catalysts of C–O bond formation, oxidising hydrocarbon substrates via hydroxylation, epoxidation and dihydroxylation pathways. Herein we report the capacity of these catalysts to promote C–N bond formation, via allylic amination of alkenes. The combination of N-Boc-hydroxylamine with either FeTPA (1 mol %) or FeBPMEN (10 mol %) converts cyclohexene to the allylic hydroxylamine (tert-butyl cyclohex-2-en-1-yl(hydroxy)carbamate) in moderate yields. Spectroscopic studies and trapping experiments suggest the reaction proceeds via a nitroso–ene mechanism, with involvement of a free N-Boc-nitroso intermediate. Asymmetric induction is not observed using the chiral tetramine ligand (+)-(2R,2′R)-1,1′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-2,2′-bipyrrolidine ((R,R′)-PDP). PMID:26734101

  14. Loop-Grafted Old Yellow Enzymes in the Bienzymatic Cascade Reduction of Allylic Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sabrina; Nestl, Bettina M; Hauer, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The enzymatic reduction of C=C bonds in allylic alcohols with Old Yellow Enzymes represents a challenging task, due to insufficient activation through the hydroxy group. In our work, we coupled an alcohol dehydrogenase with three wild-type ene reductases-namely nicotinamide-dependent cyclohex-2-en-1-one reductase (NCR) from Zymomonas mobilis, OYE1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus and morphinone reductase (MR) from Pseudomonas putida M10-and four rationally designed β/α loop variants of NCR in the bienzymatic cascade hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Remarkably, the wild type of NCR was not able to catalyse the cascade reaction whereas MR and OYE1 demonstrated high to excellent activities. Through the rational loop grafting of two intrinsic β/α surface loop regions near the entrance of the active site of NCR with the corresponding loops from OYE1 or MR we successfully transferred the cascade reduction activity from one family member to another. Further we observed that loop grafting revealed certain influences on the interaction with the nicotinamide cofactor. PMID:27037735

  15. X-ray structural and dynamic behaviour study of allyl palladium compounds with fluorinated benzenethiolate bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redón, Rocío.; Torrens, Hugo; Ekkehardt Hahn, F.; Lügger, Thomas; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Toscano, Ruben A.; Morales-Morales, David

    2003-08-01

    In solution, allyl palladium homobimetallic complexes bridged by fluorinated benzenethiolates, [{Pd(μ-SR)(η 3-C 3H 5)} 2] where R=C 6F 5, 1; C 6HF 4-4, 2; C 6H 4F-2, 3; C 6H 4F-3, 4 and C 6H 4F-4, 5, are found as a mixture of syn/ anti and cis/ trans isomers. The variable temperature 1H and 19F NMR study of these compounds show that the four isomers undergo interconversion through two probable mechanisms, allyl rotation assisted by the solvent and inversion of the configuration at the sulphur atoms. The X-ray crystal structure determination of [{Pd(μ-SC 6F 5)(η 3-C 3H 5)} 2] and [{Pd(μ-S C 6HF 4-4)(η 3-C 3H 5)} 2] shown both complexes to be bimetallic with the metal centres found in a slightly distorted square planar environments.

  16. Further exploration of the heterocyclic diversity accessible from the allylation chemistry of indigo

    PubMed Central

    Shakoori, Alireza; Bremner, John B; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed K; Willis, Anthony C; Haritakun, Rachada

    2015-01-01

    Summary Diversity-directed synthesis based on the cascade allylation chemistry of indigo, with its embedded 2,2’-diindolic core, has resulted in rapid access to new examples of the hydroxy-8a,13-dihydroazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(8H)-one skeleton in up to 51% yield. Additionally a derivative of the novel bridged heterocycle 7,8-dihydro-6H-6,8a-epoxyazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(13H)-one was produced when the olefin of the allylic substrate was terminally disubstituted. Further optimisation also produced viable one-pot syntheses of derivatives of the spiro(indoline-2,9'-pyrido[1,2-a]indol)-3-one (65%) and pyrido[1,2,3-s,t]indolo[1,2-a]azepino[3,4-b]indol-17-one (72%) heterocyclic systems. Ring-closing metathesis of the N,O-diallylic spiro structure and subsequent Claisen rearrangement gave rise to the new (1R,8aS,17aS)-rel-1,2-dihydro-1-vinyl-8H,17H,9H-benz[2',3']pyrrolizino[1',7a':2,3]pyrido[1,2-a]indole-8,17-(2H,9H)-dione heterocyclic system. PMID:25977722

  17. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  2. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

  3. Catalytic asymmetric reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes: enantioselective synthesis of allylic alcohols and alpha-hydroxy ketones.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen M; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Jamison, Timothy F

    2003-03-26

    A highly enantioselective method for catalytic reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes is described. Allylic alcohols are afforded with complete E/Z selectivity, generally >95:5 regioselectivity, and in up to 96% ee. In conjunction with ozonolysis, this process is complementary to existing methods of enantioselective alpha-hydroxy ketone synthesis. PMID:12643701

  4. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoids and fruit quality of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L., cv. Duke)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on antioxidant enzyme activities, flavonoid content, and fruit quality of blueberries var. Duke (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) was evaluated. Results from this study showed that AITC was effective in maintaining higher amounts of sugars and lower organic acids co...

  5. A metal-free dyotropic-like rearrangement of 2-oxa allylic alcohols in the presence of organoboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weimin; Li, Wenbo; Zhang, Junliang

    2014-09-01

    The first example of a dyotropic-like rearrangement of 2-oxa allylic alcohols in the presence of catalytic amounts of Selectfluor and DABCO was reported, which provides a facile access to organoboronates. This reaction represents an unprecedented dyotropic rearrangement consisting of cleavage of two vicinal bonds (one C-C bond and one C=C bond). PMID:25026497

  6. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination. PMID:25849818

  7. Antimicrobial effect of allyl isothiocyanate and modified atmosphere on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in fresh catfish fillet under abuse temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common spoilage microorganism on fresh catfish products, can grow rapidly at temperatures above 4 degree C during storage and transportation. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), an extract of horseradish oil, and modified atmosphere (MA) can be used to inhibit the growth of P. aeru...

  8. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate in headspace and modified atmosphere on Pseduomonas Aeruginosa growth in fresh catfish fillets under abuse temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common spoilage microorganism on fresh catfish products, can grow rapidly at temperatures above 4 deg C during storage and transportation. Allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), an extract of horseradish oil, and modified atmosphere (MA) can be used to inhibit the growth of P. aerugin...

  9. Growth behavior prediction of fresh catfish fillet with Pseudomonas aeruginosa under stresses of allyl isothiocyanate, temperature and modified atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common spoilage microorganism in fish, grows rapidly when temperature rises above 4 degree C. The combination of allyl isothiocyanate (AIT) and modified atmosphere (MA) was applied and proved to be effective to retard the growth of P. aeruginosa. The objective of this resea...

  10. Diastereoselective Allylation of "N"-"Tert"-Butanesulfinyl Imines: An Asymmetric Synthesis Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Yang; Sun, Li-Sen; Gao, Xiang; Sun, Xing-Wen

    2015-01-01

    An asymmetric synthetic experiment that encompasses both diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity is described. In this experiment, Zn-mediated allylation of an ("R")-"N"-"tert"-butanesulfinyl imine is first performed to obtain either diastereomer using two different solvent systems, followed by oxidation of the…

  11. Visible-light induced oxidant-free oxidative cross-coupling for constructing allylic sulfones from olefins and sulfinic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoting; Zhang, Lingling; Yi, Hong; Luo, Yi; Qi, Xiaotian; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu; Lei, Aiwen

    2016-08-16

    An oxidant-free dehydrogenative sulfonylation of α-methyl-styrene derivatives was developed for the construction of allylic sulfones by using eosin Y as a photosensitizer in conjunction with a cobaloxime catalyst. The process features a low-cost metal catalyst and atom economy, which provides an appealing strategy for future synthetic chemistry. PMID:27481529

  12. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Repeated Exposure to Cruciferous Allyl Nitrile in Sensitizer-Induced Ear Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tanii, Hideji; Sugitani, Kayo; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin sensitizers induce allergic reactions through the induction of reactive oxygen species. Allyl nitrile from cruciferous vegetables has been reported to induce antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes in various tissues. We assessed the effects of repeated exposure to allyl nitrile on sensitizer-induced allergic reactions. Material/Methods Mice were dosed with allyl nitrile (0–200 μmol/kg), and then received a dermal application of 1 of 3 sensitizers on the left ear or 1 of 2 vehicles on the right ear. Quantitative assessment of edema was carried out by measuring the difference in weight between the portions taken from the right and left ears. We tested enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in ears. Results Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced edemas induced by glutaraldehyde and by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), but not by formaldehyde. The repeated exposure decreased levels of TBARS, a marker of oxidative stress, induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. Allyl nitrile elevated SOD levels for the 3 sensitizers, and CAT levels for formaldehyde and DNCB. Allyl nitrile also increased GPx levels for formaldehyde and DNCB, but not for glutaraldehyde. The reduced edemas were associated with changes in oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced allergic reactions induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. This reduction was associated with changes in ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:26932717

  14. Substitution of anticonvulsant drugs

    PubMed Central

    Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Runge, Uwe; Witte, Otto W; Stefan, Hermann; Hufnagel, Andreas; Mayer, Thomas; Krämer, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Changing from branded drugs to generic alternatives, or between different generic formulations, is common practice aiming at reducing health care costs. It has been suggested that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) should be exempt from substitution because of the potential negative consequences of adverse events and breakthrough seizures. Controlled data are lacking on the risk of substitution. However, retrospective data from large medical claims databases suggest that switching might be associated with increased use of AED and non-AED medications, and health care resources (including hospitalization). In addition, some anecdotal evidence from patients and health care providers’ surveys suggest a potentially negative impact of substitution. Well-controlled data are needed to assess the real risk associated with substitution, allowing health care professionals involved in the care of patients with epilepsy to make informed decisions. This paper reviews currently available literature, based on which the authors suggest that the decision to substitute should be made on an individual basis by the physician and an informed patient. Unendorsed or undisclosed substitution at the pharmacy level should be discouraged. PMID:19707254

  15. Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling of Brominated 2,1-Borazaronaphthalenes with Potassium Alkenyltrifluoroborates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conditions have been developed for the palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of 3-bromo-2,1-borazaronaphthalenes with potassium alkenyltrifluoroborates. Twenty-seven alkenyl-substituted azaborines have been synthesized through this method, providing access to a family of 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes with alkenyl substitution at the C3 position. PMID:25356980

  16. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behenna, Douglas C.; Liu, Yiyang; Yurino, Taiga; Kim, Jimin; White, David E.; Virgil, Scott C.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures.

  17. Catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation via allylic alkylations with organolithium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Manuel; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Bos, Pieter H.; Rudolph, Alena; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2011-05-01

    Carbon-carbon bond formation is the basis for the biogenesis of nature's essential molecules. Consequently, it lies at the heart of the chemical sciences. Chiral catalysts have been developed for asymmetric C-C bond formation to yield single enantiomers from several organometallic reagents. Remarkably, for extremely reactive organolithium compounds, which are among the most broadly used reagents in chemical synthesis, a general catalytic methodology for enantioselective C-C formation has proven elusive, until now. Here, we report a copper-based chiral catalytic system that allows carbon-carbon bond formation via allylic alkylation with alkyllithium reagents, with extremely high enantioselectivities and able to tolerate several functional groups. We have found that both the solvent used and the structure of the active chiral catalyst are the most critical factors in achieving successful asymmetric catalysis with alkyllithium reagents. The active form of the chiral catalyst has been identified through spectroscopic studies as a diphosphine copper monoalkyl species.

  18. Allyl alcohol and garlic (Allium sativum) extract produce oxidative stress in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lemar, Katey M.; Passa, Ourania; Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia; Müller, Carsten T.; Plummer, Sue; O’Rourke, Brian; Lloyd, David

    2009-01-01

    Both the growth and respiration of Candida albicans are sensitive to extracts of Allium sativum and investigations into the anticandidal activities are now focussing on the purified constituents to determine the targets of inhibition. Of particular interest is allyl alcohol (AA), a metabolic product that accumulates after trituration of garlic cloves. Putative targets for AA were investigated by monitoring changes in intracellular responses after exposure of C. albicans cells to AA or a commercially available garlic extract. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy and other techniques were used. Changes typical of oxidative stress – NADH oxidation and glutathione depletion, and increased reactive oxygen species – were observed microscopically and by flow cytometry. Known targets for AA are alcohol dehydrogenases Adh1 and 2 (in the cytosol) and Adh3 (mitochondrial), although the significant decrease in NAD(P)H after addition of AA is indicative of another mechanism of action. PMID:16207909

  19. Separation and recovery of cellulose from Zoysia japonica by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zun; Ju, Mei-Ting; Wang, Yan-Nan; Liu, Le; Jiang, Yang

    2013-01-30

    We investigated the use of ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) for extracting cellulose from Zoysia japonica by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis to analyze the IL and its effects on cellulose extraction. After water pretreatment at 121 °C for several minutes, cellulose extraction rate was 71% under optimized conditions, and the yield of cellulose was >99% by AMIMCl. The effectiveness of AMIMCl as an extraction agent can be attributed to the prevalence of intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding in cellulose. By contrast, hemicelluloses were not recovered by AMIMCl because hemicelluloses in plant cell walls are connected to lignin by covalent bonding. Results also showed that the regenerated cellulose was exactly the same as untreated cellulose, except for the degree of crystallinity. PMID:23218288

  20. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams.

    PubMed

    Behenna, Douglas C; Liu, Yiyang; Yurino, Taiga; Kim, Jimin; White, David E; Virgil, Scott C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. PMID:22270628