Sample records for palm mite raoiella

  1. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and its damage to coconut palms in Puerto Rico and Culebra Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of the occurrence of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica and its damage in Puerto Rico and Culebra island. Raoiella indica is a new invasive pest threatening ornamental palm, coconut, and banana plantations. The mite was observed in eastern Puerto Rico and in Culebra island ...

  2. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  3. Screening of plantain hybrids for resistance to Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and use of a systemic acaricide to control the mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen clones of plantain were screened for resistance to red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst. The plantain clones were established in 5kg pots with ten replicates. Mite infestation was carried out by introducing highly infested potted coconut palms between the plantain pots (1:10). Control ...

  4. Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): An island-hopping mite pest in the Caribbean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst have been reported from the Caribbean islands of Dominica, Martinique, and Saint Lucia. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) techniqu...

  5. Flat mite mouthparts and feeding: Raoiella a case study (Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) allows an almost perfect preservation of specimens and offers an extraordinarily detailed glimpse of micromorphology and behaviour. The use of LTSEM to study mouthpart morphology in the mite family Tenuipalpidae, in particular the genus Raoiella,...

  6. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

  7. Phylogenetic investigation of the genus Raoiella (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae): Diversity, distribution, and world invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Raoiella is most well known because of the red palm mite, R. indica, a major pest of palms spreading aggressively throughout the Americas. Not much was known about the biology, geographic origins, or evolutionary history of the genus when R. indica emerged as a major invasive pest. This pa...

  8. Host plant range of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in areas of invasion of the New World.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected. PMID:21915682

  9. Biological control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by the parasitoid mite, Rhynchopolipus rhynchophori (Ewing) (Acarina: Podapolipidae).

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammed A R

    2009-08-01

    The parasitoid mite, Rhynchopolipus rhynchophori was released against the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus stages. Released of this mite applied at four levels of treatment, A (30 parasitic mites: 1 prey), B (60 parasitic mites: 1 prey), C (90 parasitic mites: 1 prey) and D (120 parasitic mites: 1 prey). The parasitoid mites successfully suppressed population density of the red palm weevil, R. ferrugineus stages within two weeks. The killing of different developmental stages of the red palm is due to sucking their body fluid by the parasitoid mite, Rh. rhynchphori. But, the pupal weight was significantly (P < 0.5) decreased by increasing numbers of parasitoid mites at the different treatment levels. PMID:19795774

  10. Comparative demography of the spider mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four date palm varieties in southwestern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Chaaban, Sameh; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (r(m)), net reproductive rates (R(o)), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (r(m) = 0.103 day (-1)). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

  11. Comparative Demography of the Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four Date Palm Varieties in Southwestern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Sameh Ben; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rates (Ro), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (rm = 0.103 day 1). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

  12. OCCURRENCE OF DUST MITE, OLIGONYCHUS AFRASIATICUS MEG. ON FRUITS, LEAFLETS OF SOME DATE PALM TREES AND EVALUATION THE EFFICIENCY OF BOTANICAL COMPOUND, (BIACO) AS COMPARED WITH SOME ACARICIDES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aldosari

    This work was carried out in El-Karg region at Riyadh Governorate, which is representating the whole region, because of the similarity of the terrain, growing conditions and the passage of planting material throughout the years, on fruits& leaflets of some date palm during season 2007. Occurrence of dust mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus Meg. On date (fruits and leaflets) and evaluation the

  13. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

  14. Herbivore exploits chink in armor of host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mites in the genus Raoiella Hirst are obligate plant parasites that feed via stylet-like mouthparts adapted to pierce plant tissues. A species of particular interest in this genus, the red palm mite, R. indica Hirst, is currently spreading aggressively throughout the Americas on species of palm (Ar...

  15. Mite infestations.

    PubMed

    McClain, Damon; Dana, Ali N; Goldenberg, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mite infestations are important in dermatology because these may cause dermatologic diseases that range from papulosquamous eruptions to urticarial lesions to bullous eruptions and may spread infectious diseases. These clinical manifestations are important to recognize because mite-associated diseases may have systemic complications and may be confused with other dermatologic conditions. In treating mite infestations, oral antibiotics may be necessary. Prevention of infestation may be accomplished by pre-treating clothing with permethrin, using insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide on clothing and skin, and treating animals infected with mites. This article will review etiology, clinical manifestation, and treatment of mite infestations. PMID:19580577

  16. Phytoseiidae from date palms in Israel with descriptions of two new taxa and a key to the species found on date palms worldwide (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Palevsky; Shira Gal; Edward A. Ueckermann

    2009-01-01

    The old world date mite Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) is an important spider mite pest of the date palms Phoenix dactylifera in most of North Africa and the Middle East. To identify potential predators of this key pest we monitored the phytoseiids in the date palm canopy and on the orchard floor for three consecutive years in the Southern Arava Valley

  17. Mite allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Fernández-Caldas; Víctor Iraola Calvo

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the health implications of mite sensitivity, as it is closely related to asthma. Mite\\u000a allergy constitutes a complex worldwide problem, with sanitary and economical implications. Not only are mite species present\\u000a in house dust, producing potent allergens, but other, less studied species are also responsible for significant allergic reactions\\u000a in occupational settings. In this

  18. DATE PALM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews date palm biology and cultivation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops grown in the arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, and the Middle East. The exact origin of the date palm is unknown but most probably the area of origin w...

  19. Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-04-01

    Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other. PMID:24233102

  20. Host finding behaviour of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal is passive drifting with the wind and because they are highly specialized on their host plant. Consequently, the probability of landing on a suitable host is very low, let alone to land in their specific microhabitat within the host. How coconut mites manage to find their microhabitat within a host plant is still underexplored. We tested the hypothesis that they use volatile chemical information emanating from the plant to find a specific site within their host plants and/or use non-volatile plant chemicals to stay at a profitable site on the plant. This was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer (i.e. under conditions of a directed wind flow) and on cross-shaped arenas (i.e. under conditions of turbulent air) that either allowed contact with odour sources or not. The mites had to choose between odours from specific parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of a non-infested coconut plant and clean air as the alternative. In the olfactometer experiments, no mites were found to reach the upwind end of the Y-tube: <5 % of the mites were able to pass the bifurcation of the "Y". On the cross-shaped arenas, however, a large number of coconut mites was found only when the arm of the arena contained discs of fruit epidermis and contact with these discs was allowed. The results suggest that coconut mites on palm trees are not attracted to specific sites on the plant by volatile plant chemicals, but that they arrested once they contact the substrate of specific sites. Possibly, they perceive non-volatile chemicals, but these remain to be identified. PMID:25033768

  1. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent. PMID:23435864

  2. Fowl Mite Management In Breeders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Stringham

    Three species of fowl mite are recurring pests of commercial breeders and layers. The chicken mite or red poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is an ectoparasite that remains hidden in the cracks and crevices of a poultry house during the day and comes out to feed on birds at night. Owing to its ability to survive for long periods without feeding

  3. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  4. Palm Vein Authentication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Watanabe

    This chapter discusses palm vein authentication, which uses the vascular patterns of the palm as personal identification data.\\u000a Palm vein information is hard to duplicate because veins are internal to the human body. Palm vein authentication technology\\u000a offers a high level of accuracy, and delivers the following results: a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.01% and a false acceptance\\u000a rate

  5. Carcases and mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk R. Braig; M. Alejandra Perotti

    2009-01-01

    Mites are involved in the decomposition of animal carcases and human corpses at every stage. From initial decay at the fresh\\u000a stage until dry decomposition at the skeletal stage, a huge diversity of Acari, including members of the Mesostigmata, Prostigmata,\\u000a Astigmata, Endeostigmata, Oribatida and Ixodida, are an integral part of the constantly changing food webs on, in and beneath\\u000a the

  6. 1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue, showing 212 Palm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue, showing 212 Palm (right center) in setting; building at extreme right center is 208 Palm (HABS-CA-2211); view to northeast. - Albert Hayman Cottage, 212 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Date Palm Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews date palm genetic resources and their conservation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important food crop in the Middle East and North Africa. Its center of origin and diversity most probably is the area near Iraq/Iran. From there, it spread throughout its present range...

  8. Dust Mites in the Home

    MedlinePLUS

    ... humid areas filled with dust. Bed pillows, mattresses, carpets and furniture are great places for them to ... a hardwood, tile or linoleum floor instead of carpet. Dust mites can grow rapidly in carpet. If ...

  9. House-dust-mite allergens: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry G. Arlian

    1991-01-01

    The house-dust mites,Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pheronyssinus andEuroglyphus maynei are cosmopolitan inhabitants of the homes of humans worldwide. These mites are the sources of multiple potent allergens that trigger allergic reactions in house-dust-mite-sensitive individuals. Many laboratories using widely varied mite materials and allergic sera, and biochemical and immunological assays, have isolated and characterized, to varying degrees, some of the allergens produced

  10. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  11. Improved analysis of palm creases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Dong Sun; Jung, Wonsug

    2010-01-01

    Palm creases are helpful in revealing anthropologic characteristics and diagnosing chromosomal aberrations, and have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. However, previous methods of analyzing palm creases were not objective so that reproducibility could not be guaranteed. In this study, a more objective morphologic analysis of palm creases was developed. The features of the improved methods include the strict definition of major and minor palm creases and the systematic classification of major palm creases based on their relationships, branches, and variants. Furthermore, based on the analysis of 3,216 Koreans, palm creases were anthropologically interpreted. There was a tendency for palm creases to be evenly distributed on the palm, which was acknowledged by the relationship between major and minor creases as well as by the incidences of major creases types. This tendency was consistent with the role of palm creases to facilitate folding of palm skin. The union of major palm creases was frequent in males and right palms to have powerful hand grip. The new method of analyzing palm creases is expected to be widely used for anthropologic investigation and chromosomal diagnosis. PMID:21189999

  12. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  13. High Varroa mite abundance influences chemical profiles of worker bees and mite-host preferences.

    PubMed

    Cervo, R; Bruschini, C; Cappa, F; Meconcelli, S; Pieraccini, G; Pradella, D; Turillazzi, S

    2014-09-01

    Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers. PMID:25165133

  14. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Boot

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa mites. In this thesis, individual mites, the population of mites

  15. Biological control of Pacific mites and Willamette mites in San Joaquin Valley vineyards: part III. Role of tydeid mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Flaherty; Marjorie A. Hoy

    1971-01-01

    Summary  In the absence of spider mites, tydeids (Pronematus anconai\\u000a Baker andPronematus ubiquitus [Mc Gregor]) may serve as alternate prey to maintain good numbers of the predatory mite,Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acarina, Phytoseiidae), late in the season. This late-season predator and alternate prey relationship is necessary to stabilize\\u000a Pacific mite populations and perpetuate balance in San Joaquin Valley vineyards.\\u000a \\u000a Thriving laboratory colonies

  16. Evaluation of large-scale releases of western predatory mite for spider mite control in cotton

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    releases (3­6 nodes per plant) or late releases (>7 nodes per plant) enhanced seed cotton yields. WeEvaluation of large-scale releases of western predatory mite for spider mite control in cotton, for spider mite control in organically and conventionally managed commercial cotton fields. An important

  17. [Recent experience with mites in stored products].

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Ceccarelli, M T; Mellino, M; Marinelli, P

    1989-01-01

    The A.A. refer a recent experience about the isolation and identification of same species of storaged timber mites. They believe that these mites are responsible of dermatitis at the trunk and the arms of timber workers. Mites are the most elderly living species on the earth, they can live and grow in different environments, such as plants, flowers, animals, men, earth, lake and sea waters, organical rubles, houses, mattresses, old books etc. There are free-living, saprophitic, parasitic and predator mites. Generally, primary mites live either freely or as commensals feeding on conserved foodstuff and on what they find available. Secondary mites, i.e. parasites and predators, live off primary mites and insects infesting foodstuff. Direct damage to foodstuff are not to be considered important, whereas indirect damages are more serious, due to the contamination of bodies and stools of mites that are rich in nitrogen. Some secondary mites may attack foodstuff workers causing characteristic dermatitis: they can act either directly, by sting and bites, or indirectly, provoking on allergic hypersensitivity. In this study the A.A. used the floating method to isolate timber mites, and then, these have been photographed at the microscope to obtain an easier and more complete identification. The A.A. describe a heterogeneous fauna consisting of both adult and larval-status insects, some species of free-living mites (Oribatula Tibialis) and, in particular, of two species secondary mites, predator, belonging to the Prostigmata sub-order. The Cheyletus Eruditus (Cheylatidae family) is a whitish mite feeding mostly on insect larva and primary mites living in foodstuff. When no prey is available, the Cheyletus Eruditus eats individuals of its own species. The Pyemotes Herfsi (Pyemotidae family) is a little white mite feeding on insect larva. It lives in conserved foodstuff and may attack man causing characteristic dermatitis such as those described by the A.A. The A.A. conclude dealing with the possible preventive and therapeutic measures tend to keep phisic-chemicals parameters of foodstuff and others conserved products afar from the values suitable for the growth of parasites (water content min. 13%, environmental humidity min. 60-65%, appropriate temperature etc.). Therapeutic procedure are based either on physical media: infra-red rays, gamma-rays, electric fields for the transformation of temperature or using chemical mixtures containing methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride and hydrogen sulphide. Among the therapeutic procedures, however, the biological pest control using chemical media associated with antagonist mites of the infesting species is to be preferred. PMID:2483070

  18. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk epiphytes. Diurnally, oil palm transpiration rates were characterized by an early peak between 10 and 11 a.m.; there was a pronounced hysteresis in the leaf water use response to changes in vapor pressure deficit for all palms of advanced age. On the day-to-day basis this resulted in a relatively low variability of oil palm water use regardless of fluctuations in vapor pressure deficit and radiation. We conclude, that oil palm dominated landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapo)transpiration rates, e.g. due to varying age-structures, but that the temporal variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low. Stand transpiration rates of some studied oil palm stands compared to or even exceed values reported for different tropical forests, indicating a high water use of oil palms under certain site or management conditions. Our study provides first insights into the eco-hydrological characteristics of oil palms as well as a first estimate of oil palm water use across a gradient of plantation age. It sheds first light on some of the hydrological consequences of the continuing expansion of oil palm plantations.

  19. PALM TREE GROVE COLLEGEAVE.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    PALM TREE GROVE LAKE LAKE COLLEGEAVE. SW 30th ST. DAVIEROAD DAVIEROAD ACCESS RD. ACCESSRD. SW64thAVE. LAKE LAKE LAKE BC54 BC50 BC49 27 36 BC52 BC53 BC51 BC17 BC90 BC91 COLLEGEAVE. POOL POOL 3200 College Avenue, Davie, FL 33314 LEGEND BLDG. # BUILDING NAME BC17 (LY) BC49 (LA) BC50 (CH) BC51 (WL) BC52 (ES) BC

  20. Global Status of Honey Bee Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitic bee mites have become a major problem to both beekeepers and honey bees. This chapter updates the latest information we have on the three mite species, Acarapis (tracheal), Varroa and Tropilaelaps that are currently a threat to honey bees. It also updates the current information on the ...

  1. Diapause in phytoseiid mites: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Veerman

    1992-01-01

    This review briefly describes characteristics and occurrence of diapause in phytoseiid mites. This is followed by a discussion of factors involved in induction, maintenance and termination of diapause (e.g. photoperiod, temperature and food availability), of the physiological mechanism of diapause induction (photoperiodic perception and comparison of photoperiodic and thermoperiodic induction mechanisms), and of applied aspects of diapause in phytoseiid mites.

  2. Energy and nutrient use of palm kernels, palm kernel meal and palm kernel oil in diets for growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Agunbiade; J Wiseman; D. J. A Cole

    1999-01-01

    A metabolism experiment was conducted with 13 gilts over four periods to investigate the effects of age or weight of pigs, level of inclusion and methods of estimation of apparent digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy and nutrient digestibility of full-fat palm kernels (FFPK), recombined palm kernel oil and meal (OPKM) and palm kernel oil (PKO). Each palm kernel product

  3. PALM GAME DESIGN Pieter Spronck

    E-print Network

    Spronck, Pieter

    PALM GAME DESIGN Pieter Spronck Universiteit Maastricht IKAT/Infonomics P.O. Box 616 NL-6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands E-mail: p.spronck@cs.unimaas.nl KEYWORDS Gaming, handheld computers, software engineering, design. ABSTRACT Though the Palm is mainly a business tool, many games have been developed

  4. The Melbourne House Dust Mite Study: Long-term efficacy of house dust mite reduction strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Sporik; David J. Hill; Philip J. Thompson; Geoffrey A. Stewart; John B. Carlin; Terry M. Nolan; Andrew S. Kemp; Clifford S. Hosking

    1998-01-01

    Background: Asthma severity among mite-sensitized individuals appears to be related to the degree of mite allergen exposure. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of mite avoidance measures in the homes of asthmatic children in Melbourne, Australia. Methods: The concentration of house dust mite allergen (Der p 1) was measured on the child's mattress surfaces

  5. JW-Palm Instructions 12 December 2006

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    1 JW-Palm Instructions 12 December 2006 The JW-Palm module is designed to let you score behavior to work in the Palm OS, which runs a variety of handheld devices and phones (we tested it extensively should be able to see JW icon on your program list. b. Install it as you would any other Palm software

  6. Palm Vein Authentication System: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ishani Sarkar; Farkhod Alisherov; Tai-hoon Kim; Debnath Bhattacharyya

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy. Palm vein authentication uses the vascular patterns of an individual's palm as personal

  7. Chemical interesterification of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Laning

    1985-01-01

    Chemical interesterification processes are discussed as they apply to palm, palm kernel and coconut oils. Included are process\\u000a descriptions, selected physical and functional changes resulting from this process, analytical techniques and commercial edible\\u000a applications. These fats are utilized worldwide in a growing variety of food products. The demands of these applications provide\\u000a an endless need for fats with varying physical

  8. Gall-Making Insects and Mites 

    E-print Network

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Hudgeons, Jeremy L.

    2006-03-30

    Galls are abnormal swellings of plant tissue caused by insects, bacteria, fungi, mites or nematodes. Insects that cause galls include certain moth caterpillars, beetles, flies, jumping plant lice, aphids and small wasps. Ways to control galls...

  9. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247

  10. Behavioural studies on eriophyoid mites: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Michalska; Anna Skoracka; Denise Navia; James W. Amrine

    2010-01-01

    Eriophyoid mites are excellent candidates for ethological research using the approaches of behavioural ecology and sociobiology.\\u000a These tiny haplodiploid mites are highly specialized plant parasites, producing galls, forming nests, inhabiting refuges or\\u000a living freely on plants. They reproduce via spermatophores deposited on a substrate and without pairing, which is a fascinating,\\u000a though still poorly understood, mode of reproduction widespread in

  11. Hyperparasitism of mosquitoes by water mite larvae.

    PubMed

    Werblow, Antje; Martin, Peter; Dörge, Dorian D; Koch, Lisa K; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Hyperparasitism of ectoparasitic water mite larvae on mosquitoes is still a neglected relationship and was investigated only in a few studies. We analysed 2313 female mosquitoes from six different sampling localities with regard to their degree of parasitism with water mite larvae. In total, we found 38 mosquito individuals parasitized by 93 water mite larvae, ranging from 1 to 12 larvae per mosquito. Water mite larvae detected are members of the two species Parathyas cf. barbigera (n?=?92) and Arrenurus cf. globator (n?=?1). Out of the analysed mosquitoes, individuals out of the species Aedes vexans, Anopheles claviger, Ochlerotatus communis, the Ochlerotatus cantans/annulipes group, Ochlerotatus cataphylla and Ochlerotatus sticticus were tested to be parasitized by water mite larvae. The highest prevalence was found within the species Oc. cataphylla (28.6 %) and Oc. cantans/annulipes (21.7 %). No water mite larvae were found, e.g. on individuals of Aedes cinereus, Coquillettidia richiardii, the Culex pipiens/torrentium group, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus dorsalis or Ochlerotatus punctor. All of the attachment sites were located between the neck and abdomen with the ventral thorax site being the most frequent one. PMID:25899329

  12. _____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA

    E-print Network

    Rosenheim, Jay A.

    _____________ Augmentative releases ofpredatory mites on papaya in Hawaii 167 AUGMENTATIVE RELEASES OF PREDATORY MITES ON PAPAYA IN HAWAII: FAILURE AND SUCCESS V. Fournier,1,2 J.A. Rosenheirn," M.W. Iohnson on outdoor crops (Olkin and Shaw, 1995;Walsh et ai., 1998). Native to Central America, papaya (Carica papaya

  13. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  14. Design and implementation of a contactless palm print and palm vein sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Goh Kah Ong; Connie Tee; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative contactless palm print and palm vein recognition system. We design a hand sensor that could capture the palm print and palm vein image using low-resolution web camera. Both the visible and infrared images can be captured at the same time, and we do not need specialized infrared sensor to image the vein pattern. The design

  15. Sensory conduction from digit to palm and from palm to wrist in the carpal tunnel syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Buchthal; Annelise Rosenfalck

    1971-01-01

    In normal subjects the maximum and minimum conduction velocity along sensory nerve was the same from digit to palm and from palm to wrist. Severe slowing from palm to wrist in patients with the carpal tunnel syndrome was often associated with only slight slowing from digit to palm. The distal slowing is attributed to a reversible constriction of nerve fibres,

  16. Control of spider mites on cotton by organic sulphur compounds 

    E-print Network

    King, Charles Edward

    1954-01-01

    ) reported that a species of the mite Para- tetranychus feeding on wild raspberry was five times as resistant to TEPP as the greenhouse-reared To bimaculatus. Garman (1950) concluded that there was a nutritional factor affect? ing mite resistance...

  17. Palms on a forest floor in Florida

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-01-13

    Palms are also monocots and have only one seed leaf (dicots have two seed leaves). The flowers of palms have leaves in multiples of three. Monocots differ from dicots in root and tissue structure also, but all are angiosperms.

  18. A recently extinct palm from Easter Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dransfield; J. R. Flenley; S. M. King; D. D. Harkness; S. Rapu

    1984-01-01

    The former existence of palms on Easter Island has been demonstrated palynologically1,2, but the genus could not be determined from pollen morphology. We now report the discovery on the island of endocarps (shells) from palm fruits which appear to bethose of an extinct species related to the Chilean `wine palm', Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baillon. The endocarps, found in caves, have

  19. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    PubMed

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275

  20. [Mites allergy in children from Tula region].

    PubMed

    Zlobina, Zh M; Pron'kina, O V; Khlgatian, S V; Berzhets, A I; Berzhets, V M

    2006-01-01

    Characteristics of allergy to mites in children living in Tula region have been revealed. It was shown that mites from Pyroglyphidae (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae), Cheyletidae and Glycyphagidae (G. destructor, G. domesticus) families play important role in development of atopic allergy in children from this region. Efficacy of plant-origin acaricide "Milbiol" as part of prophylactic measures was evaluated. Its use in children with mild and intermediate asthma led to decrease of number of wheezing episodes, improvement of respiratory function, lessening of clinical signs of allergic rhinitis, decrease or discontinuation of usage of vasoconstrictive preparations. PMID:17297888

  1. Mites and Cherries in 2005 Dr. Nikki Rothwell, District IPM Educator

    E-print Network

    Mites and Cherries in 2005 Dr. Nikki Rothwell, District IPM Educator Two-spotted spider mites can be a complex problem on cherry in hot, dry years. Apple and mites, on the other hand, seem to be easier to be able to better monitor predator mite populations. To add to the complexity of the mite on cherry issue

  2. PRODUCTION AND COLONIZATION OF IMPORTED NATURAL ENEMIES OF AVOCADO MITE PESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Fleschner; Glenn Scriven

    Members of the genus Stethorus are widely distributed predators of tetranychid mites and are often effective in controlling population outbreaks of these mites. Other predators, such as predaceous mites, thrips, and green lacewings, are instrumental in maintaining mite populations at low densities, but generally they are not effective in controlling high-density populations of mites. Although native species of Stethorus are

  3. Feather mites of the greater sandhill crane.

    PubMed

    Atyeo, W T; Windingstad, R M

    1979-08-01

    New taxa are described from Grus canadensis tabida: Brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (Alloptidae); Pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (Kramerellidae); Geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and Gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given. PMID:512759

  4. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  5. Tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti) - serious ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2009-08-01

    In Germany there is limited information available about the distribution of the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in rodents. A few case reports show that this hematophagous mite species may also cause dermatitis in man. Having close body contact to small rodents is an important question for patients with pruritic dermatoses. The definitive diagnosis of this ectoparasitosis requires the detection of the parasite, which is more likely to be found in the environment of its host (in the cages, in the litter or in corners or cracks of the living area) than on the hosts' skin itself. A case of infestation with tropical rat mites in a family is reported here. Three mice that had been removed from the home two months before were the reservoir. The mites were detected in a room where the cage with the mice had been placed months ago. Treatment requires the eradication of the parasites on its hosts (by a veterinarian) and in the environment (by an exterminator) with adequate acaricides such as permethrin. PMID:19508683

  6. 78 FR 4306 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Twentynine Palms, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ...and Class E Airspace; Twentynine Palms, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Palms SELF Airport, Twentynine Palms, CA. This action changes the airport name formerly...Palms SELF Airport, Twentynine Palms, CA. This action does not change the...

  7. Effects of Macrocheles mites on longevity of males of the dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus binodis

    E-print Network

    Kotiaho, Janne S.

    Effects of Macrocheles mites on longevity of males of the dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus binodis of the phoretic relationship between the cosmopolitan mite Macrocheles merdarius and the dimorphic dung beetle, mites, Macrocheles, dung beetle, Onthophagus binodis, alternative reproductive strategies INTRODUCTION

  8. 1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue showing setting; 208 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue showing setting; 208 Palm at extreme left; note commercial intrusion at right; view to southwest. - T.J. Young Cottage, 208 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Diversity of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) on Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    Villa, Scott M; Le Bohec, Céline; Koop, Jennifer A H; Proctor, Heather C; Clayton, Dale H

    2013-10-01

    Feather mites are a diverse group of ectosymbionts that occur on most species of birds. Although Darwin's finches are a well-studied group of birds, relatively little is known about their feather mites. Nearly 200 birds across 9 finch species, and from 2 locations on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, were dust-ruffled during the 2009 breeding season. We found 8 genera of feather mites; the most prevalent genus was Mesalgoides (53-55%), followed by Trouessartia (40-45%), Amerodectes and Proctophyllodes (26-33%), Xolalgoides (21-27%), Analges and Strelkoviacarus (0-6%), and Dermoglyphus (2-4%). There was no evidence for microclimatic effects (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on mite diversity. Host body mass was significantly correlated with mean feather mite abundance across 7 of 8 well-sampled species of finches. Certhidea olivacea, the smallest species, did not fit this pattern and had a disproportionately high number of mites for its body mass. PMID:23691947

  10. Towards Sex Determination of Date Palm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Bekheet; M. S. Hanafy

    \\u000a In the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera), a dioecious mode and late initial reproductive age of 5–10 years are major practical constraints to genetic improvement.\\u000a Improvement of the existing palm cultivars or selection of new ones with superior characters is a tedious endeavor due to\\u000a the long life cycle of the date palm tree and its heterozygous nature. Sexual propagation method

  11. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences. PMID:25921489

  12. Somaclonal Variation in Date Palm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. El Hadrami; F. Daayf; S. Elshibli; S. M. Jain; I. El Hadrami

    \\u000a The exploration of somaclonal variation is an approach that could provide date palm breeding programs with new genotypes.\\u000a Naturally occurring or induced variants may have superior agronomic quality and\\/or enhanced performance but could also harbor\\u000a new traits such as tolerance to drought and salinity or resistance to major diseases i.e. bayoud. This chapter summarizes\\u000a recent progress in terms of studying

  13. High Altitude and House-dust Mites

    PubMed Central

    Spieksma, F. Th. M.; Zuidema, P.; Leupen, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    House dust from high mountainous areas of Switzerland contains very few house-dust mites. In contrast to lower-lying regions, only very small quantities of house-dust allergen are found at high altitudes. The cause of this phenomenon seems likely to be the climatic conditions in the high mountains of Europe, where cold air leads to extremely low humidity levels indoors. The soil conditions and a type of construction providing good protection against the penetration of water also contribute to dry conditions in houses. These factors prevent the development of large populations of allergen-producing house-dust mites. The beneficial effect of a stay at high altitudes on patients with atopic asthma is probably due to the low concentrations of house-dust allergen. PMID:5539181

  14. Dust mite allergens: Mitigation and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Fernández-Caldas

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, greater attention has been given to the role of indoor allergens as a cause of sensitization and allergic\\u000a respiratory diseases. Although indoor allergen control measures to reduce symptoms in individuals allergic to mites have produced\\u000a controversial results, environmental allergen avoidance is today one of the four primary goals of asthma management recommended\\u000a in several guidelines of asthma

  15. Mechanical Architecture of Arborescent Rain Forest Palms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL M. RICH

    Mechanical architecture refers to the morphological basis of mechanical support in plants. Ecological and developmental studies of arborescent palms in the lowland rain forest of Costa Rica were focused on the mechanical architecture that enables palms to grow to tree stature and changes in stem structure that accompany height growth. Work centered primarily on Iriartea gigantea and Welfia georgii, but

  16. Acoustic Detection of Insects in Palm Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial-crop and ornamental palm trees serve important functions in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and considerable precautions are taken each year to identify and control infestations of a variety of different insect pests. Large weevils, including the red palm weevil and the co...

  17. Palm vein authentication technology and its applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaki Watanabe; Toshio Endoh; Morito Shiohara; Shigeru Sasaki

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the contactless palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy, and delivers the following results: a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.01%, and a false

  18. Parasitic Mites of Honey Bees: Life History, Implications, and Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Sammataro; Uri Gerson; Glen Needham

    2000-01-01

    The hive of the honey bee is a suitable habitat for diverse mites (Acari), including nonparasitic, omnivorous, and pollen-feeding species, and para- sites. The biology and damage of the three main pest species Acarapis woodi, Varroa jacobsoni, and Tropilaelaps clareae is reviewed, along with detection and control methods. The hypothesis that Acarapis woodiis a recently evolved species is rejected. Mite-associated

  19. Checklist of the oribatid mites of the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Siepel; Andrei Zaitsev; Matty Berg

    2009-01-01

    More than fifty years ago Van der Hammen published the last checklist of oribatid mites (or moss mites) for the Netherlands. Since then the species number has almost doubled to 318 species, of which 100 are presented here for the first time. Brief data on occurrence and nomenclature are provided for each species. A short list of fossil species known

  20. A mite survey in the dumpsters for urban solid rubbish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizio Ottoboni; Sandra Mazzucato; Valentino Patussi; Andrea Lorusso

    1992-01-01

    Summary  The presence of house dust mites and storage mites in dumpsters was investigated in 3 different areas of Venice hinterland. The aim of this study was to find a relationship between some reported respiratory symptoms among 6 workers who were responsible for moving the dumpsters to the truck and the bio-aerosol released from such operation. These symptoms were closely related

  1. Autogrooming by resistant honey bees challenged with individual tracheal mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Danka; José D. Villa

    2003-01-01

    Autogrooming responses of resistant and susceptible strains of honey bees were measured when bees were challenged by placing adult female tracheal mites on their thoraces. Marked, young adult workers of the two strains of bees were added to colonies in observation hives. We transferred a single, live, adult, female mite onto the mesoscutum of a marked bee, monitored the bee

  2. A sampling procedure for quantifying mites in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Storck, Lindolfo; Fiorin, Rubens Alex; Filho, Alberto Cargnelutti; Guedes, Jerson Vanderlei Carus

    2012-06-01

    To control phytophagous mites on soybean crops in an economically viable way, it is necessary to quantify the occurrence of the mites on the leaflets. Estimating the number of mites cm(-2) on leaflets is more difficult because of their irregular distribution on the leaflet surface. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the count-area/leaflet and the number of soybean leaflets to quantify the mites. One hundred infested plants were randomly collected. One leaflet was removed from each plant and divided into 32 sections (1.0 cm(2) per section), arranged in four columns and eight rows, to count the mites (adults, nymphs and eggs). The ideal count-area size per leaflet (Xo) was estimated by the maximum curvature of the coefficient of variation method for each of the 100 leaflets. For a count-area of Xo size, we obtained the number of mites cm(-2) per leaflet and, using the bootstrap resampling method, we estimated the point and interval averages as well as the sample size for a pre-established error. We suggest that the determination of the evaluated area size on each soybean leaflet (20 cm(2) in this case) and the bootstrap resampling estimate of the appropriate number of leaflets (12 in this case) for a bootstrap confidence interval of four mites (adults + nymphs) cm(-2) is sufficient to standardize the sampling-procedures for quantifying mites on soybean leaflets. PMID:22488238

  3. Characterization and Immunobiology of House Dust Mite Allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne R. Thomas; Wendy-Anne Smith; Belinda J. Hales; Kristina L. Mills; Richard M. O’Brien

    2002-01-01

    The examination of house dust mite extracts has indicated that over 30 different proteins can induce IgE antibody in patients allergic to the house dust mite. There are however dominant specificities especially the group 1 and 2 allergens which can account for much of the allergenicity of extracts. Of the 19 denominated allergens, the major IgE binding has been reported

  4. CLSM anatomy of internal genitalia of Mackiella reclinata n. sp. and systematic remarks on eriophyoid mites from the tribe Mackiellini Keifer, 1946 (Eriophyoidea: Phytoptidae).

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Philipp E; Craemer, Charnie; Vishnyakov, Andrey E; Sukhareva, Sogdiana I

    2014-01-01

    A new mackielline mite, Mackiella reclinata n. sp., from a South African indigenous palm-tree, Phoenix reclinata, is described in detail using different microscopy techniques. A CSLM study of M. reclinata n. sp. internal genitalia shows that mites of this genus possess teardrop shaped spermathecae, sausage-like spermathecal tubes directed anteriad and a subtrapezoidal anterior genital apodeme with a peculiar apical plate, orthogonal to the anterior-posterior body axis. Pairwise angles between the spermatheca, spermathecal tube and the longitudinal bridge of M. reclinata n. sp. females were measured. The angle between the spermathecal tube and longitudinal bridge is a quite stable morphometric character and thus is considered to be appropriate for comparison of different eriophyoid taxa. LTSEM and CLSM study shows that M. reclinata n. sp. possesses a unique, broadened frontal lobe of the prodorsal shield comprised of apical and basal parts entirely covering the dorsal palpcoxae. The incompletely described mite species Mackiella borasis Mohanasundaram, 1981 does not conform to the diagnosis of Mackiella and herein is transferred to the subfamily Phytoptinae incertae sedis.  PMID:25283205

  5. Trichomes and spider-mite webbing protect predatory mite eggs from intraguild predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Roda; J. Nyrop; M. Dicke; G. English-Loeb

    2000-01-01

    Predaceous arthropods are frequently more abundant on plants with leaves that are pubescent or bear domatia than on plants with glabrous leaves. We explored the hypothesis that for some predatory mites this is because pubescence affords protection from intraguild predation. In laboratory experiments, we tested whether apple leaf pubescence protected Typhlodromus pyri eggs from predation by western flower thrips, Frankliniella

  6. Geotaxis and leaf-surface preferences mitigate negative effects of a predatory mite on an herbivorous mite.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    Reproductive success and population growth of an herbivorous mite are limited by activities of phytoseiid predators. However, occurrences on upper versus lower leaf surfaces are sometimes mismatched between these prey and predators. The mismatch potentially mitigates predation risk for the prey species. We assessed factors that affect mite distributions on leaf surfaces, testing whether the presence of the phytoseiid mite Phytoseius nipponicus alters the leaf-surface distribution and reproductive success of the herbivorous false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus. The host plant was Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (Adoxaceae). Leaves were set in natural (TRUE) and reversed (upside down; INVERTED) orientations using experimental devices. Both surfaces were accessible to mites. We detected lower and abaxial leaf-surface preferences in P. nipponicus. In contrast, upper and adaxial surfaces were preferred by B. obovatus. Thus, prey and predatory mites accumulated on different sides of leaves. Presence of the predator also indirectly decreased egg production in B. obovatus. Brevipalpus obovatus females actively avoided leaf surfaces with elevated predator numbers; these females shifted their distributions and changed oviposition sites to leaf surfaces with fewer predators. In consequence, B. obovatus eggs on the upper sides of leaves were less frequently preyed upon than were those on lower sides. We suggest that upper leaf-surface exploitation in this particular herbivorous mite species mitigates predation risk from phytoseiid mites, which prefer lower leaf surfaces. PMID:23011108

  7. Nasal mites of Tyrannidae (Aves) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M M; Mascarenhas, C S; Sinkoc, A L; Müller, G

    2014-05-01

    A total of 81 Tyraniidae birds were examined, 80 Pitangus sulphuratus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Great kiscadee), and one Machetornis rixosa (Vieilot, 1819) (Cattle tyrant), for collection of nasal mites, which were identified as Ptilonyssus spinosus (Brooks & Strandtmann, 1960) and Sternostoma longisetosae (Hyland, 1961) (Rhinonyssidae). This finding characterises the first report of P. spinosus and S. longisetosae in P. sulphuratus, and the first record of P. spinosus in M. rixosa, and expands the geographic distribution of these species. It is the first occurrence of S. longisetosae in the Neotropics, and the first citation of P. spinosus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:25166334

  8. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  9. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed. PMID:22286142

  10. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    PubMed

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined. PMID:23856724

  11. Species diversity of house dust mites in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao; Yin, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Even though house dust mites are one of the most important allergens, there have been few studies in China for their identification and diversity. In this study, we reported that Dermatophagoides siboney was found for the first time in Beijing, China, in a temperate zone and it was also the first reported in Asia. This survey of mite prevalence was carried out in several districts of Beijing, a city of thirty million people. House dust samples were collected from 38 homes of mite-allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department from December 2008 to January 2010. Out of 345 house dust samples collected, 64% contained mites. Dermatophagoides farinae was the predominant species in the mite population found and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was second, and Dermatophagoides siboney was the third. The positive rates of samples were higher in single-story homes and lower buildings. The seasonal density distribution of house dust mites showed the highest mite concentration in September through October, followed by May through July, December to next January; and lowest in March and November. PMID:23427649

  12. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jen?; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  13. Water recycling from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Latif Ahmad; Suzylawati Ismail; Subhash Bhatia

    2003-01-01

    Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Palm oil processing is carried out in palm oil mills where oil is extracted from a palm oil fruit bunch. Large quantities of water are used during the extraction of crude palm oil from the fresh fruit bunch, and about 50% of the water results in palm oil mill effluent

  14. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  15. Occupational dermatitis associated with straw itch mites (Pyemotes ventricosus).

    PubMed

    Betz, T G; Davis, B L; Fournier, P V; Rawlings, J A; Elliot, L B; Baggett, D A

    1982-05-28

    A 1981 outbreak of dermatitis in Austin, Tex, was traced to occupational exposure to wheat infested with the straw itch mite, Pyemotes ventricosus; the wheat was being sold for decorative purposes by an imported-goods store located on the second floor of a large, modern, shopping mall complex. In addition to an extensive varicelliform skin eruption, one employee also had chills, fever, malaise, diarrhea, and anorexia associated with her exposure to these mites. The straw itch mite has been associated with several large epidemics of dermatitis during the 19th and 20th centuries. This outbreak is the third reported in Texas since 1961. Physicians should consider the possibility of straw itch mite infestations of products brought into the home or places of employment when they observe patients with a varicelliform or chigger-bite-like dermatitis, which may be accompanied by constitutional symptoms. PMID:6210784

  16. Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests

    E-print Network

    Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

    2005-02-21

    Several insect and mite pests attack lantana and verbena, which are perennial ornamental plants found in many Texas landscapes. This publication describes the most common pests and explains how to manage them....

  17. Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . ... ..... . .. . ... 16 Spider Mites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 16 Fall Armyworm - Corn Earworm .. .. . ......... .. . . .. 18 Chinch Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 19... False Chinch Bugs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20 Flea Beetles . ...................................... 20 Sugarcane Borer - Southwestern Corn Borer . . . . . . . . .. 21 Lesser Corn Stalk Borer...

  18. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum. 

    E-print Network

    Turney, H.A.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.; Teetes, George L.

    1987-01-01

    Chinch Bugs .................................................. ... ............ 9 Banks Grass Mite .......................................... ... .......... . .... 9 Sorghum Midge ......................................... . ................... 10... Sorghum Webworm ......................................................... 11 Fall Armyworm-Corn Earworm (Whorlworm and Headworm) ................. 12 Panicle-Feeding Bugs ....................................................... 12 Sugarcane Borer...

  19. Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

    2007-06-20

    Chinch bug .....................................................................16 Corn earworm and fall armyworm (whorlworms) .......17 Banks grass mite ...........................................................18 GRAIN HEAD INSECT PESTS... .......................................................19 Sorghum midge ............................................................19 Corn earworm and fall armyworm (headworms) ........22 Sorghum webworm ........................................................24 Grain head-feeding bugs...

  20. Feather mites of the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atyeo, W.T.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1979-01-01

    New taxa are described from Grus canadensis tabida: Brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (Alloptidae); Pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (Kramerellidae); Geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and Gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given.

  1. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system. PMID:25541519

  2. Dust mite allergens and asthma: a worldwide problem*

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    After the discovery of house dust mites in 1964 their association with asthma has been reported from many different parts of the world including the developing countries. Two sets of major allergens from mites of the genus Dermatophagoides are now well recognized. The Group I allergens are glycoproteins of relative molecular mass (Mr) 25 000, which show both structural homology and cross-reactivity. The allergen Der p I has been cloned and sequenced confirming the Mr and establishing its nature as a protease. The Group II allergens (Mr 15 000) show even closer homology and cross-reactivity. Specific immunoassays for Group I and Group II allergens, using monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibodies, have been standardized and are suitable for measuring allergen levels in different parts of the world. Measures for reducing the levels of mite allergens in houses include the covering of mattresses, hot washing of bedding, and removal of carpets from bedrooms as well as humidity control, vacuum cleaning, and the use of acaricides in the rest of the house. There is already evidence that these procedures can cause a major improvement in the symptoms of asthma. While provisional standards for both sensitization to mites and also mite allergen exposure can now be recommended, there is an urgent need for controlled studies using protocols demonstrated to reduce mite allergen levels by at least tenfold and for further international collaboration. PMID:3069235

  3. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Recent findings Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Summary Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:20689407

  4. Is oil palm the next emerging threat to the Amazon?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rhett A. Butler; William F. Laurance

    2009-01-01

    The Amazon Basin appears poised to experience rapid expansion of oil palm agriculture. Nearly half of Amazonia is suitable for oil palm cultivation, and Malaysian corporations are now moving into the region to establish new plantations while the Brazilian government is considering a law that would count oil palm as \\

  5. Palm Cove, Australia, 5-10 Aug, 2007 Outrigger in

    E-print Network

    Palm Cove, Australia, 5-10 Aug, 2007 Physics in Space Programme LOFAR Outrigger in Scandinavia EM, Uppsala and LOIS Space Centre, Växjö #12;Bo Thidé IPELS2007., Palm Cove, Australia, 5--10 August, 20072, space physics and lab plasma physics #12;Bo Thidé IPELS2007., Palm Cove, Australia, 5--10 August, 20073

  6. Dynamic modeling and simulation of a palm wastes boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. I. Mahlia; M. Z. Abdulmuin; T. M. I. Alamsyah; D. Mukhlishien

    2003-01-01

    A state-space dynamic model for a palm wastes boiler is being developed and simulated. The unique feature of this boiler is that it uses wastes in the form of fiber and shell from the palm oil processing as its fuels. Specific characteristics of oil palm waste boilers are non-uniform fuel feed, compositions, sizes and moisture content of the fuel. These

  7. Chemical and physical characteristics of soap made from distilled fatty acids of palm oil and palm kernel oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ainie Kuntom; Hamirin Kifli; Peang-Kean Lim

    1996-01-01

    Manufacture of soaps from distilled fatty acids of palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PK) is a well-established technology\\u000a in Malaysia. Data on quality and characteristics of various blends of PO\\/PK fatty acid-based (palm-based) soaps made in Malaysia\\u000a are not available, however. In view of this, the study described in this paper was undertaken. Eleven blends of palm-based\\u000a bar

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC, AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  10. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 ?g/g, 1.24 ?g/g, 1.31 ?g/g and 1.46 ?g/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 ?g/g, 1.12 ?g/g, 1.16 ?g/g and 1.18 ?g/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  11. Induced resistance in Solanum dulcamara triggered by the gall mite Aceria cladophthirus (Acari: Eriophyoidea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Westphal; F. Dreger; R. Bronner

    1991-01-01

    After infestation ofSolanum dulcamara leaves by the eriophyoid gall miteAceria cladophthirus (Nalepa), induced resistance became operative against subsequent eriophyoid attacks. The protective effect, manifested by reduction in plant damage and\\/or mite proliferation, lasted up to 40 days. When the challenger wasA. cladophthirus, the number and size of lesions decreased significantly but mite mortality was not enhanced. When the rust miteThamnacus

  12. The anesthesiologist's guide to Palm Computing.

    PubMed

    Smith, M P; Sheplock, G J

    1999-01-01

    Handheld personal computers (HPCs) are permeating the clinical and personal lives of anesthesia care providers. Common characteristics include low cost, portability, easy PC data sharing, and applications such as a calendar, phone directory, memo pad, and a task list. Additional software includes databases for case logs, medication lists, task organizers, and document readers. This article discusses the Palm brand HPC (Palm Computing, A 3Com Company, Santa Clara, CA) including purchasing tips, common uses, backing up information, security concerns, and information resources on the Internet including websites providing free trial software. PMID:10499759

  13. PARASITIC MITES OF HONEY BEES Greg Hunt, Bee Specialist, Purdue University

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Greg

    Beekeeping PARASITIC MITES OF HONEY BEES Greg Hunt, Bee Specialist, Purdue University Figure 1. Varroa mites in the brood cells of the bees. A) The cell was uncapped and the honey bee pupa was removed so that you can see immature mites in the brood cell on the right, and a honey bee egg in the cell

  14. Opisthonotal gland chemistry of a middle-derivative oribatid mite, Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari: Trhypochthoniidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyo Sakata; Roy A. Norton

    2003-01-01

    Opisthonotal glands of sarcoptiform mites secrete a variety of compounds known to have defensive and pheromonal functions. We studied the gland chemistry of cultured individuals of the desmonomatan oribatid mite Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Trhypochthoniidae), to compare it with that of other oribatid mites and to examine in a preliminary way how the molting process may affect it. GC-MS analysis of

  15. The in vitro response of sheep scab mites to pyrethroid insecticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C Coles; K. A Stafford

    1999-01-01

    The response of sheep scab mites to pyrethroid insecticides and organophosphate compounds was studied in vitro with the objective of finding a simple test for detecting insecticide resistance in scab mites. Psoroptes cuniculi from rabbits or P. ovis from sheep were enclosed in small ‘tea bags’ made from heat sealable paper prior to dipping in insecticide. Mites failed to die

  16. First detection in Israel of fluvalinate resistance in the varroa mite using bioassay and biochemical methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mozes-Koch; Y. Slabezki; H. Efrat; H. Kalev; Y. Kamer; B. A. Yakobson; A. Dag

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent of varroa mite resistance to fluvalinate in Israel and to determine the underlying biochemical mechanism. Assays at different apiaries indicated varroa mite resistance at three of the five sites tested. Dose response assays conducted with tau-fluvalinate on mites obtained from different sites indicated uneven resistance. A monooxygenase assay revealed an

  17. An association between the Antarctic mite Alaskozetes antarcticus and an entomophthoralean fungus of the genus Neozygites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Bridge; M. R. Worland

    2008-01-01

    A fungal pathogen provisionally identified as Neozygites cf. acaridis has recently been isolated from the Antarctic oribatid mite Alaskozetes antarcticus. The identification of the fungus is discussed with reference to recent changes in the taxonomy of Neozygites. The potential role of the fungus in the Antarctic mite populations is considered in relation to the known mite life cycles,\\u000a and the

  18. An association between the Antarctic mite Alaskozetes antarcticus and an entomophthoralean fungus of the genus Neozygites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Bridge; M. R. Worland

    A fungal pathogen provisionally identified as Neozygites cf. acaridis has recently been isolated from the Antarctic oribatid mite Alaskozetes antarcticus. The identification of the fungus is discussed with reference to recent changes in the taxonomy of Neozygites. The potential role of the fungus in the Antarctic mite populations is considered in relation to the known mite life cycles,\\u000a and the

  19. solution is the selective breeding of honey bees to produce bees that suppress mite

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    solution is the selective breeding of honey bees to produce bees that suppress mite reproduction [8). This is a heritable 1. INTRODUCTION Long-term solutions to the parasitism of honey bees by the mite, Varroa destructor to avoid using pesticides in a bee colony and because of acaricide resistance by the mite [14, 18­21, 26

  20. Leaf pubescence and two-spotted spider mite webbing influence phytoseiid behavior and population density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Roda; J. Nyrop; G. English-Loeb; M. Dicke

    2001-01-01

    Phytoseiid mites, both in agricultural and natural systems, can play an important role in the regulation of herbivorous mites. Host plant traits, such as leaf pubescence, may influence the dynamics between predator and prey. In this study, we examined the influence of leaf surface characteristics (leaf pubescence and two-spotted spider mite webbing) on the behavior of two species of predatory

  1. DURATION AND SPREAD OF AN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS USED TO TREAT VARROA MITES IN HONEYBEE HIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites was used to treat bees against varroa mites in southern France. Fungal treatment was associated with a considerable increase in the percentage of infected varroa mites over baseline levels in two field experiments. The percentage of infecte...

  2. Phytoseiid mite populations on dormant grapevines: extraction using a microwave oven

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. James; Glen N. Warren; Jennifer Whitney

    1992-01-01

    A microwave oven technique for monitoring overwintering phytoseiid mite populations on dormant grapevines was developed. The removal and recovery of mites from grapevine wood material is based on excitation of mites in a microwave oven so that they fall to the bottom of a plastic bag. Contents of the bag are subsequently examined under a stereomicroscope.

  3. MITES AND APHIDS IN WASHINGTON HOPS: CANDIDATES FOR AUGMENTATIVE OR CONSERVATION BIOLOGICAL CONTROL?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. James; L. C. Wright

    Insect and mite management in Washington hops is currently being reevaluated due to in- creasing concerns over the cost-effectiveness, reliability, and sustainability of pesticide inputs. Chemical control of mites in hops is often difficult due to the large canopy of the crop and problems with miticide resistance (James and Price, 2000). Research to date on the biological control of mites

  4. JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 31: 489494. Copenhagen 2000 Ecological correlates of feather mite prevalence in passerines

    E-print Network

    Figuerola, Jordi

    JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY 31: 489­494. Copenhagen 2000 Ecological correlates of feather mite prevalence in passerines Jordi Figuerola Figuerola, J. 2000. Ecological correlates of feather mite prevalence in passerines. ­ J. Avian Biol. 31: 489­494. The relationship between host ecology and feather mite prevalence

  5. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES TO THE SIXSPOTTED MITE EOTETRANYCHUS SEXMACULATUS (RILEY) (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE) ON AVOCADOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. STEVENS; L. E. JAMIESON; J. CAVE

    Sixspotted mite (Eotetranychus sexmaculatus) is a serious pest of avocados in New Zealand and their feeding on the leaves can lead to defoliation. There are no pesticides registered for controlling sixspotted mites and there is an urgent need to develop effective control methods. Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the potential of a range of pesticides against sixspotted mites.

  6. Bulbs mycoflora and their relation with three stored product mites.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sater, M A; Eraky, S A

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of moulds on stored and field onion and garlic plants infested by bulb mites in Assiut area (Egypt) was studied using PDA medium at 28 degrees C. Among 40 host samples and the three mite species tested no significant difference was noted in the contamination by moulds. A total of 20 species appertaining to 11 genera were identified from the tested mites and their habitats. The predominant moulds on all samples were "storage moulds" from the genera Aspergillus (A. niger, A. versicolor) and Penicillium (P. chrysogenum, P. funiculosum, and "field moulds" among which Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium (and its teleomorphs) and Setosphaeria were encountered most frequently. One fungus well known facultative pathogen was obtained: Beauveria bassiana. The tested mites transfer A. niger, N. haematococca, R. stolonifer and P chrysogenum outside their bodies while, A. flavus and A. ochraceus transfer through their digestive tracts along with the foods. Individuals of all mites could survived till the end of the experiment on all fungal species tested except A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. sydowii. Among 48 isolates screened for their ability to produce chitinase, about 83% of the isolates could produce this enzyme. Most of the positive isolates (17 isolates) had moderate producers PMID:11913764

  7. A Rice Stowaway MITE for Gene Transfer in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fattash, Isam; Bhardwaj, Priyanka; Hui, Caleb; Yang, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) lack protein coding capacity and often share very limited sequence similarity with potential autonomous elements. Their capability of efficient transposition and dramatic amplification led to the proposition that MITEs are an untapped rich source of materials for transposable element (TE) based genetic tools. To test the concept of using MITE sequence in gene transfer, a rice Stowaway MITE previously shown to excise efficiently in yeast was engineered to carry cargo genes (neo and gfp) for delivery into the budding yeast genome. Efficient excision of the cargo gene cassettes was observed even though the excision frequency generally decreases with the increase of the cargo sizes. Excised elements insert into new genomic loci efficiently, with about 65% of the obtained insertion sites located in genes. Elements at the primary insertion sites can be remobilized, frequently resulting in copy number increase of the element. Surprisingly, the orientation of a cargo gene (neo) on a construct bearing dual reporter genes (gfp and neo) was found to have a dramatic effect on transposition frequency. These results demonstrated the concept that MITE sequences can be useful in engineering genetic tools to deliver cargo genes into eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23704977

  8. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  9. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Real, Javier; Serrano, David; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Fernández-González, Sofía; Bermejo, Ana; Calleja, Juan A; De la Puente, Javier; De Palacio, Diana; Martínez, José L; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Ponce, Carlos; Frías, Óscar; Tella, José L; Møller, Anders P; Figuerola, Jordi; Pap, Péter L; Kovács, István; Vágási, Csongor I; Meléndez, Leandro; Blanco, Guillermo; Aguilera, Eduardo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Galván, Ismael; Atiénzar, Francisco; Barba, Emilio; Cantó, José L; Cortés, Verónica; Monrós, Juan S; Piculo, Rubén; Vögeli, Matthias; Borràs, Antoni; Navarro, Carlos; Mestre, Alexandre; Jovani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R) of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj)) after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity). The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj) = 0.32-0.57); smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj?)= 0.18-0.30). These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity. PMID:25216248

  10. Thermophysical Properties of Sugarcane, Palmyra Palm, and Date-palm Granular Jaggery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. V. K. Jagannadha Rao; Madhusweta Das; S. K. Das

    2008-01-01

    Effect of moisture content on thermo-physical properties of sugarcane, palmyra palm, and date-palm granular jaggery were investigated. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity were determined by line-heat-source transient heat-transfer methodology, while specific heat was calculated from additional data on bulk density of the samples. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity, specific heat, and bulk density was found to vary from 0.08 to 0.39 W m

  11. Industrial uses of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils: Nitrogen derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Reck

    1985-01-01

    Palm, palm kernel and coconut oils are sources of fatty acids that can be converted to other oleochemicals that have many\\u000a applications. This paper describes manufacturing procedures, product characteristics and uses for many fatty acids, alcohols,\\u000a primary amides, monosubstituted amides, diamides, disubstituted amides, nitrites, primary amines, secondary amines, tertiary\\u000a amines, diamines, quaternary ammonium compounds, amphoterics, amine oxides and polyoxyalkylene alkylamines.

  12. The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of palm diesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung Chee Liang; Choo Yuen May; Cheng Sit Foon; Ma Ah Ngan; Chuah Cheng Hock; Yusof Basiron

    2006-01-01

    Crude and distilled palm oil methyl esters conveniently known as palm diesel have been successfully evaluated as diesel substitute. Crude palm oil methyl esters are produced from transesterification of crude palm oil with minor components such as carotenes and vitamin E still intact and they are reddish in colour. The distilled palm oil methyl esters are obtained after the recovery

  13. A secure cryptosystem from palm vein biometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Prasanalakshmi; A. Kannammal

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique to generate an irrevocable cryptographic key from the biometric template. The biometric trait considered here is the palm vein. The technique proposed here utilises the minutiae features extracted from the pattern generated. The features include bifurcation points and ending points. Since other cryptographic keys are probable to theft or guess, keys generated from the

  14. Mix design for oil palm shell concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Mannan; C Ganapathy

    2001-01-01

    The mix design of lightweight concrete using oil palm shell (OPS) as aggregate differs widely from the procedure of mix proportioning for conventional concrete with crushed stone aggregate. The mix design depends on the properties of aggregates. The 28-day compressive strengths of OPS concrete designed according to the ACI method for conventional concrete and methods mentioned in references [A. Short,

  15. POWER PERSONIFIED. Introducing the PalmTM

    E-print Network

    Lindeman, Robert W.

    - nization with Microsoft Outlook s Phone Link s Dialer s SMS s QuickTour s User Manual Software Essentials Browser s Palm Web Browser Pro s Phone Link Updater s powerOne Personal calculator s SMS s VersaMail 2 Pad, Note Pad, Preferences, Security, Setup,To Do, Voice Memo, World Clock SUPPORTED DESKTOP SYSTEMS

  16. Species identification of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) from different Ribes species and countries using molecular genetics.

    PubMed

    Fenton, B; Malloch, G; Jones, A T; Amrine, J W; Gordon, S C; A'Hara, S; McGavin, W J; Birch, A N

    1995-06-01

    Cecidophyopsis mites were studied by PCR amplification of parts of their ribosomal DNA, followed by restriction enzyme analysis. Mite specimens on Ribes nigrum (black currant) from six countries gave the same digestion pattern, which was distinct from the pattern for mites found on R. rubrum from Poland and Finland and for R. grossularia from the USA. This suggests that each Ribes species is host to a different mite species: C. ribis, C. selachodon and C. grossulariae, respectively. Two other mite samples from R. alpinum and R. aureum were identical but were distinct from each of the other species. PMID:7663755

  17. Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy. PMID:23427664

  18. Treatment and Eradication of Murine Fur Mites: II. Diagnostic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J; Lipman, Neil S; Wolf, Felix R

    2010-01-01

    Fur mites are a persistent problem in contemporary laboratory mouse colonies. We conducted several studies to evaluate fur mite diagnostic methodologies and interpretation of results. Retrospective analysis of test results from sentinel mice exposed to soiled bedding collected from colonies infested with Myobia musculi and Myocoptes musculinus revealed the skin scrape test to be more reliable than pelt examination, provided that both the head and dorsal thoracolumbar regions were sampled. To assess their diagnostic accuracy, 3 commercial laboratories were sent positive control slides containing mites, mite parts, or eggs in sets of slides containing diagnostic skin scrapings in varying ratios. Laboratory B correctly identified the positive control slide. Laboratory A identified 1 of 3 positive control slides, whereas laboratory C failed to identify both positive control slides submitted. To determine the time required for a mouse to shed its entire hair coat, fur of Crl:CD1(ICR), BALB/cAnNCrl, and Crl:CFW(SW) albino mice was dyed black and the presence of dyed fur evaluated monthly for 8 mo. Limited dyed hair was still present at 8 mo; therefore, finding eggs or egg casings many months after treatment cessation does not necessarily imply treatment failure. To evaluate the effectiveness of soiled bedding sentinels for detection of fur mites in a mite-infested colony, we exposed naïve mice to varying amounts (100%, 50%, 25%, 2.5%, and 0%) of soiled bedding in clean bedding. As little as 2.5% soiled bedding resulted in detection of a positive sentinel within a 2-mo period. PMID:20858359

  19. Field study on the efficacy of an extract of neem seed (Mite Stop®) against the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae naturally infecting poultry in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Hassan M. Sobhy; Saleh Al-Quraishy; Margit Semmler

    2008-01-01

    Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem\\u000a seed product Mite-Stop® against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages\\u000a in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract

  20. The Common Sheep-Scab Mite and its Control. 

    E-print Network

    Babcock, O. G. (Orville Gorman); Black, William L. (William Lawrence)

    1933-01-01

    small mite, Psoroptes ovis (Her.). It is known to occur in practically all parts of the world. The mite lives and thrives upon the skin of sheep and spreads from animal to animal by direct contact or through infested quarters or range. It does... not thrive on any other domestic animal or on man. In experimental tests the time elapsing between artificial in- festation and the appearance of first symptoms of scabies varied from 12 to 51 days. Where clean animals were in contact with scabby ones...

  1. The Common Sheep-Scab Mite and its Control.

    E-print Network

    Babcock, O. G. (Orville Gorman); Black, William L. (William Lawrence)

    1933-01-01

    small mite, Psoroptes ovis (Her.). It is known to occur in practically all parts of the world. The mite lives and thrives upon the skin of sheep and spreads from animal to animal by direct contact or through infested quarters or range. It does... not thrive on any other domestic animal or on man. In experimental tests the time elapsing between artificial in- festation and the appearance of first symptoms of scabies varied from 12 to 51 days. Where clean animals were in contact with scabby ones...

  2. Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

  3. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing-Miao; Luo, Qing-Hua; Sun, Jin-Lu; Shi, Cun-Lian; Yin, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhang; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons. PMID:26064909

  4. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  5. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing-Miao; Luo, Qing-Hua; Sun, Jin-Lu; Shi, Cun-Lian; Yin, Jia; Zhou, Yu-Ling; Tang, Rui; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Zhang; Chen, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM) in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients' homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D.) farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  6. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  7. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  8. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    PubMed

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. PMID:25017207

  9. Differential Water Mite Parasitism, Phenoloxidase Activity, and Resistance to Mites Are Unrelated across Pairs of Related Damselfly Species

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarek, Julia J.; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five “species pairs”), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species’ relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity. PMID:25658982

  10. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter...Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take...

  11. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...

  12. Fatal attraction: Male spider mites prefer females killed by the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana.

    PubMed

    Trandem, Nina; Bhattarai, Upendra Raj; Westrum, Karin; Knudsen, Geir Kjølberg; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2015-06-01

    Exploring prospective mates can be risky. Males of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae approach and guard immobile (quiescent) female nymphs to increase their chances of fathering offspring, this being a first-male sperm priority species. We investigated the behaviour of male T. urticae towards females killed by the mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana, letting them choose between a fungal killed and a healthy quiescent female. The dead female (called cadaver) was in one of three stages: (1) non-sporulating; (2) sporulating with primary conidia (non-infective); (3) surrounded/partly covered by secondary capilliconidia (infective). When the cadaver was in stage 1 or 2, males were significantly more often observed near the cadaver than near the healthy female. When the cadaver was in stage 3 (infective capilliconidia), males preferred the vicinity of healthy females. The frequency of two male behaviours, touching and guarding, was also recorded. Touching the cadaver tended to decrease as cadaver developed, whereas touching the healthy females increased. Guarding of non-sporulating cadavers and healthy females was equally common, while guarding of sporulating cadavers was only observed once (stage 2) or not at all (stage 3). To differentiate between the effect of fungal infection and sex, we also let males choose between a non-sporulating cadaver of each sex. Males then preferred to approach the female cadaver. Touching behaviour followed the same pattern, and guarding of male cadavers was not observed. Our results indicate that T. urticae males are more attracted to non-infective female cadavers than to healthy females, only detecting their mistake when very close. Moreover, males approach and explore cadavers surrounded by infective conidia. Whether the results of host manipulation by the pathogen or just sensory constraints in the host, this inability to detect unsuitable and indeed infective mates promotes transmission of the pathogen. PMID:25889815

  13. Male morph determination in two species of acarid mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Radwan

    1995-01-01

    Male morph was found to be determined in different ways in two species of acarid mites within which morphologically distinct fighter and nonfighter males occur. Fighter males sired significantly larger proportions of fighters in comparison to nonfighter males in Rhizoglyphus robinii, but not in Caloglyphus berlesei. The genetic mechanism of male morph determination in R. robinii remains unclear: neither single-locus

  14. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites are thought to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant genotype...

  15. COCCINELLIDAE AS PREDATORS OF MITES: STETHORINI IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stethorini are unique among the Coccinellidae in specializing on mites (principally Tetranychidae) as prey. Consisting of 90 species in two genera, Stethorus and Parasthethorus, the tribe is practically cosmopolitan, and found in diverse habitats, including many agricultural systems, as well as ...

  16. Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Ribes spp. (Grossulariaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Amrine Jr; George H. Duncan; Teifion A. Jones; Stuart C. Gordon; Ian M. Roberts

    1994-01-01

    The authors present a review and morphological study of the eriophyid mites in the genus Cecidophyopsis occurring on gooseberries and currants of the genus Ribes (Grossulariaceae). Three species are redescribed and illustrated: Cecidophyopsis ribis (Westwood 1869) causing galling on black currants, Ribes nigrum; C. selachodon Eyndhoven 1967 causing galling on red currants, R. rubrum; and C. grossulariae (Collinge 1907), a

  17. SOME ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS OF VARROA JACOBSONI MITE ENTRANCE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in classes in two ways. a) The range of weight of the larva was divided into equivalent classes of 50 mg. The range of the weight scale was divided into three equivalent classes. The individual weight of each larva, respectively. As a rule, no mites will be stuck on the larva food if the host has a weight lower than about 100

  18. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  19. Bulb mite, Rhizoglyphus robini (Astigmata: Acaridae) as an experimental animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uri Gerson; Ephraim Cohen; Shlomo Capua

    1991-01-01

    Rhizoglyphus robini Claparède (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) is proposed as a model laboratory animal for biological, ecological, physiological and toxicological studies. The mite is easy and inexpensive to rear, quite fecund, convenient to manipulate, and may rapidly be raised to gram quantities. Examples are presented of its use in soil pest ecology and control studies, and in physiological, biochemical and toxicological

  20. Using Neoseiulus californicus for Control of Persea Mite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Hoddle

    The persea mite, Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello (Acari: Tetranychidae) is the most serious foliar pest of exotic origin attacking avocados (Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)) in California, USA. Colonial feeding by immature and adult O. perseae within silk nests on the undersides of leaves results in the production of characteristic brown necrotic spots. Once necrotic tissue caused by O.

  1. Oribatid mites: prospects for their use in ecotoxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Lebrun; Nico M. Straalen

    1995-01-01

    Oribatid mites are a group of arthropods that have had remarkable evolutionary success with regard to species richness, variety of habitats colonized, life-cycle variation and reporductive patterns. The aim of this paper is to review some of the important features of Oribatida in relation to the possible use of these animals in ecotoxicological experiments. Their often sedentary way of living,

  2. List of mites occurring on insects in Poland.

    PubMed

    Haitlinger, R

    1991-01-01

    110 species of mites belonging to 3 orders, 28 families and 72 genera were found on about 136 species of insects in Poland. Among of those insects the richest fauna was found on Copris lunaris, Carabus coriaceus, C. hortensis and Musca domestica. PMID:1823502

  3. Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mägi; T. Järvis; I. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Mägi, E., T. Järvis, I. Miller: Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 283-287. The objective of this study was to determine the antiparasitic efficiency of herbal-based products. Four medicinal plant species extracts in 10% ethanol solutions (hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., tansy Tanacetum vulgare L., wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.),

  4. DO TRACHEAL MITES REDUCE THE LONGEVITY OF WORKERS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longevity of individual workers exposed to tracheal mites at different times of the year was evaluated in observation hives and in hoarding cages. Young workers (< 24 h) from colonies known to be highly resistant and highly susceptible to infestation were painted or tagged with plastic-numbered...

  5. Handbook of forage and rangeland insects: Timothy Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several eriophyid rust mites are important and have been recently recognized as pests on timothy grass. They live and feed in the grooves of the leaves, are cold-adapted, and populations begin to grow gradually in the fall and peak in the spring. Damage can cause up to 50% yield loss and results i...

  6. Plant cell piercing by a predatory mite: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Adar, E; Inbar, M; Gal, S; Issman, L; Palevsky, E

    2015-02-01

    Omnivorous arthropods can play an important role as beneficial natural enemies because they can sustain their populations on plants when prey is scarce, thereby providing prophylactic protection against an array of herbivores. Although some omnivorous mite species of the family Phytoseiidae consume plant cell-sap, the feeding mechanism and its influence on the plant are not known. Using scanning electron microscopy we demonstrated that the omnivorous predatory mite Euseius scutalis penetrates epidermal cells of pepper foliage and wax membranes. Penetration holes were teardrop shape to oval, of 2-5 µm diameter. The similarities between penetration holes in pollen grains and in epidermal cells implied that the same penetration mechanism is used for pollen feeding and plant cell-sap uptake. Variation in shape and size of penetration holes in leaves and a wax membrane were attributed to different mite life stages, depth of penetration or the number of chelicerae puncturing (one or both). Punctured stomata, epidermal and vein cells appeared flat and lacking turgor. When the mite penetrated and damaged a single cell, neighboring cells were most often intact. In a growth chamber experiment very large numbers of E. scutalis negatively affected the growth of young pepper plants. Consequently caution should be taken when applying cell-piercing predators to young plants. Further studies are needed to take advantage of the potential sustainability of plant cell-sap feeding predators. PMID:25391448

  7. Trade in Palm Products in North-Western South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grischa Brokamp; Natalia Valderrama; Moritz Mittelbach; Anders S. Barfod; Maximilian Weigend

    More than 200 scientific publications and Internet sources dealing with trade in palm products in north-western South America\\u000a are reviewed. We focus on value chains, trade volumes, prices, and recent developments for some of the most important raw\\u000a materials derived from native palms. Trade in palm products takes place at local, regional, national, and international levels.\\u000a For local communities and

  8. Diversity, distribution and conservation status assessment of Paraguayan palms (Arecaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene GautoRodolphe; Rodolphe E. Spichiger; Fred W. Stauffer

    Indigenous palm species of Paraguay are presented with data on their diversity, distribution, threats and conservation status.\\u000a The Paraguayan palm flora consists of 23 native species in 11 genera, representing two of the five subfamilies recognized\\u000a in the group. The palm distribution in the country is strongly related to the different ecoregions present in Paraguay, with\\u000a number of species by

  9. Lipid profile of process streams of palm oil mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. George; C. Arumughan

    1992-01-01

    During palm oil extraction, oil loss occurs mainly at three stages of processing, namely sterilization, pressing and clarification.\\u000a Samples from a semi-commercial palm oil mill were analyzed for their lipid composition (triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, monoacylglycerol,\\u000a free fatty acid, phospholipid and glycolipid contents and fatty acid compositions of these lipid classes) and compared with\\u000a the end product,viz., raw palm oil. The results

  10. PALMS Khorsand Rosa & Koptur: Coccothrinax argentata Vol. 53(2) 2009 Preliminary

    E-print Network

    Koptur, Suzanne

    : saw palmetto, Serenoa repens (foreground, left), silver palm, Coccothrinax argentata (background, center), and cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto (foreground, right). #12;been published on the pollination

  11. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  12. Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

    2013-03-01

    Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

  13. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in amazonian oil palm.

    PubMed

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity. PMID:25955243

  14. Poor Prospects for Avian Biodiversity in Amazonian Oil Palm

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Alexander C.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome’s biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity. PMID:25955243

  15. Evaluation of the presence of house dust mites in horse rugs.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jessica C; Vogelnest, Linda J

    2010-12-01

    A sample of fourteen horse rugs and two saddle blankets stored in south western Sydney, Australia, an area of known high dust mite prevalence in the human environment, were analysed for the presence of house dust mites. Dust samples from the rugs, blankets and 16 control sites were collected using a vacuum cleaner with a modified attachment and filter. Dust mites were extracted using an adapted floatation technique. Eight rugs and all control samples were positive for mites, which were confirmed to be house dust mites of the genus Dermatophagoides. This study confirms that exposure to house dust mites from horse rugs can occur, indicating that house dust mite allergen reactivity on intradermal and serum allergy testing in atopic horses may represent true dust mite hypersensitivity. Nevertheless, quantification studies will be necessary to ensure that there is adequate mite exposure for development of hypersensitivity, and further evaluation of immunological responses, avoidance and provocation, and specific immunotherapy are required to confirm the clinical relevance. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to document the presence of house dust mites in the equine environment. PMID:20529010

  16. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.)

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  17. Faunal analysis of chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu

    2015-08-01

    This paper studied the species diversity and fauna distribution of chigger mites on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest Yunnan. In total, 120,138 individuals of chigger mites were collected from 13,760 individual small mammals, and these mites were identified as comprising two families, 26 genera, and 274 species. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, the mite species diversity in subregions I and II was higher than that in subregions III, IV, and V. Four mite species (Leptotrombidium scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, Leptotrombidium deliense, and Helenicula simena) were the most dominant species in the whole province. Several vector species of chigger mites co-existed in Yunnan, and L. deliense (a main vector of scrub typhus in China) was mainly distributed in subregions IV and V with lower latitude and average altitude whereas L. scutellare (also a main vector in China) was mainly distributed in subregions I, II, and III with higher latitude and average altitude. Some geographically widely distributed mite species were also the mites with wide host ranges and low host specificity. The dominant mite species and their clustering tendency in the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis were highly in accordance with the zoogeographical divisions. The species diversity of chigger mites showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3,500 m) along the vertical gradients and reached the highest value in the middle altitude regions in 2,000-2,500 m. The highest species diversity of the mites and their small mammal hosts happened in the regions around the Hengduan Mountains, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in Asia continent. The host and its sample size, geographical scope, landscape, topography, and some other factors comprehensively influence the species diversity and faunal distribution of chigger mites. A systematic field investigation with a wide geographical scope and large host sample is strongly recommended in the fauna study of chigger mites and other ectoparasites. PMID:25930112

  18. Can oil palm plantations become bird friendly?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Nájera; Javier A. Simonetti

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing claims that structural complexity in agroforestry plantations is a key variable for enhancing bird\\u000a biodiversity, few studies have experimentally manipulated the understory component of structural complexity. Here, we examined\\u000a the impact of removing understory vegetation from oil palm plantations on the richness and abundance of birds in eastern Guatemala,\\u000a testing if bird richness and abundance are positively

  19. Anti-mite activity of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) extracts against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae: Acarina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somnath Roy; Guruswami Gurusubramanian; Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Acaricidal, antiovipositional and ovicidal activities of Polygonum hydropiper (Polygonaceae) against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Tetranychidae: Acarina) were studied under laboratory conditions. Essential chemicals of P. hydropiper obtained from crude extracts of both water and petroleum ether\\/acetone\\/methanol fractions by following cold percolation and sequential extraction methods on the basis of solvents' polarity. Ovicidal activity of P. hydropiper was

  20. Anti-mite activities of Clerodendrum viscosum Ventenat (Verbenaceae) extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acarina: Tetranychidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somnath Roy; Ananda Mukhopadhyay; G. Gurusubramanian

    2011-01-01

    Acaricidal and ovicidal activities of Clerodendrum viscosum Ventenat (Verbenaceae), a common weed of India, were investigated on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Different solvent extracts (water, methanol, acetone and petroleum ether) of C. viscosum at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 8%) were used. These solvent extracts exhibited mortality of O. coffeae in the range of

  1. Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) and dry bulb mite (Aceria tulipae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits at least three harmful viruses, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), high plains virus (HPV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Great Plains. This virus complex is considered to be the most serious d...

  2. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations. PMID:25175402

  3. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  4. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  5. Pollen consumption by flower mites in three hummingbird-pollinated plant species.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Tonatiuh; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that pollen consumption by flower mites may decrease the male fitness of the plant by reducing the available pollen for dispersal. Here we assessed pollen consumption by flower mites under natural conditions in three plant species with long-lived, protandrous flowers, Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae), Lobelia laxiflora and L. cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). Total pollen mass was measured after 24 and 48 h in flowers exposed to flower mites and excluded from hummingbirds, flowers exposed to mites and hummingbird visitation, and in flowers recently opened with dehisced anthers. Compared with recently opened flowers, pollen availability was reduced about half in the presence of flower mites and the same effect was observed in the three plant species. Our results suggest that flower mites are removing a great deal of pollen and the reduction of pollen implies the possibility of direct impact on pollen transfer. PMID:19763848

  6. Immigration of Phytoseiid Mites from Surrounding Uncultivated Areas into a Newly Planted Vineyard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Stéphane Tixier; Serge Kreiter; Brigitte Cheval; Sabine Guichou; Philippe Auger; Romain Bonafos

    2006-01-01

    This study reports (1) a faunistic survey of phytoseiid mites observed inside a vine plot and in neighbouring vegetation (other\\u000a vine plots and uncultivated areas) and (2) dispersal of phytoseiid mites into the plot studied. These data aim to raise some\\u000a hypotheses concerning natural colonisation of a vineyard by predatory mites. The study was carried out over 3 years (1999,\\u000a 2000

  7. Differential periods of Varroa mite invasion into worker and drone cells of honey bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Willem J. Boot; Johan N. M. Calis; Joop Beetsma

    1992-01-01

    Invasion ofVarroa mites into honeybee brood cells was studied in an observation hive, using combs with cell openings at one side only. The cell bottoms had been replaced by a transparent sheet, through which mites were clearly visible after invasion into a cell. Mites invaded worker cells from 15–20 h preceding cell capping, whereas they invaded drone cells from 40–50

  8. Generalist-feeding subterranean mites as potential biological control agents of immature corn rootworms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deirdre A. Prischmann; Eric M. Knutson; Kenton E. Dashiell; Jonathan G. Lundgren

    Predatory mites are important components of subterranean food webs and may help regulate densities of agricultural pests,\\u000a including western corn rootworms (Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). Implementing conservation and\\/or classical biocontrol tactics could enhance densities of specialist or generalist predatory\\u000a mites and lead to pest suppression, but first relevant mite species must be identified and their predatory capabilities evaluated.\\u000a We conducted

  9. Two simple techniques for the safe Sarcoptes collection and individual mite DNA extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominga Soglia; Luisa Rambozzi; Sandra Maione; Veronica Spalenza; Stefano Sartore; Samer Alasaad; Paola Sacchi; Luca Rossi

    2009-01-01

    Availability of mites is a recognized limiting factor of biological and genetic investigations of the genus Sarcoptes. Current methods of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from individual mites also need substantial improvement in efficiency\\u000a and operator friendliness. We have first developed a technique for efficient and safe extraction of living mites from scabietic\\u000a skin samples (crusts or deep skin scrapings). Its

  10. How do Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) females penetrate densely webbed spider mite nests?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Montserrat; F. de la Peña; J. I. Hormaza; J. J. González-Fernández

    2008-01-01

    The persea mite Oligonychus perseae is a pest of avocado trees that builds extremely dense webbed nests that protect them against natural enemies, including\\u000a phytoseiid mites. Nests have one or two marginal entrances that are small and flattened. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus co-occurs with O. perseae in the avocado orchards of the south–east of Spain. Penetration inside nests through the

  11. Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction: the lost realm of the neglected parasite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Alasaad; L. Rossi; R. C. Soriguer; L. Rambozzi; D. Soglia; J. M. Pérez; X. Q. Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction forms the cornerstone for studies on Sarcoptes scabiei. Whilst the new science era took a shy leap into the different facets of mite studies, the cornerstone was almost entirely\\u000a neglected. Mite collection, cleaning, storage and DNA extraction were, basically, humble attempts to extrapolate, adapt, modify\\u000a or ‘pirate’ those existing methods to the peculiarities

  12. Sub-objects in PALM MP Samuel BUIS

    E-print Network

    Sub-objects in PALM MP Samuel BUIS CERFACS Working Note WN/CMGC/02/80 - September 2002 Abstract This report aims to de#12;ne the concept of sub-objects and how they are imple- mented in PALM MP. It can giving a de#12;nition of a sub-object in introduction, we will #12;rstly focus on the sub

  13. Contact sensing palm for the Salisbury robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, D.L. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-07-18

    This report summarizes work performed on Tasks 5 and 6 under Sandia Contract Number 75-2608. Task 5 involves the design and development of a palm for the Salisbury robot hand and Task 6 is an investigation and incorporation of contact sensors into the palm design. 19 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. M. Palm AB/ATB Beam Transformer Pulse Shapes

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    M. Palm AB/ATB Beam Transformer Pulse Shapes #12;M. Palm AB/ATB 2 Sample curves #12009, h8 #4015, h "ringing" between h8 and h16. · Oscillation amplitude between bunches as high as 1/3 of main pulse! (e the current transformer!) · Response does not seem linear (at a first glance) #12;

  15. Design and implementation of a contactless palm vein recognition system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goh Kah Ong Michael; Tee Connie; Lau Siong Hoe; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative contactless palm vein recognition system. We design a hand sensor that could capture the palm vein image using low-resolution web camera. The design of the sensor is simple and low-cost, and we do not need to install specialized infrared sensor. We allow subjects to position their hands freely above the sensor and they can move

  16. ISOZYMES POLYMORPHISM AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY OF IRANIAN DATE PALM CULTIVARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mousa Mousawi; Mohammad Taeb; Kazem Arzani

    To obtained of good and stable markers, other than morphological for identification of Iranian date palm cultivars, isozyme polymorphism of peroxidase (POX), acid phosphatase (ACP), shikimate DH (SKD) and isocitrate DH (ICD) were study using IEF method for 40 cultivars. Also peroxidase activity as bayoud disease resistance marker was determined for 20 date palm cultivars. The results showed that ACP

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN A HAWAIIAN PALM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of palms (Arecaceae) is threatened and ex situ conservation efforts are hampered by a poor understanding of their seed biology and storage behavior. Pritchardia remota is fan palm endemic to Hawaii (subtribe Corypheae). Flowering of P. remota occurs mostly during the dry seas...

  18. The in vitro response of sheep scab mites to pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Coles, G C; Stafford, K A

    1999-06-30

    The response of sheep scab mites to pyrethroid insecticides and organophosphate compounds was studied in vitro with the objective of finding a simple test for detecting insecticide resistance in scab mites. Psoroptes cuniculi from rabbits or P. ovis from sheep were enclosed in small 'tea bags' made from heat sealable paper prior to dipping in insecticide. Mites failed to die 24 h after a 1 min dip in working concentrations of insecticidal sheep dips. With flumethrin a variety of different conditions were tested but most failed to improve the efficacy of flumethrin. It is suggested with freshly collected mites pyrethroids may be taken up by ingestion. PMID:10423014

  19. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

  20. Mites are the most common vectors of the fungus Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea infructescences

    E-print Network

    were identified using PCR, direct isolation, and light micros- copy. Gondwanamyces proteae DNA and Genuchus hottentottus), bugs (Oxycarenus maculates), a psocopteran species and five mite (Acari) species

  1. Control of the straw itch mite (Acari: Pyemotidae) with sulfur in an insect rearing facility.

    PubMed

    Hanks, L M; McCelfresh, J S; Millar, J G; Paine, T D

    1992-06-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Pyemotes tritici (Lagrèze-Fossat & Montané) (Acari: Pyemotidae) caused paralysis and reduced longevity in eucalyptus longhorned borer, Phoracantha semipunctata F., under laboratory rearing conditions. Application of dusting sulfur to logs that contained pupating borers greatly reduced densities of mites on emerging adult beetles and increased beetle survivorship. Uniform application to all logs in a glasshouse effectively eradicated the mite infestation. A bioassay showed that sulfur may physically impede the dispersal of immature mites by adhering to the cuticle, but sulfur vapor did not act as a toxin. PMID:1619104

  2. Symbiosis in an overlooked microcosm: a systematic review of the bacterial flora of mites.

    PubMed

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; McGARRY, John W; Morand, Serge; Makepeace, Benjamin L

    2015-08-01

    A dataset of bacterial diversity found in mites was compiled from 193 publications (from 1964 to January 2015). A total of 143 mite species belonging to the 3 orders (Mesostigmata, Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes) were recorded and found to be associated with approximately 150 bacteria species (in 85 genera, 51 families, 25 orders and 7 phyla). From the literature, the intracellular symbiont Cardinium, the scrub typhus agent Orientia, and Wolbachia (the most prevalent symbiont of arthropods) were the dominant mite-associated bacteria, with approximately 30 mite species infected each. Moreover, a number of bacteria of medical and veterinary importance were also reported from mites, including species from the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Bartonella, Francisella, Coxiella, Borrelia, Salmonella, Erysipelothrix and Serratia. Significant differences in bacterial infection patterns among mite taxa were identified. These data will not only be useful for raising awareness of the potential for mites to transmit disease, but also enable a deeper understanding of the relationship of symbionts with their arthropod hosts, and may facilitate the development of intervention tools for disease vector control. This review provides a comprehensive overview of mite-associated bacteria and is a valuable reference database for future research on mites of agricultural, veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:26004817

  3. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    PubMed

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before. PMID:25895655

  4. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  5. An alternative energy source from palm wastes industry for Malaysia and Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. I Mahlia; M. Z Abdulmuin; T. M. I Alamsyah; D Mukhlishien

    2001-01-01

    Malaysia and Indonesia are the largest producers of palm oil product. The palm oil industry has contributed the biggest income to the countries for many years. Moreover, palm oils has emerged as one of the most important oils in the world’s oils and the market of fats. About 90% of palm oil is used as food related products worldwide, and

  6. Digital Image Enhancement using Normalization Techniques and their application to Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    E-print Network

    Govindaraju, Venu

    Digital Image Enhancement using Normalization Techniques and their application to Palm Leaf as the late 19th century. Palm leaf manuscripts relating to art and architecture, mathematics, astronomy the world. Palm leaf manuscripts typically last a few centuries but with time the palm leaves degrade

  7. Effectiveness of garlic lectin on red spider mite of tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Roy; Dipankar Chakraborti; Sampa Das

    2008-01-01

    Red spider mite (Oligonychus coffeae) is one of the major pests of tea and damages 5–15% of the total crop every year. Mannose binding 25kDa lectins (ASAI, Allium sativum bulb agglutinin I and ASAII, A. sativum bulb agglutinin II), purified from bulbs of A. sativum (Garlic), was analyzed through SDS-PAGE and studied for its agglutination property using rabbit erythrocytes. Cross

  8. Control of insects and spider mites by translocated compounds 

    E-print Network

    Ivy, Edward Everett

    1951-01-01

    * Octamethyl pyrophosphoramide was translocated by cotton plants when applied to soils in which the plants were growing* A single soil application of 4. to 8 pounds per acre of the technical compound caused the plants to remain toxic to cotton aphids, Aphis... grown from seed treated with 1 pound of octamethyl pyrophosphoramide per 100 pounds of seed were toxic to spider mites and aphids for 6 weeks. Higher dosages reduced seed germination* Octamethyl pyrophosphoramide was ineffective against the boll...

  9. Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa in Association with Scabies Mite

    PubMed Central

    Frederickson, Julie; Griffith, Jack; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a form of perforating dermatoses, which has a characteristic clinical presentation of grouped keratotic papules coalescing into serpiginous or annular configurations. The majority of elastosis perforans serpiginosa cases are idiopathic; however, various etiologies have been postulated for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The authors present a unique case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa that developed focally secondary to a scabies mite. PMID:24155992

  10. Latitudinal variation in habitat specificity of ameronothrid mites (Oribatida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Marshall; Peter Convey

    2002-01-01

    Ameronothroid mites, including Ameronothridae, Fortuyniidae and Selenoribatidae, are unique among the Oribatida through having\\u000a a global distribution from the tropics to the poles, and occupying a diversity of habitats including terrestrial, marine and\\u000a freshwater. Their ecological diversification is of considerable interest from both the perspective of evolution over geological\\u000a timescales, and the detail of the underlying processes. Given their widespread

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among arecoid palms (Arecaceae: Arecoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William J.; Norup, Maria V.; Clarkson, James J.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Dowe, John L.; Lewis, Carl E.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Savolainen, Vincent; Wilmot, Tomas; Chase, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The Arecoideae is the largest and most diverse of the five subfamilies of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), containing >50 % of the species in the family. Despite its importance, phylogenetic relationships among Arecoideae are poorly understood. Here the most densely sampled phylogenetic analysis of Arecoideae available to date is presented. The results are used to test the current classification of the subfamily and to identify priority areas for future research. Methods DNA sequence data for the low-copy nuclear genes PRK and RPB2 were collected from 190 palm species, covering 103 (96 %) genera of Arecoideae. The data were analysed using the parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood, and both likelihood and parsimony bootstrapping. Key Results and Conclusions Despite the recovery of paralogues and pseudogenes in a small number of taxa, PRK and RPB2 were both highly informative, producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data sets provided additional resolution and support. Two areas of incongruence between PRK and RPB2 were strongly supported by the bootstrap relating to the placement of tribes Chamaedoreeae, Iriarteeae and Reinhardtieae; the causes of this incongruence remain uncertain. The current classification within Arecoideae was strongly supported by the present data. Of the 14 tribes and 14 sub-tribes in the classification, only five sub-tribes from tribe Areceae (Basseliniinae, Linospadicinae, Oncospermatinae, Rhopalostylidinae and Verschaffeltiinae) failed to receive support. Three major higher level clades were strongly supported: (1) the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae and Cocoseae), (2) the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae and Sclerospermeae) and (3) the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae and Pelagodoxeae). However, new data sources are required to elucidate ambiguities that remain in phylogenetic relationships among and within the major groups of Arecoideae, as well as within the Areceae, the largest tribe in the palm family. PMID:21325340

  12. [Grain mites. A small epidemic caused by Pyemotes species].

    PubMed

    Grob, M; Dorn, K; Lautenschlager, S

    1998-11-01

    Pyemotes mites, of which the grain itch mite is the most important for human medicine, are ectoparasites of many insect species. Human infestation occurs only accidentally and temporally. The source materials are most often grain, straw and plant-based foods. Bites produce an intensely itching urticarial wheal capped by pin-point vesicles, which often are destroyed by scratching. Pyemotes dermatitis favours the back, the abdomen and the flexor side of the forearms. The mites are barely visible to the naked eye and reside only briefly on humans and thus are not found by physicians during clinical examination. When itching starts, the parasites have usually left their hosts. Therefore it is important to investigate the patient's environment and to identify the infested materials. We describe an outbreak of Pyemotes dermatitis in at least 16 persons, most of them warehouse workers in a hobby mail-order house. Infested decorative wheat was the source of the problem. Successful eradication was achieved by fumigation of the storage facilities with the insecticide methylbromide. Our cases demonstrate the importance of examination of environmental specimens for ectoparasites in cases of unexplained dermatoses. Biological agriculture avoiding insecticides may cause reappearance of this almost forgotten skin disease. PMID:9879483

  13. Tandem Repeat-Containing MITEs in the Clam Donax trunculus

    PubMed Central

    Šatovi?, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct classes of repetitive sequences, interspersed mobile elements and satellite DNAs, shape eukaryotic genomes and drive their evolution. Short arrays of tandem repeats can also be present within nonautonomous miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In the clam Donax trunculus, we characterized a composite, high copy number MITE, named DTC84. It is composed of a central region built of up to five core repeats linked to a microsatellite segment at one array end and flanked by sequences holding short inverted repeats. The modular composition and the conserved putative target site duplication sequence AA at the element termini are equivalent to the composition of several elements found in the cupped oyster Crassostrea virginica and in some insects. A unique feature of D. trunculus element is ordered array of core repeat variants, distinctive by diagnostic changes. Position of variants in the array is fixed, regardless of alterations in the core repeat copy number. Each repeat harbors a palindrome near the junction with the following unit, being a potential hotspot responsible for array length variations. As a consequence, variations in number of tandem repeats and variations in flanking sequences make every sequenced element unique. Core repeats may be thus considered as individual units within the MITE, with flanking sequences representing a “cassette” for internal repeats. Our results demonstrate that onset and spread of tandem repeats can be more intimately linked to processes of transposition than previously thought and suggest that genomes are shaped by interplays within a complex network of repetitive sequences. PMID:24317975

  14. Tandem repeat-containing MITEs in the clam Donax trunculus.

    PubMed

    Satovic, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct classes of repetitive sequences, interspersed mobile elements and satellite DNAs, shape eukaryotic genomes and drive their evolution. Short arrays of tandem repeats can also be present within nonautonomous miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In the clam Donax trunculus, we characterized a composite, high copy number MITE, named DTC84. It is composed of a central region built of up to five core repeats linked to a microsatellite segment at one array end and flanked by sequences holding short inverted repeats. The modular composition and the conserved putative target site duplication sequence AA at the element termini are equivalent to the composition of several elements found in the cupped oyster Crassostrea virginica and in some insects. A unique feature of D. trunculus element is ordered array of core repeat variants, distinctive by diagnostic changes. Position of variants in the array is fixed, regardless of alterations in the core repeat copy number. Each repeat harbors a palindrome near the junction with the following unit, being a potential hotspot responsible for array length variations. As a consequence, variations in number of tandem repeats and variations in flanking sequences make every sequenced element unique. Core repeats may be thus considered as individual units within the MITE, with flanking sequences representing a "cassette" for internal repeats. Our results demonstrate that onset and spread of tandem repeats can be more intimately linked to processes of transposition than previously thought and suggest that genomes are shaped by interplays within a complex network of repetitive sequences. PMID:24317975

  15. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control

    PubMed Central

    Beers, E. H.; Brunner, J. F.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 0 In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites per leaf. Overall, acetamiprid treatments had 4.6-fold higher mite densities than the standard organophosphate insecticide treatment. Of the treatments with high mite populations, Panonychus ulmi, the European red mite, and Tetranychus urticae, the twospotted spider mite, were the dominant species in roughly equal numbers of cases. Only 11.1% of the thiacloprid treatments exceeded 5 mites per leaf; these experimental treatments included eight applications, whereas the current label restricts the number of applications at the rate for C. pomonella to two applications. One out of six clothianidin treatments caused a significantly higher mite density than the standard treatment; however, this material appeared to suppress predatory mites. Neonicotinyl insecticides did not eliminate predatory mites, but they inhibited their ability to respond normally to increasing prey populations. In field trials designed specifically to examine mite population densities where neonicotinyl insecticides were used, significantly higher levels of tetranychid mites occurred in one or more acetamiprid treatments (one, two or four applications) in five out of six trials. In the sixth trial (in a commercial orchard), only two acetamiprid applications were made, and mite populations were low in all treatments. While elevated mite densities were more likely to occur with four applications, in one case it occurred following a single application. The predominant tetranychid mite species (either P. ulmi or T. urticae) varied from trial to trial; however, there was no apparent bias regarding stimulation of the two species. Horticultural mineral oil was used with acetamiprid in some trials in an attempt to mitigate mite outbreaks. However, the addition of oil did not counteract the tendency of acetamiprid to increase tetranychid mite populations, and in one trial, had a negative effect on predatory mite densities. Seasonal tetranychid mite density was positively related to the total grams AI (or number of applications) of acetamiprid, thus reducing the number of applications per season should lower the probability of mite outbreaks. Abbreviation: AI active ingredient CMD cumulative mite days PMID:16341248

  16. Functional and Numerical Responses of the Predatory Mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus, to the Red Spider Mite, Oligonychus Coffeae, Infesting Tea

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Vattakandy jasin; Babu, Azariah; Roobakkumar, Amsalingam; Perumalsamy, Kandasamy

    2012-01-01

    Functional and numerical responses of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), infesting tea were determined in a laboratory on leaf discs. Prey consumption increased with increases in temperature and prey density. Handling time decreased and successful attack rate increased with increased temperature. N. longispinosus was more voracious on larvae and nymphs than on adults of O. coffeae. Handling time was higher on adult females than on larvae. Rate of predation leveled off at temperatures greater than 25° C. Functional responses to prey density at six temperatures and to each life stage of O. coffeae approximated the Holling type II model. The oviposition rate increased with prey consumption and temperature. On average, a predator consumed 1.62 adult female prey for every egg it laid. With a fixed number of prey available, predation rate per predator decreased with increased predator density. PMID:23452011

  17. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Mareckova-Sagova, Marketa; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg?1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg?1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet. PMID:25387104

  18. Transfers of Varroa mites from newly emerged bees: Preferences for age- and function-specific adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. S. Kuenen; N. W. Calderone

    1997-01-01

    Movements of the parasitic honey bee mite,Varroa jacobsoni (Oud.) were monitored in several assays as they moved among adult host honey bees,Apis mellifera. We examined the propensity of mites to leave their hosts and to move onto new bee hosts. We also examined their preference\\u000a for bees of different age and hive function. Mites were standardized by selecting mites from

  19. Contrasting palm species and use diversity in the Yucatan Peninsula and the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucía de la Torre; Luz María Calvo-Irabién; Carmen Salazar; Henrik Balslev; Finn Borchsenius

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between palm species diversity and diversity of palm use in two areas (Amazonian Ecuador; Yucatan\\u000a Peninsula) of equivalent size but with contrasting characteristics in palm species diversity and morphology, and in the phylogenetic\\u000a composition of palm flora. The areas also differ in their cultural and socioeconomic contexts. Palm use diversity is significantly\\u000a higher in the Ecuadorian

  20. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  1. Bioefficacy assessment of Melia azedarach (L.) seed extract on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somnath Roy; Ananda Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous seed extract of Melia azedarach (L.) was evaluated against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner), in relation to mortality of adult mites, viability of eggs and subsequent adult emergence and oviposition deterrence in the laboratory, and the extract underwent field evaluation in terms of per cent reduction of the mite population. Direct spray methods were used in the

  2. The role of varroa mites in infections of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) in honey bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miaoqing Shen; Xiaolong Yang; Diana Cox-Foster; Liwang Cui

    2005-01-01

    To determine the roles of varroa mites in activating or vectoring viral infections, we performed quantitative comparison of viral infections between bees with and without mites by dot blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under natural and artificial mite infestations, bee pupae contained significantly higher levels of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) RNAs and KBV

  3. Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk.

    PubMed

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nordin, Noor Afeefah

    2015-08-20

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis) using acid hydrolysis method. The morphology and size of the nanocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanocrystals isolated from raw oil palm trunk (OPT) fibers and hot water treated OPT fibers had an average diameter of 7.67nm and 7.97nm and length of 397.03nm and 361.70nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicated that lignin and hemicellulose contents decreased. It seems that lignin was completely removed from the samples during chemical treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that cellulose nanocrystals after acid hydrolysis had higher thermal stability compared to the raw and hot water treated OPT fibers. The X-ray diffraction analysis increased crystallinity of the samples due to chemical treatment. The crystalline nature of the isolated nanocrystals from raw and hot water treated OPT ranged from 68 to 70%. PMID:25965475

  4. OUTBREAKS OF ITCHING BITES IN THE MIDWESTERN USA CAUSED BY AN INTRODUCED SPECIES OF ITCH MITE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several reports of high incidences of red, itching and painful welts on people in different areas of the midwestern USA led to the discovery of an European species of itch mite, Pyemotes herfsi (Oudemans 1936), preying on gall-making midge larvae on oak leaves. The mite's great reproductive potenti...

  5. Colonization of Languedoc vineyards by phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae): influence of wind and crop environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Stéphane Tixier; Serge Kreiter; Philippe Auger; Marc Weber

    1998-01-01

    A natural increase of phytoseiid mite populations (Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Phytoseius plumifer) was observed in vineyards in Languedoc, Burgundy and Corsica under integrated pest management strategies. The aim of the present study was to characterize the mechanisms of this colonization in space and time in Languedoc. The abundance of phytoseiid mites in the vegetation close to three grape

  6. Parasitism of Sympetrum dragonflies by Arrenurus planus mites: maintenance of resistance particular to one species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Forbes; Katherine E. Muma; Bruce P. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Using field surveys and histological methods, we show that a dragonfly species (Sympetrum internum) has an effective resistance, not seen previously in other odonates, to a mite parasite (Arrenurus planus). This mite is a generalist parasite known to effectively engorge on several other odonate species. We argue that selection is likely weak, favouring counter adaptations of Arrenurus planus to Sympetrum

  7. Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) infestation and injury in watermelon and potential sources of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the summer of 2006, we observed severe broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) injury and infestations on watermelon plant introductions (PI) and commercial cultivars grown in the field in Charleston, SC. Broad mites have previously not been reported on watermelons in the U.S.A. However, the...

  8. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  9. AUTOGROOMING AND BEE AGE INFLUENCE THE MIGRATION OF TRACHEAL MITES TO RUSSIAN AND SUSCEPTIBLE WORKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of autogrooming in controlling tracheal mites in Russian and susceptible colonies was evaluated by gluing together the midlegs of workers and exposing them to mite infestation. In one experiment, young workers (less than 10 h old) from both strains having midlegs glued together at the tars...

  10. Pyemotes herfsi (Acari: Pyemotidae), a mite new to North America as the cause of bite outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Broce, Alberto B; Zurek, Ludek; Kalisch, James A; Brown, Robert; Keith, David L; Gordon, David; Goedeke, Janis; Welbourn, Cal; Moser, John; Ochoa, Ronald; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Yip, Fuyuen; Weber, Jacob

    2006-05-01

    High incidences of red, itching, and painful welts on people in the midwestern United States led to the discovery of a European species of mite, Pyemotes herfsi (Oudemans) (Acari: Pyemotidae), preying on gall-making midge larvae on oak leaves. The mites' great reproductive potential, small size, and high capacity for dispersal by wind make them difficult to control or avoid. PMID:16739423

  11. Gall Mite Molecular Phylogeny and its Relationship to the Evolution of Plant Host Specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Fenton; A. N. E. Birch; G. Malloch; P. G. Lanham; R. M. Brennan

    2000-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of all seven known species of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) with Ribes hosts have been inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences. This analysis found groups of closely related mites. The five gall-forming species, four of which are monophagous and one which has two hosts, were found in two groups. Another group consisted of the two non gall-forming species,

  12. Asynchronous development of Honey Bee host and Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) influences reproductive potential of mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high proportion of non-reproductive (NR) Varroa destructor, is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the Varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). These studies were conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host re-invasion of Varroa mites on mite reproduction...

  13. Effects of varroa mites and bee diseases on pollination efficacy of honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites and viral diseases are known to affect the efficiency of crop pollination by honey. This study elucidates effects of varroa mites and bee diseases on the foraging behavior of adult bees and the consequences on successful fruit pollination. Four honey bee colonies of about 4,500 bees eac...

  14. Immunologic Characterization and Allergenicity of Recombinant Tyr p 3 Allergen from the Storage Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En-Chih Liao; Err-Lieh Hsu; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Chau-Mei Ho

    2009-01-01

    Background: The involvement of the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae in allergies has been increasingly reported in many countries. Molecular analysis has shown that group 3 mite allergens are homologous to trypsin. Similar allergens have not been identified in T. putrescentiae. Our aims were to characterize group 3 allergens in T. putrescentiae and to investigate their significance in allergenicity. Methods: cDNAs

  15. The cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix, cannot be used for biological control of quackgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quackgrass, Elymus repens, is a perennial grass spreading by vigorous underground rhizomes. Because of its capacity for rapid spread and persistence it is considered as a common weed in many settings worldwide. The cereal rust mite (CRM) Abacarus hystrix is a polyphagous, phytophagous mite attacking...

  16. Selectivity of Three Miticides to Spider Mite Predator, Phytoseius plumifer (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Under Laboratory Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadimi Ahmad; Kamali Karim; Arbabi Masoud; Abdoli Fateme

    2009-01-01

    The predatory mite, Phytoseius plumifer (Canestrini & Fanzago), is one of the most abundant natural enemies and efficient predator of phytophagous mites in Iran. The miticides hexythiazox (Nisorun®, EC 10%), fenpyroximate (Ortus®, SC 5%), and abamectin (Vertimec®, EC 1.8%) were tested in the laboratory for their side effects on P. plumifer. The miticides were applied at the highest field recommended

  17. Role of Cucurbitacin C in Resistance to Spider Mite ( Tetranychus urticae ) in Cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Balkema-Boomstra; S. Zijlstra; F. W. A. Verstappen; H. Inggamer; P. E. Mercke; M. A. Jongsma; H. J. Bouwmeester

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, but a quantitative relationship has not been established. We determined the spider mite resistance and

  18. Genetic variability in mite-resistant honey bee usi ng ISSR molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Al-Otaibi

    One of the major problems facing the beekeeping ind ustry in Saudi Arabia is the infestation of honeybee colonies with parasitic mite Varroa destru ctor. Bee breeders strive to reduce exposure of bees to pesticides by developing stocks of bees tha t resist the mites. The goal of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of eleven colon ies

  19. A REVIEW AND CHECKLIST OF THE PARASITIC MITES (ACARINA) OF THE FALCONIFORMES AND STRIGIFORMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES R. PHILIPS

    2000-01-01

    Referenced checklists are provided of the 86 species of parasitic feather, quill, respiratory, skin, and nest mites (Acarina) that are known from 116 species of hawks, eagles, falcons, and vultures, and the 91 species of parasitic mites known from 51 species of owls.

  20. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  1. Semi-quantitative assessment of wing feather mite (Acarina) infestations on passerine birds from Portugal

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    Semi-quantitative assessment of wing feather mite (Acarina) infestations on passerine birds from.K. (Accepted 30 September 1998) Abstract Wing feather mite burdens on seven species of passerine birds indicated that in all species, scores allocated to ¯ight feathers showed a signi®cant positive relationship

  2. A new eriophyid mite-borne membrane-enveloped virus-like complex isolated from plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna M. Skare; Ineke Wijkamp; Ivey Denham; Jorge A. M. Rezende; Elliot W. Kitajima; Jong-Won Park; Benedicte Desvoyes; Charles M. Rush; Gerald Michels; Karen-Beth G. Scholthof; Herman B. Scholthof

    2006-01-01

    A decade ago, a new mite-transmitted disease was described on wheat (Triticum aesativum) and maize (Zea mays) that due to its geographical location was referred to as High Plains Disease (HPD). To determine the etiology, we established colonies of HPD pathogen-transmitting eriophyid wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella) on wheat plants for maintenance of a continuous source of infected material. Analyses

  3. Induced Resistance and Interspecific Competition between Spider Mites and a Vascular Wilt Fungus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Karban; Rodney Adamchak; William C. Schnathorst

    1987-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae was less likely to cause symptoms of verticillium wilt on cotton seedlings that had been previously exposed to spider mites than on unexposed cotton seedlings. Conversely, populations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae grew less rapidly on seedlings that had been inoculated with V. dahliae than on uninoculated controls. Changes caused by pathogen or herbivore

  4. USE OF LOW TEMPERATURE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY FOR IDENTIFYING INVASIVE MITE SPECIES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) has become a popular technique for studying morphology of mites. This paper addresses the use of LTSEM as a tool to better identify and understand variation in the dorsal morphology of invasive mites caused by different media preparation or mount...

  5. Adventive Eriophyoid Mites - a global review of their impact, pathways, prevention and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyoid mites can be considered as a group of high potential as adventive mite species (AMS) because they are very small and difficult to detect and some species have become widely distributed with increased world trade. Economic, social and environmental impact due to invasion of some eriophyoid...

  6. Assessment of Immune Activation in Mice before and after Eradication of Mite Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Nancy A; Trammell, Rita A; Ball-Kell, Susan; Verhulst, Steven; Toth, Linda A

    2009-01-01

    Mite infestation of mice remains a persistent problem for many institutions, leading to numerous health problems and creating unknown and unwanted variables for research. In this study, mice with mite infestation demonstrated significantly higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, both at draining lymph nodes (axillary) and systemically, as compared with mice without mites. In addition, histologic evaluation revealed significant inflammation in mite-infested mice. Inflammatory changes were still present in the skin of mice at 6 to 8 wk after treatment, despite absence of detectable infestation at that time. Because these significant and lasting local and systemic changes have the potential to alter research findings, eradication of mites infestations should be an important goal for all institutions. PMID:19653944

  7. The function of bleaching earths in the processing of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Morgan; D. B. Shaw; M. J. Sidebottom; T. C. Soon; R. S. Taylor

    1985-01-01

    The results presented in the literature, which attempt to elucidate the mechanisms by which triglyceride oils are bleached\\u000a by earths, are reviewed. The impact of this work and how the mechanistic proposals affect changes in oil properties are considered,\\u000a with particular emphasis on the needs of the palm oil processor. Important properties include color, metals and phosphorus\\u000a content and oxidative

  8. CLIMATE CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE WITHIN-PLANT SPREAD OF BROAD MITES ON AZALEA.

    PubMed

    Mechant, E; Pauwels, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a major pest in potted azalea, Flanders' flagship ornamental crop of Rhododendron simsii hybrids. In addition to severe economic damage, the broad mite is dreaded for its increasing resistance to acaricides. Due to restrictions in the use of broad spectrum acaricides, Belgian azalea growers are left with only three compounds, belonging to two mode of action groups and restricted in their number of applications, for broad mite control: abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin. Although P. latus can be controlled with predatory mites, the high cost of this system makes it (not yet) feasible for integration into standard azalea pest management systems. Hence, a maximum efficacy of treatments with available compounds is essential. Because abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin are contact acaricides with limited trans laminar flow, only broad mites located on shoot tips of azalea plants will be controlled after spraying. Consequently, the efficacy of chemical treatments is influenced by the location and spread of P. latus on the plant. Unfortunately, little is known on broad mites' within-plant spread or how it is affected by climatic conditions like temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, experiments were set up to verify whether climate conditions have an effect on the location and migration of broad mites on azalea. Broad mite infected azalea plants were placed in standard growth chambers under different temperature (T:2.5-25°C) and relative humidity (RH:55-80%) treatments. Within-plant spread was determined by counting mites on the shoot tips and inner leaves of azalea plants. Results indicate that temperature and relative humidity have no significant effect on the within-plant spread of P. latus. To formulate recommendations for optimal spray conditions to maximize the efficacy of broad mite control with acaricides, further experiments on the effect of light intensity and rain are scheduled. PMID:26084090

  9. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Nicetic; D. M. Watson; G. A. C. Beattie; A. Meats; J. Zheng

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest

  10. Effects of combination between web density and size of spider mite on predation by a generalist and a specialist phytoseiid mite.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takuya; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Complicated three-dimensional webs of silk threads produced by Tetranychus spider mites provide protection from predation by many generalist phytoseiid mite species. Accessibility to prey may be the most significant criterion for successful predation in complicated webs. To assess the protective effects of combination between web size and density, we compared predation on eggs of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, by a generalist (Euseius sojaensis) and a specialist (Neoseiulus womersleyi) phytoseiid mite in the laboratory under manipulated web size and density. Web sizes negatively affected to the predation. Significant interactions were found between phytoseiid mite species and prey distribution; egg consumption by E. sojaensis was more in uniform distribution, but that by N. womersleyi, in contrast, was larger in contagious distribution. However, the egg consumption by E. sojaensis and N. womersleyi were both mitigated in larger webs. This area size depending mitigation was more effective to the predation by E. sojaensis. Although the mechanism of web size depending mitigation is unknown, web sizes might affect prey searching efficiency of this phytoseiid mite. Consequently, combination between web density and size are likely to affect not only a generalist E. sojaensis but also a specialist N. wormersleyi. PMID:25860857

  11. Isolation and purification of D-mannose from palm kernel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Pan, Ziguo; Qian, Chao; Chen, Xinzhi

    2009-09-01

    An economically viable procedure for the isolation and purification of d-mannose from palm kernel was developed in this research. The palm kernel was catalytically hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid at 100 degrees C and then fermented by mannan-degrading enzymes. The solution after fermentation underwent filtration in a silica gel column, desalination by ion-exchange resin, and crystallization in ethanol to produce pure d-mannose in a total yield of 48.4% (based on the weight of the palm kernel). Different enzymes were investigated, and the results indicated that endo-beta-mannanase was the best enzyme to promote the hydrolysis of the oligosaccharides isolated from the palm kernel. The pure d-mannose sample was characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectra. PMID:19631314

  12. Oil palm phenolics suppresses oxidative stress and inflammation

    E-print Network

    Sundaresan, Abaya Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Water-soluble Oil Palm Phenolics (OPP), derived from Elaeis guineensis, contains a unique blend of plant phenolics. Recent cell and animal studies have demonstrated positive health benefits in a number of different organ ...

  13. Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives

    E-print Network

    Sambandan, T. G.

    Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products ...

  14. Reciprocal responses in the interaction between Arabidopsis and the cell-content-feeding chelicerate herbivore spider mite.

    PubMed

    Zhurov, Vladimir; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Arbona, Vicent; Santamaria, M Estrella; Cazaux, Marc; Wybouw, Nicky; Osborne, Edward J; Ens, Cherise; Rioja, Cristina; Vermeirssen, Vanessa; Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Krishna, Priti; Diaz, Isabel; Schmid, Markus; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Van de Peer, Yves; Grbic, Miodrag; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava

    2014-01-01

    Most molecular-genetic studies of plant defense responses to arthropod herbivores have focused on insects. However, plant-feeding mites are also pests of diverse plants, and mites induce different patterns of damage to plant tissues than do well-studied insects (e.g. lepidopteran larvae or aphids). The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) is among the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on a staggering number of plant hosts. To understand the interactions between spider mite and a plant at the molecular level, we examined reciprocal genome-wide responses of mites and its host Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Despite differences in feeding guilds, we found that transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis to mite herbivory resembled those observed for lepidopteran herbivores. Mutant analysis of induced plant defense pathways showed functionally that only a subset of induced programs, including jasmonic acid signaling and biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, are central to Arabidopsis's defense to mite herbivory. On the herbivore side, indole glucosinolates dramatically increased mite mortality and development times. We identified an indole glucosinolate dose-dependent increase in the number of differentially expressed mite genes belonging to pathways associated with detoxification of xenobiotics. This demonstrates that spider mite is sensitive to Arabidopsis defenses that have also been associated with the deterrence of insect herbivores that are very distantly related to chelicerates. Our findings provide molecular insights into the nature of, and response to, herbivory for a representative of a major class of arthropod herbivores. PMID:24285850

  15. Cold hardiness of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    PubMed

    Luypaert, Gil; Witters, Johan; Berkvens, Nick; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; De Riek, Jan; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The cold hardiness of the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, a key pest in Rhododendron simsii hybrid production in northwestern Europe, was investigated in the laboratory. Survival of eggs, larvae and female adults and reproduction capacity of female P. latus were evaluated following cold exposure at 7 °C. Adult females were also exposed to temperatures of 2 and -3 °C. Further, the supercooling point and lower lethal times of adult females were determined. No eggs survived exposure to 7 °C for 17 or more days. Larval survival upon the cold treatment decreased from 53 to 13 % when exposed to 7 °C for 14 and 49 days, respectively. Two-day-old adult females exposed to 7 °C for up to 42 days did not suffer significant mortality, but when returned to 25 °C their oviposition rates were lower than those of mites maintained at 25 °C. Less than 40 % of females exposed for 13 days to 2 °C survived; only 20 % of these females was able to reproduce upon recovery. Subzero temperatures dramatically decreased survival and reproduction capacity of adult females. The supercooling point of female adults was -16.5 °C. Median lethal times averaged 61.2 h and 9.3 days at -3 and 2 °C, respectively. In conclusion, a long term exposure (up to 6 weeks) of R. simsii plants infested with P. latus to a temperature of 7 °C, which is required for breaking dormancy of the flowers, is not expected to have detrimental effects on the survival and reproductive performance of the female mites. PMID:25758635

  16. Radiation-Induced Mutations for Date Palm Improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Jain

    \\u000a Micropropagation technique is used for rapid shoot proliferation of date palm. Somatic embryogenesis is meant for clonal propagation\\u000a of date palm and genetic gains can be captured through it, which is rather difficult by zygotic embryo due to its heterozygous\\u000a nature. Genetic variability is highly desirable for the genetic improvement of crops, which can be either spontaneous or induced\\u000a by

  17. In vitro hermaphrodism induction in date palm female flower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faïza Masmoudi-Allouche; Anissa Châari-Rkhis; Walid Kriaâ; Radhia Gargouri-Bouzid; Shri Mohan Jain; Noureddine Drira

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and reports on the gain brought to the morphogenetic aptitude of female date palm inflorescences through\\u000a in vitro hermaphrodism induction. It investigates the main factors involved in the process of sex modification through hormonal\\u000a induction, such as the floral developmental stage and hormone combination and concentration. It demonstrates that the vestigial\\u000a stamens (staminodes) of female date palm

  18. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for many hours - a much longer period than the approximately one hour burn time for MITEE. Using this cermet fuel, and technology available from other nuclear propulsion programs, MITEE could be developed and ready for implementation in a relatively short time, i.e., approximately seven years. An overview description of the MITEE engine and its performance capabilities is provided.

  19. Temperature governs on-host distribution of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-02-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to occupy favorable temperature conditions on-host. When further out on feathers in warm weather, and under thermal stress, northern fowl mites either move off host or are dislodged. They then become a human pest, are noticed by farmers, and are more likely to disperse. PMID:25275303

  20. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Agustin, Melissa B.; Sengpracha, Waya P.; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

  1. Isentropic expression of Eliassen-Palm flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kanno, Yuki

    2015-04-01

    1. Fundamentals Isentropic coordinates allow us to exactly formulate the lower boundary condition of Eliassen-Palm flux. The major term of vertical component makes the smooth transition from the form drag over the ground surface to that over the isentropic surface with increasing the potential temperature. In mid-latitudes, strong poleward flows in the UT-LS regions are driven by the convergence of Eliassen-Palm (E-P) flux propagating from the lower troposphere. This mechanism is called as the extratropical pumping. The low-level divergence also induces equatorward flow. The vertical exchange of angular momentum plays an important role in Brewer-Dobson circulation and extratropical direct circulation. 2. Wave generation by polar cold airmass outbreaks Polar cold air outbreaks frequently occur in East Asia and North America and generate vertically propagating E-P flux effectively. Attention is focused on transient phenomena caused by outbreaks. The equatorward cold airmass flux below =280K at 45N is regarded as an index of the polar cold air outbreaks. Lagged correlations against the outbreak index well capture the upward propagation of E-P flux in mid-latitude. Also, the lagged correlations indicate that mean-poleward flows responding to E-P flux convergence seem to propagate upward. 3. Three-dimensional E-P flux in isentropic coordinates The cold air outbreaks are almost confined near the East Asia and the East coast of North America. Thus, increasing interest is placed on the local characteristics of the poleward flows responding to the outbreaks. Isentropic expression of E-P flux facilitates the analysis of detailed structure of poleward flows in UT-LS region. We formulate 3-D version of E-P flux in isentropic coordinate and perform a preliminary analyses.

  2. Testing for collective choices in the two-spotted spider mite.

    PubMed

    Astudillo Fernandez, Aina; Hance, Thierry; Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Deneubourg, Jean Louis

    2012-09-01

    Silk is a vector for collective behaviour in many spinning arthropods, including social spiders, social caterpillars, and some spider mites. In this study, the potential for silk-mediated collective choices is evaluated for the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. This subsocial mite lives in large colonies on plants, sheltered under a collectively spun silk web. The silk has an attractive and arresting effect. We test whether the silk trails left by the spider mites can give rise to the collective choice of a path. The experiment consists in offering two identical paths to a group of migrating mites. Our results show that the presence of a silk trail influences the mites, but not sufficiently to systematically provoke a collective choice. In order to determine the trail following potential of T. urticae, we parameterise a theoretical trail following model to fit our experiments and those found in the literature. Our prediction is that even after a large number of mites have passed (200), a systematic collective choice of path should not be expected under the tested conditions. Our results, combined with what is known from the literature, allow us to propose a general scenario for the dispersal behaviour of T. urticae. PMID:22544073

  3. Mites are the most common vectors of the fungus Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea infructescences.

    PubMed

    Roets, Francois; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D; Dreyer, Leanne L

    2011-01-01

    Entomochoric spore dispersal is well-documented for most ophiostomatoid fungal genera, most of which are associated with bark or ambrosia beetles. Gondwanamyces spp. are unusual members of this group that were first discovered in the flower heads of the primitive angiosperm genus Protea, that is mostly restricted to the Cape Floristic region of Africa. In this study, we present the discovery of the vectors of Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea repens infructescences, which were identified using PCR, direct isolation, and light microscopy. Gondwanamyces proteae DNA and ascospores were identified on diverse lineages of arthropods including beetles (Euderes lineicolis and Genuchus hottentottus), bugs (Oxycarenus maculates), a psocopteran species and five mite (Acari) species. Based on isolation frequency, however, a mite species in the genus Trichouropoda appears to be the most common vector of G. proteae. Gondwanamyces spores were frequently observed within pit mycangia at the base of the legs of these mites. Manipulative experiments demonstrated the ability of mites to carry viable G. proteae spores whilst in transit on the beetle G. hottentottus and that these mites are able to transfer G. proteae spores to uncolonised substrates in vitro. Interestingly, this same mite species has also been implicated as vector of Ophiostoma spores on P. repens and belongs to the same genus of mites that vector Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine-infesting bark beetles in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:21530916

  4. Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cleber M; Ferreira, João A M; Oliveira, Rafael M; Santos, Francisco O; Pallini, Angelo

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source. PMID:24744058

  5. Spider mites adaptively learn recognizing mycorrhiza-induced changes in host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Symbiotic root micro-organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi commonly change morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of their host plants and may thus influence the interaction of aboveground plant parts with herbivores and their natural enemies. While quite a few studies tested the effects of mycorrhiza on life history traits, such as growth, development and reproduction, of aboveground herbivores, information on possible effects of mycorrhiza on host plant choice of herbivores via constitutive and/or induced plant volatiles is lacking. Here we assessed whether symbiosis of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae with common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris influences the response of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to volatiles of plants that were clean or infested with spider mites. Mycorrhiza-naïve and -experienced spider mites, reared on mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal bean plants for several days before the experiments, were subjected to Y-tube olfactometer choice tests. Experienced but not naïve spider mites distinguished between constitutive volatiles of clean non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants, preferring the latter. Neither naïve nor experienced spider mites distinguished between spider mite-induced volatiles of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Learning the odor of clean mycorrhizal plants, resulting in a subsequent preference for these odors, is adaptive because mycorrhizal plants are more favorable host plants for fitness of the spider mites than are non-mycorrhizal plants. PMID:25097072

  6. Infestation of research zebra finch colony with 2 novel mite species.

    PubMed

    Siddalls, Monica; Currier, Timothy A; Pang, Jassia; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Patterson, Mary M

    2015-02-01

    A zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) housed in a neuroscience laboratory was observed to have numerous feather mites. Subsequently, similar mites were found on other birds in the animal facility and research space. The most abundant mite was a novel, undescribed species in the genus Neocheyletiella. Whereas known Neocheyletiella mites have previously been characterized as skin parasites of various birds worldwide, the species on the zebra finches is unique because it lives and builds nests in the feathers. Infrequent specimens of a 'true' feather mite, a new species of Megninialges, were present also. Although multiple treatments using a pyrethrin spray were effective in eradicating the mites, topical ivermectin later was found to be more efficacious, better tolerated by the birds, and less labor intensive. This case highlights the general dearth of information regarding ectoparasites in zebra finches, even though these are the most frequently used songbirds in biomedical research. The mite epizootic also underscores the diverse pathogens possible in zebra finches that arrive from outside sources and why ongoing health monitoring of finch colonies is warranted. PMID:25730757

  7. Inter-population variation for Wolbachia induced reproductive incompatibility in the haplodiploid mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Eunho; Sim, Cheolho; Park, Jung-Joon; Cho, Kijong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed diverse patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by Wolbachia in the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). The mechanism of CI consists of two steps: modification (mod) of sperm of infected males and the rescue (resc) of these chromosomes by Wolbachia in the egg, which results in female embryonic mortality (FM), male development (MD) or no CI. Our study reports that Wolbachia infections were highly prevalent infecting all T. urticae populations from various crops in 14 commercial greenhouses in Korea, with two Wolbachia strains expressing distinctive phenotypic effects on hosts. Analyses for wsp gene sequences obtained from collected mite populations revealed all sequences were categorized into two groups (group W1 and W2) discriminated by three diagnostic nucleotides while all Wolbachia strains belonged to the subgroup Ori in Wolbachia supergroup B. Host plants of each mite population were also generally correlated this grouping. Various mating experiments with two mite populations from each group showed that CI patterns and host plants of the mite populations were completely matched with the grouping; no CI (mod(-)resc(+)) for group W1 and mixed pattern of FM and MD (mod(+)resc(+)) for group W2. No distinct changes in fecundity or sex ratio due to Wolbachia infections were observed in four mite populations regardless of Wolbachia grouping. Our study suggests a potential correlation between phenotypic effect of Wolbachia infection and its genetic diversity associated with host plants in Korean mite populations. PMID:25091123

  8. Palm is expressed in both developing and adult mouse lens and retina

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Meryl; Wolf, Louise V; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Galileo, Deni S; Kilimann, Manfred W; Cvekl, Ales; Duncan, Melinda K

    2005-01-01

    Background Paralemmin (Palm) is a prenyl-palmitoyl anchored membrane protein that can drive membrane and process formation in neurons. Earlier studies have shown brain preferred Palm expression, although this protein is a major water insoluble protein in chicken lens fiber cells and the Palm gene may be regulated by Pax6. Methods The expression profile of Palm protein in the embryonic, newborn and adult mouse eye as well as dissociated retinal neurons was determined by confocal immunofluorescence. The relative mRNA levels of Palm, Palmdelphin (PalmD) and paralemmin2 (Palm2) in the lens and retina were determined by real time rt-PCR. Results In the lens, Palm is already expressed at 9.5 dpc in the lens placode, and this expression is maintained in the lens vesicle throughout the formation of the adult lens. Palm is largely absent from the optic vesicle but is detectable at 10.5 dpc in the optic cup. In the developing retina, Palm expression transiently upregulates during the formation of optic nerve as well as in the formation of both the inner and outer plexiform layers. In short term dissociated chick retinal cultures, Palm protein is easily detectable, but the levels appear to reduce sharply as the cultures age. Palm mRNA was found at much higher levels relative to Palm2 or PalmD in both the retina and lens. Conclusion Palm is the major paralemmin family member expressed in the retina and lens and its expression in the retina transiently upregulates during active neurite outgrowth. The expression pattern of Palm in the eye is consistent with it being a Pax6 responsive gene. Since Palm is known to be able to drive membrane formation in brain neurons, it is possible that this molecule is crucial for the increase in membrane formation during lens fiber cell differentiation. PMID:15969763

  9. Repellency and oviposition deterrence of wild tomato leaf extracts to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C

    2015-09-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, Lycopersicon hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae) synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). The potential of using MKs as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Plants of L. hirsutum accession LA 407 having high concentrations of MKs were grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. The main objective of this investigation was to conduct bioassays that are quick and easy to implement, consistent over time (repeatable) with the ability to utilize small amounts of test material for testing repellency and fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female mite) of MKs in pure forms and in LA 407 crude extracts. Four MKs (2-tridecanone, 2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-pentadecanone) and their mixture were screened for their repellency and ability to alter fecundity of spider mites. All MKs repelled spider mites at the two periods tested. Following spraying of tomato leaf extracts prepared in ethanol (ethanol extracts), average number of eggs laid per female mite on bean leaf discs dropped from 0.8 to 0.3 and from 0.9 to 0.3 at 4 and 24 h after exposure representing 65 and 68% reduction, respectively. However, spraying of tomato leaf extracts prepared in water (water extracts) reduced number of eggs laid per female mite from 1.7 to 0.7 and from 2.6 to 0.9 at 4 and 24 h after exposure representing 60 and 67% reduction, respectively. We concluded that all MKs have repellent and egg laying deterrence activities against spider mites. This investigation suggests that ethanol and water extracts of LA 407 have a potential for repelling female spider mites and reducing their laid eggs which might be explored under field conditions for managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides. PMID:26079341

  10. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; Dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies. PMID:26003668

  11. Control of house-dust mites (Pyroglyphidae) with home disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Schober, G; Wetter, G; Bischoff, E; Van Bronswijk, J E; Kniest, F M

    1987-08-01

    Chemical disinfectants and biocidal preparations used in households were tested in the laboratory for their ability to kill the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Batches of ten specimens were soaked in aqueous solutions or suspensions containing 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0% (by volume) of the test preparations. Direct effect was tested without food. Population effect was tested with food added. The results showed a high mortality with all preparations except for a regular carpet cleaner (containing detergents) and natamycin (a fungicide). Nevertheless, not all tested preparations are practical in the home environment. Best results in homes were obtained with a carpet cleaning solution which incorporates an acaricide (benzylbenzoate). This particular preparation has an outstanding acaricidal efficacy and can easily and routinely be used by the householder. The degree of cleanliness in the household is a measure of the number of house-dust mites and their allergens. PMID:3453785

  12. Resistance to chlorpyriphos in the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans.

    PubMed

    Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    The predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) is a key biocontrol agent in vineyards in Italy and Southern Europe. Its susceptibility to common pesticides (e.g., organophosphates) has been considered an important factor in preventing successful biocontrol of phytophagous mites. Nevertheless, populations of K. aberrans apparently resistant to organophosphates (OPs) have been reported to occur in Northern Italian vineyards. The resistance of K. aberrans to fungicides (e.g., mancozeb) has been demonstrated in the laboratory in France, but little is known about the toxicity of insecticides towards K. aberrans. Of these pesticides, the OP chlorpyriphos is extensively used in viticulture to control lepidopterans and homopterans. The present study investigated the dose-response effect of chlorpyriphos in four K. aberrans strains characterized by different levels of exposure to OP insecticides in the past: from never to frequently exposed. Resistance to chlorpyriphos is demonstrated for populations collected from vineyards and apple orchards. Resistance factors exceeded 145,000× for the three strains collected in vineyards and orchard. LC(50) values for resistant strains were 1.85-6.83 times higher than the recommended field dose of chlorpyriphos for vineyards and orchards (525 mg a.i./l). PMID:21909823

  13. [Successions of oribatid mites (Acariformes: Oribatida) on disturbed areas].

    PubMed

    Riabinin, N A; Pan'kov, A N

    2009-01-01

    During recovery succession, structural and functional changes in oribatid mite communities occur: the number of species increases, the structure becomes more complex, the proportion of surface-living and nonspecialized forms increases, and the role of parthenogenetic species decreases. The direction of succession is to form a community characteristic of the zonal type of vegetation. Four stages are selected. The colonization--accumulation stage involves the initial accumulation of organic matter due to activity of microorganisms. Oribatids are not numerous at this stage. The unstructured stage is characterized by unstable monodominant communities of parthenogenetic oribatids with short life cycles. The next stage is structuring, when the proportion of parthenogenetic forms decreases, and that of nonspecialized forms increases. Communities are monodominant. The final stage is stabilization. The proportion of parthenogenetic species decreases noticeably. The generic and species composition of the communities stabilizes. The community achieves zonal features. Successions of oribatid mites on disturbed areas were studied on Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands on soils exposed to ash fallout and at different stages of soil formation. Other areas exposed to volcanic activity were also studied. Moreover, the rock dumps of open pits of different ages in the surroundings of Khabarovsk were also surveyed. PMID:19894602

  14. Infestation of two brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) with the hunchback mite (Harpirhynchus quasimodo).

    PubMed

    Magenwirth, Jessica; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J; Munk, Brandon A; Keel, M Kevin; Brown, Justin D

    2013-12-01

    A recently described North American mite, Harpirhynchus quasimodo (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), was identified in a wild brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) from Tennessee and another from Arkansas, U. S. A., during 2010 and 2011, respectively. Consistent with a single previous report of H. quasimodo infestation, both cowbirds had multiple skin masses composed of epidermal cysts filled with harpirhynchid mites, keratin, and cellular debris. Although very little is currently known about this avian mite, these three reports suggest that H. quasimodo infestation is a rare source of overt disease in free-ranging brown-headed cowbirds from the southeastern United States; however, further research and surveillance efforts are needed. PMID:24597129

  15. Dermatitis in horses and man caused by the straw itch mite.

    PubMed

    Kunkle, G A; Greiner, E C

    1982-09-01

    An episode of dermatitis in 12 horses and many animal handlers in the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of Florida was attributed to the straw itch mite, Pyemotes tritici. The mite was found in abundance alfalfa hay that recently had been delivered to the hospital. Papules were the most common cutaneous lesions, and these developed on areas of the body to which the mites had easiest access. The clinical course was self-limiting, remitting when the hay supply was depleted. PMID:7130009

  16. Comparative toxicity of several sulphurs to two species of spider mites attacking cotton

    E-print Network

    Arrese, Luis Humberto

    1957-01-01

    the period August - November 1956 . 61 COMPARATIVE TOXICITY GF SEVERAL SULPSORS TO TWO SPECIES OF SPIIER MITES ATTACKING COTTON INTROBVCTION Sulphur was used as an insecticide long before the advent of the Christian Era. Cato, in 200 B. C. advised... Glover recommended that sulphur be applied as a dust for the control of red spider mites. In more recent tines sulphur has been used for the control of certain spider mites attacking cotton and other field crops. Also, sulphur is a component of many...

  17. Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ?V capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ?V available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube/fuel element assembly to achieve bi-modal capability are modest. Small diameter coolant tubes are bonded to the surface of the MITEE cold frits that enclose the fuel elements. When the MITEE-B is not operating with H2 propellant to generate high thrust, the reactor continues to operate at low thermal, which is transferred to the closed coolant circuit. Three electric power generations are examined for MITEE-B: closed Brayton, Stirling, and a conventional steam cycle with a mini-turbine. The Stirling and steam cycles have the lowest specific masses in kg/kW(e). Both appear practical for MITEE-B.

  18. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    PubMed

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Tarver, Matthew R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences and potential indicators of mite resistance in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and nondamaged younger mites, nymphs, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites, and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Several measurements differed strongly between the stocks, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of trapped mites may reflect the operation of resistance mechanisms in the Russian honey bees. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements with the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions differed for the two stocks (Italian honey bees: trapped mites and trapped younger mites; Russian honey bees: trapped younger mites and trapped fresh mites). Also, the regressions for Italian honey bees were substantially stronger. The largest negative regressions with colony mites for both stocks were for the proportion of older mites out of all trapped mites. Although these regressions were statistically significant and consistent with those previously reported, they were weaker than those previously reported. The numbers of mites in the colonies were low, especially in the Russian honey bee colonies, which may have negatively influenced the precision of the regressions. PMID:24772529

  19. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Rosli, Rozana; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ithnin, Maizura; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Tan, Soon-Guan; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification. PMID:20861564

  20. Exploring chemical analysis of vermicompost of various oil palm fibre wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Nahrul Hayawin; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil; M. Jawaid; M. Hakimi Ibrahim; A. A. Astimar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical properties of different oil palm wastes, viz. empty fruit bunch\\u000a (EFB), oil palm frond (OPF) and oil palm trunk (OPT). A study (84 days duration) was conducted to evaluate the efficiency\\u000a of an exotic earthworm species (epigeic-African Nightcrawler (Eudrilus euginae)) for the decomposition of different types of oil palm

  1. Complex Games and Palm Computers Pieter Spronck and Jaap van den Herik

    E-print Network

    Spronck, Pieter

    1 Complex Games and Palm Computers Pieter Spronck and Jaap van den Herik Universiteit Maastricht/IKAT Abstract: Today's Palm computers face practical restrictions when playing complex games. This article deals with both the functional as well as the hardware limitations of a Palm computer and their impact on game

  2. Biological Control of Seedborne Pathogen of Oil Palm, Schizopyllum commune Fr. with Antagonistic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. DIKIN; KAMARUZAMAN SIJAM; ZAINAL ABIDIN; MIOR AHMAD; IDRIS ABU SEMAN

    Schizophyllum commune Fr. is one of important pathogen of oil palm. The fungus was confirmed as causal agents of brown germ and seed rot of oil palm. The inoculated seeds of oil palm may cause loss of germination and reach up to 65%. Seed treatment was applied by infiltration of antagonistic bacteria that isolated from rotted fruits and infected seeds

  3. Purification and stability of peroxidase of African oil palm Elaies guineensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yu. Sakharov; J. L. Castillo; J. C. Areza; I. Yu. Galaev

    2000-01-01

    In the previous work, after screening tropical plants (43 species) for peroxidase activity, high activity has been detected in leaves of some palms and especially African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. This palm is widely cultivated in Colombia and presents a promising source for the industrial production of peroxidase. The initial enzyme isolation included homogenization and extraction of pigments using aqueous

  4. Carbonisation and Activation of Palm Kernel Shells for Household Water Filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Ogedengbe; A. T. Oriaje; A. Tella

    1985-01-01

    As a follow-up of an earlier effort to use treated palm kernel shells to remove colour and taste from water, studies were carried out towards optimum preparation of activated palm kernel shells. As measured by surface area, phenol value, iodine activity and adsorption of ferric ions and acidity, palm kernel shells that were first carbonised, then pulverised, then activated (CPA)

  5. Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa Sinicrope Talley; Kim-Chi Nguyen; Anthony Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little

  6. Developing Functional Foods Using Red Palm Olein: Objective Color and Instrumental Texture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Al-Hooti; J. S. Sidhu; J. M. Al-Saqer; H. A. Al-Amiri; A. Al-Othman; I. B. Mansour; M. Johari

    2004-01-01

    Edible red palm olein (RPOL) has been newly developed by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board for use in food products to enhance their nutritional value. The results of the effect of RPOL and red palm shortening (RPS) on the objective color and instrumental texture of these functional foods are presented. The results indicate that using up to 100% RPS in

  7. Developing Functional Foods Using Red Palm Olein: Pilot-Scale Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Sidhu; S. N. Al-Hooti; J. M. Al-Saqer; H. A. Al-Amiri; M. Al-Foudari; A. Al-Othman; A. Ahmad; L. Al-Haji; N. Ahmed; I. B. Mansor; J. Minal

    2004-01-01

    Red palm olein (RPOL) is newly developed edible oil rich in phytonutrients like vitamin E, carotenoids, ubiquinones, and sterols. Red palm olein and red palm shortening (RPS), when used in the pilot-scale production of extruded snacks, digestive biscuits and pan bread, enhanced the foods' contents of these health-promoting phytochemicals. The antioxidant provitamin A (?-carotene) contents in snacks and digestive biscuits

  8. Revival of an ancient starch crop: a review of the agronomy of the sago palm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Flach; D. L. Schuiling

    1988-01-01

    Since 1971 there has been a revival of interest in the possibilities for cultivation of the true sago palm, Metroxylon spp. Agronomic and economic research shows that the palm can become an important starch producing crop. Many queries concerning the agronomy of the crop have been solved. The palm is especially suited to humid tropical lowlands. It is fairly salinity

  9. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...Class E Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard...SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport...operations within the West Palm Beach, FL airspace area. This...coordinates of the airport. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC,...

  10. Research on basal stem rot (BSR) of ornamental palms caused by basidiospores from Ganoderma boninense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. Lim; Y. K. Fong

    2005-01-01

    Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these

  11. Demography and life history of Geonoma orbignyana: An understory palm used as foliage in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Rodríguez-Buriticá; Maria Andrea Orjuela; Gloria Galeano

    2005-01-01

    Geonoma orbignyana is a common understory palm, whose leaves are used as foliage in Colombia. This palm has been used for more than 30 years; but there is no information about its life history or conservation status. Our objective was to characterize the life history of this palm and population dynamics of a natural population as a first step to

  12. Conversion of waste cooking oil (WCO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to biodiesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Siti Kartina; M. H. Nor Suhaila

    2011-01-01

    The search for alternative fuels to substitute for fossil fuels with competitive price range is an ongoing subject for research. There are several proposed feedstock, namely refined palm oil, crude palm oil, waste cooking oil and currently, palm fatty acid distillate. Refined and crude oils were debatable to be used as the main uses for both oils were for edible

  13. A scientific note: migration of tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi) to old winter honey bees

    E-print Network

    A scientific note: migration of tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi) to old winter honey bees John B, Ireland Received 10 March 2010 ­ Revised 24 August 2010 ­ Accepted 16 December 2010 honey bee / tracheal

  14. Identification of vaccine candidates against the Poultry Red Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Harry Watmore

    2011-07-05

    The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) is a blood feeding ectoparasite that infests many bird species. Economically it is the most important parasite affecting egg-laying hens. The aim of this study was to identify vaccine candidate...

  15. Design and implementation of liquid cooling system for ArchiMITes vehicle

    E-print Network

    Hui, Sam, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    MIT Vehicle Design Summit is building ArchiMITes, a lightweight hybrid vehicle with a modular auxiliary power unit. For testing purposes, the vehicle platform will first be built as an all-electric vehicle. It will be ...

  16. Clinical mite infestations of domestic cats seropositive for feline immunodeficiency and/or feline leukemia viruses 

    E-print Network

    Simmons, Christian Eric

    2000-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are both immunosuppressive viruses that compromise the ability of a feline host to combat foreign parhogens. Skin infections caused by parasitic mites are often observed among...

  17. Effect of inbreeding and heritability of sperm competition success in the bulb mite

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Effect of inbreeding and heritability of sperm competition success in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus of most animal species. Here, we estimated the heritability of sperm competition success. Sperm competi- tion success responded significantly to selection. The heritability estimated from

  18. Progress in the development of specific immunotherapies for house dust mite allergies.

    PubMed

    Moingeon, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat patients exposed and co-sensitized to the two common house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Based on seroepidemiological studies and a detailed characterization of mite allergens, an optimal immunotherapeutic product should associate extracts from the two Dermatophagoides species, and include both bodies and fecal particles. Both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies performed with aqueous mite extracts are safe and efficacious in children and adults with mite-induced rhinitis and/or asthma. Double-blind placebo-controlled studies are conducted to further document the efficacy of immunotherapeutic products, with promising results that were obtained already with sublingual tablets. Current developments of second-generation products relying upon recombinant allergens and peptides are reviewed. PMID:25187166

  19. [The phenomenon of phylogenetic synhospitality in acariform mites (acari: acariformes)--the permanent parasites of vertebrates].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V; Mironov, S V

    2008-01-01

    The term synhospitality means the association of two or more closely related parasite species with one host species (Eichler, 1966). The cases of two or three synhospitalic species are known from the same host species, and especially ones where parasites were recorded from different parts of the host range, are quite common. The most ordinary reason causing synhospitality in permanent parasites is the host switching. Nevertheless, there are a number of synhospitality cases, where the parasite complex is monophyletic because evolved on a single host species. The special term--"phylogenetic synhospitality" (FS) is proposed for these cases of synhospitality. Most known cases of FS in acariform mites, permanent parasites of vertebrates, are analysed. It is found out that both astigmatan and prostigmatan parasite mites demonstrate a numbers of FS. The majority of these examples represent parasitism of two or three synhospitalic parasite species. Impressive examples of FS involving a number of synhospitalic species is shown by only astigmatan mites inhabiting the fur of mammals or plumage of birds. Most known examples involving four or more mite species are discussed: 51 mite species of the genus Schizocarpus (Chirodiscidae) parasitizing Castor fiber and C. canadensis (Castoridae); 6 species of Listrophorus spp. (Listrophoridae) from Ondatra zibethicus (Cricetidae); 23 species of Listrophoroides s. 1. (Atopomelidae) from Maxomys surifer (Muridae); 21 species of Cytostethum (Atomelidae) from Potorous tridactylus (Potoridae); 4 species of Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) from Malacomys longipes (Muridae); 7 species of Fainalges (Xolalgidae) from Aratinga holochlora (Psittacidae); 4 species of Zygepigynia (Pteronyssidae) from Chrysocolaptes lucidus (Picidae). The main reason of FS is that, in spite of the Fahrenholz's rule, the speciation of many parasites proceeds much more intensively than in their hosts because of the more rapid replacement of the parasitic generations. The first factor causing FS is the mite speciation it temporary segregated populations of the host (allopatric speciation). In this case, the "multispecies complexes" appeared after the subsequent reintegration of the host populations formerly isolated. The second factor is the speciation due to the specialization of mites to local microhabitats in the fur or plumage of host (sympatric or synxenic speciation). The second way of speciation is most characteristic for mites with highly specialized attaching structures. The phenomenon of FS more resides in ectoparasites of mammals rather than in feather mites in spite of much more structural complicacy of plumage rather than the fur. The high mobility of birds and wide dispersion of their new generations probably embarrass the process of sympatric speciation in their parasites. As a rule, only really significant geographical barriers play role for population isolation in birds. Thus, it could be concluded that two independent factors or their combination lead to FS. (i) The complex and/or disjunctive host range giving a possibility for allopatric speciation in parasites. (ii) The deep mite specialization to local microhabitats on the host body causing sympatric (synxenic) speciation. Fur of mammals and plumage of birds are very complicated in structure and microconditions and provide a considerable number of different microhabitats for mites inhabiting them. The prevalence of one of these two factors depends on the biological peculiarities of both parasites and their hosts. In mites with lesser specialized attaching organs, for example in atopomelids, allopatric speciation dominates. In mites with strongly specialized attaching organs, for example in listrophorids or chirodiscids, both pathways of speciation may take place. In feather mites, sympatric speciation should be more probable due to quite complicate and various structure of feathers in avian hosts. In fur mites, sympatric speciation is more likely in mites parasitizing hosts with peculiar ecology, for example in semiaquatic rodent

  20. Palm Reversal Errors in Native-Signing Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have native exposure to a sign language such as American Sign Language (ASL) have received almost no scientific attention. This paper reports the first studies on a sample of five native-signing children (four deaf children of deaf parents and one hearing child of deaf parents; ages 4;6 to 7;5) diagnosed with ASD. A domain-general deficit in the ability of children with ASD to replicate the gestures of others is hypothesized to be a source of palm orientation reversal errors in sign. In Study 1, naturalistic language samples were collected from three native-signing children with ASD and were analyzed for errors in handshape, location, movement and palm orientation. In Study 2, four native-signing children with ASD were compared to 12 typically-developing deaf children (ages 3;7 to 6;9, all born to deaf parents) on a fingerspelling task. In both studies children with ASD showed a tendency to reverse palm orientation on signs specified for inward/outward orientation. Typically-developing deaf children did not produce any such errors in palm orientation. We conclude that this kind of palm reversal has a perceptual rather than a motoric source, and is further evidence of a “self-other mapping” deficit in ASD. PMID:22981637

  1. Palm-size miniature superconducting bulk magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saho, Norihide; Matsuda, Kazuya; Nishijima, Noriyo

    The development of a small, light, powerful and energy-efficient superconducting magnet has been desired in order to realize better efficiency and manipulability in guiding magnetic nano-particles, magnetic organic cells and other items to the right place. This study focuses on the development of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet characterized by comparatively low leak magnetism despite a relatively high magnetic field. On this basis, the authors developed a palm-sized superconducting bulk magnet, which is the world's smallest, lightest, and lowest power consuming, as well as a new technology to effectively magnetize such a bulk magnet in a compact Stirling-cycle cryocooler (magnet C) with a pre-magnetized HTS bulk magnet (magnet B) in a compact cryocooler. This technology is demonstrated in two steps. In the first step, magnet B is magnetized using a superconducting solenoid magnet with a high magnetic field (magnet A) via the field cooling method. In the second step, magnet C is magnetized in the high magnetic field of magnet B. The prototype magnet C weighs 1.8 kg, and measures 235 × 65 × 115 mm (L × W × H). Magnet B was magnetized to 4.9 T using a 5 T magnet, and the target, magnet C, was magnetized using magnet B so that its maximum trapped magnetic flux density reached the value of 3.15 T. The net power consumption in a steady cooling state was 23 W, which is very low and comparable to that of a laptop computer.

  2. Development of a palm portable mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mo; Kim, Tae-Young; Hwang, Hyun-Chul; Yi, Seok-Kyung; Kim, Do-Hoon

    2008-10-01

    A palm portable mass spectrometer (PPMS) has been developed with a weight of 1.48 kg (3 lb) and a size of 1.54 L (8.2 x 7.7 x 24.5 cm(3)) that can be operated with an average battery power of 5 W. A miniaturized ion trap has been used as a mass analyzer that consists of four parallel disks with coaxial holes. A rf voltage of 1500 V(p-p) at 3.9 MHz has been used for scanning ion mass of up to m/z 300. An ion-getter pump serves for high vacuum of the PPMS. Sample gas was introduced in pulse mode. An embedded microcomputer has been developed for system control. Detection of organic gases diluted in the air has been demonstrated up to 6 ppm for toluene and 22 ppm for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). Performance results suggest usefulness of the PPMS as a personal mobile device for detection/identification of chemical warfare agents in the field. PMID:18565759

  3. Palm date fibers: analysis and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-01-01

    Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes. PMID:21151438

  4. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    PubMed

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions. PMID:15027834

  5. Effect of high pressure microfluidization on the crystallization behavior of palm stearin - palm olein blends.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijuan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi; Wang, Xuede

    2014-01-01

    Moderate and high microfluidization pressures (60 and 120 MPa) and different treatment times (once and twice) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure microfluidization (HPM) treatment on the crystallization behavior and physical properties of binary mixtures of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO). The polarized light microscopy (PLM), texture analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were applied to analyze the changes in crystal network structure, hardness, polymorphism and thermal property of the control and treated blends. PLM results showed that HPM caused significant reductions in maximum crystal diameter in all treated blends, and thus led to changes in the crystal network structure, and finally caused higher hardness in than the control blends. The XRD study demonstrated that HPM altered crystalline polymorphism. The HPM-treated blends showed a predominance of the more stable ?' form, which is of more interest for food applications, while the control blend had more ?- and ?-form. This result was further confirmed by DSC observations. These changes in crystallization behavior indicated that HPM treatment was more likely to modify the crystallization processes and nucleation mechanisms. PMID:24879582

  6. Three new species of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea) from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Wei; Wang, Zhen-Hui; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of eriophyoid mites from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, are described and illustrated. They are Paracolomerus gonglius sp. n. and Phyllocoptruta beggerianae sp. n. collected on Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (Rosaceae), and Rhyncaphytoptus fuyuniensis sp. n. collected on Cotoneaster ignavus E. L. Wolf (Rosaceae). All eriophyoid mites described here are vagrants on the undersurface of leaves and any apparent damage was not observed.

  7. The Formation of Collective Silk Balls in the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernández, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  8. Gene Pyramiding of Peptidase Inhibitors Enhances Plant Resistance to the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Cambra, Inés; Martinez, Manuel; Pozancos, Clara; González-Melendi, Pablo; Grbic, Vojislava; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H2O2 as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed. PMID:22900081

  9. A mite subversive: cleavage of CD23 and CD25 by Der p 1 enhances allergenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farouk Shakib; Oliver Schulz; Herb Sewell

    1998-01-01

    The dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is a major cause of allergic disease in the Western world. Der p 1 is considered to be the most immunodominant allergen involved in the expression of IgE-mediated dust-mite hypersensitivity. Here, Farouk Shakib and colleagues suggest that it is the proteolytic effect of Der p 1 on CD23 and CD25 which makes it such a

  10. Effects of neemgard on phytophagous and predacious mites and on Spiders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; F. Abo-Moch

    1997-01-01

    The effects of Neemgard, an acaricidal and fungicidal formulation obtained from neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernels, on the phytophagous miteTetranychus cinnabarinus, the predacious mitePhytoseiulus persimilis, and the predatory spiderChiracanthium mildei, were investigated in laboratory experiments. Neemgard was highly toxic toT. cinnabarinus but had no toxic effect onC. mildei orP. persimilis. Another neem formulation—the insecticidal Neemix 45—caused conspicuous repellency, but no

  11. Two-spotted spider mite in Cyprus: ineffective acaricides, causes and considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Stavrinides; M. Hadjistylli

    2009-01-01

    Growers of greenhouse roses in Cyprus have recently reported failures of several acaricides against two-spotted spider mite\\u000a (Tetranychus urticae Koch). To verify the cause of these failures we evaluated the effectiveness of seven acaricides against two rose and two\\u000a cucumber spider mite populations in the laboratory. The acaricides included in our study represented the most important mode\\u000a of action groups

  12. Oxalic acid: a prospective tool for reducing Varroa mite populations in package bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas P. Aliano; Marion D. Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa mites in honey bee colonies. In contrast, techniques for treating package bees with OA have not been investigated. The goal\\u000a of this study was to develop a protocol for using OA to reduce mite infestation in package bees. We made 97 mini packages\\u000a of Varroa-infested adult bees. Each package

  13. Comparisons of several systemic insecticides for control of aphids and spider mites on cotton 

    E-print Network

    Leon, Jose Alfonso

    1957-01-01

    19 20 Solution Treatnant Poliage Treatnent Seed Treatnent Soil Treatnent 20 21 22 23 Phytotoxicity 24 Exparinental Results Solution Treatnent 26 Aphid Toxicity Tests Spider Mite Toxicity Tests Poliage Treatnent 26 2B 30 Aphid... Toxicity Teats Spider Mite Toxicity Tests 32 32 Seed Treatnent 33 Aphid Toxicity Tests Spider Mits Toxicity Tests 37 Page Soil Treatnent 40 hphid Toxicity Tests 44 Spider Nits Toxicity Tests Results of Observations on Phytotoxicity 42 45...

  14. Parasite-host interactions between the Varroa mite and the honey bee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. M. Calis

    2001-01-01

    Introduction<\\/h3>

    Varroa mites as parasites of honey bees<\\/h4>Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000), is the most important pest of European races of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., weakening bees and vectoring bee diseases (Matheson, 1993). Over the past decades it has spread all over the world and control measures are required to maintain healthy honey bee colonies.Originally, this mite

  15. Lung mites ( Pneumocoptes sp.) in bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus ) in Southwest Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Loos-Frank; M. Abel

    1983-01-01

    Lung mites of the genusPneumocoptes were found in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in Southwest Germany. This is the second time that lung mites have been recorded from a rodent in Europe1. In 1964 they were discovered in histological sections of a lung of a bank vole in France and were described asP. tiollaisi Doby, 1963. Only three more species of

  16. Laboratory Studies on the use of Two New Arenas to Evaluate the Impact of the Predatory Mites Blattisocius tarsalis and Cheyletus eruditus on Residual Populations of the Stored Product Mite Acarus siro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. B. Thind; H. L. Ford

    2006-01-01

    Residual populations of storage mites sheltering in crevices and cracks escape conventional control treatments and are implicated\\u000a in the infestation of newly harvested grain. In a series of 24 h laboratory tests, the performance of solitary adults of two\\u000a predatory mite species, Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) and Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese), were assessed for controlling small numbers of the flour mite Acarus siro

  17. PCR Testing of a Ventilated Caging System to Detect Murine Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  18. PCR testing of a ventilated caging system to detect murine fur mites.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  19. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

  20. Controlled exposure to mite allergen for a dose-finding of dimethindene maleate (DMM).

    PubMed

    Horak, F; Jäger, S; Berger, U; Toth, J; Nirnberger, G; Kyrein, H J; Rehn, D; Vix, J M

    1994-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a laboratory system to challenge mite allergic patients with physiological concentrations of Der p I in order to evaluate the efficacy of antiallergic drugs in mite allergic patients. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was designed with three consecutive sessions. Twelve patients with proven sensitivity to dust mite were treated with a single dose of dimethindene maleate in a FOAD formulation (4 and 8 mg vs. placebo) 12 h before a long-term challenge with mite allergen Der p I in the Vienna challenge chamber. Challenge was performed with a constant concentration of 40 ng Der p I per cubic meter of air for 4 h. Nasal parameters were recorded at 15 min intervals during long-term challenge. In comparison to placebo, dimethindene leads to a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of the nasal response at both concentrations tested. The house-dust mite model in the Vienna challenge chamber thus proved to be a useful tool for drug investigations in mite allergies. PMID:7976797

  1. Biomethanation and treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in thermophilic conditions using a hybrid anaerobic bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poh Phaik Eong; Chong Mei Fong

    2009-01-01

    The palm oil industry had developed vastly due to the increasing demand of vegetable oil. Malaysia as one of the world's leading producer and exporter of palm oil had substantially contributed to the discharge of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in the process of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) production. POME is a highly polluting wastewater which poses detrimental effects if

  2. Potential geographic distribution of two invasive cassava green mites.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Chen, Qing; Lu, Fuping; Herrera Campo, Beatriz Vanessa; Yaninek, John Stephen; Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés

    2015-02-01

    The cassava green mites Mononychellus tanajoa and M. mcgregori are highly invasive species that rank among the most serious pests of cassava globally. To guide the development of appropriate risk mitigation measures preventing their introduction and spread, this article estimates their potential geographic distribution using the maximum entropy approach to distribution modeling. We compiled 1,232 occurrence records for M. tanajoa and 99 for M. mcgregori, and relied on the WorldClim climate database as a source of environmental predictors. To mitigate the potential impact of uneven sampling efforts, we applied a distance correction filter resulting in 429 occurrence records for M. tanajoa and 55 for M. mcgregori. To test for environmental biases in our occurrence data, we developed models trained and tested with records from different continents, before developing the definitive models using the full record sets. The geographically-structured models revealed good cross-validation for M. tanajoa but not for M. mcgregori, likely reflecting a subtropical bias in M. mcgregori's invasive range in Asia. The definitive models exhibited very good performance and predicted different potential distribution patterns for the two species. Relative to M. tanajoa, M. mcgregori seems better adapted to survive in locations lacking a pronounced dry season, for example across equatorial climates. Our results should help decision-makers assess the site-specific risk of cassava green mite establishment, and develop proportional risk mitigation measures to prevent their introduction and spread. These results should be particularly timely to help address the recent detection of M. mcgregori in Southeast Asia. PMID:25491291

  3. Genome sequence of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Wanfei; Tan, Jun; Yu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jiucheng; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Tongwu; Yin, Yuxin; Xin, Chengqi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Guangyu; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M.; Huang, Dawei; Fang, Yongjun; Alnakhli, Yasser O.; Jia, Shangang; Yin, An; Alhuzimi, Eman M.; Alsaihati, Burair A.; Al-Owayyed, Saad A.; Zhao, Duojun; Zhang, Sun; Al-Otaibi, Noha A.; Sun, Gaoyuan; Majrashi, Majed A.; Li, Fusen; Tala; Wang, Jixiang; Yun, Quanzheng; Alnassar, Nafla A.; Wang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Al-Jelaify, Rasha F.; Liu, Kan; Gao, Shenghan; Chen, Kaifu; Alkhaldi, Samiyah R.; Liu, Guiming; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Haiyan; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. Here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (Khalas), which is 605.4?Mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671?Mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that P. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. Genetic diversity analysis indicates that its stress resistance and sugar metabolism-related genes tend to be enriched in the chromosomal regions where the density of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is relatively low. Using transcriptomic data, we also illustrate the date palm’s unique sugar metabolism that underlies fruit development and ripening. Our large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data pave the way for further genomic studies not only on P. dactylifera but also other Arecaceae plants. PMID:23917264

  4. Raphides in Palm Embryos and their Systematic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    ZONA, SCOTT

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Raphides are ubiquitous in the palms (Arecaceae), where they are found in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Their occasional presence in embryos, first noticed over 100 years ago, has gone largely unexamined. • Methods Embryos from 148 taxa of palms, the largest survey of palm embryos to date, were examined using light microscopy of squashed preparations under non?polarized and crossed polarized light. • Key Results Raphides were found in embryos of species from the three subfamilies Coryphoideae, Ceroxyloideae and Arecoideae. Raphides were not observed in the embryos of species of Calamoideae or Phytelephantoideae. The remaining subfamily, the monospecific Nypoideae, was not available for study. • Conclusions Within the Coryphoideae and Ceroxyloideae, embryos with raphides were rare, but within the Arecoideae, they were a common feature of the tribes Areceae and Caryoteae. PMID:14980977

  5. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

  6. Torrefaction of Pelletized Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    E-print Network

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan; Johari, Anwar; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Oladokun, Olagoke

    2015-01-01

    The torrefaction of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes was examined in this study. The results indicate that temperature significantly influenced the mass yield, energy yield and heating value of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) briquettes during torrefaction. The solid uniform compact nature of EFB briquettes ensured a slow rate of pyrolysis or devolatization which enhanced torrefaction. The mass yield decreased from 79.70 % to 43.03 %, energy yield from 89.44 % to 64.27 % during torrefaction from 250 {\\deg}C to 300 {\\deg}C. The heating value (HHV) of OPEFB briquettes improved significantly from 17.57 MJ/kg to 26.24 MJ/kg after torrefaction at 300 {\\deg}C for 1 hour. Fundamentally, the study has highlighted the effects of pelletization and torrefaction on solid fuel properties of oil palm EFB briquettes and its potential as a solid fuel for future thermal applications.

  7. Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites. PMID:20003349

  8. Evaluation of Selected Biopesticides for the Late Fall Control of Varroa Mites in a Northern Temperate Climate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Stanghellini; Paul Raybold

    ApiLife VAR®, the MiteGoneTM liquid formic acid delivery system, an oxalic acid trickle technique, and multiple spray application of sucrose octanoate esters (SucrocideTM) were compared to Apistan® as late- fall treatments to control varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman) in single-deep and double-deep honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies under northeastern US conditions. Mite mortality in single-deep colonies was

  9. Experimental study on possible transmission of the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae to chickens by the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Brännström; Ingrid Hansson; Jan Chirico

    2010-01-01

    The vector potential of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer (Acari: Dermanyssidae), in relation to chicken erysipelas was investigated under experimental conditions. Chickens\\u000a were inoculated intramuscularly with the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and mites were allowed to feed on the inoculated chickens for 5 days. After 20 days of starvation, the mites were allowed\\u000a to feed on healthy chickens to enable

  10. Factors affecting the potential of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biocontrol agents in North-Italian vineyards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Duso; C. Pasqualetto

    1993-01-01

    The results of a 5-year study on the relationships between spider mites and their predators in vineyards in Northern Italy\\u000a are reported. The efficacy of the two predatory mites appeared to be strongly affected by various factors (grape variety,\\u000a presence of macropredators, climatic condition, interspecific competition, phytoseiid strain).\\u000a \\u000a The phytoseiid mitesAmblyseius aberrans (Oud.) andTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten were released at three

  11. The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tre-san®, MiteStop®) on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Schmahl; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Sven Klimpel; Heinz Mehlhorn

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarizes the acaricidal and insecticidal effects of a patented neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo\\u000a or 1:20, 1:30, 1:33, 1:40, respectively, 1:66 with tap water. It was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such\\u000a as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all

  12. Acaricide-impaired functional predation response of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Lima, D B; Melo, J W S; Gondim, M G C; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, J E M; Pallini, A

    2015-07-01

    Acaricides may interfere with a myriad of interactions among arthropods, particularly predator-prey interactions. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), and its phytoseiid predator, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), provide an opportunity to explore such interference because the former is a key coconut pest species that requires both predation and acaricide application for its management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the acaricides abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the functional response of N. baraki to A. guerreronis densities. The following prey densities were tested: 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 preys. The type of functional response and prey handling time (Th) were not altered by the acaricides. However, the attack rate (a') was modified by abamectin and fenpyroximate, and the consumption peak was reduced by abamectin. All of the acaricides allowed for the maintenance of the predator in the field, but exposure to abamectin and fenpyroximate compromised prey consumption. PMID:25847106

  13. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Luis F; Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol. PMID:18930392

  14. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  15. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  16. Effectiveness of eriophyid mites for biological control of weedy plants and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Smith, L; de Lillo, E; Amrine, J W

    2010-07-01

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. We reviewed known examples of the use of eriophyid mites to control weedy plants to learn how effective they have been. In the past 13 years, since Rosenthal's 1996 review, 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation (Aceria genistae, A. lantanae, Aceria sp. [boneseed leaf buckle mite (BLBM)], A. salsolae, A. sobhiani, A. solstitialis, A. tamaricis, A. thalgi, A. thessalonicae, Cecidophyes rouhollahi, Floracarus perrepae, Leipothrix dipsacivagus and L. knautiae), but only four (A. genistae, Aceria sp. [BLBM], C. rouhollahi and F. perrepae) have been authorized for introduction. Prior to this, three species (Aceria chondrillae, A. malherbae and Aculus hyperici) were introduced and have become established. Although these three species impact the fitness of their host plant, it is not clear how much they have contributed to reduction of the population of the target weed. In some cases, natural enemies, resistant plant genotypes, and adverse abiotic conditions have reduced the ability of eriophyid mites to control target weed populations. Some eriophyid mites that are highly coevolved with their host plant may be poor prospects for biological control because of host plant resistance or tolerance of the plant to the mite. Susceptibility of eriophyids to predators and pathogens may also prevent them from achieving population densities necessary to reduce host plant populations. Short generation time, high intrinsic rate of increase and high mobility by aerial dispersal imply that eriophyids should have rapid rates of evolution. This raises concerns that eriophyids may be more likely to lose efficacy over time due to coevolution with the target weed or that they may be more likely to adapt to nontarget host plants compared to insects, which have a longer generation time and slower population growth rate. Critical areas for future research include life history, foraging and dispersal behavior, mechanisms controlling host plant specificity, and evolutionary stability of eriophyid mites. This knowledge is critical for designing and interpreting laboratory and field experiments to measure host plant specificity and potential impact on target and nontarget plants, which must be known before they can be approved for release. One of the more successful examples of an eriophyid mite controlling an invasive alien weed is Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, whose impact is primarily due to transmission of a virus pathogenic to the target, Rosa multiflora. Neither the mite nor the virus originated from the target weed, which suggests that using "novel enemies" may sometimes be an effective strategy for using eriophyid mites. PMID:19760101

  17. Bacterial community composition of three candidate insect vectors of palm phytoplasma (Texas Phoenix Palm Decline and Lethal Yellowing).

    PubMed

    Powell, Christopher M; Hail, Daymon; Potocnjak, Julia; Hanson, J Delton; Halbert, Susan H; Bextine, Blake R

    2015-02-01

    Texas Phoenix Palm Decline (TPPD) and Lethal Yellowing are two phytoplasma-linked diseases in palms. The phytoplasma causing TPPD is thought to be transmitted by three putative planthopper vectors, Ormenaria rufifascia, Omolicna joi, and Haplaxius crudus. These insects have been morphologically and molecularly described, and have screened positive for Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae. Individuals from each species were subjected to 16S bacterial community sequencing using the Roche 454 platform, providing new information regarding the previously unexplored bacterial communities present in putative vectors. PMID:25298076

  18. Determination of mechanisms of host plant resistance to the Banks grass mite Oligonychus pratensis (Banks) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in selected maize inbreds

    E-print Network

    Krakowsky, Matthew David

    1999-01-01

    Terranychus urticae Koch, complicates mite control (Pickett and Gilstrap 1985). Laboratory studies have shown that a combination of insecticides with a synergist were highly toxic to mites, but field tests are needed to verify the effectiveness...

  19. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  20. Effectiveness of education for control of house dust mites and cockroaches in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of health education in reducing indoor arthropod allergens in Seoul. The mite control measures comprised the use of mite-proof mattress and pillow coverings, regular washing of potentially infested materials, maintenance of a low humidity, removal of carpets, and frequent vacuum cleaning. Cockroach control measures included trapping, application of insecticides, and protecting food. Of 201 homes enrolled in October 1999, 63 volunteers were included in a 2-year follow-up survey between April 2000 and January 2002. Before intervention, the density of mites/g of dust varied greatly; 27.1/g in children's bedding, 20/g in adult bedding, 7.2/g on the floors of children's bedrooms, 6.8/g in sofas, 5.9/g on the floors of adult's bedrooms, 3.9/g on living room floors, 3.7/g in carpets, and 1.9 mites/g on kitchen floors. The predominant mite species and house percentages infested were; Dermatophagoides farinae 93%, D. pteronyssinus 9%, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae 8%. Comparing 1999 and 2001 infestations, before and after 25 mo of education, mite abundance was reduced by 98%, from 23.7 to 0.57 mites/g of dust. In 1999, cockroaches were detected in 62% homes: 36% Blattella germanica and 35% Periplaneta spp., including 9% double infestations of B. germanica and P. americana. Following intervention, cockroach infestation rates decreased to 22% of houses in 2000 and 23% in 2001. We conclude that continuous and repetitive health education resulted in the effective control of domestic arthropods. PMID:16514286

  1. Molecular Prevalence of Acarapis Mite Infestations in Honey Bees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ah-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Shin, Sung Shik

    2015-01-01

    Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries. PMID:26174825

  2. Mar, a MITE family of hAT transposons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, nonautonomous DNA elements flanked by subterminal or terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) with no coding capacity. MITEs were originally recognized as important components of plant genomes, where they can attain extremely high copy numbers, and are also found in several animal genomes, including mosquitoes, fish and humans. So far, few MITEs have been described in Drosophila. Results Herein we describe the distribution and evolution of Mar, a MITE family of hAT transposons, in Drosophilidae species. In silico searches and PCR screening showed that Mar distribution is restricted to the willistoni subgroup of the Drosophila species, and a phylogenetic analysis of Mar indicates that this element may have originated prior to the diversification of these species. Most of the Mar copies in D. willistoni present conserved target site duplications and TIRs, indicating recent mobilization of these sequences. We also identified relic copies of potentially full-length Mar transposon in D. tropicalis and D. willistoni. The phylogenetic relationship among transposases from the putative full-length Mar and other hAT superfamily elements revealed that Mar is placed into the recently determined Buster group of hAT transposons. Conclusion On the basis of the obtained data, we can suggest that the origin of these Mar MITEs occurred before the subgroup willistoni speciation, which started about 5.7 Mya. The Mar relic transposase existence indicates that these MITEs originated by internal deletions and suggests that the full-length transposon was recently functional in D. willistoni, promoting Mar MITEs mobilization. PMID:22935191

  3. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    EPA Science Inventory

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  4. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo 

    E-print Network

    Misztal, Pawel K; Owen, Susan M; Guenther, Alex B; Rasmussen, R; Geron, C; Harley, P; Phillips, Gavin J; Ryan, A; Edwards, D P; Hewitt, C N; Nemitz, Eiko; Siong, J; Heal, Mathew R; Cape, J Neil

    2010-01-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m...

  5. Learning in the Palm of Your Hand Workshop Description

    E-print Network

    Agogino, Alice M.

    Learning in the Palm of Your Hand Workshop Description Alice M. Agogino (aagogino, and materials. To reduce costs, companies are rushing to adopt e-learning by delivering Web-based instruction. While these e-learning initiatives have reduced travel cost, instructor fees, and materials, employees

  6. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF SOME INVIVO AND INVITRO DATE PALM TISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussein A. Bosila; Said M. Mohamed; Sherif F. El; Khames A. Refay

    The preliminary photochemical screening of the different date palm tissues, in vivo and in vitro tissues, namely, shoot tip, pollen grain, leaves, fruits, callus, embryogenesis and in vitro leaf tissue revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids and tannins. The separation and identification of steroids by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) in the in vivo and in vitro tissues of

  7. Influence of palm oil ( Elaesis guineensis) on health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Ebong; D. U. Owu; E. U. Isong

    1999-01-01

    In recent times there has been a growing research interest in palm oil, one of the major edible plant oils in the tropical countries, because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Obtained from a tropical plant, Elaesis guineensis, it has a polyunsaturated fatty acid\\/saturated fatty acid ratio close to unity and a high amount of antioxidant

  8. Attalea crassispatha, a rare and endemic Haitian palm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Henderson; Michael Balick

    1991-01-01

    The taxonomic history of the poorly known Haitian endemic palmAttalea crassispatha is given. Morphology and pollen morphology are described and illustrated. A discussion is given concerning its position within\\u000a the Attaleinae. In particular, staminate flower morphology of the subtribe is discussed.

  9. Osmotic Dehydration Kinetics of Pineapple Wedges using Palm Sugar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parjoko; M. Shafiur Rahman; Ken A. Buckle; Conrad O. Perera

    1996-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration kinetics of pineapple wedges was studied using palm sugar at different syrup concentration and temperature. Equilibrium kinetics were presented by defining equilibrium constants and nonequilibrium period of water loss and solid gain followed the model based on mass balance and zero order reaction kinetics. At constant temperature, the rate constants for both water and solids increased with increase

  10. The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maunder; B. Lyte; J. Dransfield; W. Baker

    2001-01-01

    We present a case study on the differing roles of temperate and tropical ex situ facilities in supporting the conservation of a major tropical plant group. The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections is reviewed by using (1) survey data from 35 collections in 20 countries, and (2) case studies examining the conservation value and utility of botanic garden

  11. Development of Heat Insulating Materials Using Date Palm Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Al-Juruf; F. A. Ahmed; I. A. Alam; H. H. Abdel-Rahman

    1988-01-01

    The work presented in this paper aims at investigating the possibility of using dry leaves of date palm fronds and suitable binders to obtain thermal insulating products for buildings The paper presents the various steps attempted to arrive at some heat insulating materials. And, it illustrates how those materials were tested to measure their thermal conductivities. It can be generally

  12. A Development Plan for the Palm Beach County Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The Palm Beach County Library System is evaluated for its program to date and for its existing public library resources in the County. Population trends are examined and a realistic program for the development of library services over a six-year period is recommended. The estimated costs for implementation of these recommendations are outlined in…

  13. Performance of oil palm EFB fibre reinforced concrete roof slates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kaliwon; S. Sh Ahmad; A. Abdul Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Natural fibres such as wood and vegetable fibre offer many advantages such as renewability, recyclability low specific gravity and high specific strength. In Malaysia most of the studies only focused on producing EFB as MDF and pulp and paper products. This paper reviews the development of natural fibres for building material and discusses the performance of oil palm empty fruit

  14. Observations on the removal of brood inoculated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) and the mite’s reproductive success in Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the response of Apis mellifera to brood deliberately infested with Tropilaelaps mercedesae. The reproductive success of T. mercedesae in mite-inoculated and naturally infested brood was also compared. The presence of T. mercedesae inside brood cells significantly affected brood ...

  15. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  16. Feeding History Affects the Response of the Predatory Mite Typhlodromus Kerkirae (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Volatiles of Plants Infested with Spider Mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitris S. Koveos; George D. Broufas

    1999-01-01

    The response of adult females of the predatory mite Typhlodromus kerkirae (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to volatiles emitted from bean leaves infested with Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) or from leaves of Oxalis corniculata infested with Petrobia harti (Acari: Tetranychidae) was studied in the laboratory using a Y-tube olfactometer. Typhlodromus kerkirae females reared from larvae through to adults on T. urticae and pollen

  17. A High-Molecular-Weight Mite Antigen (HM1) Fraction Aggravates Airway Hyperresponsiveness of Allergic Mice to House Dusts and Whole Mite Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Airo Tategaki; Seiji Kawamoto; Takahide Okuda; Tsunehiro Aki; Hiroshi Yasueda; Osamu Suzuki; Kazuhisa Ono; Seiko Shigeta

    2002-01-01

    Background: The house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae is the most common aeroallergen causing human allergic asthma. Previously, we demonstrated that a high-molecular-weight allergenic fraction (HM1), which was abundant in D. farinae extracts, induced a proliferative response of T cells from healthy donors. The induction was mediated through the activation of macrophages without MHC class II restriction. In this study, we

  18. Life cycle and parasitic interaction of the lizard-parasitizing mite Ophionyssus galloticolus (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae), with remarks about the evolutionary consequences of parasitism in mites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bannert; H. Y. Karaca; A. Wohltmann

    2000-01-01

    Wild-caught specimens of the lacertid lizard Gallotia galloti eisentrauti from the Canary Island of Tenerife were checked for ectoparasites. The parasitic gamasid mite Ophionyssus galloticolus Fain and Bannert (2000) was very abundant on these lizards. Additionally, parasitism by larvae of two species of Trombiculidae (Prostigmata: Parasitengona) was observed. O. galloticolus was reared in the laboratory on its natural host in

  19. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-01-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

  20. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

  1. Efficacy, prey stage preference and optimum predator–prey ratio of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus Evans (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vattakandy Jasin Rahman; Azariah Babu; Amsalingam Roobakkumar; Kandasamy Perumalsamy; Duraikkannu Vasanthakumar; Mariappan Sankara Rama Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    The predatory mite, N. longispinosus preys up on red spider mite, O. coffeae infesting tea in south India. An attempt has been made to determine the predatory potential, prey stage preference and optimum predator–prey ratio of N. longispinosus under laboratory and green house conditions. When 50 adult female O. coffeae were given, the number of adults reduced by eight days

  2. Efficacy, prey stage preference and optimum predator–prey ratio of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus Evans (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to control the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vattakandy Jasin Rahman; Azariah Babu; Amsalingam Roobakkumar; Kandasamy Perumalsamy; Duraikkannu Vasanthakumar; Mariappan Sankara Rama Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    The predatory mite, N. longispinosus preys up on red spider mite, O. coffeae infesting tea in south India. An attempt has been made to determine the predatory potential, prey stage preference and optimum predator–prey ratio of N. longispinosus under laboratory and green house conditions. When 50 adult female O. coffeae were given, the number of adults reduced by eight days

  3. Esperanza Fire near Palm Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Esperanza fire started on October 26 in the dry brush near Palm Springs, CA. By the time it was contained 6 days later, the fire had consumed 40,200 acres, and destroyed 34 homes and 20 outbuildings. Racing through grass, brush, and timber, the blaze had forced hundreds to evacuate, and it killed five firefighters who were working to protect homes. Fire officials are reporting the cause of the blaze as arson. In this ASTER image composite of visible and infrared bands, burned areas are shown in shades of red, vegetation is green, brown vegetation is brown and asphalt and concrete are blue-gray.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.4 by 26.9 kilometers (13.2 by 16.6 miles) Location: 33.6 degrees North latitude, 116.8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 7, 3 and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) and 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: November 3, 2006

  4. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ?880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ?140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ?4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ?660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ?20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ?12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia. PMID:21383161

  5. Severe ulceronecrotic dermatitis associated with mite infestation in the critically endangered Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis).

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Branston, Tammy; Woods, Leslie; Clifford, Deana

    2013-08-01

    The entire range of the critically endangered Amargosa vole (Microtus californicus scirpensis) consists of less than 20 km(2) of riparian habitat in the Amargosa River drainage of the Mojave Desert in southern California. In September 2010, deformities on ears and chiggers on the ears and genitalia were detected, with some individuals so severely affected that they were missing ear pinnae altogether. Follow-up trapping was performed to document the presence of mites and mite-associated disease, and molecular characterization was performed on the mites. Of 151 Amargosa voles sampled from February to April of 2011, 60 (39.7%) voles had hard orange mites adhered to some part of their bodies, on ears of 46 (76.7%), on genitalia of 11 (18.3%), and near mammary tissue of 13 (21.7%) voles. Gross lesions were not detected on genitalia, but 47% of all individuals examined showed pinnal lesions and deformities, which included alopecia, swelling, marginal necrosis, and ulceration, as well as scarring, scabbing, and loss of pinna mass covering 25-100% of the pinnae. Biopsies revealed parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with diffuse neutrophilic exocytosis and dense necrotic granulocytes in the epidermis and superficial dermis associated with focal erosion and ulceration. In the underlying dermis, there were dense pleocellular inflammatory cell infiltrates composed primarily of necrotic granulocytes and multifocal hemorrhage. In some samples, mite mouthparts could be seen penetrating the superficial epidermis associated with focal necrosis, and mite fragments were found on the surface epidermis and within hair follicles. Microscopic examination of the mites documented that they were a larval trombiculid in the genus Neotrombicula with anatomical features that most closely resemble Neotrombicula microti, based on scutal shape, setation, and texture. PCR of 2 mite pools (each consisting of 3 mites from an individual animal) amplified 331 bp amplicons, which had 92-97% homology with the 18S rRNA gene of Leptotrombidium deliense, although coverage of Trombiculidae in GenBank is sparse. The severity and prevalence of lesions due to this chigger were atypical and distinct. Severe clinical trombiculiasis in this endangered species could negatively impact individual health and fitness. PMID:23458565

  6. Host-plant specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites and their importance for the use of eriophyoid mites as biocontrol agents of weeds.

    PubMed

    Skoracka, Anna; Smith, Lincoln; Oldfield, George; Cristofaro, Massimo; Amrine, James W

    2010-07-01

    Eriophyoid mites, which are among the smallest plant feeders, are characterized by the intimate relationships they have with their hosts and the restricted range of plants upon which they can reproduce. The knowledge of their true host ranges and mechanisms causing host specificity is fundamental to understanding mite-host interactions, potential mite-host coevolution, and diversity of this group, as well as to apply effective control strategies or to use them as effective biological control agents. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on host specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites, and to point out knowledge gaps and doubts. Using available data on described species and recorded hosts we showed that: (1) 80% of eriophyoids have been reported on only one host species, 95% on one host genus, and 99% on one host family; (2) Diptilomiopidae has the highest proportion of monophagous species and Phytoptidae has the fewest; (3) non-monophagous eriophyoids show the tendency to infest closely related hosts; 4) vagrant eriophyoids have a higher proportion of monophagous species than refuge-seeking and refuge-inducing species; (5) the proportions of monophagous species infesting annual and perennial hosts are similar; however, many species infesting annual hosts have wider host ranges than those infesting perennial hosts; (6) the proportions of species that are monophagous infesting evergreen and deciduous plants are similar; (7) non-monophagous eriophyoid species have wider geographic distribution than monophagous species. Field and laboratory host-specificity tests for several eriophyoid species and their importance for biological control of weeds are described. Testing the actual host range of a given eriophyoid species, searching for ecological data, genetic differentiation analysis, and recognizing factors and mechanisms that contribute to host specificity of eriophyoid mites are suggested as future directions for research. PMID:19789985

  7. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know?

    PubMed

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2014-11-22

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points in the literature confound estimates, indicating the need for greater standardization in epidemiologic research. Exposure to allergens depends on multiple ecological strata, including climate and mite microhabitats within the domestic environment, with the latter providing opportunity for intervention measures to reduce allergen load. Inhaled mite aeroallergens are unusually virulent: they are able to activate both the adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially offering new avenues for intervention. The role of HDM allergens is crucial in the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the translation of silent sensitization into symptomatic disease is still incompletely understood. Improved understanding of HDMs, their allergens, and their microhabitats will enable development of more effective outcomes for patients with HDM allergy. PMID:25457152

  8. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    PubMed Central

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

  9. Ear Mite Infestation in Four Imported Dogs from Thailand; a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Maazi, N; Jamshidi, Sh; Hadadzadeh, HR

    2010-01-01

    Otodectes cynotis, ear mite or ear canker mite, is the most common cause of otitis external in cats (approximately 50%) and to a lesser extent in dogs, foxes and ferrets. The mite is living on the epidermal surface of auditory canal without burrowing into the tissue and feeding on tissue fluids and debris. In most of the cases they induce hypersensitivity reactions in the host. Four puppies; Siberian husky, Cocker spaniel, Terrier and mixed Pekignese with different genders and ages were referred to the Small Animal Hospital, Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran for routine clinical examination just after they were imported from Thailand in a timeframe between June to August 2008. Clinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination, the specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Amitraz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders. PMID:22808403

  10. Inhibitory Properties of Cysteine Protease Pro-Peptides from Barley Confer Resistance to Spider Mite Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Martinez, Manuel; Diaz, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    C1A plant cysteine proteases are synthesized as pre-pro-enzymes that need to be processed to become active by the pro-peptide claves off from its cognate enzyme. These pro-sequences play multifunctional roles including the capacity to specifically inhibit their own as well as other C1A protease activities from diverse origin. In this study, it is analysed the potential role of C1A pro-regions from barley as regulators of cysteine proteases in target phytophagous arthropods (coleopteran and acari). The in vitro inhibitory action of these pro-sequences, purified as recombinant proteins, is demonstrated. Moreover, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different fragments of HvPap-1 barley gene containing the pro-peptide sequence were generated and the acaricide function was confirmed by bioassays conducted with the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Feeding trials resulted in a significant reduction of leaf damage in the transgenic lines expressing the pro-peptide in comparison to non-transformed control and strongly correlated with an increase in mite mortality. Additionally, the analysis of the expression levels of a selection of potential mite targets (proteases and protease inhibitors) revealed a mite strategy to counteract the inhibitory activity produced by the C1A barley pro-prodomain. These findings demonstrate that pro-peptides can control mite pests and could be applied as defence proteins in biotechnological systems. PMID:26039069

  11. Immunoglobulin E-binding epitopes of mite allergens: from characterization to immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yubao

    2014-12-01

    House dust mites and storage mites produce a number of allergens that can induce hypersensitivity reactions in humans and result in allergic diseases like asthma, rhinitis, and dermatitis. Recent advances in identifying and characterizing these allergens--and, in particular, their immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding epitopes--have produced a wealth of knowledge. Here, methods for identifying IgE-binding epitopes, from immunoassays to in silico approaches, are summarized and placed in context with the identification of epitopes of mite allergens, particularly from the Dermatophagoides spp. major allergen groups 1 and 2. Finally, the transfer of this information to the clinical development and application of new diagnostic and immunotherapeutic approaches is discussed. While progress in recent years has built on the specific immunotherapies established decades ago, much work remains to be done to mitigate mite allergic disease. Future studies should seek to identify epitopes for mite species beyond Dermatophagoides and for minor allergens. Efforts in translational medicine should use the current epitope data to develop modified allergens for immunotherapy. PMID:24218295

  12. Distribution and evolutionary dynamics of Stowaway Miniature Inverted repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) in grasses.

    PubMed

    Minaya, Miguel; Pimentel, Manuel; Mason-Gamer, Roberta; Catalan, Pilar

    2013-07-01

    The occurrence of Stowaway MITEs and their potential footprints in the grasses was assessed within an explicit phylogenetic framework. An organismal tree was used to analyze the distribution and evolutionary dynamics of these elements and their potential excision footprints in the fourth intron of the ?-amylase gene and in other introns of several nuclear genes across the Poaceae. Megablast and discontiguous megablast searches in the Entrez nucleotide database were performed for the ?-amylase, blz-1, dmc1, nuc, and xly genes MITEs. These elements and their potential footprints were distributed in introns and intergenic spacers of many other nuclear genes throughout the BEP lineages; however, they were absent in the studied PACCMAD lineages. A plausible underlying dynamic of successive acquisitions and deletions of ?-amylase Stowaway MITEs in the temperate grasses could be explained by three alternative hypotheses: (i) a single early acquisition of a palindrome element, similar to Tc1-Mariner, in the fourth intron of the ?-amylase gene in the ancestor of the Pooideae, followed by multiple independent losses, (ii) multiple independent acquisitions of MITEs in non-related pooid lineages or (iii) different waves of acquisition of MITEs, followed by multiple losses and horizontal transfers in the temperate grasses. This last hypothesis seems to fit best with the evidence found to date. PMID:23511216

  13. 212?Allergic Sensitization to Domestic Mites in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Antonio; Muñoz, William; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of mites sensitization in Santo Domingo. Methods One hundred consecutive patients (52 males and 48 females, mean age 30.3 years; 4–68) with asthma and /or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were skin tested with 9 commercial extracts of mites of the following species: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, B. kulagini, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Glycyphagus domesticus and Chortoglyphus arcuatus. A skin test was considered positive when the wheal was > 3 mm with erythema. Conventional exclusion criteria were used, in order to avoid masking a skin reaction. Results A positive skin test to any of the mites tested was detected in 98% of the patients; Dermatophagoides spp. was positive in 89% of the patients; 15% were exclusively positive to Dermatophagoides spp; 87% reacted to Blomia spp. and 3% were exclusively positive to Blomia tropicalis spp; 80% were sensitized to 3 or more specie. Conclusions The allergy sensitization to domestic mites in Santo Domingo is high. Sensitization to several species is very common. B. tropicalis is an important species in this region. With these results we could extrapolate that immunotherapy with only Dermatophagoides species could not be enough achieve clinical improvement in mite allergic patients. Other species, such as B. tropicalis may be needed.

  14. Persistence and effectiveness of pyrethroids in plastic strips against Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and mite resistance in a Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Floris, I; Cabras, P; Garau, V L; Minelli, E V; Satta, A; Troullier, J

    2001-08-01

    An apiary trial was conducted in 1997 in Sardinia, Italy, to verify the effectiveness of fluvalinate in polyvinyl chloride strips and flumethrin in polyethylene strips against Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans. Two indices to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments were adopted: percentage change in mite infestation of worker-sealed brood cells considering only treated hives and percentage change in mite mortality, and the natural variation in mite populations recorded in control hives during the trial. All acaricide treatments reduced the level of mite infestation of both sealed brood and adult bees. However, their effectiveness was slightly reduced in comparison to previous studies because of mite resistance phenomena. Portions of polyethylene strips of flumethrin from treated hives were sampled weekly to determine acaricide persistence using gas chromatography. After 4 wk, a slight reduction (approximately 9%) of the active ingredient content was observed. A laboratory bioassay also was performed to establish the resistance of adult female mites to fluvalinate. Mites were sampled from the experimental apiary and from various Sardinian apiaries which had primarily been subjected to fluvalinate applications in plastic strips or wood inserts for years. Mite resistance varied from 0 to 96%, depending on the acaricide management adopted. The lowest resistance level occurred in an apiary where pyrethroids had never been used, whereas the highest level occurred in an apiary, with intensive use of fluvalinate in wood inserts. PMID:11561836

  15. Review Geographic differences in host specialization between the symbiotic water mites Unionicola formosa and Unionicola foili (Acari: Unionicolidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale D. Edwards; Regan Bogardus; Nicholaus Wilhite

    1998-01-01

    The host specificity and population genetic structure of the symbiotic water mites Unionicola foili from the host mussel Utterbackia imbecillis and Unionicola formosa from the mussels Pyganodon cataracta, Pyganodon grandis and Anodonta suborbiculata were examined over a broad geographical scale in order to determine the extent to which specialization by these water mites is structured geographically. The behavioural responses of

  16. Host related differences in the development and reproduction of the cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix (Acari: Eriophyidae) in poland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Skoracka; Lechoslaw Knczyñski

    2006-01-01

    Specific feeding and habitat conditions for phytophagous insects and mites are created by their host plants. Adaptations to the specific host plant may be reflected in differences in the life-history traits of phytophagous arthropods. Herein we tested whether host populations of the eriophyid mite Abacarus hystrix (Nalepa), adapted to feed on their natal host plants, differ in life history parameters.

  17. Divergent host-acceptance behavior suggests host specialization in populations of the polyphagous mite Abacarus hystrix (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For phytophagous arthropods, host-acceptance behavior is a key character responsible for host-plant specialization. The grain rust mite, Abacarus hystrix (Nalepa), is an obligately phytophagous, polyphagous eriophyid mite recorded from at least 70 grass species. In this study the hypothesis that two...

  18. AN ORIBATID MITE (ARACHNIDA: ACARI) FROM THE OXFORD CLAY (JURASSIC: UPPER CALLOVIAN) OF SOUTH CAVE STATION QUARRY, YORKSHIRE, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL A. SELDEN; ANNE S. BAKER; KENNETH J. PHIPPS

    2008-01-01

    A single specimen of a new species of oribatid mite belonging to the genus Jureremus Krivolutsky, in Krivo- lutsky and Krassilov 1977, previously described from the Upper Jurassic of the Russian Far East, is described as J. phi- ppsi sp. nov. The mite is preserved by iron pyrite replace- ment, and was recovered by sieving from the Oxford Clay Formation

  19. Autogrooming and bee age influence migration of tracheal mites to Russian and susceptible worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José D. Villa

    2006-01-01

    Summary The role of autogrooming in controlling tracheal mites in Russian and susceptible colonies was evaluated by gluing together the midlegs of workers and exposing them to mite infestation. In one experiment, young workers (less than 10 h old) from both strains having midlegs glued together at the tarsi (G) or left unglued as controls (C) were introduced into colonies

  20. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission. PMID:25325313

  1. A new and rapid method of making permanent preparations of large numbers of house-dust mites for light microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Colloff

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for the transfer to microslides of large numbers of mites extracted from house dust, in a single operation. Mites were frozen in water in a watch glass at -20°C. The ice was then everted onto a siliconeized microslide and the meltwater evaporated off on a hotplate at 55°C. Mounting medium and coverslip were then added in

  2. Inter-annual variation in prevalence and intensity of mite parasitism relates to appearance and expression of damselfly resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Nagel; Tonia Robb; Mark R Forbes

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insects can resist parasites using the costly process of melanotic encapsulation. This form of physiological resistance has been studied under laboratory conditions, but the abiotic and biotic factors affecting resistance in natural insect populations are not well understood. Mite parasitism of damselflies was studied in a temperate damselfly population over seven seasons to determine if melanotic encapsulation of mite

  3. Jasmonic acid is a key regulator of spider mite-induced volatile terpenoid and methyl salicylate emission in tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ament; M. R. Kant; M. W. Sabelis; M. A. Haring; R. C. Schuurink

    2004-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

  4. Jasmonic Acid Is a Key Regulator of Spider Mite-Induced Volatile Terpenoid and Methyl Salicylate Emission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Ament; Merijn R. Kant; Maurice W. Sabelis; Michel A. Haring; Robert C. Schuurink

    2004-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

  5. Potential role of the sexually transmitted mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae in controlling populations of the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis

    E-print Network

    Jiggins, Francis

    Coccipolipus hippodamiae Sexually transmitted disease Biological control a b s t r a c t The enemy releasePotential role of the sexually transmitted mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae in controlling populations of this species is the sexually transmitted mite Coccipolipus hip- podamiae (McDaniel & Morrill) (Acarina

  6. Wolbachia distribution and cytoplasmic incompatibility based on a survey of 42 spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Gotoh; H Noda; X-Y Hong

    2003-01-01

    Wolbachia are a group of maternally inherited bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. Wolbachia infections are known to result in the expression of various abnormal reproductive phenotypes, the best known being cytoplasmic incompatibility. The first systematic survey of 42 spider mite species in Japan revealed that seven species (16.7%) were infected with Wolbachia. Wolbachia in the spider mites

  7. Field ecology of sylvatic Rhodnius populations (Heteroptera, Triatominae): risk factors for palm tree infestation in western Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Abad-Franch, F; Palomeque, F S; Aguilar, H M; Miles, M A

    2005-12-01

    Most Rhodnius species (Triatominae) are primarily associated with palm trees. They maintain enzootic Trypanosoma cruzi transmission and are responsible for human infection (causing Chagas disease) through the Neotropics. Assessing whether individual palm traits (ecological and/or botanical) may increase the risk of palm infestation by triatomines is relevant in areas where bugs invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. We developed a novel fieldwork approach with that objective, and applied it to study infestation by sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis in 110 tagua palms (Phytelephas aequatorialis). Palm infestation (23% overall) was non-randomly distributed in our sample. Palms located in anthropic landscapes were frequently infested (>27%, n=92), whereas no bugs were collected from palms surveyed within forest remnants (n=18; P=0.01). The presence of abundant decaying vegetable matter (P=0.001) and (to a lesser extent) epiphytic plants (P=0.049) on palm crowns and stems increased the probability of infestation and was positively correlated with the apparent density of bug colonies (R2=0.68). A trend towards higher infestation rates in male palms (34% vs. 18%) could relate to female palm management (removal of infrutescences and vegetable debris) in areas where palm seeds are harvested. An outline of 'risk palm ecotopes' and environmental management-based strategies for the control of peridomestic, palm tree-living vector populations are proposed. PMID:16359406

  8. EFFECT OF PALM EMPTY BUNCH ASH ON TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL INTO BIODIESEL Pengaruh Abu Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Pada Transesterifikasi Minyak Kelapa Sawit Menjadi Biodiesel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Sibarani; Syahrul Khairi; Karna Wijaya; Iqmal Tahir

    Biodiesel conversion from transesterification reaction palm oil with methanol was studied by using an ash of palm empty bunch as a base catalyst. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and indicator titration analysis were used as tools for characterization of ash sample. Chemical structure of biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS. The effects of ash sample weight (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25

  9. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects. PMID:24813002

  10. PALM BEACH ZOO The Palm Beach Zoo is looking for a hands-on Horticulture Manager. This full-time position is filled by

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    PALM BEACH ZOO The Palm Beach Zoo is looking for a hands-on Horticulture Manager. This full, and installation of flora · Provide technical horticulture expertise during new exhibit development · Assist WCC the horticulture in an ecologically friendly manner · Develops and maintains SOPs and emergency management protocol

  11. JOURNAL OF OIL PALM RESEARCH SPECIAL ISSUE ON MALAYSIA-MIT BIOTECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME: VOLUME 2 -OIL PALM METABOLIC ENGINEERING (JULY 2008)

    E-print Network

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    : VOLUME 2 - OIL PALM METABOLIC ENGINEERING (JULY 2008) Keyword: polyhydroxyalkanoate, PHB, PHBV, metabolic56 JOURNAL OF OIL PALM RESEARCH SPECIAL ISSUE ON MALAYSIA-MIT BIOTECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME engineering, plastid targeting. Date received: 31 July 2007; Sent for revision: 17 August 2007; Received

  12. An interesterified palm olein test meal decreases early-phase postprandial lipemia compared to palm olein: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wendy L; Brito, Marcela Fiuza; Huang, Junlan; Wood, Lucy V; Filippou, Androulla; Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2014-09-01

    Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40-70 years with fasting TAG concentrations ?1.2 mmol/L. Postprandial changes in plasma lipids following meals containing 75 g fat (NPO and IPO) were compared using a randomized, double-blind crossover design (n = 11). Although there were no significant differences in plasma TAG concentrations between meals over the total 6-h postprandial measurement period, IPO resulted in a decreased plasma TAG response during the first 4 h of the postprandial period (iAUC 1.65 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) compared to NPO (iAUC 2.33 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.58-3.07); meal effect P = 0.024. Chylomicron fraction TAG concentrations at 4-6 h were slightly reduced following IPO compared to NPO [NPO-IPO mean difference 0.29 mmol/L (95% CI -0.01-0.59), P = 0.055]. There were no differences in IDL fraction TAG, cholesterol or apolipoprotein B48 concentrations following IPO compared with NPO. In conclusion, consuming a meal containing palm olein with a higher proportion of 16:0 in the sn-2 position decreases postprandial lipemia compared to native palm olein during the early phase of the postprandial period in men with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations. PMID:25103522

  13. Torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Torrenticolidae) from Malaysian Borneo.

    PubMed

    Peši?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

    2014-01-01

    New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in two mountain ranges in northern Borneo are presented. Aims of this study were to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the newly collected torrenticolids using molecular methods, and describe all new species. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from 18 torrenticolid specimens and 14 new species are described: Torrenticola (Torrenticola) borneoensis n. sp., T. (T.) kinabaluensis n. sp., T. (T.) sabahensis n. sp., T. (T.) neoindica n. sp., T. (T.) schilthuizeni n. sp., Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) sundaensis n. sp., N. (Heteratractides) uniscutatus n. sp., Pseudotorrenticola borneoensis n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) epiales n. sp., M. (M.) morpheus n. sp., M. (M.) phantasos n. sp., M. (M.) phobetor n. sp., M. (M.) hercules n. sp. and M. (M.) minuta n. sp. Additionally, the first records for Borneo are given for Torrenticola (Megapalpis) cf. pugionirostris (K. Viets, 1939), Monatractides (Monatractides) longiventris (K. Viets, 1939), M. (M.) cf. macroporus (K. Viets, 1935) and M. (M.) oxystomus (K. Viets, 1935). Monatractides tobaensis (K. Viets, 1935) is transferred to the subgenus Vietsclio Peši? & Smit, 2014. A key to the species of Monatractides is presented. PMID:25081904

  14. Factors affecting mite herbivory on eggplants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Germano L D; Picanço, Marcelo; Zanuncio, José C; Marquini, Flávio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, predators, height of canopy, levels of nitrogen and potassium in leaves, and the density of leaf trichomes on the attack intensity of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Aculops lycopersici (Acari: Eriophyidae) in five plantations of the eggplant Solanum melongena var. 'Natu Nobilis' in two regions of Brazil. Higher numbers of individuals of A. lycopersici, T. evansi and T. urticae/cm2 were observed on eggplants in the Municipality of Guidoval than in Viçosa which might be explained by the fact that Guidoval showed hotter and more rainy weather. A. lycopersici was positively correlated with mean temperature (r=0.54, P=0.03), and T. evansi was positively correlated with total rainfall (r=0.54; P=0.04), while for T. urticae the correlation with total rainfall was almost significant (r=0.47, P=0.055). No significant effects were found (P>0.05) of natural enemies, levels of N and K and leaf trichome density on population densities of mites. A. lycopersici showed higher density on the apical leaves while nymphs and adults of T. evansi and eggs of T. urticae had higher numbers on leaves of the apical and medium parts of eggplants than on the lower leaves. Nymphs and adults of T. urticae showed higher attack intensity on leaves from the medium and lower thirds of the plants. PMID:14974689

  15. Outbreak of pruritic rashes associated with mites--Kansas, 2004.

    PubMed

    2005-09-30

    In late August 2004, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) received reports from the Crawford County Health Department (CCHD) of approximately 300 residents of Pittsburg, Kansas (2000 population: 19,243), seeking care for a pruritic rash of unknown etiology. In early September, three neighboring counties in Kansas and two neighboring states (Missouri and Nebraska) also reported such cases. These events prompted KDHE to request assistance from CDC. Additional cases subsequently were reported in Oklahoma and Texas. This report describes the investigation in Crawford County, Kansas, by public health agencies and entomologists to identify the etiology of the pruritic rash and to assess the extent of the outbreak. A microscopic itch mite (Pyemotes herfsi) was identified as the likely cause of the outbreak, which affected an estimated 54% of the Crawford County population (2000 population: 38,242). Entomologists confirmed the return of P. herfsi in Kansas in August 2005 and have recommended prevention measures, such as use of DEET-containing products, to help minimize exposure for persons outdoors. PMID:16195693

  16. Innate Immune Responses in House Dust Mite Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Sensitizations to house dust mites (HDM) trigger strong exacerbated allergen-induced inflammation of the skin and airways mucosa from atopic subjects resulting in atopic dermatitis as well as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Initially, the Th2-biased HDM allergic response was considered to be mediated only by allergen B- and T-cell epitopes to promote allergen-specific IgE production as well as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 to recruit inflammatory cells. But this general molecular model of HDM allergenicity must be revisited as a growing literature suggests that stimulations of innate immune activation pathways by HDM allergens offer new answers to the following question: what makes an HDM allergen an allergen? Indeed, HDM is a carrier not only for allergenic proteins but also microbial adjuvant compounds, both of which are able to stimulate innate signaling pathways leading to allergy. This paper will describe the multiple ways used by HDM allergens together with microbial compounds to control the initiation of the allergic response through engagement of innate immunity. PMID:23724247

  17. Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Lepp, Natalia; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth. PMID:26005221

  18. From cuckoos to chickens: a caught-in-the-act case of host shift in feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Psoroptoididae).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2014-12-01

    Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts. PMID:25185669

  19. Community structure, trophic position and reproductive mode of soil and bark-living oribatid mites in an alpine grassland ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Heinrich; Maraun, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The community structure, stable isotope ratios (15N/14N, 13C/12C) and reproductive mode of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) were investigated in four habitats (upper tree bark, lower tree bark, dry grassland soil, forest soil) at two sites in the Central Alps (Tyrol, Austria). We hypothesized that community structure and trophic position of oribatid mites of dry grassland soils and bark of trees are similar since these habitats have similar abiotic characteristics (open, dry) compared with forest soil. Further, we hypothesized that derived taxa of oribatid mites reproducing sexually dominate on the bark of trees since species in this habitat consume living resources such as lichens. In contrast to our hypothesis, the community structure of oribatid mites differed among grassland, forest and bark indicating the existence of niche differentiation in the respective oribatid mite species. In agreement with our hypothesis, sexually reproducing taxa of oribatid mites dominated on the bark of trees whereas parthenogenetic species were more frequent in soil. Several species of bark-living oribatid mites had stable isotope signatures that were similar to lichens indicating that they feed on lichens. However, nine species that frequently occurred on tree bark did not feed on lichens according to their stable isotope signatures. No oribatid mite species could be ascribed to moss feeding. We conclude that sexual reproduction served as preadaptation for oribatid mites allowing them to exploit new habitats and new resources on the bark of trees. Abiotic factors likely are of limited importance for bark-living oribatid mites since harsh abiotic conditions are assumed to favor parthenogenesis. PMID:20490626

  20. Histopathological study of the mite biting (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry skin

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tavassoli, Mousa; Alimehr, Manochehr; Shokrpoor, Sara; Ghorbanzadeghan, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The red mite of poultry, Dremanyssus gallinae, is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite of poultry. In this study, pathologic changes of its biting on the poultry skin have been investigated. Thirty-two (Control = 16 and Treatment = 16) four weeks old Ross broilers (308) were infested with the mite on skin of hock joins. Samples were collected after 1, 24, 72 hours and 10 days. The skin samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and histological sections were prepared using routine Hematoxylin & Eosin staining method. Results showed that in all cases, except within first hour of infestation, lymphocytic infiltration was always a constant pathologic feature. Necrosis of feather's follicles was a prominent pathologic feature ensued due to vascular disturbances and resulted in loss of feather. Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and acanthosis were observed after 72 hours. These findings reveal that mite biting induces local epidermal hyperplasia. PMID:25610570

  1. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  2. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

  3. Dermatitis in a horse associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand

    2008-02-01

    This is the first documented case report of dermatitis associated with the poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in a horse. It occurred in a 16-year-old horse that was in contact with domestic hens. Clinical signs consisted of severe pruritus, with self-induced hair loss mainly on the head. Despite the multiple skin scrapings performed during both day- and nighttime, mites were only isolated from the in-contact poultry and from the horse's environment, and not the horse. The animal was treated using a 2% permethrin solution, sprayed on the entire body once a week for 4 weeks, and by decontamination of the horse's immediate environment. Although eradication of the mites and elimination of further contact between the horse and the poultry were not achievable, recurrence of dermatitis was prevented by regular applications of permethrin on the horse and biannual decontamination of the horse's stable. PMID:18177291

  4. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food.

  5. Contrasting diversity patterns of soil mites and nematodes in secondary succession

    SciTech Connect

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Newton, Jeffrey S. [University of Alberta, Edmondton, Canada; Bezemer, T Martijn [Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW); Maraun, Mark [University of Gottingen, Germany; van der Putten, Wim H. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW)

    2009-01-01

    Soil biodiversity has been recognized as a key feature of ecosystem functioning and stability. However, soil biodiversity is strongly impaired by agriculture and relatively little is known on how and at what spatial and temporal scales soil biodiversity is restored after the human disturbances have come to an end. Here, a multi-scale approach was used to compare diversity patterns of soil mites and nematodes at four stages (early, mid, late, reference site) along a secondary succession chronosequence from abandoned arable land to heath land. In each field four soil samples were taken during four successive seasons. We determined soil diversity within samples ({alpha}-diversity), between samples ({beta}-diversity) and within field sites ({gamma}-diversity). The patterns of {alpha}- and {gamma}-diversity developed similarly along the chronosequence for oribatid mites, but not for nematodes. Nematode {alpha}-diversity was highest in mid- and late-successional sites, while {gamma}-diversity was constant along the chronosequence. Oribatid mite {beta}-diversity was initially high, but decreased thereafter, whereas nematode {beta}-diversity increased when succession proceeded; indicating that patterns of within-site heterogeneity diverged for oribatid mites and nematodes. The spatio-temporal diversity patterns after land abandonment suggest that oribatid mite community development depends predominantly on colonization of new taxa, whereas nematode community development depends on shifts in dominance patterns. This would imply that at old fields diversity patterns of oribatid mites are mainly controlled by dispersal, whereas diversity patterns of nematodes are mainly controlled by changing abiotic or biotic soil conditions. Our study shows that the restoration of soil biodiversity along secondary successional gradients can be both scale- and phylum-dependent.

  6. Total IgE as a serodiagnostic marker to aid murine fur mite detection.

    PubMed

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-03-01

    Mites of 3 genera-Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia -continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  7. Total IgE as a Serodiagnostic Marker to Aid Murine Fur Mite Detection

    PubMed Central

    Roble, Gordon S; Boteler, William; Riedel, Elyn; Lipman, Neil S

    2012-01-01

    Mites of 3 genera—Myobia, Myocoptes, and Radfordia—continue to plague laboratory mouse facilities, even with use of stringent biosecurity measures. Mites often spread before diagnosis, predominantly because of detection difficulty. Current detection methods have suboptimal sensitivity, are time-consuming, and are costly. A sensitive serodiagnostic technique would facilitate detection and ease workload. We evaluated whether total IgE increases could serve as a serodiagnostic marker to identify mite infestations. Variables affecting total IgE levels including infestation duration, sex, age, mite species, soiled-bedding exposure, and ivermectin treatment were investigated in Swiss Webster mice. Strain- and pinworm-associated effects were examined by using C57BL/6 mice and Swiss Webster mice dually infested with Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera, respectively. Mite infestations led to significant increases in IgE levels within 2 to 4 wk. Total IgE threshold levels and corresponding sensitivity and specificity values were determined along the continuum of a receiver-operating characteristic curve. A threshold of 81 ng/mL was chosen for Swiss Webster mice; values above this point should trigger screening by a secondary, more specific method. Sex-associated differences were not significant. Age, strain, and infecting parasite caused variability in IgE responses. Mice exposed to soiled bedding showed a delayed yet significant increase in total IgE. Treatment with ivermectin reduced total IgE levels within 2 wk. Our data suggest that increases in total IgE in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice warrant investigation, especially because mite infestations can rapidly elevate total IgE levels. We propose that using total IgE levels routinely in serologic panels will enhance biosecurity. PMID:22776120

  8. Social familiarity modulates group living and foraging behaviour of juvenile predatory mites.

    PubMed

    Strodl, Markus A; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Environmental stressors during early life may have persistent consequences for phenotypic development and fitness. In group-living species, an important stressor during juvenile development is the presence and familiarity status of conspecific individuals. To alleviate intraspecific conflicts during juvenile development, many animals evolved the ability to discriminate familiar and unfamiliar individuals based on prior association and use this ability to preferentially associate with familiar individuals. Assuming that familiar neighbours require less attention than unfamiliar ones, as predicted by limited attention theory, assorting with familiar individuals should increase the efficiency in other tasks. We assessed the influence of social familiarity on within-group association behaviour, development and foraging of juvenile life stages of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. The observed groups consisted either of mixed-age familiar and unfamiliar juvenile mites or of age-synchronized familiar or unfamiliar juvenile mites or of pairs of familiar or unfamiliar larvae. Overall, familiar mites preferentially grouped together and foraged more efficiently, i.e. needed less prey at similar developmental speed and body size at maturity, than unfamiliar mites. Preferential association of familiar mites was also apparent in the inter-exuviae distances. Social familiarity was established by imprinting in the larval stage, was not cancelled or overridden by later conspecific contacts and persisted into adulthood. Life stage had an effect on grouping with larvae being closer together than nymphal stages. Ultimately, optimized foraging during the developmental phase may relax within-group competition, enhance current and future food supply needed for optimal development and optimize patch exploitation and leaving under limited food. PMID:22418859

  9. A MOLECULAR MARKER OF DATE-PALM (Phoenix dactylifera L) RESISTANCE TO BAYOUD DISEASE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trifi Mokhtar; Rhouma Abdelmajid; Marrakchi Mohamed

    Date-palm is one of the most important domesticated crops in the North African and the near East countries. However, date-palm plantations have been currently in danger to be completely destroyed by a vascular fusariosis (Bayoud disease) caused by the Fusarium oxysporum fsp albedinis fungus. Up today, Tunisian date-palm groves appear to be spared but for several decades, they are seriously

  10. Mapping palm extractivism in Ecuador using pair-wise comparisons and bioclimatic modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Borgtoft Pedersen; Flemming Skov

    2001-01-01

    The native palm flora of Ecuador consists of 129 taxa, including at least 69 species used by rural people, 19 of which are\\u000a exploited commercially. This paper integrates bioclimatic modeling of palm distribution and quantitative ranking through pair-wise\\u000a comparisons of species as a tool to evaluate and map the importance of 14 taxa of commercially exploited palms in Ecuador\\u000a based

  11. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from oil-palm stones for gas-phase adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aik Chong Lua; Jia Guo

    2001-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from oil-palm stones by carbon dioxide activation were studied in this paper. These oil-palm stones are agricultural by-products from palm-oil mills in several tropical countries. Ultimate and proximate analyses, pycnometry, mercury porosimetry, surface area and porosimetry as well as transmission electron microscopy were carried out for evaluating the textural properties of the activated carbons.

  12. Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Background With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm–pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Scope and Conclusions Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm–pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant–pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary implications across the entire family. PMID:21831852

  13. Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Livingston, George; Jha, Shalene; Vega, Andres; Gilbert, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2 km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5 km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1) oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2) orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features. PMID:24147137

  14. Developing functional foods using red palm olein. IV. Tocopherols and tocotrienols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamila M. Al-Saqer; Jiwan S. Sidhu; Suad N. Al-Hooti; Hanan A. Al-Amiri; Amani Al-Othman; Latifa Al-Haji; Nissar Ahmed; Isa B. Mansour; Johari Minal

    2004-01-01

    Two functional foods (pan bread and sugar-snap cookies), were prepared using red palm olein (RPOL) and red palm shortening (RPS) with the objective of providing higher amounts of antioxidant vitamin E in our diet. The total vitamin E contents in the palm oils used in this study were significantly higher (ranging from 717.8 to 817.5 mg\\/kg fat) than those in

  15. Inorganic phosphate in crude palm oil: Quantitative analysis and correlations with oil quality parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Goh; S. L. Tong; P. T. Gee

    1984-01-01

    A convenient method, not involving ashing or acid digestion, for the determination of inorganic phosphorus content in crude\\u000a palm oil, is developed. Direct extraction from solvent-diluted palm oil by dilute acid allows the inorganic phosphates to\\u000a be analyzed by the usual phosphomolybdenum blue complex. Using this method, phosphate analyses in palm oil samples were correlated\\u000a with other oil quality parameters

  16. Very long chain fatty acid methyl esters in transesterified palm oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Ah Ngan Ma; Cheng Hock Chuah

    2006-01-01

    Some unidentified minor compounds have been observed in the residue from short-path distillation of transesterified palm oil\\u000a that are not detected in the original palm oil. A method combining short-path distillation to enrich the unknowns with fractionation\\u000a using solid-phase extraction is described. The fractionated components were identified using GC coupled with MS. The transesterified\\u000a palm oil was found to contain

  17. First Record of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, Infesting Withania somnifera in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kumar Pati, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    During April–June 2010, red two—spotted carmine spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) were found on aerial apical parts of Ashwagandha Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Solanales: Solanaceae) plants in the Amritsar District of Punjab Province in the North Indian plains. The mites fed on the leaves, making them shiny white in color, which gradually dried off and were later shed. The pest was identified as T. urticae. To best of our knowledge, this is the first record of this pest infesting W. somnifera in India. PMID:22970740

  18. Disseminated mite infection with ocular involvement in a juvenile bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Bueno-Padilla, Irene; Klauss, Gia; Gardiner, Chris H; Wuenschmann, Arno

    2012-07-01

    A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found unable to fly and was admitted to The Raptor Center (TRC). Major clinical signs were thin body condition and a cardiac arrhythmia. Ten days after admission to TRC, ophthalmic examination revealed multiple, distinct serpiginous lesions of chorioretinal atrophy in the ocular fundus of the right eye (OD). The bird was euthanized because of clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Mites of an undetermined species were found histologically in the retina, episcleral tissues, lungs, and liver at the postmortem examination. Disseminated mite infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of serpiginous chorioretinal lesions in bald eagles (H. leucocephalus). PMID:22151197

  19. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together we found that N. paspalivorus controlled the populations of dry bulb mites both on the outer scale of the bulbs as well as in the interior part of the bulbs, whereas N. cucumeris significantly reduced the population of dry bulb mites on the outer scale, but not in the interior part of the bulb. Moreover, N. paspalivorus was found predominantly inside the bulb, whereas N. cucumeris was only found on the outer scale, thereby confirming our hypothesis that the small size of N. paspalivorus facilitates access to the interior of the bulbs. We argue that N. paspalivorus is a promising candidate for the biological control of dry bulb mites on tulip bulbs under storage conditions in the Netherlands. PMID:24509788

  20. Palm oil: biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: a review.

    PubMed

    Edem, D O

    2002-01-01

    The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular diseases has necessitated a growing research interest in palm oil, the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Palm oil, obtained from a tropical plant, Elaeis guineensis contains 50% saturated fatty acids, yet it does not promote atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to unity and it contains a high amount of the antioxidants, beta-carotene, and vitamin E. Although palm oil-based diets induce a higher blood cholesterol level than do corn, soybean, safflower seed, and sunflower oils, the consumption of palm oil causes the endogenous cholesterol level to drop. This phenomenon seems to arise from the presence of the tocotrienols and the peculiar isomeric position of its fatty acids. The benefits of palm oil to health include reduction in risk of arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis, inhibition of endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis, platelet aggregation, and reduction in blood pressure. Palm oil has been used in the fresh state and/or at various levels of oxidation. Oxidation is a result of processing the oil for various culinary purposes. However, a considerable amount of the commonly used palm oil is in the oxidized state, which poses potential dangers to the biochemical and physiological functions of the body. Unlike fresh palm oil, oxidized palm oil induces an adverse lipid profile, reproductive toxicity and toxicity of the kidney, lung, liver, and heart. This may be as a result of the generation of toxicants brought on by oxidation. In contrast to oxidized palm oil, red or refined palm oil at moderate levels in the diet of experimental animals promotes efficient utilization of nutrients, favorable body weight gains, induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, adequate hemoglobinization of red cells and improvement of immune function. Howerer, high palm oil levels in the diet induce toxicity to the liver as shown by loss of cellular radial architecture and cell size reductions which are corroborated by alanine transaminase to asparate transaminase ratios which are higher than unity. The consumtion of moderate amounts of palm oil and reduction in the level of oxidation may reduce the health risk believed to be associated with the consumption of palm oil. Red palm oil, by virtue of its beta-carotene content, may protect against vitamin A deficiency and certain forms of cancer. PMID:12602939

  1. Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-12-01

    The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

  2. The maturity of Nypa palm worm Namalycastis rhodochorde (Nereididae: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junardi, Anggraeni, Tjandra; Ridwan, Ahmad; Yuwono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    The Nypa Palm Worm Namalycastis rhodochorde has been used as bait for fishing and commercial species in Pontianak. Maturity is one important characteristic to learn the population dynamic and management. The Nypa Palm worm samples were collected from mangrove area in Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Fresh samples of gametes collected from the coelomic fluid were observed carefully under compound microscope for the initial determination of maturity. The presences of oocyte ?120?m in diameter and lipid droplet are the indication of female maturity, while free swimming spermatozoon in the body fluid is the indication of male maturity. Morphologically, the maturity of N. rhodochorde was indicated by the change of body color, softer and fragile body, yet no modified chaetae and heteronereid form.

  3. Gonads in Histiostoma mites (Acariformes: Astigmata): structure and development.

    PubMed

    Witali?ski, Wojciech; Ro?ej-Pabijan, El?bieta; Podkowa, Dagmara

    2014-07-01

    The development of male and female gonads in arrhenotokous and thelytokous species of Histiostoma was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All instars were examined: larvae, protonymphs, facultative heteromorphic deutonymphs (=hypopi), tritonymphs, and adults. In testis primordium, spermatogonia surrounding a testicular central cell (TCC) with a gradually enlarging, branched nucleus are present already at the larval stage. Spermatogonia and the TCC are connected via narrow, tubular intercellular bridges revealing that the TCC is a germline cell. Spermatocytes appear at the protonymphal stage. At the heteromorphic deutonymph stage, the testis primordium is similar to that of the protonymph, but in the tritonymph it is much larger and composed as in the adult: spermatids as well as sperm cells are present. The latter are congregated ventrally in the testis at the entrance of the deferent duct. In the larval ovary, an eccentrically located ovarian nutritive cell (ONC) is surrounded by oogonia which are connected with the ONC via tubular intercellular bridges. In later stages, the ovary grows and oocytes appear in the protonymph. Meiotic synaptonemal complexes in oocytes occur from the tritonymph stage. At about the time of the final molting, tubular intercellular bridges transform into peculiar diaphragm-crossed bridges known only in Histiostoma mites. In the adult female, growing oocytes at the end of previtellogenesis lose intercellular bridges and move ventro-laterally to the ovarian periphery towards the oviduct entrance. Vitellogenesis occurs in oviducts. Germinal cells in both the testis and ovary are embedded in a few somatic stroma cells which may be well discernible already in the larval ovary; in the testis, somatic stroma cells are evident not earlier than the end of the tritonymphal stage. The ovary has a thin wall of flat somatic cells, whereas the testis is covered by a basal lamina only. The obtained results suggest that gonads in Histiostoma and other Astigmata originate from two primordial cells only. PMID:24791695

  4. Auto Guided Oil Palm Planter by using multi-GNSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Aini, I.; W, Aimrun; Amin, M. S. M.; Ezrin, M. H.; Shafri, H. Z.

    2014-06-01

    Planting is one of the most important operations in plantation because it could affect the total area of productivity since it is the starting point in cultivation. In oil palm plantation, lining and spacing of oil palm shall be laid out and coincided with the topographic area and a system of drains. Conventionally, planting of oil palm will require the polarization process in order to prevent and overcome the lack of influence of the sun rise and get a regular crop row. Polarization is done after the completion of the opening area by using the spike wood with 1 m length painted at the top and 100 m length of wire. This process will generally require at least five persons at a time to pull the wire and carry the spikes while the other two persons will act as observer and spikes craftsmen respectively with the ability of the team is 3ha/day. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop the oil palm planting technique by using multi- GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Generally, this project will involve five main steps mainly; design of planting pattern by using SOLIDWORKS software, determine the boundary coordinate of planting area, georeference process with ArcGIS, stakeout process with Tracy software and finally marking up the location with the wooden spikes. The results proved that the multi- GNSS is capable to provide the high accuracy with less than 1 m in precise positioning system without augmentation data. With the ability of one person, time taken to complete 70 m × 50 m planting area is 290 min, which is 25 min faster than using GPS (Global Positioning System) only.

  5. Potential of Date Palm Micropropagation for Improving Small Farming Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ferry

    \\u000a The date palm multiplication by tissue culture is very helpful in some definite cases including the propagation of cultivars\\u000a resistant to diseases such as bayoud, propagation of rare and elite cultivars in high demand and propagation of new cultivars\\u000a adapted to particular ecological and socioeconomic conditions. However, several essential precautions must be taken to prevent\\u000a counterproductive and damaging results. It

  6. PRETREATMENT OF EMPTY PALM FRUIT BUNCH FOR LIGNIN DEGRADATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MAILIN MISSON; ROSLINDAWATI HARON; MOHD FADHZIR AHMAD KAMARODDIN; AISHAH SAIDINA

    The potential of three chemical pretreatment methods for lignin degradation of empty palm fruit bunch (EPFB) was investigated. In method 1, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) bases were exclusively used as degradation agents. In the second method, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was simultaneously added with the base while the third method H2O2 was consecutively added into the EPFB-base mixtures

  7. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  8. Basic properties of palm oil biodiesel–diesel blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Benjumea; John Agudelo; Andrés Agudelo

    2008-01-01

    The basic properties of several palm oil biodiesel–diesel fuel blends were measured according to the corresponding ASTM standards. In order to predict these properties, mixing rules are evaluated as a function of the volume fraction of biodiesel in the blend. Kay’s mixing rule is used for predicting density, heating value, three different points of the distillation curve (T10, T50 and

  9. Stiffness gradients in vascular bundles of the palm Washingtonia robusta

    PubMed Central

    Rüggeberg, Markus; Speck, Thomas; Paris, Oskar; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Koch, Gerald; Burgert, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    Palms can grow at sites exposed to high winds experiencing large dynamic wind and gust loads. Their stems represent a system of stiff fibrous elements embedded in the soft parenchymatous tissue. The proper design of the interface of the stiffening elements and the parenchyma is crucial for the functioning of the stem. The strategy of the palm to compromise between stiff fibre caps and the soft parenchymatous tissue may serve as a model system for avoiding stress discontinuities in inhomogeneous and anisotropic fibre-reinforced composite materials. We investigated the mechanical, structural and biochemical properties of the fibre caps of the palm Washingtonia robusta at different levels of hierarchy with high spatial resolution. A gradual decrease in stiffness across the fibre cap towards the surrounding parenchymatous tissue was observed. Structural adaptations at the tissue level were found in terms of changes in cell cross sections and cell wall thickness. At the cell wall level, gradients across the fibre cap were found in the degree of orientation of the microfibrils and in the lignin level and composition. The impact of these structural variations in the local material stiffness distribution is discussed. PMID:18595839

  10. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    PubMed

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided. PMID:8194783

  11. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  12. Sweating on the palm and sole: physiological and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Masato; Poudel, Anupama; Hirano, Shigeki

    2015-06-01

    In mammals, sweating is a multifunctional response that aids in locomotion, thermal regulation, self-protection, and communication of psychological state. Humans possess three types of sweat glands (apocrine, eccrine, and apoeccrine) that are differentially distributed on the body surface and make unique contributions to these distinct functions of the sweating response. In humans, eccrine glands, which are widely distributed on hairy skin, play an important role in thermoregulation. They are also found on the glabrous skin of the palm and sole, where they are not usually activated by heat, but rather by deep respiration, mental stress, and local tactile stimulation. Sweating on the palm and sole, so-called "emotional sweating", acts to prevent slippage while grasping or performing a delicate task using the fingertips. Although the central pathways of emotional sweating are not yet elucidated in detail, it is thought that the amygdala, cingulate cortex, and medulla participate via efferent fibers that descend through the spinal cord and connect to preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the nucleus intermediolateralis. The limbic system, including the amygdala and cingulate cortex, is critical for emotional processing and many cognitive functions. Thus, measurement of sweat output on the palm or sole is useful for evaluating sympathetic function and limbic activity in autonomic and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25894655

  13. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    PubMed

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA. PMID:23575803

  14. Predicting the Potential Worldwide Distribution of the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using Ecological Niche Modeling

    E-print Network

    Fiaboe, K. K. M.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kairo, M. T. K.; Roda, A. L.

    2012-09-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), ranks among the most important pests of various palm species. The pest originates from South and Southeast Asia, but has expanded ...

  15. Predation, development, and oviposition by the predatory mite Amblyseius swirkii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on tomato russet mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Hong-Hyun; Shipp, Les; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije

    2010-06-01

    Predation, development, and oviposition experiments were conducted to evaluate Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential biological control agent for tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae), which can be a serious pest of greenhouse tomatoes. Results showed that A. swirskii attacked all developmental stages of A. lycopersici and had a type II functional response at the prey densities tested. The attack rate and handling time estimates from the random predator equation were 0.1289/h and 0.2320 h, respectively, indicating that A. swirskii can consume 103.4 individuals per day. Predation rates of A. swirskii on A. lycopersici in the presence of alternative food sources such as pollen, first-instar thrips, or whitefly eggs were 74, 56, and 76%, respectively, compared with the predation rate on A. lycopersici alone. A. swirskii successfully completed their life cycle on either A. lycopersici or cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen. At 25 degrees C and 70% RH, developmental time of female A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici or on cattail pollen was 4.97 and 6.16 d, respectively. For the first 10 d after molting to the adult stage, A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici had higher daily oviposition rate (2.0 eggs per day) than on pollen (1.5 eggs per day). From this laboratory study, it can be concluded that A. swirskii has promising traits as a predator against A. lycopersici and that their populations can be maintained using alternative food sources such as cattail pollen. We suggest that the effectiveness of A. swirskii against A. lycopersici under field conditions needs next to be investigated. PMID:20568599

  16. Differentiation of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from Phoenix canadensis (Canary Island Date Palm) by vegetative compatibility grouping and molecular analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. V. Gunn; B. A. Summerell

    2002-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island Date Palm) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc). The disease occurs worldwide, including Australia where hundreds of palms have been killed. Isolates of Foc were collected from fronds of diseased palms at sites around Sydney and different parts (non-frond) of individual palms within\\u000a a site. Three techniques were used to

  17. Chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm\\/jute fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jawaid; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil; A. Abu Bakar; P. Noorunnisa Khanam

    2011-01-01

    Tri layer hybrid composites of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and jute fibres was prepared by keeping oil palm EFB as skin material and jute as the core material and vice versa. The chemical resistance, void content and tensile properties of oil palm EFB\\/Jute composites was investigated with reference to the relative weight of oil palm EFB\\/Jute, i.e. 4:1,

  18. Ohio State University Extension Bulletin Insect and Mite Control on Woody Ornamentals and Herbaceous Perennials

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Ohio State University Extension Bulletin Insect and Mite Control on Woody Ornamentals The Ohio State University/OARDC 1680 Madison Avenue Wooster, Ohio Contents * Introduction * Making mentioned, nor is criticism meant for products not mentioned. The authors and The Ohio State University

  19. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  20. Immunologic responses following respiratory sensitization to house dust mite allergens in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M O'Brien; Marcus AY Ooi; Amanda H Clarke; Wayne R Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Allergens from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are a major cause of human respiratory diseases, including asthma. In order to help in understanding the early events in allergen sensitization, a murine model of allergic respiratory disease was developed. Mice were immunized by intranasal inoculation of Der p 1 or Der p 2 on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14,

  1. Intermediate Levels of Resistance to Tracheal Mites in Crosses Between Resistant and Susceptible Strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays and sampling of field colonies were used to test the hypothesis that the resistance to tracheal mites in Russian honey bees is a dominant trait. Earlier studies with Buckfast bees as a resistant parent had suggested dominance or partial dominance in their crosses with either a Canadian su...

  2. Olfactoryresponse of the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to methyl salicylate in laboratory bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...

  3. Parasitism of Sympetrum dragonies by Arrenurus planus mites: maintenance of resistance particular to one species

    E-print Network

    Smith, Bruce

    ¯y species (Sympetrum internum) has an eective resistance, not seen previously in other odonates, to a mite to Sympetrum internum, in part because other host species are available. We further argue that this pattern is possibly linked to the fact that the mode of resistance is relatively novel, and because Sympetrum internum

  4. Grape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Department of Entomology

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Grape Insect and mite pests-2012 field season Greg Loeb Department of Entomology Cornell University insect feeding damage on the fruit that remains. Here I am thinking specifically about grape berry moth to sell the crop, be aware that we tend to see much higher levels of grape berry moth damage (increased

  5. Mite-filled cyst on a Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Marilyn G; Mertins, James W; Reetz, Matthew J; Keacher, Kandy L; Avery, Michael L; Greiner, Ellis C

    2010-10-01

    A large, partly pedunculated mass on the scapular area of a wild-caught captive Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) consisted of a multiloculated keratin cyst inhabited by a new species of harpirhynchid mite (Harpirhynchus quasimodo). The mass did not interfere with flight or behavior. This is the first record of such an infestation of cowbirds in Florida. PMID:20966280

  6. Global spread of wheat curl mite by the most polyphagous and pestiferous lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella, is an important pest of wheat and other cereal crops that transmits wheat streak mosaic virus and several other plant viruses. WCM has long been considered a single polyphagous species, but recent studies in Poland revealed a complex of genetically disti...

  7. New mite-borne virus isolates from rakkyo, shallot and wild leek species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul van Dijk; René A. A. van der Vlugt

    1994-01-01

    Flexuous viruses were transmitted from rakkyo (Allium chinense) and wild leek species (especiallyA. commutatum) to plants of crow garlic (A. vineale), by transfer of dry bulb mites. By electron microscope decoration tests using three antisera and by inoculations onto test plants, it was concluded that from each of the two natural host species at least two viruses were isolated. The

  8. The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778): current situation and future prospects for control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Chauve

    1998-01-01

    The current importance of Dermanyssus gallinae, mainly in egg layer, in Europe is pointed out. The limits of conventional control methods are underlined (development of mite resistance – future insecticide legislation and animal welfare legislation). Alternative control methods such as feeding deterrents or biological control, are reviewed in the context of poultry pest management.

  9. DIESEL AND CARBON PARTICLES ENHANCE HOUSE DUST MITE-INDUCED PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY IN BROWN NORWAY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel and Carbon Particles Enhance House Dust Mite-Induced Pulmonary Hypersensitivity in Brown Norway Rats. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels2, D. Winsett2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, M. Madden2 and M.I. Gilmour2. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC and 2 USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. Ep...

  10. Studies on population dynamics of the scarlet mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, a pest of tea in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Oomen

    1982-01-01

    Tea is the national drink of Indonesia. The habitual consumption prevents intestinal infections; the production provides many Indonesians with a living. The production is affected by scarlet mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis GEIJSKES), an important pest of tropical and subtropical crops. It is one of the main pests of tea in Indonesia and inhabits virtually all tea bushes. The factors restricting the

  11. Chompy: An infestation of MITE-like repetitive elements in the crocodilian genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Ray; Dale J. Hedges; Scott W. Herke; Justin D. Fowlkes; Erin W. Barnes; Daniel K. LaVie; Lindsey M. Goodwin; Llewellyn D. Densmore; Mark A. Batzer

    2005-01-01

    Interspersed repeats are a major component of most eukaryotic genomes and have an impact on genome size and stability, but the repetitive element landscape of crocodilian genomes has not yet been fully investigated. In this report, we provide the first detailed characterization of an interspersed repeat element in any crocodilian genome. Chompy is a putative miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE)

  12. Acaricidal Effect of some Pesticides against the Red Spider Mite Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Tripathi; Shri Ram

    1970-01-01

    Six pesticides, viz. dicofol, binapacryl, carbophenothion, lime-sulphur solution, dimethoate and phosalone, each at four different concentrations, were tested against the red spider mite Oligonychus coffeae Nietner. All except lime-sulphur were found to be effective acaricides, and all except lime-sulphur and dimethoate were also ovicidal.

  13. Evaluation of certain leaf extracts against red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acarina: Tetranychidae) infesting tea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Duraikannu Vasanthakumar; Amsalingam Roobakkumar; Mariappan S. R. Subramaniam; Pandian Kumar; Chandran Sundaravadivelan; Azariah Babu

    2012-01-01

    Leaf extracts of some common plants such as Vitex negundo (Linn. & Paracetamol), Gliricidia maculata (HBK), Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck), Morinda tinctoria (Roxb) and Pongamia glabra (Vent) were evaluated for their acaricidal activity against the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae, in the laboratory using the leaf disc method under controlled conditions. Leaves collected from the above mentioned plants were shade-dried followed

  14. Further experimental proof of thelytokous parthenogenesis in oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida: Desmonomata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra C. Palmer; Roy A. Norton

    1990-01-01

    Based on available sex-ratio data, and a few published laboratory proofs, it appears that thelytokous parthenogenesis is probably widespread in the oribatid mites. It is especially common in early-derivative taxa, such as the Desmonomata, where it seems to characterize whole families. Fifteen species of that group were proven capable of parthenogenesis by rearing immatures in groups or in isolation, and

  15. Combination studies of selected acaricides with zineb, mancozeb, or carbamate for mite control on citrus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl C. Childers

    1990-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted between 1981 and 1988 to evaluate the potential of zineb (zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate), mancozeb (a coordination product of zinc ion and manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate) and carbamate (ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate) in combination with one or more of the following acaricides: ethion, chlorpyrifos, dicofol, chlorobenzilate, propargite or formetanate for the control of the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead)

  16. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weedy Plants and Challenges for Future Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant...

  17. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weedy Plants and Challenges for Future Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. In the past 20 years 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation but only four have been authorized for introduction. Prior to this, three species were success...

  18. Phytophagous mites – a potential threat to medicinal plants in Kerala, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinathi Sheela; Niravath Ramani

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a brief survey of mites infesting medicinal plants in the Kannur district of Kerala state in south India. Six species, damaging five species of important medicinal plants, were found. These species included Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis Geij. 1939 (Tenuipalpidae) and four Eriophyid species, Paratetra murrayae ChannaBasavanna 1966, Anthocoptes vitexae Mohanasundaram 1981, Aceriasp.

  19. Leaf hairs influence searching efficiency and predation rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. E. Krips; P. W. Kleijn; P. E. L. Willems; G. J. Z. Gols; M. Dicke

    1999-01-01

    The effect of leaf hairs on searching efficiency of adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis was investigated. For this purpose we used the ornamental crop Gerbera jamesonii and determined the predator's searching efficiency on three cultivars that differ largely in the density of leaf hairs on the undersurface of the leaves. Walking speed of the mites was highest on the cultivar with

  20. Phylogeny and evolution of parasitism in feather mites of the families Epidermoptidae and Dermationidae (Acari: Analgoidea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei V. Mironov; Andre V. Bochkov; Alex Fain

    2005-01-01

    A phylogenetic reconstruction of feather mites of the epidermoptid complex (Analgoidea: Epidermoptidae, Dermationidae, and Knemidocoptidae) was carried out by methods of parsimony-based cladistics. The epidermoptid complex splits into two major branches, Epidermoptidae and Dermationidae. The family Dermationidae is monophyletic, while the Epidermoptidae, as previously defined, is paraphyletic. The family Knemidocoptidae is reduced to the subfamilial rank because it arises from

  1. Bees with Varroa Sensitive Hygiene preferentially remove mite infested pupae aged ? five days post capping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey W. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Summary Suppressed Mite Reproduction (SMR) is a trait of honey bees that provides resistance to Varroa destructor. The mechanism of resistance in SMR bees is the removal of infested pupae from capped brood, so a better name is VSH bees (acronym for Varroa Sensitive Hygiene). This study compared the removal of infested brood by VSH and control bees to determine

  2. Mites attack males of the sexually polymorphic tree Acer opalus more harmfully and more often

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. VERDU; P. GARCIA-FAYOS; G. GLEISER

    2004-01-01

    Summary 1. Theory predicts that plants that achieve fitness more through male function may be less tolerant of herbivory than those that achieve fitness through the female function. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the degree of infection and damage inflicted by the gall-forming eriophyid mite Aceria macrorhynchus on three different sexual morphs (males, protandrous bisexuals and protogynous bisexuals) of

  3. The rice mite Steneotarsonemus Spinki Smiley – an invasive species in the Americas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous mites are prone to become Invasive Alien Species (IAS) in agricultural systems due to their feeding damage on plants, ability to vector plant disease, rapid development of resistance to pesticides, difficult detection, capacity to survive adverse conditions, parthenogenesis and adaptati...

  4. Identification of the Wheat Curl Mite as the Vector of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus found infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer) and the bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. ) could transmit TriMV. Using diffe...

  5. SURVIVAL OF WHEAT CURL MITES ON DIFFERENT SOURCES OF RESISTANCE IN WHEAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat yield is limited by wheat streak mosaic virus which is vectored by the wheat curl mite (WCM) Aceria tosicheilla (Keifer).Host resistance to WCM has reduced losses. This study evaluated the effectiveness of resistance in wheat to WCM collected from various locations in the Great Plains. Collect...

  6. OBSERVATIONS ON MITES OF THE ASIAN HONEYBEE SPECIES (Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, Apis florea)

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    OBSERVATIONS ON MITES OF THE ASIAN HONEYBEE SPECIES (Apis cerana, Apis dorsata, Apis florea) N and phoretic on bees, was present in considerable numbers on all species of Asian honeybees (A. cerana, A the Western honeybee Apis mellifera was introduced into many countries of Asia these colonies

  7. Five new species of quill wall mites from European birds (Astigmata: Laminosioptidae: Fainocoptinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Lukoschus; H. A. P. M. Lombert

    1980-01-01

    A new genus (Rallicoptes ) and five new species of quill wall mites are described and figured. The new species are: Fainocoptes columbicola and F. miniopterus from Streptopelia decaocto, F. palumbi from Columba palumbus, Calamicoptes monedulae from Corvus monedula, and Rallicoptes gal linulae from Gallinula chloropus. Biology of F. miniopterus and reactions of the host (S. decaocto) are given in

  8. Effects of microwave radiation on house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Ernieenor, F C L; Ho, T M

    2010-11-01

    Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae mites are commonly found in house dust, and are important sources of allergens affecting humans. Various approaches to killing the mites have been examined. This study investigated the mortalities of adult mites exposed to 2,450 MHz microwave radiation produced by 3 ovens at various exposure times and power settings. The ovens all had 3 power settings. The average maximum water temperatures generated at high, medium and low power settings were 99.4 +/- 0.2, 84.1 +/- 0.4 and 44.8 +/- 0.9 degrees C, respectively. At high and medium settings, there was 100.0% mortality in both species when exposed for 300 seconds. The mean mortality rates at low power were 10.8 +/- 0.7% for D. pteronyssinus and 9.7 +/- 2.6% for D. farinae. When mites were exposed in the presence of culture media, the mortality rates decreased with increasing weight of media. The mean mortality with the largest amount of media tested at high power setting was 61.4%. PMID:21329308

  9. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  10. Screening for bacterial contaminants in a Beauveria bassiana-based biopesticide against varroa mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a collaborative effort to develop a biopesticide against varroa, strains of entomopathogenic fungus, a Beauveria bassiana isolate was isolated from varroa mites found in beehives in France and tested in bioassays at the European Biological Control Laboratory. This isolate was shown to be virulent...

  11. SURVIVAL OF THE HOUSE DUST MITE, DERMATOPHAGOIDES FARINAE, AT HIGH TEMPERATURES (40-80°C)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the survival time of randomly selected female D. farinae exposed to temperatures from 40 to 80 degrees C and relative humidities (RHs) between 10 and 90%. Significant temperature effects were found on the length of time mites can survive at ...

  12. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on an invasive lady beetle: parasite coexistence and influence on host survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmonia axyridis is an invasive generalist predator originating in Asia, but now distributed in North and South America, Europe and southern Africa. The naturally occurring enemies (parasites, pathogens, parasitoids) that attack H. axyridis are not well-known. A parasitic mite, Coccipolipus hippoda...

  13. Patterns of population genetic structure for springtails and mites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela McGaughran; Ian D. Hogg; Mark I. Stevens

    2008-01-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene to examine comparative phylogeographic patterns for the springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni and the mite Stereotydeus mollis throughout their ranges in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Our aim was to extend previous genetic work to encompass a large ice-free area in the Dry Valleys. In particular, we sought to determine if

  14. Toxicity and Repellency of Hot Pepper Extracts to Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE F. ANTONIOUS; JANET E. MEYER; JOHN C. SNYDER

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern about persistence and environmental impact of synthetic pesticide residues require development of biodegradable and environmentally safe alternatives. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Twenty-four Capsicum accessions (Solanaceae) were screened for their toxicity and repellency to the

  15. Growing hot pepper for cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George F. Antonious; Janet E. Meyer; Jami A. Rogers; Yoon-Hyeon Hu

    2007-01-01

    With the public perception that synthetic pesticides leave harmful residues in crop produce for human consumption, there has been increased interest in using natural products for pest control. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper for controlling the cabbage looper, Trichopulsia ni (Hübner) and spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch is explored in this investigation. Crude extracts from fruits

  16. Cannibalism and Intraguild Predation Among Phytoseiid Mites: Are Aggressiveness and Prey Preference Related to Diet Specialization?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schausberger; Brian A. Croft

    2000-01-01

    We tested whether specialist and generalist phytoseiid mites differ in aggressiveness and prey choice in cannibalism and intraguild predation. Specialists tested were Galendromus occidentalis, Neoseiulus longispinosus, Phytoseiulus persimilis, and P. macropilis; tested were Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, E. hibisci, Kampimodromus aberrans, Neoseiulus barkeri, N. californicus, N. cucumeris, N. fallacis, and Typhlodromus pyri. Aggressiveness of cannibalistic females against larvae was not

  17. Arrenurus hamrumi (Hydrachnida: Arrenuridae), a new species of water mite from rangeland springs in Central Oregon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey M. Anderson; Ian M. Smith

    1996-01-01

    A faunal survey of spring habitats in rangeland springs in central Oregon yielded a new species of water mite in the genus Arrenurus (Hydrachnidae: Arrenuridae). Through a combination of field collections and laboratory rearing the larva, deutonymph, male and female were associated and described. Arrenurus (Arrenurus) hamrumi, sp. nov. parasitizes adults of the damselfly Argia vivida Hagen, which is a

  18. DNA-binding specificity of rice mariner-like transposases and interactions with Stowaway MITEs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cedric Feschotte; Mark T. Osterlund; Ryan Peeler; Susan R. Wessler

    2005-01-01

    Mariner-like elements (MLEs) are DNA transposons found throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. A previous computational survey of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome sequence revealed 34 full length MLEs (Osmars) belonging to 25 distinct families. This survey, which also identified sequence similar- ities between the Osmar elements and the Stowaway superfamily of MITEs, led to the formulation of a hypothesis

  19. Two new species of oribatid mites of the genus Truncozetes (Acari, Oribatida, Epactozetidae) from Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Sandmann, Dorothee; Marian, Franca; Maraun, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new oribatid mite species of the genus Truncozetes (Oribatida, Epactozetidae), Truncozetes ecuadoriensis sp. n. and Truncozetes monodactylus sp. n., are described from the Ecuadorian soils. The morphology of the gnathosoma and the legs is presented in detail for the first time for the species of Truncozetes. An identification key to all known species of the family Epactozetidae is given. PMID:23794901

  20. OLD BROOD COMBS ARE MORE INFESTED BY THE MITE VARROA JACOBSONI THAN NEW BROOD COMBS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. PICCIRILLO; D. DE JONG

    Usually, drone cells and worker brood cells with larger diameters are preferred by the mite Varroa jacobsoni. We studied the infestation rate in different types of worker cells in eight africanized honey bee colonies. New brood combs (NC) built naturally by the africanized honey bees and old brood combs (OC) with relatively smaller cells were placed in the same colony,

  1. Combined versus Single Species Release of Predaceous Mites: Predator–Predator Interactions and Pest Suppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Schausberger; A Walzer

    2001-01-01

    Interactions such as competition, intraguild predation (IGP), and cannibalism affect the development and coexistence of predator populations and can have significance for biological control of commonly exploited pest organisms. We studied the consequences of combined versus single release of two predaceous mite species (Phytoseiidae), with differing degrees of diet specialization, on their population dynamics and the suppression of the carmine

  2. Competitive Interactions Between Two Pest Species of Earth Mites, Halotydeus destructor and Penthaleus major (Acarina: Penthaleidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Hoffmann

    2000-01-01

    Competition was investigated between two pest earth mite species, Penthaleus major Duges and Halotydeus destructor Tucker, which occur sympatrically and are major pests of southern Australian pastures and crops. Three geographically separate pasture sites within Victoria were sampled monthly. Abundance patterns were similar across sites in that there was a marked increase in numbers of H. destructor in spring. Field

  3. Feeding preferences and gut contents of three panphytophagous oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Hubert; Martina Žilová; Stano Pekár

    2001-01-01

    The panphytophagous oribatid mites Scheloribates laevigatus, Achipteria coleoptrata and Galumna elimata were reared under laboratory conditions on the green bark alga Desmococcus vulgaris (syn. Protococcus viridis), grass and herb litter (Holcus lanatus, Hypericum maculatum and Acetosella vulgaris) including fungi growing on the litter, and filter paper. Food preferences, defaecation, gut contents and types of food boli were studied in order

  4. Adaptation in the Asexual False Spider Mite Brevipalpus phoenicis : Evidence for Frozen Niche Variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas V. M. Groot; Arne Janssen; Angelo Pallini; Johannes A. J. Breeuwer

    2005-01-01

    Because asexual species lack recombination, they have little opportunity to produce genetically variable offspring and cannot adapt to changes in their environment. However, a number of asexual species are very successful and appear to contradict this general view. One such species is the phytophagous mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), a species that is found in a wide range of environments. There

  5. CURRENT RESEARCH ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF AVOCADO INSECT AND MITE PESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. McMurtry

    1961-01-01

    Fortunately, most of the injurious insects and mites on avocados are kept at low levels by parasites or predators. There are a Few pests, however, that are not always effectively controlled by natural enemies, so that damage to the tree or fruit may result, and the use of insecticides is contemplated. Inasmuch as insecticidal treatment can upset the natural balance

  6. Reproductive compatibility between mite populations previously identified as Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Noronha, Aloyséia Cristina da Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the reproductive compatibility between populations of predatory mites previously identified as Euseius concordis (Chant) based on morphological characteristics. Colonies of these mite populations were established in the lab with specimens collected from different localities and host plants. Reproductive compatibility was evaluated through crosses and backcrosses within and between populations and the subsequent observation of females' oviposition, over a period of 10 days. The levels of oviposition obtained in the crosses between individuals from the same population were higher than those obtained in the crosses between individuals from different populations. Results indicate the occurrence of post-mating reproductive incompatibility between the mite population from Petrolina and the other populations studied. Crosses and backcrosses between populations involving female mites from Petrolina did not produce offspring, although endospermatophores were present inside the spermathecas of those females. Oviposition was reduced, and only sons were obtained, in crosses between populations with males from Petrolina. Crosses of females from Pontes e Lacerda and males from Jaguariúna and vice versa produced only male progeny. Our results established that the populations originating from Arroio do Meio, Pontes e Lacerda, Jaguarúna and Viçosa, are reproductively compatible. However, the latter populations and the population from Petrolina are genetically isolated. Based on these results we suggest that more cytological and genetic studies are needed to establish if this reproductive isolation represents a species barrier. PMID:15176732

  7. CONTINENTAL COMPARISONS OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN CLIMATE AND THE HERBIVOROUS MITE, FLORACARUS PERREPAE (ACARI: ERIOPHYIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum, is an invasive weed in the Florida Everglades and the leaf roll galling mite, Floracarus perrepae, is a proposed biological control agent. Field studies were conducted for one to two years at sites in its native range in Australia, New Caledonia, ...

  8. Genetic architecture of resistance to aphids and mites in a willow hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Czesak, M E; Knee, M J; Gale, R G; Bodach, S D; Fritz, R S

    2004-12-01

    Hybrid plants often differ in resistance to arthropods compared to the parental species from which they are derived. To better understand the relative contribution of genetic effects in influencing plant resistance to arthropods, we examined the genetic architecture of resistance in a willow hybrid system, Salix eriocephala, S. sericea, and their interspecific hybrids. Resistance to two arthropods, a willow leaf aphid (Chaitophorus sp.: Aphididae) and an eriophyoid mite (Aculops tetanothrix: Eriophyidae), were compared because resistance to different herbivores may be controlled by different traits and influenced by different genetic effects. We found additive and nonadditive genetic effects to be important in explaining the difference between willow species in resistance to aphids and mites. F2 hybrids exhibited low resistance to aphids, suggesting breakdown of favourable epistatic interactions that confer resistance. F2 hybrids, however, exhibited high resistance to mites, suggesting either the breakdown of interactions that affect traits used by mites in host location or the creation of favourable epistatic interactions. This study demonstrates the potential role of herbivores in affecting plant genetic structure, such that selection by herbivores can potentially lead to the creation of gene interactions that influence host resistance traits or host recognition traits used by the herbivore. PMID:15354192

  9. Mite dispersal among the Southern Ocean Islands and Antarctica before the last glacial maximum

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, E.; Jansen van Vuuren, B.; Lee, J. E.; Marshall, D. J.; Convey, P.; Chown, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been maintained that the majority of terrestrial Antarctic species are relatively recent, post last glacial maximum, arrivals with perhaps a few microbial or protozoan taxa being substantially older. Recent studies have questioned this ‘recolonization hypothesis’, though the range of taxa examined has been limited. Here, we present the first large-scale study for mites, one of two dominant terrestrial arthropod groups in the region. Specifically, we provide a broad-scale molecular phylogeny of a biologically significant group of ameronothroid mites from across the maritime and sub-Antarctic regions. Applying different dating approaches, we show that divergences among the ameronothroid mite genera Podacarus, Alaskozetes and Halozetes significantly predate the Pleistocene and provide evidence of independent dispersals across the Antarctic Polar Front. Our data add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that many taxa have survived glaciation of the Antarctic continent and the sub-Antarctic islands. Moreover, they also provide evidence of a relatively uncommon trend of dispersals from islands to continental mainlands. Within the ameronothroid mites, two distinct clades with specific habitat preferences (marine intertidal versus terrestrial/supralittoral) exist, supporting a model of within-habitat speciation rather than colonization from marine refugia to terrestrial habitats. The present results provide additional impetus for a search for terrestrial refugia in an area previously thought to have lacked ice-free ground during glacial maxima. PMID:20943685

  10. A case of Pyemotes dermatitis. With a note on the role of these mites in skin disease.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, M; Barrow, G I; Miller, D C; Turk, S M

    1976-04-01

    Acute dermatitis developed in a fisherman after contact with old cherry-wood. A Pyemotes mite, probably P. beckeri, found in the wood, was thought to be responsible--thus illustrating the importance of appropriate laboratory examinations for ectoparasites. Human skin erruptions caused by indigenous, in contrast to imported, Pyemotes species have not previously been reported in Britain. These tarsonemoid mites attack small insect hosts and their possible role in dermatoses is discussed. Dermatitis caused by these mites is probably world-wide in distribution, but during the last century the confusing acarological nomenclature surrounding Pyemotes has resulted in an equally confusing variety of dermatological diagnoses. PMID:1268056

  11. The Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Does Not Perceive Odor Mixtures As Strictly Elemental Objects

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijn, Paulien J. A.; Sabelis, Maurice W.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoseiulus persimilis is a predatory mite that in absence of vision relies on the detection of herbivore-induced plant odors to locate its prey, the two-spotted spider-mite Tetranychus urticae. This herbivorous prey is feeding on leaves of a wide variety of plant species in different families. The predatory mites respond to numerous structurally different compounds. However, typical spider-mite induced plant compounds do not attract more predatory mites than plant compounds not associated with prey. Because the mites are sensitive to many compounds, components of odor mixtures may affect each other’s perception. Although the response to pure compounds has been well documented, little is known how interactions among compounds affect the response to odor mixtures. We assessed the relation between the mites’ responses elicited by simple mixtures of two compounds and by the single components of these mixtures. The preference for the mixture was compared to predictions under three conceptual models, each based on one of the following assumptions: (1) the responses elicited by each of the individual components can be added to each other; (2) they can be averaged; or (3) one response overshadows the other. The observed response differed significantly from the response predicted under the additive response, average response, and overshadowing response model in 52, 36, and 32% of the experimental tests, respectively. Moreover, the behavioral responses elicited by individual compounds and their binary mixtures were determined as a function of the odor concentration. The relative contribution of each component to the behavioral response elicited by the mixture varied with the odor concentration, even though the ratio of both compounds in the mixture was kept constant. Our experiments revealed that compounds that elicited no response had an effect on the response elicited by binary mixtures that they were part of. The results are not consistent with the hypothesis that P. persimilis perceives odor mixtures as a collection of strictly elemental objects. They suggest that odor mixtures rather are perceived as one synthetic whole. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9858-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20872172

  12. Mechanical properties and fabrication of small boat using woven glass\\/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Misri; Z Leman; S M Sapuan; M R Ishak

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, sugar palm fibre has been found to have great potential to be used as fibre reinforcement in polymer matrix composites. This research investigates the mechanical properties of woven glass\\/sugar palm fibres reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite. The composite specimens made of different layer of fibres such as strand mat, natural and hand woven of sugar palm fibres.

  13. Wednesday, June 6, 2001 [Fwd: 9th REQUEST: Is there any documentation of the Palm Pilot = refrigerator energy use claim?

    E-print Network

    Wednesday, June 6, 2001 [Fwd: 9th REQUEST: Is there any documentation of the Palm Pilot: Is there any documentation of the Palm Pilot = refrigerator energy use claim?] Date: Wed, 06 Jun 2001 10 by the wireless Palm Pilot as 1000 to 2000 kWh per year). I have never seen any documentation of this claim

  14. Birth of Three Stowaway-like MITE Families via Microhomology-Mediated Miniaturization of a Tc1/Mariner Element in the Yellow Fever Mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guojun; Fattash, Isam; Lee, Chia-Ni; Liu, Kun; Cavinder, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain numerous DNA transposons that move by a cut-and-paste mechanism. The majority of these elements are self-insufficient and dependent on their autonomous relatives to transpose. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are often the most numerous nonautonomous DNA elements in a higher eukaryotic genome. Little is known about the origin of these MITE families as few of them are accompanied by their direct ancestral elements in a genome. Analyses of MITEs in the yellow fever mosquito identified its youngest MITE family, designated as Gnome, that contains at least 116 identical copies. Genome-wide search for direct ancestral autonomous elements of Gnome revealed an elusive single copy Tc1/Mariner-like element, named as Ozma, that encodes a transposase with a DD37E triad motif. Strikingly, Ozma also gave rise to two additional MITE families, designated as Elf and Goblin. These three MITE families were derived at different times during evolution and bear internal sequences originated from different regions of Ozma. Upon close inspection of the sequence junctions, the internal deletions during the formation of these three MITE families always occurred between two microhomologous sites (6–8 bp). These results suggest that multiple MITE families may originate from a single ancestral autonomous element, and formation of MITEs can be mediated by sequence microhomology. Ozma and its related MITEs are exceptional candidates for the long sought-after endogenous active transposon tool in genetic control of mosquitoes. PMID:24068652

  15. House dust mite allergy in Korea: the most important inhalant allergen in current and future.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2012-11-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23115727

  16. House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23115727

  17. Terpinen-4-ol is the Most Active Ingredient of Tea Tree Oil to Kill Demodex Mites

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Sean; Gao, Ying-Ying; Tseng, Scheffer C. G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the active ingredient in tea tree oil (TTO) responsible for its reported killing effect on Demodex mites, the most common ectoparasite found in the human skin extending to the eye. Methods Using a reported in vitro killing assay to measure the survival time of adult Demodex folliculorum up to 150 minutes, we have screened serial concentrations of 13 of the 15 known ingredients of TTO (ISO4730:2004) that were soluble in mineral oil and examined their synergistic relationships in killing mites. The most potent ingredient was then tested for its efficacy in killing Demodex in vivo. Results All ingredients exhibited a dose-dependent killing effect. Besides Terpinen-4-ol, the order of relative potency did not correlate with the order of relative abundance in TTO for the remaining 12 ingredients. Terpinen-4-ol was the most potent ingredient followed by ?-Terpineol, 1,8-Cineole and Sabinene. Terpinen-4-ol, the most abundant ingredient in TTO, was more potent than TTO at equivalent concentrations and its killing effect was even observable at a mere concentration of 1%. Terpinen-4-ol exhibited a significant synergistic effect with Terpinolene, but an antagonistic effect with ?-Terpineol in killing mites (both P < 0.05). In vivo, Terpinen-4-ol was shown to eradicate mites. Conclusions The above finding suggests that deployment of Terpinen-4-ol alone should enhance its potency in killing Demodex mites by reducing the adverse and antagonistic effects from other ingredients in TTO. Translational Relevance Terpinen-4-ol can be adopted in future formulations of acaricides to treat a number of ocular and cutaneous diseases caused by demodicosis. PMID:24349880

  18. Evidence for passive chemical camouflage in the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Kather, Ricarda; Drijfhout, Falko P; Shemilt, Sue; Martin, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Social insect colonies provide a stable and safe environment for their members. Despite colonies being heavily guarded, parasites have evolved numerous strategies to invade and inhabit these hostile places. Two such strategies are (true) chemical mimicry via biosynthesis of host odor, and chemical camouflage, in which compounds are acquired from the host. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor feeds on hemolymph of its honey bee host, Apis mellifera. The mite's odor closely resembles that of its host, which allows V. destructor to remain undetected as it lives on the adult host during its phoretic phase and while reproducing on the honeybee brood. During the mite life cycle, it switches between host adults and brood, which requires it to adjust its profile to mimic the very different odors of honey bee brood and adults. In a series of transfer experiments, using bee adults and pupae, we tested whether V. destructor changes its profile by synthesizing compounds or by using chemical camouflage. We show that V. destructor required direct access to host cuticle to mimic its odor, and that it was unable to synthesize host-specific compounds itself. The mite was able to mimic host odor, even when dead, indicating a passive physico-chemical mechanism of the parasite cuticle. The chemical profile of V. destructor was adjusted within 3 to 9 h after switching hosts, demonstrating that passive camouflage is a highly efficient, fast and flexible way for the mite to adapt to a new host profile when moving between different host life stages or colonies. PMID:25620373

  19. Fine structure of the male genital system of the predatory mite Rhagidia halophila (Rhagidiidae, Prostigmata, Actinotrichida).

    PubMed

    Alberti, Gerd; Ehrnsberger, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    The male genital system of the actinotrichid mite Rhagidia halophila is described and compared with other mites and arachnids. The large testes are composed of germinal and glandular parts and produce numerous small sperm cells. The glandular parts are connected via a testicular bridge. Spermiogenesis occurs in cysts containing spermatids in equal stages of development. Cysts of spermatids are embedded in huge somatic cells. The nuclei of the spermatids loose their envelope. Mature sperm cells are simple exhibiting a ring-shaped chromatin body and lacking an acrosomal complex. They are most similar to the sperm cells of the related mite Linopodes motatorius. The spermatopositor contains the ejaculatory duct divided into a dorsal channel and a ventral channel that are connected via a narrow passage. At its distal end, the spermatopositor is divided into three eugenital lips. The function of the spermatopositor during deposition of the peculiar thread-like spermatophores is discussed. Details of the sensilla of the spermatopositor and the progenital lips are reported. The genital papillae located on the inner side of the progenital lips exhibit characteristics of cells performing transport of ions and/or water. The results confirm the overall similarity of actinotrichid genital systems, which is profoundly different from that of anactinotrichid mites. With reference to other Arachnida it is corroborated that testes and sperm structure of Actinotrichida are most similar to that of Solifugae. However, synapomorphies between sperm cells of Rhagidia and Solifugae that could suggest a closer relationship between these two taxa as was suggested in earlier studies were not recognizable. On the contrary, the sperm cells of Rh. halophila being devoid of an acrosomal complex appeared to be more apomorphic than those of many other actinotrichid mites as well as Solifugae. J. Morphol. 276:832-859, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25845733

  20. Plant virus HC-Pro is a determinant of eriophyid mite transmission.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Drake C; Hein, Gary L; Gildow, Frederick E; Horken, Kempton M; French, Roy

    2005-07-01

    The eriophyid mite transmitted Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) shares a common genome organization with aphid transmitted species of the genus Potyvirus. Although both tritimoviruses and potyviruses encode helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) homologues (required for nonpersistent aphid transmission of potyviruses), sequence conservation is low (amino acid identity, approximately 16%), and a role for HC-Pro in semipersistent transmission of WSMV by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella [Keifer]) has not been investigated. Wheat curl mite transmissibility was abolished by replacement of WSMV HC-Pro with homologues of an aphid transmitted potyvirus (Turnip mosaic virus), a rymovirus (Agropyron mosaic virus) vectored by a different eriophyid mite, or a closely related tritimovirus (Oat necrotic mottle virus; ONMV) with no known vector. In contrast, both WSMV-Sidney 81 and a chimeric WSMV genome bearing HC-Pro of a divergent strain (WSMV-El Batán 3; 86% amino acid sequence identity) were efficiently transmitted by A. tosichella. Replacing portions of WSMV-Sidney 81 HC-Pro with the corresponding regions from ONMV showed that determinants of wheat curl mite transmission map to the 5'-proximal half of HC-Pro. WSMV genomes bearing HC-Pro of heterologous species retained the ability to form virions, indicating that loss of vector transmissibility was not a result of failure to encapsidate. Although titer in systemically infected leaves was reduced for all chimeric genomes relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, titer was not correlated with loss of vector transmissibility. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that HC-Pro is required for virus transmission by a vector other than aphids. PMID:15994799