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Sample records for palm mite raoiella

  1. Detection and Identification of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major infestations of the Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, have been reported in almost all the Caribbean islands and Venezuela. Correct identification of the mite and host associations is essential for the management and biocontrol of this invasive mite pest. This paper provides information o...

  2. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and its damage to coconut palms in Puerto Rico and Culebra Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of the occurrence of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica and its damage in Puerto Rico and Culebra island. Raoiella indica is a new invasive pest threatening ornamental palm, coconut, and banana plantations. The mite was observed in eastern Puerto Rico and in Culebra island ...

  3. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  4. Screening of plantain hybrids for resistance to Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and use of a systemic acaricide to control the mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen clones of plantain were screened for resistance to red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst. The plantain clones were established in 5kg pots with ten replicates. Mite infestation was carried out by introducing highly infested potted coconut palms between the plantain pots (1:10). Control ...

  5. Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae): an exploding mite pest in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ethan C; Ochoa, Ronald; Mathurin, Guy; Erbe, Eric F; Beard, Jennifer J

    2012-08-01

    Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst affecting bananas, palms and other ornamental plants have been reported from the Caribbean islands, Mexico, FL (USA), Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy techniques. While little is known about the biology of this mite, its recent appearance in the Americas in both commercial coconut and banana plantations has raised concerns about its economic impact as an invasive pest. PMID:22392436

  6. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region. PMID:23065034

  7. Revision of the genus Raoiella (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) of the world.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...

  8. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

    2012-08-01

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

  9. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  10. Phylogenetic investigation of the genus Raoiella (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae): Diversity, distribution, and world invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Raoiella is most well known because of the red palm mite, R. indica, a major pest of palms spreading aggressively throughout the Americas. Not much was known about the biology, geographic origins, or evolutionary history of the genus when R. indica emerged as a major invasive pest. This pa...

  11. Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.

    PubMed

    Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

    2013-07-01

    Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas. PMID:23297112

  12. Life cycle of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on ornamental plants, mostly Arecaceae.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J

    2015-02-01

    The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America. PMID:25342244

  13. Host plant range of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in areas of invasion of the New World.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peña, Jorge E

    2012-08-01

    Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected. PMID:21915682

  14. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    PubMed

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain. PMID:26874954

  15. MITE INFECTION IN A MASKED PALM CIVET (PAGUMA LARVATA) TREATED BY SELAMECTIN (STRONGHOLD®, PFIZER LTD.).

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Lara; Nardini, Giordano; Leopardi, Stefania; Abramo, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    The masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) is a small Asian mammal (order Carnivora, family Viverridae) uncommon in Italy. Limited information is available about management and sanitary maintenance in captivity. A 4-mo-old masked palm civet presented with pruritus, itch, scratching, and disorexia. On physical examination, alopecia and crusts were detected on the ventral and lateral trunk, tail, legs, and lips. Skin scrapings and cytology revealed Notoedres spp. and bacterial infection. On histopathology, parasitic dermatitis was observed with the presence of a Sarcoptidae mite and Demodex spp. Selamectin spot-on (15 mg/kg every 2 wk, three applications) and marbofloxacin per os (2.5 mg/kg once daily for 2 wk) were administered, and the animal recovered in 1 mo. With the good response to this therapy, a notoedric mange was thought to be the main problem. This is the first report about the use of selamectin to treat a mite infection in masked palm civet. PMID:26352967

  16. Comparative Demography of the Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four Date Palm Varieties in Southwestern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Sameh Ben; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rates (Ro), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (rm = 0.103 day 1). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

  17. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

  18. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Florida’s (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...

  19. HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Floridas (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...

  20. Herbivore exploits chink in armor of host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mites in the genus Raoiella Hirst are obligate plant parasites that feed via stylet-like mouthparts adapted to pierce plant tissues. A species of particular interest in this genus, the red palm mite, R. indica Hirst, is currently spreading aggressively throughout the Americas on species of palm (Ar...

  1. Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Elston, Carly A; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are normal inhabitants of human hair follicles. D folliculorum is found predominantly in the follicular infundibulum of facial skin and is typically present in small groups. D brevis, the smaller of the two species, predominates on the trunk, typically as solitarily mites within the sebaceous glands and ducts. In a wide variety of animals, Demodex mites are recognized as a cause of mange. The role of Demodex mites as agents of human disease has been more controversial, but evidence favors their involvement in acneiform eruptions, folliculitis, and a range of eruptions in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:25441466

  2. DATE PALM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews date palm biology and cultivation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops grown in the arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, and the Middle East. The exact origin of the date palm is unknown but most probably the area of origin w...

  3. Dust mite (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  4. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... A deficiency, cancer, brain disease, aging; and treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. ... oils, such as soybean, canola, or sunflower oil. Malaria. Some research suggests that dietary consumption of palm ...

  5. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  6. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  7. Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

    2013-06-01

    The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent. PMID:23435864

  8. Dermatoses associated with mites other than Sarcoptes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Kimberly M; Shockman, Solomon C; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Lent, Megan P; Wilson, Morgan L

    2014-09-01

    Mites are arthropods of the subclass Acari (Acarina). Although Sarcoptes is the mite most commonly recognized as a cause of human skin disease in the United States, numerous other mite-associated dermatoses have been described, and merit familiarity on the part of physicians treating skin disease. This review discusses several non-scabies mites and their associated diseases, including Demodex, chiggers, Cheyletiella, bird mites, grain itch, oak leaf itch, grocer's itch, tropical rat mite, snake mite, and Psoroptes. PMID:25577848

  9. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  10. Mites from the city pavement.

    PubMed

    Samsinák, K; Vobrázková, E

    1985-06-01

    The authors obtained a total of 136 mite specimens from dust samples collected from the pavement of Prague in monthly intervals for a period of one year. Of utmost importance was the finding of Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, 1961 and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman, 1950), both of the family Pyroglyphidae, allergogenic mites. Apart from a few exceptions, all other species were common mites of food stores. PMID:4050178

  11. Palm oil and palm olein frying applications.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Razali

    2005-01-01

    Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of <1%, smoke points of >180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score. PMID:16326649

  12. Date Palm Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews date palm genetic resources and their conservation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important food crop in the Middle East and North Africa. Its center of origin and diversity most probably is the area near Iraq/Iran. From there, it spread throughout its present range...

  13. Pancake Syndrome (Oral Mite Anaphylaxis)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator. PMID:23283016

  14. Raoiella Indica: Facing it

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological invasions are a major threat to natural ecosystems and agricultural crop production. With globalization, the increase in trade and movement of people, the frequency of species invasions has substantially grown in the last three decades. Polyphagous pest species targeting hosts with wide d...

  15. Notoedric mange in free-ranging masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu; Makino, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    Fifty-one masked palm civets (Paguma larvata) were trapped as part of a nuisance wildlife control programme between July 2001 and August 2002 in Fujisawa City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Eleven civets had characteristic mange lesions with marked alopecia and crusts, caused by the burrowing epidermal mite Notoedres cati. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology and examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of affected civets. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated moderate hyperplastic epidermis, parakeratosis and acanthosis. Occasionally microvascular angiogenesis was observed in the epidermis. Tunnels were excavated in the hair follicles, reaching the hair roots. The tunnels were located between the hair shaft and the inner root sheath. Female mites, eggs and nymphs were demonstrated in their tunnels using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:14678446

  16. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on Harmonia axyridis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasitic mites (Acarina: Podapolipidae) and ectoparasitic fungi (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) occur on ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) throughout the world (Riddick et al., 2009). This study documents the interaction of a coccinellid-specific mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (McDaniel &...

  17. Dust mite-proof pillow cover (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of dust mites encase mattresses, box springs, and pillows with mite-proof covers. Further methods consist of washing bedding once a week in hot water, and dusting with a wet cloth once ...

  18. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  19. Human demodex mite: the versatile mite of dermatological importance.

    PubMed

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  20. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  1. [Bee mite: Varroa jacobsoni qudemans].

    PubMed

    Ozer, N; Boşgelmez, A

    1983-07-01

    Varroatosis caused by varroa jacobsoni on honeybee, Apis mellifera L., is currently one of the worlds major bee keeping problems. The mite parasites the adult honey bee, as well as its developmental stages, by sucking the insects's haemolymph. Up to date, many chemicals were used against this mite but still there is no chemical which has 100% effect and at the same time bees and their brood demonstrate a good tolerance. The investigations on biology and therapy on Varroa are still going on in many countries. PMID:6672554

  2. High Varroa mite abundance influences chemical profiles of worker bees and mite-host preferences.

    PubMed

    Cervo, R; Bruschini, C; Cappa, F; Meconcelli, S; Pieraccini, G; Pradella, D; Turillazzi, S

    2014-09-01

    Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers. PMID:25165133

  3. Date palm: Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The future of date palm, as a dioecious, monocot fruit tree largely depends on (1) developing advanced knowledge and information about the dynamics, management, and sustainability of the tree as a central component of the oasis agro-ecosystem, and (2) in-depth understanding of the genetic diversity ...

  4. Palm Savannah in Pantanal

    Seasonally flooded palm savannah and cleared landing strip near the Rio Negro river. Located near RAMSAR site and Rio Negro National Park in the Pantanal ecoregion, near the border between Paraguay and Bolivia. This region, situated in the extreme northeastern corner of western Paraguay and extendin...

  5. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  6. Interactions between Phoretic Mites and the Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

    PubMed Central

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem. PMID:23448160

  7. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  8. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk epiphytes. Diurnally, oil palm transpiration rates were characterized by an early peak between 10 and 11 a.m.; there was a pronounced hysteresis in the leaf water use response to changes in vapor pressure deficit for all palms of advanced age. On the day-to-day basis this resulted in a relatively low variability of oil palm water use regardless of fluctuations in vapor pressure deficit and radiation. We conclude, that oil palm dominated landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapo)transpiration rates, e.g. due to varying age-structures, but that the temporal variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low. Stand transpiration rates of some studied oil palm stands compared to or even exceed values reported for different tropical forests, indicating a high water use of oil palms under certain site or management conditions. Our study provides first insights into the eco-hydrological characteristics of oil palms as well as a first estimate of oil palm water use across a gradient of plantation age. It sheds first light on some of the hydrological consequences of the continuing expansion of oil palm plantations.

  9. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk epiphytes. Diurnally, oil palm transpiration rates were characterized by an early peak between 10 and 11 a.m.; there was a pronounced hysteresis in the leaf water use response to changes in vapor pressure deficit for all palms of advanced age. On the day-to-day basis this resulted in a relatively low variability of oil palm water use regardless of fluctuations in vapor pressure deficit and radiation. We conclude that oil palm dominated landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapo)transpiration rates, e.g., due to varying age-structures, but that the temporal variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low. The stand transpiration of some of the studied oil palm stands was as high or even higher than values reported for different tropical forests, indicating a high water use of oil palms under yet to be explained site or management conditions. Our study provides first insights into the eco-hydrological characteristics of oil palms as well as a first estimate of oil palm water use across a gradient of plantation age. It sheds first light on some of the hydrological consequences of the continuing expansion of oil palm plantations.

  10. In vitro efficacy of ByeMite and Mite-Stop on developmental stages of the red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2009-10-01

    The present in vitro study shows the efficacy of two antimite products (ByeMite = phoxim, Mite-Stop = neem seed extract) against all developing stages of the important red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae (obtained at two farms in France and Germany). While permanent contact with the active compound led to an efficacy of 100% in the case of Mite-Stop on mites in both farms, there was only a 96.2% killing effect of ByeMite on the mites of the French farm. Even short contacts of only 4 s killed 100% of mites in the case of Mite-Stop at the French farm and only 84.5% in the German farm. ByeMite, on the other hand, killed only 27.8% (Germany) and 30% (France) when mites got the chance to escape from the treated grounds to untreated ones. When using only the half doses of both products, Mite-Stop(R) still reached, after permanent contact, 100% activity on the German farm and 98.2% in France, while ByeMite killed 93.8% (Germany) and 90.6% (France). Short contact to half doses of course reduced the activity of both products (Mite-Stop = 59.3% in France, 22.1% in Germany; ByeMite = 28.8% in France, 18.8% in Germany). With respect to the fumigant activity of the products, the strains of D. gallinae reacted differently. While Mite-Stop(R) showed a clear fumigant activity in the case of the German mites, this product did not affect the French mites by air distribution, neither did ByeMite in both cases. Therefore, mites have to come in contact with both products. Against Mite-Stop, there was apparently no resistance and low doses have high efficacy after even short contacts, which regularly occur in a treated stable, where mites have the chance to leave treated places to untreated hidden spots. PMID:19680689

  11. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, N; Russell-Hallinan, A; Powell, F C

    2016-05-01

    Demodex mites are the largest and most complex organisms of the skin microflora. How they interact with the innate and adaptive immune systems is unknown. Their potential to have a pathogenic role in the causation of human skin disorders causes continued speculation. With growing interest in the microflora of human skin and its relevance to cutaneous health, the role of Demodex mites needs to be better understood. The main challenges facing scientists investigating the role of these organisms and possible solutions are reviewed under the following headings: (1) Determining the mite population in skin, (2) Transporting, extracting and imaging live mites, (3) Maintaining mites viable ex vivo and (4) Establishing methods to determine the immune response to Demodex mites and their internal contents. PMID:26695086

  12. Mite-induced inflammation: More than allergy

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan

    2012-01-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that there is an association of atopic conditions with hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This relationship has been especially present in patients allergic to mites. This study was designed to review clinical and experimental evidence linking atopy, mite allergy, and hypersensitivity to aspirin and NSAIDs and discuss the possible mechanisms explaining this association. A review of the medical literature concerning the association of atopic diseases, mite hypersensitivity, and intolerance to NSAIDs using PubMed and other relevant articles is presented. NSAID-sensitive patients are frequently atopic and allergic to mites, and patients who develop oral mite anaphylaxis (OMA) show an increased prevalence of NSAID hypersensitivity. The study of atopic, mite-sensitive patients, who experience urticaria and angioedema when exposed to NSAIDs and patients with OMA suggests an interesting interaction between atopic allergy and disorders of leukotriene synthesis or metabolism. Various mechanisms that could be involved in this interaction are presented, including genetic factors, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1, and other effects (not related to IgE sensitization) of mite constituents on the immune system. The association of mite hypersensitivity with aspirin/NSAIDs intolerance has been confirmed and provides additional clues to various nonallergic pathways that may contribute to the acute and chronic inflammatory process observed in atopic, mite-allergic, individuals. The clinical relevance of these observations is presently under investigation. PMID:22852126

  13. terMITEs: miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in the termite genome (Blattodea: Termitoidae).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are discrete DNA sequences which are able to replicate and jump into different genomic locations. Miniature inverted-repeats TEs (MITEs) are non-autonomous DNA elements whose origin is still poorly understood. Recently, some MITEs were found to contain core repeats that can be arranged in tandem arrays; in some instances, these arrays have even given rise to satellite DNAs in the (peri)centromeric region of the host chromosomes. I report the discovery and analysis of three new MITEs found in the genome of several termite species (hence the name terMITEs) in two different families. For two of the MITEs (terMITE1-Tc1/mariner superfamily; terMITE2-piggyBac superfamily), evidence of past mobility was retrieved. Moreover, these two MITEs contained core repeats, 16 bp and 114 bp long respectively, exhibiting copy number variation. In terMITE2, the tandem duplication appeared associated with element degeneration, in line with a recently proposed evolutionary model on MITEs and the origin of tandem arrays. Concerning their genomic distribution, terMITE1 and terMITE3 appeared more frequently inserted close to coding regions while terMITE2 was mostly associated with TEs. Although MITEs are commonly distributed in coding regions, terMITE2 distribution is in line with that of other insects' piggyBac-related elements and of other small TEs found in termite genomes. This has been explained through insertional preference rather than through selective processes. Data presented here add to the knowledge on the poorly exploited polyneopteran genomes and will provide an interesting framework in which to study TEs' evolution and host's life history traits. PMID:25711308

  14. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

  15. House mouse mites infesting laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Levine, J F; Lage, A L

    1984-08-01

    Liponyssoides sanguineus, principal vector of Rickettsia akari, infested mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) mice (Mus musculus) and laboratory-reared egyptian gerbils (Meriones libycus). Only a few mites were present on each animal and no manifestations of disease were observed. Numerous mites were present in the bedding. PMID:6482381

  16. Global Status of Honey Bee Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitic bee mites have become a major problem to both beekeepers and honey bees. This chapter updates the latest information we have on the three mite species, Acarapis (tracheal), Varroa and Tropilaelaps that are currently a threat to honey bees. It also updates the current information on the ...

  17. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

  18. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  19. An opilioacarid mite in Cretaceous Burmese amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; de Oliveira Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ? Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida—potentially Opiloacarus—in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites.

  20. Light and scanning electron microscopic investigations on MiteStop-treated poultry red mites.

    PubMed

    Locher, Nina; Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al Rasheid, Khaled A S; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies of the neem seed product MiteStop showed that it has a good acaricidal effect against all developmental stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. In vitro tests proved an efficacy at direct contact, as well as by fumigant toxicity. Light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) investigations showed no clear, morphologically visible signs of an effect caused by fumigant toxicity. Direct contact with the neem product, however, seemed to be of great impact. Chicken mites turned dark brown or even black after being treated with the neem product. SEM analysis showed damages along the body surface of the mites. PMID:20563823

  1. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  2. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Hglund, J; Engstrm, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O.?sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O.?sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O.?sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

  3. Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:22465569

  4. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed. PMID:26732998

  5. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  6. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed. PMID:26732998

  7. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  8. Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    - The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

  9. Pyroglyphid mites in the High Tatras sanatoria.

    PubMed

    Makovcová, S

    1989-01-01

    1. In our work we studied the problematics of house dust fauna in the sanatoria and institutes of the Tatra region, regarding especially the incidence of mites of the family Pyroglyphidae that are considered for the major source of house dust allergen. 2. In eleven places of different altitude in this region, there were in 1982 chosen 13 localities--sanatoria and institutes. Here, once quarterly, were collected house dust samples from beds and floors. 3. In the Locality 1 Helios, Strbské Pleso, the house dust samples were collected in 1976, once in two months, in 1979 once in three months, and in 1982 once quarterly. Here, the involvement of the new--opened sanatorium by house dust mites was studied. 4. House dust samples in the studied localities were collected using the electric vacuum cleaner into the changeable paper bags. The samples were examined by flotation due to Spieksma (1970) and due to the modification of Spieksma's methodics elaborated by Samsinák et al. (1974). 5. The found house dust mites--pyroglyphids were evaluated due to Bronswijk and Sinha (1971) and due to the modification of their methodics elaborated by Samsinák et al. (1974). The classification due to Wharton (1976) was used as well. 6. In every studied locality, in house dust collected from floors and beds, there were identified mites of the family Pyroglyphidae, considered for the major source of house dust allergen. 7. Mites of the family Pyroglyphidae were represented by the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus, and by the species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and Euroglyphus maynei. There were found as well the nymphal instars of the genus Dermatophagoides, in this development degree it is very complicated to determine precisely the species--and that is why the term Dermatophagoides sp. nymphal instar is used. 8. In 1982 there were in the chosen localities collected 764 house dust samples from beds and 20 samples from floors, 186 of them (23.7%) were negative--without any mites. In the positive samples there were identified 1794 arthropods, 1776 were mites and 18 were Psocopterae. Of the total mite number 1263 (71.1%) were mites of the family Pyroglyphidae. 9. The other mite families were represented by 513 pieces, i.e. 28.6% of the total arthropod number. 10. In the studied localities there were identified three species of the family Pyroglyphidae and 15 species of other families, the representatives of the families Ereinaetidae, Tetranychidae (not determined preciselier), and Oribatei.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2519180

  10. Palm print image processing with PCNN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Zhao, Xianhong

    2010-08-01

    Pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN) is based on Eckhorn's model of cat visual cortex, and imitate mammals visual processing, and palm print has been found as a personal biological feature for a long history. This inspired us with the combination of them: a novel method for palm print processing is proposed, which includes pre-processing and feature extraction of palm print image using PCNN; then the feature of palm print image is used for identifying. Our experiment shows that a verification rate of 87.5% can be achieved at ideal condition. We also find that the verification rate decreases duo to rotate or shift of palm.

  11. Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light). PMID:20218530

  12. Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite.

    PubMed

    Hein, Gary L; French, Roy; Siriwetwiwat, Benjawan; Amrine, James W

    2012-10-01

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits at least three harmful viruses, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), high plains virus (HPV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Great Plains. This virus complex is considered to be the most serious disease of winter wheat in the western Great Plains. One component of managing this disease has been developing mite resistance in wheat; however, identification of mite biotypes has complicated deployment and stability of resistance. This biotypic variability in mites and differential virus transmission by different mite populations underscores the need to better understand mite identity. However, A. tosichella has a history of serious taxonomic confusion, especially as it relates to A. tulipae Keifer, the dry bulb mite. Molecular techniques were used to genetically characterize multiple A. tosichella populations and compare them to populations of A. tulipae. DNA from these populations was polymerase chain reaction amplified and the ribosomal ITS2 region sequenced and compared. These results indicated limited variability between these two species, but two distinct types within A. tosichella were found that corresponded to previous work with Australian mite populations. Further work using sequencing of several mitochondrial DNA genes also demonstrated two distinct types of A. tosichella populations. Furthermore, the separation between these two A. tosichella types is comparable to their separation with A. tulipae, suggesting that species scale differences exist between these two types ofA. tosichella. These genetic differences correspond to important biological differences between the types (e.g., biotypic and virus transmission differences). In light of these differences, it is important that future studies on biological response differences account for these mite differences. PMID:23156180

  13. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  14. An opilioacarid mite in Cretaceous Burmese amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; de Oliveira Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ?Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida-potentially Opiloacarus-in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites. PMID:25027588

  15. National Date Palm Germplasm Repository

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Clonal Germplasm Repository for Citrus & Dates (NCGRCD), located in Riverside, California USA, is a project of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NCGRCD maintains a collection of germplasm of date palm (Phoneix dactylifera ...

  16. Human hair follicle mites and forensic acarology.

    PubMed

    Desch, Clifford E

    2009-10-01

    The hair follicle mites of the genus Demodex (Demodecidae) were first discovered in humans in 1841. Since then, members of this host-specific genus have been found in 11 of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals with most host species harboring two or more species of Demodex. Humans are host to D. folliculorum and D. brevis. The biology, natural history, and anatomy of these mites as related to their life in the human pilosebaceous complex is reviewed. This information may provide insight into the application of Demodex as a tool for the forensic acarologist/entomologist. PMID:19557529

  17. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    PubMed Central

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  18. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  19. Hold your breath beetle-Mites!

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Drobniak, Szymon M; Schramm, Bartosz W; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozlowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a repeatable fashion that results in a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern characterized by periods of zero organism-to-environment gas exchange. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why insects engage in DGE, but none have attracted overwhelming support. We provide support for a previously untested hypothesis that posits that DGE minimizes the risk of infestation of the tracheal system by mites and other agents. Here, we analyze the respiratory patterns of 15 species of ground beetle (Carabidae), of which more than 40% of individuals harbored external mites. Compared with mite-free individuals, infested one's engaged significantly more often in DGE. Mite-free individuals predominantly employed a cyclic or continuous gas exchange pattern, which did not include complete spiracle closure. Complete spiracle closure may prevent parasites from invading, clogging, or transferring pathogens to the tracheal system or from foraging on tissue not protected by thick chitinous layers. PMID:26689423

  20. Palm oil and the heart: A review

    PubMed Central

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono or polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25810814

  1. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    PubMed

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field. PMID:24659516

  2. P-MITE: a database for plant miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541

  3. P-MITE: a database for plant miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541

  4. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens.

    PubMed

    Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milković-Kraus, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 μg g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 μg g(-1) and 10 μg g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 μg g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance. PMID:22548853

  5. Intermittent Palm Cooling's Impact on Resistive Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Caruso, J F; Barbosa, A; Erickson, L; Edwards, R; Perry, R; Learmonth, L; Potter, W T

    2015-09-01

    To examine palm cooling's (15 C) impact, subjects performed 3 four-set leg press workouts in a randomized sequence. Per workout they received 1 of 3 treatments: no palm cooling, palm cooling between sets, or palm cooling between sets and post-exercise. Dependent variables were examined with three-way ANOVAs; average power underwent a three-way ANCOVA with body fat percentage as the covariate. Simple effects analysis was our post hoc and ?=0.05. Left hand skin temperatures produced a two-way interaction (no palm cooling, palm cooling between sets>palm cooling between sets and post-exercise at several time points). A "high responder" subset had their data analyzed with an additional three-way ANOVA that again produced a two-way interaction (palm cooling between sets>no palm cooling>palm cooling between sets and post-exercise at multiple time points). Blood lactate results included a two-way interaction (no palm cooling>palm cooling between sets, palm cooling between sets and post-exercise at 0?min post-exercise). Average power yielded a two-way interaction (palm cooling between sets, palm cooling between sets>no palm cooling for the fourth set). Intermittent palm cooling hastened heat removal and blood lactate clearance, as well as delayed average power decrements. PMID:26038879

  6. Influence of palm oil and palm oil fractions on protein utilisation.

    PubMed

    Henry, C J; Ghusain-Choueiri, A; Gurr, M I

    1997-03-01

    The influence of dietary palm-oil fractions on protein utilisation has been investigated in the growing rat. At 30 days of age, 4-6 groups of four animals were offered one of six semi-purified diets that differed only in the palm-oil fraction. Diets contained 200g casein, 550 g carbohydrate, and 200g fat/kg. The different palm-oil fractions were: crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm-kernel oil (PKO), refined palm olein (RPO), refined palm stearin (RPS), refined palm oil (RPOL). The control groups were given Olive oil (OO) as the dietary fat source. The conversion efficiency of dietary protein was assessed as Net Protein Utilisation (NPU), using a 10-day comparative carcass technique. Weight gain and food intake were not altered by the various palm-oil fractions. However, the NPU of rats given RPO was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of rats given all other palm-oil fractions or the OO control. It is concluded that the RPO has the potential to significantly improve NPU in the rat, compared to four other palm-oil fractions as well as olive oil. PMID:24394656

  7. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY. PMID:16879312

  8. Acoustic Detection of Insects in Palm Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial-crop and ornamental palm trees serve important functions in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and considerable precautions are taken each year to identify and control infestations of a variety of different insect pests. Large weevils, including the red palm weevil and the co...

  9. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  10. Honey bee mortality due to tracheal mite parasitism.

    PubMed

    Royce, L A; Rossignol, P A

    1990-02-01

    We demonstrate, by truncating the expected negative binomial distribution, that the tracheal mite parasite, Acarapis woodi, causes mortality in the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, but, that this mortality can be documented only during periods of low mite densities (mites per bee). At high mite densities, this technique no longer reveals mite-induced mortality. We suggest that this paradox results from a reduction in the mortality threshold at high mite densities, concealing mortality from our truncation procedures. Longitudinal comparisons of hive and forager bee cohorts, nevertheless, suggests mortality at all levels of infestation. We propose that persistent parasitism overcomes a colony's ability to compensate for losses, leading to its sudden decline and death. PMID:2314929

  11. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  12. How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Fitzherbert, Emily B; Struebig, Matthew J; Morel, Alexandra; Danielsen, Finn; Brühl, Carsten A; Donald, Paul F; Phalan, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforestation and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil palm plantations support much fewer species than do forests and often also fewer than other tree crops. Further negative impacts include habitat fragmentation and pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions. With rising demand for vegetable oils and biofuels, and strong overlap between areas suitable for oil palm and those of most importance for biodiversity, substantial biodiversity losses will only be averted if future oil palm expansion is managed to avoid deforestation. PMID:18775582

  13. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences. PMID:25921489

  14. [Animal mites transmissible to humans and associated zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Jofré M, Leonor; Noemí H, Isabel; Neira O, Patricia; Saavedra U, Tirza; Díaz L, Cecilia

    2009-06-01

    Mites that affect animals (acariasis) can occasionally be transmitted to humans by incidental contact producing pruritus and dermatitis. Animals such as dogs, cats, mice, birds and reptiles, harbour several mite species. Hemophage mites and those that feed on lymph have the potential of transmitting important zoonotic agents (cuales??). The presence of lesions of unclear origin and a history of contact with pets or wild animals should alert towards the possibility of acariasis. Diagnosis is based on direct visualization of the mite,analysis of its morphology and obtaining information on the animal host. Awareness of these acarosis and the responsible care of pets and animals are the most relevant preventive measures. PMID:19621159

  15. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  16. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  17. Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.

    PubMed

    Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I

    1996-01-01

    Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of < or = 16%, while POs2 at level of < or = 20%. At 10 degrees C, eutectic interaction occur between PO and PKO which reach their maximum at about 60:40 blending ratio. Within the eutectic region, to maintain the SFC at 10 degrees C to be < or = 50%, POs1 may be added at level of < or = 7%, while POs2 at level of < or = 12%. The addition of palm stearin increased the blends solidification Tmin and Tmax values, while PKO reduced them. Blends which contained high amount of palm stearin showed melting point and cooling curves quite similar to that of pastry margarine. PMID:8616676

  18. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty hydrazides from palm oils.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Sharifah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Haron, Md Jelas; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Abd

    2008-01-01

    Fatty hydrazides (FH) have been successfully synthesized from palm oils by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The synthesis was carried out by treating the oils with hydrazine hydrate at neutral pH using an immobilized lipase, Lipozyme as the catalyst. The percentages of conversion of RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) palm oil (PO), RBD palm olein (POn), RBD palm stearin (PS) and RBD palm kernel olein (PKOn) into their fatty hydrazides are 95, 97, 97 and 99, respectively. PMID:18391474

  19. Phoretic mites associated with animal and human decomposition.

    PubMed

    Perotti, M Alejandra; Braig, Henk R

    2009-10-01

    Phoretic mites are likely the most abundant arthropods found on carcases and corpses. They outnumber their scavenger carriers in both number and diversity. Many phoretic mites travel on scavenger insects and are highly specific; they will arrive on a particular species of host and no other. Because of this, they may be useful as trace indicators of their carriers even when their carriers are absent. Phoretic mites can be valuable markers of time. They are usually found in a specialised transitional transport or dispersal stage, often moulting and transforming to adults shortly after arrival on a carcase or corpse. Many are characterised by faster development and generation cycles than their carriers. Humans are normally unaware, but we too carry mites; they are skin mites that are present in our clothes. More than 212 phoretic mite species associated with carcases have been reported in the literature. Among these, mites belonging to the Mesostigmata form the dominant group, represented by 127 species with 25 phoretic mite species belonging to the family Parasitidae and 48 to the Macrochelidae. Most of these mesostigmatids are associated with particular species of flies or carrion beetles, though some are associated with small mammals arriving during the early stages of decomposition. During dry decay, members of the Astigmata are more frequently found; 52 species are phoretic on scavengers, and the majority of these travel on late-arriving scavengers such as hide beetles, skin beetles and moths. Several species of carrion beetles can visit a corpse simultaneously, and each may carry 1-10 species of phoretic mites. An informative diversity of phoretic mites may be found on a decaying carcass at any given time. The composition of the phoretic mite assemblage on a carcass might provide valuable information about the conditions of and time elapsed since death. PMID:19557527

  20. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers. PMID:15236495

  1. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae) in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms. PMID:20034398

  2. SPIDER MITE DETECTION IN COTTON USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strawberry spider mite (Tetranchus turkestani) is a serious pest in California cotton and causes reddish discoloration on leaf surfaces that may be detectable through remote sensing. Once mite populations reach a critical threshold the entire field is typically sprayed with pesticide. If outbr...

  3. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  4. Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

  5. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  6. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses. PMID:26946468

  7. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both. PMID:12418521

  8. [Bronchial asthma due to storage mite allergy].

    PubMed

    Kroidl, R F; Schwichtenberg, U; Frank, E

    2007-08-01

    In a multicenter study (7 participating centres) 132 patients with bronchial asthma (grade II or III) and sensitization to storage mites (SM) and/or house dust mites (HSM) were screened and asked to undergo further allergological evaluation. 90 patients agreed. In addition to routine skin prick tests and RAST, quantitative skin prick tests (QSPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT) were also performed with the suspected mite allergens. The results were correlated with aspects of the domestic and working environments. Furthermore we questioned whether the outcome of BPT could be predicted from the results of the routine skin tests/RAST and QSPT respectively. Out of a total of 145 BPTs there were 79 positive results with SM and/or HSM. Three patients were mono-allergic to SM. The correlation with the domestic environment was unremarkable. Correlation with occupational factors revealed a strong predominance of farmers (42 of 90) and suggested the same for professions involved in work in dust-laden environments like bakers (5 of 90) and workers in wood- and paper industry (7 of 90). This also means, that SM-allergy occurs in persons not occupationally exposed to dust. A prediction as to the allergological relevance of SM-allergen was not possible from viewing the routine skin prick test however positive RAST data showed a significant correlation with positive BPT to SM Lepidoglyphus. Similarly it was possible to draw an inference from QSPT as to the relevant allergy. With a positive QSPT to the SM Lepidoglyphus destructor a positive result with a BPT was highly probable. Due to small numbers it is not possible to make a similar statement for the other SM species (Acarus and Tyrophagus). PMID:17583823

  9. MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

  10. Geotaxis and leaf-surface preferences mitigate negative effects of a predatory mite on an herbivorous mite.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    Reproductive success and population growth of an herbivorous mite are limited by activities of phytoseiid predators. However, occurrences on upper versus lower leaf surfaces are sometimes mismatched between these prey and predators. The mismatch potentially mitigates predation risk for the prey species. We assessed factors that affect mite distributions on leaf surfaces, testing whether the presence of the phytoseiid mite Phytoseius nipponicus alters the leaf-surface distribution and reproductive success of the herbivorous false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus. The host plant was Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (Adoxaceae). Leaves were set in natural (TRUE) and reversed (upside down; INVERTED) orientations using experimental devices. Both surfaces were accessible to mites. We detected lower and abaxial leaf-surface preferences in P. nipponicus. In contrast, upper and adaxial surfaces were preferred by B. obovatus. Thus, prey and predatory mites accumulated on different sides of leaves. Presence of the predator also indirectly decreased egg production in B. obovatus. Brevipalpus obovatus females actively avoided leaf surfaces with elevated predator numbers; these females shifted their distributions and changed oviposition sites to leaf surfaces with fewer predators. In consequence, B. obovatus eggs on the upper sides of leaves were less frequently preyed upon than were those on lower sides. We suggest that upper leaf-surface exploitation in this particular herbivorous mite species mitigates predation risk from phytoseiid mites, which prefer lower leaf surfaces. PMID:23011108

  11. Syphilis, secondary on the palms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Secondary syphilis is one of the few infectious diseases that produces rashes on the palms and soles, as well as a generalized rash. If an ulcer on the penis is followed several weeks later by a rash, ...

  12. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis) biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Giselle; Chavarría, Max; Arias, María Laura; Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2006-03-01

    The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel) by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 degrees C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed trans-esterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids. Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. PMID:18457175

  13. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y H; Ng, T K

    1991-03-01

    A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in comparison with the traditional sources of saturated fats such as coconut oil, dairy and animal fats. In addition, palm oil consumption may raise HDL levels and reduce platelet aggregability. As with all nutrients, there is a need to obtain a balance of different fatty acids found in fats in edible oils and other food sources. There is no single ideal source of fat that answers to the recent American Heart Association's call to reflect a 1:1:1 ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in relation to the recommended dietary fat intake of 30% of calories or less.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1836037

  14. Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W; van Niekerk, Thea G C M; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-12-01

    To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i.e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is housed in practice (free range, cage or aviary systems) and on which chemicals are applied to disinfect poultry houses and to control other pests. PMID:22773110

  15. Emission of volatile organic compounds by apple trees under spider mite attack and attraction of predatory mites.

    PubMed

    Llusià, J; Peñuelas, J

    2001-01-01

    Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Pirus malus L. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) var. Golden Delicious and var. Starking attacked by the phytophagous mite Panonychus ulmi Koch, and their attractiveness to the predatory mites Amblyseius andersoni Chant and Amblyseius californicus McGregor, were studied during three years. A large variability was found in the emission of individual VOCs depending on the infestation, the apple tree variety and the date. There were larger total VOC emission rates and larger total VOC leaf concentrations in apple trees attacked by phytophagous mites, especially in the var. Starking. In infested trees of this variety, there were also more predatory mites. An olfactometer assay showed that predatory mites preferentially chose branches infested by Panonychus ulmi (85% went to infested branches vs 15% to uninfested control branches) indicating that volatiles may be used as cues to find their prey. PMID:11508530

  16. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization…

  17. Transformation of Palm Beach Community College to Palm Beach State College: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiratmand, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to examine the organization and leadership change process of Palm Beach State College, a publicly funded institution in Florida, as it embarked on offering bachelor's degree programs. The study examined the organizational change process and the extent to which Palm Beach State College's organization

  18. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  19. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  20. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change. PMID:27073598

  1. Does plant species co-occurrence influence soil mite diversity?

    PubMed

    St John, Mark G; Wall, Diana H; Behan-Pelletier, Valerie M

    2006-03-01

    Few studies have considered whether plant taxa can be used as predictors of belowground faunal diversity in natural ecosystems. We examined soil mite (Acari) diversity beneath six grass species at the Konza Prairie Biological Station, Kansas, USA. We tested the hypotheses that soil mite species richness, abundance, and taxonomic diversity are greater (1) beneath grasses in dicultures (different species) compared to monocultures (same species), (2) beneath grasses of higher resource quality (lower C:N) compared to lower resource quality, and (3) beneath heterogeneous mixes of grasses (C3 and C4 grasses growing together) compared to homogeneous mixes (C3 or C4 grasses) using natural occurrences of plant species as treatments. This study is the first to examine the interaction between above- and belowground diversity in a natural setting with species-level resolution of a hyper-diverse taxon. Our results indicate that grasses in diculture supported a more species and phylogenetically rich soil mite fauna than was observed for monocultures and that this relationship was significant at depth but not in the upper soil horizon. We noted that mite species richness was not linearly related to grass species richness, which suggests that simple extrapolations of soil faunal diversity based on plant species inventories may underestimate the richness of associated soil mite communities. The distribution of mite size classes in dicultures was considerably different than those for monocultures. There was no difference in soil mite richness between grass combinations of differing resource quality, or resource heterogeneity. PMID:16602292

  2. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Johannes L.M.; Barcari, Elena; Hradecky, Marc; Trefz, Simone; Tolasch, Till; Gantert, Cornelia; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897), the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z)-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z)-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z)-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies. PMID:26462831

  3. Bartonella-like bacteria carried by domestic mite species.

    PubMed

    Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed. PMID:24711066

  4. The use of soil mites in ecotoxicology: a review.

    PubMed

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Owojori, Olugbenga John; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal; Römbke, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Mites, and especially soil-inhabiting ones, have been less studied than the other invertebrates used in bio-assays for the assessment of soil quality and the hazards of chemicals, although these organisms are included in the regulatory assessment scheme of pesticides. The recent advances in the development of test methods for soil mites groups have provided more information on their sensitivities towards chemicals, which needs to be presented for a more robust assessment of the current trends in soil mite ecotoxicology. Moreover, interestingly mite is the only taxa for which test methods were developed and standardized on predatory organisms. This review summarizes the different protocols for the assessment of chemicals using soil-inhabiting mites, including laboratory, semi-field and field studies. Among the data found in the literature, most of the chemicals assessed with mites were pesticides, while a few environmental samples were assessed with these organisms. Their sensitivities towards chemicals were then compared and discussed regarding other soil invertebrates. Finally, we conclude on the usefulness of soil mites in ecotoxicology, and provide future research trail in this area. PMID:25366466

  5. Induced responses in clover to an herbaceous mite.

    PubMed

    Ridsdill-Smith, James; Ghisalberti, Emilio; Jiang, Yong

    2002-12-01

    Halotydeus destructor feeding on subterranean clover cotyledons can cause severe damage. The mites live on the soil surface and move up onto plants to feed. Foraging behaviour consists of palpating, probing, and feeding with frequent transitions between them. Sustained feeding is made up of a series of short (1-2 min) feeds separated by periods of palpating. The mites tend to feed in aggregations, and are attracted to cotyledons damaged by other mites feeding or by mechanical damage. Mites can distinguish between resistant and susceptible cotyledons within 30 min and resistance is antixenotic due to deterrence. Study of the mechanisms shows this to be induced plant resistance. Several green leaf volatiles are involved in the plant/mite interaction. After feeding commences, 2-E-hexenal is released that at low concentrations is attractive to mites, perhaps causing the feeding aggregations. The wound-induced C(8) compound, 1-octen-3-one, plays a significant role in the deterrence of cotyledons of resistant subterranean clover varieties to H. destructor. Damaged cotyledons of resistant varieties produce more 1-octen-3-one that those of susceptible varieties. Screening for resistance has identified varieties from Italy showing resistance. H. destructor does not occur in Europe. Production of damage-induced volatiles by the resistant plants may have resulted from invasion by herbivores or pathogens, but not from coevolution with these mites. The responses of H. destructor are probably an adaptation to these general plant defensive compounds. PMID:12432518

  6. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  7. Phoretic mites identified on Andean hummingbirds (Trochilidae) of Caldas, Colombia.

    PubMed

    López-Orozco, Natalia; Cañón-Franco, William Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Within the bird-plant-mite system, the relationship between hummingbirds, flowers, and mites remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the degree of association between nasal mites and eight species of Andean hummingbirds in Colombia (Amazilia saucerrottei, A. tzacatl, Chalybura buffonii, Chlorostilbon mellisugus, Florisuga mellivora, Glaucis hirsutus, Phaethornis guy and P. striigularis). Over a five-month period (trapping effort 360 hours/month), a total of 178 birds were captured, from which 81 mite specimens were collected and identified as belonging to three genera (Proctolaelaps, Rhinoseius and Tropicoseius) spanning eleven species. This is the first report of its kind from Colombia on the identification of the mite species P. rabulatus, R. luteyni, R. rafinskii, T. berryi, T. colwelli, T. erro and T. uniformis and the first record of P. guy as phoretic host for Proctolaelaps rabulatus. Morphological characteristics (length of the dorsal plate, width of the dorsal plate and setae z5 length) alone failed to distinguish between mite species. The ecologic impact of this relationship on flowers with respect to nectar and pollen availability and the effect of mites on pollination by hummingbirds needs to be determined. PMID:23856724

  8. Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.

    PubMed

    Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

    2003-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence mechanisms. These food-health concepts would probably spur the large-scale oil palm (and monoculture) plantations, which are already seen to be a major cause of deforestation and replacement of diverse ecosystems in many countries. However, the environmental advantages of palm phytonutrients are that they are prepared from the readily available raw material from palm oil milling processes. Palm fruit, one of only a few fatty fruits, is likely to have an increasingly substantiated place in human health, not only through the provision of acceptable dietary fats, but also its characteristic protective phytonutrients. PMID:14506002

  9. A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test. PMID:24020263

  10. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  11. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  12. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (<10 %). Because of the great reproductive potential of daughter mites, their inclusion in assessments of grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance. PMID:22752670

  13. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  14. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata): Its fibres, polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Ishak, M R; Sapuan, S M; Leman, Z; Rahman, M Z A; Anwar, U M K; Siregar, J P

    2013-01-16

    Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a multipurpose palm species from which a variety of foods and beverages, timber commodities, biofibres, biopolymers and biocomposites can be produced. Recently, it is being used as a source of renewable energy in the form of bio-ethanol via fermentation process of the sugar palm sap. Although numerous products can be produced from sugar palm, three products that are most prominent are palm sugar, fruits and fibres. This paper focuses mainly on the significance of fibres as they are highly durable, resistant to sea water and because they are available naturally in the form of woven fibre they are easy to process. Besides the recent advances in the research of sugar palm fibres and their composites, this paper also addresses the development of new biodegradable polymer derived from sugar palm starch, and presents reviews on fibre surface treatment, product development, and challenges and efforts on properties enhancement of sugar palm fibre composites. PMID:23121967

  15. Biological control of spider mites on grape by phytoseiid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae): emphasis on regional aspects.

    PubMed

    Prischmann, D A; Croft, B A; Luh, H K

    2002-04-01

    Leaf samples were taken from 34 (1998) and 10 (1999) vineyards in five valleys in western Oregon to assess spider mite pests and biological control by predaceous phytoseiid mites. A leaf at a coordinate of every 10 m of border, 5 m into a vineyard, was taken to minimize edge effects; 20 leaves were taken at regular intervals from vineyard centers. Variables recorded at each site included grape variety and plant age, chemicals used, and vegetation next to vineyards. Sites were rated as occurring in agricultural versus riparian settings based on surrounding vegetation types. Multiple linear regressions and a computer genetic algorithm with an information content criterion were used to assess variables that may explain mite abundances. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was the dominant phytoseiid mite species and Tetranychus urticae Koch the dominant tetranychid mite species. High levels of T. urticae occurred when phytoseiid levels were low, and low levels of T. urticae were present when phytoseiid levels were high to moderate. T. urticae densities were higher in vineyards surrounded by agriculture, but phytoseiid levels did not differ between agricultural and riparian sites. Phytoseiids had higher densities on vineyard edges; T. urticae densities were higher in centers. Biological control success of pest mites was rated excellent in 11 of 44 vineyards, good in 27, and poor in only six sites. Predaceous mites appeared to be the principal agents regulating spider mites at low levels in sites where pesticides nontoxic to predators were used. Effects of surrounding vegetation, grape variety, growing region, and other factors on mites are discussed. PMID:12020011

  16. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Recent findings Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Summary Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:20689407

  17. DATE PALMS OF ARABIA: A MULTIFUNCTIONAL GENETIC RESOURCE [ABSTRACT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabia Deserta is a part of the center of origin and constitutes a sizable part of the center of diversity of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Cultivated date palm is closely related to a variable aggregate of wild and feral palms distributed over the southern, warm and dry Middle East as well a...

  18. Mite elimination--clinical effect on eczema.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, P S; Tan, B B

    1998-01-01

    Allergic reactivity to house-dust mites (HDM) can be detected in patients with atopic eczema by prick and patch test challenge. To determine the clinical relevance of this reactivity, we performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of anti-HDM measures. Active treatment comprised Gortex bags for all the bedding elements, a high-powered vacuum cleaner, and a spray containing benzyl alcohol and tannic acid to kill mites and denature allergens. Placebo treatment was light cotton bags, a cheap vacuum cleaner, and water spray. Forty-eight patients (28 active group) completed the trial, which lasted 6 months. Dust was sampled from the mattress surface and bedroom and living-room carpets before and at monthly intervals after institution of the measures. Dust was weighed and Der p 1 determined by ELISA (ALK). Patients were assessed for area and severity of eczema by a blinded observer. There was a highly significant reduction in bed surface dust - most beds yielded insufficient dust to extract and assay. Carpet Der p 1 levels were reduced to similar minimal levels by both active and placebo treatments (about 250 ng/m2). There were highly significant benefits on the eczema scores, the active treatment being greatly superior to placebo (P< or =0.0006; analysis of covariance). In conclusion, Gortex bed bags were highly effective at containing dust within the bed. This was associated with clinical improvement in most patients with atopic eczema - the biggest improvements were seen in the most severely affected subjects. PMID:10096818

  19. Microbiota of Demodex mites from rosacea patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Nathalia; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Proliferation of Demodex mites is associated with rosacea. Furthermore, Demodex-associated bacteria were suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. We decided to analyze Demodex microbiota. Mites were collected by standardized skin surface biopsies from patients with erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular rosacea or from control subjects. The microbiota from each mite was characterized by 16S rRNA clone library approach. The 16S rRNA clone library consisted of 367 clones obtained from 73 extracts originating from 5 samples per study group (ETR, PPR or healthy subjects). A total of 86 species were identified with 36 as Demodex-specific microbiota. In the papulopustular group, proportions of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes increased whereas proportion of Actinobacteria decreased. Here, we report preliminary results on the microbiota of Demodex mites based on a molecular approach showing an unexpected diversity. Differences according to the host status need to be confirmed but open new perspectives for diagnostic of rosacea. PMID:24768927

  20. On palms, bugs, and Chagas disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Martín, María; Calzada, José; Saldaña, Azael; Monteiro, Fernando A; Palomeque, Francisco S; Santos, Walter S; Angulo, Victor M; Esteban, Lyda; Dias, Fernando B S; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Bar, María Esther; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Palms are ubiquitous across Neotropical landscapes, from pristine forests or savannahs to large cities. Although palms provide useful ecosystem services, they also offer suitable habitat for triatomines and for Trypanosoma cruzi mammalian hosts. Wild triatomines often invade houses by flying from nearby palms, potentially leading to new cases of human Chagas disease. Understanding and predicting triatomine-palm associations and palm infestation probabilities is important for enhancing Chagas disease prevention in areas where palm-associated vectors transmit T. cruzi. We present a comprehensive overview of palm infestation by triatomines in the Americas, combining a thorough reanalysis of our published and unpublished records with an in-depth review of the literature. We use site-occupancy modeling (SOM) to examine infestation in 3590 palms sampled with non-destructive methods, and standard statistics to describe and compare infestation in 2940 palms sampled by felling-and-dissection. Thirty-eight palm species (18 genera) have been reported to be infested by ∼39 triatomine species (10 genera) from the USA to Argentina. Overall infestation varied from 49.1-55.3% (SOM) to 62.6-66.1% (dissection), with important heterogeneities among sub-regions and particularly among palm species. Large palms with complex crowns (e.g., Attalea butyracea, Acrocomia aculeata) and some medium-crowned palms (e.g., Copernicia, Butia) are often infested; in slender, small-crowned palms (e.g., Euterpe) triatomines associate with vertebrate nests. Palm infestation tends to be higher in rural settings, but urban palms can also be infested. Most Rhodnius species are probably true palm specialists, whereas Psammolestes, Eratyrus, Cavernicola, Panstrongylus, Triatoma, Alberprosenia, and some Bolboderini seem to use palms opportunistically. Palms provide extensive habitat for enzootic T. cruzi cycles and a critical link between wild cycles and transmission to humans. Unless effective means to reduce contact between people and palm-living triatomines are devised, palms will contribute to maintaining long-term and widespread, albeit possibly low-intensity, transmission of human Chagas disease. PMID:26196330

  1. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  2. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  3. detectMITE: A novel approach to detect miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in genomes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic genomes, including plants and animals. Classified as a type of non-autonomous DNA transposable elements, they play important roles in genome organization and evolution. Comprehensive and accurate genome-wide detection of MITEs in various eukaryotic genomes can improve our understanding of their origins, transposition processes, regulatory mechanisms, and biological relevance with regard to gene structures, expression, and regulation. In this paper, we present a new MATLAB-based program called detectMITE that employs a novel numeric calculation algorithm to replace conventional string matching algorithms in MITE detection, adopts the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm to filter out MITE candidates with low complexity, and utilizes the powerful clustering program CD-HIT to cluster similar MITEs into MITE families. Using the rice genome as test data, we found that detectMITE can more accurately, comprehensively, and efficiently detect MITEs on a genome-wide scale than other popular MITE detection tools. Through comparison with the potential MITEs annotated in Repbase, the widely used eukaryotic repeat database, detectMITE has been shown to find known and novel MITEs with a complete structure and full-length copies in the genome. detectMITE is an open source tool (https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectmite). PMID:26795595

  4. detectMITE: A novel approach to detect miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic genomes, including plants and animals. Classified as a type of non-autonomous DNA transposable elements, they play important roles in genome organization and evolution. Comprehensive and accurate genome-wide detection of MITEs in various eukaryotic genomes can improve our understanding of their origins, transposition processes, regulatory mechanisms, and biological relevance with regard to gene structures, expression, and regulation. In this paper, we present a new MATLAB-based program called detectMITE that employs a novel numeric calculation algorithm to replace conventional string matching algorithms in MITE detection, adopts the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm to filter out MITE candidates with low complexity, and utilizes the powerful clustering program CD-HIT to cluster similar MITEs into MITE families. Using the rice genome as test data, we found that detectMITE can more accurately, comprehensively, and efficiently detect MITEs on a genome-wide scale than other popular MITE detection tools. Through comparison with the potential MITEs annotated in Repbase, the widely used eukaryotic repeat database, detectMITE has been shown to find known and novel MITEs with a complete structure and full-length copies in the genome. detectMITE is an open source tool (https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectmite). PMID:26795595

  5. Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

    2010-09-01

    Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the anti-predator response studied most intensively in spider mites has been the avoidance of patches with high predation risk. Less attention has been given to the dense web produced by spider mites, which is a complex structure of silken threads that is thought to hinder predators. Here, we investigate the effects of the web produced by the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard, on its interactions with the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes Evans. We tested whether female spider mites recognize predator cues and whether these can induce the spider mites to produce denser web. We found that the prey did not produce denser web in response to such cues, but laid more eggs suspended in the web, away from the leaf surface. These suspended eggs suffered less from predation by P. longipes than eggs that were laid on the leaf surface under the web. Thus, by altering their oviposition behaviour in response to predator cues, females of T. evansi protect their offspring. PMID:20191311

  6. Artificial ground shelters for overwintering phytoseiid mites in orchards.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiro; Jung, Chuleui

    2010-09-01

    Biological control in orchards strongly depends on winter survival of natural enemies, especially in temperate regions. Predacious phytoseiid mites overwinter on trees or on the ground depending on the characteristics of the species. However, the overwintering ecology of phytoseiid mites on the ground is less well known than that of those on trees. We investigated the usefulness of artificial overwintering shelters as a tool for studying the overwintering ecology of phytoseiid mites on the ground. Four kinds of artificial shelter (shading net, felt, cardboard, and urethane foam) were placed on the ground in an apple orchard in Korea. Two dominant phytoseiid species, Neoseiulus makuwa (Ehara) and N. womersleyi (Schicha) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), overwintered in the artificial ground shelters, and numbers were highest in the urethane foam among the four kinds of shelter, and next highest in the shading net. On the other hand, the numbers of phytoseiid mites collected in the ground vegetation plus soil samples under the ground shelters were not significantly different among the five shelter treatments, including the no-shelter control. Our results suggest that artificial overwintering shelters are efficient tools for investigating overwintering ecology of phytoseiid mites on the ground, as well as on trees, in orchards. Furthermore, the artificial shelters would be good sampling units because they are easily formed into identical sizes and can be used almost anywhere in the field with less laborious work. We also discuss some implications about the effects of sheltered structures on the ground on the populations of phytoseiid mites during winter. PMID:20229324

  7. Transformation of oil palm using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantlets are regenerated after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli derived from young leaves of oil palm. The calli are transformed with an Agrobacterium strain, LBA4404, harboring the plasmid pUBA, which carries a selectable marker gene (bar) for resistance to the herbicide Basta and is driven by a maize ubiquitin promoter. Modifications of the transformation method, treatment of the target tissues using acetosyringone, exposure to a plasmolysis medium, and physical injury via biolistics are applied. The main reasons for such modifications are to activate the bacterial virulence system and, subsequently, to increase the transformation efficiency. Transgenic oil palm cells are selected and regenerated on a medium containing herbicide Basta. Molecular analyses revealed the presence and integration of the introduced bar gene into the genome of the transformants. PMID:22351008

  8. Biology, Predation, and Life Table of Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the Old World Date Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Negm, Mohamed W.; Alatawi, Fahad J.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.

    2014-01-01

    The old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the Middle East and North Africa. Considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against O. afrasiaticus, biology, predation, and life table parameters of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai) and Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35°C and 35 ± 10% RH) as a first step to understand their effectiveness against all mobile life stages of O. afrasiaticus. For both predators, oviposition period was significantly shorter at 35°C than at 25°C. The following parameters were obtained for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively: female longevity, 31.8, 20.1, 35.7, 27.4 d; fecundity, 21.6, 38.0, 18.8, 34.8 eggs per female; oviposition period, 23.9, 13.7, 25.9, 18.1 d. Total predation of C. negevi and N. barkeri female was 246.0, 270.0, 227.6, 205.3 prey at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Rectal plugs were observed attached to the opisthosoma of some adult females of N. barkeri, which often cause the mite to stick to the surface. Life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate (R0) 10.44, 17.35, 10.19, 13.84, intrinsic rate of increase (rm) 0.14, 0.19, 0.13, 0.16 d−1, finite rate of increase (λ) 1.15, 1.21, 1.12, 1.17 d−1, generation time (T) 17.03, 15.17, 17.83, 16.61 d, doubling time (DT) 04.95, 03.64, 05.33, 04.33 d for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively. The values of intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were higher in C. negevi than N. barkeri at both temperature regimes. Therefore, it could be concluded that C. negevi performance was better than N. barkeri against O. afrasiaticus and can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing methods for spider mites control. PMID:25368087

  9. Biology, predation, and life table of Cydnoseius negevi and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Negm, Mohamed W; Alatawi, Fahad J; Aldryhim, Yousif N

    2014-01-01

    The old world date mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a severe spider mite pest of date palm in most of the Middle East and North Africa. Considering that nothing is known about the performance of phytoseiid predators against O. afrasiaticus, biology, predation, and life table parameters of Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski and Amitai) and Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes (Acari: Phytoseiidae), collected from date palm orchards, were studied under laboratory conditions (25, 35°C and 35 ± 10% RH) as a first step to understand their effectiveness against all mobile life stages of O. afrasiaticus. For both predators, oviposition period was significantly shorter at 35°C than at 25°C. The following parameters were obtained for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively: female longevity, 31.8, 20.1, 35.7, 27.4 d; fecundity, 21.6, 38.0, 18.8, 34.8 eggs per female; oviposition period, 23.9, 13.7, 25.9, 18.1 d. Total predation of C. negevi and N. barkeri female was 246.0, 270.0, 227.6, 205.3 prey at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Rectal plugs were observed attached to the opisthosoma of some adult females of N. barkeri, which often cause the mite to stick to the surface. Life table parameters were estimated as net reproductive rate (R0) 10.44, 17.35, 10.19, 13.84, intrinsic rate of increase (rm) 0.14, 0.19, 0.13, 0.16 d(-1), finite rate of increase (λ) 1.15, 1.21, 1.12, 1.17 d(-1), generation time (T) 17.03, 15.17, 17.83, 16.61 d, doubling time (DT) 04.95, 03.64, 05.33, 04.33 d for C. negevi and N. barkeri at 25 and 35°C, respectively. The values of intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were higher in C. negevi than N. barkeri at both temperature regimes. Therefore, it could be concluded that C. negevi performance was better than N. barkeri against O. afrasiaticus and can be considered as a valuable addition to the existing methods for spider mites control. PMID:25368087

  10. The anesthesiologist's guide to Palm Computing.

    PubMed

    Smith, M P; Sheplock, G J

    1999-01-01

    Handheld personal computers (HPCs) are permeating the clinical and personal lives of anesthesia care providers. Common characteristics include low cost, portability, easy PC data sharing, and applications such as a calendar, phone directory, memo pad, and a task list. Additional software includes databases for case logs, medication lists, task organizers, and document readers. This article discusses the Palm brand HPC (Palm Computing, A 3Com Company, Santa Clara, CA) including purchasing tips, common uses, backing up information, security concerns, and information resources on the Internet including websites providing free trial software. PMID:10499759

  11. Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

    2008-01-01

    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes. PMID:19001776

  12. Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

    2010-01-01

    The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites. PMID:21070175

  13. Do Phoretic Mites Influence the Reproductive Success of Ips grandicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-12-01

    Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) can be an important pest of plantation trees in the Great Lakes region. Mites commonly occur in phoretic association with this beetle, but little is known about their effects on beetle population dynamics. We assessed the effects of phoretic mites on the reproductive success of I. grandicollis using complementary correlative and manipulative approaches. First, we allowed beetles to colonize Pinus resinosa (Ait) logs from sites across Wisconsin, reared them in a common environment, and related the species identities and abundances of mites with beetle production from each log. We found a positive relationship between I. grandicollis abundance and the presence of five mite species, Histiostoma spp., Dendrolaelaps quadrisetus (Berlese), Iponemus confusus (Lindquist), Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann, and Tarsonemus spp. While the abundance of individual mite species was positively correlated with beetle abundance, assessments of mite community structure did not explain beetle reproduction. Next, we introduced beetles that either had a natural complement of mites or whose mites were mechanically reduced into logs, and compared reproductive success between these beetles. We found no difference in colonization rates or beetle emergence between mite-present and mite-reduced treatments. Collectively, these results suggest a correlative, rather than causal, link between beetle reproductive success and mite incidence and abundances. These mites and beetles likely benefit from mutually suitable environments rather than exerting strong reciprocal impacts. Although mites may have some effects on I. grandicollis reproductive success, they likely play a minimal role compared to factors such as tree quality, beetle predation, and weather. PMID:26314027

  14. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  15. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    PubMed

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

  16. Road Through Palm Savannah in Pantanal

    Seasonally flooded palm savannah near the Rio Negro river at the end of the wet season. Located near RAMSAR site and Rio Negro National Park in the Pantanal ecoregion, near the border between Paraguay and Bolivia. This region, situated in the extreme northeastern corner of western Paraguay and exten...

  17. Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC, AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  20. Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.

    PubMed

    Low, Eng-Ti L; Rosli, Rozana; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  1. Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ∼8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

  2. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    PubMed

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. PMID:25017207

  3. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. PMID:25824504

  4. Biosynthesis of linoleic acid in Tyrophagus mites (Acarina: Acaridae).

    PubMed

    Aboshi, Takako; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Yuji; Honda, Yoshiyuki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Amano, Hiroshi; Mori, Naoki

    2013-11-01

    We report here that Tyrophagus similis and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) have the ability to biosynthesize linoleic acid [(9Z, 12Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid] via a Δ12-desaturation step, although animals in general and vertebrates in particular appear to lack this ability. When the mites were fed on dried yeast enriched with d31-hexadecanoic acid (16:0), d27-octadecadienoic acid (18:2), produced from d31-hexadecanoic acid through elongation and desaturation reactions, was identified as a major fatty acid component of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) in the mites. The double bond position of d27-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) of PCs and PEs was determined to be 9 and 12, respectively by dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) derivatization. Furthermore, the GC/MS retention time of methyl 9, 12-octadecadienoate obtained from mite extracts agreed well with those of authentic linoleic acid methyl ester. It is still unclear whether the mites themselves or symbiotic microorganisms are responsible for inserting a double bond into the Δ12 position of octadecanoic acid. However, we present here the unique metabolism of fatty acids in the mites. PMID:23973745

  5. A Rice Stowaway MITE for Gene Transfer in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fattash, Isam; Bhardwaj, Priyanka; Hui, Caleb; Yang, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) lack protein coding capacity and often share very limited sequence similarity with potential autonomous elements. Their capability of efficient transposition and dramatic amplification led to the proposition that MITEs are an untapped rich source of materials for transposable element (TE) based genetic tools. To test the concept of using MITE sequence in gene transfer, a rice Stowaway MITE previously shown to excise efficiently in yeast was engineered to carry cargo genes (neo and gfp) for delivery into the budding yeast genome. Efficient excision of the cargo gene cassettes was observed even though the excision frequency generally decreases with the increase of the cargo sizes. Excised elements insert into new genomic loci efficiently, with about 65% of the obtained insertion sites located in genes. Elements at the primary insertion sites can be remobilized, frequently resulting in copy number increase of the element. Surprisingly, the orientation of a cargo gene (neo) on a construct bearing dual reporter genes (gfp and neo) was found to have a dramatic effect on transposition frequency. These results demonstrated the concept that MITE sequences can be useful in engineering genetic tools to deliver cargo genes into eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23704977

  6. Quantification of house dust mite allergens in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Paufler, P; Gebel, T; Dunkelberg, H

    2001-01-01

    The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae are important sources of indoor allergens. In sensitized patients, house dust mites induce and exacerbate diseases like asthma bronchiale, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis. The most significant exposure of persons occurs overnight in bed and to a lesser extent, during the daytime while performing activities like vacuum cleaning or bed making. In general, house dust mite antigens are quantified in samples of reservoir dust of carpets or beds. Yet, assessing allergens in ambient air would better represent human exposures because inhalation is the main route of uptake, and a close correlation between levels of floor and air antigens has not yet been proved. Unfortunately, because of extremely low airborne particle concentrations, analyses are difficult to perform and depend on sophisticated sampling strategies, as well as on sensitive immunometric detection assays. Using monoclonal immunoassays, house dust mite antigens, quantified in undisturbed conditions in ambient air, are found at pg/m3 levels. The disturbance of reservoir dust by vacuum cleaning or bed making increases the airborne allergen levels up to ng/m3 concentrations. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the analysis of airborne house dust mites in both undisturbed and disturbed ambient air. The advantages and disadvantages of different sampling strategies are outlined. PMID:11354542

  7. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  8. Repeatability of feather mite prevalence and intensity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Real, Javier; Serrano, David; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Fernández-González, Sofía; Bermejo, Ana; Calleja, Juan A; De la Puente, Javier; De Palacio, Diana; Martínez, José L; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Ponce, Carlos; Frías, Óscar; Tella, José L; Møller, Anders P; Figuerola, Jordi; Pap, Péter L; Kovács, István; Vágási, Csongor I; Meléndez, Leandro; Blanco, Guillermo; Aguilera, Eduardo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Galván, Ismael; Atiénzar, Francisco; Barba, Emilio; Cantó, José L; Cortés, Verónica; Monrós, Juan S; Piculo, Rubén; Vögeli, Matthias; Borràs, Antoni; Navarro, Carlos; Mestre, Alexandre; Jovani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R) of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (R(adj)) after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity). The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26-0.53; R(adj) = 0.32-0.57); smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19-0.30; R(adj )= 0.18-0.30). These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity. PMID:25216248

  9. Checklist of the Quill mites (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) of the World.

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Chrzanowski, Mateusz; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea) are ectoparasites inhabiting the quills of various feather types in many groups of birds. Until now, 334 valid species and 60 genera of quill mites have been described and recorded from 482 bird species (95 families and 24 orders). Currently, the family is divided into 2 subfamilies: Syringophilinae Lavoipierre, 1953 with 260 species grouped in 49 genera, and Picobinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 with 74 species grouped in 11 genera. Mites of the subfamily Syringophilinae inhabit quills of primaries, secondaries, tertials, rectrices and wing coverts and just occasionally the body feathers; representatives of the subfamily Picobinae live predominantly inside the body feathers. The rapid increase of the knowledge on biodiversity and systematics of quill mites started in end of the 1990s; numerous new descriptions appeared since that time and taxonomic rearrangements make an urgent need to summarize all previous data. We present a complete checklist of the family Syringophilidae of the world including the following data: a species name, author(s), references, a number of first page of description, figure numbers in descriptions, depository of type and non-type materials, host spectrum and geographical distribution. The checklist is additionally provided with the table including bird hosts and associated quill mite species. PMID:26249476

  10. Dry Dog Food Integrity and Mite Strain Influence the Density-Dependent Growth of the Stored-Product Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Acaridida).

    PubMed

    Rybanska, Dagmar; Hubert, Jan; Markovic, Martin; Erban, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The infestation of foodstuffs by mites is connected to health risks and economic losses. The cosmopolitan stored-product mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging and predominant pest of dry dog food. In this study, the influences on mite population growth of 1) the different dry dog food kernels present in the package; 2) the integrity of the dry dog food kernel, whether intact or crushed; 3) the initial population density of 10 or 100 specimens; and 4) the four mite strains used were investigated under laboratory conditions. The population growth tests were performed for 28 d at 85% relative humidity and 25°C. The intrinsic growth rates of the mites were compared. The population growth was higher on the brown and green kernels than on the red and white kernels. The kernel integrity affected the population growth, and the integrity effect was highly influenced by the initial mite population density. The mites showed density-dependent growth in three of the four mite strains tested. The initial population density changed the population growth ranking among the mite strains, thereby indicating strain-specific density-dependent growth. The results of this study have important implications for predictive models of stored-product mite populations in dry dog food. One practical recommendation is that the growth of mites should be considered with regard to the mite strains and according to the strain-specific density dependent growth. Next, the integrity of the kernels should be maintained because disrupted or crushed kernels promote increases in mite populations. PMID:26476559

  11. Beat sampling accuracy in estimating spruce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) populations and injury on juniper.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Paula M; Hardin, Mark R

    2004-08-01

    The use of a standardized beat sampling method for estimating spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae), densities on a widely used evergreen ornamental plant species, Juniperus chinensis variety 'Sargentii' A. Henry (Cupressaceae), was examined. There was a significant positive relationship between total spruce spider mite densities and spider mite densities from beat sampling on juniper. The slope and intercept of the relationship may be used by pest managers to predict total spider mite densities on plants from beat sample counts. Beat sampling dramatically underestimates the total number of spider mites on a foliage sample. The relationships between spruce spider mite feeding injury and spider mite density estimates from beat sampling juniper foliage and total spider mite counts on foliage were also examined. There was a significant positive relationship between spruce spider mite density as estimated from beat sampling and injury to the plants. There was a similar positive relationship between the total number of spruce spider mites and injury to the plants, suggesting that a pest manager could use beat sampling counts to estimate plant injury and related thresholds. These findings have important implications to decision-making for spruce spider mite control, especially as it relates to threshold levels and determining rates of predator releases. Further assessment of the effectiveness of beat and other sampling methods across multiple spider mite- host plant associations needs to be examined to enable pest managers to select sampling plans that are feasible and reliable. PMID:15384359

  12. Are Demodex mites principal, conspirator, accomplice, witness or bystander in the cause of rosacea?

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Plewig, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    As the only permanent human ectoparasite, the role of human Demodex mites in health and diseases remains largely unclarified. In view of the ecological interaction between organisms of two different species, a type of commensalism between Demodex mites and humans (the former benefit, the latter unaffected) is most likely, while parasitism occurs temporarily and spatially in the diseased state (the former benefit, the latter harmed). As part of normal skin microbiota, the causal role of Demodex mites in the initiation of rosacea can neither fulfill the classical Henle-Koch's principal nor the advanced criteria proposed by Fredericks and Relman for molecular detection of non-cultivatable microorganisms. Epidemiological analysis using Hill's criteria fails to support the causative role of Demodex mites in rosacea regarding the strength of association, specificity and temporality of association, biological gradient and plausibility as well as clinical coherence, therapeutic experimentation and medical analogy. In application of Rothman's sufficient cause model to evaluate the contribution of Demodex mites to rosacea on a population basis, Demodex mites can be regarded as a non-necessary, non-sufficient causal factor for certain forms of rosacea. Further strategies to dissect the association between Demodex mites and rosacea may include studying the possible existence of more virulent forms of mites with a higher pathogenicity, the endosymbiotic bacteria in certain life periods of mites, the interactions between mites and human hosts or between mites and environment, and to set up ex vivo culture models for Demodex mites. PMID:25666117

  13. DURATION AND SPREAD OF AN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS USED TO TREAT VARROA MITES IN HONEYBEE HIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites was used to treat bees against varroa mites in southern France. Fungal treatment was associated with a considerable increase in the percentage of infected varroa mites over baseline levels in two field experiments. The percentage of infecte...

  14. A method for rapidly marking adult varroa mites for use in brood inoculation experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We explored a method for marking varroa mites using correction fluid (PRESTO!TM Jumbo Correction Pen, Pentel Co., Ltd., Japan). Individual mites were placed on a piece of nylon mesh (165 mesh) to prevent the mites from moving during marking. A small piece of nylon fishing line (diameter = 0.30 mm)...

  15. The presence of eriophyid mites on native and weed Cirsium species in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aceria anthocoptes is an eriophyid mite that is known to feed on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). While this mite species has been considered to be host specific, a detailed evaluation of its host range has yet to be determined. To assess the risks associated with using this mite as a biological ...

  16. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

  17. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  18. Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2012-09-01

    The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation. PMID:23082514

  19. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  20. Endemic insular and coastal Tunisian date palm genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Guenni, Karim; Abdelkrim, Ahmed Ben; Bermil, Aymen; Rhouma, Soumaya; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Santoni, Sylvain; Pintaud, Jean Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Hannachi, Amel Salhi

    2016-04-01

    The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm. PMID:26895027

  1. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases. PMID:20664811

  2. A review of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitising Kenyan birds.

    PubMed

    Klimovičová, Miroslava; Mikula, Peter; Kahure, Njoki; Hromada, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) collected from passeriform and coraciiform birds from Kenya are described : Neoaulonastus apalis sp. nov. from Apalis porphyrolaema Reichenow and Neumann (Passeriformes: Cisticolidae) and Peristerophila upupi sp. nov. from Upupa epops Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Upupidae). Additionally, 3 new host species: Cisticola hunteri Shelley, 1889; Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot, 1817) and Ploceus xanthops (Hartlaub, 1862) from Kenya and two new localities are recorded for genera: Aulobia Kethley, 1970; Neoaulonastus Skoracki, 2004 and Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970. The previous and the latest knowledge about syringophilid mites from Kenya is summarized in tabular form.  PMID:25283123

  3. Allergogenous mites (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) in private recreation houses.

    PubMed

    Vobrázková, E; Samsinák, K; Spicák, V

    1979-01-01

    The bed fauna of periodically inhabited dwellings markedly differs from the bed fauna in town apartments, both in quantity--a higher number of mites and quality--an important dominance of the species Euroglyphus maynei which makes up 70.4% of mites in country cottages, but only 28% in town apratments used by the owners of such recreation houses. In other apartments it is very rare. There differences are explained by the specific regime of humidity and temperature in the periodically inhabited rooms. The patients' worsening condition is apparently caused by quantitative changes. PMID:544391

  4. Asynchronous development of honey bee host and Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) influences reproductive potential of mites.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Maria J; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2011-08-01

    A high proportion of nonreproductive (NR) Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). This study was conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host reinvasion of varroa mites on mite reproduction. We collected foundress mites from stages of brood (newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, and pink-eyed pupae) and phoretic mites from adult bees. We then inoculated these mites into cells containing newly sealed larvae. Successful reproduction (foundress laid both a mature male and female) was low (13%) but most common in mites coming from sealed larvae. Unsuccessful reproductive attempts (foundress failed to produce both a mature male and female) were most common in mites from sealed larvae (22%) and prepupae (61%). Lack of any progeny was most common for mites from white-eyed (83%) and pink-eyed pupae (92%). We also collected foundress mites from sealed larvae and transferred them to cells containing newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, or pink-eyed pupae. Successful reproduction only occurred in the transfers to sealed larvae (26%). Unsuccessful reproductive attempts were most common in transfers to newly sealed larvae (40%) and to prepupae (25%). Unsuccessful attempts involved the production of immature progeny (60%), the production of only mature daughters (26%) or the production of only a mature male (14%). Generally, lack of progeny was not associated with mites having a lack of stored sperm. Our results suggest that mites exposed to the removal of prepupae or older brood due to hygiene are unlikely to produce viable mites if they invade new hosts soon after brood removal. Asynchrony between the reproductive status of reinvading mites and the developmental stage of their reinvasion hosts may be a primary cause of NR mites in hygienic colonies. Even if reinvading mites use hosts having the proper age for infestation, only a minority of them will reproduce. PMID:21882676

  5. Poor Prospects for Avian Biodiversity in Amazonian Oil Palm

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Alexander C.; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome’s biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity. PMID:25955243

  6. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  7. Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

    2013-03-01

    Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

  8. Differential Water Mite Parasitism, Phenoloxidase Activity, and Resistance to Mites Are Unrelated across Pairs of Related Damselfly Species

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarek, Julia J.; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five “species pairs”), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species’ relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity. PMID:25658982

  9. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, Julia J; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs"), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity. PMID:25658982

  10. Fatal attraction: Male spider mites prefer females killed by the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana.

    PubMed

    Trandem, Nina; Bhattarai, Upendra Raj; Westrum, Karin; Knudsen, Geir Kjølberg; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2015-06-01

    Exploring prospective mates can be risky. Males of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae approach and guard immobile (quiescent) female nymphs to increase their chances of fathering offspring, this being a first-male sperm priority species. We investigated the behaviour of male T. urticae towards females killed by the mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana, letting them choose between a fungal killed and a healthy quiescent female. The dead female (called cadaver) was in one of three stages: (1) non-sporulating; (2) sporulating with primary conidia (non-infective); (3) surrounded/partly covered by secondary capilliconidia (infective). When the cadaver was in stage 1 or 2, males were significantly more often observed near the cadaver than near the healthy female. When the cadaver was in stage 3 (infective capilliconidia), males preferred the vicinity of healthy females. The frequency of two male behaviours, touching and guarding, was also recorded. Touching the cadaver tended to decrease as cadaver developed, whereas touching the healthy females increased. Guarding of non-sporulating cadavers and healthy females was equally common, while guarding of sporulating cadavers was only observed once (stage 2) or not at all (stage 3). To differentiate between the effect of fungal infection and sex, we also let males choose between a non-sporulating cadaver of each sex. Males then preferred to approach the female cadaver. Touching behaviour followed the same pattern, and guarding of male cadavers was not observed. Our results indicate that T. urticae males are more attracted to non-infective female cadavers than to healthy females, only detecting their mistake when very close. Moreover, males approach and explore cadavers surrounded by infective conidia. Whether the results of host manipulation by the pathogen or just sensory constraints in the host, this inability to detect unsuitable and indeed infective mates promotes transmission of the pathogen. PMID:25889815

  11. Oil palm deserves government attention in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José

    2015-07-01

    Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.

  12. Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) of Adhesion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    White, Helen; Betzig, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Key to understanding a protein’s biological function is the accurate determination of its spatial distribution inside a cell. Although fluorescent protein markers allow the targeting of specific proteins with molecular precision, much of this information is lost when the resultant fusion proteins are imaged with conventional, diffraction-limited optics. In response, several imaging modalities that are capable of resolution below the diffraction limit (~200 nm) have emerged. Here, both single- and dual-color superresolution imaging of biological structures using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) are described. The examples discussed focus on adhesion complexes: dense, protein-filled assemblies that form at the interface between cells and their substrata. A particular emphasis is placed on the instrumentation and photoactivatable fluorescent protein (PA-FP) tags necessary to achieve PALM images at ~20 nm resolution in 5 to 30 min in fixed cells. PMID:19085989

  13. Microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass.

    PubMed

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this paper was to carry out microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass (shell and fibers) with the help of char as microwave absorber (MA). Rapid heating and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas was found to depend on the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the biomass materials which can rapidly heat-up to high temperature within seconds in presence of MA. Some characterization of pyrolysis products was also presented. The advantage of this technique includes substantial reduction in consumption of energy, time and cost in order to produce bio-oil from biomass materials. Large biomass particle size can be used directly in microwave heating, thus saving grinding as well as moisture removal cost. A synergistic effect was found in using MA with oil palm biomass. PMID:20970995

  14. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database

    PubMed Central

    Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation. PMID:26339475

  15. Palm-3000 on-sky results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekany, R.; Roberts, J.; Burruss, R.; Truong, T.; Palmer, D., Guiwits, S., Hale, D., Angione, J., Baranec, C., Croner, E., Davis, J. T. C., Zolkower, J., Henning, J., McKenna, D., Bouchez, A. H.

    2011-09-01

    PALM-3000, the second-generation facility adaptive optics system for the 5-meter telescope at Palomar Observatory, successfully obtained first high-order correction on sky on UT June 21, 2011. Within PALM-3000, low-order wavefront correction is applied with a Xinetics, Inc. 349 (241 active) actuator deformable mirror reused from the 1999 PALAO system. High-order correction is applied with a new Xinetics, Inc. 4,356 (3,388 active) actuator deformable mirror based upon a 6 x 6 array of 11 x 11 actuator Photonex modules. The system also uses a new CCD50-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor camera and a novel real-time computer based upon a bank of commercial GPU's. Currently, the first of four planned wavefront sensor pupil sampling modes (N = 64 subapertures per pupil) has been tested, emphasizing early high-contrast exoplanet science with the PHARO coronagraphic imager and P1640 coronagraphic integral field spectrograph. We report on AO correction performance to date and our experience with the unique 66 x 66 actuator Xinetics, Inc. DM, as well as describe the PALM-3000 commissioning program and future plans.

  16. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW. PMID:26788268

  17. Response of soil mites to organic cultivation in an ultisol in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badejo, M Adetola; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; De-Polli, Helvecio; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2004-01-01

    Soil-dwelling mites of four plots under organic management were investigated in April and December 1998 and in December 1999. Their populations were compared with mite populations in a pasture and forest in the vicinity. It was observed that there was always an initial reduction in the populations of soil mites and in the activity of the epigeic forms whenever a plot was opened up and disturbed mechanically in preparation for cultivation, irrespective of previous organic inputs. With time, the densities and activities of mites recovered under organic management. The uropodine and oribatid mites in particular benefited more from organic management than gamasine and actinedid mites. Uropodine mites increased tremendously under banana where there was fresh cow dung manure. Oribatid mite species Nothrus seropedicalensis and Archegozetes magnus were dominant in organic plots where the soil was moist and temperatures were lower than the ambient. Protoribates rioensis was dominant in organic plots where the soil was drier and temperatures were higher than the ambient. Galumna was the most active oribatid taxon on the floor of all plots, with the highest activity recorded under maracuja and in pasture plots. The results suggest that while densities and activities of soil mites increased in the organic plots, the community structure and recruitment period of oribatid mites were altered. Oribatid mite diversity was higher in the organic plots than in the pasture but lower than in the forest, where Belba sp. and many Eremobelboid brachypiline genera were present, but absent in the organic plots and pasture. PMID:15651531

  18. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  19. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  20. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  1. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  2. Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

  3. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. PMID:26520275

  4. Biomass-based palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve as gas separation adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Sethupathi, Sumathi; Bashir, Mohammed Jk; Akbar, Zinatizadeh Ali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out. PMID:25804669

  5. Interactions between natural enemies: Effect of a predatory mite on transmission of the fungus Neozygites floridana in two-spotted spider mite populations.

    PubMed

    Trandem, Nina; Berdinesen, Ronny; Pell, Judith K; Klingen, Ingeborg

    2016-02-01

    Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20-40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone. PMID:26796096

  6. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  7. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  8. Sampling plans for pest mites on physic nut.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2014-08-01

    The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31. PMID:24682638

  9. Dermanyssus gallinae (chicken mite): an underdiagnosed environmental infestation.

    PubMed

    Collgros, H; Iglesias-Sancho, M; Aldunce, M J; Expósito-Serrano, V; Fischer, C; Lamas, N; Umbert-Millet, P

    2013-06-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a mite that normally parasitizes small birds but may occasionally bite humans. We report an unusual case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and bite-like lesions over her trunk. Other members of the household were also affected. On physical examination, mites < 1 mm in size were found on the patient's body. The family were residing in the city centre and had no pets, but there were pigeon nests in close proximity to the house. Most dermatologists have difficulties identifying ectoparasitosis. In the case of D. gallinae, the small size of the mites and the fact that they leave the host after feeding means that they may not be seen at presentation, thus such infestations are likely to be underdiagnosed. Physicians should be aware that infection with this mite is possible even in patients from urban areas, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of conditions causing recurrent pruritus unresponsive to standard treatments. PMID:23530520

  10. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

    2010-01-01

    Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

  11. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Thoemmes, Megan S; Fergus, Daniel J; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled. PMID:25162399

  12. COCCINELLIDAE AS PREDATORS OF MITES: STETHORINI IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stethorini are unique among the Coccinellidae in specializing on mites (principally Tetranychidae) as prey. Consisting of 90 species in two genera, Stethorus and Parasthethorus, the tribe is practically cosmopolitan, and found in diverse habitats, including many agricultural systems, as well as ...

  13. New hosts for the mite Ornithonyssus bursa in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M Á; Grande, J M; Liébana, M S; Martínez, P; Díaz, L A; Bragagnolo, L A; Solaro, C; Galmes, M A; Sarasola, J H

    2015-12-01

    The mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is considered a poultry pest causing important infestations in chickens and it is considered a potential vector of arbovirus. Despite being considered a common parasite in wild birds, there is scarce published information about its potential hosts and effects on them. Here we present new bird hosts for O. bursa, assess the presence of Alphavirus, Flavivirus and Bunyavirus in mites from three host species, and discuss its potential impact on wild bird populations. We found O. bursa infecting five raptor and six passerine wild bird species. For nine of these species, this is the first record of infection by O. bursa. Although all analysed mites were negative for the examined arboviruses, the small sample size of mites does not allow further conclusions at the present moment. Because of the general nature of this ectoparasite, its presence in migratory long dispersal and endangered bird species, and the seropositivity for arboviruses in some of the species studied here, we consider it critical to assess the role of O. bursa and other ectoparasites as vectors and reservoirs of pathogens and as potential deleterious agents in wild bird populations. PMID:26258483

  14. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites are thought to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant genotype...

  15. [Housedust mites++ in the city of Valdivia, Chile].

    PubMed

    Franjola, R; Malonnek, M

    1995-01-01

    In the house dust there are different species of mites, which have medical importance because they are related to allergic asthma, rhinitis and/or dermatitis. Between april-august 1989 and march-june 1990, 100 samples of house dust collected in the city of Valdivia, Chile were analyzed. By using special techniques the samples were examined and classified. In the present research 70 samples of dust were positive, which showed one or more species of mites. Thirteen species and one genus were classified. The average quantity of house dust examined by sample was 0.69 g and a total of 701 mites were isolated, being identified 691 of them: Glycyphagus destructor (23.4%), G. domesticus (22.7%), Blomia tjibodas (19.2%), Cheyletus eruditus (6.5%) and Chortoglyphus arcuatus (12.0%), were the most frequent species found. In 74.2% of the positive samples two or more species of mites were observed, being the most common the association of two species, with the combinations: G. destructor-G. domesticus; G. domesticus-Tyrophagus putrescentiae; G. destructor-Ch. eruditus. PMID:8573262

  16. Ubiquity and Diversity of Human-Associated Demodex Mites

    PubMed Central

    Thoemmes, Megan S.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled. PMID:25162399

  17. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).

    PubMed

    Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

    2014-01-01

    Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  18. Plant cell piercing by a predatory mite: evidence and implications.

    PubMed

    Adar, E; Inbar, M; Gal, S; Issman, L; Palevsky, E

    2015-02-01

    Omnivorous arthropods can play an important role as beneficial natural enemies because they can sustain their populations on plants when prey is scarce, thereby providing prophylactic protection against an array of herbivores. Although some omnivorous mite species of the family Phytoseiidae consume plant cell-sap, the feeding mechanism and its influence on the plant are not known. Using scanning electron microscopy we demonstrated that the omnivorous predatory mite Euseius scutalis penetrates epidermal cells of pepper foliage and wax membranes. Penetration holes were teardrop shape to oval, of 2-5 µm diameter. The similarities between penetration holes in pollen grains and in epidermal cells implied that the same penetration mechanism is used for pollen feeding and plant cell-sap uptake. Variation in shape and size of penetration holes in leaves and a wax membrane were attributed to different mite life stages, depth of penetration or the number of chelicerae puncturing (one or both). Punctured stomata, epidermal and vein cells appeared flat and lacking turgor. When the mite penetrated and damaged a single cell, neighboring cells were most often intact. In a growth chamber experiment very large numbers of E. scutalis negatively affected the growth of young pepper plants. Consequently caution should be taken when applying cell-piercing predators to young plants. Further studies are needed to take advantage of the potential sustainability of plant cell-sap feeding predators. PMID:25391448

  19. Mites (family Trombiculidae) parasitizing birds migrating from Africa to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Varma, M. G. R.

    1964-01-01

    The mechanisms of dissemination of arthropod-borne human and animal pathogens are of considerable interest to the epidemiologist, veterinarian and biologist. Birds which are hosts to such pathogens and their arthropod vectors could transport them over long distances during their spring and autumn migratory flights. In April 1961, birds migrating from Africa to Europe were collected in south-western Spain and examined for ectoparasites and antibodies to arboviruses. Fully engorged larvae of two species of trombiculid mites unknown in Europe (genera Neoschoengastia and Blankaartia) but found in Africa were collected from two of the migrating birds (redstart and little bittern), suggesting that the birds were carrying the mites from Africa to Europe. Trombiculid mites are the proven vectors of scrub typhus; they have also been implicated in the transmission of human haemorrhagic nephroso-nephritis. The finding of the mite larvae on migrating birds is therefore of some epidemiological interest and underlines the importance of obtaining more data on the dispersal of trombiculids by migrating birds. PMID:14267750

  20. Handbook of forage and rangeland insects: Timothy Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several eriophyid rust mites are important and have been recently recognized as pests on timothy grass. They live and feed in the grooves of the leaves, are cold-adapted, and populations begin to grow gradually in the fall and peak in the spring. Damage can cause up to 50% yield loss and results i...

  1. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306

  2. Oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatida) feeding on ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Katja; Renker, Carsten; Maraun, Mark

    2005-12-01

    The coexistence of a large number of soil animals without extensive niche differentiation is one of the great riddles in soil biology. The main aim of this study was to explore the importance of partitioning of food resources for the high diversity of micro-arthropods in soil. In addition, we investigated if ectomycorrhizal fungi are preferentially consumed compared to saprotrophic fungi. Until today, ectomycorrhizal fungi have never been tested as potential food resource for oribatid mites. We offered six ectomycorrhizal fungi [Amanita muscaria (L.) Hook., Boletus badius (Fr.) Fr., Cenococcum geophilum Fr., Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Fr., Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. and Piloderma croceum J. Erikss. & Hjortstam], one ericoid mycorrhizal fungus [Hymenoscyphus ericae (D.J. Read) Korf & Kernan] and three saprotrophic fungi [Agrocybe gibberosa (Fr.) Fayod, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. and Mortierella ramanniana (A. Møller) Linnem.] simultaneously to each of the mainly mycophagous oribatid mite species Carabodes femoralis (Nicolet), Nothrus silvestris Nicolet and Oribatula tibialis Nicolet. The ericoid mycorrhizal fungus H. ericae and the ectomycorrhizal fungus B. badius were preferentially consumed by each oribatid mite species. However, feeding preferences differed significantly between the three species, with O. tibialis being most selective. This study for the first time documented that oribatid mites feed on certain ectomycorrhizal fungi. PMID:16133254

  3. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations. PMID:25175402

  4. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  5. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  6. The role of onion-associated fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to onion seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ofek, Tal; Gal, Shira; Inbar, Moshe; Lebiush-Mordechai, Sara; Tsror, Leah; Palevsky, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In Israel Rhizoglyphus robini is considered to be a pest in its own right, even though the mite is usually found in association with fungal pathogens. Plant protection recommendations are therefore to treat germinating onions seedlings, clearly a crucial phase in crop production, when mites are discovered. The aim of this study was to determine the role of fungi in bulb mite infestation and damage to germinating onion seedlings. Accordingly we (1) evaluated the effect of the mite on onion seedling germination and survival without fungi, (2) compared the attraction of the mite to species and isolates of various fungi, (3) assessed the effect of a relatively non-pathogenic isolate of Fusarium oxysporum on mite fecundity, and (4) determined the effects of the mite and of F. oxysporum separately and together, on onion seedling germination and sprout development. A significant reduction of seedling survival was recorded only in the 1,000 mites/pot treatment, after 4 weeks. Mites were attracted to 6 out of 7 collected fungi isolates. Mite fecundity on onion sprouts infested with F. oxysporum was higher than on non-infested sprouts. Survival of seedlings was affected by mites, fungi, and their combination. Sprouts on Petri dishes after 5 days were significantly longer in the control and mite treatments than both fungi treatments. During the 5-day experiment more mites were always found on the fungi-infected sprouts than on the non-infected sprouts. Future research using suppressive soils to suppress soil pathogens and subsequent mite damage is proposed. PMID:24242868

  7. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. PMID:26089530

  8. Food stress causes sex-specific maternal effects in mites.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Life history theory predicts that females should produce few large eggs under food stress and many small eggs when food is abundant. We tested this prediction in three female-biased size-dimorphic predatory mites feeding on herbivorous spider mite prey: Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized spider mite predator; Neoseiulus californicus, a generalist preferring spider mites; Amblyseius andersoni, a broad diet generalist. Irrespective of predator species and offspring sex, most females laid only one small egg under severe food stress. Irrespective of predator species, the number of female but not male eggs decreased with increasing maternal food stress. This sex-specific effect was probably due to the higher production costs of large female than small male eggs. The complexity of the response to the varying availability of spider mite prey correlated with the predators' degree of adaptation to this prey. Most A. andersoni females did not oviposit under severe food stress, whereas N. californicus and P. persimilis did oviposit. Under moderate food stress, only P. persimilis increased its investment per offspring, at the expense of egg number, and produced few large female eggs. When prey was abundant, P. persimilis decreased the female egg sizes at the expense of increased egg numbers, resulting in a sex-specific egg size/number trade-off. Maternal effects manifested only in N. californicus and P. persimilis. Small egg size correlated with the body size of daughters but not sons. Overall, our study provides a key example of sex-specific maternal effects, i.e. food stress during egg production more strongly affects the sex of the large than the small offspring. PMID:26089530

  9. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  10. Repeatability of Feather Mite Prevalence and Intensity in Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Real, Javier; Serrano, David; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Fernández-González, Sofía; Bermejo, Ana; Calleja, Juan A.; De la Puente, Javier; De Palacio, Diana; Martínez, José L.; Moreno-Opo, Rubén; Ponce, Carlos; Frías, Óscar; Tella, José L.; Møller, Anders P.; Figuerola, Jordi; Pap, Péter L.; Kovács, István; Vágási, Csongor I.; Meléndez, Leandro; Blanco, Guillermo; Aguilera, Eduardo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Galván, Ismael; Atiénzar, Francisco; Barba, Emilio; Cantó, José L.; Cortés, Verónica; Monrós, Juan S.; Piculo, Rubén; Vögeli, Matthias; Borràs, Antoni; Navarro, Carlos; Mestre, Alexandre; Jovani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why host species differ so much in symbiont loads and how this depends on ecological host and symbiont traits is a major issue in the ecology of symbiosis. A first step in this inquiry is to know whether observed differences among host species are species-specific traits or more related with host-symbiont environmental conditions. Here we analysed the repeatability (R) of the intensity and the prevalence of feather mites to partition within- and among-host species variance components. We compiled the largest dataset so far available: 119 Paleartic passerine bird species, 75,944 individual birds, ca. 1.8 million mites, seven countries, 23 study years. Several analyses and approaches were made to estimate R and adjusted repeatability (Radj) after controlling for potential confounding factors (breeding period, weather, habitat, spatial autocorrelation and researcher identity). The prevalence of feather mites was moderately repeatable (R = 0.26–0.53; Radj = 0.32–0.57); smaller values were found for intensity (R = 0.19–0.30; Radj = 0.18–0.30). These moderate repeatabilities show that prevalence and intensity of feather mites differ among species, but also that the high variation within species leads to considerable overlap among bird species. Differences in the prevalence and intensity of feather mites within bird species were small among habitats, suggesting that local factors are playing a secondary role. However, effects of local climatic conditions were partially observed for intensity. PMID:25216248

  11. Spatial associations of insects and mites in stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Sciarretra, Andrea; Palyvos, Nickolas E; Trematerra, Pasquale

    2011-10-01

    The spatial association pattern of insect and mite populations in a steel bin containing stored wheat, Triticum durum Desf., in central Greece, was studied using the Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE). The monitoring was carried out for 7 mo by using grain trier samples and probe traps. The most abundant insect species were Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). For mites, the most abundant species were the phytophagous Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) (Acari: Glycyphagidae) and the predator Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Ascidae). Both for P. interpunctella and C. ferrugineus, trap catches were associated with numbers of individuals in the trier samples, but the overall association index calculated among trap and sample counts was significant only in the 33% of trap-sample pairs of values. Generally, P. interpunctella had the main patch areas in the central part of the bin, with few exceptions, during the entire monitoring period. Similar trends also were noted in the case of C. ferrugineus, which was clearly aggregated in the center of the grain mass. Spatial association maps indicated a stable positive association in the central part of the bin, but in most of the other sampling zones the association was negative. However, distribution of L. destructor, based on trier samples, indicated increased presence in peripheral zones of the grain sampling area. Moreover, B. tarsalis presented the most dispersed distribution among all four species. For each species, the association between two consecutive samplings was significant in the majority of cases, indicating a stable spatial pattern. Finally, B. tarsalis was spatially associated to a higher degree with the insects found rather than with L. desctructor. Moreover, there was no association of insect and mite presence with grain temperature and moisture content. The results of the current study suggest that the coexistence of insects and mites in bulked grain follows a complex pattern, with significant interactions, especially in the case of mite predators, which are spatially associated with insect species. PMID:22066207

  12. A first genetic map of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) reveals long-range genome structure conservation in the palms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The date palm is one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees. It is critical in many ways to cultures in arid lands by providing highly nutritious fruit while surviving extreme heat and environmental conditions. Despite its importance from antiquity, few genetic resources are available for improving the productivity and development of the dioecious date palm. To date there has been no genetic map and no sex chromosome has been identified. Results Here we present the first genetic map for date palm and identify the putative date palm sex chromosome. We placed ~4000 markers on the map using nearly 1200 framework markers spanning a total of 1293 cM. We have integrated the genetic map, derived from the Khalas cultivar, with the draft genome and placed up to 19% of the draft genome sequence scaffolds onto linkage groups for the first time. This analysis revealed approximately ~1.9 cM/Mb on the map. Comparison of the date palm linkage groups revealed significant long-range synteny to oil palm. Analysis of the date palm sex-determination region suggests it is telomeric on linkage group 12 and recombination is not suppressed in the full chromosome. Conclusions Based on a modified gentoyping-by-sequencing approach we have overcome challenges due to lack of genetic resources and provide the first genetic map for date palm. Combined with the recent draft genome sequence of the same cultivar, this resource offers a critical new tool for date palm biotechnology, palm comparative genomics and a better understanding of sex chromosome development in the palms. PMID:24735434

  13. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards. PMID:25234440

  14. Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella) and dry bulb mite (Aceria tulipae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, transmits at least three harmful viruses, wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), high plains virus (HPV), and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout the Great Plains. This virus complex is considered to be the most serious d...

  15. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages

    PubMed Central

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T.; Simison, W. Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S.; Dunn, Robert R.; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. PMID:26668374

  16. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages.

    PubMed

    Palopoli, Michael F; Fergus, Daniel J; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T; Simison, W Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-12-29

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. PMID:26668374

  17. New approach for the study of mite reproduction: the first transcriptome analysis of a mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yie...

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN A HAWAIIAN PALM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of palms (Arecaceae) is threatened and ex situ conservation efforts are hampered by a poor understanding of their seed biology and storage behavior. Pritchardia remota is fan palm endemic to Hawaii (subtribe Corypheae). Flowering of P. remota occurs mostly during the dry seas...

  19. Contact sensing palm for the Salisbury robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, D.L. )

    1990-07-18

    This report summarizes work performed on Tasks 5 and 6 under Sandia Contract Number 75-2608. Task 5 involves the design and development of a palm for the Salisbury robot hand and Task 6 is an investigation and incorporation of contact sensors into the palm design. 19 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. PALM: Pacific Area Language Materials. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This CD-ROM provides a resource for anyone interested in the diverse languages of the Pacific. It contains a digital archive of approximately 700 booklets in 11 Pacific languages. The original booklets were produced several years ago by the PALM project in order to record Pacific regional languages and to serve as teaching tools. This digital PALM

  1. [Morphological adaptations of acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes) to permanent parasitism on mammals].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line independent of other cheyletoids. These mites possess the separate chelicerae and, therefore, can not be included to the superfamily Cheyletoidea. It is not quite clear whether they were skin parasites initially or they directly switched to parasitism from the predation. The phylogeny of sarcoptoid mites (Psoroptidia: Sarcoptoidea) is not developed, however, some hypotheses about origin and the following evolution of their morphoecotypes can be proposed. We belive that astigmatic mites inhabiting the mammalian respiratory tract transferred to parasitism independently of other sarcoptoids. The idiosoma of these mites is not so much flattened dorso-ventrally and has proportions which are similar to hose of free-living astigmatids. Moreover, in the most archaic species, the legs are not shortened or thickened as in the most parasites. The disappearance of many morphological structures in these mites, probably, happened parallely with some other sarcoptoids due to their parasitic mode of life. The skin inhabiting sarcoptoids belong to the "basic" morphoecotype, and all other sarcoptoid morphoecotypes, excluding respiratory mites, are derived from it. Some mites of this morphoecotype live on the concave surfaces of the widened spine-like hairs of the rodents belonging to the family Echimyidae (mites of the subfamily Echimytricalginae), in the mammalian ears (some Psoroptidae) or partially sink into the hair follicles (Rhynocoptidae). Finally, mites of the family Chirorhynchobiidae live on the bat wing edges attaching to them by their "ixodid-like" gnathosoma. The fur-sarcoptoids, probably, originated from the skin mites. This morphoecotype is divided onto two subtypes: mites with the dorso-ventrally flattened idiosoma (subtype I) and mites with the teretial idiosoma (subtype II). Each "fur-mite" family includes mites of the both subtypes. All mites of the first subtype belong to the early derivative lineages in their families. Among listrophorids such early derivative lineage is represented by the subfamily Aplodontochirinae (Bochkov, OConnor, 2006), and among Chirodiscidae--by mites of the subfamilies Chirodiscinae, Schizocoptinae, and Lemuroeciinae. Among the "fur" astigmatid families, the family Atopomelidae. probably, is the most archaic, and the most part of atopomelids belongs to the first subtype. However there are several more specialized atopomelid genera belonging to the second subtype, Atopomelus, Dasyurochirus, Lemuroptes, Murichirus, Metachiroecius etc. We believe that mites of the first subtype are represented by the "intermediate" forms between skin mites and mites of the second subtype. Some skin sarcoptoids transferred from skin parasitism to burrowing of the host skin (Sarcoptidae). The established morphoecotypes are partially corresponding to some morphoecotypes established by Mironov (1987) for feather mites. Our morphoecotypes of skin and skin burrowing mites perfectly correspond to Mironov's epidermoptoid and knemidocoptoid morphoecotypes, respectively. The proctophylloid morphoecotype (mites living on the wing feathers), which is the most widely represented within feather mites, has an analogy among mammalian mites - the subfamily Echimytricalginae. The analgoid (mites living in the down feathers) and dermoglyphoid (mites living in the feather quills) morphoecotypes have no analogues among mammalian mites for the obvious reasons. It is interesting why some microhabitats on the host body are not still occupied by prostigmatic or astigmatic mites. We believe that the nutrition is the main limitative factor here. The parasitic prostigmates evolved from predators and, therefore, feed on content of the living cells. They need the direct contact with the live tissues of the host and they belong, therefore, to the morphoecotypes represented by the respiratory, skin, gland duct, intradermal, and interstitial mites. Whereas, the most part of the skin inhabiting astigmats feed on the dead epithelial scales. For this reason these mites, so easily colonized fur of their hosts and feed on the hair grease there. On the other hand, some sarcoptoids transferred to the true parasitism and feed on the cambial cells of the skin epithelium. More over we do not know exactly about nutrition of rhyncoptids yet. PMID:18411646

  2. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    PubMed

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden. PMID:26398023

  3. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  4. Evolutionary genomics of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Brassica.

    PubMed

    Nouroz, Faisal; Noreen, Shumaila; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2015-12-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in most eukaryotic genomes. We aimed to characterize various MITEs families in Brassica in terms of their presence, sequence characteristics and evolutionary activity. Dot plot analyses involving comparison of homoeologous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences allowed identification of 15 novel families of mobile MITEs. Of which, 5 were Stowaway-like with TA Target Site Duplications (TSDs), 4 Tourist-like with TAA/TTA TSDs, 5 Mutator-like with 9-10 bp TSDs and 1 novel MITE (BoXMITE1) flanked by 3 bp TSDs. Our data suggested that there are about 30,000 MITE-related sequences in Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes. In situ hybridization showed one abundant family was dispersed in the A-genome, while another was located near 45S rDNA sites. PCR analysis using primers flanking sequences of MITE elements detected MITE insertion polymorphisms between and within the three Brassica (AA, BB, CC) genomes, with many insertions being specific to single genomes and others showing evidence of more recent evolutionary insertions. Our BAC sequence comparison strategy enables identification of evolutionarily active MITEs with no prior knowledge of MITE sequences. The details of MITE families reported in Brassica enable their identification, characterization and annotation. Insertion polymorphisms of MITEs and their transposition activity indicated important mechanism of genome evolution and diversification. MITE families derived from known Mariner, Harbinger and Mutator DNA transposons were discovered, as well as some novel structures. The identification of Brassica MITEs will have broad applications in Brassica genomics, breeding, hybridization and phylogeny through their use as DNA markers. PMID:26129767

  5. Faunal analysis of chigger mites (Acari: Prostigmata) on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu

    2015-08-01

    This paper studied the species diversity and fauna distribution of chigger mites on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest Yunnan. In total, 120,138 individuals of chigger mites were collected from 13,760 individual small mammals, and these mites were identified as comprising two families, 26 genera, and 274 species. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, the mite species diversity in subregions I and II was higher than that in subregions III, IV, and V. Four mite species (Leptotrombidium scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, Leptotrombidium deliense, and Helenicula simena) were the most dominant species in the whole province. Several vector species of chigger mites co-existed in Yunnan, and L. deliense (a main vector of scrub typhus in China) was mainly distributed in subregions IV and V with lower latitude and average altitude whereas L. scutellare (also a main vector in China) was mainly distributed in subregions I, II, and III with higher latitude and average altitude. Some geographically widely distributed mite species were also the mites with wide host ranges and low host specificity. The dominant mite species and their clustering tendency in the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis were highly in accordance with the zoogeographical divisions. The species diversity of chigger mites showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3,500 m) along the vertical gradients and reached the highest value in the middle altitude regions in 2,000-2,500 m. The highest species diversity of the mites and their small mammal hosts happened in the regions around the Hengduan Mountains, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in Asia continent. The host and its sample size, geographical scope, landscape, topography, and some other factors comprehensively influence the species diversity and faunal distribution of chigger mites. A systematic field investigation with a wide geographical scope and large host sample is strongly recommended in the fauna study of chigger mites and other ectoparasites. PMID:25930112

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among arecoid palms (Arecaceae: Arecoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William J.; Norup, Maria V.; Clarkson, James J.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Dowe, John L.; Lewis, Carl E.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Savolainen, Vincent; Wilmot, Tomas; Chase, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The Arecoideae is the largest and most diverse of the five subfamilies of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), containing >50 % of the species in the family. Despite its importance, phylogenetic relationships among Arecoideae are poorly understood. Here the most densely sampled phylogenetic analysis of Arecoideae available to date is presented. The results are used to test the current classification of the subfamily and to identify priority areas for future research. Methods DNA sequence data for the low-copy nuclear genes PRK and RPB2 were collected from 190 palm species, covering 103 (96 %) genera of Arecoideae. The data were analysed using the parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood, and both likelihood and parsimony bootstrapping. Key Results and Conclusions Despite the recovery of paralogues and pseudogenes in a small number of taxa, PRK and RPB2 were both highly informative, producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data sets provided additional resolution and support. Two areas of incongruence between PRK and RPB2 were strongly supported by the bootstrap relating to the placement of tribes Chamaedoreeae, Iriarteeae and Reinhardtieae; the causes of this incongruence remain uncertain. The current classification within Arecoideae was strongly supported by the present data. Of the 14 tribes and 14 sub-tribes in the classification, only five sub-tribes from tribe Areceae (Basseliniinae, Linospadicinae, Oncospermatinae, Rhopalostylidinae and Verschaffeltiinae) failed to receive support. Three major higher level clades were strongly supported: (1) the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae and Cocoseae), (2) the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae and Sclerospermeae) and (3) the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae and Pelagodoxeae). However, new data sources are required to elucidate ambiguities that remain in phylogenetic relationships among and within the major groups of Arecoideae, as well as within the Areceae, the largest tribe in the palm family. PMID:21325340

  7. Mite allergen exposure, sensitisation and clinical symptoms in Valdivia, Chile.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M; Fernández-Caldas, E; Arellano, P; Marín, F; Carnés, J; Hormaechea, A

    2005-01-01

    One hundred consecutive asthmatic paediatric patients were evaluated and skin tested with a battery of skin prick test reagents, including 8 different standardized house dust mite extracts. Asthma severity was graded according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) document in mild persistent (52 patients), moderate persistent (39) and severe persistent (9). Sixty patients had asthma and allergic rhinitis, 12 asthma and eczema, and 8 asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. The patient population was divided into 2 different socioeconomic groups (50 patients per group) based on a standardized, validated questionnaire. A dust sample was collected with an adapted vacuum cleaner from the mattress of each patient and analysed for Der p 1, Der f 1 and Der p 2 allergen content using monoclonal antibodies. Eighty patients were skin test positive to at least one mite species. All positive skin test patients were positive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 99% to D. farinae, 92% to Euroglyphus maynei, 80% to Lepidoglyphus destructor, 73% to Tyrophagus putrescientae, 72% to Blomia tropicalis; 70% to Acarus siro and 68% to Chortoglyphus arcuatus. All patients with severe persistent asthma had a positive skin test to mites, 85% in the moderate group, and 73% in the mild group (p < 0.01). 95% of patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis had a positive skin test to mites, 92% of patients with asthma and eczema and 100% of patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema; (p < 0.01). Mean Der p 1, Der f 1 and Der p 2 allergen concentrations were 18.3, 0.6 and 5.6 microg/g of mattress dust, respectively. Mean Der p 1 allergen levels in the middle-low socioeconomic group were significantly higher than in the middle high group (p < 0.01). There is a high rate of allergic sensitisation among pediatric asthmatic patients in Chile. More than one species are implicated, although sensitisation and exposure to D. pteronyssinus predominates. Mite allergic patients are exposed to high mite allergen concentrations, exceeding previously established risk levels for sensitisation and symptoms. PMID:16261955

  8. The influence of household pets on the composition and quantity of allergenic mite fauna within Irish homes: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, D; Dix, E; Liddy, S; Gormally, M; Byrne, M

    2016-03-01

    Allergenic mites are responsible for inducing hypersensitive reactions in genetically predisposed people worldwide. Mites in dust from 30 Irish homes with pets (dogs, n = 23; cats, n = 7) were compared with those in 30 homes without pets. House dust mites constituted 78% of all mites recorded, with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acariformes: Pyroglyphidae) representing 57-72% of mites in furniture and mattresses in both home types compared with only 22% of mites in pet beds. Although storage mites accounted for just 13% of all mites recorded, they represented 46% of mites recorded in pet beds. Median levels of the dust mite allergen Der p 1 (µg/g) in dust samples from mattresses in homes without pets were significantly greater than in mattresses from homes with pets, reflecting the greater densities of D. pteronyssinus found in the former home category. Mite species richness was greater in homes with pets (17 species) than in homes without pets (13 species). This suggests that although the presence of pets can result in a wider variety of epidemiologically important mite species within households, increased competition among mite species may result in a more balanced mite fauna in the home, inhibiting the dominance of any one species and hence lowering allergen-associated risks. PMID:26575784

  9. The First Report of Eustigmaeus johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae) Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Badakhshan, Mehdi; Sadraei, Javid; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh

    2013-01-01

    Background Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present. Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys. Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni. Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran. PMID:23785700

  10. Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen J; Highfield, Andrea C; Brettell, Laura; Villalobos, Ethel M; Budge, Giles E; Powell, Michelle; Nikaido, Scott; Schroeder, Declan C

    2012-06-01

    Emerging diseases are among the greatest threats to honey bees. Unfortunately, where and when an emerging disease will appear are almost impossible to predict. The arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite into the Hawaiian honey bee population allowed us to investigate changes in the prevalence, load, and strain diversity of honey bee viruses. The mite increased the prevalence of a single viral species, deformed wing virus (DWV), from ~10 to 100% within honey bee populations, which was accompanied by a millionfold increase in viral titer and a massive reduction in DWV diversity, leading to the predominance of a single DWV strain. Therefore, the global spread of Varroa has selected DWV variants that have emerged to allow it to become one of the most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet. PMID:22679096

  11. South American spider mites: new hosts and localities.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos H W

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900 , T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  12. South American Spider Mites: New Hosts and Localities

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos HW

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900, T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  13. PALM : A dynamic parallel coupler for Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buis, S.; Declat, D.; Gondet, E.; Massart, S.; Morel, T.; Thual, O.

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the PALM software is to make a complex application (for example a data assimilation suite) being easily evolutive and parallelisable by de-coupling the application in modular independent parts (units) and re-couple it in the PALM framework. The owner develops his own method coupling different units within the PALM framework. PALM is in charge of managing the sequence(s) of units the user has defined in the PALM graphical interface, and the data exchanges between the units. The use of Fortran, C and the MPI (Messsage Passing Interface) library in the implementation allows a huge portability on machins such as Fujitsu VPP, NEC Sx, IBM SP, COMPAQ, SGI, and the clusters of stations or PCs. PALM is particularly adapted for users that begin to develop a data assimilation application, because it really simplifies the modifications to implement to go from a given data assimilation method to a more complex one. The PALM software is today used in an operational way in the French Operational oceanography project MERCATOR, and will soonly be used in different other data assimilation applications (european project ASSET : assimilation of ENVISAT data in a Meteo-France chemical atmospheric model, OPAVAR : an assimilation project in the french ocean model OPA, ...).

  14. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    PubMed

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. PMID:25457484

  15. Regular dorsal dimples and damaged mites of Varroa destructor in some Iranian honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; Ebadi, Rahim; Tahmasbi, Gholamhossein

    2011-07-01

    The frequency of damaged Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) found on the bottom board of hives of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) has been used as an indicator of the degree of tolerance or resistance of honey bee colonies against mites. However, it is not clear that this measure is adequate. These injuries should be separated from regular dorsal dimples that have a developmental origin. To investigate damage to Varroa mites and regular dorsal dimples, 32 honey bee (A. mellifera) colonies were selected from four Iranian provinces: Isfahan, Markazi, Qazvin, and Tehran. These colonies were part of the National Honey bee Breeding Program that resulted in province-specific races. In April, Varroa mites were collected from heavily infested colonies and used to infest the 32 experimental colonies. In August, 20 of these colonies were selected (five colonies from each province). Adult bees from these colonies were placed in cages and after introducing mites, damaged mites were collected from each cage every day. The average percentage of injured mites ranged from 0.6 to 3.0% in four provinces. The results did not show any statistical differences between the colonies within provinces for injuries to mites, but there were some differences among province-specific lines. Two kinds of injuries to the mites were observed: injuries to legs and pedipalps, and injuries to other parts of the body. There were also some regular dorsal dimples on dorsal idiosoma of the mites that were placed in categories separate from mites damaged by bees. This type of classification helps identifying damage to mites and comparing them with developmental origin symptoms, and may provide criteria for selecting bees tolerant or resistant to this mite. PMID:21431926

  16. Niche Partitioning of Feather Mites within a Seabird Host, Calonectris borealis

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Laura M.; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Elguero, Eric; Proctor, Heather C.; McCoy, Karen D.; González-Solís, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    According to classic niche theory, species can coexist in heterogeneous environments by reducing interspecific competition via niche partitioning, e.g. trophic or spatial partitioning. However, support for the role of competition on niche partitioning remains controversial. Here, we tested for spatial and trophic partitioning in feather mites, a diverse and abundant group of arthropods. We focused on the two dominant mite species, Microspalax brevipes and Zachvatkinia ovata, inhabiting flight feathers of the Cory’s shearwater, Calonectris borealis. We performed mite counts across and within primary and tail feathers on free-living shearwaters breeding on an oceanic island (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). We then investigated trophic relationships between the two mite species and the host using stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen on mite tissues and potential host food sources. The distribution of the two mite species showed clear spatial segregation among feathers; M. brevipes showed high preference for the central wing primary feathers, whereas Z. ovata was restricted to the two outermost primaries. Morphological differences between M. brevipes and Z. ovata support an adaptive basis for the spatial segregation of the two mite species. However, the two mites overlap in some central primaries and statistical modeling showed that Z. ovata tends to outcompete M. brevipes. Isotopic analyses indicated similar isotopic values for the two mite species and a strong correlation in carbon signatures between mites inhabiting the same individual host suggesting that diet is mainly based on shared host-associated resources. Among the four candidate tissues examined (blood, feather remains, skin remains and preen gland oil), we conclude that the diet is most likely dominated by preen gland oil, while the contribution of exogenous material to mite diets is less marked. Our results indicate that ongoing competition for space and resources plays a central role in structuring feather mite communities. They also illustrate that symbiotic infracommunities are excellent model systems to study trophic ecology, and can improve our understanding of mechanisms of niche differentiation and species coexistence. PMID:26650672

  17. The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

  18. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  19. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui

    2016-01-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  20. Discovery of fungus-mite mutualism in a unique niche.

    PubMed

    Roets, F; Wingfield, M J; Crous, P W; Dreyer, L L

    2007-10-01

    The floral heads (infructescences) of South African Protea L. represent a most unusual niche for fungi of the economically important genus Ophiostoma Syd. and P. Syd. emend. Z.W. de Beer et al. Current consensus holds that most members of Ophiostoma are vectored by tree-infesting bark beetles. However, it has recently been suggested that mites, phoretic on these bark beetles, may play a central role in the dispersal of Ophiostoma. No bark beetles are known from Protea. Therefore, identifying the vectors of Ophiostoma in Protea infructescences would independently evaluate the role of various arthropods in the dispersal of Ophiostoma. Infructescence-colonizing arthropods were tested for the presence of Ophiostoma DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for reproductive propagules by isolation on agar plates. PCR tests revealed that few insects carried Ophiostoma DNA. In contrast, various mites (Proctolaelaps vandenbergi Ryke, two species of Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fonzago, and one Trichouropoda Berlese species) frequently carried Ophiostoma propagules. DNA sequence comparisons for 28S ribosomal DNA confirmed the presence of O. splendens G. J. Marais and M. J. Wingf., O. palmiculminatum Roets et al., and O. phasma Roets et al. on these mites. Two apparently undescribed species of Ophiostoma were also identified. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed specialized structures in Trichouropoda and one Tarsonemus sp. that frequently contained Ophiostoma spores. The Trichouropoda sp. was able to complete its life cycle on a diet consisting solely of its identified phoretic Ophiostoma spp. This study provides compelling evidence that mites are the primary vectors of infructescence-associated Ophiostoma spp. in South Africa. PMID:18284748

  1. Exceptional running and turning performance in a mite.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Samuel; Young, Maria Ho-Yan; Wright, Jonathan C; Whitaker, Dwight L; Ahn, Anna N

    2016-03-01

    The Southern California endemic mite Paratarsotomus macropalpis was filmed in the field on a concrete substrate and in the lab to analyze stride frequency, gait and running speed under different temperature conditions and during turning. At ground temperatures ranging from 45 to 60°C, mites ran at a mean relative speed of 192.4±2.1 body lengths (BL) s(-1), exceeding the highest previously documented value for a land animal by 12.5%. Stride frequencies were also exceptionally high (up to 135 Hz), and increased with substrate temperature. Juveniles exhibited higher relative speeds than adults and possess proportionally longer legs, which allow for greater relative stride lengths. Although mites accelerated and decelerated rapidly during straight running (7.2±1.2 and -10.1±2.1 m s(-2), respectively), the forces involved were comparable to those found in other animals. Paratarsotomus macropalpis employs an alternating tetrapod gait during steady running. Shallow turns were accomplished by a simple asymmetry in stride length. During tight turns, mites pivoted around the tarsus of the inside third leg (L3), which thus behaved like a grappling hook. Pivot turns were characterized by a 42% decrease in turning radius and a 40% increase in angular velocity compared with non-pivot turns. The joint angle amplitudes of the inner L2 and L3 were negligible during a pivot turn. While exceptional, running speeds in P. macropalpis approximate values predicted from inter-specific scaling relationships. PMID:26787481

  2. Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk.

    PubMed

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nordin, Noor Afeefah

    2015-01-01

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis) using acid hydrolysis method. The morphology and size of the nanocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanocrystals isolated from raw oil palm trunk (OPT) fibers and hot water treated OPT fibers had an average diameter of 7.67 nm and 7.97 nm and length of 397.03 nm and 361.70 nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicated that lignin and hemicellulose contents decreased. It seems that lignin was completely removed from the samples during chemical treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that cellulose nanocrystals after acid hydrolysis had higher thermal stability compared to the raw and hot water treated OPT fibers. The X-ray diffraction analysis increased crystallinity of the samples due to chemical treatment. The crystalline nature of the isolated nanocrystals from raw and hot water treated OPT ranged from 68 to 70%. PMID:25965475

  3. Endosymbiotic bacteria living inside the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    De Luna, Carlos J; Moro, Claire Valiente; Guy, Jonathan H; Zenner, Lionel; Sparagano, Olivier A E

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the endosymbiotic bacteria living inside the poultry red mite collected from five samples of one commercial farm from the UK and 16 farms from France using genus-specific PCR, PCR-TTGE and DNA sequencing. Endosymbiotic bacteria are intracellular obligate organisms that can cause several phenotypic and reproductive anomalies to their host and they are found widespread living inside arthropods. The farm sampled from the UK was positive for bacteria of the genera Cardinium sp. and Spiroplasma sp. From France, 7 farms were positive for Cardinium sp., 1 farm was positive for Spiroplasma sp., 1 farm was positive for Rickettsiella sp. and 2 farms were positive for Schineria sp. However, it was not possible to detect the presence of the genus Wolbachia sp. which has been observed in other ectoparasites. This study is the first report of the presence of endosymbionts living inside the poultry red mite. The results obtained suggest that it may be possible that these bacterial endosymbionts cause biological modifications to the poultry red mite. PMID:19145467

  4. Tandem repeat-containing MITEs in the clam Donax trunculus.

    PubMed

    Satovic, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct classes of repetitive sequences, interspersed mobile elements and satellite DNAs, shape eukaryotic genomes and drive their evolution. Short arrays of tandem repeats can also be present within nonautonomous miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In the clam Donax trunculus, we characterized a composite, high copy number MITE, named DTC84. It is composed of a central region built of up to five core repeats linked to a microsatellite segment at one array end and flanked by sequences holding short inverted repeats. The modular composition and the conserved putative target site duplication sequence AA at the element termini are equivalent to the composition of several elements found in the cupped oyster Crassostrea virginica and in some insects. A unique feature of D. trunculus element is ordered array of core repeat variants, distinctive by diagnostic changes. Position of variants in the array is fixed, regardless of alterations in the core repeat copy number. Each repeat harbors a palindrome near the junction with the following unit, being a potential hotspot responsible for array length variations. As a consequence, variations in number of tandem repeats and variations in flanking sequences make every sequenced element unique. Core repeats may be thus considered as individual units within the MITE, with flanking sequences representing a "cassette" for internal repeats. Our results demonstrate that onset and spread of tandem repeats can be more intimately linked to processes of transposition than previously thought and suggest that genomes are shaped by interplays within a complex network of repetitive sequences. PMID:24317975

  5. House dust mite control measures in the treatment of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Vallance, Gillian; McSharry, Charles; Wood, Stuart; Thomson, Neil C

    2006-01-01

    Sensitization to the house dust mite (Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus) (HDM) is the most common risk factor associated with the development of asthma in adults and children. The effectiveness of HDM control measures in the treatment of asthma is not yet proven. The strategies for control for avoidance depend on our understanding of the biology of the HDM. The evidence suggests a favorable effect of transferring allergic asthmatic children to naturally low dust mite environments, such as at altitude or in hospital, but little to suggest that this can be replicated in general practice by simple practical measures such as mattress covers. However, a recent multi-allergen reduction approach has suggested benefits may be achievable. HDM densities tend to be high in warm, humid conditions in the home, which may be modified by external factors, such as ventilation. However, ventilation control to reduce indoor humidity has had inconsistent effects on dust mite levels and asthma. The challenge is to further refine the interventions in large placebo-controlled trials such that clinical outcomes may be more easily demonstrated. PMID:18360647

  6. Tandem Repeat-Containing MITEs in the Clam Donax trunculus

    PubMed Central

    atovi?, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct classes of repetitive sequences, interspersed mobile elements and satellite DNAs, shape eukaryotic genomes and drive their evolution. Short arrays of tandem repeats can also be present within nonautonomous miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In the clam Donax trunculus, we characterized a composite, high copy number MITE, named DTC84. It is composed of a central region built of up to five core repeats linked to a microsatellite segment at one array end and flanked by sequences holding short inverted repeats. The modular composition and the conserved putative target site duplication sequence AA at the element termini are equivalent to the composition of several elements found in the cupped oyster Crassostrea virginica and in some insects. A unique feature of D. trunculus element is ordered array of core repeat variants, distinctive by diagnostic changes. Position of variants in the array is fixed, regardless of alterations in the core repeat copy number. Each repeat harbors a palindrome near the junction with the following unit, being a potential hotspot responsible for array length variations. As a consequence, variations in number of tandem repeats and variations in flanking sequences make every sequenced element unique. Core repeats may be thus considered as individual units within the MITE, with flanking sequences representing a cassette for internal repeats. Our results demonstrate that onset and spread of tandem repeats can be more intimately linked to processes of transposition than previously thought and suggest that genomes are shaped by interplays within a complex network of repetitive sequences. PMID:24317975

  7. House-dust mite exposure reduction in specially designed, mechanically ventilated "healthy" homes.

    PubMed

    Harving, H; Korsgaard, J; Dahl, R

    1994-10-01

    Exposure to house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) was investigated in 30 asthmatic patients before and after moving to homes with mechanical ventilation systems. Median house-dust mite concentration was 110 mites per gram of mattress dust at the initial investigation and 20 mites per gram at the first follow-up after a mean of 4.7 months in the new homes. This was lower (P < 0.05) than counts in a control group of 23 asthmatic patients that had unchanged counts. At a second follow-up, after 15.0 months, mite counts in the study group were further reduced (P < 0.01) from initial values. Among 16 patients, with initial mite counts above the recommended threshold limit value (TLV) of 100 mites per gram of dust, the mite counts fell, in most cases, below this TLV. Air-exchange rates increased (P < 0.001) from a median value of 0.40 air changes per hour (ach) to 1.52 ach at the second follow-up investigation. Furthermore, a reduction (P < 0.01) was found in indoor absolute air humidity, with a median value of 5.6 g of water/kg. No such changes were found in the control group. The present study indicates that reduction of air humidity through an increased supply of fresh air may significantly diminish and, in some cases, even eliminate house-dust mites in homes. PMID:7695059

  8. Feather and nest mites of two common resident birds in two ecologically different Egyptian governorates.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Mazyad, S A; Younis, M S

    1999-08-01

    The study of the role played by birds in the distribution of various bacterial, viral and parasitic infections is increasingly from year to year, taking into consideration the flying ability of birds and their migration for food and vital processes. Two of the common Egyptian resident birds, house sparrow (Passer d. niloticus) and laughing dove (Streptopelia s. aegyptiaca) were chosen to study their mite fauna. The overall mite index was 4.74 on the house sparrow and 7.22 on the laughing dove. As to mites, a total of 31 species belonging to 23 genera, 17 families and 3 suborders were collected. The common mites on both types of birds were 22 species. Three species only on house sparrow, and six species only on laughing dove. The house sparrow served host for 25 mite species and the laughing dove served host for 28 mite species. The infestation rates of mites on house sparrow ranged between 1.11% to 23.33% and 0.21% to 34.54% in Sharkia and Qalyobia governorates respectively. For laughing dove, the mite infestation rates ranged between 0.82% to 50% and 3.45% to 55.17% for both governorates respectively. Some of the collected mites have medical and/or veterinary importance. The whole results were discussed. PMID:10605494

  9. Guanine as a hygienic index for allergologically relevant mite infestations in mattress dust.

    PubMed

    van Bronswijk, J E

    1986-09-01

    Since guanine is not only an essential constituent of vital nucleic acids, but also the main end product of nitrogenous waste excretion in arachnids, it is a potential candidate for a hygienic index for mite activity in house dust. The public health significance of these mites is based on their production of allergen in the home environment. In 101 mattress-dust samples, total number of mites and guanine content were positively correlated. The hygienic standard of 10 mites per 0.1 g dust (as derived from Danish investigations) was met in all samples with less than 0.06% guanine in the dry dust. Where the guanine content was more than or equal to 0.25% in the dry dust, mite numbers were higher than 10 mites per 0.1 g dust in 43 of the 44 samples. The three different groups (negligible mite content, possibly allergologically relevant mite concentration and allergologically unhygienic mite situation) could be easily discriminated on the color scale. The guanine-AZO-dye reaction in vacuum cleaner dust is a strong and promising candidate for an allergologically relevant hygienic index in the home. PMID:3451864

  10. Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.

    PubMed

    Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-05-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems. PMID:24292438

  11. Symbiosis in an overlooked microcosm: a systematic review of the bacterial flora of mites.

    PubMed

    Chaisiri, Kittipong; McGarry, John W; Morand, Serge; Makepeace, Benjamin L

    2015-08-01

    A dataset of bacterial diversity found in mites was compiled from 193 publications (from 1964 to January 2015). A total of 143 mite species belonging to the 3 orders (Mesostigmata, Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes) were recorded and found to be associated with approximately 150 bacteria species (in 85 genera, 51 families, 25 orders and 7 phyla). From the literature, the intracellular symbiont Cardinium, the scrub typhus agent Orientia, and Wolbachia (the most prevalent symbiont of arthropods) were the dominant mite-associated bacteria, with approximately 30 mite species infected each. Moreover, a number of bacteria of medical and veterinary importance were also reported from mites, including species from the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Bartonella, Francisella, Coxiella, Borrelia, Salmonella, Erysipelothrix and Serratia. Significant differences in bacterial infection patterns among mite taxa were identified. These data will not only be useful for raising awareness of the potential for mites to transmit disease, but also enable a deeper understanding of the relationship of symbionts with their arthropod hosts, and may facilitate the development of intervention tools for disease vector control. This review provides a comprehensive overview of mite-associated bacteria and is a valuable reference database for future research on mites of agricultural, veterinary and/or medical importance. PMID:26004817

  12. Feather mites and birds: an interaction mediated by uropygial gland size?

    PubMed

    Galván, I; Barba, E; Piculo, R; Cantó, J L; Cortés, V; Monrós, J S; Atiénzar, F; Proctor, H

    2008-01-01

    Feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Astigmata) feed mainly on secretions of the uropygial gland of birds. Here, we use analyses corrected for phylogeny and body size to show that there is a positive correlation between the size of this gland and mite abundance in passerine birds at an interspecific level during the breeding season, suggesting that the gland mediates interactions between mites and birds. As predicted on the basis of hypothesized waterproofing and antibiotic functions of uropygial gland secretions, riparian/marsh bird species had larger glands and higher mite loads than birds living in less mesic terrestrial environments. An unexpected pattern was a steeper relationship between mite load and gland size in migratory birds than in residents. If moderate mite loads are beneficial to a host but high loads detrimental, this could create complex selection regimes in which gland size influences mite load and vice versa. Mites may exert selective pressures on gland size of their hosts that has resulted in smaller glands among migratory bird species, suggesting that smaller glands may have evolved in these birds to attenuate a possible detrimental effect of feather mites when present in large numbers. PMID:18028353

  13. [Evolution of parasitism in mammal-associated mites of the group Psoroptidia (Acari:Astigmata)].

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Host-parasite relationships of mammals and astigmatan mites (Acariformes: Astigmata) belonging to the parvorder Psoroptidia are analyzed. The absolute majority of mammal-associated psoroptidians belongs to the paraphyletic superfamily Sarcoptoidea. Mites of the family complex Psoroptidae (Lobalgidae, Psoroptidae, and Paracoroptinae) shifted from birds to placental mammals independently from each other. Mites of the family complex Sarcoptidae, including all other sarcoptoid families, derived from the common stalk of Psoroptidia independently from the Psoroptid complex. Mites of the sarcoptid complex shifted from nidicoly in mammalian nests to the permanent parasitism on these hosts. They are widely represented on both marsupial and placental mammals and are absent on Monotremata. PMID:22141248

  14. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

  15. Factors affecting the distribution of a predatory mite on greenhouse sweet pepper.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Phyllis G; Kleitman, Sophia; Alchanatis, Victor; Palevsky, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris is used for biological control of phytophagous mites and thrips on greenhouse cucumber and sweet pepper. In a previous study, N. cucumeris provided effective control of broad mite but was only rarely found on the sampled leaves, raising questions about the factors affecting N. cucumeris distribution. To determine the distribution of N. cucumeris, leaves of pepper plants were sampled three times per day: just after sunrise, at noon and just before sunset for two years and throughout a 24 h period in one year. The presence of other mites and insects was recorded. Biotic (pollen) and abiotic (temperature, humidity) factors were monitored from the three plant levels. The effect of direct and indirect sunlight on the mites was assessed. N. cucumeris was found primarily in flowers; however, the mite's distribution was affected by other predators (intraguild predation); in the presence of the predatory bug Orius laevigatus virtually no mites occurred in the flowers. Whereas temperature and humidity varied from the top to the lower level of the plants, apparently neither these factors nor the presence of pollen outside the flowers influenced mite distribution. N. cucumeris was found to be negatively phototropic; therefore N. cucumeris were pre-conditioned to light by rearing under light conditions for 4 months before being released. The light-reared mites were initially more numerous during the noon sampling period, however, rearing conditions caused only a temporary and non-significant change in distribution. PMID:17534730

  16. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  17. Geostatistics as a tool to study mite dispersion in physic nut plantations.

    PubMed

    Rosado, J F; Picanço, M C; Sarmento, R A; Pereira, R M; Pedro-Neto, M; Galdino, T V S; de Sousa Saraiva, A; Erasmo, E A L

    2015-08-01

    Spatial distribution studies in pest management identify the locations where pest attacks on crops are most severe, enabling us to understand and predict the movement of such pests. Studies on the spatial distribution of two mite species, however, are rather scarce. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are the major pests affecting physic nut plantations (Jatropha curcas). Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure the spatial distributions of P. latus and T. bastosi in the physic nut plantations. Mite densities were monitored over 2 years in two different plantations. Sample locations were georeferenced. The experimental data were analyzed using geostatistical analyses. The total mite density was found to be higher when only one species was present (T. bastosi). When both the mite species were found in the same plantation, their peak densities occurred at different times. These mites, however, exhibited uniform spatial distribution when found at extreme densities (low or high). However, the mites showed an aggregated distribution in intermediate densities. Mite spatial distribution models were isotropic. Mite colonization commenced at the periphery of the areas under study, whereas the high-density patches extended until they reached 30 m in diameter. This has not been reported for J. curcas plants before. PMID:25895655

  18. [Mites associated to the Coleopteran Passalus cognatus (Coleoptera:Passalidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2008-09-01

    There are few records of mites associated with the tropical coleopterans of Mexico. We examined 35 passalid beetles (bessbugs) Passalus cognatus from Los Tuxtlas region in Veracruz State, Mexico. Twenty of them had a total of 245 mites (representing eight species, eight genera, eight families and three suborders). The most abundant species were Uroobovella californiana Wisniewski & Hirschmann (35%), Euzercon hyatti Hunter & Rosario (20%), and Uropoda sp. (17.5%). The preferred attachment areas were the coxae; followed by the mesosternum and the humeri. Each beetle had 1 to 40 mites (average: 12); and we found 1-4 mite species per beetle. PMID:19419043

  19. Functional and Numerical Responses of the Predatory Mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus, to the Red Spider Mite, Oligonychus Coffeae, Infesting Tea

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Vattakandy jasin; Babu, Azariah; Roobakkumar, Amsalingam; Perumalsamy, Kandasamy

    2012-01-01

    Functional and numerical responses of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), infesting tea were determined in a laboratory on leaf discs. Prey consumption increased with increases in temperature and prey density. Handling time decreased and successful attack rate increased with increased temperature. N. longispinosus was more voracious on larvae and nymphs than on adults of O. coffeae. Handling time was higher on adult females than on larvae. Rate of predation leveled off at temperatures greater than 25° C. Functional responses to prey density at six temperatures and to each life stage of O. coffeae approximated the Holling type II model. The oviposition rate increased with prey consumption and temperature. On average, a predator consumed 1.62 adult female prey for every egg it laid. With a fixed number of prey available, predation rate per predator decreased with increased predator density. PMID:23452011

  20. Physico-chemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Amir Hossein; Kee, Beh Boon; Oi-Ming, Lai; Miskandar, Mat Sahri

    2011-08-01

    Palm-based diacylglycerol (P-DAG) oils were produced through enzymatic glycerolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil (PO), palm olein (POL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and palm stearin (PS). High purity DAG (83-90%, w/w) was obtained and compared to palm-based oils (P-oil) had significantly (P<0.05) different fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV) and slip melting point (SMP). Solid fat content (SFC) profiles of P-DAG oils as compared to P-oils had less steep curves with lower SFC at low temperature range (5-10°C) and the higher complete melting temperatures. Also, P-DAG oils in contrast with P-oils showed endothermic as well as exothermic peaks with higher transition temperatures and significantly (P<0.05) higher crystallisation onsets, heats of fusion, and heats of crystallisation. Crystal forms for P-DAG oils were mostly in the β form. PMID:25214093

  1. Population growth of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee colonies is affected by the number of foragers with mites.

    PubMed

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Zazueta, Victor; Chambers, Mona; Hidalgo, Geoffrey; deJong, Emily Watkins

    2016-05-01

    Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of varroa populations including mite migration into colonies on foragers from other hives. We measured the proportion of foragers carrying mites on their bodies while entering and leaving hives, and determined its relationship to the growth of varroa populations in those hives at two apiary sites. We also compared the estimates of mite population growth with predictions from a varroa population dynamics model that generates estimates of mite population growth based on mite reproduction. Samples of capped brood and adult bees indicated that the proportion of brood cells infested with mites and adult bees with phoretic mites was low through the summer but increased sharply in the fall especially at site 1. The frequency of capturing foragers with mites on their bodies while entering or leaving hives also increased in the fall. The growth of varroa populations at both sites was not significantly related to our colony estimates of successful mite reproduction, but instead to the total number of foragers with mites (entering and leaving the colony). There were more foragers with mites at site 1 than site 2, and mite populations at site 1 were larger especially in the fall. The model accurately estimated phoretic mite populations and infested brood cells until November when predictions were much lower than those measured in colonies. The rapid growth of mite populations particularly in the fall being a product of mite migration rather than mite reproduction only is discussed. PMID:26910522

  2. An experimental investigation on feeding of oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Interest in producing energy to reduce green house gas emissions using biomass as a feedstock is increasing worldwide. In a fluidized bed reactor, the feeding of the feedstock plays an important role in the burning process. In this study, feeding tests were carried out using gravitational method for oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF). The design of the feeder of 150 g/h is also presented. The objective of this paper is to study the feed rate of the samples used and to find the relationship between the physical characteristic of the samples (the shape of the samples, particle size and moisture content) and the feed rate. The result shows that the feed rate of OPS and OPF was around 120 g/h and 90 g/h, respectively. After grinding and sieving, OPS appeared to be more granular compared to OPF making it easier to feed. Other characteristics and results are also discussed in this paper.

  3. Potential of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii to suppress the Broad Mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus on the Gboma Eggplant, Solanum macrocarpon

    PubMed Central

    Onzo, Alexis; Houedokoho, Arnaud F.; Hanna, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    In Benin, the tarsonemid mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) is a key pest of gboma eggplant Solanum macrocarpon (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), a leafy vegetable on which it causes considerable damage to the plants and substantial reduction in yield. Predatory mites in the family Phytoseiidae have been successfully used in the biological control of numerous agricultural pests worldwide. In that respect, a population of the phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) has been identified as a potential predator of P. latus, and is now a candidate for release against this pest in Benin. The objective of the present study is to determine, through laboratory experiments, the predation rate and life table parameters of A. swirskii when feeding on P. latus or alternative food such as maize pollen. Under laboratory conditions the mean number of P. latus consumed by A. swirskii, and daily oviposition, significantly increased as the number of prey increased. Total development time of A. swirskii was significantly shorter when it fed on P. latus than on maize pollen. Net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, mean generation time and the finite rate of increase of A. swirskii were were all significantly lower on P. latus than on maize pollen. However, doubling time was significantly higher on maize pollen. This study shows that A. swirskii is a good predator of P. latus, and that maize pollen can efficiently sustain A. swirskii populations when P. latus densities on plants become low. Consequently, A. swirskii can be used for the biological control of the broad mite P. latus on gboma eggplant, and on other solanaceous crops in Benin and elsewhere. PMID:22962997

  4. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Mareckova-Sagova, Marketa; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg−1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg−1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet. PMID:25387104

  5. Sarcoptes scabiei mites in humans are distributed into three genetically distinct clades.

    PubMed

    Andriantsoanirina, V; Ariey, F; Izri, A; Bernigaud, C; Fang, F; Charrel, R; Foulet, F; Botterel, F; Guillot, J; Chosidow, O; Durand, R

    2015-12-01

    Scabies is an ectoparasitic infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Currently, S. scabiei is taxonomically divided into different varieties on the basis of host origin. Genetics-based research on scabies has been conducted, but the data on genetic diversity of populations of this mite in humans in Europe are lacking. We evaluated the genetic diversity of populations of S. scabiei. A large series of mites obtained from humans in France and the data of mites from various hosts and geographical areas retrieved from GenBank were included to investigate whether mites are divided into distinct populations. The study of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene polymorphisms were found to be best suited for phylogenetic analysis. S. scabiei mites were distributed into three genetically distinct clades, with most mites clustering in clades B and C. The Fst value and the Nm value calculated for mites included in clades B and C indicated a strong population structure and a very low gene flow between mites of those clades. The results of the present study not only support the rejection of the hypothesis of panmixia for S. scabiei in humans but also suggest that mites belonging to different clades are genetically isolated. Moreover, the results suggest that the subdivision of S. scabies in varieties according to animal or human hosts is not warranted. In conclusion, S. scabiei mites in humans do not constitute a homogeneous population. Further investigations are now required to assess whether different clinical forms of scabies are associated with particular haplotypes or clades. PMID:26278670

  6. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit. PMID:25528451

  7. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. VIEW FACING EAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. FRONT OBLIQUE. CURVED DRIVE WITH PALMS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT OBLIQUE. CURVED DRIVE WITH PALMS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Commandant's Quarters, 6 Hale Alii Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

  10. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control

    PubMed Central

    Beers, E. H.; Brunner, J. F.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 0 In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites per leaf. Overall, acetamiprid treatments had 4.6-fold higher mite densities than the standard organophosphate insecticide treatment. Of the treatments with high mite populations, Panonychus ulmi, the European red mite, and Tetranychus urticae, the twospotted spider mite, were the dominant species in roughly equal numbers of cases. Only 11.1% of the thiacloprid treatments exceeded 5 mites per leaf; these experimental treatments included eight applications, whereas the current label restricts the number of applications at the rate for C. pomonella to two applications. One out of six clothianidin treatments caused a significantly higher mite density than the standard treatment; however, this material appeared to suppress predatory mites. Neonicotinyl insecticides did not eliminate predatory mites, but they inhibited their ability to respond normally to increasing prey populations. In field trials designed specifically to examine mite population densities where neonicotinyl insecticides were used, significantly higher levels of tetranychid mites occurred in one or more acetamiprid treatments (one, two or four applications) in five out of six trials. In the sixth trial (in a commercial orchard), only two acetamiprid applications were made, and mite populations were low in all treatments. While elevated mite densities were more likely to occur with four applications, in one case it occurred following a single application. The predominant tetranychid mite species (either P. ulmi or T. urticae) varied from trial to trial; however, there was no apparent bias regarding stimulation of the two species. Horticultural mineral oil was used with acetamiprid in some trials in an attempt to mitigate mite outbreaks. However, the addition of oil did not counteract the tendency of acetamiprid to increase tetranychid mite populations, and in one trial, had a negative effect on predatory mite densities. Seasonal tetranychid mite density was positively related to the total grams AI (or number of applications) of acetamiprid, thus reducing the number of applications per season should lower the probability of mite outbreaks. Abbreviation: AI active ingredient CMD cumulative mite days PMID:16341248

  11. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Agustin, Melissa B.; Sengpracha, Waya P.; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

  12. Antioxidant properties of palm fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Balasundram, Nagendran; Ai, Tan Yew; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Sundram, Kalyana; Samman, Samir

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have been shown to exhibit bioactive properties, and in particular antioxidant effects. A phenolic-rich fraction has been isolated from the aqueous by-product obtained during the milling of oil palm fruits. The objectives of the study were to determine the phenolic content of the crude and ethanolic extracts of oil palm fruits and to evaluate the antioxidant properties of these extracts. The total phenolics content of the crude and ethanol extracts as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method were found to be 40.3 +/- 0.5 and 49.6 +/- 0.6 mg GAE/g extract (dry basis), respectively. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts determined using 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH.) indicated that both crude and ethanol extracts exhibit hydrogen-donating capacity, and have antiradical power (ARP) comparable to ascorbic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extracts were less than that of gallic acid, but the time-course variations of the scavenging curves suggest that the extracts acted by a mechanism similar to that of gallic acid. The electron-donating potentials of the extracts were inferred from the hydrogen peroxide scavenging and reducing power assays. The reducing power of crude and ethanol extracts at 1 mM GAE were found to be comparable to that of 0.3 mM gallic acid. The extracts indicated complete scavenging of hydrogen peroxide at concentrations above 0.4 mM GAE. These findings suggest that the crude and ethanol extracts are able to scavenge free radicals, by either hydrogen or electron donating mechanisms, and can therefore act as primary antioxidants. PMID:16326638

  13. Cryopreservation of peach palm zygotic embryos.

    PubMed

    Steinmacher, Douglas A; Saldanha, Cleber W; Clement, Charles R; Guerra, Miguel P

    2007-01-01

    Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective option for long-term germplasm conservation of non-orthodox seed species, such as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes). The objective of the present study was to establish a cryopreservation protocol for peach palm zygotic embryos based on the encapsulation-dehydration technique. After excision, zygotic embryos were encapsulated with 3 percent sodium alginate plus 2 M glycerol and 0.4 M sucrose, and pre-treated or not with 1 M sucrose during 24 h, followed by air-drying. Fresh weight water contents of beads decreased from 83 percent and 87 percent to 18 percent and 20 percent for pre-treated or non-pretreated beads, respectively, after 4 h of dehydration. Sucrose pre-treatment at 1 M caused lower zygotic embryo germination and plantlet height in contrast to non-treated beads. All the variables were statistically influenced by dehydration time. Optimal conditions for recovery of cryopreserved zygotic embryos include encapsulation and dehydration for 4 h in a forced air cabinet to 20 percent water content, followed by rapid freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196 degree C) and rapid thawing at 45 degree C. In these conditions 29 percent of the zygotic embryos germinated in vitro. However, plantlets obtained from dehydrated zygotic embryos had stunted haustoria and lower heights. Histological analysis showed that haustorium cells were large, vacuolated, with few protein bodies. In contrast, small cells with high nucleus:cytoplasm ratio formed the shoot apical meristem of the embryos, which were the cell types with favorable characteristics for survival after exposure to liquid nitrogen. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized and showed 41+/-9 percent and 88+/-4 percent survival levels after 12 weeks of acclimatization from cryopreserved and non-cryopreserved treatments, respectively. PMID:17369958

  14. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil—risks and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englund, Oskar; Berndes, Göran; Persson, U. Martin; Sparovek, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level 125/tC, or higher.

  15. Conditional immune-gene suppression of honeybees parasitized by Varroa mites.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Pamela G; Evans, Jay D; Rinderer, Thomas; de Guzman, Lilia

    2005-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most destructive parasite of managed honeybee colonies worldwide. Since V. destructor transfers pathogens to honeybees, it may be adaptive for bees to respond to mite infestation by upregulating their immune responses. Mites, however, may overcome the host's immune responses by suppressing them, which could facilitate the mite's ability to feed on hemolymph. A humoral immune response of bees parasitized by V. destructor may be detected by studying the expression levels of antibacterial peptides, such as abaecin and defensin, known to be immune-responsive. Expression levels for these two antibacterial peptides changed non-linearly with respect to the number of mites parasitizing honeybee pupae. Bees exposed to low or moderate number of mites had fewer immune-related transcripts than pupae that were never parasitized or pupae with high mite loads. Although many of the pupae tested indicated the presence of bacteria, no correlation with mite numbers or immune-response levels existed. All bees tested negative for acute paralysis and Kashmir bee viruses known to be vectored by V. destructor. PMID:16299597

  16. Effects of aldicarb and neonicotinoid seed treatments on twospotted spider mite on cotton.

    PubMed

    Smith, J F; Catchot, A L; Musser, F R; Gore, J

    2013-04-01

    Twelve field experiments and one laboratory experiment were conducted to determine the effects of furrow applied aldicarb and seed treatments of thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin), Aeris (imidacloprid + thiodicarb), and acephate on twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L. For the field experiments, data were pooled across all experiments for analysis. Aeris, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid treatments resulted in twospotted spider mite densities greater than those in the untreated check, aldicarb, and acephate treatments. However, cotton treated with Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin) had 34% fewer mites than other neonicotinoid seed treatments when infestations occurred near cotyledon stage. Untreated check and aldicarb treatments had the lowest mite densities. Only aldicarb reduced mite densities below that in the untreated check. In a laboratory trial, the fecundity of twospotted spider mite was measured. While neonicotinoid seed treatments increased mite densities in the field, they did not increase fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Foliar applied thiamethoxam slightly elevated average fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Increased use of neonicotinoid seed treatments instead of furrow applied aldicarb is likely at least partly responsible for recent increased twospotted spider mite infestations in seedling cotton across the mid-south. PMID:23786068

  17. Diagnostic genetic test for the honey bee tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, has become a worldwide pest of honey bees. Identification and description of A. woodi is hampered by the minute size of these mites, their cryptic lifestyle, and a general lack of strong morphological differences with relatives. Here we describe a diagnostic gene...

  18. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  19. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mites (Arachnida: Acari)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...

  20. Molecular genetic analysis of tracheal mite resistance of colonies and individual honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee resistance to the potentially damaging parasitic tracheal mite is known to be mediated by autogrooming. During autogrooming bees use their midlegs to remove migrating foundress mites, thereby reducing infestation rates in their trachea. We investigated the relationship between markers iden...

  1. Effects of varroa mites and bee diseases on pollination efficacy of honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites and viral diseases are known to affect the efficiency of crop pollination by honey. This study elucidates effects of varroa mites and bee diseases on the foraging behavior of adult bees and the consequences on successful fruit pollination. Four honey bee colonies of about 4,500 bees eac...

  2. Adventive Eriophyoid Mites - a global review of their impact, pathways, prevention and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyoid mites can be considered as a group of high potential as adventive mite species (AMS) because they are very small and difficult to detect and some species have become widely distributed with increased world trade. Economic, social and environmental impact due to invasion of some eriophyoid...

  3. The cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix, cannot be used for biological control of quackgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quackgrass, Elymus repens, is a perennial grass spreading by vigorous underground rhizomes. Because of its capacity for rapid spread and persistence it is considered as a common weed in many settings worldwide. The cereal rust mite (CRM) Abacarus hystrix is a polyphagous, phytophagous mite attacking...

  4. Conditional immune-gene suppression of honeybees parasitized by Varroa mites

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Pamela G.; Evans, Jay D.; Rinderer, Thomas; de Guzman, Lilia

    2005-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most destructive parasite of managed honeybee colonies worldwide. Since V. destructor transfers pathogens to honeybees, it may be adaptive for bees to respond to mite infestation by upregulating their immune responses. Mites, however, may overcome the host's immune responses by suppressing them, which could facilitate the mite's ability to feed on hemolymph. A humoral immune response of bees parasitized by V. destructor may be detected by studying the expression levels of antibacterial peptides, such as abaecin and defensin, known to be immune-responsive. Expression levels for these two antibacterial peptides changed non-linearly with respect to the number of mites parasitizing honeybee pupae. Bees exposed to low or moderate number of mites had fewer immune-related transcripts than pupae that were never parasitized or pupae with high mite loads. Although many of the pupae tested indicated the presence of bacteria, no correlation with mite numbers or immune-response levels existed. All bees tested negative for acute paralysis and Kashmir bee viruses known to be vectored by V. destructor. PMID:16299597

  5. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region. PMID:26421767

  6. Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) infestation and injury in watermelon and potential sources of resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the summer of 2006, we observed severe broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) injury and infestations on watermelon plant introductions (PI) and commercial cultivars grown in the field in Charleston, SC. Broad mites have previously not been reported on watermelons in the U.S.A. However, the...

  7. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) strains isolated from varroa mites in southern France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are currently being considered as alternatives to chemical pesticides for controlling varroa mites of honey bees. Varroa mites were collected from 112 beehives in southern France and evaluated for the presence of entomopathogenic fungi. Eight strains of Beauveria bassiana we...

  8. [ECOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SPREAD OF MITES OF THE FAMILY TROMBICULIDAE IN MONGOLIA].

    PubMed

    Karimova, T Yu; Kudryashova, N I; Lushchekina, A A; Neronov, V M

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives data on the fauna of chigger mites (Thrombiculinae), the ectoparasites of small mammals in Mongolia. The ecological and geographic analysis could reveal the major abiotic and biotic determinants of the spread of the chigger mites and make a map of their potential area. PMID:27029147

  9. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  10. A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

  11. AN ASSOCIATION IN HONEY BEES BETWEEN AUTOGROOMING AND THE PRESENCE OF MIGRATING TRACHEAL MITES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Autogrooming has been suggested as a mechanism used by honey bees to resist infestation by tracheal mites. Bees are thought to groom chiefly by using the mesothoracic legs to remove migrating female mites from the thorax before the parasites enter the prothoracic spiracles. Bees in a highly infest...

  12. Potential Sources of Resistance to Broad Mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) in Watermelon Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred and nineteen United States plant introductions (PI) belonging to the watermelon core collection were evaluated for broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) infestation and injury that occurred naturally in a field planting. Of the 219 PI, nine (4%) had no visible broad mite injury ...

  13. Asynchronous development of Honey Bee host and Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) influences reproductive potential of mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high proportion of non-reproductive (NR) Varroa destructor, is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the Varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). These studies were conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host re-invasion of Varroa mites on mite reproduction...

  14. Tracking predation of subterranean pests: digestion of corn rootworm DNA by a generalist mite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    qPCR is a useful tool for understanding predator-prey relationships. We investigated rootworm DNA digestion by male and female predatory mites. Males and females initially consumed comparable amounts of DNA, which was digested at similar rates. Field-collected mites need to be preserved quickly for ...

  15. A rapid method to assess grape rust mites on leaves and observations from case studies in western Oregon vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from previous studies to provide growers and IPM consultants with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor for rust mites in vineyards. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from collected plant parts (sh...

  16. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141

  17. Identification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and biogenesis of their siRNAs in the Solanaceae: New functional implications for MITEs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small RNAs regulate the genome by guiding transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing machinery to specific target sequences, including genes and transposable elements (TEs). Although miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are closely associated with euchromatic genes, the br...

  18. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control.

    PubMed

    Beers, E H; Brunner, J F; Dunley, J E; Doerr, M; Granger, K

    2005-01-01

    The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 0 In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites per leaf. Overall, acetamiprid treatments had 4.6-fold higher mite densities than the standard organophosphate insecticide treatment. Of the treatments with high mite populations, Panonychus ulmi, the European red mite, and Tetranychus urticae, the twospotted spider mite, were the dominant species in roughly equal numbers of cases. Only 11.1% of the thiacloprid treatments exceeded 5 mites per leaf; these experimental treatments included eight applications, whereas the current label restricts the number of applications at the rate for C. pomonella to two applications. One out of six clothianidin treatments caused a significantly higher mite density than the standard treatment; however, this material appeared to suppress predatory mites. Neonicotinyl insecticides did not eliminate predatory mites, but they inhibited their ability to respond normally to increasing prey populations. In field trials designed specifically to examine mite population densities where neonicotinyl insecticides were used, significantly higher levels of tetranychid mites occurred in one or more acetamiprid treatments (one, two or four applications) in five out of six trials. In the sixth trial (in a commercial orchard), only two acetamiprid applications were made, and mite populations were low in all treatments. While elevated mite densities were more likely to occur with four applications, in one case it occurred following a single application. The predominant tetranychid mite species (either P. ulmi or T. urticae) varied from trial to trial; however, there was no apparent bias regarding stimulation of the two species. Horticultural mineral oil was used with acetamiprid in some trials in an attempt to mitigate mite outbreaks. However, the addition of oil did not counteract the tendency of acetamiprid to increase tetranychid mite populations, and in one trial, had a negative effect on predatory mite densities. Seasonal tetranychid mite density was positively related to the total grams AI (or number of applications) of acetamiprid, thus reducing the number of applications per season should lower the probability of mite outbreaks. PMID:16341248

  19. Short form of Demodex species mite in the dog: occurrence and measurements.

    PubMed

    Chesney, C J

    1999-02-01

    A form of Demodex species mite shorter in length than Demodex canis was found in six consecutive cases of canine demodicosis. The mean length of the parasite was 122.6 microns (SD 12.0 microns, 39 mites counted), significantly shorter than either male or female forms of D canis (P < 0.0001). The proportion of short to long mites in each case varied from 0.5 to 22 per 100. In young dogs, skin signs associated with the presence of mites were first noted after about seven months, while in the oldest subject the disease became apparent at 10 years of age. This form of mite has now been found in four countries over three continents, the findings suggesting that it is not uncommon and is acquired in puppyhood, although it may be carried unnoticed for many years. PMID:10088084

  20. Reduction of contact sensitivity reactions to oxazolone in mite-infested mice.

    PubMed Central

    Laltoo, H; Kind, L S

    1979-01-01

    Oxazolone-sensitized mite-infested (SWR-M) and mite-free (SWR-J) mice were challenged with oxazolone on the skin of the neck and shoulder. The migration of radioactively labeled cells to the site of contact sensitivity reaction to oxazolone was significantly less in SWR-M than in SWR-J mice. Serum obtained from SWR-M mice suppressed the extravasation of cells into the skin site of SWR-J mice challenged with oxazolone. The decrease in cellular influx in SWR-M mice occurred in areas of mite infestation (skin of neck and shoulder) as well as in areas not infested with mites (the ears). SWR-M mice also gave evidence of enhanced vascular permeability. A possible role for histamine in the inhibition of contact sensitivity in mite-infested mice is discussed. Images PMID:500208

  1. [Composition and seasonal fluctuation of acaroid mite communities in warehousing environment of northern Anhui Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Yong; Li, Bei-Li; Zhang, Yan-Xing; Zha, Dao-De; Tu, Long-Xia

    2014-04-01

    Samples of stored products were collected every month in 2012 in northern Anhui Province. Acaroid mites were isolated, identified and counted. Among 1 440 samples, 692(48.1%) had mite infestation and 34 species were identified, and the density was 32.1 mites/g. The species richness index (R(margalef)) ranged from 0.48 to 3.30, which was highest in August. The species diversity index (H') was 1.29-3.32, highest in July. The species evenness index (J) ranged from 0.91 to 0.97, highest in March. The number of species, breeding density, species richness index and species diversity index were stable in the year, while the species evenness index showed irregular change. There were many species of acaroid mites in the storage circumstance. The composition of acaroid mites were diverse, and changed with the seasons. PMID:25065223

  2. House dust mite avoidance measures for perennial allergic rhinitis: a systematic review of efficacy.

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Aziz; Hurwitz, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Perennial allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disorder that results most frequently from sensitivity to house dust mites. National and international guidelines for the management of allergic rhinitis recommend that house dust mite avoidance measures be considered in all patients with house dust mite-provoked rhinitis. To assess the benefit and harm of measures designed to reduce house dust mite exposure in the management of house dust mite-sensitive allergic rhinitis, published and unpublished randomised controlled trials were systematically searched. A methodological assessment of trial quality was conducted using the Cochrane approach. Four trials satisfied the inclusion criteria, all of which were small and judged to be of poor quality. The results indicate that, when compared with controls, significant reductions of allergen load can be achieved by physical and chemical means, but there is little evidence at present that these reductions translate into sustained improvements in clinical outcomes. No serious adverse effects were reported from the interventions. PMID:12879834

  3. MITEE: A new nuclear engine concept for ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; Paniagua, John; Ludewig, Hans; Maise, George; Todosow, Michael

    1998-01-15

    A new ultra compact nuclear engine concept, MITEE (MIniature R lowbar eactor E lowbar nginE lowbar ), is described, and its performance evaluated for various solar system exploration missions. The MITEE concept is based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with modifications that enable a smaller, lighter nuclear engine. A range of MITEE Engine designs is described. Representative design parameters for the baseline MITEE reactor are: 75MW(th) power level, 1000 second Isp, 100 kilogram mass, 10 MW/Liter fuel element power density, 39 cm core diameter/height. Total engine mass, including turbo pump assembly, nozzles, controls, and contingency, is estimated to be 200 kilograms. Using the MITEE engine, ultra fast, lightweight solar system exploration missions are enabled. A range of such missions has been analyzed using the MULIMP code, and are described.

  4. Protein chips for detection of mite allergens using Kunitz-type protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; Santino, Angelo; De Blasi, Marialuce Daniela; Krizkova-Kudlikova, Iva; Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Yifen

    2010-06-01

    Stored-food and house-dust arthropods include many species of mites and beetles that affect human health. For diagnostic tests proteases such as trypsin are utilized as they are indicators of the presence of allergen contaminants in food. We recently characterized Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KPIs) from Solanum palustre. Here we studied biotechnological applications of KPI-B1 and -B4. We manufactured a protein chip with immobilized KPI-B1 and -B4 and showed trypsin/chymotrypsin-binding specificity, indicating that the recombinant proteins have protease selectivity. We employed the protein chip to capture mite proteins belonging to the protease family with polyclonal anti-mite antibodies. The mite diagnostic chip can be useful for detecting mite allergens. PMID:20518061

  5. Constructing and detecting a cDNA library for mites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li; Zhao, YaE; Cheng, Juan; Yang, YuanJun; Li, Chen; Lu, ZhaoHui

    2015-10-01

    RNA extraction and construction of complementary DNA (cDNA) library for mites have been quite challenging due to difficulties in acquiring tiny living mites and breaking their hard chitin. The present study is to explore a better method to construct cDNA library for mites that will lay the foundation on transcriptome and molecular pathogenesis research. We selected Psoroptes cuniculi as an experimental subject and took the following steps to construct and verify cDNA library. First, we combined liquid nitrogen grinding with TRIzol for total RNA extraction. Then, switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART) technique was used to construct full-length cDNA library. To evaluate the quality of cDNA library, the library titer and recombination rate were calculated. The reliability of cDNA library was detected by sequencing and analyzing positive clones and genes amplified by specific primers. The results showed that the RNA concentration was 836 ng/μl and the absorbance ratio at 260/280 nm was 1.82. The library titer was 5.31 × 10(5) plaque-forming unit (PFU)/ml and the recombination rate was 98.21%, indicating that the library was of good quality. In the 33 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of P. cuniculi, two clones of 1656 and 1658 bp were almost identical with only three variable sites detected, which had an identity of 99.63% with that of Psoroptes ovis, indicating that the cDNA library was reliable. Further detection by specific primers demonstrated that the 553-bp Pso c II gene sequences of P. cuniculi had an identity of 98.56% with those of P. ovis, confirming that the cDNA library was not only reliable but also feasible. PMID:26174488

  6. Cloning and characterization of tropomyosin from the mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus.

    PubMed

    López-Matas, M Angeles; Iraola, Victor; Moya, Raquel; Vailes, Lisa D; Pomés, Anna; Boquete, Manuel; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Arlian, L G; Chapman, Martin; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2015-12-01

    Tropomyosin is a pan-allergen that shares a high homology among species. It is involved in cross-reactivity among mites, crustaceans, mollusks and insects. The objectives were to express and purify recombinant tropomyosin from the storage mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and to investigate the homology and cross-reactivity with tropomyosin from other invertebrates. Recombinant C. arcuatus tropomyosin (r-Cho a 10) was selected from a library by screening with a pool of patient sera. r-Cho a 10 (UniProt: H2DFL1) was sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Polyclonal anti-tropomyosin antibodies were produced in mice. IgE recognition of r-Cho a 10 was checked by immunoblot. Immunoblot inhibition assays were used to identify the native tropomyosin in the complete extract from C. arcuatus and study cross-reactivity between r-Cho a 10 and Der p 10. Identification of tropomyosin in other allergenic sources was performed by immunoblot. r-Cho a 10 showed a high homology (54-96%) with other tropomyosins from different allergenic sources. IgE recognition was observed using a pool of sera from sensitized individuals. Tropomyosins from different extracts were identified not only in the whole C. arcuatus extract but also in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, shrimp, mussel, cockroach and Anisakis extracts with polyclonal α-Cho a 10. r-Cho a 10 completely inhibited the recognition of Der p 10. Recombinant C. arcuatus tropomyosin maintained its capacity to recognize IgE. r-Cho a 10 was used to prove cross-reactivity among tropomyosins from other invertebrate species, including mites. This is the first C. arcuatus allergen included in the WHO/IUIS (World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies) Allergen Nomenclature database. PMID:26522591

  7. Cold hardiness of the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    PubMed

    Luypaert, Gil; Witters, Johan; Berkvens, Nick; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; De Riek, Jan; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The cold hardiness of the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus, a key pest in Rhododendron simsii hybrid production in northwestern Europe, was investigated in the laboratory. Survival of eggs, larvae and female adults and reproduction capacity of female P. latus were evaluated following cold exposure at 7 °C. Adult females were also exposed to temperatures of 2 and -3 °C. Further, the supercooling point and lower lethal times of adult females were determined. No eggs survived exposure to 7 °C for 17 or more days. Larval survival upon the cold treatment decreased from 53 to 13% when exposed to 7 °C for 14 and 49 days, respectively. Two-day-old adult females exposed to 7 °C for up to 42 days did not suffer significant mortality, but when returned to 25 °C their oviposition rates were lower than those of mites maintained at 25 °C. Less than 40% of females exposed for 13 days to 2 °C survived; only 20% of these females was able to reproduce upon recovery. Subzero temperatures dramatically decreased survival and reproduction capacity of adult females. The supercooling point of female adults was -16.5 °C. Median lethal times averaged 61.2 h and 9.3 days at -3 and 2 °C, respectively. In conclusion, a long term exposure (up to 6 weeks) of R. simsii plants infested with P. latus to a temperature of 7 °C, which is required for breaking dormancy of the flowers, is not expected to have detrimental effects on the survival and reproductive performance of the female mites. PMID:25758635

  8. A mite species that consists entirely of haploid females.

    PubMed

    Weeks, A R; Marec, F; Breeuwer, J A

    2001-06-29

    The dominance of the diploid state in higher organisms, with haploidy generally confined to the gametic phase, has led to the perception that diploidy is favored by selection. This view is highlighted by the fact that no known female organism within the Metazoa exists exclusively (or even for a prolonged period) in a haploid state. We used fluorescence microscopy and variation at nine microsatellite loci to show that the false spider mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, consists of haploid female parthenogens. We show that this reproductive anomaly is caused by infection by an undescribed endosymbiotic bacterium, which results in feminization of haploid genetic males. PMID:11431565

  9. [Allergens from Dermatophagoides dust mites: origin, antigenic and structural characteristics, and therapeutic agents].

    PubMed

    Khlgatian, S V; Perova, N A

    1995-02-01

    Micromites (genus Dermatophagoides) are the major source of allergens in house dust. Four homologous classes of major allergens have been isolated from extracts of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae mites. According to current theories, all major mite allergens are proteins of gastrointestinal origin. Group I mite allergens, Der pI and Der fI, are thermolabile glycoproteins with M(r) of 25 kDa. A comparison of primary structure of these proteins reveals a 30% homology with cathepsins B and H, papain and actinidine. Analysis of enzymatic activities reveals that group I allergens are proteolytic enzymes related to the class of cysteine proteinases. With regard to antigenic composition, Der pI and Der fI have three common and two species-specific epitopes. The amino acid sequence of the major allergenic determinant for Der pI has been established. Group II mite allergens, Der pII and Der fII, are single-chain thermostable proteins with M(r) of 10-14 kDa and are said to bear many common features with the lysozyme. Group III mite allergens are analogous to trypsin. A 50% homology of amino acid sequences of Der pIII and Der fIII to those of vertebrate and invertebrate serine proteinases has been found. To the fourth group of major mite allergens one may relate mite amylase (M(r) = 56-60 kDa). A high degree of homology has been established between group IV allergens and mammalian alpha-amylase. Mite allergens of all groups induce the production of specific IgE antibodies in human organism. The use of purified allergens increases the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of mite-induced allergoses. Modified forms of mite allergens (allergoids, allergens adsorbed on carriers, liposome preparations, etc.) are helpful tools in specific immunotherapy. PMID:7718666

  10. CLIMATE CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE WITHIN-PLANT SPREAD OF BROAD MITES ON AZALEA.

    PubMed

    Mechant, E; Pauwels, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    The broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) is considered a major pest in potted azalea, Flanders' flagship ornamental crop of Rhododendron simsii hybrids. In addition to severe economic damage, the broad mite is dreaded for its increasing resistance to acaricides. Due to restrictions in the use of broad spectrum acaricides, Belgian azalea growers are left with only three compounds, belonging to two mode of action groups and restricted in their number of applications, for broad mite control: abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin. Although P. latus can be controlled with predatory mites, the high cost of this system makes it (not yet) feasible for integration into standard azalea pest management systems. Hence, a maximum efficacy of treatments with available compounds is essential. Because abamectin, milbemectin and pyrethrin are contact acaricides with limited trans laminar flow, only broad mites located on shoot tips of azalea plants will be controlled after spraying. Consequently, the efficacy of chemical treatments is influenced by the location and spread of P. latus on the plant. Unfortunately, little is known on broad mites' within-plant spread or how it is affected by climatic conditions like temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, experiments were set up to verify whether climate conditions have an effect on the location and migration of broad mites on azalea. Broad mite infected azalea plants were placed in standard growth chambers under different temperature (T:2.5-25°C) and relative humidity (RH:55-80%) treatments. Within-plant spread was determined by counting mites on the shoot tips and inner leaves of azalea plants. Results indicate that temperature and relative humidity have no significant effect on the within-plant spread of P. latus. To formulate recommendations for optimal spray conditions to maximize the efficacy of broad mite control with acaricides, further experiments on the effect of light intensity and rain are scheduled. PMID:26084090

  11. Distribution patterns and environmental correlates of water mites (Hydrachnidia, Acari) in peatland microhabitats.

    PubMed

    Więcek, Mariusz; Martin, Peter; Gąbka, Maciej

    2013-10-01

    In Europe peatlands are wetlands of postglacial origin. Because of climatic changes and agricultural activities (i.e. drainage and peat extraction), they are one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide. Water mites are well known as indicators of changing environments in other ecosystems such as springs and lakes. For our study we selected seven peatlands located in North-Western Poland and focused on water mite distribution and associated habitat and water quality variables. We described water mite fauna in various microhabitats (aquatic and semiaquatic) along the mineral-richness gradient to test whether this gradient is reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We selected conductivity, pH and vegetation as variables reflecting the poor-rich gradient. Additionally, we measured water depth, temperature and dissolved oxygen, which are often important parameters for water mites. We also noted presence of prey and host taxa of particular water mite species. Based on physicochemical parameters we identified three types of habitats harbouring three distinctive species groups of water mites. We were able to distinguish species that appear to be typical of spring fens (e.g. Hygrobates norvegicus, Lebertia separata), connected with acidic, nutrient poor pools (e.g. Arrenurus neumani, A. pustulator) and species seemingly typical of temporary habitats dominated by Sphagnum mosses (e.g. Piersigia intermedia, Zschokkea oblonga, A. stecki). The poor-rich gradient is strongly reflected in the composition of water mite assemblages. We also found strong correlations between the water mite fauna and both conductivity and pH gradient. Our results show that water conductivity is the most important of the examined factors, driving mite-species distribution in peatlands. PMID:23564226

  12. Resistance status of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus and the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae to selected acaricides on strawberries.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jian-Long; Niu, Zi-Mian; Yu, Lu; Toscano, Nick C

    2016-02-01

    The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) and the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, are serious pests of strawberries and many other horticultural crops. Control of these pests has been heavily dependent upon chemical acaricides. Objectives of this study were to determine the resistance status of these two pest species to commonly used acaricides on strawberries in a year-round intensive horticultural production region. LC90 of abamectin for adult carmine spider mites was 4% whereas that for adult twospotted spider mites was 24% of the top label rate. LC90s of spiromesifen, etoxazole, hexythiazox and bifenazate were 0.5%, 0.5%, 1.4% and 83% of their respective highest label rates for carmine spider mite eggs, 0.7%, 2.7%, 12.1% and 347% of their respective highest label rates for the nymphs. LC90s of spiromesifen, etoxazole, hexythiazox and bifenazate were 4.6%, 11.1%, 310% and 62% of their respective highest label rates for twospotted spider mite eggs, 3%, 13%, 432,214% and 15% of their respective highest label rates for the nymphs. Our results suggest that T. cinnabarinus have developed resistance to bifenazate and that the T. urticae have developed resistance to hexythiazox. These results strongly emphasize the need to develop resistance management strategies in the region. PMID:25409919

  13. Effects of combination between web density and size of spider mite on predation by a generalist and a specialist phytoseiid mite.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takuya; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    Complicated three-dimensional webs of silk threads produced by Tetranychus spider mites provide protection from predation by many generalist phytoseiid mite species. Accessibility to prey may be the most significant criterion for successful predation in complicated webs. To assess the protective effects of combination between web size and density, we compared predation on eggs of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, by a generalist (Euseius sojaensis) and a specialist (Neoseiulus womersleyi) phytoseiid mite in the laboratory under manipulated web size and density. Web sizes negatively affected to the predation. Significant interactions were found between phytoseiid mite species and prey distribution; egg consumption by E. sojaensis was more in uniform distribution, but that by N. womersleyi, in contrast, was larger in contagious distribution. However, the egg consumption by E. sojaensis and N. womersleyi were both mitigated in larger webs. This area size depending mitigation was more effective to the predation by E. sojaensis. Although the mechanism of web size depending mitigation is unknown, web sizes might affect prey searching efficiency of this phytoseiid mite. Consequently, combination between web density and size are likely to affect not only a generalist E. sojaensis but also a specialist N. wormersleyi. PMID:25860857

  14. Analysis of ectoparasites (chigger mites, gamasid mites, fleas and sucking lice) of the Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus) sampled throughout its range in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, P-Y; Guo, X-G; Song, W-Y; Hou, P; Zou, Y-J; Fan, R; He, X-S

    2015-12-01

    The Yunnan red-backed vole Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is an endemic rodent species and reservoir host of zoonoses in southwest China. Based on a large host sample (2463 voles collected from 39 localities between 2001 and 2013), a general analysis of four categories of ectoparasite (fleas, sucking lice, chigger mites and gamasid mites) on E. miletus across its entire range of distribution was made. This analysis identified a total of 71 895 ectoparasites belonging to 320 species (30 species of flea, 9 of sucking louse, 106 of gamasid mite and 175 of chigger mite) with a high prevalence (87%), mean abundance (29.19) and mean intensity (33.69). Of the 18 vector species of zoonoses found on E. miletus, the flea Ctenophthalmus quadratus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) and chigger mite Leptotrombidium scutellare (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) were the dominant species; these are the main vectors of zoonoses in China. All of the dominant parasite species showed an aggregated distribution pattern. Male voles harboured more species of parasite than females. Chigger mites represented the most abundant species group on voles and their prevalence was positively correlated with mean abundance (r = 0.73; P < 0.05). As a single rodent species, E. miletus has a high potential to harbour abundant ectoparasites with high species diversity and high rates of infestation. The sex of the vole affects ectoparasite infestation. PMID:26345365

  15. Vitamin a deficiency modifies response of predatory miteAmblyseius potentillae to volatile kairomone of two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Dicke, M; Sabelis, M W; Groeneveld, A

    1986-06-01

    A volatile kairomone of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae, elicits a searching response of the phytoseiid predatorAmblyseius potentillae, only when the predator is reared on a carotenoid-free diet. However, after addition of crystalline β-carotene or vitamin A acetate to the predator's rearing diet this searching response was absent. Because vitamin A and β-carotene are indispensable nutrients for diapause induction, the carotenoid-deficient predators increase their fitness by searching for two-spotted spider mites, when other spider mites are unavailable. Two-spotted spider mites, among others, contain the carotenoids required for diapause induction, but are an inferior prey due to the dense webbing they produce. When the predators have carotenoids at their disposal, they do better by searching for other spider mites that are more profitable in terms of reproductive success. Such a prey is the European red spide mite,Panonychus ulmi. The volatile kairomone of this prey elicits a searching response of the predator whether it has a carotenoid deficiency or not. PMID:24307118

  16. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

  17. Improvement in sensitivity of an inductive oil palm fruit sensor.

    PubMed

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

  18. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Rosli, Rozana; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ithnin, Maizura; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Tan, Soon-Guan; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification. PMID:20861564

  19. Temperature governs on-host distribution of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae).

    PubMed

    De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-02-01

    The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to occupy favorable temperature conditions on-host. When further out on feathers in warm weather, and under thermal stress, northern fowl mites either move off host or are dislodged. They then become a human pest, are noticed by farmers, and are more likely to disperse. PMID:25275303

  20. Personality and ectoparasitic mites (Hemipteroseius adleri) in firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus).

    PubMed

    Gyuris, Enikő; Hankó, Júlia Fruzsina; Feró, Orsolya; Barta, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Individuals of the same species often consistently differ in their behaviour across time and context. These stable differences are usually termed 'animal personality'. Parasitism is known to significantly influence the evolution of animal personality at least in part because more explorative individuals may meet parasites more frequently than less explorative ones. Previously, we have demonstrated that consistent individual differences (i.e. boldness, activity, exploration) can be measured in firebugs. As continuation, we examined here the relationship between firebug personality traits and their ectoparasitic mite loads in a wild population. We showed that bugs that behaved in a more explorative way have more mites and we also found a marginally significant interaction between sex, boldness and activity: bolder and more active female firebugs were more infected. In addition, we experimentally tested whether an artificial infection causes any alteration in the bug's behaviour and whether there is any relationship between firebug personality and immune response. This treatment did not induce any alteration in bugs' personality. We found that bugs become more explorative but less active when repeating the experiment, but at the same time all personality traits (boldness, activity and exploration) were repeatable. Furthermore, firebugs with a stronger immune response behaved more boldly but also less actively. PMID:26569455

  1. [Successions of oribatid mites (Acariformes: Oribatida) on disturbed areas].

    PubMed

    Riabinin, N A; Pan'kov, A N

    2009-01-01

    During recovery succession, structural and functional changes in oribatid mite communities occur: the number of species increases, the structure becomes more complex, the proportion of surface-living and nonspecialized forms increases, and the role of parthenogenetic species decreases. The direction of succession is to form a community characteristic of the zonal type of vegetation. Four stages are selected. The colonization--accumulation stage involves the initial accumulation of organic matter due to activity of microorganisms. Oribatids are not numerous at this stage. The unstructured stage is characterized by unstable monodominant communities of parthenogenetic oribatids with short life cycles. The next stage is structuring, when the proportion of parthenogenetic forms decreases, and that of nonspecialized forms increases. Communities are monodominant. The final stage is stabilization. The proportion of parthenogenetic species decreases noticeably. The generic and species composition of the communities stabilizes. The community achieves zonal features. Successions of oribatid mites on disturbed areas were studied on Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands on soils exposed to ash fallout and at different stages of soil formation. Other areas exposed to volcanic activity were also studied. Moreover, the rock dumps of open pits of different ages in the surroundings of Khabarovsk were also surveyed. PMID:19894602

  2. Vectorial role of some dermanyssoid mites (Acari, Mesostigmata, Dermanyssoidea).

    PubMed

    Valiente Moro, C; Chauve, C; Zenner, L

    2005-06-01

    Among transmissible diseases, vectorial diseases represent a major problem for public health. In the group of acarina, while ticks are the most commonly implicated vectors, other arthropods and notably Dermanyssoidea are also involved in the transmission of pathogenic agents. Since the role of this superfamily is at present largely unknown, we have reviewed the vectorial role of these mites in the appearance, survival and propagation of pathogens. Various authors have shown that Dermanyssoidea are implicated in the transmission of both bacteria (Salmonella, Spirocheta, Rickettsia or Pasteurella) and viruses (equine encephalitis viruses, West Nile virus, Fowl pox virus, the virus causing Newcastle disease and tick borne encephalitis viruses or hantaviruses). Finally, some authors have also shown their role in the transmission of some protozoa and filaria. As the vectorial character of such mites has been more clearly demonstrated (Dermanyssus gallinae, Omithonyssus bacoti and Allodermanyssus sanguineus), it would be interesting to continue studies to better understand the role of this superfamily in the epidemiology of certain zoonoses. PMID:15991823

  3. Scheloribatid mites as the source of pumiliotoxins in dendrobatid frogs.

    PubMed

    Takada, Wataru; Sakata, Tomoyo; Shimano, Satoshi; Enami, Yoshinari; Mori, Naoki; Nishida, Ritsuo; Kuwahara, Yasumasa

    2005-10-01

    The strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio (Anura: Dendrobatidae) and related poison frogs contain a variety of dendrobatid alkaloids that are considered to be sequestered through the consumption of alkaloid-containing arthropods microsympatrically distributed in the habitat. In addition to ants, beetles, and millipedes, we found that adults of two species of oribatid mites belonging to the cohort Brachypylina, trophically a lower level of animal than ants and beetles, contain dendrobatid alkaloids. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of hexane extracts of adult Scheloribates azumaensis (Oribatida: Acari) revealed the presence of not only pumiliotoxin 251D (8-hydroxy-8-methyl-6-(2'-methylhexylidene)-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane), but also precoccinelline 193C and another coccinelline-type alkaloid. From the corresponding extracts of an unidentified Scheloribates sp., pumiliotoxin 237A (8-hydroxy-8-methyl-6-(2'-methylpentylidene)-1-azabicyclo[4.3.0]nonane) was detected as a minor component, and identified by synthesis. The presence of related alkaloids, namely deoxypumiliotoxin 193H, a 6,8-diethyl-5-propenylindolizidine, and tentatively, a 1-ethyl-4-pentenynylquinolizidine, were indicated by the GC/MS fragmentation patterns, along with at least another six unidentified alkaloid components. Thus, one possible origin of pumiliotoxins, coccinellid alkaloids, and certain izidines found in poison frogs may be mites of the genus Scheloribates and perhaps related genera in the suborder Oribatida. PMID:16195851

  4. Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites ( Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species ( T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition.

  5. The role of volatiles in aggregation and host-seeking of the haematophagous poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Dicke, M

    2010-03-01

    Infestations with ectoparasitic poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) pose an increasing threat to poultry health and welfare. Because of resistance to acaricides and higher scrutiny of poultry products, alternative and environmentally safe management strategies are warranted. Therefore, we investigated how volatile cues shape the behavior of D. gallinae and how this knowledge may be exploited in the development of an attract-and-kill method to control mite populations. A Y-tube olfactometer bio-assay was used to evaluate choices of mites in response to cues related to conspecific mites as well as related to their chicken host. Both recently fed and starved mites showed a strong preference (84 and 85%, respectively) for volatiles from conspecific, fed mites as compared to a control stream of clean air. Mites were also significantly attracted to 'aged feathers' (that had remained in the litter for 3-4 days), but not to 'fresh feathers'. Interestingly, an air stream containing 2.5% CO(2), which mimics the natural concentration in air exhaled by chickens, did attract fed mites, but inhibited the attraction of unfed mites towards volatiles from aged feathers. We conclude that both mite-related cues (aggregation pheromones) and host-related cues (kairomones) mediate the behavior of the poultry mite. We discuss the options to exploit this knowledge as the 'attract' component of attract-and-kill strategies for the control of D. gallinae. PMID:19760508

  6. MITE Digger, an efficient and accurate algorithm for genome wide discovery of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are abundant non-autonomous elements, playing important roles in shaping gene and genome evolution. Their characteristic structural features are suitable for automated identification by computational approaches, however, de novo MITE discovery at genomic levels is still resource expensive. Efficient and accurate computational tools are desirable. Existing algorithms process every member of a MITE family, therefore a major portion of the computing task is redundant. Results In this study, redundant computing steps were analyzed and a novel algorithm emphasizing on the reduction of such redundant computing was implemented in MITE Digger. It completed processing the whole rice genome sequence database in ~15 hours and produced 332 MITE candidates with low false positive (1.8%) and false negative (0.9%) rates. MITE Digger was also tested for genome wide MITE discovery with four other genomes. Conclusions MITE Digger is efficient and accurate for genome wide retrieval of MITEs. Its user friendly interface further facilitates genome wide analyses of MITEs on a routine basis. The MITE Digger program is available at: http://labs.csb.utoronto.ca/yang/MITEDigger. PMID:23758809

  7. The effect of sub-floor heating on house-dust-mite populations on floors and in furniture.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Rob

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in a study of 16 houses with sub-floor heating and 21 without. The pattern of changes in air humidity and temperature on the floors was investigated and compared to known data of the tolerance of dust mites. Also the resident mite populations were compared. Floors with sub-floor heating had, on average, fewer mites, but the difference with unheated floors was small. It was remarkable that mite numbers were also lower in upholstered furniture. Another important observation was that some houses with sub-floor heating had high mite numbers, indicating that this type of heating is compatible with a thriving mite population. Temperature and humidity conditions of heated floors may allow mites not only to survive, but also to remain active in winter. A moderate increase in temperature, a moderate decrease in (absolute) air humidity, or a combination of both, will suffice to keep the humidity all winter below the Critical Equilibrium Humidity, the level of air humidity that is critical for mite growth and reproduction, hence for allergen production. However, it is argued that measures to suppress allergen production by house dust mites are likely to be far more effective if taken in summer rather than in winter. PMID:14635817

  8. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response. PMID:25860860

  9. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.

    PubMed

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H

    2002-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from tocotrienols and tocopherols that have been shown to be powerful antioxidants and potential mediators of cellular functions. These compounds can be antithrombotic, cause an increase of the prostacyclin/thromboxane ratio, reduce restenosis, and inhibit HMG-CoA-reductase (thus reducing) cholesterol biosynthesis). Red palm oil is a rich source of beta-carotene as well as of alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols. PMID:11975364

  10. 33 CFR 110.185 - Atlantic Ocean, off the Port of Palm Beach, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Palm Beach, FL. 110.185 Section 110.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... of Palm Beach, FL. (a) The anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage A. The waters lying within an area... Palm Beach, shall only anchor within the anchorage areas hereby defined and established, except...

  11. Palms (Arecaceae) from a Paleocene rainforest of northern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Navarro, Carolina; Jaramillo, Carlos; Herrera, Fabiany; Wing, Scott L; Callejas, Ricardo

    2009-07-01

    Palms are a monophyletic group with a dominantly tropical distribution; however, their fossil record in low latitudes is strikingly scarce. In this paper, we describe fossil leaves, inflorescences, and fruits of palms from the middle to late Paleocene Cerrejón Formation, outcropping in the Ranchería River Valley, northern Colombia. The fossils demonstrate the presence of at least five palm morphospecies in the basin ca. 60 Ma. We compare the morphology of the fossils with extant palms and conclude that they belong to at least three palm lineages: the pantropical Cocoseae of the subfamily Arecoideae, the monotypic genus Nypa, and either Calamoideae or Coryphoideae. The fossil fruits and inflorescences are among the oldest megafossil records of these groups and demonstrate that the divergence of the Cocoseae was more than 60 Ma, earlier than has previously been thought. These fossils are useful in tracing the range expansion or contraction of historical or current neotropical elements and also have profound implications for the understanding of the evolution of neotropical rainforests. PMID:21628279

  12. Regioisomerism of triacylglycerols in lard, tallow, yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kallio, H; Yli-Jokipii, K; Kurvinen, J P; Sjövall, O; Tahvonen, R

    2001-07-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) of lard, tallow, egg yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (82:18) were investigated by chemical ionization and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Accurate molecular level information of the regioisomeric structures of individual TAGs was achieved. When existing in a TAG molecule of lard, palmitic acid occupied 90-100% of the sn-2 position. Within the major fatty acid combinations in tallow TAGs, the secondary position sn-2 was preferentially occupied in the decreasing order by oleoyl > palmitoyl > stearoyl residues, the order in saturated TAGs being myristoyl > stearoyl = palmitoyl. TAGs in egg yolk were more asymmetric than in chicken skin, with linoleic acid highly specifically attached in the yolk sn-2 carbon. Nearly 50% of yolk TAGs contained 52 carbon atoms with two or three double bonds. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids were in the sn-2 location in decreasing quantities in palm oil and its fractions. Triacylglycerols of equal molecular weight behaved similarly in the fractionation process. Randomization of the parent oil TAGs was seen in the transesterified oil. The tandem mass spectrometric analysis applied provided detailed information of the distribution of fatty acids in individual combinations in TAGs. PMID:11453776

  13. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature. PMID:26221628

  14. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature. PMID:26221628

  15. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.

    PubMed

    Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner. PMID:21279347

  16. Palm Reversal Errors in Native-Signing Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have native exposure to a sign language such as American Sign Language (ASL) have received almost no scientific attention. This paper reports the first studies on a sample of five native-signing children (four deaf children of deaf parents and one hearing child of deaf parents; ages 4;6 to 7;5) diagnosed with ASD. A domain-general deficit in the ability of children with ASD to replicate the gestures of others is hypothesized to be a source of palm orientation reversal errors in sign. In Study 1, naturalistic language samples were collected from three native-signing children with ASD and were analyzed for errors in handshape, location, movement and palm orientation. In Study 2, four native-signing children with ASD were compared to 12 typically-developing deaf children (ages 3;7 to 6;9, all born to deaf parents) on a fingerspelling task. In both studies children with ASD showed a tendency to reverse palm orientation on signs specified for inward/outward orientation. Typically-developing deaf children did not produce any such errors in palm orientation. We conclude that this kind of palm reversal has a perceptual rather than a motoric source, and is further evidence of a “self-other mapping” deficit in ASD. PMID:22981637

  17. Palm reversal errors in native-signing children with autism.

    PubMed

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have native exposure to a sign language such as American Sign Language (ASL) have received almost no scientific attention. This paper reports the first studies on a sample of five native-signing children (four deaf children of deaf parents and one hearing child of deaf parents; ages 4;6 to 7;5) diagnosed with ASD. A domain-general deficit in the ability of children with ASD to replicate the gestures of others is hypothesized to be a source of palm orientation reversal errors in sign. In Study 1, naturalistic language samples were collected from three native-signing children with ASD and were analyzed for errors in handshape, location, movement and palm orientation. In Study 2, four native-signing children with ASD were compared to 12 typically developing deaf children (ages 3;7 to 6;9, all born to deaf parents) on a fingerspelling task. In both studies children with ASD showed a tendency to reverse palm orientation on signs specified for inward/outward orientation. Typically developing deaf children did not produce any such errors in palm orientation. We conclude that this kind of palm reversal has a perceptual rather than a motoric source, and is further evidence of a "self-other mapping" deficit in ASD. PMID:22981637

  18. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest. PMID:20929530

  19. Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Comer, Jason R; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Barrett, Craig F; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Heyduk, Karolina; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2016-04-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. Resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. The focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily Arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. A targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the Arecoideae tribes and the other palm subfamilies. Species trees from the concatenated and coalescent based analyses recovered largely congruent topologies. Three major tribal clades were recovered: the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae, Sclerospermeae), the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae, Cocoseae), and the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae, Pelagodoxeae). Leopoldinieae was sister to the rest of the core arecoids (Geonomateae, Manicarieae+Pelagodoxeae, and Areceae+Euterpeae). The nuclear phylogeny supported a North American origin for subfamily Arecoideae, with most tribal progenitors diversifying within the Americas. The POS clade may have dispersed from the Americas into Africa, with tribe Oranieae subsequently spreading into the Indo-Pacific. Two independent dispersals into the Indo-Pacific were inferred for two tribes within the core arecoids (tribes Areceae and Pelagodoxeae). PMID:26748268

  20. Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%. PMID:24693230

  1. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%. PMID:24693230

  2. Powered exoskeleton with palm degrees of freedom for hand rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Daniel S; Georgilas, Ioannis; Dagnino, Giulio; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2015-08-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is a currently underutilised field with the potential to allow huge cost savings within healthcare. Existing rehabilitation exoskeletons oversimplify the importance of movement of the hand while undertaking everyday tasks. Within this study, an investigation was undertaken to establish the extent to which the degrees of freedom within the palm affect ability to undertake everyday tasks. Using a 5DT data glove, bend sensing resistors and restrictors of palm movement, 20 participants were recruited to complete tasks that required various hand shapes. Collected data was processed and palm arching trends were identified for each grasping task. It was found that the extent of utilizing arches in the palm varied with each exercise, but was extensively employed throughout. An exoskeleton was subsequently designed with consideration of the identified palm shapes. This design included a number of key features that accommodated for a variety of hand sizes, a novel thumb joint and a series of dorsally mounted servos. Initial exoskeleton testing was undertaken by having a participant complete the same exercises while wearing the exoskeleton. The angles formed by the user during this process were then compared to those recorded by 2 other participants who had completed the same tasks without exoskeleton. It was found that the exoskeleton was capable of forming the required arches for completing the tasks, with differences between participants attributed to individual ergonomic differences. PMID:26737327

  3. Inter-population variation for Wolbachia induced reproductive incompatibility in the haplodiploid mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Eunho; Sim, Cheolho; Park, Jung-Joon; Cho, Kijong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed diverse patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by Wolbachia in the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch). The mechanism of CI consists of two steps: modification (mod) of sperm of infected males and the rescue (resc) of these chromosomes by Wolbachia in the egg, which results in female embryonic mortality (FM), male development (MD) or no CI. Our study reports that Wolbachia infections were highly prevalent infecting all T. urticae populations from various crops in 14 commercial greenhouses in Korea, with two Wolbachia strains expressing distinctive phenotypic effects on hosts. Analyses for wsp gene sequences obtained from collected mite populations revealed all sequences were categorized into two groups (group W1 and W2) discriminated by three diagnostic nucleotides while all Wolbachia strains belonged to the subgroup Ori in Wolbachia supergroup B. Host plants of each mite population were also generally correlated this grouping. Various mating experiments with two mite populations from each group showed that CI patterns and host plants of the mite populations were completely matched with the grouping; no CI (mod(-)resc(+)) for group W1 and mixed pattern of FM and MD (mod(+)resc(+)) for group W2. No distinct changes in fecundity or sex ratio due to Wolbachia infections were observed in four mite populations regardless of Wolbachia grouping. Our study suggests a potential correlation between phenotypic effect of Wolbachia infection and its genetic diversity associated with host plants in Korean mite populations. PMID:25091123

  4. Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Benjak, Andrej; Bou, Stphanie; Forneck, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine cut-and-paste transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding. PMID:20333179

  5. Infestation of Research Zebra Finch Colony with 2 Novel Mite Species

    PubMed Central

    Siddalls, Monica; Currier, Timothy A; Pang, Jassia; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Patterson, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    A zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) housed in a neuroscience laboratory was observed to have numerous feather mites. Subsequently, similar mites were found on other birds in the animal facility and research space. The most abundant mite was a novel, undescribed species in the genus Neocheyletiella. Whereas known Neocheyletiella mites have previously been characterized as skin parasites of various birds worldwide, the species on the zebra finches is unique because it lives and builds nests in the feathers. Infrequent specimens of a ‘true’ feather mite, a new species of Megninialges, were present also. Although multiple treatments using a pyrethrin spray were effective in eradicating the mites, topical ivermectin later was found to be more efficacious, better tolerated by the birds, and less labor intensive. This case highlights the general dearth of information regarding ectoparasites in zebra finches, even though these are the most frequently used songbirds in biomedical research. The mite epizootic also underscores the diverse pathogens possible in zebra finches that arrive from outside sources and why ongoing health monitoring of finch colonies is warranted. PMID:25730757

  6. Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2009-06-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is currently a significant pest in the poultry industry in Europe. Biological control by the introduction of predatory mites is one of the various options for controlling poultry red mites. Here, we present the first results of an attempt to identify potential predators by surveying the mite fauna of European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) nests, by assessing their ability to feed on poultry red mites and by testing for their inability to extract blood from bird hosts, i.e., newly hatched, young starlings and chickens. Two genuine predators of poultry red mites are identified: Hypoaspis aculeifer and Androlaelaps casalis. A review of the literature shows that some authors suspected the latter species to parasitize on the blood of birds and mammals, but they did not provide experimental evidence for these feeding habits and/or overlooked published evidence showing the reverse. We advocate careful analysis of the trophic structure of arthropods inhabiting bird nests as a basis for identifying candidate predators for control of poultry red mites. PMID:19184469

  7. Infestation of research zebra finch colony with 2 novel mite species.

    PubMed

    Siddalls, Monica; Currier, Timothy A; Pang, Jassia; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Patterson, Mary M

    2015-02-01

    A zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) housed in a neuroscience laboratory was observed to have numerous feather mites. Subsequently, similar mites were found on other birds in the animal facility and research space. The most abundant mite was a novel, undescribed species in the genus Neocheyletiella. Whereas known Neocheyletiella mites have previously been characterized as skin parasites of various birds worldwide, the species on the zebra finches is unique because it lives and builds nests in the feathers. Infrequent specimens of a 'true' feather mite, a new species of Megninialges, were present also. Although multiple treatments using a pyrethrin spray were effective in eradicating the mites, topical ivermectin later was found to be more efficacious, better tolerated by the birds, and less labor intensive. This case highlights the general dearth of information regarding ectoparasites in zebra finches, even though these are the most frequently used songbirds in biomedical research. The mite epizootic also underscores the diverse pathogens possible in zebra finches that arrive from outside sources and why ongoing health monitoring of finch colonies is warranted. PMID:25730757

  8. Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cleber M; Ferreira, João A M; Oliveira, Rafael M; Santos, Francisco O; Pallini, Angelo

    2014-10-01

    One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source. PMID:24744058

  9. Mites are the most common vectors of the fungus Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea infructescences.

    PubMed

    Roets, Francois; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D; Dreyer, Leanne L

    2011-01-01

    Entomochoric spore dispersal is well-documented for most ophiostomatoid fungal genera, most of which are associated with bark or ambrosia beetles. Gondwanamyces spp. are unusual members of this group that were first discovered in the flower heads of the primitive angiosperm genus Protea, that is mostly restricted to the Cape Floristic region of Africa. In this study, we present the discovery of the vectors of Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea repens infructescences, which were identified using PCR, direct isolation, and light microscopy. Gondwanamyces proteae DNA and ascospores were identified on diverse lineages of arthropods including beetles (Euderes lineicolis and Genuchus hottentottus), bugs (Oxycarenus maculates), a psocopteran species and five mite (Acari) species. Based on isolation frequency, however, a mite species in the genus Trichouropoda appears to be the most common vector of G. proteae. Gondwanamyces spores were frequently observed within pit mycangia at the base of the legs of these mites. Manipulative experiments demonstrated the ability of mites to carry viable G. proteae spores whilst in transit on the beetle G. hottentottus and that these mites are able to transfer G. proteae spores to uncolonised substrates in vitro. Interestingly, this same mite species has also been implicated as vector of Ophiostoma spores on P. repens and belongs to the same genus of mites that vector Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine-infesting bark beetles in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:21530916

  10. Mange Caused by a Novel Micnemidocoptes Mite in a Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ).

    PubMed

    Sadar, Miranda J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Mete, Asli; Foley, Janet; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta H; Grosset, Claire; Smallwood, K Shawn; Shipman, Jessica; Wells, Amy; White, Stephen D; Bell, Douglas A; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-09-01

    A second-year, female golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was live trapped in northern California because of severe feather loss and crusting of the skin on the head and legs. On physical examination, the bird was lethargic, dehydrated, and thin, with severe feather loss and diffuse hyperemia and crusting on the head, ventral wings, ventrum, dorsum, and pelvic limbs. Mites morphologically similar to Micnemidocoptes derooi were identified with scanning electron microscopy. The eagle was treated with ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) once weekly for 7 weeks, as well as pyrethrin, meloxicam, ceftiofur crystalline free acid, and voriconazole. Although the eagle's condition improved, and live mites or eggs were not evident on skin scrapings at the time of completion of ivermectin treatment, evidence of dead mites and mite feces were present after the last dose of ivermectin. Two additional doses of ivermectin and 2 doses of topical selamectin (23 mg/kg) were administered 2 and 4 weeks apart, respectively. No mite eggs, feces, or adults were evident after treatment was completed. A second golden eagle found in the same region was also affected with this mite but died soon after presentation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of successful treatment, as well as treatment with selamectin, of mites consistent with Micnemidocoptes species in any raptorial species. PMID:26378670

  11. The presence of quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) in ostrich wing feathers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R G; El Doumani, H A A

    2006-03-01

    Quill mites (Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) may infest ostrich feathers, resulting in skin damage, pruritus and excessive feather preening and loss. Four different feather types (prime white, femina extra wide, femina class 1, and femina short; n = 10) were collected. The quill mites and lice were removed with fine forceps, studied using a photographic optical microscope and counted microscopically at x 100 magnification following collection by sedimentation. They were placed in separate Petri dishes containing lactophenol solution and examined (x40 magnification). Anatomical features are described. The density of quill mites in all feather types of both wings was higher than that of the lice. There was no significant difference between the counts of both arthropods on the left wing and the right wing, respectively, except for the femina class 1 quill mites (P = 0.01). The femina extra wide feathers were a preferred habitat in both wings. Large standard deviations (quill mites left wing: 73 +/- 8; quill mites right wing: 69 +/- 7) suggested variations in the degree of migration between feather shafts or as a response to escape preening. It is recommended that ostriches be treated with an oral preparation of Ivermectin administered per os at a dosage rate of 0.2 mg/kg at 30-day intervals for quill mites, and with a 1-5 % Malathion dust at 14-day intervals for lice. PMID:16700469

  12. The proteinases of Psoroptes ovis, the sheep scab mite--their diversity and substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Fiona; Knox, David

    2002-05-10

    The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, causes severe dermatitis in infected sheep with severe welfare and production implications. The dermatitis has the characteristics of an immediate hypersensitivity type reaction which, by analogy to other mite species, including the house dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp.), is likely to be invoked by a variety of allergens including mite-derived proteinases. Here, the proteinases in P. ovis extracts were characterised using substrate gel analysis, inhibitor sensitivity and their ability to degrade a variety of potential natural protein substrates. These analyses showed that mites contain several proteinases which could be differentiated on the basis of molecular size and inhibitor sensitivity with cysteine, metalloproteinases and aspartyl proteinases predominating. These proteinases degraded collagen and fibronectin, possibly indicative of a role in lesion initiation, they degraded several blood proteins, a property which may aid mite feeding and they degraded immunoglobulin G, possibly aiding immuno-evasion. Because proteinases, particularly the cysteine class, are demonstrably allergenic in other mite infestations, these proteinases clearly merit further immunological and biochemical definition. PMID:11983306

  13. Development of a palm portable mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mo; Kim, Tae-Young; Hwang, Hyun-Chul; Yi, Seok-Kyung; Kim, Do-Hoon

    2008-10-01

    A palm portable mass spectrometer (PPMS) has been developed with a weight of 1.48 kg (3 lb) and a size of 1.54 L (8.2 x 7.7 x 24.5 cm(3)) that can be operated with an average battery power of 5 W. A miniaturized ion trap has been used as a mass analyzer that consists of four parallel disks with coaxial holes. A rf voltage of 1500 V(p-p) at 3.9 MHz has been used for scanning ion mass of up to m/z 300. An ion-getter pump serves for high vacuum of the PPMS. Sample gas was introduced in pulse mode. An embedded microcomputer has been developed for system control. Detection of organic gases diluted in the air has been demonstrated up to 6 ppm for toluene and 22 ppm for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). Performance results suggest usefulness of the PPMS as a personal mobile device for detection/identification of chemical warfare agents in the field. PMID:18565759

  14. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  15. Effect of high pressure microfluidization on the crystallization behavior of palm stearin - palm olein blends.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijuan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi; Wang, Xuede

    2014-01-01

    Moderate and high microfluidization pressures (60 and 120 MPa) and different treatment times (once and twice) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure microfluidization (HPM) treatment on the crystallization behavior and physical properties of binary mixtures of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO). The polarized light microscopy (PLM), texture analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were applied to analyze the changes in crystal network structure, hardness, polymorphism and thermal property of the control and treated blends. PLM results showed that HPM caused significant reductions in maximum crystal diameter in all treated blends, and thus led to changes in the crystal network structure, and finally caused higher hardness in than the control blends. The XRD study demonstrated that HPM altered crystalline polymorphism. The HPM-treated blends showed a predominance of the more stable β' form, which is of more interest for food applications, while the control blend had more α- and β-form. This result was further confirmed by DSC observations. These changes in crystallization behavior indicated that HPM treatment was more likely to modify the crystallization processes and nucleation mechanisms. PMID:24879582

  16. Optimizing palm oil and palm stearin utilization for sensory and textural properties of chicken frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Tan, S S; Aminah, A; Zhang, X G; Abdul, S B

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to explore the potential of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (PO) and palm stearin (POs) utilization in chicken frankfurters. A 10 points augmented simplex-centroid design was used to study the effect of chicken fat (CF), PO and POs as well as the interaction of these fats on the emulsion, textural and sensory properties of chicken frankfurters. All frankfurters were formulated to contain approx 25% fat, 52% moisture and 10% protein. No significant difference was found in end chopping temperatures of all meat batters even though the temperature of PO and POs upon incorporation into meat batters was 50°C higher than CF. Strong emulsions were formed as no fluid losses were observed in all the meat batters tested after heating. Texture profiles of the frankfurters containing PO and/or CF were quite similar, but increment of POs raised hardness, chewiness, and shear hardness of the frankfurters. Acceptability of the frankfurters was evaluated using hedonic test. Panelists found no difference in hardness preference between frankfurters made from totally CF and PO, while frankfurters made from POs were rated as hard and brittle. CF was important in determining acceptability of the frankfurters, as reduction of CF in formulation resulted in lower scores in chicken flavor, juiciness, oiliness and overall acceptance of the frankfurters. Frankfurters with sensory acceptability comparable to a commercial one were found to comprise of more than 17% CF, and less than 67% PO and 17% POs of the fat blend. PMID:22061722

  17. Preparation of vesicle drug carrier from palm oil- and palm kernel oil-based glycosides.

    PubMed

    Aripin, Nurul Fadhilah Kamalul; Park, Jae Won; Park, Hyun Jin

    2012-06-15

    A new mixture of alkyl glycosides derived from palm oil (PO) or palm kernel oil (PKO) was synthesised. This mixture contains glycosylated disaccharide of either maltose or lactose with aliphatic chain that varies according to the PO or PKO fatty acids composition. The synthesis method produced no polymerised sugar unlike the production of the commercial glycosides (APG). The mixture only contains various glycosides differing by the alkyl chain and stereoisomers. Three anomeric mixtures can be produced depending on the reaction time and catalyst: α-dominant mixture, β-dominant mixture and equal mixture. The PO and PKO derived glycosides were able to form a stable vesicle with a small amount of dicetyl phosphate (DCP) and showed high vitamin E encapsulation efficiency. Low packing density of the membrane bilayer enabled more vitamin E to participate in the membrane formation. The anomeric mixtures of the maltosides provide no difference in membrane packing behaviour as it was governed by the hydrophilic region. Significant difference in membrane packing density was observed for lactosides anomeric mixtures because the packing behaviour was influenced by the hydrophobic region. Inclusion of cholesterol led to decrease in vitamin E encapsulation as well as reducing the stability of the vesicle system. The vesicular formulations of the glycosides were stable for 3 months when stored at refrigeration temperature. PMID:22421415

  18. Exceptionally High Levels of Genetic Diversity in Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) Populations from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Szydło, W; Hein, G; Denizhan, E; Skoracka, A

    2015-08-01

    Recent research on the wheat curl mite species complex has revealed extensive genetic diversity that has distinguished several genetic lineages infesting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other cereals worldwide. Turkey is the historical region of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) domestication and diversification. The close relationship between these grasses and the wheat curl mite provoked the question of the genetic diversity of the wheat curl mite in this region. The scope of the study was to investigate genetic differentiation within the wheat curl mite species complex on grasses in Turkey. Twenty-one wheat curl mite populations from 16 grass species from nine genera (Agropyron sp., Aegilops sp., Bromus sp., Elymus sp., Eremopyrum sp., Hordeum sp., Poa sp., Secale sp., and Triticum sp.) were sampled in eastern and southeastern Turkey for genetic analyses. Two molecular markers were amplified: the cytochrome oxidase subunit I coding region of mtDNA (COI) and the D2 region of 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high genetic variation of the wheat curl mite in Turkey, primarily on Bromus and Hordeum spp., and exceptionally high diversity of populations associated with bread wheat. Three wheat-infesting wheat curl mite lineages known to occur on other continents of the world, including North and South America, Australia and Europe, were found in Turkey, and at least two new genetic lineages were discovered. These regions of Turkey exhibit rich wheat curl mite diversity on native grass species. The possible implications for further studies on the wheat curl mite are discussed. PMID:26470350

  19. Repellency and oviposition deterrence of wild tomato leaf extracts to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C

    2015-01-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, Lycopersicon hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae) synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). The potential of using MKs as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Plants of L. hirsutum accession LA 407 having high concentrations of MKs were grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. The main objective of this investigation was to conduct bioassays that are quick and easy to implement, consistent over time (repeatable) with the ability to utilize small amounts of test material for testing repellency and fecundity (number of eggs laid by a female mite) of MKs in pure forms and in LA 407 crude extracts. Four MKs (2-tridecanone, 2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-pentadecanone) and their mixture were screened for their repellency and ability to alter fecundity of spider mites. All MKs repelled spider mites at the two periods tested. Following spraying of tomato leaf extracts prepared in ethanol (ethanol extracts), average number of eggs laid per female mite on bean leaf discs dropped from 0.8 to 0.3 and from 0.9 to 0.3 at 4 and 24 h after exposure representing 65 and 68% reduction, respectively. However, spraying of tomato leaf extracts prepared in water (water extracts) reduced number of eggs laid per female mite from 1.7 to 0.7 and from 2.6 to 0.9 at 4 and 24 h after exposure representing 60 and 67% reduction, respectively. We concluded that all MKs have repellent and egg laying deterrence activities against spider mites. This investigation suggests that ethanol and water extracts of LA 407 have a potential for repelling female spider mites and reducing their laid eggs which might be explored under field conditions for managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides. PMID:26079341

  20. Control of the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis in vivo and in vitro using fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Abolins, S; Thind, B; Jackson, V; Luke, B; Moore, D; Wall, R; Taylor, M A

    2007-09-30

    As part of a research programme designed to identify biological agents for the control of sheep scab, the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to Psoroptes mites in the presence of sheepskin and wool was examined in the laboratory. No inhibitory effects of skin and wool were observed and high levels of infection were recorded. Subsequently the pathogenicity of formulations of both M. anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to Psoroptes ovis was studied in vivo. For this, 36 batches of 20 adult female Psoroptes mites were confined in 25 mm diameter chambers which were attached to the backs of 6 scab-naive sheep. In some treatments, mites were exposed to the fungal pathogens for 48 h in vitro prior to being placed on the host, while other treatments involved mites with no prior exposure placed directly onto the skin of a host treated with a fungal pathogen. After 48 h on the host, mites were removed, incubated individually and all fungal infections were recorded. Fungal infection was observed in all treatments, except untreated controls. However, B. bassiana infected a significantly greater number of mites than M. anisopliae with all the formulations examined. Infection rates were highest when mites were exposed to dry conidia (>90%) and lowest with M. anisopliae in diatomaceous earth. Overall, the infection rate was not affected by whether or not the mites were given prior exposure to the conidia, before being placed on the sheep. The results demonstrate that Psoroptes mites can become infected by entomopathogenic fungi on the skin of sheep and provides a first demonstration of the potential of this technology for the control of sheep scab. PMID:17624674

  1. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies. PMID:26003668

  2. New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to colonize new regions. PMID:23135361

  3. A Carboniferous Mite on an Insect Reveals the Antiquity of an Inconspicuous Interaction.

    PubMed

    Robin, Ninon; Béthoux, Olivier; Sidorchuk, Ekaterina; Cui, Yingying; Li, Yingnan; Germain, Damien; King, Andrew; Berenguer, Felisa; Ren, Dong

    2016-05-23

    Symbiosis [1], understood as prolonged interspecific association, is as ancient as the eukaryotic cell [2, 3]. A variety of such associations have been reported in the continental fossil record, albeit sporadically. As for mites, which as a group have been present since the Devonian (ca. 390 mya) [4, 5] and are involved in a tremendous variety of modern-day symbioses, reported associations are limited to a few amber-preserved cases [6-11], with the earliest instance in the Cretaceous (ca. 85 mya) [11]. As a consequence, the antiquity and origin of associations involving small-sized mites and larger animals are poorly understood. Here we report, recovered from the Carboniferous Xiaheyan locality (ca. 320 mya), an oribatid mite located on the thorax of an extinct relative of grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids [12]. The mite was investigated using several methods, including phase-contrast tomography. The detailed morphological data allowed the placement of the mite in a new family within Mixonomata, whose fossil record is thus extended by ca. 250 Ma. Specimen and abundance distribution data derived from the fossil insect sample indicate that specimens from the corresponding excavation site were buried rapidly and were sub-autochthonous, indicating a syn vivo association. Moreover, the mite is located in a sequestered position on the insect. The observed interaction best fits the definition for phoresy, in which the benefit is transport and protection for the mite. This discovery demonstrates that this association, a trait shared by representatives of the most speciose mite taxa, arose very early during mite evolution. PMID:27161503

  4. Effect of thermal processing of palm sap on the physico-chemical composition of traditional palm sugar.

    PubMed

    Ho, C W; Aida, W M Wan; Maskat, M Y; Osman, H

    2008-04-01

    During the production of palm sugar, the palm sap (Arenga pinnata) is heated up to 150 degrees C. Besides the hydrolysis of carbohydrate to generate reducing sugars and degradation of amino acid, many physicochemical changes produced at all these temperatures, having a significant impact on the overall quality of palm sugar. In this study, changes in physico-chemical properties of the palm sap due to heat processing were investigated. Analysis of colour, soluble solid, pH, temperature, sugar and amino acid concentration was determinant. The results showed clearly that the heating process at these high temperatures was necessary to create an environment which was rich in essential precursors for subsequent reactions such as Maillard reaction. Chemical compounds that showed drastic changes in concentration were polar side chain amino acids especially glutamine, asparagine and arginine as well as sucrose and pH value. Other quality characteristics of palm sugar based on colour and soluble solids (Brix) shared an increase in concentration as a function of time. PMID:18810967

  5. The hair follicle mites (Demodex spp.). Could they be vectors of pathogenic microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Ophir, J; Avigad, J; Lengy, J; Krakowski, A

    1988-01-01

    The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis are the most common permanent ectoparasites of Man. Ordinarily they are harmless to their human host and appear to be of no medical significance. We present, however, an unusual finding regarding this mite, namely, that in a potassium hydroxide mount of a skin scraping from a mycotic plaque we found numerous Demodex mites containing inside them spores of Microsporum canis. This could mean that the putatively inoffensive Demodex has the potential to ingest various microorganisms that are found in its niche and transport them to other areas of the skin or possibly to other individuals. PMID:2467494

  6. PCR-based detection of a tracheal mite of the honey bee Acarapis woodi.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    The effects of the tracheal mite Acarapis woodi on the health of honey bees have been neglected since the prevalence of Varroa mites to Apis mellifera colonies. However, tracheal mite infestation of honey bee colonies still occurs worldwide and could impose negative impact on apiculture. The detection of A. woodi requires the dissection of honey bees followed by microscopic observation of the tracheal sacs. We thus developed PCR methods to detect A. woodi. These methods facilitate rapid and sensitive detection of A. woodi in many honey bee samples for epidemiologic surveys. PMID:21839741

  7. [Nest ectoparasites (gamasid mites) as vectors for rickettsia under experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Kocianová, E

    1989-01-01

    The author gives a review of occurrence of rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, R. slovaca, R. sibirica, R. prowazekii, R. mooseri, R. akari) in gamasid mites, investigated in laboratory or in nature. The results of our experiments and from literature also are summarized in tables. The experimental infection with C. burnetii was investigated by natural route of infection in the following species of mites: Haemogamasus nidi, H. hirsutus, Androlaelaps casalis. We found C. burnetii in smears, stained with Gimenez and IMF, with whole bodies as well as in their excrements. The white mice injected with the suspension from these mites gave the positive serological response. PMID:2485310

  8. Insight into the feeding behavior of predatory mites on Beauveria bassiana, an arthropod pathogen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between fungal entomopathogens and pest predators are particularly relevant in control of agricultural insect pests. In a laboratory study, we confirmed that the predatory mite, Neoseiulus barkeri, exhibited feeding behavior on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana conidia through DNA extracts. Using transmission electron microscopy, we determined that the majority of conidia found in the mite gut tended to dissolve within 24 h post ingestion, suggesting that the conidia had probably lost their viability. To our knowledge this is the first report of feeding behavior of phytoseiid mites on entomopathogenic fungus. The findings expand our knowledge of fungus-predator interactions. PMID:27041703

  9. [Results of exposure to synthetic insect development inhibitors in Psoroptes cuniculi (Psoroptidae) mites].

    PubMed

    Il'iashchenko, V I

    1981-01-01

    Results of the effect of synthetic analogs of juvenile hormones of insects, dimiline, altozide and altozare, on the mite P. cuniculi have been shown. It has been noted that repeated coverings of mites in Petri dishes and rabbits' skin with 0.005--5% emulsions of altozide, 0.005--10% emulsions of altozare and 0.25--8% suspensions of dimiline cause no changes in their morphology and metamorphosis. 1--4% emulsions of altozide and altozare and 2--8% suspensions of dimiline have been found to have an acaricide effect and cause 100 per cent mortality of mites within 48 hours. PMID:6784092

  10. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  11. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites.

    PubMed

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine. PMID:26466903

  12. Insight into the feeding behavior of predatory mites on Beauveria bassiana, an arthropod pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengyong; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Xuenong; Lei, Zhongren

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between fungal entomopathogens and pest predators are particularly relevant in control of agricultural insect pests. In a laboratory study, we confirmed that the predatory mite, Neoseiulus barkeri, exhibited feeding behavior on the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana conidia through DNA extracts. Using transmission electron microscopy, we determined that the majority of conidia found in the mite gut tended to dissolve within 24 h post ingestion, suggesting that the conidia had probably lost their viability. To our knowledge this is the first report of feeding behavior of phytoseiid mites on entomopathogenic fungus. The findings expand our knowledge of fungus–predator interactions. PMID:27041703

  13. Feather mites (Astigmata: Psoroptidia) parasitising the rock ptarmigan Lagopus muta (Montin) (Aves: Galliformes) in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Sergey V; Skirnisson, Karl; Thorarinsdottir, Solrun Th; Nielsen, Olafur K

    2010-03-01

    Four new species of feather mites are described from the Icelandic rock ptarmigan Lagopus muta islandorum (Faber) in Iceland. These are Metamicrolichus islandicus n. sp., Myialges borealis n. sp. (Epidermoptidae), Strelkoviacarus holoaspis n. sp. (Analgidae) and Tetraolichus lagopi n. sp. (Pterolichidae). This is the first report on feather mites associated with the Icelandic rock ptarmigan. Brief comments on the systematics and biology of corresponding feather mite genera are given. For two species, originally described in Pterolichus Robin, 1868 (Pterolichidae), new combinations are proposed, i.e. Tetraolichus gaudi (Cerný, 1971) n. comb. and T. microdiscus (Trouessart, 1887) n. comb. PMID:20157794

  14. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    PubMed

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands. PMID:27037877

  15. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  16. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

  17. Characterization of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) lignin by analytical pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, K; Ozawa, T; Ueno, T

    2001-04-01

    Dioxane lignin prepared from sago palm (Metroxylon sagu) was characterized by analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Large abundances of the p-hydroxybenzoates ester-linked to the lignin were proven by analytical pyrolysis as well as by mild alkaline treatment that produced p-hydroxybenzoic acid in 16.3% yield. Pyrolysis in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) before and after alkaline treatment also showed the presence of ester- and ether-linked p-hydroxybenzoates. Quantitative results of pyrolysis showed that the sago palm lignin is of syringyl type. The relative abundances of TMAH/pyrolysis products derived from the syringyl beta-aryl ether substructures were 4.9 times those of the guaiacyl equivalents. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis also showed the presence of the p-hydroxybenzoates and the predominance of the syringyl moiety over the guaiacyl ones in the sago palm lignin. PMID:11308334

  18. Raphides in Palm Embryos and their Systematic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    ZONA, SCOTT

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Raphides are ubiquitous in the palms (Arecaceae), where they are found in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Their occasional presence in embryos, first noticed over 100 years ago, has gone largely unexamined. • Methods Embryos from 148 taxa of palms, the largest survey of palm embryos to date, were examined using light microscopy of squashed preparations under non‐polarized and crossed polarized light. • Key Results Raphides were found in embryos of species from the three subfamilies Coryphoideae, Ceroxyloideae and Arecoideae. Raphides were not observed in the embryos of species of Calamoideae or Phytelephantoideae. The remaining subfamily, the monospecific Nypoideae, was not available for study. • Conclusions Within the Coryphoideae and Ceroxyloideae, embryos with raphides were rare, but within the Arecoideae, they were a common feature of the tribes Areceae and Caryoteae. PMID:14980977

  19. Palm-vein classification based on principal orientation features.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yujia; Liu, Yaqin; Feng, Qianjin; Yang, Feng; Huang, Jing; Nie, Yixiao

    2014-01-01

    Personal recognition using palm-vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm-vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm-vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm-vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm-vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm-vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database. PMID:25383715

  20. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  1. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  2. Nature and composition of fat bloom from palm kernel stearin and hydrogenated palm kernel stearin compound chocolates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin W; Cain, Fred W; Talbot, Geoff

    2004-08-25

    Palm kernel stearin and hydrogenated palm kernel stearin can be used to prepare compound chocolate bars or coatings. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition, polymorphism, and melting behavior of the bloom that develops on bars of compound chocolate prepared using these fats. Bars were stored for 1 year at 15, 20, or 25 degrees C. At 15 and 20 degrees C the bloom was enriched in cocoa butter triacylglycerols, with respect to the main fat phase, whereas at 25 degrees C the enrichment was with palm kernel triacylglycerols. The bloom consisted principally of solid fat and was sharper melting than was the fat in the chocolate. Polymorphic transitions from the initial beta' phase to the beta phase accompanied the formation of bloom at all temperatures. PMID:15315397

  3. Nine eriophyoid mite species from Iran (Acari, Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira

    2011-01-01

    Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicarissp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicagersp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae). PMID:22144865

  4. Nine eriophyoid mite species from Iran (Acari, Eriophyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicaris sp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicager sp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae). PMID:22144865

  5. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed. PMID:26250248

  6. Palm-based standard reference materials for iodine value and slip melting point.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 +/- 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 +/- 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 +/- 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in palm oil, 22.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C in palm olein and 53.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 degrees C, 0 degrees C, 6 degrees C and 24 degrees C upon storage for one year. PMID:19609396

  7. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  8. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

  9. The role of varroa mites in infections of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Shen, Miaoqing; Yang, Xiaolong; Cox-Foster, Diana; Cui, Liwang

    2005-11-10

    To determine the roles of varroa mites in activating or vectoring viral infections, we performed quantitative comparison of viral infections between bees with and without mites by dot blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under natural and artificial mite infestations, bee pupae contained significantly higher levels of Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) RNAs and KBV structural proteins than mite-free pupae. Moreover, in mite-infested bee pupae, DWV had amplified to extremely high titers with viral genomic RNA being clearly visible after separation of total bee RNA in agarose gels. Linear regression analysis has shown a positive correlation between the number of mites introduced and the levels of viral RNAs. The detection of viral RNAs in the nymph and adult mites underline the possible role of varroa in virus transmission. However, most groups of virus-free adult mites (9/12) were associated with bee pupae heavily infected by viruses, suggesting that the elevated viral titers in mite-infested pupae more likely resulted from activated viral replication. Based on these observations and our concurrent research demonstrating suppressed immune responses in bees infested with mites, we propose that parasitization by varroa suppresses the immunity of honey bees, leading to activation of persistent, latent viral infection. PMID:16109435

  10. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Megan E.; Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lee, Kenneth W.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  11. Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang

    2012-05-01

    The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs. PMID:22414329

  12. Parasitic scabies mites and associated bacteria joining forces against host complement defence.

    PubMed

    Swe, P M; Reynolds, S L; Fischer, K

    2014-11-01

    Scabies is a ubiquitous and contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei Epidemiological studies have identified scabies as a causative agent for secondary skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. This is an important notion, as such bacterial infections can lead to serious downstream life-threatening complications. As the complement system is the first line of host defence that confronts invading pathogens, both the mite and bacteria produce a large array of molecules that inhibit the complement cascades. It is hypothesised that scabies mite complement inhibitors may play an important role in providing a favourable micro-environment for the establishment of secondary bacterial infections. This review aims to bring together the current literature on complement inhibition by scabies mites and bacteria associated with scabies and to discuss the proposed molecular link between scabies and bacterial co-infections. PMID:25081184

  13. Generalist-feeding subterranean mites as potential biological control agents of immature corn rootworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predatory mites are important components of subterranean food webs and may help regulate densities of agricultural pests, including western corn rootworms (Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). Implementing conservation and/or classical biocontrol tactics could enhance densities of special...

  14. [The fauna, number and spatial distribution of mites (Acari) in house dust in Moscow].

    PubMed

    Zhëltikova, T M; Petrova, A D

    1990-01-01

    There is a wide and strong allergenic background in Moscow, which is determined by relatively high population density and regular frequency of the allergenic mites in various premises. 34 species have been identified, 5 of them are allergen producers. The mites of the family Pyroglyphidae are the main component of the house dust fauna. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae distributed all over the world are predominate. A comparative evaluation of the fauna structure, numbers and frequency of the allergenic mites in the flat dust of the allergic patients and healthy people as well as premises is given. Possible importance of the premises in prevalence and circulation of the allergenic mites in the modern town is estimated for the first time. PMID:2346769

  15. Influence of diet conditions on predation response of a predatory mite to a polyphagous insect pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive polyphagous species, is an economically important pest. A modified standard petri dish assay method was employed to examine the functional response and predation capacity of predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Anthias-...

  16. Mold populations and dust mite allergen concentrations in house dust samples from across Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lifetime childhood asthma prevalence (LCAP) percentages in Puerto Rico HealthRegions (HR) are substantially higher in northeastern vs. southwestern HR. Higheraverage relative humidity in the northeast might promote mold and mite exposuresand possibly asthma prevalence. To test th...

  17. Developing food-grade coatings for dry-cured hams to protect against ham mite infestation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Williams, J B; Smith, B S; Schilling, M W

    2016-03-01

    Dry-cured hams may become infested with ham mites, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, during the aging process. Methyl bromide is the only known available fumigant pesticide that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations in dry cured ham plants. However, methyl bromide will be phased out of all industries as early as 2015 due to its status as an ozone-depleting substance. Research was conducted to develop and evaluate the potential of using food-grade film coatings to control mite infestations, without affecting the aging process and sensory properties of the dry-cured hams. Cubes coated with xanthan gum+20% propylene glycol and carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate+10% propylene glycol were effective at controlling mite infestations under laboratory conditions. Water vapor permeability was measured to estimate the impact of coatings during the aging process. It was evident that carrageenan/propylene glycol alginate coatings were permeable to moisture, which potentially makes them usable during aging. PMID:26624793

  18. Efficacy and Dissipation of Permethrin for the Control of the Northern Fowl Mite in Hens

    PubMed Central

    Braun, H. E.; Surgeoner, G. A.; Stanek, J.; Ralley, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Laying hens were treated with permethrin at the rate of 20 mg per bird to determine efficacy against northern fowl mites Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago) and the dissipation of residues over a 42-day period. Permethrin provided greater than 99% control of mites for at least 42 days posttreatment as compared to malathion which did not substantially reduce mite infestations. Carbaryl and coumaphos treatment resulted in limited reductions with mite populations recovering by two to three weeks posttreatment. Maximum residues of permethrin in breast muscle, body fat and the uropidium occurred on day 1 posttreatment and were still present in fatty tissue in detectable quantities on day 42. Residues in egg yolk appeared on day 3 posttreatment and peaked on day 7 with trace quantities still present on day 21. Permethrin was not found in egg white. Low residues were found in the liver and gizzard from day 1 through to day 7. PMID:7343077

  19. The formation of collective silk balls in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernndez, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  20. Effects of host plant on life-history traits in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Marinosci, Cassandra; Magalhães, Sara; Macke, Emilie; Navajas, Maria; Carbonell, David; Devaux, Céline; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Studying antagonistic coevolution between host plants and herbivores is particularly relevant for polyphagous species that can experience a great diversity of host plants with a large range of defenses. Here, we performed experimental evolution with the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae to detect how mites can exploit host plants. We thus compared on a same host the performance of replicated populations from an ancestral one reared for hundreds of generations on cucumber plants that were shifted to either tomato or cucumber plants. We controlled for maternal effects by rearing females from all replicated populations on either tomato or cucumber leaves, crossing this factor with the host plant in a factorial design. About 24 generations after the host shift and for all individual mites, we measured the following fitness components on tomato leaf fragments: survival at all stages, acceptance of the host plant by juvenile and adult mites, longevity, and female fecundity. The host plant on which mite populations had evolved did not affect the performance of the mites, but only affected their sex ratio. Females that lived on tomato plants for circa 24 generations produced a higher proportion of daughters than did females that lived on cucumber plants. In contrast, maternal effects influenced juvenile survival, acceptance of the host plant by adult mites and female fecundity. Independently of the host plant species on which their population had evolved, females reared on the tomato maternal environment produced offspring that survived better on tomato as juveniles, but accepted less this host plant as adults and had a lower fecundity than did females reared on the cucumber maternal environment. We also found that temporal blocks affected mite dispersal and both female longevity and fecundity. Taken together, our results show that the host plant species can affect critical parameters of population dynamics, and most importantly that maternal and environmental conditions can facilitate colonization and exploitation of a novel host in the polyphagous T. urticae, by affecting dispersal behavior (host acceptance) and female fecundity. PMID:26356681

  1. Effects of host plant on life-history traits in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Marinosci, Cassandra; Magalhães, Sara; Macke, Emilie; Navajas, Maria; Carbonell, David; Devaux, Céline; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Studying antagonistic coevolution between host plants and herbivores is particularly relevant for polyphagous species that can experience a great diversity of host plants with a large range of defenses. Here, we performed experimental evolution with the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae to detect how mites can exploit host plants. We thus compared on a same host the performance of replicated populations from an ancestral one reared for hundreds of generations on cucumber plants that were shifted to either tomato or cucumber plants. We controlled for maternal effects by rearing females from all replicated populations on either tomato or cucumber leaves, crossing this factor with the host plant in a factorial design. About 24 generations after the host shift and for all individual mites, we measured the following fitness components on tomato leaf fragments: survival at all stages, acceptance of the host plant by juvenile and adult mites, longevity, and female fecundity. The host plant on which mite populations had evolved did not affect the performance of the mites, but only affected their sex ratio. Females that lived on tomato plants for circa 24 generations produced a higher proportion of daughters than did females that lived on cucumber plants. In contrast, maternal effects influenced juvenile survival, acceptance of the host plant by adult mites and female fecundity. Independently of the host plant species on which their population had evolved, females reared on the tomato maternal environment produced offspring that survived better on tomato as juveniles, but accepted less this host plant as adults and had a lower fecundity than did females reared on the cucumber maternal environment. We also found that temporal blocks affected mite dispersal and both female longevity and fecundity. Taken together, our results show that the host plant species can affect critical parameters of population dynamics, and most importantly that maternal and environmental conditions can facilitate colonization and exploitation of a novel host in the polyphagous T. urticae, by affecting dispersal behavior (host acceptance) and female fecundity. PMID:26356681

  2. Digestive proteases in bodies and faeces of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Santamaría, María E; González-Cabrera, Joel; Martínez, Manuel; Grbic, Vojislava; Castañera, Pedro; Díaz, Lsabel; Ortego, Félix

    2015-07-01

    Digestive proteases of the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae have been characterised by comparing their activity in body and faecal extracts. Aspartyl, cathepsin B- and L-like and legumain activities were detected in both mite bodies and faeces, with a specific activity of aspartyl and cathepsin L-like proteases about 5- and 2-fold higher, respectively, in mite faeces than in bodies. In general, all these activities were maintained independently of the host plant where the mites were reared (bean, tomato or maize). Remarkably, this is the first report in a phytophagous mite of legumain-like activity, which was characterised for its ability to hydrolyse the specific substrate Z-VAN-AMC, its activation by DTT and inhibition by IAA but not by E-64. Gel free nanoLC-nanoESI-QTOF MS/MS proteomic analysis of mite faeces resulted in the identification of four cathepsins L and one aspartyl protease (from a total of the 29 cathepsins L, 27 cathepsins B, 19 legumains and two aspartyl protease genes identified the genome of this species). Gene expression analysis reveals that four cathepsins L and the aspartyl protease identified in the mite faeces, but also two cathepsins B and two legumains that were not detected in the faeces, were expressed at high levels in the spider mite feeding stages (larvae, nymphs and adults) relative to embryos. Taken together, these results indicate a digestive role for cysteine and aspartyl proteases in T. urticae. The expression of the cathepsins B and L, legumains and aspartyl protease genes analysed in our study increased in female adults after feeding on Arabidopsis plants over-expressing the HvCPI-6 cystatin, that specifically targets cathepsins B and L, or the CMe trypsin inhibitor that targets serine proteases. This unspecific response suggests that in addition to compensation for inhibitor-targeted enzymes, the increase in the expression of digestive proteases in T. urticae may act as a first barrier against ingested plant defensive proteins. PMID:25960286

  3. On-host ecology and off-host survival of the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, T; Fourie, L J; Horak, I G

    2002-12-01

    These studies were conducted to investigate the possible role of certain aspects of the on-host ecology and off-host survival of the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, in the dissemination of infestation. All developmental stages of the mite occurred in the fleece both proximally or distal to the skin of infested Merino and Dorper sheep. A larger proportion of mites was present in the fleece of Dorper sheep distal to the skin in the late afternoon and early morning than at other times during the day. Immature and adult mites readily transferred to tufts of wool or hair placed on infested sheep of both breeds. No mites could be found on wool or hair rubbed off onto tree trunks or branches or other structures in enclosures housing heavily infested sheep, nor could any mites be collected from the soil of these enclosures, whereas more than 80% of mites artificially seeded onto soil samples were recovered. The longest mean off-host survival times for larvae, nymphs, and male and ovigerous female mites were recorded at 10 degrees C, and were 9.25 days (RH = 90%), 15 days (RH = 33% and 75%), 10.5 days (RH = 75% and 90%) and 11.25 days (RH = 90%) respectively. Under natural climatic conditions ovigerous females in glass vials containing Merino wool survived for 17 days compared to 15 days for females in vials without wool; this difference was, however, not significant. The mean off-host pre-hatch period for eggs varied between 5.9 days (T = 25 degrees C and RH = 33%) and 22.1 days (T = 10 degrees C and RH = 75%), while the longest time individual eggs took to hatch at the latter temperature and RH was 31 days. PMID:12625379

  4. The Formation of Collective Silk Balls in the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Mailleux, Anne-Catherine; Astudillo Fernández, Aina; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Detrain, Claire; Hance, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. These mites construct a common web to protect the colony. When plants become overcrowded and food resources become scarce, individuals gather at the plant apex to form a ball composed of mites and their silk threads. This ball is a structure facilitating group dispersal by wind or animal transport. Until now, no quantitative study had been done on this collective form of migration. This is the first attempt to understand the mechanisms that underlie the emergence and growth of the ball. We studied this collective behaviour under laboratory conditions on standardized infested plants. Our results show that the collective displacement and the formation of balls result from a recruitment process: by depositing silk threads on their way up to the plant apex, mites favour and amplify the recruitment toward the balls. A critical threshold (quorum response) in the cumulative flow of mites must be reached to observe the emergence of a ball. At the beginning of the balls formation, mites form an aggregate. After 24 hours, the aggregated mites are trapped inside the silk balls by the complex network of silk threads and finally die, except for recently arrived individuals. The balls are mainly composed of immature stages. Our study reconstructs the key events that lead to the formation of silk balls. They suggest that the interplay between mites' density, plant morphology and plant density lead to different modes of dispersions (individual or collective) and under what conditions populations might adopt a collective strategy rather than one that is individually oriented. Moreover, our results lead to discuss two aspects of the cooperation and altruism: the importance of Allee effects during colonization of new plants and the importance of the size of a founding group. PMID:21533150

  5. Gene Pyramiding of Peptidase Inhibitors Enhances Plant Resistance to the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Cambra, Inés; Martinez, Manuel; Pozancos, Clara; González-Melendi, Pablo; Grbic, Vojislava; Castañera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H2O2 as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed. PMID:22900081

  6. Three new species of eriophyoid mites (Acari, Eriophyoidea) from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ji-Wei; Wang, Zhen-Hui; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of eriophyoid mites from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, are described and illustrated. They are Paracolomerus gonglius sp. n. and Phyllocoptruta beggerianae sp. n. collected on Rosa beggeriana Schrenk ex Fisch. & C. A. Mey. (Rosaceae), and Rhyncaphytoptus fuyuniensis sp. n. collected on Cotoneaster ignavus E. L. Wolf (Rosaceae). All eriophyoid mites described here are vagrants on the undersurface of leaves and any apparent damage was not observed. PMID:26167123

  7. Increased transcription of Glutathione S-transferases in acaricide exposed scabies mites

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis mites collected from scabies endemic communities in northern Australia show increasing tolerance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin. Previous findings have implicated detoxification pathways in developing resistance to these acaricides. We investigated the contribution of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes to permethrin and ivermectin tolerance in scabies mites using biochemical and molecular approaches. Results Increased in vitro survival following permethrin exposure was observed in S. scabiei var. hominis compared to acaricide naïve mites (p < 0.0001). The addition of the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate restored in vitro permethrin susceptibility, confirming GST involvement in permethrin detoxification. Assay of GST enzymatic activity in mites demonstrated that S. scabiei var. hominis mites showed a two-fold increase in activity compared to naïve mites (p < 0.0001). Increased transcription of three different GST molecules was observed in permethrin resistant S. scabiei var. canis- mu 1 (p < 0.0001), delta 1 (p < 0.001), and delta 3 (p < 0.0001). mRNA levels of GST mu 1, delta 3 and P-glycoprotein also significantly increased in S. scabiei var. hominis mites collected from a recurrent crusted scabies patient over the course of ivermectin treatment. Conclusions These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that increased drug metabolism and efflux mediate permethrin and ivermectin resistance in scabies mites and highlight the threat of emerging acaricide resistance to the treatment of scabies worldwide. This is one of the first attempts to define specific genes involved in GST mediated acaricide resistance at the transcriptional level, and the first application of such studies to S. scabiei, a historically challenging ectoparasite. PMID:20482766

  8. Acariform mites (Acariformes) - permanent symbionts of Hapalomysdelacouri Thomas (Rodentia, Muridae) in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Abramov, Alexei V

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of parasitic acariform mites (Acariformes) are described from the Delacour's marmoset rat Hapalomysdelacouri Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae) in Vietnam: Afrolistrophorus (Afrolistrophorus) hapalomyssp. n. (Listrophoridae) and Radfordia (Radfordia) mirabilissp. n. (Myobiidae). Based on morphological evidences, we show that species of both mite genera associated with Hapalomys Blyth do not demonstrate clear phylogenetic links with respective congeners from rodents of the closest genus Chiropodomys Peters (Rodentia: Muridae). PMID:25561857

  9. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  10. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  11. Acaricide-impaired functional predation response of the phytoseiid mite Neoseiulus baraki to the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Lima, D B; Melo, J W S; Gondim, M G C; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, J E M; Pallini, A

    2015-07-01

    Acaricides may interfere with a myriad of interactions among arthropods, particularly predator-prey interactions. The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae), and its phytoseiid predator, Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), provide an opportunity to explore such interference because the former is a key coconut pest species that requires both predation and acaricide application for its management. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of the acaricides abamectin, azadirachtin and fenpyroximate on the functional response of N. baraki to A. guerreronis densities. The following prey densities were tested: 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 preys. The type of functional response and prey handling time (Th) were not altered by the acaricides. However, the attack rate (a') was modified by abamectin and fenpyroximate, and the consumption peak was reduced by abamectin. All of the acaricides allowed for the maintenance of the predator in the field, but exposure to abamectin and fenpyroximate compromised prey consumption. PMID:25847106

  12. Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites. PMID:20003349

  13. Temperature-dependent fumigant activity of essential oils against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Lim, Eu Gene; Roh, Hyun Sik; Coudron, Thomas A; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2011-04-01

    Fumigant activity of 34 commercial essential oils was assessed on female adults and eggs of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) at three temperatures (5, 15, and 25 degrees C). Common thyme, cinnamon, and lemongrass oils were equally effective on twospotted spider mite adults showing 85.8-100% mortality at 5 and 10 microl/liter air at 25 degrees C. At a lower temperature of 15 degrees C, lemongrass and peppermint resulted in > or =90% mortality of adults at 10 microl/liter air. Only lemongrass was relatively active at 5 microl/liter air, at 15 degrees C. At 5 degrees C, lemongrass and peppermint caused significantly higher adult mortality than controls but only at 10 microl/liter air. Common thyme oil showed the highest ovicidal activity at 5 microl/liter air at 25 degrees C. Among the main components of common thyme and lemongrass oils, citral was lethal to twospotted spider mite adults at all tested temperatures. Carvacrol, thymol, and citral caused the same inhibitory effects on the hatch of twospotted spider mite eggs at 25 degrees C. However, citral was more active than other compounds to twospotted spider mite eggs at 15 degrees C. Therefore, we conclude that citral has the best potential for development as a fumigant against twospotted spider mite on agricultural products harvested late in the growing season. PMID:21510187

  14. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels. PMID:12797403

  15. Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

    2005-05-01

    Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 μm to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

  16. Chemical investigation of aggregation behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    Clotuche, Gwendoline; Yano, Shuichi; Akino, Toshiharu; Amano, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The silk produced by the group-living mite Tetranychus urticae provides group protection and is used as an informative material during habitat settlement, egg laying, mating, and dispersal events. In this context, cues contained in the silk and other materials produced by mites [eggs, black faeces (BF) and white faeces + silk (WFS)] were investigated. Chemical compounds were extracted by hexane or methanol, and choice tests were used to determine the individual attractiveness of each extract. For both solvents, individuals did not respond to the extract from eggs and WFS. BF extracts were attractive for both solvents. After separating the BF methanol extract into four different chemical components using thin layer chromatography, no component was determined to be responsible for mite attraction. This work supports the evidence that the faeces of T. urticae do contain substances that promote behavioural changes. Not particular chemical compounds but combinations of them seem to induce the mites' preference. Moreover, the response of mites to chemicals seemed to be context dependent as mites belonging to populations with different densities differed in their attraction to BF extracts. PMID:24535123

  17. Larval aquatic and terrestrial mites infesting parthenogenetic Ischnura hastata (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from the Azores islands.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Carballa, M O; Beatty, C D; Haitlinger, R; Valdecasas, A G; Utzeri, C; Vieira, V; Cordero-Rivera, A

    2011-07-01

    We report here the prevalence of parasitism by water mites (Arrenurus sp.) and terrestrial mites (Leptus killingtoni) on parthenogenetic Ischnura hastata (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from the Azores islands. Leptus killingtoni was only found on the island of Pico, and the prevalence of infestation was highly variable among the different ponds studied, ranging from 0 to 41%. Leptus killingtoni was observed on three of the four odonate species from the archipelago: I. hastata, I. pumilio, and Sympetrum fonscolombii, all of them new hosts for this species. Aquatic mites have been found parasitizing I. hastata females on the island of São Miguel. The prevalence of mite parasitism by Arrenurus sp. on I. hastata was very low, ranging from 12% (2003) to 1% (2008), and in most of the studied ponds, no mites were found attached to females. Although I. hastata coexists with a sexual congener species in the Azores (I. pumilio), they are syntopic in only a small fraction of ponds. Therefore, a comparison between I. hastata and I. pumilio was insufficient to test the predictions of the Red Queen Hypothesis, and further research on parasitism rates in both species needs to be done. In any case, the low prevalence of mite parasitism found in the Azores, coupled with the fact that most of the populations in the archipelago are almost free from competitors and predators, could explain the persistence of these I. hastata parthenogenetic populations, despite their low levels of genetic variation. PMID:21380754

  18. Prevalence of fur mites (Acari: Atopomelidae) in non-human primates of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Chinchilla, Misael; Sánchez, Rónald; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

    2009-01-01

    Parasites have been investigated for some New World primates; however, very little is known about ectoparasites and specifically fur mites. In this study, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri oerstedii, and Ateles geoffroyi monkeys from different areas of Costa Rica were searched for fur mites. A total of 276 monkeys were evaluated, and 51 of them were positive for mites of the family Atopomelidae. Listrocarpus alouattae was identified on 22.3% of A. palliata; Listrocarpus capucinus on 12.8% of C. capucinus; and Listrocarpus costaricensis on 36.8% of S. oerstedii; No fur mites were found on A. geoffroyi. Sex was not considered a determinant of mite infestation, but prevalence was significantly higher in the Central Volcanic Mountain Range Conservation Area for L. alouattae (p=0.01) and in the Central Pacific Conservation Area for L. capucinus (p=0.002). These primate fur mites are highly host-specific. Differences in the geographical distribution may be due to monkey behavior and history, as well as to environmental conditions. PMID:19637712

  19. DNA barcoding and minibarcoding as a powerful tool for feather mite studies.

    PubMed

    Doña, Jorge; Diaz-Real, Javier; Mironov, Sergey; Bazaga, Pilar; Serrano, David; Jovani, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea) are among the most abundant and commonly occurring bird ectosymbionts. Basic questions on the ecology and evolution of feather mites remain unanswered because feather mite species identification is often only possible for adult males, and it is laborious even for specialized taxonomists, thus precluding large-scale identifications. Here, we tested DNA barcoding as a useful molecular tool to identify feather mites from passerine birds. Three hundred and sixty-one specimens of 72 species of feather mites from 68 species of European passerine birds from Russia and Spain were barcoded. The accuracy of barcoding and minibarcoding was tested. Moreover, threshold choice (a controversial issue in barcoding studies) was also explored in a new way, by calculating through simulations the effect of sampling effort (in species number and species composition) on threshold calculations. We found one 200-bp minibarcode region that showed the same accuracy as the full-length barcode (602 bp) and was surrounded by conserved regions potentially useful for group-specific degenerate primers. Species identification accuracy was perfect (100%) but decreased when singletons or species of the Proctophyllodes pinnatus group were included. In fact, barcoding confirmed previous taxonomic issues within the P. pinnatus group. Following an integrative taxonomy approach, we compared our barcode study with previous taxonomic knowledge on feather mites, discovering three new putative cryptic species and validating three previous morphologically different (but still undescribed) new species. PMID:25655349

  20. The Molecular Evolution of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Resistance in Chelicerate Mites.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Dermauw, Wannes

    2016-03-11

    Chelicerate mites diverged from other arthropod lineages more than 400 million years ago and subsequently developed specific and remarkable xenobiotic adaptations. The study of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, for which a high-quality Sanger-sequenced genome was first available, revealed expansions and radiations in all major detoxification gene families, including P450 monooxygenases, carboxyl/cholinesterases, glutathione-S-transferases, and ATP-binding cassette transporters. Novel gene families that are not well studied in other arthropods, such as major facilitator family transporters and lipocalins, also reflect the evolution of xenobiotic adaptation. The acquisition of genes by horizontal gene transfer provided new routes to handle toxins, for example, the β-cyanoalanine synthase enzyme that metabolizes cyanide. The availability of genomic resources for other mite species has allowed researchers to study the lineage specificity of these gene family expansions and the distinct evolution of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism in mites. Genome-based tools have been crucial in supporting the idiosyncrasies of mite detoxification and will further support the expanding field of mite-plant interactions. PMID:26982444

  1. Selection of Apis mellifera workers by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor using host cuticular hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Del Piccolo, F; Nazzi, F; Della Vedova, G; Milani, N

    2010-05-01

    The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most important threat for apiculture in most bee-keeping areas of the world. The mite is carried to the bee brood cell, where it reproduces, by a nurse bee; therefore the selection of the bee stage by the parasite could influence its reproductive success. This study investigates the role of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera) in host-selection by the mite. Preliminary laboratory bioassays confirmed the preference of the varroa mite for nurse bees over pollen foragers. GC-MS analysis of nurse and pollen bees revealed differences in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the two stages; in particular, it appeared that pollen bees have more (Z)-8-heptadecene than nurse bees. Laboratory experiments showed that treatment of nurse bees with 100 ng of the pure compound makes them repellent to the varroa mite. These results suggest that the mite can exploit the differences in the cuticular composition of its host for a refined selection that allows it to reach a brood cell and start reproduction. The biological activity of the alkene encourages further investigations for the development of novel control techniques based on this compound. PMID:20152062

  2. Role of supplemental foods and habitat structural complexity in persistence and coexistence of generalist predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Loeb, Gregory M.; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits can influence the interactions between herbivore arthropods and their natural enemies. In these interactions generalist predators are often present, preying on herbivores and also on other arthropods in the same trophic guild. Variation in the strength of intraguild predation (IGP) may be related to habitat structural complexity and to additional resources outside the narrow predator-prey relationship. In this paper we study the food web interactions on grape, which involves two generalist predatory mites. We evaluated the effects of grape powdery mildew (GPM) as supplemental food, and habitat structural complexity provided by domatia. The inoculation of GPM resulted in higher predatory mite densities and reduced the negative impact of unfavorable leaf structure for one species. Access to domatia was the main factor in promoting population abundance and persistence of predatory mites. Access to domatia and GPM availability favored the coexistence of predatory mites at a low density of the intraguild prey. Our findings suggest that structural and nutritional diversity/complexity promote predatory mite abundance and can help to maintain the beneficial mites - plants association. The effect of these factors on coexistence between predators is influenced by the supplemental food quality and relative differences in body size of interacting species. PMID:26450810

  3. Intensity of parasitic mite infection decreases with hibernation duration of the host snail.

    PubMed

    Haeussler, E M; Piz, J; Schmera, D; Baur, B

    2012-07-01

    Temperature can be a limiting factor on parasite development. Riccardoella limacum, a haematophagous mite, lives in the mantle cavity of helicid land snails. The prevalence of infection by R. limacum in populations of the land snail Arianta arbustorum is highly variable (0-78%) in Switzerland. However, parasitic mites do not occur in host populations at altitudes of 1290 m or higher. It has been hypothesized that the host's hibernation period might be too long at high elevations for mites and their eggs to survive. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally infected snails and allowed them to hibernate at 4C for periods of 4-7 months. Winter survival of host snails was negatively affected by R. limacum. The intensity of mite infection decreased with increasing hibernation duration. Another experiment with shorter recording intervals revealed that mites do not leave the host when it buries in the soil at the beginning of hibernation. The number of mites decreased after 24 days of hibernation, whereas the number of eggs attached to the lung tissue remained constant throughout hibernation. Thus, R. limacum survives the winter in the egg stage in the host. Low temperature at high altitudes may limit the occurrence of R. limacum. PMID:22444479

  4. A review on the factors affecting mite growth in stored grain commodities.

    PubMed

    Collins, D A

    2012-03-01

    A thorough review of the literature has identified the key factors and interactions that affect the growth of mite pests on stored grain commodities. Although many factors influence mite growth, the change and combinations of the physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity and/or moisture content) during the storage period are likely to have the greatest impact, with biological factors (e.g. predators and commodity) playing an important role. There is limited information on the effects of climate change, light, species interactions, local density dependant factors, spread of mycotoxins and action thresholds for mites. A greater understanding of these factors may identify alternative control techniques. The ability to predict mite population dynamics over a range of environmental conditions, both physical and biological, is essential in providing an early warning of mite infestations, advising when appropriate control measures are required and for evaluating control measures. This information may provide a useful aid in predicting and preventing mite population development as part of a risk based decision support system. PMID:22270112

  5. Role of supplemental foods and habitat structural complexity in persistence and coexistence of generalist predatory mites.

    PubMed

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Loeb, Gregory M; Duso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits can influence the interactions between herbivore arthropods and their natural enemies. In these interactions generalist predators are often present, preying on herbivores and also on other arthropods in the same trophic guild. Variation in the strength of intraguild predation (IGP) may be related to habitat structural complexity and to additional resources outside the narrow predator-prey relationship. In this paper we study the food web interactions on grape, which involves two generalist predatory mites. We evaluated the effects of grape powdery mildew (GPM) as supplemental food, and habitat structural complexity provided by domatia. The inoculation of GPM resulted in higher predatory mite densities and reduced the negative impact of unfavorable leaf structure for one species. Access to domatia was the main factor in promoting population abundance and persistence of predatory mites. Access to domatia and GPM availability favored the coexistence of predatory mites at a low density of the intraguild prey. Our findings suggest that structural and nutritional diversity/complexity promote predatory mite abundance and can help to maintain the beneficial mites - plants association. The effect of these factors on coexistence between predators is influenced by the supplemental food quality and relative differences in body size of interacting species. PMID:26450810

  6. Crossreacting IgG antibodies against fox mite antigens in human scabies.

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Wagemann, B; Hermes, B; Henz, B M; Heile, C; Schein, E

    2005-01-01

    Scabies continues to be an important parasitic disease of mammals. There remain, however, major gaps in the understanding of the human host immune response, and a simple diagnostic test is lacking. In contrast to human mites, red fox mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpis) can be collected easily and have been used, due to crossreactivity, for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies in dogs and pigs. We wanted to investigate the possibility that crossreactivity might also exist for the human mite, and determined titers against fox mite antigens by ELISA in 41 patients with scabies. Specific IgG was significantly higher in patients with scabies than in healthy controls (P=0.01). The sensitivity was, however, only 48%, although it increased slightly during treatment (P=0.86). A positive correlation was also noted between disease duration and severity of infestation (r=0.5), with specific IgG titers increasing in parallel with severity of symptoms (P=0.01). Patients with symptomatic scabies for more than 4 weeks had furthermore significantly higher IgG titers than patients with a shorter duration of disease (P=0.007). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate IgG antibodies in human scabies that crossreact with fox mite antigens, thus encouraging the search for improved ELISAs with more specific mite antigens to produce a more sensitive detection system for scabies in humans. PMID:15650895

  7. Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

    2007-01-01

    Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

  8. DIVERSITY OF FEATHER MITES (ACARI: ASTIGMATA) ON DARWIN’S FINCHES

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Scott M.; Le Bohec, Céline; Koop, Jennifer A. H.; Proctor, Heather C.; Clayton, Dale H.

    2014-01-01

    Feather mites are a diverse group of ectosymbionts that occur on most species of birds. Although Darwin’s finches are a well-studied group of birds, relatively little is known about their feather mites. Nearly 200 birds across 9 finch species, and from 2 locations on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, were dust-ruffled during the 2009 breeding season. We found 8 genera of feather mites; the most prevalent genus was Mesalgoides (53–55%), followed by Trouessartia (40–45%), Amerodectes and Proctophyllodes (26–33%), Xolalgoides (21–27%), Analges and Strelkoviacarus (0–6%), and Dermoglyphus (2–4%). There was no evidence for microclimatic effects (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on mite diversity. Host body mass was significantly correlated with mean feather mite abundance across 7 of 8 well-sampled species of finches. Certhidea olivacea, the smallest species, did not fit this pattern and had a disproportionately high number of mites for its body mass. PMID:23691947

  9. PCR Testing of a Ventilated Caging System to Detect Murine Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  10. The impact of insecticides applied in apple orchards on the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino

    2014-03-01

    Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs. PMID:24114337

  11. Simulation analysis of the population dynamics of the mite, Psoroptes ovis, infesting sheep.

    PubMed

    Wall, R; Smith, K E; Berriatua, E; French, N P

    1999-06-30

    The pattern of population growth of the ectoparasitic mite, Psoroptes ovis (Acari: Psoroptidae), on its ovine host is considered through the development of a Leslie matrix-based, simulation model. The model is parameterised using experimental data in conjunction with reanalysis of published data. The model shows that on sheep P. ovis populations grow at a rate of approximately 11% per day and the population doubles every 6.3 days. Additional rates of adult mortality, in excess of 50% per day, need to be imposed to prevent population growth. The predictions of the model are tested by comparison of the expected numbers of mites with the numbers recorded in lesions either on naturally infested sheep where the date of infestation can be estimated or on one artificially infested animal, where the initial number of mites and date of infestation are known precisely. In both cases the observed number of mites in lesions relate closely to the numbers expected from the simulations. The model simulations do not support the concept of a 'lag' phase as distinct from the 'growth' phase in the changing pattern of mite abundance on an infested sheep and suggests that the observed pattern of growth is a natural function of an exponential increase in numbers. The development of such models and their use in explaining the demographic processes which drive mite population dynamics are discussed. PMID:10423007

  12. An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.

    PubMed

    Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Tarver, Matthew R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong

    2014-04-01

    Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences and potential indicators of mite resistance in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and nondamaged younger mites, nymphs, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites, and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Several measurements differed strongly between the stocks, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of trapped mites may reflect the operation of resistance mechanisms in the Russian honey bees. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements with the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions differed for the two stocks (Italian honey bees: trapped mites and trapped younger mites; Russian honey bees: trapped younger mites and trapped fresh mites). Also, the regressions for Italian honey bees were substantially stronger. The largest negative regressions with colony mites for both stocks were for the proportion of older mites out of all trapped mites. Although these regressions were statistically significant and consistent with those previously reported, they were weaker than those previously reported. The numbers of mites in the colonies were low, especially in the Russian honey bee colonies, which may have negatively influenced the precision of the regressions. PMID:24772529

  13. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species. PMID:25897618

  14. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

  15. FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 1042. FRONT OBLIQUE SHOWING ROYAL PALMS LINING FRONT WALK. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Junior Officers' Quarters Type, 9-10 Hale Alii Avenue, 1-2 Eighth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Palm Beach Community College Strategic Plan, 1999-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Seymour

    This report addresses strategies and action plans for Palm Beach Community College (PBCC) (Florida) between 1999-2004. As part of a commitment to achieve specific, measurable end results, the college has set various objectives, including: (1) develop, implement and institutionalize a mission driven strategic budget for the 1999-2000 fiscal year;…

  17. The Palm Beach County Family Study Second Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Lyons, Sandra; Gouvea, Marcia; Haywood, Thomas; Winje, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    The Children's Services Council (CSC) of Palm Beach County commissioned Chapin Hall Center for Children to conduct a longitudinal study to examine the effects of this service system on children and families. The goal of the longitudinal study is to describe the characteristics and needs of families the service system is intended to serve, how they…

  18. Status of the PALM-3000 high order adaptive optics instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burruss, Rick S.; Dekany, Richard G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shelton, J. C.; Wallace, J. K.; Tesch, Jonathan A.; Palmer, Dean L.; Hale, David; Bartos, Randall; Rykoski, Kevin M.; Heffner, Carolyn M.; Eriksen, Jamey E.; Vescelus, Fred

    2014-07-01

    We report on the status of PALM-3000, the second generation adaptive optics instrument for the 5.1 meter Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 was released as a facility class instrument in October 2011, and has since been used on the Hale telescope a total of over 250 nights. In the past year, the PALM-3000 team introduced several instrument upgrades, including the release of the 32x32 pupil sampling mode which allows for correction on fainter guide stars, the upgrade of wavefront sensor relay optics, the diagnosis and repair of hardware problems, and the release of software improvements. We describe the performance of the PALM-3000 instrument as a result of these upgrades, and provide on-sky results. In the 32x32 pupil sampling mode (15.8 cm per subaperture), we have achieved K-band strehl ratios as high as 11% on a 14.4 mv star, and in the 64x64 pupil sampling mode (8.1 cm per subaperture), we have achieved K-band strehl ratios as high as 86% on stars brighter than 7th mv.

  19. Date palm status and perspective in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The date industry in the United States is small in comparison with that of many other date-producing countries. The US does not have any indigenous date palm (Phoneix dactylifera L) germplasm, so the industry developed using imported varieties in the early years of the 20th century. Due to its speci...

  20. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    EPA Science Inventory

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  1. VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON TYPE 11 FACILITY, FACILITY 808. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. FRONT OBLIQUE. CURVED DRIVE WITH PALMS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT OBLIQUE. CURVED DRIVE WITH PALMS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Hale Alii, Officers' Quarters Two Story Type, 1-5, 7-8 Hale Alii Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. PALM: Pacific Area Language Materials. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, Honolulu, HI.

    This CD-ROM provides a resource for anyone interested in the diverse languages of the Pacific. It contains a digital archive of approximately 700 booklets in 11 Pacific languages. The original booklets were produced several years ago by the PALM project in order to record Pacific regional languages and to serve as teaching tools. This digital PALM…

  4. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    PubMed

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions. PMID:26276276

  5. Host Response of Ornamental Palms to Rotylenchulus reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Inserra, R. N.; Dunn, R. A.; Vovlas, N.

    1994-01-01

    The responses of 20 species of ornamental palms and one cycad (Cycas revoluta) to two populations of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, from southern Florida were studied in two greenhouse experiments conducted in 1989-1991 and 1991-92. Ornamental palms in pots were exposed to initial population densities of 400 and 1,500 R. reniformis/l00 cm³ soil for 16 and 15 months, respectively. Nematode reproduction occurred on Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta, but not on the other palms or the cycad. In both experiments, nematode numbers on A. wrightii and W. robusta were significantly smaller than those on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a susceptible host of the nematode used as a control in these experiments. Nematodes surviving in pots containing nonhost palms for 16 months retained infectivity and were able to reproduce on susceptible cowpea in a bioassay. Sections from Washingtonia robusta roots infected by R. reniformis females showed the nematode feeding on syncytia formed by endodermal, pericyclic, and vascular parenchyma cells in a manner similar to that reported for other monocot hosts of the reniform nematode. PMID:19279956

  6. Host Response of Ornamental Palms to Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Inserra, R N; Dunn, R A; Vovlas, N

    1994-12-01

    The responses of 20 species of ornamental palms and one cycad (Cycas revoluta) to two populations of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, from southern Florida were studied in two greenhouse experiments conducted in 1989-1991 and 1991-92. Ornamental palms in pots were exposed to initial population densities of 400 and 1,500 R. reniformis/l00 cm(3) soil for 16 and 15 months, respectively. Nematode reproduction occurred on Acoelorrhaphe wrightii and Washingtonia robusta, but not on the other palms or the cycad. In both experiments, nematode numbers on A. wrightii and W. robusta were significantly smaller than those on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), a susceptible host of the nematode used as a control in these experiments. Nematodes surviving in pots containing nonhost palms for 16 months retained infectivity and were able to reproduce on susceptible cowpea in a bioassay. Sections from Washingtonia robusta roots infected by R. reniformis females showed the nematode feeding on syncytia formed by endodermal, pericyclic, and vascular parenchyma cells in a manner similar to that reported for other monocot hosts of the reniform nematode. PMID:19279956

  7. Genetic structure of a phytophagous mite species affected by crop practices: the case of Tetranychus urticae in clementine mandarins.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gmez-Martinez, M A; Ansaloni, T; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Sabater-Muoz, B; Jacas, J A; Hurtado-Ruiz, M A

    2014-04-01

    Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. This mite is a key pest of clementine mandarins in Eastern Spain, where Spanish clementine production concentrates. Crop management practices can affect the population dynamics of this mite and, consequently, its impact on the orchard. Microsatellite markers were used to study mite population genetics from two commercial orchards which had been managed differently following Integrated Pest Management (IPM) or Organic Pest Management (OPM) schemes during four consecutive years. A multiplex system including 20 microsatellite loci was designed specifically and allowed an efficient and inexpensive genotyping of individual mites. We found that the IPM population had a stronger fluctuation of population structure and higher genetic diversity compared to OPM population. Thus, our study concludes that crop management has an impact on the population genetics of T. urticae which may be related to the alternation of some acaricides under IPM. PMID:24233157

  8. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-01-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

  9. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

  10. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The advantages that oil palm biomass has includes the following:available and exists in abundance, appears to be effective technically, and can be integrated into existing processes. Despite these advantages, oil palm biomasses have disadvantages such as low adsorption capacity, increased COD, BOD and TOC. These disadvantages can be overcome by modifying the biomass either chemically or thermally. Such modification creates a charged surface and increases the heavy metal ion binding capacity of the adsorbent. PMID:24984835

  11. Esperanza Fire near Palm Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Esperanza fire started on October 26 in the dry brush near Palm Springs, CA. By the time it was contained 6 days later, the fire had consumed 40,200 acres, and destroyed 34 homes and 20 outbuildings. Racing through grass, brush, and timber, the blaze had forced hundreds to evacuate, and it killed five firefighters who were working to protect homes. Fire officials are reporting the cause of the blaze as arson. In this ASTER image composite of visible and infrared bands, burned areas are shown in shades of red, vegetation is green, brown vegetation is brown and asphalt and concrete are blue-gray.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.4 by 26.9 kilometers (13.2 by 16.6 miles) Location: 33.6 degrees North latitude, 116.8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER Bands 7, 3 and 1 Original Data Resolution: ASTER 15 meters (49.2 feet) and 30 meters (98.4 feet) Dates Acquired: November 3, 2006

  12. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    PubMed

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia. PMID:21383161

  13. Degumming of crude palm oil by membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Ong, K K; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Baharin, B S; Hassan, M A

    1999-01-01

    The application of membrane separation in palm oil refining process has potential for energy and cost savings. The conventional refining of crude palm oil results in loss of oil and a contaminated effluent. Degumming of crude palm oil by membrane technology is conducted in this study. The objective of this research is to study the feasibility of membrane filtration for the removal of phospholipids in the degumming of crude palm oil, including analyses of phosphorus content, carotene content free fatty acids (as palmitic acid), colour and volatile matter. A PCI membrane module was used which was equipped with polyethersulfone membranes having a molecular weight cut off of 9,000 (type ES209). In this study, phosphorus content was the most important parameter monitored. The membrane effectively removed phospholipids resulting in a permeate with a phosphorus content of less than 0.3 ppm The percentage removal of phosphorus was 96.4% and was considered as a good removal. Lovibond colour was reduced from 27R 50Y to 20R 30Y. The percentage removal of carotene was 15.8%. The removal of colour was considered good but the removal of carotene was considered insignificant by the membrane. Free fatty acids and volatile matter were not removed. Typical of membrane operations, the permeate flux decreased with time and must be improved in order to be adopted on an industrial scale. Membrane technology was found to have good potential in crude palm oil degumming. However, an appropriate method has to be developed to clean the membranes for reuse. PMID:10595436

  14. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-01-01

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia. PMID:21383161

  15. Demodex mite infestation of unknown significance in a patient with rhinocerebral mucormycosis due to Apophysomyces elegans species complex.

    PubMed

    Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Kapoor, Rakesh; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2013-06-01

    Demodex mites have been reported in the past as a cause of facial rash in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we report an interesting case of possible demodicosis associated with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. The association of mites with a fungus was detected on direct microscopic examination of the scrapings of a nasal ulcer. The mite and the fungus were identified as Demodex folliculorum and Apophysomyces elegans species complex, respectively. PMID:23475907

  16. [Possible evolutionary scenarios in the parasitengona mites (Acariformes: Parasitengona) based on anatomical peculiarities of their digestive system].

    PubMed

    Shatrov, A B

    2010-01-01

    Five possible evolutionary scenarios of the higher acariform mites from the cohort Parasitengona are proposed on the basis of the detailed examination of anatomy of the excretory organ and midgut in the representatives of terrestrial mite families Trombiculidae and Microtrombidiidae, and in freshwater mite families Teutoniidae and Pionidae, on different developmental stages including parasitic larva. These scenarios explain possible ways of evolutionary transformation within the Parasitengona from one or several ancestor with the open digestive tract. PMID:21427964

  17. Effects of temperature, storage period and the number of individuals on the detection of the false spider mite Cardinium endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Valdenice M; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Arrivabem, Fernanda; Locali-Fabris, Eliane C; Hilf, Mark E; Gottwald, Tim R; Machado, Marcos A

    2007-01-01

    Cardinium have been found as endosymbionts of Brevipalpus phoenicis, the mite vector of the Citrus leprosis virus. With the long-term objective being to understand the mechanisms of plant-virus-vector interactions, we evaluated the different storage conditions and periods, as well as the number of mites needed for PCR-amplification of such endosymbionts, making it possible to collect mites in different geographical regions without prolonged storage compromising subsequent analyses. PMID:17447014

  18. The ecological distribution of reproductive mode in oribatid mites, as related to biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, Jennifer M; Norton, Roy A

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of asexuality in oribatid mites presents an unusual opportunity for examining hypotheses for the maintenance of sex. There is a presumed range in age of asexual species: many oribatid species are phylogenetically clustered, occurring in speciose early-derivative families or genera without sexual species, while others are phylogenetically isolated from other asexual species, occurring in later derivative taxa with sexual congeners. We examined the distribution of oribatid mite reproductive mode in soil of corn fields, grassy and shrub fields, and forests in central New York State (three replicate plots of each type, with 25 samples per plot), to test three ecological predictions from current theory. (1) If overall biotic uncertainty, as generated by competitors and predators, mediates the ecological distribution of oribatid mites, then the proportion of asexual oribatid mites should be negatively correlated with biological diversity; we examine this prediction using literature data as well. (2) If Muller's Ratchet (the stochastic loss of best genotypes, which is independent of environment), mediates the success of asexuality, then no ecological pattern should exist. (3) If general purpose genotypes are characteristic of asexual oribatid mites, their habitat distribution should be broader than that of sexual species. For each plot the level of asexuality was compared to indices of overall biotic diversity, as calculated from the pooled oribatid mite (competitors) and mesostigmatid mite (predator) communities. We found no negative correlation in this relationship in our own data or in the literature analysis of 290 faunal surveys from 50 literature sources, so we reject biotic uncertainty as an important determinant of reproductive mode distribution. When only data on phylogenetically clustered asexuals are considered, there is instead a positive correlation between asexuality and diversity that is not explained. Because of the latter pattern we tentatively reject Muller's Ratchet as the primary factor maintaining reproductive mode in these mites, but cannot reject it for isolated asexual species. Niche breadth in sexual and asexual oribatid mites provides no support for widespread general purpose genotypes but broad patterns in the literature suggest that the idea needs further investigation. Possible complicating or unknown factors that are discussed include historical disturbance in the study area, the relationship between parasitism and general biotic diversity, and the level and source of genetic diversity in asexual oribatid mites. PMID:16900312

  19. Effectiveness of eriophyid mites for biological control of weedy plants and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Smith, L; de Lillo, E; Amrine, J W

    2010-07-01

    Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. We reviewed known examples of the use of eriophyid mites to control weedy plants to learn how effective they have been. In the past 13 years, since Rosenthal's 1996 review, 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation (Aceria genistae, A. lantanae, Aceria sp. [boneseed leaf buckle mite (BLBM)], A. salsolae, A. sobhiani, A. solstitialis, A. tamaricis, A. thalgi, A. thessalonicae, Cecidophyes rouhollahi, Floracarus perrepae, Leipothrix dipsacivagus and L. knautiae), but only four (A. genistae, Aceria sp. [BLBM], C. rouhollahi and F. perrepae) have been authorized for introduction. Prior to this, three species (Aceria chondrillae, A. malherbae and Aculus hyperici) were introduced and have become established. Although these three species impact the fitness of their host plant, it is not clear how much they have contributed to reduction of the population of the target weed. In some cases, natural enemies, resistant plant genotypes, and adverse abiotic conditions have reduced the ability of eriophyid mites to control target weed populations. Some eriophyid mites that are highly coevolved with their host plant may be poor prospects for biological control because of host plant resistance or tolerance of the plant to the mite. Susceptibility of eriophyids to predators and pathogens may also prevent them from achieving population densities necessary to reduce host plant populations. Short generation time, high intrinsic rate of increase and high mobility by aerial dispersal imply that eriophyids should have rapid rates of evolution. This raises concerns that eriophyids may be more likely to lose efficacy over time due to coevolution with the target weed or that they may be more likely to adapt to nontarget host plants compared to insects, which have a longer generation time and slower population growth rate. Critical areas for future research include life history, foraging and dispersal behavior, mechanisms controlling host plant specificity, and evolutionary stability of eriophyid mites. This knowledge is critical for designing and interpreting laboratory and field experiments to measure host plant specificity and potential impact on target and nontarget plants, which must be known before they can be approved for release. One of the more successful examples of an eriophyid mite controlling an invasive alien weed is Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, whose impact is primarily due to transmission of a virus pathogenic to the target, Rosa multiflora. Neither the mite nor the virus originated from the target weed, which suggests that using "novel enemies" may sometimes be an effective strategy for using eriophyid mites. PMID:19760101

  20. Ecology and detection of the red palm weevil, Rrhynchophorus Fferrugineus (Ccoleoptera: curculionidae), and related weevils for the protection of palm tree species in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, native to Asia, the neotropical R. palmarum, and the subneotropical R. cruentatus are international threats to palm industries. We evaluated the status of these species on Aruba over concerns that the former two species may cause significant dama...

  1. Effects of chemical interesterification on the physicochemical, microstructural and thermal properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and soybean oil blends.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Siti Hazirah Mohamad; Rashid, Norizzah Abd; Omar, Zaliha

    2013-04-15

    Blends of palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) at certain proportions were formulated using a mixture design based on simplex-lattice (Design Expert 8.0.4 Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, 2010). All the 10 oil blends were subjected to chemical interesterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties (DSC), polymorphism and microstructural properties were studied. Palm-based trans-free table margarine containing ternary mixture of PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31 (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple isosolid diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profile as compared to the commercial table margarine. This study has shown chemical interesterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their mixtures. PMID:23199984

  2. Molecular Prevalence of Acarapis Mite Infestations in Honey Bees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ah-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Shin, Sung Shik

    2015-01-01

    Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries. PMID:26174825

  3. Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 ?mole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID:24813988

  4. Mar, a MITE family of hAT transposons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, nonautonomous DNA elements flanked by subterminal or terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) with no coding capacity. MITEs were originally recognized as important components of plant genomes, where they can attain extremely high copy numbers, and are also found in several animal genomes, including mosquitoes, fish and humans. So far, few MITEs have been described in Drosophila. Results Herein we describe the distribution and evolution of Mar, a MITE family of hAT transposons, in Drosophilidae species. In silico searches and PCR screening showed that Mar distribution is restricted to the willistoni subgroup of the Drosophila species, and a phylogenetic analysis of Mar indicates that this element may have originated prior to the diversification of these species. Most of the Mar copies in D. willistoni present conserved target site duplications and TIRs, indicating recent mobilization of these sequences. We also identified relic copies of potentially full-length Mar transposon in D. tropicalis and D. willistoni. The phylogenetic relationship among transposases from the putative full-length Mar and other hAT superfamily elements revealed that Mar is placed into the recently determined Buster group of hAT transposons. Conclusion On the basis of the obtained data, we can suggest that the origin of these Mar MITEs occurred before the subgroup willistoni speciation, which started about 5.7 Mya. The Mar relic transposase existence indicates that these MITEs originated by internal deletions and suggests that the full-length transposon was recently functional in D. willistoni, promoting Mar MITEs mobilization. PMID:22935191

  5. P elements and MITE relatives in the whole genome sequence of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Quesneville, Hadi; Nouaud, Danielle; Anxolabéhère, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Background Miniature Inverted-repeat Terminal Elements (MITEs), which are particular class-II transposable elements (TEs), play an important role in genome evolution, because they have very high copy numbers and display recurrent bursts of transposition. The 5' and 3' subterminal regions of a given MITE family often show a high sequence similarity with the corresponding regions of an autonomous Class-II TE family. However, the sustained presence over a prolonged evolutionary time of MITEs and TE master copies able to promote their mobility has been rarely reported within the same genome, and this raises fascinating evolutionary questions. Results We report here the presence of P transposable elements with related MITE families in the Anopheles gambiae genome. Using a TE annotation pipeline we have identified and analyzed all the P sequences in the sequenced A. gambiae PEST strain genome. More than 0.49% of the genome consists of P elements and derivates. P elements can be divided into 9 different subfamilies, separated by more than 30% of nucleotide divergence. Seven of them present full length copies. Ten MITE families are associated with 6 out of the 9 Psubfamilies. Comparing their intra-element nucleotide diversities and their structures allows us to propose the putative dynamics of their emergence. In particular, one MITE family which has a hybrid structure, with ends each of which is related to a different P-subfamily, suggests a new mechanism for their emergence and their mobility. Conclusion This work contributes to a greater understanding of the relationship between full-length class-II TEs and MITEs, in this case P elements and their derivatives in the genome of A. gambiae. Moreover, it provides the most comprehensive catalogue to date of P-like transposons in this genome and provides convincing yet indirect evidence that some of the subfamilies have been recently active. PMID:16919158

  6. Toxicity and repellency of hot pepper extracts to spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Snyder, John C

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern about persistence and environmental impact of synthetic pesticide residues require development of biodegradable and environmentally safe alternatives. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Twenty-four Capsicum accessions (Solanaceae) were screened for their toxicity and repellency to the spider mites. Crude extracts from fruits of C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were prepared in methanol and tested for their acaricidal properties. Spider mite mortality was greatest (45%) when fruit extract of accession Grif-9169 (C. annuum) was used. Results from diving board bioassays indicated that mites avoided filter paper strips treated with hot pepper extracts from accessions PI-596057 (C. baccatum), PI-195299 (C. annuum), and Grif- 9270 (C. annuum). This investigation suggests that methanolic extracts of these three accessions may have a great potential for repelling spider mites and should be field-tested on a large-scale to assess their value in managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides. An attempt was made to correlate repellency with chemical constituents of fruit extracts of the most repellent accessions to identify chemical sources of repellency. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that these are not likely related to the toxicity or repellency of the pepper fruit extracts. Other, unidentified chemicals are likely responsible for toxicity and repellency to the two-spotted spider mite. PMID:17090499

  7. Molecular Prevalence of Acarapis Mite Infestations in Honey Bees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ah-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Shin, Sung Shik

    2015-06-01

    Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries. PMID:26174825

  8. Adaptation in the asexual false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis: evidence for frozen niche variation.

    PubMed

    Groot, Thomas V M; Janssen, Arne; Pallini, Angelo; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

    2005-01-01

    Because asexual species lack recombination, they have little opportunity to produce genetically variable offspring and cannot adapt to changes in their environment. However, a number of asexual species are very successful and appear to contradict this general view. One such species is the phytophagous mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), a species that is found in a wide range of environments. There are two general explanations for this pattern, the General Purpose Genotype (GPG) and Frozen Niche Variation (FNV). According to the GPG model, an asexual species consists of clones that can all survive and reproduce in all the different niches. Alternatively, the FNV model postulates that different clones are specialized to different niches. We have performed a test to distinguish between these models in B. phoenicis. Mites from three populations from three different host plant species (citrus, hibiscus and acerola) were transplanted to their own and the two alternative host plants and mite survival and egg production were measured. Additionally, the mite populations were genotyped using microsatellites. Fitness was seriously reduced when mites were transplanted to the alternative host plant species, except when the alternative host was acerola. We concluded that B. phoenicis clones are specialized to different niches and thus the FNV best describes the broad ecological niche of this species but that there is also some evidence for host plant generalization. This conclusion was strengthened by the observations that on each host plant species the native mite population performed better than the introduced ones, and that three microsatellite markers showed that the mite populations are genetically distinct. PMID:16132731

  9. Improvement on the extraction method of RNA in mites and its quality test.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Hu, Li; Yang, Yuan Jun; Niu, Dong Ling; Wang, Rui Ling; Li, Wen Hao; Ma, Si Jia; Cheng, Juan

    2016-02-01

    To solve the long-existing difficult problems in extracting RNA and constructing a complementary DNA (cDNA) library for trace mites, we conducted a further comparative experiment among three RNA extraction methods (TRIzol method, Omega method, and Azanno method) based on our previous attempts at the construction of cDNA library of mites, with Psoroptes cuniculi still used as the experimental subject. By subsequently decreasing the number of mites, the least number of mites needed for RNA extraction of each method were found by criteria of completeness, concentration, and purity of the extracted RNA. Specific primers were designed according to the allergen Pso c1, Pso c2, and Actin gene sequences of Psoroptes to test the reliability of cDNA library. The results showed that Azanno method needed only 10 mites with sensitivity 204 times higher than previously used TRIzol method and 20 times higher than Omega method; clear RNA band was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis; and ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination showed that RNA concentration, 260/280, and 260/230 were in the range of 102 to 166 ng/μl, 1.83 to 1.99, and 1.49 to 1.72, respectively. Finally, specific primers detection showed that the amplified sequences had 98.33, 98.19, and 99.52% identities with those of P. cuniculi or Psoroptes ovis in GenBank, respectively, indicating that the cDNA library constructed using 10 mites was successful and it could meet the requirements for molecular biology research. Therefore, we concluded that Azanno method was more effective than TRIzol method and Omega method in RNA extraction and cDNA library construction of trace mites. PMID:26545909

  10. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites wtih twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae as host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other crops. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the potential role of three commercially available predators, predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Ceci...

  11. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    PubMed

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18. PMID:26941414

  12. Variability of house dust mite allergen exposure in dwellings.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, T; Kuhlisch, E; Soldan, W; Leupold, W

    1998-01-01

    The variability of repeated house dust mite (HDM) allergen determinations at the same site within 3-24 months was evaluated on previously collected samples. Between two and four repeated measurements of Der p 1, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Der f 1, a major allergen of D. farinae, on 46 carpets and 31 mattresses were analyzed. In 90% of carpets and mattresses, HDM allergen concentrations were clinically relevant (at least one measurement >0.1 microg Der p 1 + Der f 1/g dust). The coefficients of variation (CVs) for allergen concentrations in repeated samples over time (55.3-82.0% for the two allergens in beds and carpets) were clearly greater than the CVs for multiple samples collected at the same time (4.0-32.6%). Determination of allergen mass per square meter of surface instead of concentration per gram of dust resulted in an even greater CV (72.3-86.7%). The 95% range of expected values was about 10-fold above and below the result of a single determination. We conclude that single determinations of HDM allergen in dust give very limited information about long-term exposure of an individual to the allergen. Repeated measurements are recommended. Studies of factors that affect HDM allergen exposure must be planned with appropriate sample sizes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9755142

  13. Significance and control of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Sparagano, O A E; George, D R; Harrington, D W J; Giangaspero, A

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, poses a significant threat to poultry production and hen health in many parts of the world. With D. gallinae increasingly suspected of being a disease vector, and reports indicating that attacks on alternative hosts, including humans, are becoming more common, the economic importance of this pest has increased greatly. As poultry production moves away from conventional cage systems in many parts of the world, D. gallinae is likely to become more abundant and difficult to control. Control remains dominated by the use of synthetic acaricides, although resistance and treatment failure are widely reported. Alternative control measures are emerging from research devoted to D. gallinae and its management. These alternative control measures are beginning to penetrate the market, although many remain at the precommercial stage. This review compiles the expanding body of research on D. gallinae and assesses options for its current and future control. We conclude that significant advances in D. gallinae control are most likely to come through an integrated approach adopting recent research into existing and novel control strategies; this is being combined with improved monitoring and modeling to better inform treatment interventions. PMID:24397522

  14. Compensatory growth following transient intraguild predation risk in predatory mites

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Lepp, Natalia; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory or catch-up growth following growth impairment caused by transient environmental stress, due to adverse abiotic factors or food, is widespread in animals. Such growth strategies commonly balance retarded development and reduced growth. They depend on the type of stressor but are unknown for predation risk, a prime selective force shaping life history. Anti-predator behaviours by immature prey typically come at the cost of reduced growth rates with potential negative consequences on age and size at maturity. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that transient intraguild predation (IGP) risk induces compensatory or catch-up growth in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Immature P. persimilis were exposed in the larval stage to no, low or high IGP risk, and kept under benign conditions in the next developmental stage, the protonymph. High but not low IGP risk prolonged development of P. persimilis larvae, which was compensated in the protonymphal stage by increased foraging activity and accelerated development, resulting in optimal age and size at maturity. Our study provides the first experimental evidence that prey may balance developmental costs accruing from anti-predator behaviour by compensatory growth. PMID:26005221

  15. Rapid cold hardening response in the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Amano, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the rapid cold hardening (RCH) response in the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). On direct exposure, ≤2 % of adult females survived -10 °C for 2 h. However, when acclimatized first at 5 °C for 1 h, 75 % of females survived. RCH could also be induced by acclimatization at 30 °C for 2 h or anoxia (oxygen-free nitrogen) for 1-2 h. All immature stages showed enhanced survival when acclimatized at 5 °C for 2 h before exposure to -10 °C. Acclimatization at 30 °C induced RCH only in eggs and deutonymphs, and anoxia was effective for eggs, larvae, and deutonymphs. The variability among immature stages may be attributed to the cost associated with the acclimatization treatments. Our findings suggest that RCH may promote the survival of N. californicus during unexpected changes in temperatures, and can be an important feature particularly when this natural enemy is introduced to non-native environments. PMID:24682616

  16. Factors affecting mite herbivory on eggplants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Germano L D; Picanço, Marcelo; Zanuncio, José C; Marquini, Flávio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine effects of total rainfall, mean temperature, predators, height of canopy, levels of nitrogen and potassium in leaves, and the density of leaf trichomes on the attack intensity of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Aculops lycopersici (Acari: Eriophyidae) in five plantations of the eggplant Solanum melongena var. 'Natu Nobilis' in two regions of Brazil. Higher numbers of individuals of A. lycopersici, T. evansi and T. urticae/cm2 were observed on eggplants in the Municipality of Guidoval than in Viçosa which might be explained by the fact that Guidoval showed hotter and more rainy weather. A. lycopersici was positively correlated with mean temperature (r=0.54, P=0.03), and T. evansi was positively correlated with total rainfall (r=0.54; P=0.04), while for T. urticae the correlation with total rainfall was almost significant (r=0.47, P=0.055). No significant effects were found (P>0.05) of natural enemies, levels of N and K and leaf trichome density on population densities of mites. A. lycopersici showed higher density on the apical leaves while nymphs and adults of T. evansi and eggs of T. urticae had higher numbers on leaves of the apical and medium parts of eggplants than on the lower leaves. Nymphs and adults of T. urticae showed higher attack intensity on leaves from the medium and lower thirds of the plants. PMID:14974689

  17. Eustachian tube obstruction after intranasal challenge with house dust mite.

    PubMed

    Skoner, D P; Doyle, W J; Chamovitz, A H; Fireman, P

    1986-08-01

    Past studies have shown that provocative intranasal pollen challenge in allergic subjects results in signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis, nasal obstruction, and eustachian tube obstruction. The study presented herein extends these observations to challenges with a perennial antigen, house dust mite. Twenty-three adult volunteers with confirmed sensitivity to Dermatophagoides farinae were challenged by intranasal inhalation of antigen in doses that were incremented from 0.5 to 10.0 mg. Eustachian tube function by the nine-step pressure-swallow test and nasal airway resistance by anterior rhinomanometry were evaluated before and after challenge. Twenty-two of the 40 ears showing normal tubal function before challenge were abnormal after challenge. Sixteen of the 23 subjects developed a nasal obstruction after challenge. The median specific serum IgE antibody titer for those individuals responding to the challenge was significantly greater than that of the individuals exhibiting no response. These results show that intranasal challenge with D farinae can provoke immune-mediated nasal obstruction and eustachian tube dysfunction in sensitized subjects. PMID:3718687

  18. Efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Ulusoy, Seçkin; Acar, Mustafa; Şirin, Seher; Çobanoğlu, Bengü; Birdane, Leman; Kalaycık, Çiğdem; Çakır, Burak Ömür; Oğhan, Fatih; Aynacı, Sevilay; Erdoğmuş, Nagehan; Yıldırım, Ömürsen; Şahin, Ethem; Bulut, Fuat; Aksoy, Mehmet Akif; Türe, Nurullah; Bal, Cengiz

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the outcomes of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis (HDM-AR) patients. In this prospective, multicentric study, 186 patients with AR who had positive skin prick test results for HDMs were included. The patients were administered SLIT using Staloral 300 for 1 year. Evaluation of the patients regarding symptom scores, clinical findings and Rhinitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) scores was performed at baseline, and then at 6 and 12 months of therapy. Our results showed that, for all of the evaluated items (symptom scores, clinical findings and RQLQ scores), 12-month values were significantly lower than those at 6 months and baseline. Similarly, 6-month values were significantly lower than those at baseline. There were no complications in any of our patients. SLIT for HDM-AR is a treatment modality that can be used safely. We obtained better results than expected, and the treatment showed a positive psychological effect; the patients believed that SLIT was the final step of treatment and, which made them feel better. PMID:25516223

  19. Host-plant specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites and their importance for the use of eriophyoid mites as biocontrol agents of weeds.

    PubMed

    Skoracka, Anna; Smith, Lincoln; Oldfield, George; Cristofaro, Massimo; Amrine, James W

    2010-07-01

    Eriophyoid mites, which are among the smallest plant feeders, are characterized by the intimate relationships they have with their hosts and the restricted range of plants upon which they can reproduce. The knowledge of their true host ranges and mechanisms causing host specificity is fundamental to understanding mite-host interactions, potential mite-host coevolution, and diversity of this group, as well as to apply effective control strategies or to use them as effective biological control agents. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on host specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites, and to point out knowledge gaps and doubts. Using available data on described species and recorded hosts we showed that: (1) 80% of eriophyoids have been reported on only one host species, 95% on one host genus, and 99% on one host family; (2) Diptilomiopidae has the highest proportion of monophagous species and Phytoptidae has the fewest; (3) non-monophagous eriophyoids show the tendency to infest closely related hosts; 4) vagrant eriophyoids have a higher proportion of monophagous species than refuge-seeking and refuge-inducing species; (5) the proportions of monophagous species infesting annual and perennial hosts are similar; however, many species infesting annual hosts have wider host ranges than those infesting perennial hosts; (6) the proportions of species that are monophagous infesting evergreen and deciduous plants are similar; (7) non-monophagous eriophyoid species have wider geographic distribution than monophagous species. Field and laboratory host-specificity tests for several eriophyoid species and their importance for biological control of weeds are described. Testing the actual host range of a given eriophyoid species, searching for ecological data, genetic differentiation analysis, and recognizing factors and mechanisms that contribute to host specificity of eriophyoid mites are suggested as future directions for research. PMID:19789985

  20. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept. PMID:25414970