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1

Within-season dynamics of red palm mite (Raoiella indica) and phytoseiid predators on two host palm species in south-west India.  

PubMed

Field surveys were conducted monthly between December 2008 and July 2009 in Kerala, south-west India to compare the population dynamics of the red palm mite Raoiella indica (RPM) on two host plants Areca catechu and Cocos nucifera during one non-monsoon season when, in general, RPM populations increase. The aim was to examine the effects of host plant, host plant locality and the impact of climatic factors on RPM and related phytoseiid predators. There were significantly higher RPM densities on areca in peak season (May/June) compared to coconut; although significantly more coconut sites were infested with RPM than areca. Although no one climatic factor was significantly related to RPM numbers, interactions were found between temperature, humidity and rainfall and the partitioning of host plant locality showed that where conditions were warmer and drier, RPM densities were significantly higher. Specifically on coconut, there was a significant relation between RPM densities and the combined interaction between site temperature, site humidity and phytoseiid densities. There was a marked difference in the density of phytoseiids collected between areca and coconut palms, with significantly more on the latter, in several months. Amblyseius largoensis was the most commonly collected phytoseiid in association with RPM, although Amblyseius tamatavensis species group and Amblyseius largoensis species group were collected in association with RPM also. There was also evidence of a weak numerical response of the combined phytoseiid complex in relation to RPM density the previous month on coconut but this was not observed on areca. PMID:21915684

Taylor, B; Rahman, P M; Murphy, S T; Sudheendrakumar, V V

2012-08-01

2

Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).  

PubMed

Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains. PMID:21915683

Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M

2012-08-01

3

Potential geographical distribution of the red palm mite in South America.  

PubMed

Among pests that have recently been introduced into the Americas, the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae), is the most invasive. This mite has spread rapidly to several Caribbean countries, United States of America, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. The potential dispersion of R. indica to other regions of South America could seriously impact the cultivation of coconuts, bananas, exotic and native palms and tropical flowers such as the Heliconiaceae. To facilitate the development of efficacious R. indica management techniques such as the adoption of phytosanitary measures to prevent or delay the dispersion of this pest, the objective of this paper was to estimate the potential geographical distribution of R. indica in South America using a maximum entropy model. The R. indica occurrence data used in this model were obtained from extant literature, online databases and field sampling data. The model predicted potential suitable areas for R. indica in northern Colombia, central and northern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, east French Guiana and many parts of Brazil, including Roraima, the eastern Amazonas, northern Pará, Amapá and the coastal zones, from Pará to north of Rio de Janeiro. These results indicate the potential for significant R. indica related economic and social impacts in all of these countries, particularly in Brazil, because the suitable habitat regions overlap with agricultural areas for R. indica host plants such as coconuts and bananas. PMID:23297112

Amaro, George; de Morais, Elisangela Gomes Fidelis

2013-07-01

4

Comparative Demography of the Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four Date Palm Varieties in Southwestern Tunisia  

PubMed Central

The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rates (Ro), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (rm = 0.103 day 1). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

Chaaban, Sameh Ben; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

2011-01-01

5

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

6

Pests of Palms In Florida and the Caribbean  

E-print Network

lady beetle. #12;Scales· Scales on palm leaves: ­ Thread scale. ­ Magnolia white scale. ­ Coconut scale;Coconut Mite (Aceria guerreronis) · Feeds on husk of coconut fruits, causing mostly cosmetic damage

Mazzotti, Frank

7

Limits to ambulatory displacement of coconut mites in absence and presence of food-related cues.  

PubMed

Ambulatory movement of plant-feeding mites sets limits to the distances they can cover to reach a new food source. In absence of food-related cues these limits are determined by survival, walking activity, walking path tortuosity and walking speed, whereas in presence of food the limits are also determined by the ability to orient and direct the path towards the food source location. For eriophyoid mites such limits are even more severe because they are among the smallest mites on earth, because they have only two pairs of legs and because they are very sensitive to desiccation. In this article we test how coconut mites (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) are constrained in their effective displacement by their ability to survive in absence of food (meristematic tissue under the coconut perianth) and by their ability to walk and orient in absence or presence of food-related cues. We found that the mean survival time decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing humidity. Under climatic conditions representative for the Tropics (27 °C and 75 % relative humidity) coconut mites survived on average for 11 h and covered 0.4 m, representing the effective linear displacement away from the origin. Within a period of 5 h, coconut mites collected from old fruits outside the perianth moved further away from the origin than mites collected under the perianth of young fruits. However, in the presence of food-related cues coconut mites traveled over 30 % larger distances than in absence of these cues. These results show that ambulatory movement of eriophyoid mites may well bring them to other coconuts within the same bunch and perhaps also to other bunches on the same coconut palm, but it is unlikely to help them move from palm to palm, given that palms usually do not touch each other. PMID:24233102

Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

2014-04-01

8

Host finding behaviour of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.  

PubMed

For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal is passive drifting with the wind and because they are highly specialized on their host plant. Consequently, the probability of landing on a suitable host is very low, let alone to land in their specific microhabitat within the host. How coconut mites manage to find their microhabitat within a host plant is still underexplored. We tested the hypothesis that they use volatile chemical information emanating from the plant to find a specific site within their host plants and/or use non-volatile plant chemicals to stay at a profitable site on the plant. This was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer (i.e. under conditions of a directed wind flow) and on cross-shaped arenas (i.e. under conditions of turbulent air) that either allowed contact with odour sources or not. The mites had to choose between odours from specific parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of a non-infested coconut plant and clean air as the alternative. In the olfactometer experiments, no mites were found to reach the upwind end of the Y-tube: <5 % of the mites were able to pass the bifurcation of the "Y". On the cross-shaped arenas, however, a large number of coconut mites was found only when the arm of the arena contained discs of fruit epidermis and contact with these discs was allowed. The results suggest that coconut mites on palm trees are not attracted to specific sites on the plant by volatile plant chemicals, but that they arrested once they contact the substrate of specific sites. Possibly, they perceive non-volatile chemicals, but these remain to be identified. PMID:25033768

Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

2014-12-01

9

Palm Tree Peroxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years novel plant peroxidases have been isolated from palm trees leaves. Some molecular and catalytic properties of palm peroxidases have been studied. The substrate specificity of palm peroxidases is distinct from the specificity of other plant peroxidases. Palm peroxidases show extremely high stability under acidic and alkaline conditions and high thermal stability. Moreover, these enzymes are more stable

I. Yu. Sakharov

2004-01-01

10

Scabies mite, photomicrograph (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... of the scabies mite. They burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to scratching and damage of the skin (excoriation). If left untreated, the infestation may last ...

11

Mites and Wee Beasties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

Reed, George H., Jr.

1978-01-01

12

Allergies to House Dust Mites  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... mattress pad, blankets, and bedspread WEEKLY in hot water. Water at a temperature of 130 degrees or higher ... control house dust mites. Although washing in hot water kills house dust mites, the bedding will soon ...

13

Behaviour of coconut mites preceding take-off to passive aerial dispersal.  

PubMed

For more than three decades the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer is one of the most important pests of coconut palms and has recently spread to many coconut production areas worldwide. Colonization of coconut palms is thought to arise from mites dispersing aerially after take-off from other plants within the same plantation or other plantations. The underlying dispersal behaviour of the mite at take-off, in the airborne state and after landing is largely unknown and this is essential to understand how they spread from tree to tree. In this article we studied whether take-off to aerial dispersal of coconut mites is preceded by characteristic behaviour, whether there is a correlation between the body position preceding aerial dispersal and the direction of the wind, and whether the substrate (outer surface of coconut bracts or epidermis) and the wind speed matter to the decision to take-off. We found that take-off can sometimes be preceded by a raised body stance, but more frequently take-off occurs while the mite is walking or resting on its substrate. Coconut mites that become airborne assumed a body stance that had no relation to the wind direction. Take-off was suppressed on a substrate providing food to coconut mites, but occurred significantly more frequently on the outer surface of coconut bracts than on the surface of the fruit. For both substrates, take-off frequency increased with wind speed. We conclude that coconut mites have at least some degree of control over take-off for aerial dispersal and that there is as yet no reason to infer that a raised body stance is necessary to become airborne. PMID:25033769

Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

2014-12-01

14

Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.  

PubMed

The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent. PMID:23435864

Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

2013-06-01

15

House dust mites in Colorado.  

PubMed

Sixty-four samples of house dust from 16 long-established households in the Denver, Colorado area were analyzed for the presence of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.). No mites were found in house dust from 12 of the sampled houses and small numbers (10 to 40 mites/g of house dust) were found from the other four. In an additional four houses which contained furniture recently imported from other areas, 100 to 360 mites/g of dust were found, and 2 years later up to 200 mites/g were still present. Twenty-eight percent of the mites in repeat collections from the latter homes were alive. The mite allergen content of house dust samples was analyzed by RAST inhibition against pooled sera from mite allergic patients. When dust from four long-established Denver households where no mites were found was employed, there was an average binding of 37.2%; with dust from the four Denver households with low levels of mites and no imported furniture, binding averaged 39.5%. In contrast, with house dust from four "positive control" homes in California and New York there was only 26.1% binding (P less than .005). The results of this study suggest that there are small numbers of nonintroduced house dust mites in some Denver houses, but that they contribute little mite antigen and are probably of minimal clinical significance in mite-sensitive patients. Large numbers of mites can be introduced with furnishings and may persist for at least 2 years. Similar small mite populations might be expected in other areas with comparable relative humidity. PMID:4061975

Moyer, D B; Nelson, H S; Arlian, L G

1985-11-01

16

[House dust mite allergy].  

PubMed

House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy. PMID:22477664

Carrard, A; Pichler, C

2012-04-01

17

Demodex mites: facts and controversies.  

PubMed

Because Demodex mites are ubiquitous, their potential as human pathogens has often been ignored. This contribution focuses on the growing body of evidence linking Demodex mites with various skin disorders. Histologically, spongiosis and lymphoid inflammation are regularly seen in follicles containing Demodex mites. In animals, they are well established as a cause of mange, and a human counterpart-demodectic alopecia-appears to exist. There is also a statistical association between Demodex mite density and rosacea, facial itching, and chronic blepharitis. Papulovesicular rosacealike lesions and spiny blepharitis often respond to agents that reduce Demodex numbers. Although these observations are not sufficient to fulfill Koch's postulates, Koch's postulates are also not fulfilled for the association between brown recluse spiders and dermal necrosis or the association between streptococci and guttate psoriasis. The evidence linking Demodex mites to human disease has implications regarding treatment. PMID:20797509

Elston, Dirk M

2010-01-01

18

Palm oil and palm olein frying applications.  

PubMed

Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of <1%, smoke points of >180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score. PMID:16326649

Ismail, Razali

2005-01-01

19

Molecular identification of house dust mites and storage mites.  

PubMed

Mites are known causes of allergic diseases. Currently, identification of mites based on morphology is difficult if only one mite is isolated from a (dust) sample, or when only one gender is found, or when the specimen is not intact especially with the loss of the legs. The purpose of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of the ITS2 gene, to complement the morphological data for the identification of mites to the species level. For this, six species were cultured: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Aleuroglyphus ovatus and Glycycometus malaysiensis. Genomic DNA of the mites was extracted, quantified, amplified and digested individually with restriction enzymes. Hinf I and Ple I differentiated the restriction patterns of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Bfa I and Alu I enzymes differentiated B. tropicalis and G. malaysiensis. Ple I enzyme was useful for the differentiation between T. putrescentiae and A. ovatus. Bfa I was useful for the differentiation of G. malaysiensis from the rest of the species. In conclusion, different species of mites can be differentiated using PCR-RFLP of ITS2 region. With the established PCR-RFLP method in this study, identification of these mites to the species level is possible even if complete and intact adult specimens of both sexes are not available. As no study to date has reported PCR-RFLP method for the identification of domestic mites, the established method should be validated for the identification of other species of mites that were not included in this study. PMID:21468750

Wong, Shew Fung; Chong, Ai Ling; Mak, Joon Wah; Tan, Jessie; Ling, Suk Jiun; Ho, Tze Ming

2011-10-01

20

Pancake Syndrome (Oral Mite Anaphylaxis)  

PubMed Central

Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator. PMID:23283016

2009-01-01

21

House dust mite sensitivity in childhood asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical features of perennial asthmatic children with a skin or bronchial reaction to the house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were compared with those of asthmatic children without mite sensitivity. Mite sensitive asthma was characterised by an early age of onset of symptoms, these being predominantly nocturnal. A history of wheezing precipitated by dust exposure, during vacuuming, bedmaking, or dusting

J O Warner; J F Price

1978-01-01

22

Human demodex mite: the versatile mite of dermatological importance.  

PubMed

Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

2014-01-01

23

High Varroa mite abundance influences chemical profiles of worker bees and mite-host preferences.  

PubMed

Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers. PMID:25165133

Cervo, R; Bruschini, C; Cappa, F; Meconcelli, S; Pieraccini, G; Pradella, D; Turillazzi, S

2014-09-01

24

Interactions between phoretic mites and the Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus.  

PubMed

Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem. PMID:23448160

Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad

2012-01-01

25

[Recent experience with mites in stored products].  

PubMed

The A.A. refer a recent experience about the isolation and identification of same species of storaged timber mites. They believe that these mites are responsible of dermatitis at the trunk and the arms of timber workers. Mites are the most elderly living species on the earth, they can live and grow in different environments, such as plants, flowers, animals, men, earth, lake and sea waters, organical rubles, houses, mattresses, old books etc. There are free-living, saprophitic, parasitic and predator mites. Generally, primary mites live either freely or as commensals feeding on conserved foodstuff and on what they find available. Secondary mites, i.e. parasites and predators, live off primary mites and insects infesting foodstuff. Direct damage to foodstuff are not to be considered important, whereas indirect damages are more serious, due to the contamination of bodies and stools of mites that are rich in nitrogen. Some secondary mites may attack foodstuff workers causing characteristic dermatitis: they can act either directly, by sting and bites, or indirectly, provoking on allergic hypersensitivity. In this study the A.A. used the floating method to isolate timber mites, and then, these have been photographed at the microscope to obtain an easier and more complete identification. The A.A. describe a heterogeneous fauna consisting of both adult and larval-status insects, some species of free-living mites (Oribatula Tibialis) and, in particular, of two species secondary mites, predator, belonging to the Prostigmata sub-order. The Cheyletus Eruditus (Cheylatidae family) is a whitish mite feeding mostly on insect larva and primary mites living in foodstuff. When no prey is available, the Cheyletus Eruditus eats individuals of its own species. The Pyemotes Herfsi (Pyemotidae family) is a little white mite feeding on insect larva. It lives in conserved foodstuff and may attack man causing characteristic dermatitis such as those described by the A.A. The A.A. conclude dealing with the possible preventive and therapeutic measures tend to keep phisic-chemicals parameters of foodstuff and others conserved products afar from the values suitable for the growth of parasites (water content min. 13%, environmental humidity min. 60-65%, appropriate temperature etc.). Therapeutic procedure are based either on physical media: infra-red rays, gamma-rays, electric fields for the transformation of temperature or using chemical mixtures containing methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride and hydrogen sulphide. Among the therapeutic procedures, however, the biological pest control using chemical media associated with antagonist mites of the infesting species is to be preferred. PMID:2483070

Liguori, G; Ceccarelli, M T; Mellino, M; Marinelli, P

1989-01-01

26

PALM GAME DESIGN Pieter Spronck  

E-print Network

PALM GAME DESIGN Pieter Spronck Universiteit Maastricht IKAT/Infonomics P.O. Box 616 NL-6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands E-mail: p.spronck@cs.unimaas.nl KEYWORDS Gaming, handheld computers, software engineering, design. ABSTRACT Though the Palm is mainly a business tool, many games have been developed

Spronck, Pieter

27

Origin and Evolution of Feather Mites (Astigmata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feather mites are highly specialized plumage and skin ectoparasites that are variously adapted for inhabiting certain microhabitats on a bird's body. Different feather mite taxa of higher (familial) rank adapted to the same microhabitats display similar main morphological adaptations even if they are rather distantly related to one another. Hypotheses on the evolution of general adaptations in morphology of feather

JACEK DABERTa; Serge V. Mironov

1999-01-01

28

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies  

E-print Network

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having been introduced to the U.S. just three years earlier. Virtually all feral (or "wild") honey bee

Tarpy, David R.

29

Predatory mites avoid ovipositing near counterattacking prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attacking prey is not without risk; predators may endure counterattackby the prey. Here, we study the oviposition behaviour of a predatory mite(Iphiseius degenerans) in relation to its prey, thewesternflower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). This thrips iscapable of killing the eggs of the predator. Thrips and predatory mites - apartfrom feeding on each other - can also feed and reproduce on a

Farid Faraji; Arne Janssen; Maurice W. Sabelis

2001-01-01

30

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

PubMed

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

2003-01-01

31

ELISA method for detection of mite allergens in barn dust: comparison with mite counts.  

PubMed

ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) inhibition with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) (42B6) to Lepidoglyphus destructor was used to detect and quantify the storage-mite allergens in 30 dust samples collected from barns. Regarding the mite fauna, microscopic inspection of the barn dust and mite counts showed that L. destructor infested all 30 barns investigated (range 430-195 400 mites/g dust). In 29/30 barns, L. destructor constituted more than 70% of the Astigmata species. Acarus siro was found in 26 samples, the highest value being 16155 mites/g. No Dermatophagoides species were found. As to mites of the suborder of Prostigmata, species belonging to seven different families were detected. Besides the predominant L. destructor, allergens derived from other storage mites such as Glycyphagus domesticus, A. siro, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae have previously been assessed by this ELISA method. The correlation between number of mites and concentrations of mite antigen as measured by ELISA was assessed by linear regression (r2 = 0.83). Thus, inhibition of mAb 42B6 in ELISA would seem to offer a simple and reliable method to detect levels of dust-mite species belonging to the Acaridae and Glycyphagidae families. PMID:8792923

Härfast, B; Johansson, E; Johansson, S G; van Hage-Hamsten, M

1996-04-01

32

Exposure of workers to mites in Finnish groceries.  

PubMed

We assessed the mite exposure of workers in Finnish groceries by collecting samples of settled dust in 5 different grocerys. Mites were counted and identified microscopically. Mite allergen (Der p 1 and Der f 1) content of dust was analyzed with 2-site ELISA. Mites were found in 20-100 % of the samples, both from storage and salesrooms. Seven samples (8 %) contained more than 100 mites per gram dust and 3 additional samples (6 %) more than 500 mites per gram dust, the suggested limits for mite sensitization and acute allergic symptoms, respectively. Most of the mites were storage mites belonging to Astigmata (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae) or Prostigmata (tarsonemids). House dust mites were found only occasionally. One dust sample out of 15 contained Der p 1, and none contained Der f 1. PMID:17196012

Harju, Anu; Husman, Tuula; Merikoski, Raisa; Pennanen, Sirpa

2006-01-01

33

The role of mite allergen in chronic urticaria.  

PubMed

Fifty-two patients with chronic urticaria were tested intradermally with mite allergen (Dermatophagoides farinae). None had any past history of any other atopic diseases. Thirty of the 52 patients gave positive skin tests to mite allergen. A good correlation between skin sensitivity to mite allergen and in vitro mite antigen-induced histamine release from leucocytes was observed. These facts suggest that a mite may be an important role in chronic urticaria. PMID:92903

Numata, T; Yamamoto, S; Yamura, T

1979-12-01

34

Chemical interesterification of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical interesterification processes are discussed as they apply to palm, palm kernel and coconut oils. Included are process\\u000a descriptions, selected physical and functional changes resulting from this process, analytical techniques and commercial edible\\u000a applications. These fats are utilized worldwide in a growing variety of food products. The demands of these applications provide\\u000a an endless need for fats with varying physical

Steven J. Laning

1985-01-01

35

An opilioacarid mite in Cretaceous Burmese amber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ? Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida—potentially Opiloacarus—in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites.

Dunlop, Jason A.; de Oliveira Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira

2014-09-01

36

Gall-Making Insects and Mites  

E-print Network

Galls are abnormal swellings of plant tissue caused by insects, bacteria, fungi, mites or nematodes. Insects that cause galls include certain moth caterpillars, beetles, flies, jumping plant lice, aphids and small wasps. Ways to control galls...

Bogran, Carlos E.; Drees, Bastiaan M.; Hudgeons, Jeremy L.

2006-03-30

37

Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.  

PubMed

Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O.?sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O.?sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O.?sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

2014-12-01

38

Can freshwater mites act as forensic tools?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of post-mortem interval often employs analysis of age structure and diversity of saprophilic arthropods (including\\u000a mites) that have colonized corpses. The majority of research has focused on decomposition processes in terrestrial situations,\\u000a with relatively few studies on the utility of freshwater invertebrates as forensic agents. Most freshwater mites are predators,\\u000a detritivores or algivores, and hence seem unlikely candidates as

Heather C. Proctor

2009-01-01

39

Behavioural studies on eriophyoid mites: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eriophyoid mites are excellent candidates for ethological research using the approaches of behavioural ecology and sociobiology.\\u000a These tiny haplodiploid mites are highly specialized plant parasites, producing galls, forming nests, inhabiting refuges or\\u000a living freely on plants. They reproduce via spermatophores deposited on a substrate and without pairing, which is a fascinating,\\u000a though still poorly understood, mode of reproduction widespread in

Katarzyna Michalska; Anna Skoracka; Denise Navia; James W. Amrine

2010-01-01

40

Stylostome formation in trombiculid mites (Acariformes: Trombiculidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stylostomes of the trombiculid mite larvae Neotrombicula pomeranzevi (Schluger), Hirsutiella zachvatkini (Schluger), Miyatrombicula esoensis (Sasa and Ogata) and Euschoengastia rotundata (Schluger) (Acariformes: Trombiculidae), formed in the host skin during feeding of the parasites on their natural hosts (voles)\\u000a were studied histologically and histochemically. A stylostome is a variously shaped tube formed of solidified mite saliva\\u000a that extends from the mouthparts

Andrew B. Shatrov

2009-01-01

41

Palms on a forest floor in Florida  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Palms are also monocots and have only one seed leaf (dicots have two seed leaves). The flowers of palms have leaves in multiples of three. Monocots differ from dicots in root and tissue structure also, but all are angiosperms.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-13

42

A recently extinct palm from Easter Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The former existence of palms on Easter Island has been demonstrated palynologically1,2, but the genus could not be determined from pollen morphology. We now report the discovery on the island of endocarps (shells) from palm fruits which appear to bethose of an extinct species related to the Chilean `wine palm', Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baillon. The endocarps, found in caves, have

J. Dransfield; J. R. Flenley; S. M. King; D. D. Harkness; S. Rapu

1984-01-01

43

Breeding the Mite-Resistant Honeybee by Nutritional Crossbreed Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mite (Varroa destructor) is one of the most serious parasite threats to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) reared in China. The beekeepers mainly use the drug to control and kill the mite in the past years, but the honey products may be contaminated and the mite is becoming drug-resistant. The main idea of this paper is to research the possibility

Xian-bing XIE; Wen-jun PENG; Zhi-jiang ZENG

2008-01-01

44

Enabling mycelial application of Hirsutella thompsonii for managing the coconut mite.  

PubMed

Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the prospect of mycelial application of Hirsutella thompsonii as an alternative to the use of mycelial-conidial formulations of the fungus in the suppression of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis. In a series of laboratory experiments, glycerol, yeast extract powder and dehydrated malt extract broth were found to be the best among nine substances investigated as possible adjuvants for use on coconut palms in the field along with H. thompsonii mycelia. H. thompsonii biomass in the presence of adjuvants not only produced more colonies but also yielded more conidia per pellet. In terms of the density of conidia generated on a mycelial mat the treatments varied highly significantly in two methods, with glycerol showing an average of 106% increase over control. Though irradiance with simulated sunlight resulted in reduced conidiogenesis, in general, adjuvant-treated pellets, both exposed and unexposed to simulated sunlight, produced substantial conidiation compared with control, irrespective of the two incubation conditions. Better conidiation was observed under alternating light-dark regime than under total darkness in all the treatments. Glycerol boosted the pathogenicity of H. thompsonii by 16.5% over control. In the field, a newly developed mycelial formulation of H. thompsonii applied after tank-mixing separately with the three selected adjuvants brought down the post-treatment population of the coconut mite by 85.6-97.1%. Application of the fungus in combination with glycerol resulted in a tolerable mean nut damage grade of 2.0 during the pre-harvest stage, compared with an acute score of 4.0 in control palms. PMID:18685957

Sreerama Kumar, P; Singh, Leena

2008-12-01

45

Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.  

PubMed

In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light). PMID:20218530

Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

2009-01-01

46

Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.  

PubMed

Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

2007-01-01

47

An opilioacarid mite in Cretaceous Burmese amber.  

PubMed

A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ?Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida-potentially Opiloacarus-in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites. PMID:25027588

Dunlop, Jason A; de Oliveira Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira

2014-09-01

48

Human hair follicle mites and forensic acarology.  

PubMed

The hair follicle mites of the genus Demodex (Demodecidae) were first discovered in humans in 1841. Since then, members of this host-specific genus have been found in 11 of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals with most host species harboring two or more species of Demodex. Humans are host to D. folliculorum and D. brevis. The biology, natural history, and anatomy of these mites as related to their life in the human pilosebaceous complex is reviewed. This information may provide insight into the application of Demodex as a tool for the forensic acarologist/entomologist. PMID:19557529

Desch, Clifford E

2009-10-01

49

P-MITE: a database for plant miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements  

PubMed Central

Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541

Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui

2014-01-01

50

Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.  

PubMed

A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field. PMID:24659516

Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

2014-07-01

51

Scabies mite inactivated serine protease paralogues are present both internally in the mite gut and externally in feces.  

PubMed

The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is the causative agent of scabies, a disease that is common among disadvantaged populations and facilitates streptococcal infections with serious sequelae. Previously, we encountered large families of genes encoding paralogues of house dust mite protease allergens with their catalytic sites inactivated by mutation (scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues [SMIPPs]). We postulated that SMIPPs have evolved as an adaptation to the parasitic lifestyle of the scabies mite, functioning as competitive inhibitors of proteases involved in the host-parasite interaction. To propose testable hypotheses for their functions, it is essential to know their locations in the mite. Here we show by immunohistochemistry that SMIPPs exist in two compartments: 1) internal to the mite in the gut and 2) external to the mite after excretion from the gut in scybala (fecal pellets). SMIPPs may well function in both of these compartments to evade host proteases. PMID:17038694

Willis, Charlene; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F; Currie, Bart J; Kemp, David J

2006-10-01

52

MITEsâÂÂThe Ultimate Parasites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transposable elements (TEs) are fragments of DNA that can jump from one genome position to another, often producing extra copies of themselves in the process. Yang et al. show how a special type of TEs, called miniature inverted repeat transposable elements or MITEs, transpose and accumulate in the genome.

Josefa González (Stanford University;Department of Biology); Dmitri Petrov (Stanford University;Department of Biology)

2009-09-11

53

Treating Colonies for Varroa Mite Infestations  

E-print Network

effective. A second Section 3 product registered in California is CheckMite+® . The active ingredient after they are contaminated. After working with the strips and removing the gloves, wash your hands well before eating, smoking, visiting the rest room, etc. Open the plastic packets with the wind from your

Ferrara, Katherine W.

54

Feather mites of the greater sandhill crane.  

PubMed

New taxa are described from Grus canadensis tabida: Brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (Alloptidae); Pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (Kramerellidae); Geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and Gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given. PMID:512759

Atyeo, W T; Windingstad, R M

1979-08-01

55

Mites associated with stored products in Greece.  

PubMed

A faunistic survey of mites was conducted in many product stores during a 6-year study period, 2000-2005, in Greece. A total of 1,073 samples were taken from 34 Greek counties. The survey was carried out on grains (wheat, maize, oat, barley), flour, bran, manufactured agricultural foodstuffs, dried fruits (figs, raisins), residues and dust, stored in varying quantities in five types of storage facilities (stores of agricultural cooperative unions, farm stores, commercial stores, flour mills and silos). Dominance-frequency analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to reveal the preferences of the collected taxa. Approximately 55% of the samples contained mites and 65 mite taxa were identified, belonging to 15 families in four orders. Six species, namely, Acarus gracilis Hughes, A. immobilis Griffiths, Caloglyphus oudemansi (Zachvatkin), Suidasia medanensis Oudemans, Tyrophagus perniciosus Zachvatkin and Kleemania plumigera (Oudemans), were new to the fauna of Greece. Five species, Tyrophagus similis Volgin, Blattisocius mali (Oudemans), Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes), Cheyletus cacahuamilpensis Baker and Storchia robustus (Berlese), were recorded for the first time in stored products in Greece. Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and Acarus siro L. were dominant or intermediate in all storage facilities examined. Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most common predatory mite. The highest percentage of infestation (65.3) was recorded in the samples from stores of agricultural cooperative unions. Residue-type materials had the highest degrees and percentages of infestation. PMID:18379887

Palyvos, Nickolas E; Emmanouel, Nickolas G; Saitanis, Costas J

2008-03-01

56

FUNCTIONAL ANNOTATION OF OIL PALM GENES USING AN AUTOMATED BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH FUNCTIONAL ANNOTATION OF OIL PALM  

E-print Network

FUNCTIONAL ANNOTATION OF OIL PALM GENES USING AN AUTOMATED BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH 35 FUNCTIONAL ANNOTATION OF OIL PALM GENES USING AN AUTOMATED BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH LAURA B WILLIS*; PHILIP A LESSARDBank, and duplicate entries were eliminated by pairwise BLAST searches, resulting in a collection of unique oil palm

Sinskey, Anthony J.

57

The clinical effect of environmental control of house dust mites in 60 house dust mite-sensitive dogs.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of benzyl benzoate, an acaricide for the control of house dust mites, in 60 house dust mite-sensitive dogs. All dogs showed positive reactions on intradermal skin testing for house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) alone, or house dust mites with storage mites (Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Glycophagus domesticus). House dust samples from the owners' houses were collected and sent to the clinic, where the authors performed a test (Acarex test) to semi-quantify the amount of guanine, a house dust mite product. Treatment with benzyl benzoate was repeated until the house dust samples were negative for house dust mite guanine. After treatment, 29 out of 60 house dust mite-sensitive dogs (48%) showed no skin lesions or pruritus. Moderate results were achieved in 22 dogs (36%), with reduced pruritus and minimal skin lesions, but still requiring medication. In 13 dogs, this involved regular treatment (3-4 times a year) with antibiotics and anti-yeast medication, and in eight dogs, immunotherapy was used. One dog was controlled with essential fatty acids as monotherapy and one dog was controlled with immunotherapy and essential fatty acids. In the remaining nine dogs (15%), the pruritus remained the same, and these dogs were controlled with oral corticosteroids. These results indicate that house dust mite elimination is a useful tool in the management of house dust mite-sensitive dogs. PMID:14989703

Swinnen, Christine; Vroom, Margreet

2004-02-01

58

Studies in palm oil crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melting and crystallization behaviors of palm oil were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry,\\u000a and plasticity measurements and were correlated with composition and chemical characteristics. Fractionation into high melting\\u000a and low melting components is adversely affected by increase in free fatty acids (FFA), diglyceride content, and degree of\\u000a oxidation, and hence, for an oil that is to

B. Jacobsberg; Oh Chuan Ho

1976-01-01

59

Diversity of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) on Darwin's finches.  

PubMed

Feather mites are a diverse group of ectosymbionts that occur on most species of birds. Although Darwin's finches are a well-studied group of birds, relatively little is known about their feather mites. Nearly 200 birds across 9 finch species, and from 2 locations on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, were dust-ruffled during the 2009 breeding season. We found 8 genera of feather mites; the most prevalent genus was Mesalgoides (53-55%), followed by Trouessartia (40-45%), Amerodectes and Proctophyllodes (26-33%), Xolalgoides (21-27%), Analges and Strelkoviacarus (0-6%), and Dermoglyphus (2-4%). There was no evidence for microclimatic effects (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on mite diversity. Host body mass was significantly correlated with mean feather mite abundance across 7 of 8 well-sampled species of finches. Certhidea olivacea, the smallest species, did not fit this pattern and had a disproportionately high number of mites for its body mass. PMID:23691947

Villa, Scott M; Le Bohec, Céline; Koop, Jennifer A H; Proctor, Heather C; Clayton, Dale H

2013-10-01

60

Global diversity of water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia; Arachnida) in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrachnidia (water mites) represent the most important group of the Arachnida in fresh water. Over 6,000 species have\\u000a been described worldwide, representing 57 families, 81 subfamilies and more than 400 genera. The article analyzes extant water\\u000a mite diversity and biogeography. Data on distribution and species richness of water mites are substantial but still far from\\u000a complete. Many parts of

Antonio Di Sabatino; Harry Smit; Reinhard Gerecke; Tom Goldschmidt; Noriko Matsumoto; Bruno Cicolani

2008-01-01

61

Global diversity of water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia; Arachnida) in freshwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hydrachnidia (water mites) represent the most important group of the Arachnida in fresh water. Over 6,000 species have\\u000a been described worldwide, representing 57 families, 81 subfamilies and more than 400 genera. The article analyzes extant water\\u000a mite diversity and biogeography. Data on distribution and species richness of water mites are substantial but still far from\\u000a complete. Many parts of

Antonio Di Sabatino; Harry Smit; Reinhard Gerecke; Tom Goldschmidt; Noriko Matsumoto; Bruno Cicolani

62

A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).  

PubMed

Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY. PMID:16879312

Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

2006-08-01

63

Sensitisation to mites in laboratory animal workers with rhinitis  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine the frequency of sensitisation to mites among rhinitic laboratory animal workers and to clarify whether sensitisation could be occupational. Methods: Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed in 40 subjects who were working with laboratory animals in Kuopio University research units and who had been referred to Kuopio University Hospital for work related rhinitis. The SPT panel consisted of three storage mites, two house dust mites, 11 other common environmental airborne allergens, latex, and 2–4 individually relevant laboratory animals. To determine signs of mites in animal facilities, guanine was determined in 22 dust samples taken from feedstuffs or bedding material used for laboratory animals and from rooms where these materials were stored and handled. Results: Positive SPT results were found in 35 out of 40 workers: in 14 for storage mites, four for house dust mites, 25 for other common aeroallergens, as well as positive reactions to laboratory animals in 19 individuals. The guanine test was positive, indicating the presence of mite derived material in 21 out of 22 dust samples. Conclusions: This study suggests that subjects who are occupationally exposed to laboratory animals are also exposed to mite derived allergens. Sensitisation to mites is common and may be work related. PMID:16109817

Ruoppi, P; Koistinen, T; Pennanen, S

2005-01-01

64

Respiratory symptoms in arable farmworkers: role of storage mites.  

PubMed Central

Storage mites (acarid mites) are related to the house dust mite but are usually found in agricultural environments. They have been shown to cause allergic symptoms in Scottish farmworkers exposed to stored hay, but whether farmworkers who grow and store grain are also at risk is unknown. One hundred and one farmworkers on 22 Essex farms with grain storage facilities (88% of the available workforce) participated in a survey of respiratory symptoms, with skin tests and determination of serum levels of IgE specific for mite species, including storage mites. Of the 101 workers, 21 reported attacks of cough, wheeze, or breathlessness after exposure to stored grain and 15 reported nasal symptoms after grain exposure. Storage mite specific IgE was found in 59% of farmworkers with work related respiratory symptoms, in 60% with work related nasal symptoms, and in only 9% of symptomless farmworkers. Work related respiratory and nasal symptoms were also significantly associated with atopy, and with positive skin test responses and serum IgE specific for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Storage mites were found in grain samples from 16 farms in which grain was sampled, whereas D pteronyssinus was not found in any. The close association between serum storage mite specific IgE and occupational respiratory symptoms suggests that storage mites may be responsible for respiratory symptoms in these Essex farmworkers exposed to grain. PMID:3194876

Blainey, A D; Topping, M D; Ollier, S; Davies, R J

1988-01-01

65

Susceptibilities of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acarina: Macronyssidae), and chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae), to selected acaricides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative toxicities of ten acaricides to northern fowl mite,Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken mite,Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), were determined simultaneously by holding the mites inside disposable glass Pasteur pipettes previously immersed in acetone solutions of various concentrations (w\\/v) of technical grade acaricides. The LC90s (parts per million) of the acaricides after 24 h exposure for the

M. G. Fletcher; R. C. Axtell

1991-01-01

66

The combined influence of immunotherapy and mite allergen reduction on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mite-sensitive asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encasings for mattresses, blankets and pillows in combination with mite allergen reduction on the floor have proved effective\\u000a in reducing bronchial hyperreactivity of mite-allergic children. We studied the effect of combining the use of encasings with\\u000a specific immunotherapy in comparison to the use of encasings alone (control group). Twenty mite-allergic children (Skin Prick\\u000a Test, RAST, mean age 10 years) with

K. Paul; U. Klettke; U. Wahn

1998-01-01

67

How will oil palm expansion affect biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly increasing crops. We assess its contribution to tropical deforesta- tion and review its biodiversity value. Oil palm has replaced large areas of forest in Southeast Asia, but land-cover change statistics alone do not allow an assessment of where it has driven forest clearance and where it has simply followed it. Oil

Emily B. Fitzherbert; Matthew J. Struebig; Alexandra Morel; Finn Danielsen; Carsten A. Brühl; Paul F. Donald; Ben Phalan

2008-01-01

68

Human hair follicle mites and forensic acarology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair follicle mites of the genus Demodex (Demodecidae) were first discovered in humans in 1841. Since then, members of this host-specific genus have been found in\\u000a 11 of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals with most host species harboring two or more species of Demodex. Humans are host to D. folliculorum and D. brevis. The biology, natural history, and

Clifford E. Desch

2009-01-01

69

Temperature preference and respiration of acaridid mites.  

PubMed

The thermal preferences in a grain mass and respiration at various temperatures in mites (Acari: Acarididae) of medical and economical importance [Acarus siro (L. 1758), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes 1961, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank 1871), and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank 1781)] were studied under laboratory conditions. Based on the distribution of mites in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grain along a thermal gradient from 10 to 40 degrees C, L. destructor, D. farinae, and A. siro were classified as eurythermic and T. putrescentiae as stenothermic. The lowest preferred temperature was found for D. farinae (28 degrees C), followed by A. siro (28.5 degrees C), L. destructor (29.5 degrees C), and T. putrescentiae (31.5 degrees C). The relationship between the respiration rate and the temperature was similar for all four mite species. The highest respiration was found in the range from 31 to 33 degrees C. This is approximately 2 degrees C higher than the preferred temperature of these species. The lower temperature threshold of respiration ranged from 1 to 5 degrees C and the upper threshold ranged from 45 to 48 degrees C. Acclimatization of A. siro to temperature regimes of 5, 15, and 35 degrees C resulted in thermal preferences between 9 and 12 degrees C, 9 and 20 degrees C, and 28 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The respiration rate of acclimatized specimens increased with the temperature, reaching a maximum at 29.0 degrees C for mites acclimatized at 5 and 15 degrees C and a maximum at 33.7 degrees C for those acclimatized at 30 degrees C. PMID:21309251

Hubert, J; Pekár, S; Nesvorná, M; Sustr, V

2010-12-01

70

Hispanics push for equality in Palm Beach County school district  

E-print Network

Hispanics push for equality in Palm Beach County school district WPEC - CBS12.com 2011-09-21 22:16:58 PALM BEACH COUNTY, Fla. -- A group of Hispanic business and community leaders pack the Palm Beach, 29 percent of Palm Beach County Students are Hispanic. Meanwhile, less than 10 percent of teachers

Belogay, Eugene A.

71

Palm Beach County nonprofits get creative, gain By EMILY ROACH  

E-print Network

Palm Beach County nonprofits get creative, gain stability By EMILY ROACH Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 5:47 a.m. Tuesday, Aug. 30, 2011 Posted: 10:26 p.m. Monday, Aug. 29, 2011 Palm Beach. The center had committed six years earlier to moving to West Palm Beach's city hall complex on Clematis

Belogay, Eugene A.

72

Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.  

PubMed

The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers. PMID:15236495

Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

2004-01-01

73

Immunomodulation of Skin Cytokine Secretion by House Dust Mite Extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Skin contact with house dust mites may contribute to atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. We sought to determine if molecules from house dust mites could influence the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts grown in a human skin equivalent (HSE) model. Methods HSEs consisting of an epidermis of keratinocytes with stratum corneum over a dermis of fibroblasts in a collagen matrix were challenged with Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei mite extracts. Results HSEs secreted interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, transforming growth factor-?, granulocyte/macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors and vascular endothelial cell growth factor in response to at least 1 mite extract. Extracts of different mite species stimulated HSEs to release different cytokines. Therefore, extracts of different species contained different molecules or different concentrations of similar molecules. The cytokine release profiles of cells in the HSEs were not the same as for monocultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Conclusions Molecules from house dust mites are capable of inducing the release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Avoiding skin contact with house dust mites would reduce the possibility of mite-induced inflammation in the skin. Therefore, measures to reduce contact with mite molecules such as frequent vacuuming of upholstered furniture and carpets and laundering of clothing and bedding to remove mite molecules and allergens could reduce skin contact with mite molecules and diminish exacerbations of skin inflammation in patients with atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. PMID:21576987

Arlian, Larry G.; Morgan, Marjorie S.

2011-01-01

74

Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid

Thiam Leng Chew; Subhash Bhatia

2008-01-01

75

Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites grown in dog food cultures and the effect mould growth has on mite survival and reproduction.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to determine whether the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, could survive and thrive on dog food and if mould growth was important to their survival. All of the chambers (n = 42) were started with 10 female mites and evaluated every other day for mite survival and for the spontaneous development of mould. Ten chambers tested the effect of low moisture on mite survival. Eight chambers were used as positive and negative controls (n = 4 each); positive control mites were fed Fleischmann's((R)) yeast and negative controls had no food source. Three dog foods were evaluated in the same manner. Four chambers had food but mould development was limited by replacing the food kernel every 48 h and four chambers were allowed to grow mould. Mites grown in chambers without moisture died from desiccation within 5 days. The termination point was day 34 when all mites in the negative control group (moisture but no food) died. Although T. putrescentiae survived and grew on all three commercial dog foods, there was no statistically significant difference in mites counts among the dog foods (P < 0.10). Mite counts in the 'no' mould and mould groups ranged from 8 to 11 and 144 to 245, respectively, and differences were significant (P < 0.0001). This study found that T. putrescentiae is a fungivorous storage mite that can grow and flourish on dog food. The study demonstrated that the presence of mould positively influences mite viability, while low relative humidity can result in detrimental consequences for T. putrescentiae. PMID:19719462

Canfield, Michael S; Wrenn, William J

2010-02-01

76

Addressing the threats to biodiversity from oil-palm agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-palm agriculture is the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity in Southeast Asia. Despite the efforts of environmentalists,\\u000a oil palm continues to expand across the tropics. Those concerned about the impacts of oil palm on biodiversity must face some\\u000a harsh social, economic, and ecological realities: (i) oil palm has been a very profitable crop; (ii) palm oil is used in so

David S. Wilcove; Lian Pin Koh

2010-01-01

77

Review article Model evaluation of methods for Varroa jacobsoni mite  

E-print Network

, because beekeepers want to save the brood. Trapping with drone brood demands fewer brood cells for effective mite control, and destruction of drone brood with trapped mites is common prac- tice. Moreover, preparation of trap-combs with drone brood can be integrated into swarm-prevention techniques and will take

Boyer, Edmond

78

MITE (ACARINA) POPULATIONS IN RING-BILLED GULL NESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can. Ent. 106: 319-327 (1974) Mites collected from 69 Larus delawarensis Ord nests on Granite Island, Lake Superior, northwestern Ontario, during the summers of 1972 and 1973 showed phenological relationships with the breeding cycle of the gulls. The populations of five selected mite genera varied in relation to nest initiation, egg laying, and egg hatching periods of the gulls. Moisture

R. Freitag; J. P. Ryder; P. Wanson

1974-01-01

79

Checklist of the oribatid mites of the Netherlands (Acari: Oribatida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than fifty years ago Van der Hammen published the last checklist of oribatid mites (or moss mites) for the Netherlands. Since then the species number has almost doubled to 318 species, of which 100 are presented here for the first time. Brief data on occurrence and nomenclature are provided for each species. A short list of fossil species known

Henk Siepel; Andrei Zaitsev; Matty Berg

2009-01-01

80

Resurgences of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) induced by synthetic pyrethroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes of spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) population resurgences consequent upon exposure to synthetic pyrethroid (SP) treatments are reviewed. Resurgences may be seen as soon as 1 week, or even as late as a whole season, post-treatment. Synthetic pyrethroids vary in their adverse effects on spider mites, and also differ in their ability to invoke resurgences of different spidermite species on

Uri Gerson; Ephraim Cohen

1989-01-01

81

Parasitic Mites of Honey Bees: Life History, Implications, and Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hive of the honey bee is a suitable habitat for diverse mites (Acari), including nonparasitic, omnivorous, and pollen-feeding species, and para- sites. The biology and damage of the three main pest species Acarapis woodi, Varroa jacobsoni, and Tropilaelaps clareae is reviewed, along with detection and control methods. The hypothesis that Acarapis woodiis a recently evolved species is rejected. Mite-associated

Diana Sammataro; Uri Gerson; Glen Needham

2000-01-01

82

Integrated mite control in apples in Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary team introduced Integrated Mite Control (IMC) to the Queensland apple industry in Australia from 1989 to 1992. Project funding supported the employment of a consultant to monitor mite levels and provide management advice to growers who paid for the service. Interviews at the beginning and end of the project showed widespread adoption of IMC over this period. Overall

Elaine J. Brough; Bruce Frank; Frank Page; Stewart Lindsay

1996-01-01

83

Mite and Booklouse Fauna From Vacuumed Dust Samples From Beijing  

PubMed Central

A significant-source of allergens come from house dust that contain particles derived from arthropods, molds, and pet dander. This study evaluated mite and booklouse fauna from vacuumed dust samples in Beijing China (a temperate zone). Our survey was carried out in Beijing in the homes of mite allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department. In total, 38 homes were selected for the collection of dust samples by vacuuming, from December 2008 to January 2010. The flotation method was used to isolate mites from house dust. Permanent slides were prepared for mite specimens and mites were identified and counted under a microscope. In total, 1,798 separate mite and insect specimens were found in 345 dust samples taken from 38 homes. A total of 95 individual Dermatophagoides (D) siboney were detected in 35 dust samples from 19 homes (representing 5.3% of all mite and insect species found in house dust); in addition, this mite was found to co-exist with D. farinae (Hughes, 1961) in 33 dust samples. Our results demonstrated the presence D. siboney that co-existed with D. farinae in house dust in Beijing China (a temperate zone). PMID:24843802

Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao

2014-01-01

84

Molecular and biochemical properties of storage mites (except Blomia species).  

PubMed

In recent years, the allergological importance of different mite species not belonging to the family Pyroglyphidae has been demonstrated. These mites, commonly named storage mites, include Lepidoglyphus destructor, Glycyphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Suidasia medanensis and Thyreophagus entomophagus. Several allergens from these species have been purified, sequenced and cloned. Many of these allergens have shown sequence homology and a biological function similar to those previously described in Blomia tropicalis and the Dermatophagoides spp. The main allergens described in storage mites include fatty acid binding proteins, tropomysin and paramyosin homologues, apoliphorine like proteins, alfa-tubulines and other, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens, which definitive biological function has not been described yet. Besides the purification and characterization of allergens, the allergenicity of other species such as Acarus farris, Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis, Blomia kulagini and B. tjibodas, Cheyletus eruditus, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Gohieria fusca, Thyreophagus entomophagus and Tyrophagus longior has been investigated. Research has also been conducted to identify allergens in parasitic mites, such as Psoroptes ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei, Varroa jacobsoni, Diplaegidia columbae and Hemisarcoptes cooremani. The allergenicity of mites present in agricultural environments has been investigated. Crossreactivity studies have also been performed to elucidate to what extent all these mites share common, or species specific epitopes. Herein we present a comprehensive review of the allergenicity of mite species which have been implicated in human respiratory and/or dermatological diseases. PMID:18220992

Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Iraola, Victor; Carnés, Jerónimo

2007-01-01

85

Plants are better protected against spider-mites after exposure to volatiles from infested conspecifics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When infested by herbivorous mites, cotton seedlings produce volatile cues that elicit attraction of predatory mites. Experiments were carried out to elucidate how downwinduninfested conspecific seedlings are affected by these volatiles. It was found that the rate of oviposition of herbivorous mites was reduced on seedlings exposed to volatiles from infested seedlings. Moreover, predatory mites were attracted by exposeduninfested seedlings.

J. Bruin; M. Dicke; M. W. Sabelis

1992-01-01

86

MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

87

Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small 'laying hen' cages.  

PubMed

To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2-3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These small-scale tests were designed to prevent mite escape from the cages and they were carried out in three replicates at each of three temperature regimes: 26, 30 (constant day and night) and 33-25 °C (day-night cycle). After 6 weeks total population sizes of poultry red mites and predatory mites were assessed. For the temperature regimes of 26 and 33/25 °C S. scimitus reduced the poultry red mite population relative to the control experiments by a factor 3 and 30, respectively, and A. casalis by a factor of 18 and 55, respectively. At 30 °C the predators had less effect on red mites, with a reduction of 1.3-fold for S. scimitus and 5.6-fold for A. casalis. This possibly reflected hen manure condition or an effect of other invertebrates in the hen feed. Poultry red mite control was not negatively affected by temperatures as high as 33 °C and was always better in trials with A. casalis than in those with S. scimitus. In none of the experiments predators managed to eradicate the population of poultry red mites. This may be due to a prey refuge effect since most predatory mites were found in and around the manure tray at the bottom of the cage, whereas most poultry red mites were found higher up in the cage (i.e. on the walls, the cover, the perch, the nest box and the food box). The efficacy of applying predatory mites in the poultry industry may be promoted by reducing this refuge effect, boosting predatory mite populations using alternative prey and prolonged predator release devices. Biocontrol success, however, will strongly depend on how the poultry is housed in practice (free range, cage or aviary systems) and on which chemicals are applied to disinfect poultry houses and to control other pests. PMID:22773110

Lesna, Izabela; Sabelis, Maurice W; van Niekerk, Thea G C M; Komdeur, Jan

2012-12-01

88

Possible host-parasite adaptations in honey bees infested by Varroa destructor mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated Varroa destructor mite population growth in a line of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies hat have survived mite infestation for seven years without treatment (Bond colonies), and in a line of colonies\\u000a that had been treated to control the mites (Controls). We investigated if the source of mites affected mite population growth.\\u000a The results showed that the overall

Ingemar Fries; Riccardo Bommarco

2007-01-01

89

House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention  

PubMed Central

There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

2014-01-01

90

House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention.  

PubMed

There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

2014-10-01

91

Bartonella-like bacteria carried by domestic mite species.  

PubMed

Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed. PMID:24711066

Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan

2014-09-01

92

A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.  

PubMed

Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test. PMID:24020263

Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

2013-08-01

93

Water recycling from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Palm oil processing is carried out in palm oil mills where oil is extracted from a palm oil fruit bunch. Large quantities of water are used during the extraction of crude palm oil from the fresh fruit bunch, and about 50% of the water results in palm oil mill effluent

Abdul Latif Ahmad; Suzylawati Ismail; Subhash Bhatia

2003-01-01

94

An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber.  

PubMed

Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44-49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first-and so far only-fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

Dunlop, Jason A; Kontschán, Jen?; Walter, David E; Perrichot, Vincent

2014-09-01

95

Phytonutrient deficiency: the place of palm fruit.  

PubMed

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence mechanisms. These food-health concepts would probably spur the large-scale oil palm (and monoculture) plantations, which are already seen to be a major cause of deforestation and replacement of diverse ecosystems in many countries. However, the environmental advantages of palm phytonutrients are that they are prepared from the readily available raw material from palm oil milling processes. Palm fruit, one of only a few fatty fruits, is likely to have an increasingly substantiated place in human health, not only through the provision of acceptable dietary fats, but also its characteristic protective phytonutrients. PMID:14506002

Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W

2003-01-01

96

Biological control of broad mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) with the generalist predator Amblyseius swirskii  

PubMed Central

The broad mite is a serious pest of a variety of crops worldwide. Several phytoseiid mites have been described to control these mites. However, broad mites are still one of the major pest problems on greenhouse pepper in South-eastern Spain. The generalist predatory mite A. swirskii is widely used against other pests of pepper plants such as thrips and whiteflies, the latter being a vector of broad mites. We assessed the potential of A. swirskii to control broad mites. The oviposition rate of A. swirskii on a diet of broad mites was lower than on a diet of pollen, but higher than oviposition in the absence of food. Population-dynamical experiments with A. swirskii on single sweet pepper plants in a greenhouse compartment showed successful control of broad mites. PMID:20191312

van Maanen, Roos; Vila, Enrico; Sabelis, Maurice W.

2010-01-01

97

Biological control of broad mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) with the generalist predator Amblyseius swirskii.  

PubMed

The broad mite is a serious pest of a variety of crops worldwide. Several phytoseiid mites have been described to control these mites. However, broad mites are still one of the major pest problems on greenhouse pepper in South-eastern Spain. The generalist predatory mite A. swirskii is widely used against other pests of pepper plants such as thrips and whiteflies, the latter being a vector of broad mites. We assessed the potential of A. swirskii to control broad mites. The oviposition rate of A. swirskii on a diet of broad mites was lower than on a diet of pollen, but higher than oviposition in the absence of food. Population-dynamical experiments with A. swirskii on single sweet pepper plants in a greenhouse compartment showed successful control of broad mites. PMID:20191312

van Maanen, Roos; Vila, Enrico; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

2010-09-01

98

Oribatid Mites as Potential Vectors for Soil Microfungi: Study of Mite-Associated Fungal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of soil-living oribatid mites to disperse fungal propagules on their bodies was investigated. Classical plating\\u000a methods were applied to cultivate these fungi and to study their morphology. Molecular markers were used for further determination.\\u000a The nuclear ribosomal large subunit and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer of DNA extracts of the cultured\\u000a fungi as well as total DNA

C. Renker; P. Otto; K. Schneider; B. Zimdars; M. Maraun; F. Buscot

2005-01-01

99

January/February 1996 Tracheal Mites -Revisited Seeds in Citrus  

E-print Network

that lead to "honey bee parasitic mite syndrome" (colony collapse). Protecting your wintering bees, BEFORE-motion and it continues to be involved in substantial colony losses in various beekeeping operations. Do our two legal

Ferrara, Katherine W.

100

Microbiota of Demodex mites from rosacea patients and controls.  

PubMed

Proliferation of Demodex mites is associated with rosacea. Furthermore, Demodex-associated bacteria were suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. We decided to analyze Demodex microbiota. Mites were collected by standardized skin surface biopsies from patients with erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular rosacea or from control subjects. The microbiota from each mite was characterized by 16S rRNA clone library approach. The 16S rRNA clone library consisted of 367 clones obtained from 73 extracts originating from 5 samples per study group (ETR, PPR or healthy subjects). A total of 86 species were identified with 36 as Demodex-specific microbiota. In the papulopustular group, proportions of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes increased whereas proportion of Actinobacteria decreased. Here, we report preliminary results on the microbiota of Demodex mites based on a molecular approach showing an unexpected diversity. Differences according to the host status need to be confirmed but open new perspectives for diagnostic of rosacea. PMID:24768927

Murillo, Nathalia; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

2014-01-01

101

Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.  

PubMed

Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects. PMID:21715284

Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

2011-06-01

102

Feather mites of the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New taxa are described from Grus canadensis tabida: Brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (Alloptidae); Pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (Kramerellidae); Geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and Gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given.

Atyeo, W.T.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

1979-01-01

103

Phoretic mites associated with animal and human decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoretic mites are likely the most abundant arthropods found on carcases and corpses. They outnumber their scavenger carriers\\u000a in both number and diversity. Many phoretic mites travel on scavenger insects and are highly specific; they will arrive on\\u000a a particular species of host and no other. Because of this, they may be useful as trace indicators of their carriers even

M. Alejandra Perotti; Henk R. Braig

2009-01-01

104

Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents  

PubMed Central

The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) precursor, IL-1?, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

2013-01-01

105

Louse and mite infestation in domestic animals in northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Records of domestic animals brought to the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory for diagnosis of suspected lice and mite infestation over a 10 year period were analysed. From a total of 794 suspected cases, 137 (17·3%) and 247 (31·1%) were positive for lice and mange mites respectively. The most common lice species recorded wereLinognathus vituli (66·7%) on cattle,L. ovillus (83·3%) on sheep,Haematopinus

J. B. D. George; S. Otobo; J. Ogunleye; B. Adediminiyi

1992-01-01

106

Sensitization of Children to Storage Mites in Kutahya, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Specific IgE against Acarus siro, Glycphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor have been investigated by ELISA in sera of 92 children. Of them, 41 were found to be specific IgE positive (? 0.35 IU/ml) against at least one of house dust mite species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, by an immunoblot. In 65.9% of the dust mite-sensitized children, specific IgE against at least one of these mite species was found. Sensitization levels, including co-sensitization cases were found to be 35.7% against A. siro, 24.4% against T. putrescentiae, 31.7% against L. destructor, and 26.8% against G. domesticus. In non-sensitized children, dust mite sensitization level was found to be 25.5%. Breakdown of sensitization by individual species in this group was; against A. siro and T. putrescentiae at 7.8%, against L. destructor at 13.7%, and against G. domesticus at 9.8%. When all children were reckoned, 43.5% was found to be sensitized against at least one storage mite species, with sensitizations against A. siro at 18.5%, T. putrescentiae at 26.1%, L. destructor at 21.7%, and G. domesticus at 17.4%. In dust samples collected from the dwellings of children, distribution of species was found to be A. siro (17%), G. domesticus (23%), T. putrescentiae (29%), L. destructor (25%), and unidentified (6%). In Fisher's chi-square test on SPSS program, there was a relationship between dust mite sensitization and storage mite sensitization (P < 0.05), but no meaningful relationship was found on the basis of individual mite species. PMID:19967087

Soyucen, Erdogan

2009-01-01

107

Sensitization of children to storage mites in Kutahya, Turkey.  

PubMed

Specific IgE against Acarus siro, Glycphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor have been investigated by ELISA in sera of 92 children. Of them, 41 were found to be specific IgE positive (> or = 0.35 IU/ml) against at least one of house dust mite species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, by an immunoblot. In 65.9% of the dust mite-sensitized children, specific IgE against at least one of these mite species was found. Sensitization levels, including co-sensitization cases were found to be 35.7% against A. siro, 24.4% against T. putrescentiae, 31.7% against L. destructor, and 26.8% against G. domesticus. In non-sensitized children, dust mite sensitization level was found to be 25.5%. Breakdown of sensitization by individual species in this group was; against A. siro and T. putrescentiae at 7.8%, against L. destructor at 13.7%, and against G. domesticus at 9.8%. When all children were reckoned, 43.5% was found to be sensitized against at least one storage mite species, with sensitizations against A. siro at 18.5%, T. putrescentiae at 26.1%, L. destructor at 21.7%, and G. domesticus at 17.4%. In dust samples collected from the dwellings of children, distribution of species was found to be A. siro (17%), G. domesticus (23%), T. putrescentiae (29%), L. destructor (25%), and unidentified (6%). In Fisher's chi-square test on SPSS program, there was a relationship between dust mite sensitization and storage mite sensitization (P < 0.05), but no meaningful relationship was found on the basis of individual mite species. PMID:19967087

Akdemir, Cihangir; Soyucen, Erdogan

2009-12-01

108

Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Recent findings Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Summary Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:20689407

Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

2010-01-01

109

Experimental infection of dogs with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum.  

PubMed

A successful experimental transmission of the canine nasal mite, Pneumonyssoides caninum, is described. Some 11 weeks after repeated systemic ivermectin treatment, four Beagles were inoculated via the right nostril with 20 P. caninum mites of different sexes and life stages, obtained at the necropsy of an infected dog. The inoculated dogs and a matching uninoculated control were observed for clinical signs for 14 weeks and then euthanised. Vague upper respiratory signs and a transient minor increase in the number of eosinophils in peripheral blood were recorded in the inoculated dogs. At necropsy 4-12 P. caninum mites were found in the nasal cavities and sinuses of the inoculated dogs, but none in the control. In three out of the four infected dogs mites were found in both the right and left nasal cavities and sinuses of the skull. Since in no case more mites than the number used for inoculation were detected it is not clear if the mites managed to reproduce in the dogs. Inflammatory lesions were seen most consistently in the olfactory mucosa, respiratory mucosa and tonsils, and growth of opportunistic bacteria was observed in the tonsils of the infected dogs. The inflammatory lesions seen in the olfactory mucosa may explain why dogs infected with P. caninum sometimes appear to suffer from impaired scenting ability. PMID:9746287

Gunnarsson, L; Zakrisson, G; Lilliehook, I; Christensson, D; Rehbinder, C; Uggla, A

1998-06-15

110

Cardinium symbionts cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in spider mites.  

PubMed

Intracellular symbiotic bacteria belonging to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides lineage have recently been described and are widely distributed in arthropod species. The newly discovered bacteria, named Cardinium sp, cause the expression of various reproductive alterations in their arthropod hosts, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), induction of parthenogenesis and feminization of genetic males. We detected 16S ribosomal DNA sequences similar to those of Cardinium from seven populations of five spider mite species, suggesting a broad distribution of infection of Cardinium in spider mites. To clarify the effect of Cardinium on the reproductive traits of the infected spider mites, infected mites were crossed with uninfected mites for each population. In one of the populations, Eotetranychus suginamensis, CI was induced when infected males were crossed with uninfected females. The other six populations of four species showed no reproductive abnormalities in the F(1) generation, but the possibility of CI effects in the F(2) generation remains to be tested. One species of spider mite, Tetranychus pueraricola, harbored both Cardinium and Wolbachia, but these symbionts seemed to have no effect on the reproduction of the host, even when the host was infected independently with each symbiont. PMID:17035954

Gotoh, T; Noda, H; Ito, S

2007-01-01

111

Dust mite allergens and asthma: a worldwide problem*  

PubMed Central

After the discovery of house dust mites in 1964 their association with asthma has been reported from many different parts of the world including the developing countries. Two sets of major allergens from mites of the genus Dermatophagoides are now well recognized. The Group I allergens are glycoproteins of relative molecular mass (Mr) 25 000, which show both structural homology and cross-reactivity. The allergen Der p I has been cloned and sequenced confirming the Mr and establishing its nature as a protease. The Group II allergens (Mr 15 000) show even closer homology and cross-reactivity. Specific immunoassays for Group I and Group II allergens, using monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibodies, have been standardized and are suitable for measuring allergen levels in different parts of the world. Measures for reducing the levels of mite allergens in houses include the covering of mattresses, hot washing of bedding, and removal of carpets from bedrooms as well as humidity control, vacuum cleaning, and the use of acaricides in the rest of the house. There is already evidence that these procedures can cause a major improvement in the symptoms of asthma. While provisional standards for both sensitization to mites and also mite allergen exposure can now be recommended, there is an urgent need for controlled studies using protocols demonstrated to reduce mite allergen levels by at least tenfold and for further international collaboration. PMID:3069235

1988-01-01

112

Biolistic mediated production of transgenic oil palm.  

PubMed

Physical and biological parameters affecting DNA delivery into oil palm embryogenic calli using the biolistic device are optimized. Five different promoters are also evaluated to identify the most suitable promoter for use in oil palm transformation. Finally, the effectiveness of kanamycin, geneticin (G418), neomycin, hygromycin, and herbicide Basta as selection agents to inhibit growth of oil palm embryogenic calli is evaluated. Combination of optimized parameters, best promoter and selection agent is later used to transform oil palm embryogenic calli for producing transgenic oil palm plants. Bombarded embryogenic calli are exposed to 50 mg/l of Basta after 3 weeks. Basta-resistant embryogenic calli started to emerge five to six months in medium containing Basta. The Basta-resistant embryogenic calli are proliferated until they reach a specific size, and the Basta-resistant calli are later individually isolated and regenerated to produce complete plantlets. The complete regenerated plantlets are evaluated for the presence of transgenes by PCR, Southern and thin layer chromatography analyses. PMID:19082956

Kadir Ahmad Parveez, Ghulam

2008-01-01

113

Is oil palm the next emerging threat to the Amazon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon Basin appears poised to experience rapid expansion of oil palm agriculture. Nearly half of Amazonia is suitable for oil palm cultivation, and Malaysian corporations are now moving into the region to establish new plantations while the Brazilian government is considering a law that would count oil palm as \\

Rhett A. Butler; William F. Laurance

2009-01-01

114

Microclimate and habitat heterogeneity through the oil palm lifecycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid expansion of oil palm cultivation and corresponding deforestation has invoked widespread concern for biodiversity in Southeast Asia and throughout the tropics. However, no study explicitly addresses how habitat characteristics change when (1) forest is converted to oil palm, or (2) through the dynamic 25–30-year oil palm lifecycle. These two questions are fundamental to understanding how biodiversity will be

Matthew Scott Luskin; Matthew D. Potts

2011-01-01

115

Gingrich Palm Beach County supporters 'disappointed but not discouraged'  

E-print Network

Gingrich Palm Beach County supporters 'disappointed but not discouraged' 2012-02-01 17:16:03 PALM BEACH COUNTY, Fla. -- As expected Newt Gingrich lost in Florida by a landslide. The polls predicted of three created a "Palm Beach County for Newt Gingrich 2012" Facebook page in November. Shortly afterwards

Belogay, Eugene A.

116

Mite species inhabiting commercial bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nests in Polish greenhouses.  

PubMed

Nests of social insects are usually inhabited by various mite species that feed on pollen, other micro-arthropods or are parasitic. Well-known negative effects of worldwide economic importance are caused by mites parasitizing honeybee colonies. Lately, attention has focused on the endoparasitic mite Locustacarus buchneri that has been found in commercial bumblebees. However, little is known of other mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests. Transportation of commercial bumblebee colonies with unwanted residents may introduce foreign mite species to new localities. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and species composition of mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests and determined if the mites are foreign species for Poland and for Europe. The study was conducted on 37 commercial bumblebee nests from two companies (Dutch and Israeli), originating from two greenhouses in southern Poland, and on 20 commercial bumblebee colonies obtained directly from suppliers. The species composition and abundance of mites inhabiting commercial bumblebee nests were determined. Seven mite species from three families were found in nests after greenhouse exploitation. The predominant mite species was Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae) that was a 100-fold more numerous than representatives of the family Laelapidae (Hypoaspis marginepilosa, H. hyatti, H. bombicolens). Representatives of Parasitidae (Parasitellus fucorum, P. crinitus, P. ignotus) were least numerous. All identified mite species are common throughout Europe, foreign species were not found. Mites were not detected in nests obtained directly from suppliers. We conclude that probably bumblebee nests are invaded by local mite species during greenhouse exploitation. PMID:22270110

Ro?ej, El?bieta; Witali?ski, Wojciech; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Wantuch, Marta; Moro?, Dawid; Woyciechowski, Michal

2012-03-01

117

Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae  

PubMed Central

The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites. PMID:21070175

Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

2010-01-01

118

Specificity, Seasonal Abundance and Management of Mites Associated with Commercially Cultivated Mushrooms in Kashmir Valley.  

E-print Network

??Survey was conducted at three places (RRL-Srinagar, Nishat, and MRTC-SKUAST-K) during different cropping seasons for the collection and identification of mites infesting mushrooms. Three mites… (more)

Mir, Zia-ul-Haq

2009-01-01

119

Mites and Cherries in 2005 Dr. Nikki Rothwell, District IPM Educator  

E-print Network

be a complex problem on cherry in hot, dry years. Apple and mites, on the other hand, seem to be easier mites can produce multiple generations per season, and the warmer the seasonal temperatures, the more

120

Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.  

PubMed

Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes. PMID:19001776

Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

2008-01-01

121

Induced resistance in Solanum dulcamara triggered by the gall mite Aceria cladophthirus (Acari: Eriophyoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

After infestation ofSolanum dulcamara leaves by the eriophyoid gall miteAceria cladophthirus (Nalepa), induced resistance became operative against subsequent eriophyoid attacks. The protective effect, manifested by reduction in plant damage and\\/or mite proliferation, lasted up to 40 days. When the challenger wasA. cladophthirus, the number and size of lesions decreased significantly but mite mortality was not enhanced. When the rust miteThamnacus

E. Westphal; F. Dreger; R. Bronner

1991-01-01

122

Thermophysical Properties of Sugarcane, Palmyra Palm, and Date-palm Granular Jaggery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of moisture content on thermo-physical properties of sugarcane, palmyra palm, and date-palm granular jaggery were investigated. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity were determined by line-heat-source transient heat-transfer methodology, while specific heat was calculated from additional data on bulk density of the samples. Thermal conductivity, diffusivity, specific heat, and bulk density was found to vary from 0.08 to 0.39 W m

P. V. K. Jagannadha Rao; Madhusweta Das; S. K. Das

2008-01-01

123

THE ROLE OF MITES AND NEMATODES IN EARLY STAGES OF BURIED LITTER DECOMPOSITION IN A DESERT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied changes in populations of mites, nematodes, bacteria, and fungi in buried creosote bush litter treated with selected inhibitors. Elimination of microarthropods (primarily tydeid mites) resulted in increased numbers of bacteriophagic nematodes and reduction in numbers of bac- teria; elimination of both nematodes and microarthropods resulted in increased numbers of bacteria compared to untreated controls. Fungal grazing mites, Pyemotidae,

PERSEU F. SANTOS; JANICE PHILLIPS; WALTER G. WHITFORD

1981-01-01

124

Factors affecting location of Banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Acari: Tetranychidae), on corn leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site on which adult female Banks grass mite,Oligonychus pratensis (Banks), settled when placed on corn (Zea mays L.) leaves was significantly influenced by light, leaf surface, and gravity. Mites chose the abaxial side of corn leaves when light was excluded as a factor. With a light source present, the mites went to and stayed on the leaf surface away

Jianbo Li; David C. Margolies

1991-01-01

125

Anatomical Injury Induced by the Eriophyid Mite Aceria anthocoptes on the Leaves of Cirsium arvense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical injury of the leaves of the invasive species, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., caused by the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.), which is the only eriophyid mite that has been recorded on C. arvense worldwide, is described. The injury induced by the mite feeding on the leaves of C. arvense results in visible russeting and bronzing of the leaves. Other

Dragana Rancic; Branka Stevanovic; Radmila Petanovi?; Biljana Magud; Ivo Tosevski; André Gassmann

2006-01-01

126

Using rice to understand the origin and amplification of miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs)  

E-print Network

elements (MITEs) Ning Jiang, Ce´ dric Feschotte, Xiaoyu Zhang and Susan R Wessler1 Recent studies of rice miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs), largely fueled by the availability of genomic.pbi.2004.01.004 Abbreviations IS5 insertion sequence 5 MITE miniature inverted repeat transposable element

Feschotte, Cedric

127

MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of

J. Powell; G. Maise; J. Paniagua

2001-01-01

128

Ecological and genetic factors influencing evolution of pesticide resistance in tetranychid and phytoseiid mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among tetranychid spider mites and their phytoseiid predators, the evolution of pesticide resistance is a common event. In most cases, resistance is based on a single dominant or semidominant gene. However, polygenic, less-stable resistance often develops under laboratory selection. More rapid development of pesticide resistance in spider mites and predatory mites than among other arthropods might partly be due to

B. A. Croft; H. E. Van De Baan

1988-01-01

129

solution is the selective breeding of honey bees to produce bees that suppress mite  

E-print Network

solution is the selective breeding of honey bees to produce bees that suppress mite reproduction [8). This is a heritable 1. INTRODUCTION Long-term solutions to the parasitism of honey bees by the mite, Varroa destructor to avoid using pesticides in a bee colony and because of acaricide resistance by the mite [14, 18­21, 26

Boyer, Edmond

130

PARASITIC MITES OF HONEY BEES Greg Hunt, Bee Specialist, Purdue University  

E-print Network

Beekeeping PARASITIC MITES OF HONEY BEES Greg Hunt, Bee Specialist, Purdue University Figure 1. Varroa mites in the brood cells of the bees. A) The cell was uncapped and the honey bee pupa was removed so that you can see immature mites in the brood cell on the right, and a honey bee egg in the cell

Hunt, Greg

131

Effect of accidental fire on soil mite density in a forest reserve in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mite populations in a forest reserve, where accidental fire swept through almost half of the total area covered by the forest, were enumerated at one, three, and six months after burning. Mite densities in both burnt and unburnt plots were extremely low immediately after burning. Six months after burning, the density of juvenile cryptostigmatid mites were higher in the burnt

M. A. Badejo

1994-01-01

132

Immune response to flour and dust mites in a United Kingdom bakery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of 279 United Kingdom bakery workers a high prevalence of immunological response to storage mites was found. To determine whether this was the consequence of exposure to storage mites in bakery work, a population of salt packing workers was examined as a comparison group not at occupational risk of exposure to storage mites. Forty two per cent

R D Tee; D J Gordon; S Gordon; B Crook; A J Nunn; A W Musk; K M Venables; A J Taylor

1992-01-01

133

Avian Mite Bites Acquired From a New Source--Pet Gerbils  

E-print Network

Avian Mite Bites Acquired From a New Source--Pet Gerbils Report of 2 Cases and Review infested pet gerbils and reviews the der- matologic literature about avian mites. Observations: An 11-year their pet gerbils were found to be infested with Ornithonyssus sylviarum (the northern fowl mite

Lucky, Andrea

134

Physico-chemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils.  

PubMed

Palm-based diacylglycerol (P-DAG) oils were produced through enzymatic glycerolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil (PO), palm olein (POL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and palm stearin (PS). High purity DAG (83-90%, w/w) was obtained and compared to palm-based oils (P-oil) had significantly (P<0.05) different fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV) and slip melting point (SMP). Solid fat content (SFC) profiles of P-DAG oils as compared to P-oils had less steep curves with lower SFC at low temperature range (5-10°C) and the higher complete melting temperatures. Also, P-DAG oils in contrast with P-oils showed endothermic as well as exothermic peaks with higher transition temperatures and significantly (P<0.05) higher crystallisation onsets, heats of fusion, and heats of crystallisation. Crystal forms for P-DAG oils were mostly in the ? form. PMID:25214093

Saberi, Amir Hossein; Kee, Beh Boon; Oi-Ming, Lai; Miskandar, Mat Sahri

2011-08-01

135

Biosynthesis of linoleic acid in Tyrophagus mites (Acarina: Acaridae).  

PubMed

We report here that Tyrophagus similis and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) have the ability to biosynthesize linoleic acid [(9Z, 12Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid] via a ?12-desaturation step, although animals in general and vertebrates in particular appear to lack this ability. When the mites were fed on dried yeast enriched with d31-hexadecanoic acid (16:0), d27-octadecadienoic acid (18:2), produced from d31-hexadecanoic acid through elongation and desaturation reactions, was identified as a major fatty acid component of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) in the mites. The double bond position of d27-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) of PCs and PEs was determined to be 9 and 12, respectively by dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) derivatization. Furthermore, the GC/MS retention time of methyl 9, 12-octadecadienoate obtained from mite extracts agreed well with those of authentic linoleic acid methyl ester. It is still unclear whether the mites themselves or symbiotic microorganisms are responsible for inserting a double bond into the ?12 position of octadecanoic acid. However, we present here the unique metabolism of fatty acids in the mites. PMID:23973745

Aboshi, Takako; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Yuji; Honda, Yoshiyuki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Amano, Hiroshi; Mori, Naoki

2013-11-01

136

Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites  

PubMed Central

Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

2010-01-01

137

Interactions among phytophagous mites, and introduced and naturally occurring predatory mites, on strawberry in the UK.  

PubMed

In choice test experiments on strawberry leaf disc arenas the phytoseiid mites Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris were more effective than Typhlodromus pyri as predators of the phytophagous mites Tetranychus urticae and Phytonemus pallidus. There were no preferences shown for either prey by any of these predators. In multiple predator leaf disc experiments both Phytoseiulus persimilis and N. cucumeris significantly reduced numbers of T. urticae eggs and active stages; this effect was seen when the two species were present alone or in combination with other predator species. Neoseiulus californicus was less effective at reducing T. urticae numbers, and T. pyri was not effective; no interaction between predator species was detected in these experiments. When T. urticae alone was present as prey on potted plants, P. persimilis and N. californicus were the only phytoseiids to significantly reduce T. urticae numbers. These two predator species provided effective control of T. urticae when P. pallidus was also present; however, none of the predators reduced numbers of P. pallidus. There were no significant negative interactions when different species of predators were present together on these potted plants. In field experiments, releases of both P. persimilis and N. cucumeris significantly reduced T. urticae numbers. However, there was a significant interaction between these predator species, leading to poorer control of T. urticae when both species were released together. These results show the importance of conducting predator/prey feeding tests at different spatial scales. PMID:17713859

Fitzgerald, Jean; Pepper, Nicola; Easterbrook, Mike; Pope, Tom; Solomon, Mike

2007-01-01

138

Lethal, Sublethal, and Behavioral Effects of Sulfur-Containing Products in Bioassays of Three Species of Orchard Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three sulfur products (calcium polysulÞde ( lime sulfur), dry ßowable sulfur, and ammonium thiosulfate, a plant nutrient), were tested in bioassays against a predatory mite, Galandromus occidentalis (Nesbitt), and two species of tetranychid (pest) mites, twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) and European red mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)). Calcium poly- sulÞde and ammonium thiosulfate were acutely toxic

Elizabeth H. Beers; Luis Martinez-Rocha; Randy R. Talley; John E. Dunley

2009-01-01

139

Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space  

PubMed Central

Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ?8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

2014-01-01

140

Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.  

PubMed

Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases. PMID:20664811

Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

2009-08-01

141

Enzymatic activity of allergenic house dust and storage mite extracts.  

PubMed

Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy. PMID:23427664

Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo

2013-01-01

142

A review of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitising Kenyan birds.  

PubMed

Two new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) collected from passeriform and coraciiform birds from Kenya are described : Neoaulonastus apalis sp. nov. from Apalis porphyrolaema Reichenow and Neumann (Passeriformes: Cisticolidae) and Peristerophila upupi sp. nov. from Upupa epops Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Upupidae). Additionally, 3 new host species: Cisticola hunteri Shelley, 1889; Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot, 1817) and Ploceus xanthops (Hartlaub, 1862) from Kenya and two new localities are recorded for genera: Aulobia Kethley, 1970; Neoaulonastus Skoracki, 2004 and Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970. The previous and the latest knowledge about syringophilid mites from Kenya is summarized in tabular form.  PMID:25283123

Klimovi?ová, Miroslava; Mikula, Peter; Kahure, Njoki; Hromada, Martin

2014-01-01

143

Morphological diagnosis of the eggs of stored-products mites.  

PubMed

Eggs of 13 species of common, economically important stored-product pest mites (Acarus siro, A. gracilis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, T. brevicrinatus, Tyroborus lini, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Caloglyphus redikorzevi, C. oudemansi, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Glycyphagus domesticus, Aeroglyphus robustus, Chortoglyphus arcuatus and Carpoglyphus lactis) from four families (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae, Carpoglyphidae) were studied in order to build a diagnostic key. The morphological study dealt with shape, size and surface sculpturing of eggs. Morphological details were visualised using scanning electron microscopy. A key for distinguishing eggs at genus and species level was developed for the major stored-product mites. PMID:19252823

Kucerova, Zuzana; Stejskal, Vaclav

2009-11-01

144

Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.  

PubMed

Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

2014-11-01

145

MITE-Hunter: a program for discovering miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements from genomic sequences  

PubMed Central

Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a special type of Class 2 non-autonomous transposable element (TE) that are abundant in the non-coding regions of the genes of many plant and animal species. The accurate identification of MITEs has been a challenge for existing programs because they lack coding sequences and, as such, evolve very rapidly. Because of their importance to gene and genome evolution, we developed MITE-Hunter, a program pipeline that can identify MITEs as well as other small Class 2 non-autonomous TEs from genomic DNA data sets. The output of MITE-Hunter is composed of consensus TE sequences grouped into families that can be used as a library file for homology-based TE detection programs such as RepeatMasker. MITE-Hunter was evaluated by searching the rice genomic database and comparing the output with known rice TEs. It discovered most of the previously reported rice MITEs (97.6%), and found sixteen new elements. MITE-Hunter was also compared with two other MITE discovery programs, FINDMITE and MUST. Unlike MITE-Hunter, neither of these programs can search large genomic data sets including whole genome sequences. More importantly, MITE-Hunter is significantly more accurate than either FINDMITE or MUST as the vast majority of their outputs are false-positives. PMID:20880995

Han, Yujun; Wessler, Susan R.

2010-01-01

146

Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis control of synanthropic mites (Acari: Acaridida) under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins present a potential for control of pest mites. Information concerning the effect of Bt and its possible application to the biocontrol of synathropic mites is rare. The toxic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis producing Cry3A toxin was tested on the mites Acarus siro L., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, and Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) via feeding tests. Fifty mites were reared on Bt additive diets in concentrations that ranged from 0 to 100 mg g(-1) under optimal conditions for their development. After 21 days, the mites were counted and the final populations were analyzed using a polynomial regression model. The Bt diet suppressed population growth of the four mite species. The fitted doses of Bt for 50% suppression of population growth were diets ranging from 25 to 38 mg g(-1). There were no remarkable differences among species. Possible applications of Bt for the control of synanthropic mites are discussed. PMID:19381844

Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Erbanova, Michaela; Hubert, Jan

2009-12-01

147

Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) of Adhesion Complexes  

PubMed Central

Key to understanding a protein’s biological function is the accurate determination of its spatial distribution inside a cell. Although fluorescent protein markers allow the targeting of specific proteins with molecular precision, much of this information is lost when the resultant fusion proteins are imaged with conventional, diffraction-limited optics. In response, several imaging modalities that are capable of resolution below the diffraction limit (~200 nm) have emerged. Here, both single- and dual-color superresolution imaging of biological structures using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) are described. The examples discussed focus on adhesion complexes: dense, protein-filled assemblies that form at the interface between cells and their substrata. A particular emphasis is placed on the instrumentation and photoactivatable fluorescent protein (PA-FP) tags necessary to achieve PALM images at ~20 nm resolution in 5 to 30 min in fixed cells. PMID:19085989

White, Helen; Betzig, Eric

2013-01-01

148

Thermal analysis of palm stearine by DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and thermal properties of palm stearine have been investigated. The sample consists of triglycerides\\u000a containing mainly the fatty acid residues: palmitic (P) 51.4%; oleic (O) 32.7%; linoleic (L) 8.3% and stearic (S) 5.0%. The\\u000a sample melts as almost two independent components in separate temperature ranges. DSC analysis and analogy with the work of\\u000a Persmarket al. (1) indicate

W. Ken Busfield; Peter N. Proschogob

1990-01-01

149

Pyrolysis and combustion of oil palm stone and palm kernel cake in fixed-bed reactors.  

PubMed

The main objective of this research was to investigate the main characteristics of the thermo-chemical conversion of oil palm stone (OPS) and palm kernel cake (PKC). A series of combustion and pyrolysis tests were carried out in two fixed-bed reactors. The effects of heating rate at the temperature of 700 degrees C on the yields and properties of the pyrolysis products were investigated. The results from the combustion experiments showed that the burning rates increased with an increase in the air flow rate. In addition, the FLIC code was used to simulate the combustion of the oil palm stone to investigate the effect of primary air flow on the combustion process. The FLIC modelling results were in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of predicting the temperature profiles along the bed height and the composition of the flue gases. PMID:20153960

Razuan, R; Chen, Q; Zhang, X; Sharifi, V; Swithenbank, J

2010-06-01

150

Modeling Of Honey Bee And Varroa Mite Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of the honey bee Apis mellifera and the bee mite Farroa jacobsoni and their interactions were modeled using a commercial software package known as Stella II. Stella II provides a non- mathematically intensive modeling technique that allows the user to generate a series of differential equations that can track a population through time with a minimum set

Roger Hoopingarner

151

May/June 1996 AHB Update Tracheal Mites and Amitraz  

E-print Network

. Some of these pesticides seem to be implicated in losses of bees or whole colonies, but documentationMay/June 1996 AHB Update Tracheal Mites and Amitraz Loss Reports Tucson Bee Lab Furadan and Cotton Bee Repellents Big Vote Abstracts on Disk Are Bees Bad? Another Killerbee Booklet 6th IBRA Tropical

Ferrara, Katherine W.

152

Phylogeny of parasitiform mites (Acari) based on rRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acari (mites and ticks) form one the most diverse lineages of arthropods, but basal relationships in the group are still poorly understood. The current study addresses this issue for one of its two main lineages, the order Parasitiformes. Relationships are examined at the subordinal and infraordinal level using complete 18S and partial 28S nuclear rRNA sequence data. Most currently recognized

Hans Klompen; Mariam Lekveishvili; William C. Black IV

2007-01-01

153

Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.  

PubMed

Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled. PMID:25162399

Thoemmes, Megan S; Fergus, Daniel J; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R

2014-01-01

154

SOME ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS OF VARROA JACOBSONI MITE ENTRANCE  

E-print Network

. The precise time of this functional « Varroa-trap» in worker and drone cells is determined for the first time. The duration of its function amounts to 15 and 45 hours before sealing of the worker and drone cells mg in worker cells and 200 mg in drone cells. Mites are released from the trap within 6 hours after

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Major mite pests of quarantine importance to Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are more than 130 pests on Turkey's quarantine list including mites. However the important pests are associated with plant products imported from abroad and include Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) (Tetranychidae), Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Tarsonemidae), Aculops fuchsiae (Keifer) (Eriophyidae) and Oligonychus perditus (Pritchard and Baker). Among these, Aculops fuchsiae (Keifer) and Oligonychus perditus (Pritchard and Baker), are not known to occur

Ay?e Ye?ilayer; Sultan Çobano?lu

2010-01-01

156

Origins of asexuality in Bryobia mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Obligate asexual reproduction is rare in the animal kingdom. Generally, asexuals are considered evolutionary dead ends that are unable to radiate. The phytophagous mite genus Bryobia contains a large number of asexual species. In this study, we investigate the origin and evolution of asexuality using samples from 111 populations in Europe, South Africa and the United States, belonging to

Vera I. D. Ros; Johannes A. J. Breeuwer; Steph B. J. Menken

2008-01-01

157

[Varroa mites in the apiaries of Campania region].  

PubMed

Mites in the genus Varroa are obligate ectoparasites of honey bee populations worldwide. Recent evidence from morphological, geographical, and especially genetic variation has spurred an important revision of Varroa taxonomy. Specifically, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evidence suggests that the main mite pest on western honey bees (Apis mellifera) is not Varroa jacobsoni, as first described, but a distinct species now named Varroa destructor. Genetic markers also have been used to support a taxonomic basis for regional differences in how Varroa mites impact honey bees. Recent morphometric and molecular studies confirmed the presence of the species V. destructor also in the apiaries of the Campania region of southern Italy. In the three-year period 2001-2003 a survey was conducted in 118 municipalities of the five provinces of the Campania region in order to add data to the limited epidemiological information available regarding Varroa destructor in this zone. The level of infestation by the mite was assessed on a total of 521 apiaries (241 apiaries were inspected on 2001, 154 on 2002, and 126 on 2003). In each apiary, 100 comb cells were examined and in each province the level of infestation was calculated using the following formula: (number of Varroa specimens/number of open comb cells) x 100. In order to display the level of infestation, Geographical Information Systems were used in order to draw parasitological maps. PMID:15305732

Mazzone, P; Caprio, E; Cringoli, G

2004-06-01

158

INSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX  

E-print Network

Fields ­ 20 Soybean Cyst Nematode Update ­ 20 Root Knot Nematodes in Soybean ­ How Widespread of Soybean Cyst Nematode - 26 Proper Grain Storage Part II: Insect Pest Management Practices - 26 JapaneseINSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX Alfalfa Weevil Alfalfa Weevil Damage Beginning

Ginzel, Matthew

159

PEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

Top Soil is Dry - 9 Nematodes Nematode Updates 2007: Soybean Cyst Nematode ­ 4 Nematode Updates Corn Cyst Nematode - 22 Other Potato Leafhopper It's Potato Leafhopper in Alfalfa Time ­ 10 LeafhopperPEST&CROP INDEX 2007 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asian Lady Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle A New Field

Ginzel, Matthew

160

PEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES  

E-print Network

/Dying Seedlings ­ 8 Nematode Updates 2008: Soybean Cyst Nematode - 18 Potato Leafhopper Potato LeafhoppersPEST&CROP INDEX 2008 INSECTS, MITES & NEMATODES Asiatic Garden Beetle Asiatic Garden Beetle is Back Bean Leaf Beetle Pod Feeding on Late Soybean ­ 23 Black Cutworm Black Cutworm Spring Arrival Met

Ginzel, Matthew

161

Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mägi, E., T. Järvis, I. Miller: Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 283-287. The objective of this study was to determine the antiparasitic efficiency of herbal-based products. Four medicinal plant species extracts in 10% ethanol solutions (hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., tansy Tanacetum vulgare L., wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.),

E. Mägi; T. Järvis; I. Miller

2006-01-01

162

Feather mites of Brazil (Acari: Astigmata: Analgoidea and Pterolichoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a checklist of feather mites known from native birds in Brazil. The list was compiled from a survey of Brazilian records published in indexing databases (e.g. Zoological Records) and from the available literature. To date, 185 nominal species representing 21 families have been recorded from Brazilian birds. Associations with 15 bird orders were found: Anseriformes, Apodiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Ciconiiformes,

Michel P. Valim; Fabio A. Hernandes; Heather C. Proctor

2011-01-01

163

The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae).  

PubMed

Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jen?; Retana-Salazar, Axel P

2014-01-01

164

Monitoring on two exotic spider mites in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eotetranychus lewisi McGregor and Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard are 2 spider mite species that are newly recorded in Taiwan. The authors traced their distribution, host plants, and natural enemies in the Taiwan area. Eotetranychus lewisi is mainly found in mountainous areas with cooler temperatures. Those found at lower elevations were always on potted seedlings of poinsettia (Euphorbia sp.). Populations

Chyi-Chen Ho

165

Identification of astigmatid mites using ITS2 and COI regions.  

PubMed

Identification of astigmatid mites based on their morphological characteristics is difficult because of the similarity of their organs, especially in immature mites. The ribosomal second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) regions are highly conserved in the eukaryotes and are usually used as barcodes. The ITS2 and COI regions of six species of astigmatid mites (Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Euroglyphus maynei, Tyrophagus putrescentiae) were obtained by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The lengths of the ITS2 sequences varied from 316 to 488 bp, while the COI regions were 377 or 378 bp long. Considering the ITS2 genes, the intraspecific genetic distance was in the range of 0.00-0.077844, whereas the interspecific genetic distance was 0.202426-0.912959. The values were 0.000-0.029748 and 0.138403-0.279304 for intra- and interspecific genetic distances when COI genes were used. The phylogenetic trees inferred from the ITS2 and the COI regions, by using maximum parsimony and neighbor-joining methods, were identical to those based on their morphological classification. Thus, the ITS2 and COI regions can be applied as barcodes to identify different species of astigmatid mites. PMID:21072538

Yang, Bin; Cai, Junlong; Cheng, Xunjia

2011-02-01

166

The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

1998-08-01

167

Shift of Bacterial Community in Synanthropic Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae Induced by Fusarium Fungal Diet  

PubMed Central

Background Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Astigmata) and Fusarium sp. co-occur in poorly managed grain. In a laboratory experiment, mite grazing resulted in significant reduction of fungal mycelium on cultivation plates. The destruction of mycelium appeared to be a result of an interaction between the mites, fungi and associated bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings A laboratory experiment was performed to simulate a situation of grain multiinfested by mites and Fusarium fungi. Changes of mite-associated bacterial community in T. putrescentiae were described in 3 habitats: (i) T. putrescentiae mites from a rearing diet prior to their transfer to fungal diet; (ii) fungal mycelium before mite introduction; (iii) mites after 7 day diet of each Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae and F. verticillioides. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. In total, 157 nearly full-length 16 S rRNA gene sequences from 9 samples representing selected habitats were analyzed. In the mites, the shift from rearing to fungal diet caused changes in mite associated bacterial community. A diverse bacterial community was associated with mites feeding on F. avenaceum, while feeding on the other three Fusarium spp. led to selection of a community dominated by Bacillaceae. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated changes of bacterial community associated with T. putrescentiae after shift to fungal diets suggesting selection for Bacillaceae species known as chitinase producers, which might participate in the fungal mycelium hydrolysis. PMID:23119013

Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Kopecky, Jan

2012-01-01

168

Structural mechanisms of inactivation in scabies mite serine protease paralogues.  

PubMed

The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 A and 2.0 A resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical "canonical" fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite. PMID:19427318

Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G; Irving, James A; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H P; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C; Pike, Robert N; Kemp, David J; Buckle, Ashley M

2009-07-24

169

Anti-mite activity of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae) extracts against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae: Acarina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acaricidal, antiovipositional and ovicidal activities of Polygonum hydropiper (Polygonaceae) against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Tetranychidae: Acarina) were studied under laboratory conditions. Essential chemicals of P. hydropiper obtained from crude extracts of both water and petroleum ether\\/acetone\\/methanol fractions by following cold percolation and sequential extraction methods on the basis of solvents' polarity. Ovicidal activity of P. hydropiper was

Somnath Roy; Guruswami Gurusubramanian; Senthil Kumar Nachimuthu

2011-01-01

170

Evaluation of dry-adapted strains of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus for spider mite control on cucumber, strawberry and pepper.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate spider mite control efficacy of two dry-adapted strains of Neoseiulus californicus. Performance of these strains were compared to a commercial strain of Phytoseiulus persimilis on whole cucumber, pepper and strawberry plants infested with Tetranychus urticae at 50 +/- 5% RH. Under these dry conditions predators' performance was very different on each host plant. On cucumber, spider mite suppression was not attained by any of the three predators, plants 'burnt out' within 4 weeks of spider mite infestation. On strawberry, all predators satisfactorily suppressed spider mites yet they differed in short term efficacy and persistence. Phytoseiulus persimilis suppressed the spider mites more rapidly than did the BOKU and SI N. californicus strains. Both N. californicus strains persisted longer than did P. persimilis. The BOKU strain was superior to SI in population density reached, efficacy in spider mite suppression and persistence. On pepper, in the first 2 weeks of the experiment the BOKU strain was similar to P. persimilis and more efficacious in spider mite suppression than strain SI. Four weeks into the experiment the efficacy of P. persimilis dropped dramatically and was inferior to the SI and BOKU strains. Overall, mean predator density was highest on plants harbouring the BOKU strain, lowest on plants with P. persimilis and intermediate on plants with the SI strain. Implications for biocontrol of spider mites using phytoseiid species under dry conditions are discussed. PMID:18566897

Palevsky, E; Walzer, A; Gal, S; Schausberger, P

2008-06-01

171

Life-history of predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on four spider mite species as prey, with special reference to Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially available strains of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the biological control agent of Tetranychus urticae Koch, perform poorly in the Western Mediterranean, probably because they are not well adapted to local climatic conditions. For that reason, efforts are being focused on the development of a biological control programme using native phytoseiid mites. Four species of red spider mites can be

L. A. Escudero; F. Ferragut

2005-01-01

172

Economic Feasibility of Organic Palm Oil Production in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of organic farming has increased due to its environmentally friendly methods and growing consumer awareness of food safety. Based on estimates, world retail sales of organic foods will reach USD 29-USD 31 billion in 2005. Producing palm oil by organic cultivation is highly possible in Malaysia since many oil palm agronomic practices in the country already have minimum

Ahmad Borhan; A Nordin; Mohd Arif Simeh; Mohd Nasir Amiruddin; Chan Kook Weng; Burhanuddin Abdul Salam

173

Effect of metabisulphite on alcohol production in palm-wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the effect of the metabisulphite ion on the concentration of ethanol in fermenting palm-wine. The work shows that the concentration of ethanol in untreated palm-wine reaches a maximum between three and four days and starts declining after this point. In the presence of the metabisulphite ion, the decline in ethanol content which takes place after three

Frank N. I. Morah

1995-01-01

174

Ecosystem services provided by palms in SE Asia  

E-print Network

Ecosystem services provided by palms in SE Asia SE Asian ecosystems are among the most diverse important in forest ecosystems and include some 600 species in SEA. Rural communities depend on palms by ensuring optimization of ecosystem services for the maintenance and improvement of biodiversity and enhance

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

175

M. Palm AB/ATB Beam Transformer Pulse Shapes  

E-print Network

M. Palm AB/ATB Beam Transformer Pulse Shapes #12;M. Palm AB/ATB 2 Sample curves #12009, h8 #4015, h "ringing" between h8 and h16. · Oscillation amplitude between bunches as high as 1/3 of main pulse! (e the current transformer!) · Response does not seem linear (at a first glance) #12;

McDonald, Kirk

176

ORIGINAL PAPER Demography of palm species in Brazil's Atlantic forest  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Demography of palm species in Brazil's Atlantic forest: a comparison of harvested Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Surprisingly little is known about the effect for three palm species in Brazil's biodiversity-rich and highly fragmented Atlantic forest. We compared

Bruna, Emilio M.

177

Pollen consumption by flower mites in three hummingbird-pollinated plant species.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies suggest that pollen consumption by flower mites may decrease the male fitness of the plant by reducing the available pollen for dispersal. Here we assessed pollen consumption by flower mites under natural conditions in three plant species with long-lived, protandrous flowers, Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae), Lobelia laxiflora and L. cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). Total pollen mass was measured after 24 and 48 h in flowers exposed to flower mites and excluded from hummingbirds, flowers exposed to mites and hummingbird visitation, and in flowers recently opened with dehisced anthers. Compared with recently opened flowers, pollen availability was reduced about half in the presence of flower mites and the same effect was observed in the three plant species. Our results suggest that flower mites are removing a great deal of pollen and the reduction of pollen implies the possibility of direct impact on pollen transfer. PMID:19763848

Velázquez, Tonatiuh; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

2010-02-01

178

The First Report of Eustigmaeus johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae) Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present. Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys. Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni. Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran. PMID:23785700

Badakhshan, Mehdi; Sadraei, Javid; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh

2013-01-01

179

Fusarium Decline of Queen Palms and Mexican Fan Palms in Florida July 2007 Update  

E-print Network

changed? First, I am feeling more confident with each pathogenicity experiment that the pathogen.e., it was affecting established palms and not newly transplanted plants. Only one nursery had been affected until). To confirm which fungus isolated from a diseased plant is the pathogen, plant pathologists must complete

Mazzotti, Frank

180

Effects of temperature and food level on growth and development of a planktonic water mite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed the relative effects of food availability and temperature on rates of growth and development of a predatory planktonic\\u000a water mite, Piona exigua. Growth in length of mites fed Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia and Chydorus was analysed by Gompertz or von Bertalanffy curves; these curves were compared by parallel curve analysis.\\u000a \\u000a Growth rates of nymphs and adult female mites increased with

Margaret I. Butler; Carolyn W. Burns

1995-01-01

181

Effects of pesticides on mite predators (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and colonization of apple trees by Tetranychus urticae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year survey of mite populations and pesticide use was carried out in Nova Scotia, Canada, in apple orchards where the\\u000a two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) was the dominant phytophagous mite. Fungicides were the only class of pesticides that affected cumulative number ofT. urticae-days per leaf in tree canopies and colonization success — the ratio ofT. urticae-days to number

John M. Hardman; Jeffrey L. Franklin; Klaus I. N. Jensen; Debra L. Moreau

2006-01-01

182

MagMites - Microrobots for wireless microhandling in dry and wet environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to the challenge of building sub-mm robots, or microrobots, is the development of effective power storage and locomotion mechanisms. In 2007 we introduced the Wireless Resonant Magnetic Micro-actuator (WRMMA) and its application in a successful microrobotic platform, the MagMite. The term MagMite is derived from Magnetic Mite—a tribute to the underlying magnetic propulsion principle and the micro- scale dimensions

Dominic R. Frutiger; Bradley Kratochvil; Bradley J. Nelson

2010-01-01

183

Harmful effect of immunotherapy in children with combined snail and mite allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With respect to allergy, the possibility of cross-reactivity between snail and mite is well recognized, and anecdotal reports suggesting that allergen immunotherapy with mite extract can worsen snail-induced allergy exist. Objective: We describe the effect of immunotherapy in 4 children with snail-mite allergy. Methods: Four children (1 boy and 3 girls; 9-13 years of age) had consistent clinical histories

Giovanni Battista Pajno; Stefania La Grutta; Giovanni Barberio; Giorgio Walter Canonica; Giovanni Passalacqua

2002-01-01

184

Nests of the black stork Ciconia nigra as a habitat for mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We surveyed the Mesostigmatid mite fauna of nests of the black stork Ciconia nigra, to determine the role of these mites in the biology of their hosts. We present preliminary results obtained on the basis\\u000a of material collected from 31 nests. A total of 1,615 mite specimens was recorded, belonging to 39 species. The most abundant\\u000a species were Dendrolaelaps strenzkei,

Jerzy B?oszyk; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Bruce Halliday; Pawe? T. Dolata; Bart?omiej Go?dyn

2009-01-01

185

Immigration of Phytoseiid Mites from Surrounding Uncultivated Areas into a Newly Planted Vineyard  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports (1) a faunistic survey of phytoseiid mites observed inside a vine plot and in neighbouring vegetation (other\\u000a vine plots and uncultivated areas) and (2) dispersal of phytoseiid mites into the plot studied. These data aim to raise some\\u000a hypotheses concerning natural colonisation of a vineyard by predatory mites. The study was carried out over 3 years (1999,\\u000a 2000

Marie-Stéphane Tixier; Serge Kreiter; Brigitte Cheval; Sabine Guichou; Philippe Auger; Romain Bonafos

2006-01-01

186

IgE reactivity to Acarus siro extract in Korean dust mite allergic patients.  

PubMed

Although specific IgE to the storage mite Acarus siro is often detected, there are no detailed studies on IgE reactivity to A. siro in Korea. This study was undertaken to investigate the cross-reactivity to the mite species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and A. siro in Korean mite allergic patients. Specific IgE values were determined for the four mite species and a competitive inhibition test was performed for mite extracts using the ImmunoCAP system. The IgE value to D. farinae was the highest among the four mite species tested. There was a strong correlation in the IgE value between house dust mites (D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae) and between storage mites (A. siro and T. putrescentiae). IgE reactivity to A. siro was inhibited by D. farinae and T. putrescentiae extract. Dermatophagoides farinae extract was the strongest inhibitor of IgE binding to A. siro extract, indicating that IgE reactivity to A. siro extract is a cross-reaction caused by sensitization to D. farinae. Strong IgE reactive components were observed in D. farinae and T. putrescentiae extract by SDS-PAGE and IgE immunoblotting. However, no strong IgE-binding component was observed for A. siro. Dermatophagoides farinae is the main source of mite allergens that cause sensitization in Korea. Serum IgE from some of the house dust mite-sensitized patients showed positive responses to storage mite allergens by cross-reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to pay special attention to the diagnosis of mite allergies. PMID:24287899

Son, Mina; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Bum Joon; Lim, Kook-Jin; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

2014-05-01

187

Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it

Jamal Othman

2003-01-01

188

How Palm Beach County's economy has suffered after real-estate bust  

E-print Network

How Palm Beach County's economy has suffered after real-estate bust By JEFF OSTROWSKI Palm Beach, 2011 The collapse of the housing market has exacted a multibillion-dollar toll on Palm Beach County verges on extinction, it's no exaggeration to conclude that middle-income residents of Palm Beach County

Belogay, Eugene A.

189

At $60.6 million, FPL is Palm Beach County's biggest property taxpayer  

E-print Network

At $60.6 million, FPL is Palm Beach County's biggest property taxpayer By BILL DIPAOLO Palm Beach Quick quiz: Who'll be Palm Beach County's biggest property taxpayer this year? Donald Trump? Wrong. Jack to figures released by the Palm Beach County Tax Collector's office today. That's about 1.6 percent of the $3

Belogay, Eugene A.

190

An alternative energy source from palm wastes industry for Malaysia and Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia and Indonesia are the largest producers of palm oil product. The palm oil industry has contributed the biggest income to the countries for many years. Moreover, palm oils has emerged as one of the most important oils in the world’s oils and the market of fats. About 90% of palm oil is used as food related products worldwide, and

T. M. I Mahlia; M. Z Abdulmuin; T. M. I Alamsyah; D Mukhlishien

2001-01-01

191

Growth of Hereford-Kedah Kelantan calves fed oil palm fronds and palm kernel cake based diet  

E-print Network

-products that are suitable for livestock feed such as palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the farm with freshly chopped OPF at about 30 % of dry matter (DM) intake. The diet was composed of PKC (55 %), POME (35 was composed of PKC (63 %), POME (30 %), soya bean meal (5 %) and vitamin-mineral premix (2 %), on a DM basis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

Phylogenetic relationships among arecoid palms (Arecaceae: Arecoideae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Arecoideae is the largest and most diverse of the five subfamilies of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), containing >50 % of the species in the family. Despite its importance, phylogenetic relationships among Arecoideae are poorly understood. Here the most densely sampled phylogenetic analysis of Arecoideae available to date is presented. The results are used to test the current classification of the subfamily and to identify priority areas for future research. Methods DNA sequence data for the low-copy nuclear genes PRK and RPB2 were collected from 190 palm species, covering 103 (96 %) genera of Arecoideae. The data were analysed using the parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood, and both likelihood and parsimony bootstrapping. Key Results and Conclusions Despite the recovery of paralogues and pseudogenes in a small number of taxa, PRK and RPB2 were both highly informative, producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data sets provided additional resolution and support. Two areas of incongruence between PRK and RPB2 were strongly supported by the bootstrap relating to the placement of tribes Chamaedoreeae, Iriarteeae and Reinhardtieae; the causes of this incongruence remain uncertain. The current classification within Arecoideae was strongly supported by the present data. Of the 14 tribes and 14 sub-tribes in the classification, only five sub-tribes from tribe Areceae (Basseliniinae, Linospadicinae, Oncospermatinae, Rhopalostylidinae and Verschaffeltiinae) failed to receive support. Three major higher level clades were strongly supported: (1) the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae and Cocoseae), (2) the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae and Sclerospermeae) and (3) the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae and Pelagodoxeae). However, new data sources are required to elucidate ambiguities that remain in phylogenetic relationships among and within the major groups of Arecoideae, as well as within the Areceae, the largest tribe in the palm family. PMID:21325340

Baker, William J.; Norup, Maria V.; Clarkson, James J.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Dowe, John L.; Lewis, Carl E.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Savolainen, Vincent; Wilmot, Tomas; Chase, Mark W.

2011-01-01

193

The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.  

PubMed

Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids. PMID:24114339

Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

2014-03-01

194

Adaptive learning in arthropods: spider mites learn to distinguish food quality.  

PubMed

Many herbivorous arthropods have been shown to possess learning capabilities, yet fitness effects of learning are largely unknown. In this paper, we test whether two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) learn to distinguish food quality in choice tests, and whether this results in fitness benefits. Food consisted of cucumber plants with one of three degrees of feeding damage: undamaged (no mites), mildly damaged (infested by a mite strain adapted to tomato) and heavily damaged (infested by a mite strain adapted to cucumber). Mites were subjected to one choice test in a greenhouse and three sequential choice tests on leaf disks. Thereafter, individual mite performance was measured as oviposition rate over four days. In the course of the three small-scale choice tests, preference shifted towards less damaged food. The performance tests showed that learning was adaptive: mites learned to prefer the food type that yielded the higher oviposition rate. Interestingly, innate preferences in the greenhouse tests were close to those shown after learning in the small-scale tests. Given that both strains of mites had not experienced cucumber for several years, we hypothesize that the preference in the greenhouse was due to avoidance of mite odours rather than odours of damaged plants. Through its effect on foraging behaviour, adaptive learning may promote the evolution of host plant specialization in herbivorous arthropods. PMID:14756390

Egas, Martijn; Norde, Derk-Jaap; Sabelis, Maurice W

2003-01-01

195

Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.  

PubMed

Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems. PMID:24292438

Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

2014-05-01

196

Somatic embryogenesis from peach palm zygotic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors affecting the induction and development of somatic embryos and plantlet acclimatization of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) were evaluated to establish an efficient regenerative protocol based on somatic embryogenesis. Mature zygotic embryos\\u000a were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0–40 ?M of picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid)\\u000a and 0 or 5 ?M of 2-isopentyladenine (6-dimethylaminopurine) (2-iP). After 5 mo. in

D. A. Steinmacher; G. C. Cangahuala-Inocente; C. R. Clement; M. P. Guerra

2007-01-01

197

Damage potential of the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

E-print Network

in total plant height, number of leaves, number of flowers and fruits and fruit weight due to mite attack´sume´. On a e´tudie´ les de´ga^ts potentiels de l' acarien Tetranychus ludeni Zacher sur des plantules d Annamalai , on a enregistre´ des pertes interme´diaires. Les de´ga^ts sont maxima sur les plantes a^ge´es de

Reddy, Gadi VP

198

Do plant mites commonly prefer the underside of leaves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adaxial (upper) and abaxial (lower) surfaces of a plant leaf provide heterogeneous habitats for small arthropods with\\u000a different environmental conditions, such as light, humidity, and surface morphology. As for plant mites, some agricultural\\u000a pest species and their natural enemies have been observed to favor the abaxial leaf surface, which is considered an adaptation\\u000a to avoid rain or solar ultraviolet

Masaaki Sudo; Masahiro Osakabe

2011-01-01

199

Role of house-dust mites in childhood asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aetiological importance of the house-dust mite, Dermatophagoides sp., was examined in 133 asthmatic children referred to hospital. Evidence of sensitization to this allergen from positive skin tests and the presence of circulating specific IgE was found in the majority of these children and sensitization often began in the preschool years. In vitro studies of specific IgE levels were found

J. K. Sarsfield

1974-01-01

200

The oribatid mite genus Benoibates (Acari, Oribatida, Oripodidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489

Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodriguez, Olman; Kontschan, Jeno; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.

2014-01-01

201

Karyotypes and sex-determination in spider mites ( Tetranychidae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomes of 13 species of spider mites (Tetranychidae) are determined using the aceto-orcein squash technique in order to establish the haplo-diploid sex-determination. 12 species showed the existence of haploid and diploid eggs:Neotetranychus rubi (Trägårdh) with 7 and 14 chromosomes;Eurytetranychus buxi (Garman) with 5 and 10;Bryobia sarothamni (Geijskes),Eotetranychus tiliarium (Joh. Hermann) andE. carpini (Oudemans) with 4 and 8;Panonychus ulmi (Koch),Schizotetranychus

W. Helle; H. R. Bolland

1967-01-01

202

First record of the invasive mite Tetranychus evansi in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red spider miteTetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae) Baker and Pritchard was recorded for the first time in Greece, in the area of Tympaki (south-central\\u000a Crete) onSolanum nigrum. T. evansi is a pest of crops of the family Solanaceae, which are grown extensively in Crete. The species identification was based on\\u000a both morphological and molecular data. The second internal transcribed spacer

A. Tsagkarakou; S. Cros-Arteil; M. Navajas

2007-01-01

203

Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting\\u000a predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes\\u000a in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the anti-predator response studied most intensively in spider mites has\\u000a been the avoidance of patches with high predation

Felipe Lemos; Renato Almeida Sarmento; Angelo Pallini; Cleide Rosa Dias; Maurice W. Sabelis; Arne Janssen

2010-01-01

204

Contrasting palm species and use diversity in the Yucatan Peninsula and the Ecuadorian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the relationship between palm species diversity and diversity of palm use in two areas (Amazonian Ecuador; Yucatan\\u000a Peninsula) of equivalent size but with contrasting characteristics in palm species diversity and morphology, and in the phylogenetic\\u000a composition of palm flora. The areas also differ in their cultural and socioeconomic contexts. Palm use diversity is significantly\\u000a higher in the Ecuadorian

Lucía de la Torre; Luz María Calvo-Irabién; Carmen Salazar; Henrik Balslev; Finn Borchsenius

2009-01-01

205

Tandem Repeat-Containing MITEs in the Clam Donax trunculus  

PubMed Central

Two distinct classes of repetitive sequences, interspersed mobile elements and satellite DNAs, shape eukaryotic genomes and drive their evolution. Short arrays of tandem repeats can also be present within nonautonomous miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs). In the clam Donax trunculus, we characterized a composite, high copy number MITE, named DTC84. It is composed of a central region built of up to five core repeats linked to a microsatellite segment at one array end and flanked by sequences holding short inverted repeats. The modular composition and the conserved putative target site duplication sequence AA at the element termini are equivalent to the composition of several elements found in the cupped oyster Crassostrea virginica and in some insects. A unique feature of D. trunculus element is ordered array of core repeat variants, distinctive by diagnostic changes. Position of variants in the array is fixed, regardless of alterations in the core repeat copy number. Each repeat harbors a palindrome near the junction with the following unit, being a potential hotspot responsible for array length variations. As a consequence, variations in number of tandem repeats and variations in flanking sequences make every sequenced element unique. Core repeats may be thus considered as individual units within the MITE, with flanking sequences representing a “cassette” for internal repeats. Our results demonstrate that onset and spread of tandem repeats can be more intimately linked to processes of transposition than previously thought and suggest that genomes are shaped by interplays within a complex network of repetitive sequences. PMID:24317975

Satovic, Eva; Plohl, Miroslav

2013-01-01

206

Importance of house dust and storage mites in canine atopic dermatitis in the geographic region of Galicia, Spain.  

PubMed

Sensitisation to mites is frequent in atopic dogs. The main mite genus involved in canine atopic dermatitis is Dermatophagoides. The importance of storage mite allergens in dogs has been controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitisation rates against storage mites (Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus) in atopic dogs from Galicia, a highly humid and temperate region of Spain, using a FcepsilonRIalpha-based immunoglobulin E (IgE) in vitro test. The study was performed on 95 dogs suffering from atopic dermatitis and presenting detectable specific serum IgE levels: 91.6% of the dogs tested positive for storage mites, whereas sensitisation to house dust mites was detected in 87.4%. These results indicate the importance of storage mites in this specific geographic area. PMID:18669243

Goicoa, Ana; Espino, Luciano; Rodriguez, Isabel; Puigdemont, Anna; Brazis, Pilar; Rejas, Juan

2008-06-01

207

PALM : A dynamic parallel coupler for Data Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the PALM software is to make a complex application (for example a data assimilation suite) being easily evolutive and parallelisable by de-coupling the application in modular independent parts (units) and re-couple it in the PALM framework. The owner develops his own method coupling different units within the PALM framework. PALM is in charge of managing the sequence(s) of units the user has defined in the PALM graphical interface, and the data exchanges between the units. The use of Fortran, C and the MPI (Messsage Passing Interface) library in the implementation allows a huge portability on machins such as Fujitsu VPP, NEC Sx, IBM SP, COMPAQ, SGI, and the clusters of stations or PCs. PALM is particularly adapted for users that begin to develop a data assimilation application, because it really simplifies the modifications to implement to go from a given data assimilation method to a more complex one. The PALM software is today used in an operational way in the French Operational oceanography project MERCATOR, and will soonly be used in different other data assimilation applications (european project ASSET : assimilation of ENVISAT data in a Meteo-France chemical atmospheric model, OPAVAR : an assimilation project in the french ocean model OPA, ...).

Buis, S.; Declat, D.; Gondet, E.; Massart, S.; Morel, T.; Thual, O.

2003-04-01

208

Field study on the efficacy of an extract of neem seed (Mite -Stop) against the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae naturally infecting poultry in Egypt.  

PubMed

Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem seed product Mite-Stop against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract was diluted 1:40 and 1:50 with tap water just prior to use. Application of the two dilutions of the provided product was performed to soil, cracks and crevices of the examined area as well as to mite-infested birds on day 0 and day 7. Two hours after treatment soil dust was collected from sprayed regions of the stable and from unsprayed control regions of the same stable. The treated chickens were also checked for mites 2 h after each treatment. The examination of the chickens 2 h after spraying showed that they were free of mites. The examination of treated soil with the Tullgren funnel apparatus 2 h after the first spraying on day 0 already showed a considerable reduction of living mites compared to controls. Seven days after the first treatment of the soil the number of living mites was reduced for 80% in the treated soil and decreased even more after the second spraying, since those larvae that had hatched from eggs in the meantime were killed. The 1:40 dilution of the neem seed extract with tap water was superior to the 1:50 dilution. These results clearly show a very high killing rate of the extract, if the mites come in direct contact with the compound. However, in order to obtain extinction also of hidden and freshly hatched stages repeated spraying should be done three times within 8-10 days. PMID:18481087

Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Sobhy, Hassan M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Semmler, Margit

2008-08-01

209

The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg?1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg?1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet. PMID:25387104

Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Mareckova-Sagova, Marketa; Hubert, Jan

2014-01-01

210

Transfers of Varroa mites from newly emerged bees: Preferences for age- and function-specific adult bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movements of the parasitic honey bee mite,Varroa jacobsoni (Oud.) were monitored in several assays as they moved among adult host honey bees,Apis mellifera. We examined the propensity of mites to leave their hosts and to move onto new bee hosts. We also examined their preference\\u000a for bees of different age and hive function. Mites were standardized by selecting mites from

L. P. S. Kuenen; N. W. Calderone

1997-01-01

211

Potential of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii to suppress the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus on the gboma eggplant, Solanum macrocarpon.  

PubMed

In Benin, the tarsonemid mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) is a key pest of gboma eggplant Solanum macrocarpon (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), a leafy vegetable on which it causes considerable damage to the plants and substantial reduction in yield. Predatory mites in the family Phytoseiidae have been successfully used in the biological control of numerous agricultural pests worldwide. In that respect, a population of the phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) has been identified as a potential predator of P. latus, and is now a candidate for release against this pest in Benin. The objective of the present study is to determine, through laboratory experiments, the predation rate and life table parameters of A. swirskii when feeding on P. latus or alternative food such as maize pollen. Under laboratory conditions the mean number of P. latus consumed by A. swirskii, and daily oviposition, significantly increased as the number of prey increased. Total development time of A. swirskii was significantly shorter when it fed on P. latus than on maize pollen. Net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, mean generation time and the finite rate of increase of A. swirskii were were all significantly lower on P. latus than on maize pollen. However, doubling time was significantly higher on maize pollen. This study shows that A. swirskii is a good predator of P. latus, and that maize pollen can efficiently sustain A. swirskii populations when P. latus densities on plants become low. Consequently, A. swirskii can be used for the biological control of the broad mite P. latus on gboma eggplant, and on other solanaceous crops in Benin and elsewhere. PMID:22962997

Onzo, Alexis; Houedokoho, Arnaud F; Hanna, Rachid

2012-01-01

212

Isolation of palm tocols using supercritical fluid chromatography.  

PubMed

Crude palm oil contains 600 to 1000 ppm of tocols in the form of tocopherols and tocotrienols. These palm tocols have been isolated and analyzed in the past by various chromatographic techniques such as open column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as thin-layer chromatography. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has emerged as a more advanced chromatographic technique in recent years. The tocols present in palm oil are successfully isolated using SFC. Identification of these tocols is supported by various spectroscopic techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. PMID:15768840

Han, Ng Mei; May, Choo Yuen; Ngan, Ma Ah; Hock, Chuah Cheng; Ali Hashim, Mohd

2004-01-01

213

Species and sex biases in ectoparasitism of dragonflies by mites Marc J. Lajeunesse, Mark R. Forbes and Bruce P. Smith  

E-print Network

Species and sex biases in ectoparasitism of dragonflies by mites Marc J. Lajeunesse, Mark R. Forbes in ectoparasitism of dragonflies by mites. Á/ Oikos 106: 501Á/508. An important problem in understanding on the patterns of host use and successful parasitism of two dragonfly species by the ectoparasitic water mite

Smith, Bruce

214

Managing Two-Spotted Spider Mites on Soybeans Ken Ostlie, Extension Entomologist, and Bruce Potter, IPM Specialist  

E-print Network

Managing Two-Spotted Spider Mites on Soybeans Ken Ostlie, Extension Entomologist, and Bruce Potter, IPM Specialist Prolonged drought raises the threat of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae treatable levels. Spider mite outbreaks are rare but have occurred more frequently in recent years (1988

Minnesota, University of

215

Post-Harvest Control of Two-Spotted Spider Mites in Nikki Rothwell, District Fruit IPM Educator  

E-print Network

1 Post-Harvest Control of Two-Spotted Spider Mites in Cherry Nikki Rothwell, District Fruit IPM Educator John Wise, Trevor Nichols Research Complex Dave Epstein, MSU IPM Program Two-spotted spider mites are higher and when PHI's are no longer a concern. Life Cycle. Two-spotted spider mites are pests of many

216

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 2000-2004. In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites

E. H. Beers; J. F. Brunner; J. E. Dunley; M. Doerr; K. Granger

217

Comparisons of the allergenic mite prevalence in dwellings and certain outdoor environments of the Upper Silesia (southwest Poland).  

PubMed

The occurrence of allergenic mites (pyroglyphid house-dust mites, acarid and glycyphagid storage mites and others) in dwellings and in synanthropic outdoor sites in a densely populated urban area was investigated. A total of 335 house dust samples were collected from dwellings at 7 different locations in Upper Silesia (Poland), including 84 samples from dwellings of Katowice. Mites were found in 188 of the samples examined (56.1%). A total of 4410 mite specimens were isolated and identified, including 4212 members of the family Pyroglyphidae (95.51%). Among them, Dermatophagoides farinae was predominant (75.3%), followed by D. pteronyssinus (18.6%) and Euroglyphus maynei (1.5%). Moreover, litter soiled with communal wastes was sampled. All 86 samples contained mites. A total of 7547 mite specimens were isolated including 6050 mites known as allergenic (80.5%). Among the astigmatid mites two acarids were dominant: Tyrophagus silvester and T. longior (28.7% and 25.1% of all mites). It should be stressed that 6 of the acarid mite species or genera found in outdoor environments are typical domestic mites (T. putrescentiae), or they have been collected from house dust samples (T. longior, Tyrolichus casei, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Mycetoglyphus fungivorus and Rhizoglyphus robini). The litter of synanthropic sites can therefore form a substantial source of infestation. PMID:17222584

Solarz, Krzysztof; Senczuk, Liliana; Maniurka, Hanna; Cichecka, Ewelina; Peszke, Magdalena

2007-12-01

218

An experimental investigation on feeding of oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in producing energy to reduce green house gas emissions using biomass as a feedstock is increasing worldwide. In a fluidized bed reactor, the feeding of the feedstock plays an important role in the burning process. In this study, feeding tests were carried out using gravitational method for oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF). The design of the feeder of 150 g/h is also presented. The objective of this paper is to study the feed rate of the samples used and to find the relationship between the physical characteristic of the samples (the shape of the samples, particle size and moisture content) and the feed rate. The result shows that the feed rate of OPS and OPF was around 120 g/h and 90 g/h, respectively. After grinding and sieving, OPS appeared to be more granular compared to OPF making it easier to feed. Other characteristics and results are also discussed in this paper.

Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

2013-05-01

219

The function of bleaching earths in the processing of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results presented in the literature, which attempt to elucidate the mechanisms by which triglyceride oils are bleached\\u000a by earths, are reviewed. The impact of this work and how the mechanistic proposals affect changes in oil properties are considered,\\u000a with particular emphasis on the needs of the palm oil processor. Important properties include color, metals and phosphorus\\u000a content and oxidative

D. A. Morgan; D. B. Shaw; M. J. Sidebottom; T. C. Soon; R. S. Taylor

1985-01-01

220

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control.  

PubMed

The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 0 In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites per leaf. Overall, acetamiprid treatments had 4.6-fold higher mite densities than the standard organophosphate insecticide treatment. Of the treatments with high mite populations, Panonychus ulmi, the European red mite, and Tetranychus urticae, the twospotted spider mite, were the dominant species in roughly equal numbers of cases. Only 11.1% of the thiacloprid treatments exceeded 5 mites per leaf; these experimental treatments included eight applications, whereas the current label restricts the number of applications at the rate for C. pomonella to two applications. One out of six clothianidin treatments caused a significantly higher mite density than the standard treatment; however, this material appeared to suppress predatory mites. Neonicotinyl insecticides did not eliminate predatory mites, but they inhibited their ability to respond normally to increasing prey populations. In field trials designed specifically to examine mite population densities where neonicotinyl insecticides were used, significantly higher levels of tetranychid mites occurred in one or more acetamiprid treatments (one, two or four applications) in five out of six trials. In the sixth trial (in a commercial orchard), only two acetamiprid applications were made, and mite populations were low in all treatments. While elevated mite densities were more likely to occur with four applications, in one case it occurred following a single application. The predominant tetranychid mite species (either P. ulmi or T. urticae) varied from trial to trial; however, there was no apparent bias regarding stimulation of the two species. Horticultural mineral oil was used with acetamiprid in some trials in an attempt to mitigate mite outbreaks. However, the addition of oil did not counteract the tendency of acetamiprid to increase tetranychid mite populations, and in one trial, had a negative effect on predatory mite densities. Seasonal tetranychid mite density was positively related to the total grams AI (or number of applications) of acetamiprid, thus reducing the number of applications per season should lower the probability of mite outbreaks. PMID:16341248

Beers, E H; Brunner, J F; Dunley, J E; Doerr, M; Granger, K

2005-01-01

221

Nest mites (Pellonyssus reedi) and the reproductive biology of the house finch  

E-print Network

roselins adultes nourrissaient moins souvent leurs petits lorsque ceux-ci étaient dans des nids parasités colour of breeding adult male house finches was not correlated with nest-mite levels, nor did it appear that redder males' offspring suffered less from the effects of mites. Adult house finches fed nestlings from

McGraw, Kevin J.

222

Genetic variability in mite-resistant honey bee usi ng ISSR molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems facing the beekeeping ind ustry in Saudi Arabia is the infestation of honeybee colonies with parasitic mite Varroa destru ctor. Bee breeders strive to reduce exposure of bees to pesticides by developing stocks of bees tha t resist the mites. The goal of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of eleven colon ies

S. A. Al-Otaibi

223

Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari): evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide sequences of the D3 expansion segment and its flanking regions of the 28S rDNA gene were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships among representative sexual and asexual oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acariformes). The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that oribatid mites consist of species rich clusters of asexual species that may have radiated while being parthenogenetic. Furthermore,

Mark Maraun; Michael Heethoff; Katja Schneider; Stefan Scheu; Gerd Weigmann; Jennifer Cianciolo; Richard H. Thomas; Roy A. Norton

2004-01-01

224

The Crystal Structure of a Major Dust Mite Allergen Der p 2, and its Biological Implications  

E-print Network

The Crystal Structure of a Major Dust Mite Allergen Der p 2, and its Biological Implications U 15213, USA The crystal structure of the common house mite (Dermatophagoides sp.) Der p 2 allergen function of the Der p 2 protein. q 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved Keywords: allergen

225

Exposure to house dust mite allergens and the clinical activity of asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: House dust mite allergens play an important role in inducing IgE-mediated sensitization and the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. This study investigated the relationship between mite allergen exposure and the clinical activity and severity of asthma. Methods: Nonsmoking adult patients with asthma (n = 53) were randomly recruited from the asthma registry of two large family practitioner

Adnan Custovic; Simon C. O. Taggart; Helen C. Francis; Martin D. Chapman; Ashley Woodcock

1996-01-01

226

NEGLECTED COMPONENTS OF BIODIVERSITY: SOIL ORIBATID MITES, COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND SOIL RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Oribatid mites are an abundant and diverse component of soils in regional pine forests, and are valuable in characterizing the biodiversity of these forested lands. We sampled oribatid mites using soil cores and leaf litterbags, in young aggrading forest stands. Comparing these...

227

Dispersal by species in the astigmatic mite family Histiostomatidae is typically accomplished through a  

E-print Network

the anus, and under phase Two novel adaptations for dispersal in the mite family HistiostomatidaeDispersal by species in the astigmatic mite family Histiostomatidae is typically accomplished dispersing, the suckers are used for attachment to the smooth surface of the arthropod host's cuticle

Fashing, Norman

228

The weasel ( Mustela nivalis ) helps in detecting Demodex mites in rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many stages of parasites living in or on prey animals can pass undestroyed through the intestinal tract of carnivores and carnivorous animals. Nematode eggs, whole nematodes, even cestodes can be found in their faeces, but of the ectoparasitic mites usually only the eggs are found. It was therefore surprising thatDemodex mites, some of them even still alive, were found to

Brigitte Loos-Frank

1988-01-01

229

TARSONEMID MITE ASSOCIATES OF DENDROCTONUS FRONTALIS (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE HISTORICAL BIOGEOGRAPHY OF D . FRONTALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canadian Entomologist 132: 765 - 771 (2000) Seven species of mites (Atari: Tarsenomidae) were associated with two local out- breaks of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, in Chiapas, Mexico; three of these species were new records for Mexico and Central America. The morphology and phoretic behavior of these mites differed little between the western and southern populations

JOHN C MOSERI; Jorge E. Macías-Sámano

2000-01-01

230

A New Worldwide Database of Insect, Mite and Nematode Cultures Available for Distribution  

E-print Network

A New Worldwide Database of Insect, Mite and Nematode Cultures Available for Distribution of producers and suppliers who are willing to sell or donate live insects, mites or nematodes. This database and nematode producers and suppliers. Producers and suppliers are required to submit contact information

Ray, David

231

Parasitic mites as part-time bodyguards of a host wasp  

PubMed Central

Some bees and wasps that host mites have peculiar pocket-like structures called acarinaria. These have long been considered as morphological adaptations to securely transfer beneficial mites into nests, and thus are thought to be the product of a mutualistic relationship. However, there has been little compelling evidence to support this hypothesis. We demonstrated that the parasitic mite Ensliniella parasitica, which uses acarinaria, increases the reproductive success of its host wasp Allodynerus delphinalis by protecting it from parasitoid wasps. Every time the parasitoid Melittobia acasta accessed a prepupal or pupal wasp host cell, adult mites attacked it, continuously clinging to it and possibly piercing the intersegmental membrane of the parasitoid with their chelicerae. Subsequent mortality of the parasitoid depended on the number of attacking mites: an average of six mites led to a 70% chance of mortality, and 10 mites led to a 100% chance of mortality. In this way, parent mites protect the food source (juvenile wasps) for themselves and ultimately for their offspring. We propose that wasps evolved acarinaria to maintain this protective guarding behaviour. PMID:18595837

Okabe, Kimiko; Makino, Shun'ichi

2008-01-01

232

New taxa of oribatid mites of the family Liacaridae (Acariformes: Oribatida) from the Caucasus  

E-print Network

New taxa of oribatid mites of the family Liacaridae (Acariformes: Oribatida) from the Caucasus. 2009: New taxa of oribatid mites of the family Liacaridae (Acariformes: Oribatida) from the Caucasus the Caucasus (Georgia) are described: a new subgenus and species Adoristes (Gordeeviella) krivolutskyisubg

Arillo, Antonio Gabriel

233

POPULATION ECOLOGY Seasonal Dynamics of Mites and Fungi and Their Interaction with  

E-print Network

were inÃ?u- enced by nontrophic interactions involving commensal mites, their mutualistic bluestain fungus Ophiostoma minus (Hedgc.) H. and P. Sydow, and beetle-mutualistic mycangial fungi. We tested in abundance of mites and their mutualistic fungus, O. minus were inversely related with beetle population

Ayres, Matthew.P.

234

Biology and control of the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The broad mite,Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), is an important, and in some cases recent, pest of diverse crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Infested leaves become bronzed with down-curling margins, buds are aborted and flowers distorted, shoots grow twisted and fruit may be misshapen and russeted. Injuries, presumably due to toxins, occur even after the broad mite is killed by

Uri Gerson

1992-01-01

235

Induced Resistance and Interspecific Competition between Spider Mites and a Vascular Wilt Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae was less likely to cause symptoms of verticillium wilt on cotton seedlings that had been previously exposed to spider mites than on unexposed cotton seedlings. Conversely, populations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae grew less rapidly on seedlings that had been inoculated with V. dahliae than on uninoculated controls. Changes caused by pathogen or herbivore

Richard Karban; Rodney Adamchak; William C. Schnathorst

1987-01-01

236

Brood parasitism by mites (Uropodidae) in an invasive population of the pest-ant Pheidole megacephala  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  We report that in Okinawa Island (southern Japan) the pupae of the invasive ant Pheidole megacephala were parasitized by an undescribed Uropodidae mite species. Our observations suggest that by sucking the hemolymph of the\\u000a ant pupae during its own development, mites induce some conspicuous morphological changes and the death of parasitized P. megacephala pupae. Of the 75 collected nests, 69

J. Le. Breton; G. Takaku; K. Tsuji

2006-01-01

237

Wolbachia and cytoplasmic incompatibility in the spider mites Tetranychus urticae and T. turkestani  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wolbachia form a group of closely related intracellular Proteobacteria that manipulate reproduction of their arthropod host in various ways. They are widespread in insects, but have not been not looked for in other arthropods except a few isopods and a predatory mite. Recently, Wolbachia were demonstrated to be widespread in mites also. Here, I report that Wolbachia induce cytoplasmic incompatibility

Johannes A J Breeuwer

1997-01-01

238

Clinical Significance of Skin Reactions to Mite Extracts in Children with Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus has been identified in dust from the houses of children in Birmingham suffering from asthma. Skin tests were carried out on 150 asthmatic children with extracts of D. pteronyssinus, of the related species D. farinae, of other mites found in house dust, and of crude house dust. Though positive reactions to D. pteronyssinus were obtained more

J. Morrison Smith; M. E. Disney; J. D. Williams; Z. A. Goels

1969-01-01

239

Immunologic Characterization and Allergenicity of Recombinant Tyr p 3 Allergen from the Storage Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The involvement of the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae in allergies has been increasingly reported in many countries. Molecular analysis has shown that group 3 mite allergens are homologous to trypsin. Similar allergens have not been identified in T. putrescentiae. Our aims were to characterize group 3 allergens in T. putrescentiae and to investigate their significance in allergenicity. Methods: cDNAs

En-Chih Liao; Err-Lieh Hsu; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Chau-Mei Ho

2009-01-01

240

Larval aquatic and terrestrial mites infesting parthenogenetic Ischnura hastata (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from the Azores islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the prevalence of parasitism by water mites (Arrenurus sp.) and terrestrial mites (Leptus killingtoni) on parthenogenetic Ischnura hastata (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from the Azores islands. Leptus killingtoni was only found on the island of Pico, and the prevalence of infestation was highly variable among the different ponds studied,\\u000a ranging from 0 to 41%. Leptus killingtoni was observed on

M. O. Lorenzo-CarballaC; C. D. Beatty; R. Haitlinger; A. G. Valdecasas; C. Utzeri; V. Vieira; A. Cordero-Rivera

2011-01-01

241

MITES (ACARI) AS INDICATORS OF SOIL BIODIVERSITY AND LAND USE MONITORING: A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil is an important compo- nent for monitoring of sustainability of land use in relation to both the conservation of natural resources and biodiversity of ecosystems. Re- cently research has focused on the role of mites (Acari) in biomonitoring and their importance as soil bioindicators. Mite communities are ex- tremely sensitive to all types of soil disturbance. This article presents

Maria E. GULVIK

2007-01-01

242

Colonization of Languedoc vineyards by phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae): influence of wind and crop environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural increase of phytoseiid mite populations (Kampimodromus aberrans, Typhlodromus pyri and Phytoseius plumifer) was observed in vineyards in Languedoc, Burgundy and Corsica under integrated pest management strategies. The aim of the present study was to characterize the mechanisms of this colonization in space and time in Languedoc. The abundance of phytoseiid mites in the vegetation close to three grape

Marie-Stéphane Tixier; Serge Kreiter; Philippe Auger; Marc Weber

1998-01-01

243

Modelling mites, moulds and mushroom yields in the Australian Mushroom Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient sustainable mushroom production is dependent on a consistent production of compost that needs to be of a high quality. Unwanted mites and soil fungi, especially Trichoderma species, can reduce yields so it is important to be able to manage this situation. The relationship between mites, fungi and mushroom yields are complex and a Bayesian Belief Network (Norsys Pty Ltd)

A. Shamshad

244

JOURNAL OF OIL PALM RESEARCH SPECIAL ISSUE ON MALAYSIA-MIT BIOTECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME: VOLUME 2 -OIL PALM METABOLIC ENGINEERING (JULY 2008)  

E-print Network

56 JOURNAL OF OIL PALM RESEARCH SPECIAL ISSUE ON MALAYSIA-MIT BIOTECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME: VOLUME 2 - OIL PALM METABOLIC ENGINEERING (JULY 2008) Keyword: polyhydroxyalkanoate, PHB, PHBV, metabolic@mit.edu ** Malaysian Palm Oil Board, P. O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. INTRODUCTION Polyhydroxyalkanoates

Sinskey, Anthony J.

245

Experimental method for isolating and identifying dust mites from sputum in pulmonary acariasis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to pilot a simpler and more effective method for identifying dust mites in sputum. Dust mites and their allergens have been implicated in respiratory diseases, including pulmonary acariasis, and several studies have identified mites in sputum. Further research is dependent on the development of a faster and simpler diagnostic test. We have demonstrated that dust mites artificially introduced into sputa, could be identified after the sputa were liquefied with bleach, when the liquid sample was observed under the microscope. Liquefaction times for serous, mucous, purulent and hemoptoic sputa varied from 10 to 30 min (mean 17.5). The test had a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI 68.2-88.2%) as 46/60 mites were identified. This procedure can be performed quickly at room temperature, is simple, inexpensive, repeatable, and less labourious than previous methods. PMID:17549588

Martínez-Girón, Rafael; van Woerden, Hugo Cornelis; Ribas-Barceló, Andrés

2007-01-01

246

Olfactory responses of medically and economically important mites (Acari: Epidermoptidae and Acaridae) to volatile chemicals.  

PubMed

Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Epidermoptidae), the American house dust mite, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae), the mold mite, are medically and economically important but controlling them has proved difficult, and recolonization is commonplace. Their behavioral responses to different sources of volatile chemicals are still not fully elucidated. For the first time, the Y-tube olfactometer, which is an enclosed bioassay to resolve responses to test and control volatiles, has been successfully used with these mites. Mites were tested individually, and both T. putrescentiae and D. farinae responded to food volatiles. Y-tube olfactometers may be used to test for potential semiochemicals, thereby increasing knowledge of our behavior of astigmatic mites. PMID:17427710

Skelton, A C; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Cameron, M M

2007-03-01

247

Learning in the Palm of Your Hand Workshop Description  

E-print Network

using a hand held or palm computer, PDA (personal digital assistant) or large screen cell phone information available in a corporate database or educational digital library is used for situated learning

Agogino, Alice M.

248

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives  

E-print Network

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products ...

Sambandan, T. G.

249

Oil palm phenolics suppresses oxidative stress and inflammation  

E-print Network

Water-soluble Oil Palm Phenolics (OPP), derived from Elaeis guineensis, contains a unique blend of plant phenolics. Recent cell and animal studies have demonstrated positive health benefits in a number of different organ ...

Sundaresan, Abaya Meenakshi

2013-01-01

250

Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent.  

PubMed

Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

Agustin, Melissa B; Sengpracha, Waya P; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

2008-09-01

251

Thermal Diffusivity of Palm Olein and Compounds Containing ?-carotene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of dissolving ?-carotene into palm olein was experimentally investigated using time-resolved thermal lens spectroscopy. The thermal diffusivity of palm olein was measured, and the dependence on the concentration of the compounds was studied. The results show an enhancement in the thermal diffusivity by increasing the quantity of ?-carotene in the compounds. This behavior was interpreted on the basis of the electronic structure of the ?-carotene molecule.

de Freitas Cabral, A. J.; de Oliveira, P. C.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Alcantara, P.

2011-09-01

252

Date Palm Sap Collection: Exploring Opportunities to Prevent Nipah Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw\\u000a date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for\\u000a drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we

Nazmun Nahar; Rebeca Sultana; Emily S. Gurley; M. Jahangir Hossain; Stephen P. Luby

2010-01-01

253

The LCA Approach to Illustrate Palm Oil's Sustainability Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the LCA technique and computing for the different industry practices, the green house gas emission from nursery to mill with six other product flows, was estimated to range from ~650 - 1,300 kg CO2\\/ton CPO. Allocation of the CO2 by weight to two other co-products, namely palm kernel feed and palm kernel oil reduce the green house gas load

S. S. Chen

254

Characterization of The Physical Properties of Palm Kernel Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic sieving method (1 kg sample; 50 Hz; 0° inclination; 20 min) was used to obtain particle size distribution of palm kernel cake containing seven different particle sizes (4.83, 2.68, 1.50, 0.80, 0.51, 0.32, and 0.11 mm). Regardless of particle size, palm kernel cake was found to be of different shapes qualitatively with optical microscopy and quantitatively (variation in

H. Y. Saw; J. Janaun; S. Kumaresan; C. M. Chu

2012-01-01

255

Soap and related products: Palm and lauric oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three main methods for producing soap: direct saponification of fats and oils, neutralization of fatty acids and\\u000a saponification of fatty acid methyl esters. Our unique process of soapmaking, based on the methyl ester saponification method,\\u000a is described here. By this process, high-quality toilet soaps can be produced from palm stearin and palm kernel oil as well\\u000a as tallow

T. Ogoshi; Y. Miyawaki

1985-01-01

256

Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predacious mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a pest of citrus worldwide, and a major pest of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch) in Alabama. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of three commercially available predacious mite species (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt), and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), as biological control agents of P.

Yingfang Xiao; Henry Y. Fadamiro

2010-01-01

257

Chorioptes mites: re-evaluation of species integrity.  

PubMed

Chorioptes mites (Acari: Psoroptidae) are non-burrowing agents of mange which parasitize a wide range of domesticated and wild ungulates. Considerable historical confusion has surrounded the description and naming of the various species of Chorioptes. Here, the opisthosomal setae of male adult Chorioptes mites from a range of host species and geographic locations were subjected to detailed analysis. Discriminant analysis suggests the existence of three clear morphotypes. The first, Chorioptes bovis, is characterized by a very long seta 1 (ae) and short spatulate setae 2 (l4 and d5), whereas, in the second, Chorioptes texanus, setae 2 (l4 and d5) are longer and narrower than in C. bovis, but most of the other setae are shorter; this is particularly true for seta 1 (ae). A third morphotype is characterized by a seta 1 (ae) that is shorter than in C. bovis but longer than in C. texanus, long setae 2 (l4 and d5) and a long seta 6 (l5). The data are compared with previously published measurements. Although this analysis supports the validity of C. bovis and C. texanus as morphologically distinct, it also supports the existence of a proposed third species of Chorioptes, as described by Hestvik et al. in 2007, and suggests that the mites described by Sweatman in his classic 1958 description of C. texanus, which were obtained from the ears of semi-domesticated reindeer, are likely to have been specimens of this as yet unnamed species. The results show that there is a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in setal lengths. It is concluded that a statistical difference in the absolute measurement of any one seta is not a reliable species indicator; the relative sizes of groups of setae would appear to be more taxonomically informative and should be used when identifying Chorioptes morphologically. PMID:21418262

Lusat, J; Bornstein, S; Wall, R

2011-12-01

258

Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.  

PubMed

In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141

Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

2008-11-01

259

Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites ( Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite ( Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species ( T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition.

Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

2012-12-01

260

Reciprocal responses in the interaction between Arabidopsis and the cell-content-feeding chelicerate herbivore spider mite.  

PubMed

Most molecular-genetic studies of plant defense responses to arthropod herbivores have focused on insects. However, plant-feeding mites are also pests of diverse plants, and mites induce different patterns of damage to plant tissues than do well-studied insects (e.g. lepidopteran larvae or aphids). The two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) is among the most significant mite pests in agriculture, feeding on a staggering number of plant hosts. To understand the interactions between spider mite and a plant at the molecular level, we examined reciprocal genome-wide responses of mites and its host Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Despite differences in feeding guilds, we found that transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis to mite herbivory resembled those observed for lepidopteran herbivores. Mutant analysis of induced plant defense pathways showed functionally that only a subset of induced programs, including jasmonic acid signaling and biosynthesis of indole glucosinolates, are central to Arabidopsis's defense to mite herbivory. On the herbivore side, indole glucosinolates dramatically increased mite mortality and development times. We identified an indole glucosinolate dose-dependent increase in the number of differentially expressed mite genes belonging to pathways associated with detoxification of xenobiotics. This demonstrates that spider mite is sensitive to Arabidopsis defenses that have also been associated with the deterrence of insect herbivores that are very distantly related to chelicerates. Our findings provide molecular insights into the nature of, and response to, herbivory for a representative of a major class of arthropod herbivores. PMID:24285850

Zhurov, Vladimir; Navarro, Marie; Bruinsma, Kristie A; Arbona, Vicent; Santamaria, M Estrella; Cazaux, Marc; Wybouw, Nicky; Osborne, Edward J; Ens, Cherise; Rioja, Cristina; Vermeirssen, Vanessa; Rubio-Somoza, Ignacio; Krishna, Priti; Diaz, Isabel; Schmid, Markus; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Van de Peer, Yves; Grbic, Miodrag; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Grbic, Vojislava

2014-01-01

261

Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system.  

PubMed

Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites (Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species (T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition. PMID:23093097

Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

2012-12-01

262

Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests  

E-print Network

usually have fine, silken webbing spun across them. Among the live mites, there may be cast skins, which leave a grayish residue on the leaf?s underside. Damage from light infestations appears as yellow or gray stippled patterns on the leaves. Heavy infes... plants.? It is important to become familiar with a pesticide before using it. Always read and follow the pesticide label instructions. Be sure to use proper equipment and the rates of the product that are specified on the label. Other protective measures...

Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

2005-02-21

263

MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for many hours - a much longer period than the approximately one hour burn time for MITEE. Using this cermet fuel, and technology available from other nuclear propulsion programs, MITEE could be developed and ready for implementation in a relatively short time, i.e., approximately seven years. An overview description of the MITEE engine and its performance capabilities is provided.

Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.

2001-01-01

264

Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.  

PubMed

One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source. PMID:24744058

Oliveira, Cleber M; Ferreira, João A M; Oliveira, Rafael M; Santos, Francisco O; Pallini, Angelo

2014-10-01

265

Spider mites adaptively learn recognizing mycorrhiza-induced changes in host plant volatiles.  

PubMed

Symbiotic root micro-organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi commonly change morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of their host plants and may thus influence the interaction of aboveground plant parts with herbivores and their natural enemies. While quite a few studies tested the effects of mycorrhiza on life history traits, such as growth, development and reproduction, of aboveground herbivores, information on possible effects of mycorrhiza on host plant choice of herbivores via constitutive and/or induced plant volatiles is lacking. Here we assessed whether symbiosis of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae with common bean plants Phaseolus vulgaris influences the response of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae to volatiles of plants that were clean or infested with spider mites. Mycorrhiza-naïve and -experienced spider mites, reared on mycorrhizal or non-mycorrhizal bean plants for several days before the experiments, were subjected to Y-tube olfactometer choice tests. Experienced but not naïve spider mites distinguished between constitutive volatiles of clean non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants, preferring the latter. Neither naïve nor experienced spider mites distinguished between spider mite-induced volatiles of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Learning the odor of clean mycorrhizal plants, resulting in a subsequent preference for these odors, is adaptive because mycorrhizal plants are more favorable host plants for fitness of the spider mites than are non-mycorrhizal plants. PMID:25097072

Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Schausberger, Peter

2014-12-01

266

Mites are the most common vectors of the fungus Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea infructescences.  

PubMed

Entomochoric spore dispersal is well-documented for most ophiostomatoid fungal genera, most of which are associated with bark or ambrosia beetles. Gondwanamyces spp. are unusual members of this group that were first discovered in the flower heads of the primitive angiosperm genus Protea, that is mostly restricted to the Cape Floristic region of Africa. In this study, we present the discovery of the vectors of Gondwanamyces proteae in Protea repens infructescences, which were identified using PCR, direct isolation, and light microscopy. Gondwanamyces proteae DNA and ascospores were identified on diverse lineages of arthropods including beetles (Euderes lineicolis and Genuchus hottentottus), bugs (Oxycarenus maculates), a psocopteran species and five mite (Acari) species. Based on isolation frequency, however, a mite species in the genus Trichouropoda appears to be the most common vector of G. proteae. Gondwanamyces spores were frequently observed within pit mycangia at the base of the legs of these mites. Manipulative experiments demonstrated the ability of mites to carry viable G. proteae spores whilst in transit on the beetle G. hottentottus and that these mites are able to transfer G. proteae spores to uncolonised substrates in vitro. Interestingly, this same mite species has also been implicated as vector of Ophiostoma spores on P. repens and belongs to the same genus of mites that vector Ophiostoma spp. associated with pine-infesting bark beetles in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:21530916

Roets, Francois; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D; Dreyer, Leanne L

2011-01-01

267

Host plant resistance among tomato accessions to the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in Kenya.  

PubMed

The spider mite Tetranychus evansi has a broad range of host plants. Control of T. evansi has been a big challenge to tomato farmers due to its fast rate of reproduction, development of resistance to chemical pesticides and its ability to use weeds as alternative hosts when the tomato plants are not available. The aim of the current study was to determine the host plant acceptance and the relative contributions of trichomes in the control of the red spider mite by comparing the survival, development and oviposition rates of the red spider mite on eight tomato accessions. Leaflets from eight tomato varieties were assayed with the spider mites to determine the egg laying capacity and developmental time of the spider mites on the tomato accessions as well as the trichome densities. Densities of trichome types I, IV, V and VI varied among the tomato accessions. Variation in types I, IV and VI accounted for most of the variation in mite responses. The varieties with high densities of types IV and VI had the highest fecundity and mite development did not go beyond the larval stage. The developmental time varied significantly among the tomato accessions. The results indicated that the higher the density of trichome type I the lower the adult survival. The findings indicated possible resistance of some of the tested tomato accessions against T. evansi which is partially associated with trichomes types and density. PMID:21479959

Onyambus, G K; Maranga, R O; Gitonga, L M; Knapp, M

2011-08-01

268

Gene expression profiling of ovine keratinocytes stimulated with Psoroptes ovis mite antigen--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Sheep scab is caused by the noninvasive mite, Psoroptes ovis, which initiates a profound pro-inflammatory skin response leading to lesion development. To investigate these early events between the skin and the parasite, primary ovine epidermal keratinocyte cultures were generated and challenged with mite derived antigens. The kinetics of the mRNA response of these cells were monitored by microarray. The results indicated that the cells responded within 1 h of challenge, with a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8. This result was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, and showed that IL-8 up-regulation was maximal at 1 h but declined to pre-stimulation levels at 24 and 48 h. The IL-8 mRNA response to mite wash antigens containing secretory and/or excretory proteins was also investigated and compared to the response to whole mite antigen. These studies revealed that the mite wash antigen, at a challenge dose of 10 microg/mL, was markedly more potent and induced significantly higher levels of IL-8 mRNA than the same concentration of whole mite antigen. These results are discussed in relation to mite establishment and survival on the ovine host. PMID:19493210

Watkins, C A; Mackellar, A; Frew, D; Mackie, C; George, A; Hopkins, J; Burgess, S T G; McNeilly, T N; Huntley, J F

2009-06-01

269

The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis, in Benin and Tanzania: occurrence, damage and associated acarine fauna.  

PubMed

The coconut mite Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae) is considered the most important pest of coconut fruits in Africa; however, quantitative knowledge about its distribution and abundance is lacking. We conducted four diagnostic surveys-three in Southern Benin and one along the coast of Tanzania-to determine the distribution of A. guerreronis and the severity of its damage to coconut fruits, as well as the diversity and abundance of other associated mites and potential natural enemies. Aceria guerreronis was found in all visited plantations with the percentage of damaged fruits varying considerably among plantations-67-85% in Benin and 43-81% in Tanzania. Overall, 30-40% of the fruit surfaces were damaged by A. guerreronis. Damage severity increased with fruit age and negatively affected fruit weight of 7- to 12-months-old fruits. Aceria guerreronis was by far the most abundant mite on coconut fruits but its abundance depended on fruit age. The highest densities of A. guerreronis were observed on 3- to 4-months-old fruits. Neocypholaelaps sp. (Ameroseiidae) was the most abundant mite on inflorescences. Three species of predatory mites (Phytoseiidae)-Neoseiulus baraki, N. neobaraki and N. paspalivorus-were the most commonly found predatory mites beneath the coconut bracts in association with A. guerreronis. Neoseiulus neobaraki was the prevailing predator in Tanzania while N. paspalivorus was the most frequent predator in Benin. Other mites found beneath the bracts were the herbivore Steneotarsonemus furcatus (Tarsonemidae) and the detritivore and fungivore Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae). PMID:21789564

Negloh, K; Hanna, R; Schausberger, P

2011-12-01

270

Improvement in sensitivity of an inductive oil palm fruit sensor.  

PubMed

Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

2014-01-01

271

Passive airborne dust sampling to assess mite antigen exposure in farming environments.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to estimate mite antigen exposure in farming environments by passive sampling of airborne dust. Antigen concentrations were measured with enzyme immunoassays specific for three storage mites (SM): Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and the house dust mite (HDM) Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Dust samples were collected with electrostatic dust fall collectors (EDCs) in three different areas of cattle farms. EDCs were placed in cow stables (working area), in changing rooms (transit area) and in different rooms of farmer dwellings (living area). Mite concentrations in the living area of farm homes were compared to those of urban homes. In dust samples from stables, antigens of all four mite species could be detected. The highest exposure level was to L. destructor (median 56.7 ?g/m(2)), the lowest to A. siro (median 14.4 ?g/m(2)). Mite concentrations of different species showed no correlation within the cow stables. In comparison to stables, the median mite concentrations in farm homes were significantly lower, ranging from below the detection limit to 1.5 ?g/m(2). Antigens of SM were predominantly found in changing rooms and kitchens, and HDM antigens were mainly detected in bedrooms. Antigens of all mites were measured the least often in living rooms. T. putrescentiae was the most prevalent mite in all room types, and the exposure levels correlated strongly between different rooms. The number of SM positive samples in farm homes was considerably higher than in urban homes, while the percentage of HDM positive samples did not differ significantly. PMID:21842065

Zahradnik, Eva; Sander, Ingrid; Kendzia, Benjamin; Fleischer, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

2011-09-01

272

Application of Information Technology j PalmCIS: A Wireless Handheld Application for Satisfying  

E-print Network

clinical information and communication between clinicians. Palm-based Clinical Information System (Palm to assess the perceived information needs and communication difficulties among inpatient physicians access to information and ineffective communication among clinicians (potential proximal causes

Cimino, James J.

273

SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies.  

PubMed

This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification. PMID:20861564

Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Rosli, Rozana; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ithnin, Maizura; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Tan, Soon-Guan; Singh, Rajinder

2010-08-01

274

Black currant reversion virus, a mite-transmitted nepovirus.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Taxonomy: Black currant reversion virus (BRV) is the first identified mite-transmitted member of the genus Nepovirus (family Comoviridae). A few systematic studies have been performed to compare virus isolates from different geographical locations. Physical properties: Purified preparations contain two closely sedimenting centrifugal components (B and M for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively) at varying ratios, and occasionally a T component (for satellite RNA). The BRV capsids have a diameter of 27 nm and they are putatively composed of 60 copies of a single species of capsid (coat) protein assembled in an icosahedral lattice. Diluted plant sap loses its infectivity within 1 day at 20 degrees C and in 4-8 days at 4 degrees C. Hosts: The natural host range of BRV is limited; it infects black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) and some related Ribes species. The transmission of the virus is by the eriophyid gall mite of black currant (Cecidophyopsis ribis). A number of herbaceous plants can be infected experimentally. BRV is the agent of black currant reversion disease (BRD), which is economically the most significant virus disease in Ribes species. BRV and BRD occur widely in locations where black currant is cultivated commercially. PMID:20565606

Susi, Petri

2004-05-01

275

Resistance to chlorpyriphos in the predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans.  

PubMed

The predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) is a key biocontrol agent in vineyards in Italy and Southern Europe. Its susceptibility to common pesticides (e.g., organophosphates) has been considered an important factor in preventing successful biocontrol of phytophagous mites. Nevertheless, populations of K. aberrans apparently resistant to organophosphates (OPs) have been reported to occur in Northern Italian vineyards. The resistance of K. aberrans to fungicides (e.g., mancozeb) has been demonstrated in the laboratory in France, but little is known about the toxicity of insecticides towards K. aberrans. Of these pesticides, the OP chlorpyriphos is extensively used in viticulture to control lepidopterans and homopterans. The present study investigated the dose-response effect of chlorpyriphos in four K. aberrans strains characterized by different levels of exposure to OP insecticides in the past: from never to frequently exposed. Resistance to chlorpyriphos is demonstrated for populations collected from vineyards and apple orchards. Resistance factors exceeded 145,000× for the three strains collected in vineyards and orchard. LC(50) values for resistant strains were 1.85-6.83 times higher than the recommended field dose of chlorpyriphos for vineyards and orchards (525 mg a.i./l). PMID:21909823

Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo

2012-01-01

276

Infestation of two brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) with the hunchback mite (Harpirhynchus quasimodo).  

PubMed

A recently described North American mite, Harpirhynchus quasimodo (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), was identified in a wild brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) from Tennessee and another from Arkansas, U. S. A., during 2010 and 2011, respectively. Consistent with a single previous report of H. quasimodo infestation, both cowbirds had multiple skin masses composed of epidermal cysts filled with harpirhynchid mites, keratin, and cellular debris. Although very little is currently known about this avian mite, these three reports suggest that H. quasimodo infestation is a rare source of overt disease in free-ranging brown-headed cowbirds from the southeastern United States; however, further research and surveillance efforts are needed. PMID:24597129

Magenwirth, Jessica; Nemeth, Nicole M; Yabsley, Michael J; Munk, Brandon A; Keel, M Kevin; Brown, Justin D

2013-12-01

277

Comparisons of several systemic insecticides for control of aphids and spider mites on cotton  

E-print Network

NO SZLIM HZGIdS GNV SGIHdV dO IOKLNOO 80d SSGIDILDZSNI DIMBLSAS 'IVHZhZS d0 SNOSIHVdMOO COMPARISONS OF SEVERAL SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROL OF APHIDS AND SPIDER MITES ON COTTON A Thesis By JOSE ALFONSO LEON Approved as to style and content by...-Peru for its financial support during the author's studies, CD CO I CD CI Introduction Review of Literature Insecticides Procedure Page 15 Mite and Aphid Cu1ture Transfer Procedure for Mites and Aphids Method of Application of Insecticides 18...

Leon, Jose Alfonso

2012-06-07

278

Feather mites (Astigmata: Psoroptidia) parasitising the rock ptarmigan Lagopus muta (Montin) (Aves: Galliformes) in Iceland.  

PubMed

Four new species of feather mites are described from the Icelandic rock ptarmigan Lagopus muta islandorum (Faber) in Iceland. These are Metamicrolichus islandicus n. sp., Myialges borealis n. sp. (Epidermoptidae), Strelkoviacarus holoaspis n. sp. (Analgidae) and Tetraolichus lagopi n. sp. (Pterolichidae). This is the first report on feather mites associated with the Icelandic rock ptarmigan. Brief comments on the systematics and biology of corresponding feather mite genera are given. For two species, originally described in Pterolichus Robin, 1868 (Pterolichidae), new combinations are proposed, i.e. Tetraolichus gaudi (Cerný, 1971) n. comb. and T. microdiscus (Trouessart, 1887) n. comb. PMID:20157794

Mironov, Sergey V; Skirnisson, Karl; Thorarinsdottir, Solrun Th; Nielsen, Olafur K

2010-03-01

279

House-dust mite (Pyroglyphidae) populations in mattresses, and their control by electric blankets.  

PubMed

A reduction in house-dust-mite populations of 19-84% in beds in regular use could be achieved by heating the mattresses with electric blankets, when the beds were not being slept on. The effect of the heating treatment on the temperature and relative humidity inside the mattress is discussed. House-dust mites in the heated portions of the mattress migrated deeper inside the mattress to a depth of 3.5-5.0 cm. Evidence was also found that house-dust mites in non-heated mattresses do not only live near the surface, but that they are also present deep inside the mattress. PMID:2226069

de Boer, R; van der Geest, L P

1990-08-01

280

Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand, and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean-producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil-importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia — two main palm oil-producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that

Jamal Othman

2003-01-01

281

Evaluation of the benefits of a myrmecophilous oribatid mite, Aribates javensis, to a myrmicine ant, Myrmecina sp.  

PubMed

I studied the myrmicine ant Myrmecina sp. A in West Java, Indonesia, which had the obligately myrmecophilous oribatid mite Aribates javensis in its nests. The oribatid mites cannot survive without ant attendance. The ants rarely eat living mites, but they feed on the mites in case of food shortage and after death of the mites. I examined the effects of the oribatid mites as food on the host ants. Egg production by ergatoid (i.e. permanently wingless) queens and larval survival of ant colonies, as well as survival and egg laying of isolated ant workers were investigated. The presence of oribatid mites had no effects on egg production by ergatoid queens and survival of the ant larvae neither in the presence of abundant food nor under starvation conditions. Survival of adult workers was not affected by the presence of oribatid mites, but egg production by workers was significantly enhanced by feeding on mites. The present results indicate that the oribatid mites had slight but significant nutritional effects on the host ants. PMID:23423426

Ito, Fuminori

2013-09-01

282

Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest. PMID:20929530

2010-01-01

283

Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections.  

PubMed

Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%. PMID:24693230

Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

2014-01-01

284

Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

285

Palm Reversal Errors in Native-Signing Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have native exposure to a sign language such as American Sign Language (ASL) have received almost no scientific attention. This paper reports the first studies on a sample of five native-signing children (four deaf children of deaf parents and one hearing child of deaf parents; ages 4;6 to 7;5) diagnosed with ASD. A domain-general deficit in the ability of children with ASD to replicate the gestures of others is hypothesized to be a source of palm orientation reversal errors in sign. In Study 1, naturalistic language samples were collected from three native-signing children with ASD and were analyzed for errors in handshape, location, movement and palm orientation. In Study 2, four native-signing children with ASD were compared to 12 typically-developing deaf children (ages 3;7 to 6;9, all born to deaf parents) on a fingerspelling task. In both studies children with ASD showed a tendency to reverse palm orientation on signs specified for inward/outward orientation. Typically-developing deaf children did not produce any such errors in palm orientation. We conclude that this kind of palm reversal has a perceptual rather than a motoric source, and is further evidence of a “self-other mapping” deficit in ASD. PMID:22981637

Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.

2012-01-01

286

Determination of oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness—Based on flavonoids and anthocyanin content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive and real-time oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) grading systems are of major exploratory concern for researchers in the oil palm industry. The objective is to reduce time, labour, costs, and most importantly, to increase the oil extraction rate, in order to achieve a good quality of palm oil at a more acceptable price. This research investigates the potential

Mohd Hafiz Mohd Hazir; Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff; Mohd Din Amiruddin

287

Supply Response of Malaysian Palm Oil Producers: Impact of Interest Rate Variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the long run relationship between the supply of Malaysian palm oil and its determinants using Johansen multivariate cointegration analysis. The supply response of Malaysian oil palm producers is investigated using annual data from 1967 to 2002. An error correction model is proposed to investigate the short run response of supply to its determinants. Supply of palm oil

Mohammad Alias; Tuck Cheong Tang

288

76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Airspace Docket No. 11-AWA-2] Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL...the Palm Beach International Airport, FL, Class C airspace area by raising the floor of Class C airspace over Palm Beach County Park Airport....

2011-12-13

289

A weevil pollinating the Canary Islands date palm: between parasitism and mutualism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm pollination systems are highly diverse, including by wind and by several different groups of insects. Many palm species are associated with more or less specific pollinating weevils that are also floral herbivores. For many such palms, the importance of these \\

Aroonrat Meekijjaroenroj; Marie-Charlotte Anstett

2003-01-01

290

Catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm is widely grown in Malaysia. Palm oil has attracted the attention of researchers to develop an ‘environmentally friendly’ and high quality fuel, free of nitrogen and sulfur. In the present study, the catalytic cracking of palm oil to biofuel was studied over REY catalyst in a transport riser reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature (400–500°C),

Pramila Tamunaidu; Subhash Bhatia

2007-01-01

291

Revival of an ancient starch crop: a review of the agronomy of the sago palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1971 there has been a revival of interest in the possibilities for cultivation of the true sago palm, Metroxylon spp. Agronomic and economic research shows that the palm can become an important starch producing crop. Many queries concerning the agronomy of the crop have been solved. The palm is especially suited to humid tropical lowlands. It is fairly salinity

M. Flach; D. L. Schuiling

1988-01-01

292

Letter to the editor The bio-fuel debate and fossil energy use in palm oil  

E-print Network

Letter to the editor The bio-fuel debate and fossil energy use in palm oil production: a critique-fuels based on palm oil to re- duce greenhouse gas emissions, due account should be taken of carbon emissions fuel use in palm oil pro- duction, making a number of assumptions that I believe to be incorrect

293

Purification and stability of peroxidase of African oil palm Elaies guineensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the previous work, after screening tropical plants (43 species) for peroxidase activity, high activity has been detected in leaves of some palms and especially African oil palm Elaeis guineensis. This palm is widely cultivated in Colombia and presents a promising source for the industrial production of peroxidase. The initial enzyme isolation included homogenization and extraction of pigments using aqueous

I. Yu. Sakharov; J. L. Castillo; J. C. Areza; I. Yu. Galaev

2000-01-01

294

For first time since 2007, food stamp use drops in state, Palm Beach County  

E-print Network

For first time since 2007, food stamp use drops in state, Palm Beach County March 13, 2013|By Donna in Palm Beach County fell in February, according to data from the Florida Department of Children from last year when the number of food stamp recipients in Palm Beach County jumped nearly 14 percent

Fernandez, Eduardo

295

Losing shuttle program to hurt Space Coast far worse than Palm Beach County  

E-print Network

Losing shuttle program to hurt Space Coast far worse than Palm Beach County By JEFF OSTROWSKI Palm Beach Post Staff Writer Updated: 5:07 p.m. Sunday, July 3, 2011 Posted: 4:59 p.m. Sunday, July 3, 2011 agency Space Florida. For many in Palm Beach County's aerospace industry, the shuttle's demise merits

Belogay, Eugene A.

296

New census numbers show Palm Beach County's 85-plus crowd grows 41%  

E-print Network

New census numbers show Palm Beach County's 85-plus crowd grows 41% By CHRISTINE STAPLETON AND GEORGE BENNETT Palm Beach Post Staff Writers Updated: 8:32 a.m. Thursday, May 5, 2011 Posted: 8:21 a community near West Palm Beach, 87-year-old Lou Hazan tried to offer some insights into the modern

Belogay, Eugene A.

297

Complete sequence analysis of 18S rDNA based on genomic DNA extraction from individual Demodex mites (Acari: Demodicidae).  

PubMed

The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ? 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs. PMID:22414329

Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang

2012-05-01

298

Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes. PMID:21151438

Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2010-01-01

299

Below-ground plant parts emit herbivore-induced volatiles: olfactory responses of a predatory mite to tulip bulbs infested by rust mites.  

PubMed

Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated. PMID:15285135

Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W

2004-01-01

300

Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) Have Been Accumulated through Amplification Bursts and Play Important Roles in Gene Expression and Species Diversity in Oryza sativa  

PubMed Central

Miniature inverted–repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are predicted to play important roles on genome evolution. We developed a BLASTN-based approach for de novo identification of MITEs and systematically analyzed MITEs in rice genome. The genome of rice cultivar Nipponbare (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) harbors 178,533 MITE-related sequences classified into 338 families. Pairwise nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that individual MITE families were resulted from one or multiple rounds of amplification bursts. The timing of amplification burst varied considerably between different MITE families or subfamilies. MITEs are associated with 23,623 (58.2%) genes in rice genome. At least 7,887 MITEs are transcribed and more than 3,463 were transcribed with rice genes. The MITE sequences transcribed with rice coding genes form 1,130 pairs of potential natural sense/antisense transcripts. MITEs generate 23.5% (183,837 of 781,885) of all small RNAs identified from rice. Some MITE families generated small RNAs mainly from the terminals, while other families generated small RNAs predominantly from the central region. More than half (51.8%) of the MITE-derived small RNAs were generated exclusively by MITEs located away from genes. Genome-wide analysis showed that genes associated with MITEs have significantly lower expression than genes away from MITEs. Approximately 14.8% of loci with full-length MITEs have presence/absence polymorphism between rice cultivars 93-11 (O. sativa ssp. indica) and Nipponbare. Considering that different sets of genes may be regulated by MITE-derived small RNAs in different genotypes, MITEs provide considerable diversity for O. sativa. PMID:22096216

Lu, Chen; Chen, Jiongjiong; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Qun; Su, Wenqing; Kuang, Hanhui

2012-01-01

301

New mite species of the cohort tarsonemina (Trombidiformes, Acarina) of the fauna of Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five mite species of the family Pygmephoridae (Pygmephorus dashoguzensis Chydyrov sp. n., Petalomium margushensis Chydyrov sp. n., Petalomium messori Chydyrov sp. n., Scutacarus berdyevi Chydyrov sp. n., and Scutacarus monstrificus Chydyrov sp. n.) from different localities of Turkmenistan are described.

P. R. Chydyrov; Petalomium messori Chydyrov

2007-01-01

302

No variation for Wolbachia-induced hybrid breakdown in two populations of a spider mite.  

PubMed

Wolbachia are cytoplasmically transmitted bacteria that infect several species of mites. In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch this symbiont can induce reproductive incompatibility. Wolbachia-induced reproductive incompatibility is observed in crosses between Wolbachia-infected (W) males and uninfected (U) females. This incompatibility is expressed in F1 broods as male-biased sex ratios, an effect called cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). However, in the two-spotted spider mite, Wolbachia-induced reproductive incompatibility may extend to the F2: broods of virgin F1 females from U x W crosses sometimes suffer increased mortality rates. This F2 effect is called hybrid breakdown (HB). Several isofemale lines derived from mites collected from rose and cucumber plants had been previously tested for CI. Here we report on the results obtained for HB. PMID:14580056

Vala, F; Breeuwer, J A J; Sabelis, M W

2003-01-01

303

Parasitic scabies mites and associated bacteria joining forces against host complement defence.  

PubMed

Scabies is a ubiquitous and contagious skin disease caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei Epidemiological studies have identified scabies as a causative agent for secondary skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. This is an important notion, as such bacterial infections can lead to serious downstream life-threatening complications. As the complement system is the first line of host defence that confronts invading pathogens, both the mite and bacteria produce a large array of molecules that inhibit the complement cascades. It is hypothesised that scabies mite complement inhibitors may play an important role in providing a favourable micro-environment for the establishment of secondary bacterial infections. This review aims to bring together the current literature on complement inhibition by scabies mites and bacteria associated with scabies and to discuss the proposed molecular link between scabies and bacterial co-infections. PMID:25081184

Swe, P M; Reynolds, S L; Fischer, K

2014-11-01

304

Design and implementation of liquid cooling system for ArchiMITes vehicle  

E-print Network

MIT Vehicle Design Summit is building ArchiMITes, a lightweight hybrid vehicle with a modular auxiliary power unit. For testing purposes, the vehicle platform will first be built as an all-electric vehicle. It will be ...

Hui, Sam, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

305

Cospeciation between the nasal mite Ptilonyssus sairae (Acari: Rhinonyssidae) and its bird hosts  

E-print Network

The parasitic nasal mite Ptilonyssus sairae Castro has been classified as one species, but we find that significant sequence divergence exists between host-specific mite populations. The low level of gene flow between conspecifics is probably a result of the parasites ’ low rate of dispersal among different bird host species. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene from P. sairae populations was sequenced and used for phylogenetic inference and subsequently compared to their passerine bird host phylogeny. In addition to finding restricted gene flow between host-associated parasites, the reconciliation of host and parasite gene trees reveals statistically significant levels of strict cospeciation between bird hosts and host-specific mite populations. Our findings suggest that cryptic speciation may be common in this group of mites.

unknown authors

306

CLEANING HORN-FACED BEE TUBES EACH WINTER WILL PREVENT MITE BUILD UP  

E-print Network

, the larva did not survive as the mites consumed the pollen and left behind the pollen remains. Hence, messy, these cocoons house live adult HFB. After cocoons are removed, leave behind any masses of yellow pollen mixed

307

[The phenomenon of phylogenetic synhospitality in acariform mites (acari: acariformes)--the permanent parasites of vertebrates].  

PubMed

The term synhospitality means the association of two or more closely related parasite species with one host species (Eichler, 1966). The cases of two or three synhospitalic species are known from the same host species, and especially ones where parasites were recorded from different parts of the host range, are quite common. The most ordinary reason causing synhospitality in permanent parasites is the host switching. Nevertheless, there are a number of synhospitality cases, where the parasite complex is monophyletic because evolved on a single host species. The special term--"phylogenetic synhospitality" (FS) is proposed for these cases of synhospitality. Most known cases of FS in acariform mites, permanent parasites of vertebrates, are analysed. It is found out that both astigmatan and prostigmatan parasite mites demonstrate a numbers of FS. The majority of these examples represent parasitism of two or three synhospitalic parasite species. Impressive examples of FS involving a number of synhospitalic species is shown by only astigmatan mites inhabiting the fur of mammals or plumage of birds. Most known examples involving four or more mite species are discussed: 51 mite species of the genus Schizocarpus (Chirodiscidae) parasitizing Castor fiber and C. canadensis (Castoridae); 6 species of Listrophorus spp. (Listrophoridae) from Ondatra zibethicus (Cricetidae); 23 species of Listrophoroides s. 1. (Atopomelidae) from Maxomys surifer (Muridae); 21 species of Cytostethum (Atomelidae) from Potorous tridactylus (Potoridae); 4 species of Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) from Malacomys longipes (Muridae); 7 species of Fainalges (Xolalgidae) from Aratinga holochlora (Psittacidae); 4 species of Zygepigynia (Pteronyssidae) from Chrysocolaptes lucidus (Picidae). The main reason of FS is that, in spite of the Fahrenholz's rule, the speciation of many parasites proceeds much more intensively than in their hosts because of the more rapid replacement of the parasitic generations. The first factor causing FS is the mite speciation it temporary segregated populations of the host (allopatric speciation). In this case, the "multispecies complexes" appeared after the subsequent reintegration of the host populations formerly isolated. The second factor is the speciation due to the specialization of mites to local microhabitats in the fur or plumage of host (sympatric or synxenic speciation). The second way of speciation is most characteristic for mites with highly specialized attaching structures. The phenomenon of FS more resides in ectoparasites of mammals rather than in feather mites in spite of much more structural complicacy of plumage rather than the fur. The high mobility of birds and wide dispersion of their new generations probably embarrass the process of sympatric speciation in their parasites. As a rule, only really significant geographical barriers play role for population isolation in birds. Thus, it could be concluded that two independent factors or their combination lead to FS. (i) The complex and/or disjunctive host range giving a possibility for allopatric speciation in parasites. (ii) The deep mite specialization to local microhabitats on the host body causing sympatric (synxenic) speciation. Fur of mammals and plumage of birds are very complicated in structure and microconditions and provide a considerable number of different microhabitats for mites inhabiting them. The prevalence of one of these two factors depends on the biological peculiarities of both parasites and their hosts. In mites with lesser specialized attaching organs, for example in atopomelids, allopatric speciation dominates. In mites with strongly specialized attaching organs, for example in listrophorids or chirodiscids, both pathways of speciation may take place. In feather mites, sympatric speciation should be more probable due to quite complicate and various structure of feathers in avian hosts. In fur mites, sympatric speciation is more likely in mites parasitizing hosts with peculiar ecology, for example in semiaquatic rodent

Bochkov, A V; Mironov, S V

2008-01-01

308

Progress in the development of specific immunotherapies for house dust mite allergies.  

PubMed

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat patients exposed and co-sensitized to the two common house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. Based on seroepidemiological studies and a detailed characterization of mite allergens, an optimal immunotherapeutic product should associate extracts from the two Dermatophagoides species, and include both bodies and fecal particles. Both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies performed with aqueous mite extracts are safe and efficacious in children and adults with mite-induced rhinitis and/or asthma. Double-blind placebo-controlled studies are conducted to further document the efficacy of immunotherapeutic products, with promising results that were obtained already with sublingual tablets. Current developments of second-generation products relying upon recombinant allergens and peptides are reviewed. PMID:25187166

Moingeon, Philippe

2014-12-01

309

Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

310

Raphides in Palm Embryos and their Systematic Distribution  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Raphides are ubiquitous in the palms (Arecaceae), where they are found in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Their occasional presence in embryos, first noticed over 100 years ago, has gone largely unexamined. • Methods Embryos from 148 taxa of palms, the largest survey of palm embryos to date, were examined using light microscopy of squashed preparations under non?polarized and crossed polarized light. • Key Results Raphides were found in embryos of species from the three subfamilies Coryphoideae, Ceroxyloideae and Arecoideae. Raphides were not observed in the embryos of species of Calamoideae or Phytelephantoideae. The remaining subfamily, the monospecific Nypoideae, was not available for study. • Conclusions Within the Coryphoideae and Ceroxyloideae, embryos with raphides were rare, but within the Arecoideae, they were a common feature of the tribes Areceae and Caryoteae. PMID:14980977

ZONA, SCOTT

2004-01-01

311

Genome sequence of the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L  

PubMed Central

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. Here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (Khalas), which is 605.4?Mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671?Mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that P. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. Genetic diversity analysis indicates that its stress resistance and sugar metabolism-related genes tend to be enriched in the chromosomal regions where the density of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is relatively low. Using transcriptomic data, we also illustrate the date palm’s unique sugar metabolism that underlies fruit development and ripening. Our large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data pave the way for further genomic studies not only on P. dactylifera but also other Arecaceae plants. PMID:23917264

Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Wanfei; Tan, Jun; Yu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jiucheng; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Tongwu; Yin, Yuxin; Xin, Chengqi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Guangyu; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M.; Huang, Dawei; Fang, Yongjun; Alnakhli, Yasser O.; Jia, Shangang; Yin, An; Alhuzimi, Eman M.; Alsaihati, Burair A.; Al-Owayyed, Saad A.; Zhao, Duojun; Zhang, Sun; Al-Otaibi, Noha A.; Sun, Gaoyuan; Majrashi, Majed A.; Li, Fusen; Tala; Wang, Jixiang; Yun, Quanzheng; Alnassar, Nafla A.; Wang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Al-Jelaify, Rasha F.; Liu, Kan; Gao, Shenghan; Chen, Kaifu; Alkhaldi, Samiyah R.; Liu, Guiming; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Haiyan; Yu, Jun

2013-01-01

312

House dust mite control measures in the management of asthma: meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether patients with asthma who are sensitive to mites benefit from measures designed to reduce their exposure to house dust mite antigen in the home. Design Meta-analysis of randomised trials that investigated the effects on asthma patients of chemical or physical measures to control mites, or both, in comparison with an untreated control group. All trials in any language were eligible for inclusion. Subjects Patients with bronchial asthma as diagnosed by a doctor and sensitisation to mites as determined by skin prick testing, bronchial provocation testing, or serum assays for specific IgE antibodies. Main outcome measures Number of patients whose allergic symptoms improved, improvement in asthma symptoms, improvement in peak expiratory flow rate. Outcomes measured on different scales were combined using the standardised effect size method (the difference in effect was divided by the standard deviation of the measurements). Results 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis; 6 studies used chemical methods to reduce exposure to mites, 13 used physical methods, and 4 used a combination. Altogether, 41/113 patients exposed to treatment interventions improved compared with 38/117 in the control groups (odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 2.18). The standardised mean difference for improvement in asthma symptoms was ?0.06 (95% confidence interval ?0.54 to 0.41). For peak flow rate measured in the morning the standardised mean difference was ?0.03 (?0.25 to 0.19). As measured in the original units this difference between the treatment and the control group corresponds to ?3?l/min (95% confidence interval ?25?l/min to 19?l/min). The results were similar in the subgroups of trials that reported successful reduction in exposure to mites or had long follow up times. Conclusion Current chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to allergens from house dust mites seem to be ineffective and cannot be recommended as prophylactic treatment for asthma patients sensitive to mites. Key messagesCurrent chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to allergens from house dust mites seem to be ineffective; these methods cannot be recommended as prophylactic treatment for asthma patients who are sensitive to mitesIt is unlikely that a worthwhile effect has been overlooked in this meta-analysis since the confidence interval for the peak expiratory flow rate was quite narrowFuture studies should be much larger and more rigorous than those in this meta-analysis and should evaluate other methods of mite control than those used to date PMID:9784442

G?tzsche, Peter C; Hammarquist, Cecilia; Burr, Michael

1998-01-01

313

Palm-Vein Classification Based on Principal Orientation Features  

PubMed Central

Personal recognition using palm–vein patterns has emerged as a promising alternative for human recognition because of its uniqueness, stability, live body identification, flexibility, and difficulty to cheat. With the expanding application of palm–vein pattern recognition, the corresponding growth of the database has resulted in a long response time. To shorten the response time of identification, this paper proposes a simple and useful classification for palm–vein identification based on principal direction features. In the registration process, the Gaussian-Radon transform is adopted to extract the orientation matrix and then compute the principal direction of a palm–vein image based on the orientation matrix. The database can be classified into six bins based on the value of the principal direction. In the identification process, the principal direction of the test sample is first extracted to ascertain the corresponding bin. One-by-one matching with the training samples is then performed in the bin. To improve recognition efficiency while maintaining better recognition accuracy, two neighborhood bins of the corresponding bin are continuously searched to identify the input palm–vein image. Evaluation experiments are conducted on three different databases, namely, PolyU, CASIA, and the database of this study. Experimental results show that the searching range of one test sample in PolyU, CASIA and our database by the proposed method for palm–vein identification can be reduced to 14.29%, 14.50%, and 14.28%, with retrieval accuracy of 96.67%, 96.00%, and 97.71%, respectively. With 10,000 training samples in the database, the execution time of the identification process by the traditional method is 18.56 s, while that by the proposed approach is 3.16 s. The experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is more efficient than the traditional method, especially for a large database. PMID:25383715

Zhou, Yujia; Liu, Yaqin; Feng, Qianjin; Yang, Feng; Huang, Jing; Nie, Yixiao

2014-01-01

314

Gene Pyramiding of Peptidase Inhibitors Enhances Plant Resistance to the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae  

PubMed Central

The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H2O2 as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed. PMID:22900081

Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Cambra, Ines; Martinez, Manuel; Pozancos, Clara; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Grbic, Vojislava; Castanera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

2012-01-01

315

Lung mites ( Pneumocoptes sp.) in bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus ) in Southwest Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung mites of the genusPneumocoptes were found in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in Southwest Germany. This is the second time that lung mites have been recorded from a rodent in Europe1. In 1964 they were discovered in histological sections of a lung of a bank vole in France and were described asP. tiollaisi Doby, 1963. Only three more species of

Brigitte Loos-Frank; M. Abel

1983-01-01

316

[Gamasid mites of common voles in the central Volga River region].  

PubMed

The specific composition of gamasid mites from three species of voles (Microtus arvalis Pall., M. agrestis L., M. oeconomus Pall.) is given. Forest, field and flood-land groupings of the common vole having distinct phenotypical differences are characterized by differences in the structure of their parasite fauna. In the forest the number of meadow and meadow-field species decreases while that of forest species of mites regularly increases. PMID:2942832

Borisova, V I; Nazarova, I V

1986-01-01

317

Mesostigmatic mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the Eurasian griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ) in Croatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the species composition and community structure of mites of the order Mesostigmata (Acari) in nests of the Eurasian\\u000a griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783) in Croatia. Material collected from 18 nests included 565 mites belonging to seven species. The most abundant\\u000a species were Leiodinychus orbicularis (C.L. Koch, 1839) (Trematuridae) and Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese, 1887) (Laelapidae). The results were

Jerzy B?oszyk; Tvrtko Dražina; Dariusz J. Gwiazdowicz; Bruce Halliday; Bart?omiej Go?dyn; Agnieszka Napiera?a; Eliza Rybska

2011-01-01

318

Modelling the potential distribution of the invasive tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting the potential geographical distribution of a species is particularly important for pests with strong invasive abilities.\\u000a Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard, possibly native to South America, is a spider mite pest of solanaceous crops. This mite is considered\\u000a an invasive species in Africa and Europe. A CLIMEX model was developed to predict its global distribution. The model results\\u000a fitted

Alain Migeon; Francisco Ferragut; Lucía Adriana Escudero-Colomar; Komi Fiaboe; Markus Knapp; Gilberto J. de Moraes; Eddie Ueckermann; Maria Navajas

2009-01-01

319

Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to the tobacco spider mite Tetranychus evansi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin were evaluated for their pathogenicity against the tobacco spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard. In the laboratory all the fungal isolates were pathogenic to the adult female mites, causing mortality between 22.1 and 82.6%. Isolates causing more than 70% mortality were subjected to dose–response

Vitalis W. Wekesa; Nguya K. Maniania; Markus Knapp; Hamadi I. Boga

2005-01-01

320

Assessment of cross-reactivity among five species of house dust and storage mites.  

PubMed

In vitro cross-reactivity among two house dust (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus) and three storage (Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor) mites was examined in 20 mite-sensitive dogs with natural occurring atopic dermatitis (group A), 13 high-IgE beagles experimentally sensitized to D. farinae (group B), and five healthy beagles (group C). Intradermal testing (IDT) and serology for allergen-specific IgE demonstrated that co-sensitization for all possible pairs of the five mites was generally 45% or higher among group A dogs. In the same dogs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cross-inhibition results indicated that each one of D. farinae, A. siro and T. putrescentiae was a strong inhibitor of all the remaining mites, whereas D. pteronyssinus was a strong inhibitor of L. destructor. A high number of positive IDT and serology test results for D. pteronyssinus, A. siro, T. putrescentiae and L. destructor were recorded among group B dogs. No conclusive evidence of exposure to these mites was found upon analysis of dust samples from their environment and their food for the presence of mites and guanine. Also, the number of positive test results was generally higher among group B than among group C dogs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay cross-inhibition revealed that D. farinae was a strong inhibitor of D. pteronyssinus, A. siro and T. putrescentiae. Collectively, these results demonstrated extensive in vitro cross-reactivity among house dust and/or storage mites that can explain false-positive results upon testing of dust mite-sensitive dogs with atopic dermatitis. PMID:18336423

Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Marsella, Rosanna; Lee, Kenneth W; Esch, Robert E; Farmaki, Rania; Koutinas, Alexander F

2008-04-01

321

Immune response to flour and dust mites in a United Kingdom bakery.  

PubMed Central

In a study of 279 United Kingdom bakery workers a high prevalence of immunological response to storage mites was found. To determine whether this was the consequence of exposure to storage mites in bakery work, a population of salt packing workers was examined as a comparison group not at occupational risk of exposure to storage mites. Forty two per cent of both groups were atopic (had a positive skin prick response greater than negative controls to D pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur by 2 mm or more) and 33% had an immediate skin prick test response to at least one of four storage mites (L destructor, G domesticus, T putrescentiae, A Siro). A higher percentage of the salt packing workers than the bakery workers had a positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) (greater than or equal to 0.35 PRU) to D pteronyssinus and to the four storage mites. Logistic regression analysis identified atopy as the most significant variable for a positive skin test and RAST response to storage mites in both groups of workers. RAST inhibition was used to analyse extracted area and personal air samples. Analysis of static area samples for aeroallergen showed immunological identity with flour but L destructor was found in only one of seven exposed filters. The concentration of airborne flour was related to exposure rank of perceived dustiness and gravimetric measurement of total dust. Nineteen out of 32 filters from workers in jobs with higher dust exposure (rank >/=6) had a level of > 10 microgram/m(3) flour whereas this concentrations was exceeded in only one of 23 filters from workers in low dust exposure (< rank 6). It is concluded that storage mites are not of special significance in allergic responses in bakery workers. The development of immunological (and airway) responsiveness to inhaled flour dust is increased in those exposed to higher concentrations of airborne allergen, which appears to be predominantly flour and not storage mites. PMID:1515350

Tee, R D; Gordon, D J; Gordon, S; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Taylor, A J

1992-01-01

322

The use of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of parasitic mites, Psoroptes spp.  

PubMed

In vitro trials were carried out to evaluate the potential of fungal pathogens as biological control agents of parasitic mites, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae) from rabbit hosts (synonym: Psoroptes cuniculi). The fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher showed no pathogenicity. Metarhizium anisopoliae (Metschinkoff), however, showed a high level of pathogenicity; 3 days after exposure to fungal conidia all mites were dead and 6 days after exposure 60% of the dead adult females, 10% of the dead adult males and 30% of the dead female nymphs had fungal hyphae protruding from their cuticular surface. There was a significant effect of conidial concentration on the number of mite cadavers that displayed fungal infection. Exposure to between 1x10(4) and 1x10(6) conidiaml(-1) resulted in 2-25% of the mites being infected. Mean infection levels were highest, 71%, when the mites were exposed to 1x10(7) conidiaml(-1). Similarly, there was a significant effect of conidial concentration on the time taken for the mites to reach 50% levels of mortality (LT(50)) The mean LT(50) value was approximately 2.7 days, when the mites were exposed to a solution of 1x10(7) and 1x10(8) conidiaml(-1) which was significantly shorter than controls exposed to 0.03% Tween-80 solution only. There was no significant effect of passaging the fungus, either once or twice, through the host on the subsequent infectivity of M. anisopliae. The potential for use of entornopathogenic fungi for the control of parasitic mites, particularly in relation to sheep, is discussed. PMID:10946133

Smith, K E; Wall, R; French, N P

2000-09-20

323

Genetic structure of a phytophagous mite species affected by crop practices: the case of Tetranychus urticae in clementine mandarins.  

PubMed

Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan mite considered as the most polyphagous species among spider mites. This mite is a key pest of clementine mandarins in Eastern Spain, where Spanish clementine production concentrates. Crop management practices can affect the population dynamics of this mite and, consequently, its impact on the orchard. Microsatellite markers were used to study mite population genetics from two commercial orchards which had been managed differently following Integrated Pest Management (IPM) or Organic Pest Management (OPM) schemes during four consecutive years. A multiplex system including 20 microsatellite loci was designed specifically and allowed an efficient and inexpensive genotyping of individual mites. We found that the IPM population had a stronger fluctuation of population structure and higher genetic diversity compared to OPM population. Thus, our study concludes that crop management has an impact on the population genetics of T. urticae which may be related to the alternation of some acaricides under IPM. PMID:24233157

Pascual-Ruiz, S; Gómez-Martinez, M A; Ansaloni, T; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Sabater-Muñoz, B; Jacas, J A; Hurtado-Ruiz, M A

2014-04-01

324

A report on biocompounds from palm fossil of India  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of a large number of fossil woods having resemblance in anatomical features with the modern palm genus, Phoenix L in Deccan Intertrappean fossil flora of Maastrichtian-Danian age (i. e. Late Cretaceous and Earliest Tertiary (65-67 my)) indicates the most primitive record of date palm. Present discovery of biocompounds from fossil wood of Phoenix collected from Deccan Intertrappean having affinity with the biocompounds known from modern plant further exemplify the earliest documentation of Phoenix in Indian peninsula. PMID:24966541

Sharma, Dinesh Chandra; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Khan, M Salman; Srivastava, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ashwini Kumar; Shukla, Ritu

2014-01-01

325

Chromatographic analyses of tocopherols and tocotrienols in palm oil.  

PubMed

Analyses of tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) in palm oil have been extensively reported in the past. However, due to the scarcity of individual tocotrienol standards, calibrations have mostly been carried out using only ?-tocopherol as standard. Moreover, even if the individual tocotrienols are being used, their reliability is often questioned, because tocotrienols are highly susceptible to oxidation and deterioration. This paper reports on the study of the deterioration rate of individual tocotrienol standards upon storage as well as different calibration methods for the tocols in palm oil. PMID:22337806

Han, Ng Mei; May, Choo Yuen

2012-03-01

326

Nine eriophyoid mite species from Iran (Acari, Eriophyidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicaris sp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicager sp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae). PMID:22144865

Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira

2011-01-01

327

Nine eriophyoid mite species from Iran (Acari, Eriophyidae).  

PubMed

Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicarissp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicagersp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae). PMID:22144865

Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira

2011-01-01

328

Identification and biosynthesis of an aggregation pheromone of the storage mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus.  

PubMed

In an effort to identify new pheromones from mites, the headspace of undisturbed colonies of the storage mite Chortoglyphus arcuatus was analyzed by GC-MS by use of a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The major compound emitted from the mites is (4R,6R,8R)-4,6,8-trimethyldecan-2-one (4R,6R,8R-8). The structure was elucidated by analysis of the mass spectrum, synthesis of authentic samples, and gas chromatography on a chiral phase. Bioassays show that this compound, for which we propose the trivial name chortolure, is an aggregation pheromone for both sexes of this species. Several related compounds are released in smaller amounts by the mites. The alarm pheromones of these mites, neral and geranial, can only be found in total extracts of the mites, in which 8 occurs only in minute amounts. The method of sampling is therefore crucial for pheromone identification. Feeding experiments with deuterated propionate showed that chortolure is a polyketide, formed by successive addition of four propionate units to an acetate starter. PMID:15481032

Schulz, Stefan; Fuhlendorff, Jens; Steidle, Johannes L M; Collatz, Jana; Franz, Jörg-Thomas

2004-11-01

329

Potential role of Demodex mites and bacteria in the induction of rosacea.  

PubMed

Rosacea is a common dermatological condition that predominantly affects the central regions of the face. Rosacea affects up to 3?% of the world's population and a number of subtypes are recognized. Rosacea can be treated with a variety of antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline or metronidazole) yet no role for bacteria or microbes in its aetiology has been conclusively established. The density of Demodex mites in the skin of rosacea patients is higher than in controls, suggesting a possible role for these mites in the induction of this condition. In addition, Bacillus oleronius, known to be sensitive to the antibiotics used to treat rosacea, has been isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea and a potential role for this bacterium in the induction of rosacea has been proposed. Staphylococcus epidermidis has been isolated predominantly from the pustules of rosacea patients but not from unaffected skin and may be transported around the face by Demodex mites. These findings raise the possibility that rosacea is fundamentally a bacterial disease resulting from the over-proliferation of Demodex mites living in skin damaged as a result of adverse weathering, age or the production of sebum with an altered fatty acid content. This review surveys the literature relating to the role of Demodex mites and their associated bacteria in the induction and persistence of rosacea and highlights possible therapeutic options. PMID:22933353

Jarmuda, Stanislaw; O'Reilly, Niamh; Zaba, Ryszard; Jakubowicz, Oliwia; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej; Kavanagh, Kevin

2012-11-01

330

Sensitization to Dermatophagoides siboney, Blomia tropicalis, and other domestic mites in asthmatic patients.  

PubMed

Mite species adapted to warm, humid climates are commonly found in house dust in the tropics. In Cuba, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis are the most common and abundant mite species in house dust. To investigate the pattern of sensitization of Cuban asthmatic patients to common mite species, we skin-prick-tested (SPT) 148 patients with a clinical history of asthma and possible mite allergy, and determined specific IgE antibodies against mite allergens (D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, D. siboney, B. tropicalis, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Glycyphagus domesticus). The prevalence of positive SPT was high to D. siboney (88%), D. pteronyssinus (87%), A. siro (85%), B. tropicalis (85%), and D. farinae (83%). The largest skin reactions were obtained with D. siboney and B. tropicalis extracts. The skin test response to the D. siboney extract correlated to those of D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, B. tropicalis, and A. siro. The highest IgE levels were found to Dermatophagoides species and B. tropicalis. IgE to D. siboney and B. tropicalis were found in 97% and 96% of the patients, respectively. The prevalence of specific IgE to the other mites studied varied from 46 to 65%. D. siboney and B. tropicalis are important sensitizers among asthmatic patients in Cuba. PMID:8863927

Ferrándiz, R; Casas, R; Dreborg, S

1996-07-01

331

Larval aquatic and terrestrial mites infesting parthenogenetic Ischnura hastata (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from the Azores islands.  

PubMed

We report here the prevalence of parasitism by water mites (Arrenurus sp.) and terrestrial mites (Leptus killingtoni) on parthenogenetic Ischnura hastata (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) from the Azores islands. Leptus killingtoni was only found on the island of Pico, and the prevalence of infestation was highly variable among the different ponds studied, ranging from 0 to 41%. Leptus killingtoni was observed on three of the four odonate species from the archipelago: I. hastata, I. pumilio, and Sympetrum fonscolombii, all of them new hosts for this species. Aquatic mites have been found parasitizing I. hastata females on the island of São Miguel. The prevalence of mite parasitism by Arrenurus sp. on I. hastata was very low, ranging from 12% (2003) to 1% (2008), and in most of the studied ponds, no mites were found attached to females. Although I. hastata coexists with a sexual congener species in the Azores (I. pumilio), they are syntopic in only a small fraction of ponds. Therefore, a comparison between I. hastata and I. pumilio was insufficient to test the predictions of the Red Queen Hypothesis, and further research on parasitism rates in both species needs to be done. In any case, the low prevalence of mite parasitism found in the Azores, coupled with the fact that most of the populations in the archipelago are almost free from competitors and predators, could explain the persistence of these I. hastata parthenogenetic populations, despite their low levels of genetic variation. PMID:21380754

Lorenzo-Carballa, M O; Beatty, C D; Haitlinger, R; Valdecasas, A G; Utzeri, C; Vieira, V; Cordero-Rivera, A

2011-07-01

332

Feeding-associated gene expression in sheep scab mites (Psoroptes ovis)  

PubMed Central

The mite Psoroptes ovis is the causative agent of sheep scab. Although not usually fatal, the disease can spread rapidly and is a serious animal welfare concern. Vaccine development against ectoparasites has primarily focussed on two sources of candidate vaccine antigens – “exposed” antigens that are secreted in saliva during feeding on a host and “concealed” antigens that are usually expressed in the parasite gut and may be involved in digestion. Here, we sought to identify genes encoding proteins important for mite feeding and digestion by a subtractive suppressive hybridisation approach comparing mRNA transcript abundance in “fed” and “starved” mites. The study identified a variety of genes which are up-regulated by feeding mites. These included group 1, 5, 7 and 13 allergens including the previously described cysteine protease Pso o 1. In addition, numerous novel genes were identified here including some encoding potential salivary gland proteins and others encoding proteins which may facilitate feeding such as a serum opacity factor. An olfactory receptor-like protein was identified in the starved mite population which may help the mite to identify a host. PMID:19852923

McNair, Carol M.; Billingsley, Peter F.; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Knox, Dave P.

2009-01-01

333

Lack of neo-sensitization to Pen a 1 in patients treated with mite sublingual immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Background Some studies reported the possible induction of food allergy, caused by neo-sensitization to cross-reacting allergens, during immunotherapy with aeroallergens, while other studies ruled out such possibility. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of neo-sensitization to Pen a 1 (tropomyosin) as well as the appearance of reactions after ingestion of foods containing tropomyosin as a consequence of sublingual mite immunization. Materials and methods Specific IgE to Tropomyosin (rPen a 1) before and after mite sublingual immunotherapy in 134 subjects were measured. IgE-specific antibodies for mite extract and recombinant allergen Pen a 1 were evaluated using the immunoenzymatic CAP system (Phadia Diagnostics, Milan, Italy). Results All patients had rPen a 1 IgE negative results before and after mite SLIT and did not show positive shrimp extract skin reactivity and serological rPen a 1 IgE conversion after treatment. More important, no patient showed systemic reactions to crustacean ingestion. Conclusions Patients did not show neo-sensitization to tropomyosin, a component of the extract (namely mite group 10) administered. An assessment of a patient's possible pre-existing sensitisation to tropomyosin by skin test and/or specific IgE prior to start mite extract immunotherapy is recommended. Trial Registration This trial is registered in EudraCT, with the ID number of 2010-02035531. PMID:20230633

2010-01-01

334

Toxicity of pesticides to predatory mites and insects in apple-tree site under field conditions.  

PubMed

Various applications of active ingredients of six fungicides and three insecticides and acaricides at normally recommended dosages were tested on two predatory mite species (Amblyseius andersoni Chant and Anthoseius bakeri Garman) from the family Phytoseiidae and on two predatory insect species (Coccinella septempunctata L. Chrysopa perla L.) dominantly present on apple trees. Small differences were found between fungicide treatments. On the trees treated with six fungicide applications the predatory mites and insects survived and increased to a high level, often 20-40 phytoseiids per 100 leaves and 4-8 predatory insects per sample unit. Only the active ingredients tolylfluanid and myclobutanil resulted in lower densities of predatory mites (10-20 phytoseiids per 100 leaves). One application of insecticides-acaricides (active ingredients: clofentezine, phosalone) showed no toxic effect on predatory mites and insects. Two applications of phosalone and one of alpha-cypermethrine were slightly or moderately toxic. Two applications of alpha-cypermethrine and eight routine sprays of various insecticides-acaricides and fungicides were very toxic and resulted in the lowest maximum number of predatory mites and insects, approximately 0-10 phytoseiids per 100 leaves and 1-4 predatory insects per sample unit. The toxicity of pesticides to predatory mites and insects is based on the toxicity of the pesticide' active ingredient and the spray frequency. The active ingredients of fungicides and only one or two applications of insecticides and acaricides were not or slightly toxic and could be used in integrated pest management. PMID:15269898

Raudonis, L; Surviliene, E; Valiuskaite, A

2004-08-01

335

Competitive interactions among four pest species of earth mites (Acari: Penthaleidae).  

PubMed

Earth mites are major winter pests of a variety of crops and pastures in southern Australia. Competition between four earth mite species was investigated using field and shadehouse experiments. The influence of different plant hosts on the frequency and intensity of competitive interactions also were examined. This information is important, because control attempts that eradicate one species of mite could be directly followed by an increase in abundance of another earth mite species. There were strong effects of intraspecific competition on the reproductive rate of species, while interspecific interactions between Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) and Penthaleus species and between the three Penthaleus species also were detected. Competitive abilities were altered on the different plant types. On pasture, the competitive advantage swayed between Penthaleus major (Dugés), H. destructor, and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin & Halliday). Penthaleus sp. x was the strongest competitor in a mixture of wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.), and oats, Avena sativa (L.), whereas on canola, Brassica napus (L.), and bristly ox-tongue, Picris echioides (L.), P. falcatus, and H. destructor were superior competitors. These results suggest that competition is a strong force influencing the abundance of earth mites in the field and that host plant factors are important in shaping the type of interactions. This highlights the importance of identifying mite species when considering control options and suggests that effective control recommendations need to be developed for each individual species. PMID:15889718

Umina, P A; Hoffmann, A A

2005-04-01

336

Intensity of parasitic mite infection decreases with hibernation duration of the host snail.  

PubMed

Temperature can be a limiting factor on parasite development. Riccardoella limacum, a haematophagous mite, lives in the mantle cavity of helicid land snails. The prevalence of infection by R. limacum in populations of the land snail Arianta arbustorum is highly variable (0-78%) in Switzerland. However, parasitic mites do not occur in host populations at altitudes of 1290 m or higher. It has been hypothesized that the host's hibernation period might be too long at high elevations for mites and their eggs to survive. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally infected snails and allowed them to hibernate at 4°C for periods of 4-7 months. Winter survival of host snails was negatively affected by R. limacum. The intensity of mite infection decreased with increasing hibernation duration. Another experiment with shorter recording intervals revealed that mites do not leave the host when it buries in the soil at the beginning of hibernation. The number of mites decreased after 24 days of hibernation, whereas the number of eggs attached to the lung tissue remained constant throughout hibernation. Thus, R. limacum survives the winter in the egg stage in the host. Low temperature at high altitudes may limit the occurrence of R. limacum. PMID:22444479

Haeussler, E M; Pizá, J; Schmera, D; Baur, B

2012-07-01

337

Detection of serine proteases in extracts of the domestic mite Blomia tropicalis.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that the domestic mites Dennatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae contain allergens with serine protease activity. These proteolytic allergens include trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, kallikrein, and C3/C5 convertase. However, it is not known whether the domestic mite Blomia tropicalis shares with other mite species the serine protease activities. The enzymatic activity present in extracts obtained from food-free B. tropicalis was investigated using specific substrates and inhibitors. Based upon the concentration response and inhibition profiles, and the digestion of specific substrates our data demonstrate that extracts from B. tropicalis exhibit several serine-protease-like activities. The enzyme activities detected in the B. tropicalis extracts are trypsin, elastase, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, C3/C5 convertase, and mast cell protease. Our results also demonstrate that kallikrein and C3/C5 convertase-like activities were not significantly affected by the alpha1-antiprotease, a naturally occurring serine protease inhibitor which protects lung mucosa from the enzymatic action. These data strongly suggest that the Echymyopodidae mite B. tropicalis shares at least five serine proteases with members of other mite families, the Glycyphagidae and Pyroglyphidae. In addition, our data demonstrate the potential use of biochemical methods to detect serine proteases for evaluation of mite growth in viitro, or to detect environmental exposures to these enzymes. PMID:12475079

Montealegre, Federico; Quiñones, Carmen; Torres, Nanette; Goth, Kirsteen

2002-01-01

338

Determination of pH in Regions of the Midguts of Acaridid Mites  

PubMed Central

The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora. PMID:20572792

Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

2010-01-01

339

Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites  

PubMed Central

Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites. PMID:20003349

2009-01-01

340

Risk assessment of non-target effects caused by releasing two exotic phytoseiid mites in Japan: can an indigenous phytoseiid mite become IG prey?  

PubMed

Two exotic phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii, are commercially available in Japan for the control of thrips and other pest insects. As part of a risk assessment of the non-target effects of releasing these two species, we investigated intraguild predation (IGP) between these exotic phytoseiid mites and an indigenous phytoseiid mite Gynaeseius liturivorus, which is promising as an indigenous natural enemy for the control of thrips in Japan. To understand IGP relations between the exotic and indigenous phytoseiid mites after use of the exotic mites for biological control, we investigated IGP between them in the absence of their shared prey. When an IG prey was offered to an IG predator, both exotic and indigenous females consumed the IG prey at all immature stages (egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph), especially at its larval stages. The propensity for IGP in a no-choice test was measured by the survival time of IG prey corrected using the survival time of thrips offered to the IG predator. There was no significant difference in the propensity for IGP between N. cucumeris and G. liturivorus, but the propensity was significantly higher in A. swirskii than G. liturivorus. The propensity for IGP in a choice test was measured by the prey choice of the IG predator when a conspecific and a heterospecific larva were offered simultaneously as IG prey. Both exotic females consumed the heterospecific larva only. The indigenous female preferentially consumed the heterospecific larva when the heterospecific larva was N. cucumeris, but consumed the conspecific larva when the heterospecific larva was A. swirskii. We concluded that further investigation would be necessary for the exotic mites' risk assessment, since the propensity for IGP of the two exotic females was similar to or higher than that of the indigenous female in both the no-choice and choice tests. PMID:21465332

Sato, Yukie; Mochizuki, Atsushi

2011-08-01

341

Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review  

PubMed Central

Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

2014-01-01

342

Palm-based standard reference materials for iodine value and slip melting point.  

PubMed

This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 +/- 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 +/- 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 +/- 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in palm oil, 22.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C in palm olein and 53.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 degrees C, 0 degrees C, 6 degrees C and 24 degrees C upon storage for one year. PMID:19609396

Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

2008-01-01

343

Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.  

PubMed

Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines. PMID:25056559

Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

2014-01-01

344

Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on apple trees and in surrounding vegetation in southern Finland. Densities and species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf samples were collected from sprayed (n=29) and unsprayed (n=19) apple orchards, from the surrounding vegetation (n=58) and from one arboretum (n=12), altogether from 46 plant species (1–5 samples each). The density of phytoseiid mites averaged 1.2 mites\\/leaf on unsprayed apple trees, but only 0.06 mites\\/leaf on sprayed trees. The phytoseiid density exceeded 1\\/leaf onAesculus hippocastani, Aristolochia macrophylla, Corylus avellana,

T. Tuovinen; J. A. H. Rokx

1991-01-01

345

The efficacy of neem seed extracts (Tre-san®, MiteStop®) on a broad spectrum of pests and parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the acaricidal and insecticidal effects of a patented neem seed extract when diluted 1:10 with shampoo\\u000a or 1:20, 1:30, 1:33, 1:40, respectively, 1:66 with tap water. It was shown that a broad range of pests and parasites, such\\u000a as house dust mites, poultry mites, harvest mites, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus ticks, cat fleas (adults, larvae), bed bugs (all

Günter Schmahl; Khaled A. S. Al-Rasheid; Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Sven Klimpel; Heinz Mehlhorn

2010-01-01

346

Demodex mite infestation of unknown significance in a patient with rhinocerebral mucormycosis due to Apophysomyces elegans species complex.  

PubMed

Demodex mites have been reported in the past as a cause of facial rash in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we report an interesting case of possible demodicosis associated with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. The association of mites with a fungus was detected on direct microscopic examination of the scrapings of a nasal ulcer. The mite and the fungus were identified as Demodex folliculorum and Apophysomyces elegans species complex, respectively. PMID:23475907

Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Kapoor, Rakesh; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

2013-06-01

347

Selected factors influencing the abundance of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in grain sorghum on the Texas High Plains  

E-print Network

as described above. Effects of water stressed Grain Sorghum on S ider Mite Po ulations To determine the effects of moisture stress on the total soluble sugar content of grain sorghum leaves and subsequent. effect on mite populations, a test was conducted... as described above. Effects of water stressed Grain Sorghum on S ider Mite Po ulations To determine the effects of moisture stress on the total soluble sugar content of grain sorghum leaves and subsequent. effect on mite populations, a test was conducted...

Kattes, David Hugh

2012-06-07

348

Quantitative PCR-based genome size estimation of the astigmatid mites Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of genomic data available for mites limits our understanding of their biology. Evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies promise to deliver rapid advances in this area, however, estimates of genome size are initially required to ensure sufficient coverage. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate the genome sizes of the burrowing ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, the non-burrowing ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, and the free-living house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Additionally, the chromosome number of S. scabiei was determined by chromosomal spreads of embryonic cells derived from single eggs. Results S. scabiei cells were shown to contain 17 or 18 small (< 2 ?M) chromosomes, suggesting an XO sex-determination mechanism. The average estimated genome sizes of S. scabiei and P. ovis were 96 (± 7) Mb and 86 (± 2) Mb respectively, among the smallest arthropod genomes reported to date. The D. pteronyssinus genome was estimated to be larger than its parasitic counterparts, at 151 Mb in female mites and 218 Mb in male mites. Conclusions This data provides a starting point for understanding the genetic organisation and evolution of these astigmatid mites, informing future sequencing projects. A comparitive genomic approach including these three closely related mites is likely to reveal key insights on mite biology, parasitic adaptations and immune evasion. PMID:22214472

2012-01-01

349

The ecological distribution of reproductive mode in oribatid mites, as related to biological complexity.  

PubMed

The high incidence of asexuality in oribatid mites presents an unusual opportunity for examining hypotheses for the maintenance of sex. There is a presumed range in age of asexual species: many oribatid species are phylogenetically clustered, occurring in speciose early-derivative families or genera without sexual species, while others are phylogenetically isolated from other asexual species, occurring in later derivative taxa with sexual congeners. We examined the distribution of oribatid mite reproductive mode in soil of corn fields, grassy and shrub fields, and forests in central New York State (three replicate plots of each type, with 25 samples per plot), to test three ecological predictions from current theory. (1) If overall biotic uncertainty, as generated by competitors and predators, mediates the ecological distribution of oribatid mites, then the proportion of asexual oribatid mites should be negatively correlated with biological diversity; we examine this prediction using literature data as well. (2) If Muller's Ratchet (the stochastic loss of best genotypes, which is independent of environment), mediates the success of asexuality, then no ecological pattern should exist. (3) If general purpose genotypes are characteristic of asexual oribatid mites, their habitat distribution should be broader than that of sexual species. For each plot the level of asexuality was compared to indices of overall biotic diversity, as calculated from the pooled oribatid mite (competitors) and mesostigmatid mite (predator) communities. We found no negative correlation in this relationship in our own data or in the literature analysis of 290 faunal surveys from 50 literature sources, so we reject biotic uncertainty as an important determinant of reproductive mode distribution. When only data on phylogenetically clustered asexuals are considered, there is instead a positive correlation between asexuality and diversity that is not explained. Because of the latter pattern we tentatively reject Muller's Ratchet as the primary factor maintaining reproductive mode in these mites, but cannot reject it for isolated asexual species. Niche breadth in sexual and asexual oribatid mites provides no support for widespread general purpose genotypes but broad patterns in the literature suggest that the idea needs further investigation. Possible complicating or unknown factors that are discussed include historical disturbance in the study area, the relationship between parasitism and general biotic diversity, and the level and source of genetic diversity in asexual oribatid mites. PMID:16900312

Cianciolo, Jennifer M; Norton, Roy A

2006-01-01

350

Effectiveness of eriophyid mites for biological control of weedy plants and challenges for future research.  

PubMed

Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. We reviewed known examples of the use of eriophyid mites to control weedy plants to learn how effective they have been. In the past 13 years, since Rosenthal's 1996 review, 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation (Aceria genistae, A. lantanae, Aceria sp. [boneseed leaf buckle mite (BLBM)], A. salsolae, A. sobhiani, A. solstitialis, A. tamaricis, A. thalgi, A. thessalonicae, Cecidophyes rouhollahi, Floracarus perrepae, Leipothrix dipsacivagus and L. knautiae), but only four (A. genistae, Aceria sp. [BLBM], C. rouhollahi and F. perrepae) have been authorized for introduction. Prior to this, three species (Aceria chondrillae, A. malherbae and Aculus hyperici) were introduced and have become established. Although these three species impact the fitness of their host plant, it is not clear how much they have contributed to reduction of the population of the target weed. In some cases, natural enemies, resistant plant genotypes, and adverse abiotic conditions have reduced the ability of eriophyid mites to control target weed populations. Some eriophyid mites that are highly coevolved with their host plant may be poor prospects for biological control because of host plant resistance or tolerance of the plant to the mite. Susceptibility of eriophyids to predators and pathogens may also prevent them from achieving population densities necessary to reduce host plant populations. Short generation time, high intrinsic rate of increase and high mobility by aerial dispersal imply that eriophyids should have rapid rates of evolution. This raises concerns that eriophyids may be more likely to lose efficacy over time due to coevolution with the target weed or that they may be more likely to adapt to nontarget host plants compared to insects, which have a longer generation time and slower population growth rate. Critical areas for future research include life history, foraging and dispersal behavior, mechanisms controlling host plant specificity, and evolutionary stability of eriophyid mites. This knowledge is critical for designing and interpreting laboratory and field experiments to measure host plant specificity and potential impact on target and nontarget plants, which must be known before they can be approved for release. One of the more successful examples of an eriophyid mite controlling an invasive alien weed is Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, whose impact is primarily due to transmission of a virus pathogenic to the target, Rosa multiflora. Neither the mite nor the virus originated from the target weed, which suggests that using "novel enemies" may sometimes be an effective strategy for using eriophyid mites. PMID:19760101

Smith, L; de Lillo, E; Amrine, J W

2010-07-01

351

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for California: A Tree Trimmer Dies When He is Crushed by Palm Tree Branches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self-employed tree trimmer died while trimming the palm branches from an 80-foot palm tree in the yard of a private residence. The victim climbed the palm tree and got underneath the palm branches to trim them off the tree. As he cut the dead palm branc...

2010-01-01

352

CELLULOSE EXTRACTION FROM PALM KERNEL CAKE USING LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method

FARM YAN YAN; DUDUKU KRISHNIAH; MARIANI RAJIN; AWANG BONO

353

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo  

EPA Science Inventory

During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

354

Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.  

PubMed

The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

2013-05-01

355

Palm Beach Community College Strategic Plan, 1999-2004.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report addresses strategies and action plans for Palm Beach Community College (PBCC) (Florida) between 1999-2004. As part of a commitment to achieve specific, measurable end results, the college has set various objectives, including: (1) develop, implement and institutionalize a mission driven strategic budget for the 1999-2000 fiscal year;…

Samuels, Seymour

356

Dynamic features of PALM MP Needs and definition  

E-print Network

Dynamic features of PALM MP Needs and definition Samuel BUIS, Thierry MOREL, Andrea PIACENTINI implementation depend on the defi­ nition of its dynamic features. This report aims to recall the reasons of im­ plementing a dynamic coupler and to establish the dynamic features that are supported. For each feature

357

Chemical characterization of various parts of nipa palm ( Nypa fruticans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was initiated to characterize various parts of nipa palm (Nypa fruticans) to establish whole utilization of this biomass as potential raw material for fuels and chemicals. Nipa consisting of frond, shell, husk and leaf was chemically characterized for cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, protein, extractives and inorganic constituents for its each part. The total chemical composition showed that

Pramila Tamunaidu; Shiro Saka

2011-01-01

358

Personal verification using ear and palm-print biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a multimodal biometric identification system based on new features extraction of palm and ear. We describe a new biometric approach to personal identification using robust pattern recognition Each element of this set is a complex feature obtained by combining position- and scale-tolerant edge detectors over neighboring positions and multiple orientations. Our system¿s architecture is motivated by a

Karim Faez; Sara Motamed; Mahboubeh Yaqubi

2008-01-01

359

Performance of oil palm EFB fibre reinforced concrete roof slates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural fibres such as wood and vegetable fibre offer many advantages such as renewability, recyclability low specific gravity and high specific strength. In Malaysia most of the studies only focused on producing EFB as MDF and pulp and paper products. This paper reviews the development of natural fibres for building material and discusses the performance of oil palm empty fruit

J. Kaliwon; S. Sh Ahmad; A. Abdul Aziz

2010-01-01

360

Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.  

PubMed

Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19449050

Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L

2009-07-01

361

Resources for College Students in Need PALM BEACH COUNTY  

E-print Network

to those struggling with homelessness. Contact them at 561.494.0125 or http://www.thelordsplace.org/. West service agencies and provides the following services: Homeless Prevention, Homeless Intervention, Traveler. The Homeless Coalition of Palm Beach County, Inc. works to advocate for the rights of the homeless and serves

Fernandez, Eduardo

362

Stein's method, Palm theory and Poisson process approximation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The framework of Stein's method for Poisson process approximation is presented from the point of view of Palm theory, which is used to construct Stein identities and define local dependence. A general result (Theorem \\\\refimportantproposition) in Poisson process approximation is proved by taking the local approach. It is obtained without reference to any particular metric, thereby allowing wider applicability. A

Louis H. Y. Chen; Aihua Xia

2004-01-01

363

Status of the PALM-3000 high order adaptive optics instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status of PALM-3000, the second generation adaptive optics instrument for the 5.1 meter Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. PALM-3000 was released as a facility class instrument in October 2011, and has since been used on the Hale telescope a total of over 250 nights. In the past year, the PALM-3000 team introduced several instrument upgrades, including the release of the 32x32 pupil sampling mode which allows for correction on fainter guide stars, the upgrade of wavefront sensor relay optics, the diagnosis and repair of hardware problems, and the release of software improvements. We describe the performance of the PALM-3000 instrument as a result of these upgrades, and provide on-sky results. In the 32x32 pupil sampling mode (15.8 cm per subaperture), we have achieved K-band strehl ratios as high as 11% on a 14.4 mv star, and in the 64x64 pupil sampling mode (8.1 cm per subaperture), we have achieved K-band strehl ratios as high as 86% on stars brighter than 7th mv.

Burruss, Rick S.; Dekany, Richard G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shelton, J. C.; Wallace, J. K.; Tesch, Jonathan A.; Palmer, Dean L.; Hale, David; Bartos, Randall; Rykoski, Kevin M.; Heffner, Carolyn M.; Eriksen, Jamey E.; Vescelus, Fred

2014-07-01

364

Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.  

PubMed

Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The advantages that oil palm biomass has includes the following:available and exists in abundance, appears to be effective technically, and can be integrated into existing processes. Despite these advantages, oil palm biomasses have disadvantages such as low adsorption capacity, increased COD, BOD and TOC. These disadvantages can be overcome by modifying the biomass either chemically or thermally. Such modification creates a charged surface and increases the heavy metal ion binding capacity of the adsorbent. PMID:24984835

Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

2014-01-01

365

Assessing the effects of Bt Maize on the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris.  

PubMed

The investigation of Neoseiulus cucumeris in the context of the ecological risk assessment of insect resistant transgenic plants is of particular interest as this omnivorous predatory mite species is commercially available and considered important for biological control. In a multitrophic feeding experiment we assessed the impact of Bt maize on the performance of N. cucumeris when offered spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) reared on Bt (Bt11, Syngenta) or non-Bt maize (near isogenic line) and Bt or non-Bt maize pollen as a food source. Various parameters including mortality, development time, oviposition rate were measured. Spider mites were used as a prey for N. cucumeris, since these herbivores are known to contain similar levels of Cry1Ab toxin, when reared on Bt maize, as those found in the transgenic leaf material. In contrast, toxin levels in pollen of this transgenic cultivar are very low. No differences in any of the parameters were found when N. cucumeris was fed with spider mites reared on Bt and non-Bt maize. Pollen was shown to be a less suitable food source for this predator as compared to spider mites. Moreover, subtle effects on female N. cucumeris (9% longer development time and 17% reduced fecundity) were measured when fed with pollen originating from Bt maize as compared to non-Bt maize pollen. Our findings indicate that the predatory mite N. cucumeris is not sensitive to the Cry1Ab toxin as no effects could be detected when offered Bt-containing spider mites, and that the effects found when fed with Bt maize pollen can be assigned to differences in nutritional quality of Bt and non-Bt maize pollen. The significance of these findings is discussed with regard to the ecological relevance for risk assessment of transgenic plants. PMID:16596347

Obrist, Lena B; Klein, Heiri; Dutton, Anna; Bigler, Franz

2006-01-01

366

Adaptation in the asexual false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis: evidence for frozen niche variation.  

PubMed

Because asexual species lack recombination, they have little opportunity to produce genetically variable offspring and cannot adapt to changes in their environment. However, a number of asexual species are very successful and appear to contradict this general view. One such species is the phytophagous mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), a species that is found in a wide range of environments. There are two general explanations for this pattern, the General Purpose Genotype (GPG) and Frozen Niche Variation (FNV). According to the GPG model, an asexual species consists of clones that can all survive and reproduce in all the different niches. Alternatively, the FNV model postulates that different clones are specialized to different niches. We have performed a test to distinguish between these models in B. phoenicis. Mites from three populations from three different host plant species (citrus, hibiscus and acerola) were transplanted to their own and the two alternative host plants and mite survival and egg production were measured. Additionally, the mite populations were genotyped using microsatellites. Fitness was seriously reduced when mites were transplanted to the alternative host plant species, except when the alternative host was acerola. We concluded that B. phoenicis clones are specialized to different niches and thus the FNV best describes the broad ecological niche of this species but that there is also some evidence for host plant generalization. This conclusion was strengthened by the observations that on each host plant species the native mite population performed better than the introduced ones, and that three microsatellite markers showed that the mite populations are genetically distinct. PMID:16132731

Groot, Thomas V M; Janssen, Arne; Pallini, Angelo; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

2005-01-01

367

Rhinovirus Exacerbates House-Dust-Mite Induced Lung Disease in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms. PMID:24632596

Phan, Jennifer A.; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J.; Fernandes, Lynette B.; Zosky, Graeme R.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.

2014-01-01

368

Wild tomato leaf extracts for spider mite and cowpea aphid control.  

PubMed

Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 ?mole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID:24813988

Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C

2014-01-01

369

Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.  

PubMed

Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms. PMID:24632596

Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J; Fernandes, Lynette B; Zosky, Graeme R; Sly, Peter D; Larcombe, Alexander N

2014-01-01

370

Effect of stored product mite extracts on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Stored product mites commonly occur in agricultural work environments and sometimes in homes in significant numbers. They are a source of allergens that sensitize and induce allergic reactions. This may include atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the common species of storage mites are the sources of molecules that influence the function of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells that regulate the trafficking of inflammatory and immune cells into the dermis during allergic reactions and other skin diseases. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were challenged with varying doses of extracts of the storage mites Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), or Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and the secretion of cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules were measured. The role of endotoxin and protein in inducing these responses was evaluated. These stored product mite extracts induced secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor. Some of these effects were induced by protein present in the extracts, some were induced by endotoxin, and some were induced by other substances. C. arcuatus and T. putrescentiae extracts also down-regulated tumor necrosis factor a-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Stored product mite extracts contain an assortment of molecules, including endotoxins and proteins, which modulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the secretion of cytokines by microvascular endothelial cells. These modulating properties varied among mite species indicating that each mite species has a unique set of molecules that is responsible for its activity. PMID:23270170

Elder, B Laurel; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

2012-11-01

371

Effect of Stored Product Mite Extracts on Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Stored product mites commonly occur in agricultural work environments and sometimes in homes in significant numbers. They are a source of allergens that sensitize and induce allergic reactions. This may include atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the common species of storage mites are the sources of molecules that influence the function of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells that regulate the trafficking of inflammatory and immune cells into the dermis during allergic reactions and other skin diseases. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were challenged with varying doses of extracts of the storage mites Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), or Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and the secretion of cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules were measured. The role of endotoxin and protein in inducing these responses was evaluated. These stored product mite extracts induced secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor. Some of these effects were induced by protein present in the extracts, some were induced by endotoxin, and some were induced by other substances. C. arcuatus and T. putrescentiae extracts also down-regulated tumor necrosis factor ?-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Stored product mite extracts contain an assortment of molecules, including endotoxins and proteins, which modulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the secretion of cytokines by microvascular endothelial cells. These modulating properties varied among mite species indicating that each mite species has a unique set of molecules that is responsible for its activity. PMID:23270170

ELDER, B. LAUREL; MORGAN, MARJORIE S.; ARLIAN, LARRY G.

2012-01-01

372

Effectiveness of education for control of house dust mites and cockroaches in Seoul, Korea  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the efficacy of health education in reducing indoor arthropod allergens in Seoul. The mite control measures comprised the use of mite-proof mattress and pillow coverings, regular washing of potentially infested materials, maintenance of a low humidity, removal of carpets, and frequent vacuum cleaning. Cockroach control measures included trapping, application of insecticides, and protecting food. Of 201 homes enrolled in October 1999, 63 volunteers were included in a 2-year follow-up survey between April 2000 and January 2002. Before intervention, the density of mites/g of dust varied greatly; 27.1/g in children's bedding, 20/g in adult bedding, 7.2/g on the floors of children's bedrooms, 6.8/g in sofas, 5.9/g on the floors of adult's bedrooms, 3.9/g on living room floors, 3.7/g in carpets, and 1.9 mites/g on kitchen floors. The predominant mite species and house percentages infested were; Dermatophagoides farinae 93%, D. pteronyssinus 9%, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae 8%. Comparing 1999 and 2001 infestations, before and after 25 mo of education, mite abundance was reduced by 98%, from 23.7 to 0.57 mites/g of dust. In 1999, cockroaches were detected in 62% homes: 36% Blattella germanica and 35% Periplaneta spp., including 9% double infestations of B. germanica and P. americana. Following intervention, cockroach infestation rates decreased to 22% of houses in 2000 and 23% in 2001. We conclude that continuous and repetitive health education resulted in the effective control of domestic arthropods. PMID:16514286

Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Lee, Jongweon; Ree, Han-Il; Hong, Chein-Soo

2006-01-01

373

Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems.  

PubMed

Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined. PMID:23221497

Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A

2012-12-01

374

Differential scanning calorimetric analysis of palm oil, palm oil based products and coconut oil: effects of scanning rate variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the thermal behaviour of coconut oil and palm oil and products based on them, by monitoring peak transition temperatures, transition enthalpies, offset- (Toff) and onset-temperatures (Ton) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different scanning rates. Triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and iodine value (IV) analyses were used to compliment the DSC data. An increase in heating rate, generally, was

C. P Tan; Y. B Che Man

2002-01-01

375

A High-Molecular-Weight Mite Antigen (HM1) Fraction Aggravates Airway Hyperresponsiveness of Allergic Mice to House Dusts and Whole Mite Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae is the most common aeroallergen causing human allergic asthma. Previously, we demonstrated that a high-molecular-weight allergenic fraction (HM1), which was abundant in D. farinae extracts, induced a proliferative response of T cells from healthy donors. The induction was mediated through the activation of macrophages without MHC class II restriction. In this study, we

Airo Tategaki; Seiji Kawamoto; Takahide Okuda; Tsunehiro Aki; Hiroshi Yasueda; Osamu Suzuki; Kazuhisa Ono; Seiko Shigeta

2002-01-01

376

Plant defence in a tritrophic context : chemical and behavioural analysis of the interactions between spider mites, predatory mites and various plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch is a serious pest in field crops, glasshouse vegetables and fruit crops. It is a generalist herbivore with several hundreds of host plant species. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot is one of its natural enemies. Investigations of the tritrophic system of plant, T. urticae and P. persimilis will contribute to a better knowledge about the direct

Boom van den C. E. M

2003-01-01

377

JOURNAL OF OIL PALM RESEARCH SPECIAL ISSUE ON MALAYSIA-MIT BIOTECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME: VOLUME 2 -OIL PALM METABOLIC ENGINEERING (JULY 2008)  

E-print Network

30 JOURNAL OF OIL PALM RESEARCH SPECIAL ISSUE ON MALAYSIA-MIT BIOTECHNOLOGY PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME: VOLUME 2 - OIL PALM METABOLIC ENGINEERING (JULY 2008) NON-RADIOACTIVE ASSAY FOR ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE 2007. ABSTRACT Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a key enzyme in oil biosynthesis and is critical for the oil

Sinskey, Anthony J.

378

Temporal changes in distribution, prevalence and intensity of northern fowl mite ( Ornithonyssus sylviarum) parasitism in commercial caged laying hens, with a comprehensive economic analysis of parasite impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishment and spread of Ornithonyssus sylviarum were documented through time on sentinel hens (50 per house of 28,000–30,000 hens) in the first egg production cycle of three large commercial flocks (12 houses) of white leghorn hens. Mites were controlled using acaricide, and the impacts of treatment on mite populations and economic performance were documented. Mite prevalence and intensity increased rapidly

Bradley A. Mullens; Jeb P. Owen; Douglas R. Kuney; Coralie E. Szijj; Kimberly A. Klingler

2009-01-01

379

An interesterified palm olein test meal decreases early-phase postprandial lipemia compared to palm olein: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40-70 years with fasting TAG concentrations ?1.2 mmol/L. Postprandial changes in plasma lipids following meals containing 75 g fat (NPO and IPO) were compared using a randomized, double-blind crossover design (n = 11). Although there were no significant differences in plasma TAG concentrations between meals over the total 6-h postprandial measurement period, IPO resulted in a decreased plasma TAG response during the first 4 h of the postprandial period (iAUC 1.65 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) compared to NPO (iAUC 2.33 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.58-3.07); meal effect P = 0.024. Chylomicron fraction TAG concentrations at 4-6 h were slightly reduced following IPO compared to NPO [NPO-IPO mean difference 0.29 mmol/L (95% CI -0.01-0.59), P = 0.055]. There were no differences in IDL fraction TAG, cholesterol or apolipoprotein B48 concentrations following IPO compared with NPO. In conclusion, consuming a meal containing palm olein with a higher proportion of 16:0 in the sn-2 position decreases postprandial lipemia compared to native palm olein during the early phase of the postprandial period in men with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations. PMID:25103522

Hall, Wendy L; Brito, Marcela Fiuza; Huang, Junlan; Wood, Lucy V; Filippou, Androulla; Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

2014-09-01

380

Novel Scabies Mite Serpins Inhibit the Three Pathways of the Human Complement System  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage. PMID:22792350

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

381

Scabies Mite Peritrophins Are Potential Targets of Human Host Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Background Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1) was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD). Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL), the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. Conclusions/Significance This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the lectin pathway of the complement cascade. These initial findings indicate a novel role of scabies mite peritrophins in triggering a host innate immune response within the mite gut. PMID:21980545

Holt, Deborah C.; Kemp, Dave J.; Fischer, Katja

2011-01-01

382

Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model  

PubMed Central

Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that establishment of pathogens follow scabies infection. Our findings provide an explanation for a biologically important aspect of the disease pathogenesis. The methods developed from this pig trial will serve as a guide to analyze human clinical samples. Studies building on this will offer implications for development of novel intervention strategies against the mites and the secondary infections. PMID:24875186

Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

2014-01-01

383

Host-plant specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites and their importance for the use of eriophyoid mites as biocontrol agents of weeds.  

PubMed

Eriophyoid mites, which are among the smallest plant feeders, are characterized by the intimate relationships they have with their hosts and the restricted range of plants upon which they can reproduce. The knowledge of their true host ranges and mechanisms causing host specificity is fundamental to understanding mite-host interactions, potential mite-host coevolution, and diversity of this group, as well as to apply effective control strategies or to use them as effective biological control agents. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on host specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites, and to point out knowledge gaps and doubts. Using available data on described species and recorded hosts we showed that: (1) 80% of eriophyoids have been reported on only one host species, 95% on one host genus, and 99% on one host family; (2) Diptilomiopidae has the highest proportion of monophagous species and Phytoptidae has the fewest; (3) non-monophagous eriophyoids show the tendency to infest closely related hosts; 4) vagrant eriophyoids have a higher proportion of monophagous species than refuge-seeking and refuge-inducing species; (5) the proportions of monophagous species infesting annual and perennial hosts are similar; however, many species infesting annual hosts have wider host ranges than those infesting perennial hosts; (6) the proportions of species that are monophagous infesting evergreen and deciduous plants are similar; (7) non-monophagous eriophyoid species have wider geographic distribution than monophagous species. Field and laboratory host-specificity tests for several eriophyoid species and their importance for biological control of weeds are described. Testing the actual host range of a given eriophyoid species, searching for ecological data, genetic differentiation analysis, and recognizing factors and mechanisms that contribute to host specificity of eriophyoid mites are suggested as future directions for research. PMID:19789985

Skoracka, Anna; Smith, Lincoln; Oldfield, George; Cristofaro, Massimo; Amrine, James W

2010-07-01

384

Orchestration of an Uncommon Maturation Cascade of the House Dust Mite Protease Allergen Quartet  

PubMed Central

In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, group 1 is cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6, and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin, and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6, and 9 through complex intra- or inter-molecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6, and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation, and interconnection. PMID:24744761

Dumez, Marie-Eve; Herman, Julie; Campizi, Vincenzo; Galleni, Moreno; Jacquet, Alain; Chevigne, Andy

2014-01-01

385

Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology  

PubMed Central

Frequent convergent evolution in phylogenetically unrelated taxa points to the importance of ecological factors during evolution, whereas convergent evolution in closely related taxa indicates the importance of favourable pre-existing characters (pre-adaptations). We investigated the transitions to arboreal life in oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari), a group of mostly soil-living arthropods. We evaluated which general force—ecological factors, historical constraints or chance—was dominant in the evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites. A phylogenetic study of 51 oribatid mite species and four outgroup taxa, using the ribosomal 18S rDNA region, indicates that arboreal life evolved at least 15 times independently. Arboreal oribatid mite species are not randomly distributed in the phylogenetic tree, but are concentrated among strongly sclerotized, sexual and evolutionary younger taxa. They convergently evolved a capitate sensillus, an anemoreceptor that either precludes overstimulation in the exposed bark habitat or functions as a gravity receptor. Sexual reproduction and strong sclerotization were important pre-adaptations for colonizing the bark of trees that facilitated the exploitation of living resources (e.g. lichens) and served as predator defence, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that ecological factors are most important for the observed pattern of convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites, supporting an adaptationist view of evolution. PMID:19535377

Maraun, Mark; Erdmann, Georgia; Schulz, Garvin; Norton, Roy A.; Scheu, Stefan; Domes, Katja

2009-01-01

386

The effect of insecticides on the non-target predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans: laboratory studies.  

PubMed

The side-effects of pesticides on predatory mites have been investigated at various levels and international teams (e.g., the IOBC/wprs Working Group "Pesticides and beneficial organisms") have selected a few species of predatory mites occurring in Central and Northern Europe as representative for such studies. Key biocontrol species occurring in Southern Europe have received much less attention. Kampimodromus aberrans is the most important predator of herbivorous mites in South-European vineyards treated with selective pesticides. The impact of pesticides on K. aberrans populations has been studied in field conditions whereas few toxicological tests have been conducted in the laboratory because of difficulties in rearing this species. A method for rearing K. aberrans in the laboratory has recently been set up allowing toxicological studies to be conducted. In this paper, a toxicological method to assess the effects of pesticides on K. aberrans is described and the effects of insecticides frequently used in European vineyards on two K. aberrans strains are reported. These strains were collected from vineyards treated with organophosphates. Insecticides characterized by different modes of action were selected for trials. Among these, etofenprox and spinosad were classified as harmful to predatory mites. Chlorpyrifos reduced predatory mite fecundity, and was classified as moderately harmful for both strains. The toxicity of thiamethoxam and flufenoxuron varied with the strain (low to moderate). Indoxacarb and methoxyfenozide appeared to be harmless or slightly harmful. Implications of this study for adopting IPM tactics with a reduced risk for K. aberrans are discussed. PMID:23856464

Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo

2013-10-01

387

Efficacy of two fungus-based biopesticide against the honeybee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.  

PubMed

The varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) (Acari: Varroidae), is known as the most serious ectoparasitic mite on honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the world. Based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi, two commercial preparations; Bioranza (Metarhizium anisopliae) and Biovar (Beauveria bassiana) were evaluated through application into the hives against varroa mite. Data showed significant differences between treatments with Bioranza and Biovar, the results were significant after 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Mean a daily fallen mite individual was significantly different between the hives before and after the applications of the two biopesticides and wheat flour. Also, mites' mortality was, significantly, different between the hives before and after treatments. There were significant differences between treatments with the two biopesticides in worker's body weight. Bioranza and Biovar did not infect the honeybee in larval, prepupal, pupal and adult stages. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images showed spores and hyphae penetration through stigma and wounds on varroa. The results suggest that Bioranza and Biovar are potentially are effective biopesticides against V. destructor in honeybee colonies. PMID:24498835

Ahmed, Abdelaal A; Abd-Elhady, Hany K

2013-08-15

388

Minimal persistent inflammation is present at mucosal level in patients with asymptomatic rhinitis and mite allergy.  

PubMed

The natural exposure to house dust mites causes sensitization in genetically susceptible patients. Persistent exposure of sensitized patients causes chronic inflammation, and consequently, hyperreactivity, thus promoting the development of clinical features. Recently, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/CD54 expression on epithelial cells triggered by allergen has been demonstrated and related to the inflammation caused by the allergic reaction. Therefore we evaluated the possible presence of inflammation (i.e., inflammatory cell infiltrate and ICAM-1/CD54 expression on epithelium) at conjunctival and nasal levels in patients with asymptomatic allergic rhinitis caused by mites, in their relatives living in the same environment, and in healthy volunteers. In addition, the possible relationship between inflammation and house dust mite allergen exposure was evaluated. Conjunctival and nasal scrapings of allergic subjects enrolled in the study showed many inflammatory cells. A mild ICAM-1/CD54 expression on conjunctival and nasal epithelium was detectable in allergic subjects, whereas relatives and healthy volunteers showed few inflammatory cells and no ICAM-1/CD54 expression on epithelial cells. A detectable level of house dust mite, sufficient to cause sensitization, was found in all houses. This study demonstrates a minimal persistent inflammation at conjunctival and nasal levels constantly detectable in patients without symptoms who are sensitized to mites and continuously exposed to the natural allergens. PMID:8543756

Ciprandi, G; Buscaglia, S; Pesce, G; Pronzato, C; Ricca, V; Parmiani, S; Bagnasco, M; Canonica, G W

1995-12-01

389

Ear mite infestation in four imported dogs from Thailand; a case report.  

PubMed

Otodectes cynotis, ear mite or ear canker mite, is the most common cause of otitis external in cats (approximately 50%) and to a lesser extent in dogs, foxes and ferrets. The mite is living on the epidermal surface of auditory canal without burrowing into the tissue and feeding on tissue fluids and debris. In most of the cases they induce hypersensitivity reactions in the host. Four puppies; Siberian husky, Cocker spaniel, Terrier and mixed Pekignese with different genders and ages were referred to the Small Animal Hospital, Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran for routine clinical examination just after they were imported from Thailand in a timeframe between June to August 2008.Clinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination, the specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Amitraz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders. PMID:22808403

Maazi, N; Jamshidi, Sh; Hadadzadeh, Hr

2010-01-01

390

Potential of the predatory mite Phytoseius finitimus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to feed and reproduce on greenhouse pests.  

PubMed

Phytoseiid mites of the genus Phytoseius are natural enemies of tetranychid and eriophyid herbivorous mites mostly found on hairy plants where they feed on prey, as well as on pollen. Nevertheless, the nutritional ecology and the role of these predators in biological pest control are only rarely addressed. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of Phytoseius finitimus to feed and reproduce on three major greenhouse pests, the two-spotted spider mite, the greenhouse whitefly and the western flower thrips. Additionally, we estimated the effect of cattail pollen when provided to the predator alone or in mixed diets with prey. Contrary to thrips larvae, both spider mite larvae and whitefly crawlers sustained the development of P. finitimus. In addition, females consumed more spider mite eggs and larvae, as well as whitefly crawlers than thrips larvae, but laid eggs when feeding on all prey. When provided alone, cattail pollen sustained the development and reproduction of the predator. The addition of pollen in mixed diets with prey reduced prey consumption, though it increased the predator's egg production. We discuss the implications of our findings for biological pest control. PMID:23771476

Pappas, Maria L; Xanthis, Christos; Samaras, Konstantinos; Koveos, Dimitris S; Broufas, George D

2013-12-01

391

Whether ideal free or not, predatory mites distribute so as to maximize reproduction.  

PubMed

Ideal free distribution (IFD) models predict that animals distribute themselves such that no individual can increase its fitness by moving to another patch. Many empirical tests assume that the interference among animals is independent of density and do not quantify the effects of density on fitness traits. Using two species of predatory mites, we measured oviposition as a function of conspecific density. Subsequently, we used these functions to calculate expected distributions on two connected patches. We performed an experimental test of the distributions of mites on two such connected patches, among which one had a food accessibility rate that was twice as high as on the other. For one of the two species, Iphiseius degenerans, the distribution matched the expected distribution. The distribution also coincided with the ratio of food accessibility. The other species, Neoseiulus cucumeris, distributed itself differently than expected. However, the oviposition rates of both species did not differ significantly from the expected oviposition rates based on experiments on single patches. This suggests that the oviposition rate of N. cucumeris was not negatively affected by the observed distribution, despite the fact that N. cucumeris did not match the predicted distributions. Thus, the distribution of one mite species, I. degenerans, was in agreement with IFD theory, whereas for the other mite species, N. cucumeris, unknown factors may have influenced the distribution of the mites. We conclude that density-dependent fitness traits provide essential information for explaining animal distributions. PMID:22081260

van der Hammen, Tessa; Montserrat, Marta; Sabelis, Maurice W; de Roos, André M; Janssen, Arne

2012-05-01

392

Anatomical injury induced by the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes on the leaves of Cirsium arvense.  

PubMed

Anatomical injury of the leaves of the invasive species, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., caused by the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.), which is the only eriophyid mite that has been recorded on C. arvense worldwide, is described. The injury induced by the mite feeding on the leaves of C. arvense results in visible russeting and bronzing of the leaves. Other conspicuous deformations are folding and distortion of the leaf blade and curling of leaf edge, as well as gradual drying of leaves. The anatomical injury of the mature leaves of field-collected plants was limited to the epidermis of the lower leaf surface. However, on young leaves of experimentally infested plants, rust mite injuries extend to epidermal cells on both leaf surfaces and to those of deeper mesophyll layers. On these leaves, lesions on the lower leaf surface even affected the phloem of the vascular bundles. Leaf damage induced by A. anthocoptes is discussed with regard to the mite's potential as a biological control agent of C. arvense. PMID:16612668

Rancic, Dragana; Stevanovic, Branka; Petanovi?, Radmila; Magud, Biljana; Tosevski, Ivo; Gassmann, André

2006-01-01

393

Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction: the lost realm of the neglected parasite.  

PubMed

Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction forms the cornerstone for studies on Sarcoptes scabiei. Whilst the new science era took a shy leap into the different facets of mite studies, the cornerstone was almost entirely neglected. Mite collection, cleaning, storage and DNA extraction were, basically, humble attempts to extrapolate, adapt, modify or 'pirate' those existing methods to the peculiarities of Sarcoptes research. These aspects usually constituted few lines, bashfully mentioned, in the materials and methods section of some papers, which arose in unique problems concerning cost-effectiveness, time profitability, safety and even worse, the credibility of the results, creating contradictory conclusions in some cases. This 'noisy' situation encouraged us to collect, classify and review, for the first time to our knowledge, some aspects relating to studies on Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction, which will be useful for further studies on Sarcoptes, and have implications for the effective control of the diseases Sarcoptes mite causes. Further studies are needed, especially to compare the profitability, safety, sensibility and specificity of the different methods of this neglected realm of the ubiquitous ectoparasite. PMID:19159955

Alasaad, S; Rossi, L; Soriguer, R C; Rambozzi, L; Soglia, D; Pérez, J M; Zhu, X Q

2009-03-01

394

Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites. PMID:23569794

Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

2011-01-01

395

212 Allergic Sensitization to Domestic Mites in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of mites sensitization in Santo Domingo. Methods One hundred consecutive patients (52 males and 48 females, mean age 30.3 years; 4–68) with asthma and /or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were skin tested with 9 commercial extracts of mites of the following species: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Blomia tropicalis, B. kulagini, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Glycyphagus domesticus and Chortoglyphus arcuatus. A skin test was considered positive when the wheal was > 3 mm with erythema. Conventional exclusion criteria were used, in order to avoid masking a skin reaction. Results A positive skin test to any of the mites tested was detected in 98% of the patients; Dermatophagoides spp. was positive in 89% of the patients; 15% were exclusively positive to Dermatophagoides spp; 87% reacted to Blomia spp. and 3% were exclusively positive to Blomia tropicalis spp; 80% were sensitized to 3 or more specie. Conclusions The allergy sensitization to domestic mites in Santo Domingo is high. Sensitization to several species is very common. B. tropicalis is an important species in this region. With these results we could extrapolate that immunotherapy with only Dermatophagoides species could not be enough achieve clinical improvement in mite allergic patients. Other species, such as B. tropicalis may be needed.

Castillo, Antonio; Munoz, William; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique

2012-01-01

396

Toxicity and efficacy of selected pesticides and new acaricides to stored product mites (Acari: Acaridida).  

PubMed

Stored product mites can often infest stored products, but currently there is little information regarding the efficacy of pesticides that can be used for control. In this study we evaluated several common pesticides formulated from single active ingredients (a.i.) or commercially available mixtures (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, and a combination of deltamethrin and S-bioallethrin), plus an acaricide composed of permethrin, pyriproxyfen and benzyl benzolate, for efficacy against Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. The pesticides were incorporated into the mite diets in a dose range of 10-1000 microg a.i. g(-1) diet. Concentrations for suppression of 50 and 90% population growth and eradication (rC0) of mites were fit to linear regression models. None of the tested pesticides gave complete eradication of A. siro, which was the most tolerant of the three mite species tested. The most effective pesticide Allergoff 175 CS was a combination product (a nano-capsule suspension of permethrin, pyriproxyfen and benzyl benzolate) labeled for dust mites, with rC0 range of 463-2453 microg a.i. (permethrin) g(-1) diet depending on the species. Least effective were chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin. PMID:17674127

Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Vaclav; Munzbergova, Zuzana; Hajslova, Jana; Arthur, Frank H

2007-01-01

397

Environmental and oral challenge with storage mites in beagles experimentally sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate whether challenge with storage mites elicited flare ups of atopic dermatitis (AD) in Dermatophagoides farinae sensitized atopic Beagles housed in a house dust and storage mite-free environment. Atopic Beagles were environmentally challenged with 50 mg of Tyrophagus putrescentiae for three days in a row. Clinical signs were scored before, 6 h after each challenge and then every 24 h for a total of 5 days using a Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index. Four healthy Beagles, negative on serology and intradermal testing for both house dust and storage mites, were used as controls and similarly challenged. A month after environmental challenge, the atopic Beagles were challenged by the oral route (50 mg of T. putrescentiae for three days in a row) and evaluated as described. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used for comparisons between groups and types of challenges. All atopic Beagles developed erythematous pruritic lesions clinically compatible with AD on the face, pinnae, feet and ventral abdomen after both environmental and oral challenge. Control dogs did not develop dermatitis except for mild pinnal erythema in one dog. In the environmental challenge, ANOVA showed a significant effect of time, group, and group x time interaction, with atopic Beagles showing significantly higher scores than the controls. There were no significant differences in clinical scores after oral and environmental challenge in the atopic group. Cross-reactivity between house dust and storage mites could therefore contribute to flare ups of AD in house dust mite allergic dogs. PMID:20187916

Marsella, Rosanna; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

2010-02-01

398

Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.  

PubMed

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

2012-01-01

399

Bartonella henselae Infections In An Owner and Two Papillon Dogs Exposed to Tropical Rat Mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).  

PubMed

Abstract After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission. PMID:25325313

Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2014-10-01

400

Host related differences in the development and reproduction of the cereal rust mite, Abacarus hystrix (Acari: Eriophyidae) in poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific feeding and habitat conditions for phytophagous insects and mites are created by their host plants. Adaptations to the specific host plant may be reflected in differences in the life-history traits of phytophagous arthropods. Herein we tested whether host populations of the eriophyid mite Abacarus hystrix (Nalepa), adapted to feed on their natal host plants, differ in life history parameters.

Anna Skoracka; Lechoslaw Knczyñski

2006-01-01

401

Inter-annual variation in prevalence and intensity of mite parasitism relates to appearance and expression of damselfly resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Insects can resist parasites using the costly process of melanotic encapsulation. This form of physiological resistance has been studied under laboratory conditions, but the abiotic and biotic factors affecting resistance in natural insect populations are not well understood. Mite parasitism of damselflies was studied in a temperate damselfly population over seven seasons to determine if melanotic encapsulation of mite

Laura Nagel; Tonia Robb; Mark R Forbes

2010-01-01

402

Biological control of cassava green mite with exotic and indigenous phytoseiid predators—Effects of intraguild predation and supplementary food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraguild predation, one aspect of predator–predator interaction, has received in recent years increasingly greater attention because of mounting evidence of the impact of predator–predator interactions on the structure of ecological communities and biological pest control. In laboratory experiments, we determined if intraguild predation occurs between Typhlodromalus manihoti and Euseius fustis, two phytoseiid mite predators of the cassava green mite Mononychellus

Alexis Onzo; Rachid Hanna; Koffi Negloh; Muaka Toko; Maurice W. Sabelis

2005-01-01

403

Jasmonic acid is a key regulator of spider mite-induced volatile terpenoid and methyl salicylate emission in tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

K. Ament; M. R. Kant; M. W. Sabelis; M. A. Haring; R. C. Schuurink

2004-01-01

404

Jasmonic Acid Is a Key Regulator of Spider Mite-Induced Volatile Terpenoid and Methyl Salicylate Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant def-1, which is deficient in induced jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation upon wounding or herbivory, was used to study the role of JA in the direct and indirect defense responses to phytophagous mites (Tetranychus urticae). In contrast to earlier reports, spider mites laid as many eggs and caused as much damage on def-1 as on wild-type

Kai Ament; Merijn R. Kant; Maurice W. Sabelis; Michel A. Haring; Robert C. Schuurink

2004-01-01

405

108 Raupp et al.: Mites on Hemlocks Following Applications of Imidacloprid Systemic insecticides have gained widespread use in the  

E-print Network

crops in which imidacloprid applications have been implicated in increased mite populations in bedding108 Raupp et al.: Mites on Hemlocks Following Applications of Imidacloprid Systemic insecticides beetles (Sclar and Cranshaw 1996), lace bugs (Gill et al. 1999), aphids (Sclar and Cranshaw 1996), scales

Eubanks, Micky

406

Driving factors of the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites in a physic nut plantation and spontaneous plants associated.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in climate and plant diversity are known to affect the population dynamics of both pests and natural enemies within agroecosystems. In Brazil, spontaneous plants are usually tolerated in small-scale physic nut plantations over the year, which in turn may mediate interactions between pests and natural enemies within this agroecosystem. Here, we aimed to access the influence of seasonal variation of abiotic (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and biotic (diversity of spontaneous plants, overall richness and density of mites) factors on the communities of phytophagous and predatory mites found in a physic nut plantation and its associated spontaneous plants. Mite sampling was monthly conducted in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves of spontaneous plants as well as in physic nut shrubs over an entire year. In the dry season there was a higher abundance of phytophagous mites (Tenuipalpidae, Tarsonemidae and Tetranychidae) on spontaneous plants than on physic nut shrubs, while predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) showed the opposite pattern. The overall density of mites on spontaneous plants increased with relative humidity and diversity of spontaneous plants. Rainfall was the variable that most influenced the density of mites inhabiting physic nut shrubs. Agroecosystems comprising spontaneous plants associated with crops harbour a rich mite community including species of different trophic levels which potentially benefit natural pest control due to increased diversity and abundance of natural enemies. PMID:23417700

Cruz, Wilton P; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; Neto, Marçal P; Ignacio, Maíra

2013-08-01

407

An Aspartic Protease of the Scabies Mite Sarcoptes scabiei Is Involved in the Digestion of Host Skin and Blood Macromolecules  

PubMed Central

Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival. PMID:24244770

Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.

2013-01-01

408

Immunogene and viral transcript dynamics during parasitic Varroa destructor mite infection of developing honey bee (Apis mellifera) pupae.  

PubMed

The ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite is a major contributor to the ongoing honey bee health crisis. Varroa interacts with honey bee viruses, exacerbating their pathogenicity. In addition to vectoring viruses, immunosuppression of the developing honey bee hosts by Varroa has been proposed to explain the synergy between viruses and mites. However, the evidence for honey bee immune suppression by V. destructor is contentious. We systematically studied the quantitative effects of experimentally introduced V. destructor mites on immune gene expression at five specific time points during the development of the honey bee hosts. Mites reproduced normally and were associated with increased titers of deformed wing virus in the developing bees. Our data on different immune genes show little evidence for immunosuppression of honey bees by V. destructor. Experimental wounding of developing bees increases relative immune gene expression and deformed wing virus titers. Combined, these results suggest that mite feeding activity itself and not immunosuppression may contribute to the synergy between viruses and mites. However, our results also suggest that increased expression of honey bee immune genes decreases mite reproductive success, which may be explored to enhance mite control strategies. Finally, our expression data for multiple immune genes across developmental time and different experimental treatments indicates co-regulation of several of these genes and thus improves our understanding of the understudied honey bee immune system. PMID:24829325

Kuster, Ryan D; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Rueppell, Olav

2014-05-15

409

Review Geographic differences in host specialization between the symbiotic water mites Unionicola formosa and Unionicola foili (Acari: Unionicolidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host specificity and population genetic structure of the symbiotic water mites Unionicola foili from the host mussel Utterbackia imbecillis and Unionicola formosa from the mussels Pyganodon cataracta, Pyganodon grandis and Anodonta suborbiculata were examined over a broad geographical scale in order to determine the extent to which specialization by these water mites is structured geographically. The behavioural responses of

Dale D. Edwards; Regan Bogardus; Nicholaus Wilhite

1998-01-01

410

Life history of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus fragariae on Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) at five temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) are important pests of Solanaceae in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that T. urticae is an acceptable prey to many predatory mites, although the suitability of this prey depends on the host plant. T. evansi, has been shown to be an unfavorable prey to most predatory mites that have been

Geraldo José Nascimento de Vasconcelos; Gilberto José de Moraes; Ítalo Delalibera Júnior; Markus Knapp

2008-01-01

411

Life tables of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes feeding on Tetranychus evansi at four temperatures (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi, is reported as a severe pest of tomato and other solanaceous crops from Africa, from Atlantic and Mediterranean Islands,\\u000a and more recently from the south of Europe (Portugal, Spain and France). A population of the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus longipes has been recently found in Brazil in association with T. evansi. The objective of

Maxime Ferrero; Gilberto J. de Moraes; Serge Kreiter; Marie-Stéphane Tixier; Markus Knapp

2007-01-01

412

AN ORIBATID MITE (ARACHNIDA: ACARI) FROM THE OXFORD CLAY (JURASSIC: UPPER CALLOVIAN) OF SOUTH CAVE STATION QUARRY, YORKSHIRE, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single specimen of a new species of oribatid mite belonging to the genus Jureremus Krivolutsky, in Krivo- lutsky and Krassilov 1977, previously described from the Upper Jurassic of the Russian Far East, is described as J. phi- ppsi sp. nov. The mite is preserved by iron pyrite replace- ment, and was recovered by sieving from the Oxford Clay Formation

PAUL A. SELDEN; ANNE S. BAKER; KENNETH J. PHIPPS

2008-01-01

413

Mite species identification in the production of allergenic extracts for clinical use and in environmental samples by ribosomal DNA amplification.  

PubMed

The identification of allergy-causing mites is conventionally based on morphological characters. However, molecular taxonomy using ribosomal DNA (rDNA) may be particularly useful in the analysis of mite cultures and purified mite fractions in the production of allergenic extracts. Full-length internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) were obtained from Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides microceras and Euroglyphus maynei (Astigmata: Pyroglyphidae), Glycyphagus domesticus and Lepidoglyphus destructor (Astigmata: Glycyphagidae), Tyrophagus fanetzhangorum, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Tyrophagus longior, Tyrophagus neiswanderi, Acarus farris and Acarus siro (Astigmata: Acaridae), and Blomia tropicalis (Astigmata: Echymopodidae), using mite-specific primers. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were digested with HpaII and RsaI restriction enzymes in order to produce species-specific PCR restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles. A semi-nested re-amplification step was introduced before the RFLP in order to apply the method to environmental samples. Results demonstrate that rDNA sequences can be used for the unambiguous identification of mite species. The PCR-RFLP system allows the identification of species in purified mite fractions when the availability of intact adult mite bodies for morphological identification is limited. This reliable and straightforward PCR-RFLP system and the rDNA sequences obtained can be of use in the identification of allergy-causing mite species. PMID:24617319

Beroiz, B; Couso-Ferrer, F; Ortego, F; Chamorro, M J; Arteaga, C; Lombardero, M; Castañera, P; Hernández-Crespo, P

2014-09-01

414

Association Between Sensitization to Outdoor Spider Mites and Clinical Manifestations of Asthma and Rhinitis in the General Population of Adults  

PubMed Central

It has been demonstrated that spider mites such as the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) are important allergens for fruit farmers. A total of 2,467 adults (795 metropolitan urban, 788 non-metropolitan urban, and 884 rural subjects) were enrolled. They responded to the questionnaire, and underwent methacholine bronchial provocation tests as well as skin prick tests to locally common aeroallergens including the two-spotted spider mite. The prevalences of asthma and rhinitis as reported on the questionnaire were 7.8% and 16.4% of adults aged 20-35, 9.4% and 24.7% of those 36-50, and 17.7% and 21.7% of those older than 50, respectively. Among the older group, the two-spotted spider mite was the most common sensitizing allergen, although it was second of that of house dust mites among the other two age groups. Sensitization to the two-spotted spider mite was significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis among the younger age group, and associated with the prevalence of rhinitis among the older age group. The two-spotted spider mite might be a common sensitizing allergen in the general population of adults, and sensitization to this mite may play a role in the manifestation of asthma and rhinitis symptoms during adulthood. PMID:16614509

Kim, Tae-Bum; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Hong, Sung-Chul; Jee, Young-Koo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

2006-01-01

415

An oribatid mite (Arachnida: Acari) from the Oxford Clay (Jurassic: Upper Callovian) of South Cave Station Quarry, Yorkshire, UK  

E-print Network

A single specimen of a new species of oribatid mite belonging to the genus Jureremus Krivolutsky, in Krivolutsky and Krassilov 1977, previously described from the Upper Jurassic of the Russian Far East, is described as J. phippsi sp. nov. The mite...

Selden, Paul A.; Baker, Anne S.; Phipps, Kenneth J.

2008-01-01

416

Influence of mite infestation on the longevity and fecundity of the mosquito Mansonia uniformis (Diptera: Insecta) under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study relating to the influence of mite infestation on the longevity and fecundity of the mosquito,Mansonia uniformis was carried out in the laboratory. It was found that the mite parasitism does influence the quantity of blood ingested, survivorship\\u000a and the time lag between feeding and egg-laying. However fecundity and hatching percentages were not affected.

R. Rajendran; R. S. Prasad

1992-01-01

417

Torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Torrenticolidae) from Malaysian Borneo.  

PubMed

New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in two mountain ranges in northern Borneo are presented. Aims of this study were to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the newly collected torrenticolids using molecular methods, and describe all new species. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from 18 torrenticolid specimens and 14 new species are described: Torrenticola (Torrenticola) borneoensis n. sp., T. (T.) kinabaluensis n. sp., T. (T.) sabahensis n. sp., T. (T.) neoindica n. sp., T. (T.) schilthuizeni n. sp., Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) sundaensis n. sp., N. (Heteratractides) uniscutatus n. sp., Pseudotorrenticola borneoensis n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) epiales n. sp., M. (M.) morpheus n. sp., M. (M.) phantasos n. sp., M. (M.) phobetor n. sp., M. (M.) hercules n. sp. and M. (M.) minuta n. sp. Additionally, the first records for Borneo are given for Torrenticola (Megapalpis) cf. pugionirostris (K. Viets, 1939), Monatractides (Monatractides) longiventris (K. Viets, 1939), M. (M.) cf. macroporus (K. Viets, 1935) and M. (M.) oxystomus (K. Viets, 1935). Monatractides tobaensis (K. Viets, 1935) is transferred to the subgenus Vietsclio Peši? & Smit, 2014. A key to the species of Monatractides is presented. PMID:25081904

Peši?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

2014-01-01

418

Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis in a genus of phytophagous mites.  

PubMed Central

The vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia modifies host reproduction in several ways in order to enhance its own spread. One such modification results in the induction of parthenogenesis, where males, which are unable to transmit Wolbachia, are not produced. Interestingly, parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia have only been found within haplodiploid insects and it is not known whether this exclusivity is the result of functional constraints of Wolbachia. Here we find a unique pattern of Wolbachia infection that is associated with parthenogenesis in six species within the phytophagous mite genus Bryobia. Through antibiotic treatment we show that, in two species, Bryobia praetiosa and an unidentified species, the Wolbachia infection is strictly associated with parthenogenesis. Microsatellite loci show the mechanism of parthenogenesis to be functionally apomictic and not gamete duplication, with progeny identical to their infected mother. Crossing experiments within B. praetiosa showed no evidence of sexual reproduction. These results are discussed with reference to the distribution of parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia and the diversification of the Bryobia genus. PMID:11674872

Weeks, A. R.; Breeuwer, J. A.

2001-01-01

419

Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.  

PubMed

Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods. PMID:24894356

Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

2014-05-20

420

A new OECD test guideline for the predatory soil mite Hypoaspis aculeifer: results of an international ring test.  

PubMed

Predatory mites are considered important biological indicators to assess potential effects of plant protection products. Toxicity testing of terrestrial mite species is required for authorisation of plant protection products in the European Union in cases where testing of leaf dwelling mites is not relevant, i.e. for defoliating herbicides, or when persistence of the chemical in soil is a concern. Since a standardised guideline for soil mites was not available in the past, an international working group developed a soil ecotoxicity test with the gamasid mite Hypoaspis aculeifer. This paper outlines the guideline development process and the principles of the protocol, and presents the results of an international ring test from which the validity criteria for the final guideline were derived. The protocol, which was published as OECD guideline 226 in 2008, is suitable for routine regulatory testing and can be used to generate data for risk assessment of soil inhabiting arthropods. PMID:22698879

Smit, C E; Moser, Th; Römbke, J

2012-08-01

421

Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California  

E-print Network

Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm’s effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the palm on a riparian invertebrate community in June 2011 by comparing the faunal and environmental variables associated with palm and willow canopies, trunks and ground beneath each species. The palm invertebrate community had lower abundance and diversity, fewer taxa feeding on the host (e.g., specialized hemipterans), and more taxa likely using only the plant’s physical structure (e.g., web-builders, oak moths, willow hemipterans). There were no observed effects on the ground-dwelling fauna. Faunal differences were due to the physical and trophic changes associated with palm presence, namely increased canopy density, unpalatable leaves, trunk rugosity, and litter accumulations. Palm presence and resulting community shifts may have further ecosystem-level effects through alteration of physical properties, food, and structural resources. These results were consistent with a recent study of invasive palm effects on desert spring arthropods, illustrating that effects may be relatively generalizable. Since spread of the palm is largely localized, but effects are dramatic where it does occur, we recommend combining our results with several further investigations in order to prioritize management

unknown authors

2012-01-01

422

A developmental study on the appearance of tocopherols and tocotrienols in developing palm mesocarp (Elaeis guineensis).  

PubMed

The concentration of vitamin E isomers, namely, alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, and delta-tocotrienol in palm mesocarp at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 wk after anthesis (WAA) were quantified using HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection. alpha-T was detected throughout the palm fruits' maturation process, whereas unsaturated tocotrienols were found only in ripe palm fruits. These developmental results indicate that tocotrienols are synthesized between 16 and 20 WAA. PMID:15554155

Choo, Yuen May; Ma, Ah Ngan; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Khor, Hun Teik; Bong, Siow Ching

2004-06-01

423

Twenty-five years of progress in understanding pollination mechanisms in palms (Arecaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background With more than 90 published studies of pollination mechanisms, the palm family is one of the better studied tropical families of angiosperms. Understanding palm–pollinator interactions has implications for tropical silviculture, agroforestry and horticulture, as well as for our understanding of palm evolution and diversification. We review the rich literature on pollination mechanisms in palms that has appeared since the last review of palm pollination studies was published 25 years ago. Scope and Conclusions Visitors to palm inflorescences are attracted by rewards such as food, shelter and oviposition sites. The interaction between the palm and its visiting fauna represents a trade-off between the services provided by the potential pollinators and the antagonistic activities of other insect visitors. Evidence suggests that beetles constitute the most important group of pollinators in palms, followed by bees and flies. Occasional pollinators include mammals (e.g. bats and marsupials) and even crabs. Comparative studies of palm–pollinator interactions in closely related palm species document transitions in floral morphology, phenology and anatomy correlated with shifts in pollination vectors. Synecological studies show that asynchronous flowering and partitioning of pollinator guilds may be important regulators of gene flow between closely related sympatric taxa and potential drivers of speciation processes. Studies of larger plant–pollinator networks point out the importance of competition for pollinators between palms and other flowering plants and document how the insect communities in tropical forest canopies probably influence the reproductive success of palms. However, published studies have a strong geographical bias towards the South American region and a taxonomic bias towards the tribe Cocoseae. Future studies should try to correct this imbalance to provide a more representative picture of pollination mechanisms and their evolutionary implications across the entire family. PMID:21831852

Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

2011-01-01

424

Alpha-sulfonated methyl ester as an active ingredient in palm-based powder detergents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm-based alpha-sulfonated methyl esters (SME) were successfully produced using a 20 kg\\/h-capacity pilot plant at the Malaysian\\u000a Palm Oil Board. This anionic surfactant was used as an active ingredient to formulate powder detergent. The production of\\u000a palm-based powder detergents (PPD) was carried out at the pilot-plant scale. The performance of powder detergents formulated\\u000a with SME was found to be excellent.

Zulina Abd Maurad; Razmah Ghazali; Parthiban Siwayanan; Zahariah Ismail; Salmiah Ahmad

2006-01-01

425

Neozygites abacaridis sp. nov. (Entomophthorales), a new pathogen of phytophagous mites (Acari, Eriophyidae).  

PubMed

A new entomopathogenic fungus, described here as Neozygites abacaridis n. sp. (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), has been found on the mites Abacarus hystrix, Aculodes dubius, and A. mckenziei (Acari: Eriophyidae). It differs from other Neozygites species affecting mites by its small, globose primary conidia, short-ovoid, smoky coloured capilliconidia, and very short capillary conidiophores-which are usually not longer than the spore length. This pathogen infected mite individuals in autumn (from mid-August until mid-November) on Lolium perenne, Agrostis stolonifera, and Festuca rubra. It caused 0.5-1% host's mortality in the vicinity of Siedlce (Eastern Poland) and up to 2-8%, on an average in Puszczykowo (Wielkopolski National Park near Pozna?), where its prevalence on some plants reached 13%. PMID:12877829

Mietkiewski, R; Ba?azy, S

2003-07-01

426

Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.  

PubMed

Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

2013-08-01

427

Revealing the hyperdiverse mite fauna of subarctic Canada through DNA barcoding.  

PubMed

Although mites are one of the most abundant and diverse groups of arthropods, they are rarely targeted for detailed biodiversity surveys due to taxonomic constraints. We address this gap through DNA barcoding, evaluating acarine diversity at Churchill, Manitoba, a site on the tundra-taiga transition. Barcode analysis of 6279 specimens revealed nearly 900 presumptive species of mites with high species turnover between substrates and between forested and non-forested sites. Accumulation curves have not reached an asymptote for any of the three mite orders investigated, and estimates suggest that more than 1200 species of Acari occur at this locality. The coupling of DNA barcode results with taxonomic assignments revealed that Trombidiformes compose 49% of the fauna, a larger fraction than expected based on prior studies. This investigation demonstrates the efficacy of DNA barcoding in facilitating biodiversity assessments of hyperdiverse taxa. PMID:23133656

Young, Monica R; Behan-Pelletier, Valerie M; Hebert, Paul D N

2012-01-01

428

Community structure, trophic position and reproductive mode of soil and bark-living oribatid mites in an alpine grassland ecosystem  

PubMed Central

The community structure, stable isotope ratios (15N/14N, 13C/12C) and reproductive mode of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) were investigated in four habitats (upper tree bark, lower tree bark, dry grassland soil, forest soil) at two sites in the Central Alps (Tyrol, Austria). We hypothesized that community structure and trophic position of oribatid mites of dry grassland soils and bark of trees are similar since these habitats have similar abiotic characteristics (open, dry) compared with forest soil. Further, we hypothesized that derived taxa of oribatid mites reproducing sexually dominate on the bark of trees since species in this habitat consume living resources such as lichens. In contrast to our hypothesis, the community structure of oribatid mites differed among grassland, forest and bark indicating the existence of niche differentiation in the respective oribatid mite species. In agreement with our hypothesis, sexually reproducing taxa of oribatid mites dominated on the bark of trees whereas parthenogenetic species were more frequent in soil. Several species of bark-living oribatid mites had stable isotope signatures that were similar to lichens indicating that they feed on lichens. However, nine species that frequently occurred on tree bark did not feed on lichens according to their stable isotope signatures. No oribatid mite species could be ascribed to moss feeding. We conclude that sexual reproduction served as preadaptation for oribatid mites allowing them to exploit new habitats and new resources on the bark of trees. Abiotic factors likely are of limited importance for bark-living oribatid mites since harsh abiotic conditions are assumed to favor parthenogenesis. PMID:20490626

Schatz, Heinrich; Maraun, Mark

2010-01-01

429

Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel via alcoholysis of palm oil.  

PubMed

The enzymatic alcoholysis of crude palm oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme RM IM, Lipozyme TL IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), molar ratio of alcohol to crude palm oil, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best ethyl ester yield was about 25 wt.% and was obtained with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50 degrees C, enzyme concentration of 3.0 wt.%, and stepwise addition of the alcohol after 4 h of reaction. Experiments with 1 and 3 wt.% of KOH and 3 wt.% of MgO were carried out to compare their catalytic behavior with the enzymatic transesterification results. The commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme TL IM, showed the best catalytic performance. PMID:19023524

Matassoli, André L F; Corrêa, Igor N S; Portilho, Márcio F; Veloso, Cláudia O; Langone, Marta A P

2009-05-01

430

The maturity of Nypa palm worm Namalycastis rhodochorde (Nereididae: Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nypa Palm Worm Namalycastis rhodochorde has been used as bait for fishing and commercial species in Pontianak. Maturity is one important characteristic to learn the population dynamic and management. The Nypa Palm worm samples were collected from mangrove area in Kapuas Estuary, West Kalimantan. Fresh samples of gametes collected from the coelomic fluid were observed carefully under compound microscope for the initial determination of maturity. The presences of oocyte ?120?m in diameter and lipid droplet are the indication of female maturity, while free swimming spermatozoon in the body fluid is the indication of male maturity. Morphologically, the maturity of N. rhodochorde was indicated by the change of body color, softer and fragile body, yet no modified chaetae and heteronereid form.

Junardi, Anggraeni, Tjandra; Ridwan, Ahmad; Yuwono, Edy

2014-03-01

431

Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-12-01

432

Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

'Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-11-01

433

Chars pyrolyzed from oil palm wastes for activated carbon preparation  

SciTech Connect

Chars pyrolyzed from extracted oil palm fibers for the preparation of activated carbons were studied. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and hold time on density, porosity, yield, BET and micropore surface areas, total pore volume, and pore size distributions of chars were investigated. The optimum conditions for pyrolysis were found to be at a pyrolysis temperature of 850 C for a hold time of 3.5 h. Scanning electron micrographs of the char surfaces verified the presence of porosities. The experimental results showed that it was feasible to produce chars with high BET and micropore surface areas from extracted oil palm fibers. The resulting chars will be subjected to steam or carbon dioxide activation to prepare activated carbons for use as gas adsorbents for air pollution control.

Lua, A.C.; Guo, J. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)] [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

1999-01-01

434

Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.  

PubMed

Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed. PMID:16326647

Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

2005-01-01

435

Enzymatic synthesis of fatty amides from palm olein.  

PubMed

Fatty amides have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and urea by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The fatty amides were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (96%) was obtained when the process was carried out for 36 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 5.2: 1.0 at 40 degrees C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product. PMID:20103977

Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki A

2010-01-01

436

Enzymatic synthesis of palm olein-based fatty thiohydroxamic acids.  

PubMed

Fatty thiohydroxamic acids (FTAs) have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and thiohydroxamic acid by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RMIM) as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The FTAs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (95 %) was obtained when the process was carried out for 30 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 6.0: 1.0 at 40 °C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product. PMID:20972356

Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Ab

2010-01-01

437

Vacuum cleaning decreases the levels of mite allergens in house dust.  

PubMed

To investigate the capacity of chemical treatment of surfaces and the difference in capacity among common vacuum cleaners to reduce mite allergen content in house dust, we recruited 52 families with allergic children. Ten families used their central vacuum cleaners. Forty-two families we