The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials. PMID:21983877
Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peńa, J E
A review of all the available information about the natural enemies reported in association with the red palm mite, Raoiella indica is presented. Twenty-eight species of predatory arthropods, including mites and insects, have been reported in association with R. indica in Asia, Africa and the Neotropics. In addition, pathogenic fungi associated with R. indica in the Caribbean have been reported. The available literature indicates that each site has a different natural enemy complex with only one predator species, Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), present in all the geographical areas. The phytoseiids, Amblyseius caudatus Berlese, Amblyseius channabasavanni Gupta and A. largoensis, were regarded as important natural enemies of R. indica, and their predatory efficiency was studied in some detail. Among the predatory insects the coccinellids Stethorus keralicus Kapur and Telsimia ephippiger Chapin were reported as major predators of R. indica. The known distribution, abundance and relative importance of each species reported in association with R. indica are discussed. PMID:21972084
Carrillo, Daniel; Frank, J Howard; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos V; Peńa, Jorge E
The red palm mite (Raoiella indica), an invasive pest of coconut, entered the Western hemisphere in 2004, then rapidly spread through the Caribbean and into Florida, USA. Developing effective sampling methods may aid in the timely detection of the pest in a new area. Studies were conducted to provide and compare intra tree spatial distribution of red palm mite populations on coconut in two different geographical areas, Trinidad and Puerto Rico, recently invaded by the mite. The middle stratum of a palm hosted significantly more mites than fronds from the upper or lower canopy and fronds from the lower stratum, on average, had significantly fewer mites than the two other strata. The mite populations did not vary within a frond. Mite densities on the top section of the pinna had significantly lower mite densities than the two other sections, which were not significantly different from each other. In order to improve future sampling plans for the red palm mite, the data was used to estimate the variance components associated with the various levels of the hierarchical sampling design. Additionally, presence-absence data were used to investigate the probability of no mites being present in a pinna section randomly chosen from a frond inhabited by mites at a certain density. Our results show that the most precise density estimate at the plantation level is to sample one pinna section per tree from as many trees as possible. PMID:22402941
Roda, A; Nachman, G; Hosein, F; Rodrigues, J C V; Peńa, J E
Field surveys were conducted monthly between December 2008 and July 2009 in Kerala, south-west India to compare the population dynamics of the red palm mite Raoiella indica (RPM) on two host plants Areca catechu and Cocos nucifera during one non-monsoon season when, in general, RPM populations increase. The aim was to examine the effects of host plant, host plant locality and the impact of climatic factors on RPM and related phytoseiid predators. There were significantly higher RPM densities on areca in peak season (May/June) compared to coconut; although significantly more coconut sites were infested with RPM than areca. Although no one climatic factor was significantly related to RPM numbers, interactions were found between temperature, humidity and rainfall and the partitioning of host plant locality showed that where conditions were warmer and drier, RPM densities were significantly higher. Specifically on coconut, there was a significant relation between RPM densities and the combined interaction between site temperature, site humidity and phytoseiid densities. There was a marked difference in the density of phytoseiids collected between areca and coconut palms, with significantly more on the latter, in several months. Amblyseius largoensis was the most commonly collected phytoseiid in association with RPM, although Amblyseius tamatavensis species group and Amblyseius largoensis species group were collected in association with RPM also. There was also evidence of a weak numerical response of the combined phytoseiid complex in relation to RPM density the previous month on coconut but this was not observed on areca. PMID:21915684
Taylor, B; Rahman, P M; Murphy, S T; Sudheendrakumar, V V
Phytoseiid populations imported from Mauritius for evaluation for a classical biological control program in Florida, USA, were morphologically identified as Amblyseius largoensis Muma, a species associated with the red palm mite in south Florida and the Caribbean. Bayesian analysis and sequence divergences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and nuclear Elongation factor--I alpha (EF-I?) genes and Neighbor-Joining analysis of High-fidelity-RAPD-PCR markers were used to discriminate between the south Florida and Mauritius populations. High-fidelity-RAPD-PCR markers in addition to Bayesian and sequence divergence analyses of the 12S rRNA sequences suggest that the Mauritius and south Florida populations are genetically different but whether these are species or population differences is unknown. The degenerate EF-I? primers used to survey the phytoseiids amplified two different elongation factor sequences with distinct amino acid translations, the putative EF-I? and an unknown elongation factor. Variability within the 12S gene was used to develop population-specific primers for identifying the Mauritius phytoseiids in the event they are released in south Florida. PMID:22527831
Bowman, Heidi M; Hoy, Marjorie A
The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region. PMID:23065034
Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J
Information is provided on the steps involved in classical biological control programs, with an outline of the steps achieved in the classical biological control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), in Florida. An overview is provided of the results and an accompanying paper by Bowman and Hoy (2012) describes the molecular analyses conducted to characterize phytoseiid predators of the red palm mite collected from Mauritius. The Mauritius phytoseiids were identified as Amblyseius largoensis, using morphological criteria, and compared to four populations of A. largoensis from Florida. The difficulties encountered in the systematics, rearing, and evaluation of the Mauritius phytoseiids are described. A method was tested for obtaining DNA from single mites without destroying the body so that voucher specimens can be maintained. Ultimately, the project was terminated due to constraints expected in obtaining permission to make releases. PMID:22456811
Hoy, Marjorie A
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica. PMID:20333446
Carrillo, Daniel; Peńa, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard
Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected. PMID:21915682
Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peńa, Jorge E
Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is considered a pest of coconut palm in Asia and the Middle East. This mite was recently introduced in the Americas, where it spread to several countries and expanded its range of hosts, causing heavy losses to coconut and banana production. The phytoseiid mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) is one of the predators most often encountered in coconut palms. Because the current prospects for the control of R. indica in the New World indicate the use of acaricides and the management of their natural enemies, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of selected acaricides to R. indica and the selectivity (i.e., toxicity to the predator relative to toxicity to the prey) for A. largoensis. Assays were performed by the immersion of banana leaf discs in acaricide solutions, followed by the placing of adult females of the pest or predator on the discs. Mortality of the mites was evaluated after 24 h, and the data obtained were subjected to probit analysis. Abamectin, fenpyroximate, milbemectin and spirodiclofen were the products most toxic to R. indica adults, whereas fenpyroximate and spirodiclofen were the most selective for A. largoensis. PMID:23229493
de Assis, Carla P O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Gondim, Manoel G C
Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a phytophagous mite that recently invaded the Western Hemisphere. This mite is a multivoltine and gregarious species that can reach very high population densities and cause significant damage to various palm species (Arecaceae). The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. This study evaluated A. largoensis for potential to control R. indica by (1) determining predator preferences among developmental stages of R. indica, and (2) estimating predator functional and numerical responses to varying densities of its most preferred prey-stage. Under no-choice conditions A. largoensis consumed significantly more eggs than other stages of R. indica. In choice tests A. largoensis showed a significant preference for R. indica eggs over all other prey stages. Amblyseius largoensis displayed a type II functional response showing an increase in number of prey killed with an increase in prey population density. Consumption of prey stabilized at approximately 45 eggs/day, the level at which oviposition by the predator was maximized (2.36 ± 0.11 eggs/day; mean ± SEM). Results of this study suggest that A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica populations, particularly when prey densities are low. PMID:21915681
Carrillo, Daniel; Peńa, Jorge E
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was recently introduced in the Americas. It spread quickly throughout coconut palm growing areas, expanding considerably its host range. The invasion of this species has caused high economic impact in several countries. In Brazil, extensive areas are expected to be affected. For logistical reasons and other concerns, chemical control does not seem desirable for the control of this pest in most Latin American countries. Biological control of R. indica by introducing exotic natural enemies seems to be an important control measure to be considered. Surveys in many countries have shown that Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a very common predator on coconut palms. This study compared the biology of a population of A. largoensis found for a long time in association with R. indica in La Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) with a population from Roraima State (northern Brazil), where R. indica was first found about two and a half years ago. No significant differences were observed between populations in relation to the duration of different immature stages or total survivorship. However, the oviposition period, prey consumption and net reproductive rate were significantly higher for the La Reunion population, warranting further investigation to determine whether that population should be released in Roraima to control the pest. PMID:23100107
Domingos, Cleiton A; Oliveira, Leandro O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Navia, Denise; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Gondim, Manoel G C
Molecular detection of predation by identifying prey markers in the digestive tract of predators has developed into a powerful tool to assess predator-prey systems in which diet identification is too time consuming or impossible. Here we explore its utility for detecting predation of the pest mite Raoiella indica Hirst by the predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis Muma, taking advantage of the color the predator acquires after eating this mite to cross-reference our results. For this, a ~410 bp segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene marker specific for the subfamily Tetranychoidea was used. Amblyseius largoensis that had recently eaten were collected from greenhouse colonies containing both mites, and isolated from any other food source. Predator mites were taken for fingerprinting at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of starving after collection, and the same process was repeated a second time, offering pollen as an alternative food source to see whether detection changed. Lastly, a sampling trial was conducted in the greenhouse, in which mites were collected regardless of their color and frozen immediately for fingerprinting. Raoiella indica DNA was detected for 48 h on starving predators, and for 96 h on those who had eaten pollen. The segment was detected in 26 % of the samples collected on the trial. This technique needs refinement specific for this system, but the results obtained here confirm that it could turn into a very useful tool for assessing aspects of this predator-prey system. PMID:22476445
Rivera-Rivera, Carlos; Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle
\\u000a Résumé Les espčces de ce genre sont bien connues par leur action prédatrice particuličrement efficace vis-ŕ-vis des Acariens phytophages.S. keralicus ne fait pas exception ŕ cette rčgle, il est spécialement inféodé ŕ l'AcarienRaoiella indica\\u000a Hirst qui attaque les feuilles de l'Aréquier (Palmier) en Inde dans la région de Quilon (Kerala).
A. P. Kapur
The effects of oral ingestion of a hot water extract of matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on allergic responses were investigated in mite-sensitized mice. Sneezing and nose rubbing events in mice given a date extract-added diet were significantly lower than in those given an extract-free (control) diet. The serum total and mite antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and the number of spleen interleukin-4(+)CD4(+), IgE(+)B220(+) and Fc?RI?(+)CD117(+) cells was significantly lower in mice given the date extract-added diet than in those given the control diet. Chlorogenic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid significantly reduced the number of IgE(+)B220(+) cells, while chlorogenic acid and pelargonin significantly decreased the number of Fc?RI?(+)CD117(+) cells in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that some polyphenols in the date may reduce mite-induced allergic symptoms in mice via a decrease in the number of IgE-producing plasma cells and high-affinity IgE receptor-expressing mast cells. PMID:23132311
Karasawa, Koji; Otani, Hajime
In this overview of investigations into mite allergy in Iceland and of the current understanding of the sources of exposure, 2 major categories of mite-induced allergies were encountered. The first was house dust mite allergy due to house dust mites from unknown sources, and the second was barn allergy caused by mites connected with the degradation of stored hay. Characteristics of these diseases have been obtained from surveys where skin prick tests were made with commercially available extracts of mites and from zoological investigations where mites had been found in different kinds of dusts relevant for the tested persons. The investigations uncovered a discrepancy between the capital Reykjavik and countryside farms. While the frequencies of sensitization to house dust mites and barn mites are rather similar in the capital area and in the rural area, the exposure to these mites is unexpectedly low in the capital area. Thus, sensitization appears to take place preferably in the rural area. PMID:21736264
Hallas, Thorkil E; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gislason, David
Alien invasive species are non-native organisms that occur outside their natural adapted habitat and dispersal potential. They are seen as a threat not only to biodiversity and ecosystems, but also to socioeconomic development, livelihood and human well-being. In India, the bioinvasion of coconut palms by an alien invasive mite species Aceria guerreronis, popularly known as ‘Coconut mite’ accounting for enormous
Military equipment often requires significant amounts of electrical power, and it is important for power supplies to be portable and to have large capacities. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency realizes this need for efficient power sources, so it is investigating alternatives to conventional batteries. High energy fuels are the primary focus of the Palm Power project. This Web site discusses the details and goals of the project in introductory sections. More specific information can be found in the Briefings section, which has a collection of presentations on different aspects of Palm Power research.
Despite the economic importance of palms, little is known of palm morphogenesis and especially of means to induce their mass vegetative propagation. Limited suckering occurs among the species (for example, date palm), but numerous species cannot be vegeta...
A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)
Reed, George H., Jr.
Sixty-four samples of house dust from 16 long-established households in the Denver, Colorado area were analyzed for the presence of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides sp.). No mites were found in house dust from 12 of the sampled houses and small numbers (10 to 40 mites/g of house dust) were found from the other four. In an additional four houses which contained furniture recently imported from other areas, 100 to 360 mites/g of dust were found, and 2 years later up to 200 mites/g were still present. Twenty-eight percent of the mites in repeat collections from the latter homes were alive. The mite allergen content of house dust samples was analyzed by RAST inhibition against pooled sera from mite allergic patients. When dust from four long-established Denver households where no mites were found was employed, there was an average binding of 37.2%; with dust from the four Denver households with low levels of mites and no imported furniture, binding averaged 39.5%. In contrast, with house dust from four "positive control" homes in California and New York there was only 26.1% binding (P less than .005). The results of this study suggest that there are small numbers of nonintroduced house dust mites in some Denver houses, but that they contribute little mite antigen and are probably of minimal clinical significance in mite-sensitive patients. Large numbers of mites can be introduced with furnishings and may persist for at least 2 years. Similar small mite populations might be expected in other areas with comparable relative humidity. PMID:4061975
Moyer, D B; Nelson, H S; Arlian, L G
We describe the development of an efficient cryopreservation protocol for proembryogenic masses (PEMs) of date palm variety 'Barhee'. Proembryos were induced by inoculating small pieces of juvenile leaves on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg per liter 2,4-D. Application of these in vitro conditions led to true-to-type plants as observed after plant fructification. When compared to the standard vitrification protocol, the ultra-rapid droplet-vitrification technique proved to be superior. Sucrose preculture considerably increased post-cryopreservation recovery. The highest regeneration after cryogenic exposure reached 63.3 percent when PEMs were treated with PVS2 for 30 min at 0 degree C and 56.7 percent when PVS2 treatment lasted for 15 min at 25 degree C. The first signs of regrowth of cryopreserved PEMs were observed after 2 to 3 weeks. Cryopreservation did not affect the morphogenetic capacities of the plant material. Moreover, highly proliferating suspension cultures could be established from the cryopreserved material. The overall production of somatic embryos from 500 mg cryopreserved PEMs reached 1030 +/- 50 units after 1 month. The morphological study of date palms regenerated from cryopreserved material confirmed the stability of clonal material following cryopreservation. PMID:22227705
Fki, Lotfi; Bouaziz, Neila; Sahnoun, Nahed; Swennen, Rony; Drir, Noureddine; Panis, Bart
This article reports on a 45-year-old woman who presented with pruritus and was diagnosed as having chigger mite infestation, a rare condition. The chigger mite larvae were encountered while the patient was traveling in South America. A small erythematous area with a well-circumscribed papule in the sulcus of the second digit of the right foot was incised and drained. Follow-up examination showed relief of all symptoms, including pain and pruritus. This unusual case presentation underscores the need for all podiatric physicians to obtain a comprehensive history, including history of travel, along with performing a thorough physical examination. PMID:13130088
Axman, Wayne R; Brummer, John J
The facultative predacious mite, Amblyseius gossipi El-Badry was able to develop, survive and reproduce on molasses, royal jelly and yeast hydrolysate diets. Compared with a palm tree pollen grain diet, the maximum number of individuals attaining maturity was on royal jelly or a combination of royal jelly and molasses. The duration of the development time, from larva to adult, was
A. K. Nasr; E. M. El-Banhawy
House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy. PMID:22477664
Carrard, A; Pichler, C
Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species. PMID:24864088
Siwak, Emilia; Skotny, Anna; Zbrojewicz, Ewa; Wola?czyk-M?drala, Anna; M?drala, Wojciech; Kustrzeba-Wójcicka, Irena
A study of trombiculid mites was conducted in Sunter, North Jakarta, Indonesia. Trombiculid mites were collected by mammal trapping and black plating. Trapped in ricefields were 127 small mammals of four species of rodents and trombiculid mites were colle...
T. R. Hadi S. Sarbini
1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue, showing 212 Palm (right center) in setting; building at extreme right center is 208 Palm (HABS-CA-2211); view to northeast. - Albert Hayman Cottage, 212 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA
Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp
A. L. Compere; W. L. Griffith; J. M. Googin
Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: th...
A. L. Compere W. L. Griffith J. M. Googin
Oral mite anaphylaxis is a new syndrome characterized by severe allergic manifestations occurring in atopic patients shortly after the intake of foods made with mite-contaminated wheat flour. This clinical entity, observed more frequently in tropical/subtropical environments, is more often triggered by pancakes and for that reason it has been designated "pancake syndrome". Because cooked foods are able to induce the symptoms, it has been proposed that thermoresistant allergens are involved in its production. A novel variety of this syndrome occurs during physical exercise and therefore has been named dust mite ingestion-associated exercise-induced anaphylaxis. To prevent mite proliferation and the production of anaphylaxis, it has been recommended that wheat flour be stored at low temperatures in the refrigerator.
Research progress is reported on (1) biotic associates of free-living stages of chigger mites, (2) extraction efficiencies for different methods, (3) food preferences of adult Eutrombicula, and (4) vertebrate host associations for the chigger fauna. Adult...
D. A. Crossley
The objectives of this research include (1) establishing laboratory methods for rearing trombiculid mites, (2) identifying the ecological requirements of the freeliving adult stages, and (3) ascertaining the biotic associations of freeliving stages. The f...
D. A. Crossley
We evaluated economically feasible release rates of the western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis, for spider mite control in organically and conventionally managed commercial cotton fields. An important feature of the experimental design was the evaluation of predatory mite releases at a large spatial scale; the majority of plots were near 2ha. Predatory mite releases did not enhance the density of
Ramana G. Colfer; Jay A. Rosenheim; Larry D. Godfrey; Cynthia L. Hsu
Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management.
Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat
Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662
Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat
The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa mites. In this thesis, individual mites, the population of mites
W. J. Boot
RationaleThe factors involving the quality and the efficacy of the mite allergenic extracts include the source of the raw material (the mite culture) and the conditions of storage. In this study, pure mite bodies (PMB) and spent mite medium (SMM) were extracted from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and D. farinae culture to evaluate the best part used for the manufacture of mite
V. Mahakittikun; C. Bunnag; P. Vichyanond; S. Wongkamchai; C. Komoltri; P. Eakpo; J. J. Boitano
Coconut is an important crop in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the mites that infest coconut palms, Aceria guerreronis Keifer is economically the most important. We conducted surveys throughout the coconut growing areas of Brazil. Samples were taken from attached coconuts, leaflets, fallen coconuts and inflorescences of coconut palms in 112 localities aiming to determine the occurrence and the distribution of phytophagous mites, particularly A. guerreronis, and associated natural enemies. Aceria guerreronis was the most abundant phytophagous mite followed by Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum Lofego & Gondim Jr. and Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon (Tarsonemidae). Infestation by A. guerreronis was recorded in 87% of the visited localities. About 81% of all predatory mites belonged to the family Phytoseiidae, mainly represented by Neoseiulus paspalivorus De Leon, Neoseiulus baraki Athias-Henriot and Amblyseius largoensis Muma; 12% were Ascidae, mainly Proctolaelaps bickleyi Bram, Proctolaelaps sp nov and Lasioseius subterraneus Chant. Neoseiulus paspalivorus and N. baraki were the most abundant predators on attached coconuts. Ascidae were predominant on fallen coconuts, while A. largoensis was predominant on leaflets; no mites were found on branches of inflorescences. Leaflets harboured higher mite diversity than the attached coconuts. Mite diversity was the highest in the state Pará and on palms surrounded by seasonal forests and Amazonian rain-forests. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, N. baraki and P. bickleyi were identified as the most promising predators of A. guerreronis. Analyses of the influence of climatic factors revealed that dry ambient conditions favour the establishment of A. guerreronis. Neoseiulus paspalivorus and N. baraki have differing climatic requirements; the former being more abundant in warm and dry areas, the latter prevailing in moderately tempered and humid areas. We discuss the significance of our findings for natural and biological control of A. guerreronis. PMID:18062836
Lawson-Balagbo, L M; Gondim, M G C; de Moraes, G J; Hanna, R; Schausberger, P
Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem.
Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad
Queen palm, Livistona rotundifolia foliage contributes greatly in export industry. Red spider mite (RSM) (Tetranychus urticae) infests on the foliage and reduces its affordable market quality. T. urticae is found in dry environment and is one of the phytophagous mite belongs to family Tetranychidae. Different chemicals such as 80% sulphur + Diazinon @ (50g+12ml/10L) are recommended against red spider mite, but these have lesser effect on this tiny mite. Since these chemicals are not environment friendly, Green Farms Ltd., in Sri Lanka prefers to use biological agents for mite management. Extracts of Curcuma aeruginosa rhizome and Adhatoda vasica plant parts were studied separately causing mortality on T. urticae. Field experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of C. aruginosa extract for controlling RSM on L. rotundifolia leaves. Curcuma aruginosa was tested at concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g/L and a control with equal amount of water. C aruginosa extracts of different concentrations were treated six times at five days interval on the palms separately. Living spider mites and eggs were pre-counted in marked leaves before applying C. aruginosa extracts. Next count was taken a day prior to next spraying. The result revealed that all the concentrations except 2 g/L were found to be effective compared to control. However there was no difference between the concentrations from 5 to 25 g/L. Hence C. aruginosa rhizome extract at its lowest concentration of 5 g/L is equally effective for the control of RSM on L. rotundifolia leaves. In another experiment extracts of Adhatoda vasica bark, leaves, and flower and water as control were applied thrice with three days interval. Pre treatment counting of living spider mites and eggs were taken in marked leaves. Post count was taken a day prior to next spraying. Third and forth counting were done after three days and four weeks from final spraying respectively. The results revealed that bark, flowers were found to be more effective compared to control. Flowers and bark were the best and hence there is no need of third sprayings as almost all the spider mites population were eradicated after second spraying. Flower extraction showed best performance until three months since final spraying. Flower and bark extracts showed higher acaricidal property and leaf showed moderate acaricidal property. PMID:21539258
Svinningen, A E; Rashani, K P; Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Mikunthan, G
Fundamental knowledge on the morphology, biology, ecology, and economic importance of Eriophyoidea has been exhaustively compiled by Lindquist et al. (Eriophyoid mites--their biology, natural enemies and control; Elsevier, 1996). Since that time, the number of recognized species and the economic importance of the taxon have increased substantially. The aim of this paper is to analyze and briefly review new findings from eriophyoid mites' literature after Lindquist et al. book, stressing persistent gaps and needs. Much recent attention has been given to sampling and detection, taxonomy and systematics, faunistic surveys, internal morphology, rearing techniques, biological and ecological aspects, biomolecular studies, and virus vectoring. Recommendations are made for integrating research and promoting broader dissemination of data among specialists and non-specialists. PMID:19760102
de Lillo, Enrico; Skoracka, Anna
The atherogenic effects of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil were compared with those of randomized RBD palm oil and red palm oil. RBD palm oil contains 41.2% palmitic acid, 2.6% at the SN2 position. In randomized palm oil, 13.6% of the palmitic acid is in the SN2 position. Randomized palm oil is significantly more atherogenic for rabbits than
David Kritchevsky; Shirley A. Tepper; Arnis Kuksis; Scott Wright; Susanne K. Czarnecki
Background: Monkeys are considered to have an immune system very similar to that of humans, as compared with mice, rats, and guinea pigs. Although primate allergic models to several pollen allergens have been developed, no model of house dust mite allergy has been reported. In this study, we attempted to induce type I allergy to mite allergens in rhesus monkeys.
Masaaki Yasue; Shin Nakamura; Toyokazu Yokota; Hirokazu Okudaira; Yasushi Okumura
Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions.
Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H
Available epidemiologic data on the occurrence of house-dust mites in dwellings demonstrates a clear association between increased indoor air humidity and the increased occurrence of house-dust mites in house dust. Furthermore, in temperate climates, there is a threshold level of indoor air humidity of 7 g/kg (45% relative humidity at usual indoor air temperatures). Indoor air humidities below this level for extended periods will eradicate house-dust mites from dwellings. A reduction in inhabitant exposure to house-dust mites is implemented by reduction of indoor air humidity by controlled mechanical ventilation. Individual ventilation levels are estimated from the actual size of house, number of inhabitants, and average outdoor air humidity in winter. In contrast, more humid areas of the world with average outdoor humidities above 6-7 g/kg in winter will support uniformly large populations of house-dust mites, and reductions in indoor air humidity will have a comparatively minor effect on the occurrence of house-dust mites. Present-day building of energy-efficient houses with increased sealing of the building envelope, paralleled by a similar renovation of older houses, has increased indoor air humidity and is probably the cause of the almost fourfold increase in the occurrence of house-dust mites in Danish dwellings. PMID:10096805
The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001
Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai
Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance. PMID:14580060
Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva
... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...
Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247
Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin
This paper reviews the occurrence of mites of the infraorder Astigmata in situations involving the legal system, particularly in the area of medicocriminal entomology. Species in the families Acaridae, Lardoglyphidae and Histiostomatidae are encountered in stored food products and in vertebrate carrion, including human remains. Some of these species are incidentals, whereas others are obligate necrophages. Phoretic associations between these mites and insects allows for rapid dispersal and colonization of such patchy resources. PMID:19609687
Oconnor, Barry M
Summary Typhlodromalus aripo is the most successful of the Neotropical predatory mites released for the classical biological control of the cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, in Africa. A few isolates of the entomopthoralean fungus, Neozygites tanajoae, which causes epizootics in M. tanajoa populations in Brazil, were imported to be released in Africa for the control of M. tanajoa. Th e
Serge L. ARIORI
Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 million tonnes per year (8.5×106ty?1) of palm oil from 38.6×106ty?1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residues such as fibre (5.4×106ty?1), shell (2.3×106ty?1), and empty fruit bunches (8.8×106ty?1). A large fraction of the fibre and much of the shell are
Z Husain; Z Zainac; Z Abdullah
Unproductive > 7-year-old greenhouse cultures of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) had a well-developed soil invertebrate fauna that included nematophagous mite species characteristic of Florida citrus groves. Nematophagous mite densities in box cultures were 285 +/- 42 mites/liter, 2.5 to 25 times higher than densities in citrus nematode-infested groves. Vigorous root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) cultures grown in steam-pasteurized soil had few nematophagous mites until more than 3 months after inoculation. Mite species diversity had a significant (P < 0.0001) positive linear relationship with culture age that explained about one-half the variance in species number. Nematophagous mite densities rose and then fell with culture age. In root-knot cultures > 3-months-old, mite densities often exceeded 1,000 mites/liter. Twelve species of nematophagous fungi also were isolated from greenhouse nematode cultures. PMID:19279841
Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T; Davis, E L
Many of the previously characterized allergens of house dust mites are known to be proteases, and this enzymatic activity is thought to contribute to their allergenicity. Other astigmatid mites, including stored-product mites and the ectoparasitic itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, are also known to be allergenic, but little or nothing is known about their enzymatic activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the enzymatic activities present in extracts of the parasitic itch mite and from eight other species of free-living astigmatid mites. Extracts were prepared from one parasitic mite (S. scabiei), five stored-product mites (Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), Blomia tropicalis Bronswijk, Cock, Oshima, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), and Acarus siro L.), and three house dust mites [Dermatophagoidesfarinae Hughes, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Troussart), and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman) ]. ApiZym strips were used to screen for the presence of 19 individual enzyme activities. Digestion of nine other substrates was evaluated by spectrophotometric or electrophoretic methods. All mite extracts exhibited some form of phosphatase, esterase, aminopeptidase, and glycosidase activity, although their substrate specificities varied considerably. Itch mite extract did not possess detectable serine peptidase activity nor was it able to hydrolyze gelatin or casein, whereas all other mite extracts exhibited these activities. Storage mite extracts possessed enzymes capable of degrading the widest range of substrates, whereas itch mite extract had the most limited proteolytic capacity. Extracts of nine species of allergy-causing astigmatid mites contain wide and diverse repertoires of enzymatic activities. These catalytic activities may be important contributors to the induction and manifestation of inflammatory and immune responses to mites in patients. PMID:17162954
Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G
Background: Mite allergen vaccines are important diagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents. Previous studies on mite allergen stability under different storage conditions have yielded contradictory results. Objective: We sought to compare, over a 12-month period, the stability of mite allergens reconstituted in 50% glycerol and stored at different temperatures and to examine the role of protease inhibitors in enhancing allergen stability. Methods:
Lyudmila N Soldatova; Elizabeth J Paupore; Suzann H Burk; Richard W Pastor; Jay E Slater
Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM) aller- gen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and as- thma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immuno- therapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
Lidija Burazer; Katarina Milovanovic; Tanja Cirkovic-Velickovic; Marija Gavrovic-Jankulovic
Phoretic oribatid mites are recorded from specimens of 31 insect species, mostly passalid beetles. Mites were predominantly of the families Mesoplophoridae, Oppiidae and Oribatulidae. The former attaches by grasping a hair between the aspis and genital plate. A degree of attachment site specificity, but not host-species specificity, is exhibited by certain mites.
Roy A. Norton
This paper presents an innovative contactless palm print and palm vein recognition system. We design a hand sensor that could capture the palm print and palm vein image using low-resolution web camera. Both the visible and infrared images can be captured at the same time, and we do not need specialized infrared sensor to image the vein pattern. The design
Michael Goh Kah Ong; Connie Tee; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin
In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light). PMID:20218530
Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno
Laboratory and field studies were conducted to examine the prospect of mycelial application of Hirsutella thompsonii as an alternative to the use of mycelial-conidial formulations of the fungus in the suppression of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis. In a series of laboratory experiments, glycerol, yeast extract powder and dehydrated malt extract broth were found to be the best among nine substances investigated as possible adjuvants for use on coconut palms in the field along with H. thompsonii mycelia. H. thompsonii biomass in the presence of adjuvants not only produced more colonies but also yielded more conidia per pellet. In terms of the density of conidia generated on a mycelial mat the treatments varied highly significantly in two methods, with glycerol showing an average of 106% increase over control. Though irradiance with simulated sunlight resulted in reduced conidiogenesis, in general, adjuvant-treated pellets, both exposed and unexposed to simulated sunlight, produced substantial conidiation compared with control, irrespective of the two incubation conditions. Better conidiation was observed under alternating light-dark regime than under total darkness in all the treatments. Glycerol boosted the pathogenicity of H. thompsonii by 16.5% over control. In the field, a newly developed mycelial formulation of H. thompsonii applied after tank-mixing separately with the three selected adjuvants brought down the post-treatment population of the coconut mite by 85.6-97.1%. Application of the fungus in combination with glycerol resulted in a tolerable mean nut damage grade of 2.0 during the pre-harvest stage, compared with an acute score of 4.0 in control palms. PMID:18685957
Sreerama Kumar, P; Singh, Leena
Palms are also monocots and have only one seed leaf (dicots have two seed leaves). The flowers of palms have leaves in multiples of three. Monocots differ from dicots in root and tissue structure also, but all are angiosperms.
Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)
Storage mites of the families Acaridae and Glycyphagidae attracted attention as the source of household allergens. Storage mites occurring in house dust were studied. The fauna of storage mites in house dust was represented by two families. The dominating species, both in the relative amount and occurrence, were Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Chortoglyphus arcuatus. In addition, Caloglyphus rodionovi and Carpoglyphus lactis occur regularly. The specific activity of allergenic extracts obtained from storage mites was studied in ELISA. They were shown to have sensitizing and immunogenic properties. The study revealed that storage mites possessed specific determinants and those common with pyroglyphid, not linked with allergens of groups 1 and 2. PMID:9460873
Zheltikova, T M; Gervazieva, V B; Zhirova, S N; Mokronosova, M A; Sveranovskaia, V V
Storage mites may be considered important allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis. High sensitization rates to Tyrophagus, Acarus, and Lepidoglyphus species have been reported in atopic dogs, and dry pet food has been suggested as a potential source of storage mite exposure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate commercial dry dog food for contamination with storage mites, and how storage time and conditions could influence the risk of contamination. Ten different premium commercial dry dog foods formulated for skin disorders were selected. Food bags were opened and stored for 6 weeks under two different environmental conditions. At different time points, samples from each bag were collected and analysed by microscopy, guanine test, storage mite-specific traps, and a modified flotation technique. On opening, two storage mites identified as Acarus siro were isolated from one of the 10 bags by flotation technique, indicating that storage mites can be present in packaged dry dog food bags. After 5 weeks of storage under environmental conditions optimal for mite growth (23.2 +/- 2.1 degrees C and 71 +/- 5.6% of relative humidity), mites were detected by microscopic observation in nine of the 10 diets. When mites were identified by the flotation technique, Tyrophagus spp. were found to be the most common contaminating species. These results show that dry dog food can be a suitable substrate for storage mite reproduction, and that environmental and storage conditions may influence food contamination and mite development. PMID:18494758
Brazis, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Sellés, Alex; Dethioux, Fabienne; Biourge, Vincent; Puigdemont, Anna
Anaphylaxis after eating mite-infested wheat flour has been recently reported. This paper is to describe two cases and examine the occurrence of mite contamination in wheat flour in Japan. Packages of wheat flour from retail outlets and homes were examined microscopically for the presence of mites. Three of 176 packages from retail outlets and seven of 127 from homes were infested with mites, and it seems likely that the mite contamination takes place in most cases at homes after the packages have been opened. No mites were found in packages stored in a refrigerator, therefore, mite-sensitive patients must be advised to store wheat flour products in a refrigerator. PMID:15482524
Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Satoh, Ayumi
Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541
Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui
The study was carried out from April 2004 to March 2005, when 65 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from the Silesian Zoo were examined for the presence of mites. Mites were found in all the samples; a total of 5,†315 mites were isolated and 26 species of astigmatid mites were identified. These mites constituted 84% of the total
PIOTR SZILMAN; EWA SZILMAN; MAGDALENA SZILMAN; HANNA MANIURKA; KRZYSZTOF SOLARZ
Summary Mite composition of samples of house dusts of atopic Nigerian patients were analysed. Out of a total of 263 mites isolated,\\u000a 10 different species, all of which are being documented for the first time in Nigeria have emerged. The result of this analysis\\u000a was correlated with provocative allergic skin tests performed on these patients using allergenic reagents. The role of
A. O. Somorin; O. O. Hunponu-Wusu; Y. Mumcuoglu; D. C. Heiner
Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207
Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan
A faunistic survey of mites was conducted in many product stores during a 6-year study period, 2000-2005, in Greece. A total of 1,073 samples were taken from 34 Greek counties. The survey was carried out on grains (wheat, maize, oat, barley), flour, bran, manufactured agricultural foodstuffs, dried fruits (figs, raisins), residues and dust, stored in varying quantities in five types of storage facilities (stores of agricultural cooperative unions, farm stores, commercial stores, flour mills and silos). Dominance-frequency analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA) were used to reveal the preferences of the collected taxa. Approximately 55% of the samples contained mites and 65 mite taxa were identified, belonging to 15 families in four orders. Six species, namely, Acarus gracilis Hughes, A. immobilis Griffiths, Caloglyphus oudemansi (Zachvatkin), Suidasia medanensis Oudemans, Tyrophagus perniciosus Zachvatkin and Kleemania plumigera (Oudemans), were new to the fauna of Greece. Five species, Tyrophagus similis Volgin, Blattisocius mali (Oudemans), Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes), Cheyletus cacahuamilpensis Baker and Storchia robustus (Berlese), were recorded for the first time in stored products in Greece. Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and Acarus siro L. were dominant or intermediate in all storage facilities examined. Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most common predatory mite. The highest percentage of infestation (65.3) was recorded in the samples from stores of agricultural cooperative unions. Residue-type materials had the highest degrees and percentages of infestation. PMID:18379887
Palyvos, Nickolas E; Emmanouel, Nickolas G; Saitanis, Costas J
The bulletin includes descriptions and figures for 165 species of plant-feeding false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae) of Mexico, of which 65 are described as new to science. Less than one-third (48) of the Mexican tenuipalpids are distributed in 8 genera (Ae...
D. M. Tuttle E. W. Baker
Twenty-eight genera and 143 species of the plant feeding mites from Mexico are recognized; many of these are found in the United States and Central and South America. A new genus Sonotetranychus is described for Anatetranychus daleae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello, and A. albiflorae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello. Twenty-six new species are described: Monoceronychus erythrinae, M. littoralis, M. pachucensis, Langella
Donald M. Tuttle; Edward W. Baker; Michael J. Abbatiello
Pyroglyphid mites are primarily associated with allergen exposure at home; hence the name house dust mites. However, we have found numerous studies reporting pyroglyhid mite levels in public and occupational settings. This review presents the findings of house dust mite allergens (family Pyroglyphidae, species Dermatophagoides) as potential work-related risk factors and proposes occupations at risk of house dust mite-related diseases. Pyroglyphid mites or their allergens are found in various workplaces, but clinically relevant exposures have been observed in hotels, cinemas, schools, day-care centres, libraries, public transportation (buses, trains, taxies, and airplanes), fishing-boats, submarines, poultry farms, and churches. Here we propose a classification of occupational risk as low (occasional exposure to mite allergen levels up to 2 ?g g(-1)), moderate (exposure between 2 ?g g(-1) and 10 ?g g(-1)), and high (exposure >10 ?g g(-1)). The classification of risk should include factors relevant for indoor mite population (climate, building characteristics, and cleaning schedule). To avoid development or aggravation of allergies associated with exposure to house dust mites at work, occupational physicians should assess exposure risk at work, propose proper protection, provide vocational guidance to persons at risk and conduct pre-employment and periodic examinations to diagnose new allergy cases. Protection at work should aim to control dust mite levels at work. Measures may include proper interior design and regular cleaning and building maintenance. PMID:22548853
Macan, Jelena; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Milkovi?-Kraus, Sanja
This work presents the application of response surface methodology (RSM) to the study of the effects of three factors (temperature, percent stripping steam and the stearin\\/olein ratio) on the losses\\/transfer of fatty compounds during the steam deacidification of blends of palm oil fractions (stearin and olein) as model systems. The responses of interest were the final oil acidity and the
Klicia A. Sampaio; Roberta Ceriani; Simone M. Silva; Thiago Taham; Antonio J. A. Meirelles
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a common, benign skin condition, which was first described over a century ago, but still remains an enigma with respect to etiology, associated systemic diseases, and treatment. A number of clinical variants have been classified. We report an atypical presentation of GA localized to the palms. PMID:21635829
Stewart, Larissa R; George, Saira; Hamacher, K Lyn; Hsu, Sylvia
House dust mites play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Many factors may influence mite growth. The presence of mites is related to mean temperature and humidity as well as altitude. The aim of this study was to analyze the mite fauna in 5 regions of western Anatolia, Turkey, that have similar climatic properties with low mean temperature and humidity, but differ in altitude. During the period October-November 2004, house dust was collected from 290 homes in 5 different cities. House dust mites were isolated in 67 (23.1%) of 290 samples. The family Pyroglyphidae (Astigmata) was present in all positive samples. This study suggests that the selected western Anatolian regions that share similar environmental conditions host similar dust mite populations.
Cetinkaya, Zafer; Atambay, Metin; Kiyildi, Nilay; Aycan, Ozlem M.; Daldal, Nilgun
Feather mites are a diverse group of ectosymbionts that occur on most species of birds. Although Darwin’s finches are a well-studied group of birds, relatively little is known about their feather mites. Nearly 200 birds across 9 finch species, and from 2 locations on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, were dust-ruffled during the 2009 breeding season. We found 8 genera of feather mites; the most prevalent genus was Mesalgoides (53–55%), followed by Trouessartia (40–45%), Amerodectes and Proctophyllodes (26–33%), Xolalgoides (21–27%), Analges and Strelkoviacarus (0–6%), and Dermoglyphus (2–4%). There was no evidence for microclimatic effects (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on mite diversity. Host body mass was significantly correlated with mean feather mite abundance across 7 of 8 well-sampled species of finches. Certhidea olivacea, the smallest species, did not fit this pattern and had a disproportionately high number of mites for its body mass.
Villa, Scott M.; Le Bohec, Celine; Koop, Jennifer A. H.; Proctor, Heather C.; Clayton, Dale H.
Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and\\/or as model organisms for the study of predator–prey\\u000a interactions. Pathogen-free phytoseiid mites are important to obtain high efficacy in biological pest control and to get reliable\\u000a data in mite research,
Conny Schütte; Marcel Dicke
Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and\\/or as model organisms for the study of predator–prey\\u000a interactions. Pathogen-free phytoseiid mites are important to obtain high efficacy in biological pest control and to get reliable\\u000a data in mite research,
Conny Schütte; Marcel Dicke
The color of refined palm oil and palm oil products is conventionally measured using the manually operated Lovibond Tintometer. In the present study, one manual\\/visual and three automatic colorimeters for the measurement of vegetable oil\\u000a color were used for color measurements of refined palm oil. All colorimeters used were commercially available instruments\\u000a except for an automatic palm oil colorimeter developed
Yew-Ai Tan; Ainie Kuntom; Chak Khiam Lee; Kum Sang Low
Malaysia produces ca. 65% of the world’s palm oil, or (in 1982) ca. 3,500,000 metric tons. By 1985, this will increase to\\u000a 80% of world production, or ca. 4,800,000 metric tons. Palm oil products are refined, bleached and deodorized oil for edible\\u000a purposes, palm olein for edible use, palm stearin for edible or industrial use, and the acid oil or
Roy J. de Vries
Mites that affect animals (acariasis) can occasionally be transmitted to humans by incidental contact producing pruritus and dermatitis. Animals such as dogs, cats, mice, birds and reptiles, harbour several mite species. Hemophage mites and those that feed on lymph have the potential of transmitting important zoonotic agents (cuales??). The presence of lesions of unclear origin and a history of contact with pets or wild animals should alert towards the possibility of acariasis. Diagnosis is based on direct visualization of the mite,analysis of its morphology and obtaining information on the animal host. Awareness of these acarosis and the responsible care of pets and animals are the most relevant preventive measures. PMID:19621159
Jofré M, Leonor; Noemí H, Isabel; Neira O, Patricia; Saavedra U, Tirza; Díaz L, Cecilia
The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges
The induction times for the crystallization, under isothermal conditions, of refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil from\\u000a the melt were studied by viscometry. At temperatures below 295 K, the crystallization of palm oil was observed to occur in\\u000a a two-stage process. This two-stage process was caused by the fractionation of palm oil, most probably into the stearin and\\u000a olein fractions.
C. W. Chen; O. M. Lai; H. M. Ghazali; C. L. Chong
Production and consumption of palm oil and its products are discussed as they relate to industrial products. The large volumes\\u000a of palm oil being produced and projected for future production should increase the use of its byproducts in oleochemicals.\\u000a Tallow is the most competitive fat to palm oil in these applications, but its market share (at least in Japan) seems
Yoshiteru Akaike; Amagasaki Factory
The predominant role of mites in house dust respiratory allergy is now well established. Our laboratory has spent an important part of its time and activity studying the antigens present in D. farinae mites extracts and characterising the specific allergens responsible of respiratory allergy to D. farinae. Physicochemical and immunochemical studies let us to define major allergens in different biochemical fractions obtained from D. farinae extracts used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Amongst the D. farinae specific antigens defined, one (Ag 11) is a specific major allergen and it has been isolated and chemically analysed. It is polypeptide of molecular weight of 28,000 d with p I not equal to 7 containing 5% of cysteine residues. The good stability and resistance to denaturation are in favour of numerous disulfide bonds. PMID:7316612
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and species of house dust mites (HDM) in Kutahya (Turkey). The prevalence of house dust mites (HDM) was found to be 18.05%. The following species were identified: Tyrophagus putrescentiae, (43.96%), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.03%), Acarus siro (13.79%), Lepidoglyphus destructor (1.72%), Glycphagus domesticus (2.58%) and Cheyletus spp. (1.72%). HDM were found from April to October and a high rate, from April to June. A very high rate of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was found in August and of Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Acarus siro in July. The number of collected HDM was high in July. The amount of HDM per gram was determined to be 0.13. PMID:17160837
Akdem?r, Cihangir; Gürdal, Hülya
A faunistic survey of mites was conducted in many product stores during a 6-year study period, 2000–2005, in Greece. A total\\u000a of 1,073 samples were taken from 34 Greek counties. The survey was carried out on grains (wheat, maize, oat, barley), flour,\\u000a bran, manufactured agricultural foodstuffs, dried fruits (figs, raisins), residues and dust, stored in varying quantities\\u000a in five types
Nickolas E. Palyvos; Nickolas G. Emmanouel; Costas J. Saitanis
The thermal preferences in a grain mass and respiration at various temperatures in mites (Acari: Acarididae) of medical and economical importance [Acarus siro (L. 1758), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes 1961, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank 1871), and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank 1781)] were studied under laboratory conditions. Based on the distribution of mites in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grain along a thermal gradient from 10 to 40 degrees C, L. destructor, D. farinae, and A. siro were classified as eurythermic and T. putrescentiae as stenothermic. The lowest preferred temperature was found for D. farinae (28 degrees C), followed by A. siro (28.5 degrees C), L. destructor (29.5 degrees C), and T. putrescentiae (31.5 degrees C). The relationship between the respiration rate and the temperature was similar for all four mite species. The highest respiration was found in the range from 31 to 33 degrees C. This is approximately 2 degrees C higher than the preferred temperature of these species. The lower temperature threshold of respiration ranged from 1 to 5 degrees C and the upper threshold ranged from 45 to 48 degrees C. Acclimatization of A. siro to temperature regimes of 5, 15, and 35 degrees C resulted in thermal preferences between 9 and 12 degrees C, 9 and 20 degrees C, and 28 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The respiration rate of acclimatized specimens increased with the temperature, reaching a maximum at 29.0 degrees C for mites acclimatized at 5 and 15 degrees C and a maximum at 33.7 degrees C for those acclimatized at 30 degrees C. PMID:21309251
Hubert, J; Pekár, S; Nesvorná, M; Sustr, V
To discriminate mixing ratios for mixtures of palm olein oil and palm stearin oil, an electronic nose based on mass spectrometer\\u000a (MS-electronic nose) and GC were used. The intensities of each fragment from the palm olein oil and palm stearin oil by the\\u000a MS-electronic nose were used for discriminant function analysis (DFA). When palm olein oil is mixed with palm
Eun Jeung Hong; Sue Jee Park; Jin Young Choi; Bong Soo Noh
The production, composition, and food uses of palm oil are outlined in this introduction to a detailed appraisal of the nutritional and health implications of the use of palm oil in the food supply. The putative role of dietary fats and oils in general, and of palm oil in particular, in the etiology of coronary heart disease and cancer is critically assessed. It is concluded that the evidence available is difficult to interpret unambiguously. Some evidence to suggest that the minor components of palm oil might have useful biological effects is also discussed. PMID:2012022
Cottrell, R C
The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers. PMID:15236495
Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa
Microsatellites are the most promising co-dominant markers, widely distributed throughout the genome. Identification of these repeating genomic subsets is a tedious and iterative process making computational approaches highly useful for solving this biological problem. Here 38,083 microsatellites were localized in palm sequences. A total of 2, 97,023 sequences retrieved from public domains were used for this study. The sequences were unstained using the tool Seqclean and consequently clustered using CAP3. SSRs are located in the sequences using the microsatellite search tool, MISA. Repeats were detected in 33,309 sequences and more than one SSR had appeared in 3,943 sequences. In the present study, dinucleotide repeats (49%) were found to be more abundant followed by mononucleotide (30%) and trinucleotide (19%). Also among the dinucleotides, AG/GA/TC/CT motifs (55.8%) are predominantly repeating within the palm sequences. Thus in future this study will lead to the development of specific algorithm for mining SSRs exclusively for palms.
Palliyarakkal, Manju Kalathil; Ramaswamy, Manimekalai; Vadivel, Arunachalam
The influence of dietary palm-oil fractions on protein utilisation has been investigated in the growing rat. At 30 days of age, 4-6 groups of four animals were offered one of six semi-purified diets that differed only in the palm-oil fraction. Diets contained 200g casein, 550 g carbohydrate, and 200g fat/kg. The different palm-oil fractions were: crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm-kernel oil (PKO), refined palm olein (RPO), refined palm stearin (RPS), refined palm oil (RPOL). The control groups were given Olive oil (OO) as the dietary fat source. The conversion efficiency of dietary protein was assessed as Net Protein Utilisation (NPU), using a 10-day comparative carcass technique. Weight gain and food intake were not altered by the various palm-oil fractions. However, the NPU of rats given RPO was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of rats given all other palm-oil fractions or the OO control. It is concluded that the RPO has the potential to significantly improve NPU in the rat, compared to four other palm-oil fractions as well as olive oil. PMID:24394656
Henry, C J; Ghusain-Choueiri, A; Gurr, M I
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (< 10 mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast. PMID:16937684
Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E
In recent years, the allergological importance of different mite species not belonging to the family Pyroglyphidae has been demonstrated. These mites, commonly named storage mites, include Lepidoglyphus destructor, Glycyphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Suidasia medanensis and Thyreophagus entomophagus. Several allergens from these species have been purified, sequenced and cloned. Many of these allergens have shown sequence homology and a biological function similar to those previously described in Blomia tropicalis and the Dermatophagoides spp. The main allergens described in storage mites include fatty acid binding proteins, tropomysin and paramyosin homologues, apoliphorine like proteins, alfa-tubulines and other, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens, which definitive biological function has not been described yet. Besides the purification and characterization of allergens, the allergenicity of other species such as Acarus farris, Austroglycyphagus malaysiensis, Blomia kulagini and B. tjibodas, Cheyletus eruditus, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Gohieria fusca, Thyreophagus entomophagus and Tyrophagus longior has been investigated. Research has also been conducted to identify allergens in parasitic mites, such as Psoroptes ovis, Sarcoptes scabiei, Varroa jacobsoni, Diplaegidia columbae and Hemisarcoptes cooremani. The allergenicity of mites present in agricultural environments has been investigated. Crossreactivity studies have also been performed to elucidate to what extent all these mites share common, or species specific epitopes. Herein we present a comprehensive review of the allergenicity of mite species which have been implicated in human respiratory and/or dermatological diseases. PMID:18220992
Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Iraola, Victor; Carnés, Jerónimo
The examination of house dust mite extracts has indicated that over 30 different proteins can induce IgE antibody in patients allergic to the house dust mite. There are however dominant specificities especially the group 1 and 2 allergens which can account for much of the allergenicity of extracts. Of the 19 denominated allergens, the major IgE binding has been reported
Wayne R. Thomas; Wendy-Anne Smith; Belinda J. Hales; Kristina L. Mills; Richard M. O’Brien
Causes of spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) population resurgences consequent upon exposure to synthetic pyrethroid (SP) treatments are reviewed. Resurgences may be seen as soon as 1 week, or even as late as a whole season, post-treatment. Synthetic pyrethroids vary in their adverse effects on spider mites, and also differ in their ability to invoke resurgences of different spidermite species on
Uri Gerson; Ephraim Cohen
A significant-source of allergens come from house dust that contain particles derived from arthropods, molds, and pet dander. This study evaluated mite and booklouse fauna from vacuumed dust samples in Beijing China (a temperate zone). Our survey was carried out in Beijing in the homes of mite allergic patients who visited our Allergy Department. In total, 38 homes were selected for the collection of dust samples by vacuuming, from December 2008 to January 2010. The flotation method was used to isolate mites from house dust. Permanent slides were prepared for mite specimens and mites were identified and counted under a microscope. In total, 1,798 separate mite and insect specimens were found in 345 dust samples taken from 38 homes. A total of 95 individual Dermatophagoides (D) siboney were detected in 35 dust samples from 19 homes (representing 5.3% of all mite and insect species found in house dust); in addition, this mite was found to co-exist with D. farinae (Hughes, 1961) in 33 dust samples. Our results demonstrated the presence D. siboney that co-existed with D. farinae in house dust in Beijing China (a temperate zone).
Sun, Jin-Lu; Shen, Lian; Chen, Jun; Yu, Jin-Miao
Acarodomatia are small tufts of hair or invaginations in the leaf surface and are frequently inhabited by several taxa of non-plant-feeding mites. For many years, ecologists have hypothesized that these structures represent a mutualistic association between mites and plants where the mites benefit the plant by reducing densities of phytophagous arthropods and epiphytic microorganisms, and domatia benefit the mite by
Andrew P. Norton; Greg English-Loeb; Edward Belden
This paper discusses the contactless palm vein authentication device that uses blood vessel patterns as a personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The palm vein authentication technology offers a high level of accuracy, and delivers the following results: a false rejection rate (FRR) of 0.01%, and a false
Masaki Watanabe; Toshio Endoh; Morito Shiohara; Shigeru Sasaki
Predaceous arthropods are frequently more abundant on plants with leaves that are pubescent or bear domatia than on plants with glabrous leaves. We explored the hypothesis that for some predatory mites this is because pubescence affords protection from intraguild predation. In laboratory experiments, we tested whether apple leaf pubescence protected Typhlodromus pyri eggs from predation by western flower thrips, Frankliniella
A. Roda; J. Nyrop; M. Dicke; G. English-Loeb
The authors studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > or = 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with eithe...
F. W. Henderson A. B. Lindstrom M. A. Beck D. M. Barnes M. M. Henry
We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...
Various mite species referred to collectively as house dust and storage mites are recognized worldwide as a cause of allergic airway disease. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency of sensitization and potential importance of mite species in farmers using a broad mite spectrum. A total of 86 German farmers with rhinitis and/or asthma were studied by skin prick testing and/or enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) with the following mites: Blomia tjibodas, Blomia tropicalis, Blomia kulagini, Glycyphagus domesticus, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Euroglyphus maynei, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus farris and Cheyletus eruditus. Sensitization to at least one mite species was detected in 51 patients (59%) by skin prick testing, and in 31 patients (36%) by EAST. The most frequent sensitizations determined by skin tests were found for the three Blomia species, E. maynei and G. domesticus. Twelve patients (14%) gave a positive EAST with the predator mite C. eruditus. A total of 22 patients gave positive EAST results with the Dermatophagoides species. We were able to document sensitization to C. arcuatus, E. maynei and T. entomophagus for the first time in Germany. A considerable proportion of the German farmers tested were sensitized to storage mites. The allergological potential of various mite species has been recognized, some for the first time. It was concluded that B. tjibodas, G. domesticus, C. arcuatus and C. eruditus in particular should be included in an allergy diagnosis. Further investigations into the clinical relevance of the sensitizations and possible cross-reactivity between the mite species are necessary. PMID:11206935
Müsken, H; Franz, J T; Wahl, R; Paap, A; Cromwell, O; Masuch, G; Bergmann, K C
This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Finally, based on this analysis, we assess the current concerns about
Gernot Pehnelt; Christoph Vietze
Palm oil is considered as plant oil in which two types of cooking oil, palm seed oil and palm oil are derived. Palm oil has almost 50% saturated fatty acid and 50% poly unsaturated fatty acid. It i s considered to be useful due to metabolites products such as prostacycline and antithrombois in cardiovascular disease (C.V.D) and variation in lipoprotein.
Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Pirus malus L. subsp. mitis (Wallr.) var. Golden Delicious and var. Starking attacked by the phytophagous mite Panonychus ulmi Koch, and their attractiveness to the predatory mites Amblyseius andersoni Chant and Amblyseius californicus McGregor, were studied during three years. A large variability was found in the emission of individual VOCs depending on the infestation, the apple tree variety and the date. There were larger total VOC emission rates and larger total VOC leaf concentrations in apple trees attacked by phytophagous mites, especially in the var. Starking. In infested trees of this variety, there were also more predatory mites. An olfactometer assay showed that predatory mites preferentially chose branches infested by Panonychus ulmi (85% went to infested branches vs 15% to uninfested control branches) indicating that volatiles may be used as cues to find their prey. PMID:11508530
Llusiŕ, J; Peńuelas, J
In a multicenter study (7 participating centres) 132 patients with bronchial asthma (grade II or III) and sensitization to storage mites (SM) and/or house dust mites (HSM) were screened and asked to undergo further allergological evaluation. 90 patients agreed. In addition to routine skin prick tests and RAST, quantitative skin prick tests (QSPT) and bronchial provocation tests (BPT) were also performed with the suspected mite allergens. The results were correlated with aspects of the domestic and working environments. Furthermore we questioned whether the outcome of BPT could be predicted from the results of the routine skin tests/RAST and QSPT respectively. Out of a total of 145 BPTs there were 79 positive results with SM and/or HSM. Three patients were mono-allergic to SM. The correlation with the domestic environment was unremarkable. Correlation with occupational factors revealed a strong predominance of farmers (42 of 90) and suggested the same for professions involved in work in dust-laden environments like bakers (5 of 90) and workers in wood- and paper industry (7 of 90). This also means, that SM-allergy occurs in persons not occupationally exposed to dust. A prediction as to the allergological relevance of SM-allergen was not possible from viewing the routine skin prick test however positive RAST data showed a significant correlation with positive BPT to SM Lepidoglyphus. Similarly it was possible to draw an inference from QSPT as to the relevant allergy. With a positive QSPT to the SM Lepidoglyphus destructor a positive result with a BPT was highly probable. Due to small numbers it is not possible to make a similar statement for the other SM species (Acarus and Tyrophagus). PMID:17583823
Kroidl, R F; Schwichtenberg, U; Frank, E
Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are widespread in plants and animals. Although silkworm (Bombyx mori) has a large amount of and a variety of transposable elements, the genome-wide information of the silkworm MITEs is unknown. Results We used structure-based and homology approaches to search for MITEs in the silkworm genome. We identified 17 MITE families with a total of 5785 members, accounting for ~0.4% of the genome. 7 of 17 MITE families are completely novel based on the nucleotide composition of target site duplication (TSD) and/or terminal inverted repeats (TIR). Silkworm MITEs were widely and nonrandom distributed in the genome. One family named BmMITE-2 might experience a recent burst expansion. Network and diversity analyses for each family revealed different diversification patterns of the silkworm MITEs, reflecting the signatures of genome-shocks that silkworm experienced. Most silkworm MITEs preferentially inserted into or near genes and BmMITE-11 that encodes a germline-restricted small RNA might silence its the closest genes in silkworm ovary through a small RNA pathway. Conclusions Silkworm harbors 17 MITE families. The silkworm MITEs preferred to reside in or near genes and one MITE might be involved in gene silence. Our results emphasize the exceptional role of MITEs in transcriptional regulation of genes and have general implications to understand interaction between MITEs and their host genome.
This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (<10 %). Because of the great reproductive potential of daughter mites, their inclusion in assessments of grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance. PMID:22752670
Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M
Samples were taken from a flat storage facility located in central Greece, filled with approximately 45 tons of hard wheat, to assess the spatiotemporal distribution of stored-product insects and mites. The wheat was stored in a 1.5-m-deep bulk from June 2001 until March 2002. The samples were taken with a partitioned grain trier during the entire storage period, at 10-d intervals. The trier samples were examined separately for the upper, medial, and lower 0.5 m of the bulk. The spatial distribution of the insect and mite species found was examined by contour analysis based on the numbers of individuals in the trier samples. Nine insect and 20 mite taxa were found during the sampling period. The most abundant insect species were Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.); the most abundant mite species were Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), Acarus siro L., and the predator Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans. The highest population densities for the majority of the insect and mite species were recorded during autumn. The majority of the individuals of the most abundant insect and mite species were found in the upper 0.5 m of the bulk, with the exception of C. malaccensis, which was equally distributed in the upper and medial 0.5 m of the bulk. The spatiotemporal distribution during the entire experimental period was notably varied according to the insect and mite species. PMID:16022339
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Palyvos, Nickolas E; Sciarretta, Andrea; Trematerra, Pasquale
Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae) in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.
Although Palm Springs, California, offers a pleasant desert climate that is often advantageous in treatment of respiratory allergies, physicians should be made aware in referring their patients that definite pollen factors must be taken into consideration in recommending a visit to Palm Springs, and should try to determine the compatibility of their patient's allergic sensitivity pattern and the particular seasonal incidence of pollen concentration in Palm Springs. It is believed that the most important pollens there are those of Bermuda grass, olive tree, mesquite, dicoria, false ragweed, scales, and hymenoclea salsola. A favorable climate alone does not permit a patient to disregard good allergic management.
The broad mite is a serious pest of a variety of crops worldwide. Several phytoseiid mites have been described to control these mites. However, broad mites are still one of the major pest problems on greenhouse pepper in South-eastern Spain. The generalist predatory mite A. swirskii is widely used against other pests of pepper plants such as thrips and whiteflies, the latter being a vector of broad mites. We assessed the potential of A. swirskii to control broad mites. The oviposition rate of A. swirskii on a diet of broad mites was lower than on a diet of pollen, but higher than oviposition in the absence of food. Population-dynamical experiments with A. swirskii on single sweet pepper plants in a greenhouse compartment showed successful control of broad mites. PMID:20191312
van Maanen, Roos; Vila, Enrico; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne
The broad mite is a serious pest of a variety of crops worldwide. Several phytoseiid mites have been described to control these mites. However, broad mites are still one of the major pest problems on greenhouse pepper in South-eastern Spain. The generalist predatory mite A. swirskii is widely used against other pests of pepper plants such as thrips and whiteflies, the latter being a vector of broad mites. We assessed the potential of A. swirskii to control broad mites. The oviposition rate of A. swirskii on a diet of broad mites was lower than on a diet of pollen, but higher than oviposition in the absence of food. Population-dynamical experiments with A. swirskii on single sweet pepper plants in a greenhouse compartment showed successful control of broad mites.
van Maanen, Roos; Vila, Enrico; Sabelis, Maurice W.
Existing coconut palms (cocos nucifera) provide a large sustainable resource for food, energy, timber, fiber and numerous other products. Most of this resource is currently wasted, yet it could give a strong basis for practical rural development in tropic...
D. L. Hagen D. Etherington
The publication describes the most effective methods and equipment for collecting, identifying, rearing, examining, and preserving terrestrial and aquatic insects and mites and for storing and caring for specimens in an insect collection. Instructions are...
G. C. Steyskal W. L. Murphy E. M. Hoover
400 samples of natural winter debris collected from bee hives, 150 samples of stored honey and 100 samples of pollen collected by bees were examined; full of food and empty honey combs, brood and adult bees were also observed. 100% of samples of debris, 90% of pollen and almost 24% of honey samples contained mites; they were found also on honey combs and on died and living bees (brood, imagines). 33 mite species were found. Besides of parasite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. numerous mites belonging to Acaridae, Ameroseiidae, Tarsonemidae and Tydeidae were frequent. They are often accompanied by predatory mites from families Cheyletidae, Aceosejidae, Laelapidae, Bdellidae and Cunaxidae. 3 stated species--Acotyledon paradoxa Oud., Lasioacarus nidicolus Kadz. et Sev. and Thyreophagus odyneri Fain are new for Poland. PMID:1823503
A series of 16 studies was conducted involving 288 cattle with naturally acquired or experimentally induced mite or louse infestations to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin. Four studies were conducted against the mite species Psoroptes bovis and two against the mite species Sarcoptes scabiei. Ten studies involved cattle with one or more of the following louse species: Damalinia bovis, Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus vituli and Solenopotes capillatus. In each study, a group of at least nine but not more than 25 cattle were randomly allocated to a control or a treated group. One group was treated with doramectin at 200 micrograms kg-1 and the other group received no medication. Mites or lice were quantified by species immediately before treatment and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks thereafter. Doramectin was 100% efficacious against infestations of P. bovis, Sarcoptes scabiei, H. eurysternus, L. vituli and Solenopotes capillatus. The drug reduced infestations of D. bovis by a mean of 82%. PMID:8236741
Logan, N B; Weatherley, A J; Phillips, F E; Wilkins, C P; Shanks, D J
Proliferation of Demodex mites is associated with rosacea. Furthermore, Demodex-associated bacteria were suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of rosacea. We decided to analyze Demodex microbiota. Mites were collected by standardized skin surface biopsies from patients with erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular rosacea or from control subjects. The microbiota from each mite was characterized by 16S rRNA clone library approach. The 16S rRNA clone library consisted of 367 clones obtained from 73 extracts originating from 5 samples per study group (ETR, PPR or healthy subjects). A total of 86 species were identified with 36 as Demodex-specific microbiota. In the papulopustular group, proportions of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes increased whereas proportion of Actinobacteria decreased. Here, we report preliminary results on the microbiota of Demodex mites based on a molecular approach showing an unexpected diversity. Differences according to the host status need to be confirmed but open new perspectives for diagnostic of rosacea. PMID:24768927
Murillo, Nathalia; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier
One of the more important etiological factors of allergies are mites occuring in the closest vicinity of humans, i.e. in the house dust and in the stored foodstuffs. The most important are the species representing the families: Pyroglyphidae (mainly Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and Euroglyphus maynei), Glycyphagidae (e.g. Lepidoglyphus destructor, Blomia sp.), and Acaridae (e.g. Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro). Mites shed an abundance of allergenic proteins. Particularly abundant in allergens are the extracts of mite faeces as well as the extracts of their purified bodies or culture substrate. In humans the may inflict atopic allergies (respiratory and dermal), such as bronchial asthma, rhinitis, or atopic eczema. It has been estimated that some 5% of the human population is sensitive to dust mites allergens. PMID:17633128
Henszel, ?ukasz; Ku?na-Grygiel, Wanda
The compounds responsible for the colors of palm oils at various stages of processing have been isolated by gel permeation\\u000a chro matography. The isolated colored compounds have been characterized by visible spectroscopy and, in some cases, further\\u000a fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography. All palm oils studied contained colored compounds of both higher and\\u000a lower molecular weight than triglycerides. Oils
M. S. Fraser; G. Frankl
This paper presents two new approaches to improve the performance of palm-vein-based identification systems pre- sented in the literature. The proposed approach attempts to more effectively accommodate the potential deformations, rotational and translational changes by encoding the orientation preserving features and utilizing a novel region-based matching scheme. We systematically compare the previously proposed palm-vein identification approaches with our proposed ones
Yingbo Zhou; Ajay Kumar
Records of domestic animals brought to the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory for diagnosis of suspected lice and mite infestation over a 10 year period were analysed. From a total of 794 suspected cases, 137 (17·3%) and 247 (31·1%) were positive for lice and mange mites respectively. The most common lice species recorded wereLinognathus vituli (66·7%) on cattle,L. ovillus (83·3%) on sheep,Haematopinus
J. B. D. George; S. Otobo; J. Ogunleye; B. Adediminiyi
Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the anti-predator response studied most intensively in spider mites has been the avoidance of patches with high predation risk. Less attention has been given to the dense web produced by spider mites, which is a complex structure of silken threads that is thought to hinder predators. Here, we investigate the effects of the web produced by the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard, on its interactions with the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes Evans. We tested whether female spider mites recognize predator cues and whether these can induce the spider mites to produce denser web. We found that the prey did not produce denser web in response to such cues, but laid more eggs suspended in the web, away from the leaf surface. These suspended eggs suffered less from predation by P. longipes than eggs that were laid on the leaf surface under the web. Thus, by altering their oviposition behaviour in response to predator cues, females of T. evansi protect their offspring.
Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sabelis, Maurice W.
Allergic reactivity to house-dust mites (HDM) can be detected in patients with atopic eczema by prick and patch test challenge. To determine the clinical relevance of this reactivity, we performed a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of anti-HDM measures. Active treatment comprised Gortex bags for all the bedding elements, a high-powered vacuum cleaner, and a spray containing benzyl alcohol and tannic acid to kill mites and denature allergens. Placebo treatment was light cotton bags, a cheap vacuum cleaner, and water spray. Forty-eight patients (28 active group) completed the trial, which lasted 6 months. Dust was sampled from the mattress surface and bedroom and living-room carpets before and at monthly intervals after institution of the measures. Dust was weighed and Der p 1 determined by ELISA (ALK). Patients were assessed for area and severity of eczema by a blinded observer. There was a highly significant reduction in bed surface dust - most beds yielded insufficient dust to extract and assay. Carpet Der p 1 levels were reduced to similar minimal levels by both active and placebo treatments (about 250 ng/m2). There were highly significant benefits on the eczema scores, the active treatment being greatly superior to placebo (P< or =0.0006; analysis of covariance). In conclusion, Gortex bed bags were highly effective at containing dust within the bed. This was associated with clinical improvement in most patients with atopic eczema - the biggest improvements were seen in the most severely affected subjects. PMID:10096818
Friedmann, P S; Tan, B B
Ammonium sulphate precipitation and DEAE chromatography is an efficient way of purifying Ag 11, the main allergen in Dermatophagoďdes farinae mites, which has already been characterized by crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis. At 60% of saturation in ammonium sulphate, a precipitate is formed which, dissolved and dialysed has been named fraction A 60. It is mainly composed of Ag 11. In the fraction DE obtained by DEAE chromatography of the ammonium sulphate fraction A 60, Ag 11 appears homogeneous on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Isoelectrofocusing results indicate an average isoelectric point near neutrality in agreement with the non-absorbtion of Ag 11 on the DEAE cellulose at a weak ionic strength (0.01, at pH 7.2). By sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration Ag 11 has a molecular weight of 28,000. Ag 11 appears as a single polypeptidic chain with numerous dithio-bonds implying a highly folded and resistant structure. Oligosaccharides could be present as constituting molecules as well as contaminating ones as was assumed for hexosamines. These results are discussed with reference to a similar study performed on the major allergen of Dermatophagoďdes pteronyssinus. The allergenic properties of Ag 11 as present in fraction DE were tested by RAST-based methods. Fraction DE is an inhibitor as good as Df 80d and when it is coated on paper discs it can bind specific IgE in sera from the majority of mite sensitive patients. The results suggest that Ag 11 is a major allergen from D. farinae. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5
Dandeu, J.-P.; Le Mao, J.; Lux, M.; Rabillon, J.; David, B.
This study was designed to explore the potential of refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm oil (PO) and palm stearin (POs) utilization in chicken frankfurters. A 10 points augmented simplex-centroid design was used to study the effect of chicken fat (CF), PO and POs as well as the interaction of these fats on the emulsion, textural and sensory properties of
S. S. Tan; A. Aminah; X. G. Zhang; S. B. Abdul
Based on isoenzyme electrophoresis, 28 reputed cultivars of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) previously characterized by morphological characters, were identified using the more variable enzyme systems in the date palm: esterases (EST), endopeptidases (ENP) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), which showed, respectively, eight, six and seven electrophoretic phenotypes in leaf material. The phenotype combinations lead to an isoenzymebased key
K Bendiab; M Baaziz; K Majourhat
The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites. PMID:21070175
Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie
The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites.
Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie
The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is native to many West African countries, where local populations have used its oil for culinary and other purposes. Large-scale plantations, established principally in tropical regions (Asia, Africa and Latin America), are mostly aimed at the production of oil, which is extracted from the fleshy mesocarp of the palm fruit, and endosperm or kernel oil. Palm oil is different from other plant and animal oils in that it contains 50% saturated fatty acids, 40% unsaturated fatty acids, and 10% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fruit also contains components that can endow the oil with nutritional and health beneficial properties. These phytonutrients include carotenoids (alpha-,beta-,and gamma-carotenes), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), sterols (sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol), phospholipids, glycolipids and squalene. In addition, it is recently reported that certain water-soluble powerful antioxidants, phenolic acids and flavonoids, can be recovered from palm oil mill effluent. Owing to its high content of phytonutrients with antioxidant properties, the possibility exists that palm fruit offers some health advantages by reducing lipid oxidation, oxidative stress and free radical damage. Accordingly, use of palm fruit or its phytonutrient-rich fractions, particularly water-soluble antioxidants, may confer some protection against a number of disorders or diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts and macular degeneration, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. However, whilst prevention of disease through use of these phytonutrients as in either food ingredients or nutraceuticals may be a worthwhile objective, dose response data are required to evaluate their pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. In addition, one area of concern about use of antioxidant phytonutrients is how much suppression of oxidation may be compatible with good health, as toxic free radicals are required for defence mechanisms. These food-health concepts would probably spur the large-scale oil palm (and monoculture) plantations, which are already seen to be a major cause of deforestation and replacement of diverse ecosystems in many countries. However, the environmental advantages of palm phytonutrients are that they are prepared from the readily available raw material from palm oil milling processes. Palm fruit, one of only a few fatty fruits, is likely to have an increasingly substantiated place in human health, not only through the provision of acceptable dietary fats, but also its characteristic protective phytonutrients. PMID:14506002
Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark W
Palm oil, palm stearin, palm olein and mixtures of palm stearin with rapeseed oil were reacted with glycerol at low moisture content using lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens as catalyst. The content of monoglyceride (MG) in the reaction mixture at equilibrium was found to be higher at lower temperatures except for palm stearin where a higher diglyceride (DG) content was obtained.
Gerald P. McNeill; Ralf G. Berger
This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...
This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...
Eothenomys miletus were captured in 19 counties of Yunnan Province. The distribution of species-abundance and the species-plots relationship between E. miletus and chigger mites were analyzed by using ecological statistic method. There were totally 40,052 chigger mites collected from the body surface of 1741 E. miletus. 111 species of chigger mites were identified. The species-abundance distribution showed that with the increase of mite individuals, the number of chigger mite species gradually decreased. Most mite species were rare ones. Species-plot relation indicated that with the number of mouse plots (samples of E. miletus) increasing, the number of chigger mite species increased. E. miletus collected quantity up to date still could not reflect the exact species richness of chigger mite. PMID:21826908
Zhan, Yin-zhu; Guo, Xian-guo; Zuo, Xiao-hua; Wang, Qiao-hua
This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Atawi, Fahad J.
Several species of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae), including species of the genera Amblyseius, Galendromus, Metaseiulus, Neoseiulus, Phytoseiulus and Typhlodromus, are currently reared for biological control of various crop pests and/or as model organisms for the study of predator-prey interactions. Pathogen-free phytoseiid mites are important to obtain high efficacy in biological pest control and to get reliable data in mite research, as pathogens may affect the performance of their host or alter their reproduction and behaviour. Potential and verified pathogens have been reported for phytoseiid mites during the past 25 years. The present review provides an overview, including potential pathogens with unknown host effects (17 reports), endosymbiotic Wolbachia (seven reports), other bacteria (including Cardinium and Spiroplasma) (four reports), cases of unidentified diseases (three reports) and cases of verified pathogens (six reports). From the latter group four reports refer to Microsporidia, one to a fungus and one to a bacterium. Only five entities have been studied in detail, including Wolbachia infecting seven predatory mite species, other endosymbiotic bacteria infecting Metaseiulus (Galendromus, Typhlodromus) occidentalis (Nesbitt), the bacterium Acaricomes phytoseiuli infecting Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the microsporidium Microsporidium phytoseiuli infecting P. persimilis and the microsporidium Oligosproridium occidentalis infecting M. occidentalis. In four cases (Wolbachia, A. phytoseiuli, M. phytoseiuli and O. occidentalis) an infection may be connected with fitness costs of the host. Moreover, infection is not always readily visible as no obvious gross symptoms are present. Monitoring of these entities on a routine and continuous basis should therefore get more attention, especially in commercial mass-production. Special attention should be paid to field-collected mites before introduction into the laboratory or mass rearing, and to mites that are exchanged among rearing facilities. However, at present general pathogen monitoring is not yet practical as effects of many entities are unknown. More research effort is needed concerning verified and potential pathogens of commercially reared arthropods and those used as model organisms in research. PMID:18763041
Schütte, Conny; Dicke, Marcel
The reproduction of pyrethroid-resistant Varroa destructor mite, a brood parasite of honey bees, was observed in Weslaco, Texas, and the results compared with known susceptible mite\\u000a populations from other studies. Seven Apis mellifera colonies that had mite populations resistant to the acaricide Apistan™ were used. Pyrethroid-resistance was confirmed when only 17% rather than 90% of mites confined in dishes containing
Stephen J. Martin; Patti J. Elzen; William R. Rubink
We investigated the photosynthetic responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves to two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae K.) damage. Light-response curves of mite-infested (+M) and uninfested (? M) leaves diverged as mite populations increased. At 17 adult female mites per leaf, photosynthetic rate of +M leaves at pho- tosynthetic photon fl ux density of about 1600 ?mol m-2 s-1 was
A. A. Reddall; L. J. Wilson; P. C. Gregg; V. O. Sadras
BackgroundMiniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear.Principal FindingsA group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified
Shi Wang; Lingling Zhang; Eli Meyer; Mikhail V. Matz; John J. Welch
A new ultra compact nuclear engine concept, MITEE (MIniature R_eactor E_nginE_), is described, and its performance evaluated for various solar system exploration missions. The MITEE concept is based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR), with modifications that enable a smaller, lighter nuclear engine. A range of MITEE Engine designs is described. Representative design parameters for the baseline MITEE reactor are:
James Powell; John Paniagua; Hans Ludewig; George Maise; Michael Todosow
Summary The palm oil industry in Malaysia has witnessed a prolific growth in recent years. For the past few decades, Malaysia has led the world in terms of production and export of palm oil. Therefore, physical properties and thermodynamic facts of palm oil have become one of the predominant parts in related chemical industries. Efforts to obtain physical properties of
Salwani Abdullah; Eow Chee Tiong
The kinetics of the catalytic cracking of palm oil into liquid hydrocarbons are investigated and the catalytic cracking of palm oil was performed in a fixed bed microreactor, operated in the temperature range of 673 - 723 K and palm oil feed weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1 - 4 h -1 . Steam treated HZSM-5 zeolite at 1073
Farouq Twaiq; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Subhash Bhatia
The paper outlines the global palm oil situation and highlights the developments in the Malaysian and Indonesian palm oil industry. Palm oil has played a positive role in the world oils and fats supply and demand equation largely due to its techno-economic advantages and versatility as well as some of the developments in the world in relation to security of
Although biodiversity in nature is of fundamental importance because it improves the sustainability of ecosystems, communities of microscopic organisms are generally excluded from conservation targets for biodiversity. Here, I hypothesize that mushroom mite species richness is correlated with both spatial (i.e., mushroom size) and temporal (i.e., longevity of fruiting bodies) resource availability. I collected fruiting bodies in an old-growth forest over 4 years to collect mites and insects inhabiting the mushrooms. Mites were collected from 47 % of the fruiting bodies and approximately 60 % of the mite species were collected only once. Mite species richness was significantly correlated with the availability of long-lasting fruiting bodies. For example, bracket fungi contained more mite species than ephemeral fruiting bodies. Insect presence was also correlated with mushroom mite richness, probably as phoretic hosts and food resources for predacious mites. On the other hand, mushroom size seemed to be less important; small fruiting bodies sometimes harbored several mite species. Although mite species richness was correlated with mushroom species richness, mushroom specificity by mites was not clear except for a preference for long-lasting fruiting bodies. Therefore, I suggest that a constant supply of coarse woody debris is crucial for maintaining preferred resources for mushroom mites (e.g., bracket fungi) and their associated insects (mycophilous and possibly saproxylic insects). PMID:23613030
We studied changes in populations of mites, nematodes, bacteria, and fungi in buried creosote bush litter treated with selected inhibitors. Elimination of microarthropods (primarily tydeid mites) resulted in increased numbers of bacteriophagic nematodes and reduction in numbers of bac- teria; elimination of both nematodes and microarthropods resulted in increased numbers of bacteria compared to untreated controls. Fungal grazing mites, Pyemotidae,
PERSEU F. SANTOS; JANICE PHILLIPS; WALTER G. WHITFORD
The leaf surface of woody perennials is inhabited by an extraordinary diversity of mites. Although a majority of these mite species are thought to feed on fungi or other microbes, their ability to control plant pathogens has not been rigorously investigated. We present experimental evidence that a tydeid mite,Orthotydeus lambi,can suppress the development of grape powdery mildew on wild and
Greg English-Loeb; Andrew P Norton; David M Gadoury; Robert C Seem; Wayne F Wilcox
Our research was concentrated on the finding one of Varroa destructor mite with pathological symptoms and on the isolation of its microorganisms. The dead mites were collected from sticky boards in beehives and observed under the stereomicroscope. The mites suspected of dying caused by pathological process were examined by means of bacteriological and mycological methods. The pathogenity of isolated microorganisms
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. presently poses one of the most serious problems faced by keepers of honeybees Apis mellifera L. To help understand why the mite has become such a serious problem a population dynamics model using recently published data has been constructed. The simulation model has been built by linking together various aspects of the mites’ biology
Nowadays, house dust mites have showed themselves as one of the health problem worldwide. They have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of allergy particularly in children. House dust mites were collected from eight different areas in Great Cairo. Nine species of mites were recovered from indoors. In order of abundance, they were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Tyrophagous putrescentiae, Acarus siro, Cheyletus malaccensis, Blomia kulagini, Acheles graciles, Ornithonyssus bacoti and Lepidoglyphus destructor. All these mites were collected mainly from Bolak Al Dakrour (28.8%) and Al Wayly (27.6%). The least number (1.8%) and species (only three) were collected from Madent Al Salam. Pet and stray dogs and cats, domestic birds and commensal rodents were more or less reported in the majority of the examined areas. Also, patients with history of allergy of unknown cause, were reported in ten out of 80 houses examined (12.5%). The role played by house dust mites in causing allergic manifestations was important environmental disease agents. PMID:12561892
Koraiem, M K; Fahmy, I A
Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies.
Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James
After biological control of Tetranychus urticae using Phytoseiulus persimilis, a latent mite pest, Eotetranychus asiaticus, was found on strawberries growing in a plastic greenhouse in western Japan. To determine whether the release of P. persimilis, an exotic natural enemy of T. urticae, enhanced the occurrence of the latent pest, the efficiency of P. persimilis in controlling E. asiaticus was compared with the efficiency of two indigenous phytoseiid mites, Amblyseius californicus and A. womersleyi, under laboratory conditions. Phytoseiulus persimilis and A. californicus attacked not only T. urticae but also E. asiaticus. However, the predators produced very few eggs and their offspring rarely reached adulthood when fed on E. asiaticius, so their potential as control agents for the latent mite appears to be low. In contrast, A. womersleyi feeding on E. asiaticus reproduced as well as when fed on T. urticae, and exterminated both species of spider mite. This suggests that A. womersleyi has greater potential as a biological control agent in crops where both species may occur. PMID:12542009
Osakabe, M H
Palm olein (PO) and red palm olein (RPO) are rich in tocopherols and tocotrienols. In addition, RPO also contains a high content of carotene. This study was to determine the effect of chronic intake of diets containing palm oils, varying in their vitamin E and carotene contents, on lipid profile in rats. Weaning male Wistar rats were fed either 18%
This invention is directed to an integrated method for the processing of palm fruit bunches to oil and other products. The method comprises inter alia separating palm fruit carrying bunches into fruits and lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, processing the fruits to form palm oil, and at least one lignocellulosic processing coproduct; generating an aqueous stream; producing a non-oil, non-alcohol, non-fatty acid ester third product from the oil, the lignocellulosic processing coproduct, the aqueous stream or from a combination thereof; processing at least a portion of the lignocellulosic empty fruit bunches, lignocellulosic processing coproduct or a combination thereof into a fourth product and optionally producing at least one fifth conversion product from the fourth product; and using at least a portion of the fourth product or a product of its conversion or a combination thereof.
A high proportion of nonreproductive (NR) Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), is commonly observed in honey bee colonies displaying the varroa sensitive hygienic trait (VSH). This study was conducted to determine the influence of brood removal and subsequent host reinvasion of varroa mites on mite reproduction. We collected foundress mites from stages of brood (newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, and pink-eyed pupae) and phoretic mites from adult bees. We then inoculated these mites into cells containing newly sealed larvae. Successful reproduction (foundress laid both a mature male and female) was low (13%) but most common in mites coming from sealed larvae. Unsuccessful reproductive attempts (foundress failed to produce both a mature male and female) were most common in mites from sealed larvae (22%) and prepupae (61%). Lack of any progeny was most common for mites from white-eyed (83%) and pink-eyed pupae (92%). We also collected foundress mites from sealed larvae and transferred them to cells containing newly sealed larvae, prepupae, white-eyed pupae, or pink-eyed pupae. Successful reproduction only occurred in the transfers to sealed larvae (26%). Unsuccessful reproductive attempts were most common in transfers to newly sealed larvae (40%) and to prepupae (25%). Unsuccessful attempts involved the production of immature progeny (60%), the production of only mature daughters (26%) or the production of only a mature male (14%). Generally, lack of progeny was not associated with mites having a lack of stored sperm. Our results suggest that mites exposed to the removal of prepupae or older brood due to hygiene are unlikely to produce viable mites if they invade new hosts soon after brood removal. Asynchrony between the reproductive status of reinvading mites and the developmental stage of their reinvasion hosts may be a primary cause of NR mites in hygienic colonies. Even if reinvading mites use hosts having the proper age for infestation, only a minority of them will reproduce. PMID:21882676
Kirrane, Maria J; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M
In choice test experiments on strawberry leaf disc arenas the phytoseiid mites Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris were more effective than Typhlodromus pyri as predators of the phytophagous mites Tetranychus urticae and Phytonemus pallidus. There were no preferences shown for either prey by any of these predators. In multiple predator leaf disc experiments both Phytoseiulus persimilis and N. cucumeris significantly reduced numbers of T. urticae eggs and active stages; this effect was seen when the two species were present alone or in combination with other predator species. Neoseiulus californicus was less effective at reducing T. urticae numbers, and T. pyri was not effective; no interaction between predator species was detected in these experiments. When T. urticae alone was present as prey on potted plants, P. persimilis and N. californicus were the only phytoseiids to significantly reduce T. urticae numbers. These two predator species provided effective control of T. urticae when P. pallidus was also present; however, none of the predators reduced numbers of P. pallidus. There were no significant negative interactions when different species of predators were present together on these potted plants. In field experiments, releases of both P. persimilis and N. cucumeris significantly reduced T. urticae numbers. However, there was a significant interaction between these predator species, leading to poorer control of T. urticae when both species were released together. These results show the importance of conducting predator/prey feeding tests at different spatial scales. PMID:17713859
Fitzgerald, Jean; Pepper, Nicola; Easterbrook, Mike; Pope, Tom; Solomon, Mike
Cecidophyopsis mites were studied by PCR amplification of parts of their ribosomal DNA, followed by restriction enzyme analysis. Mite specimens on Ribes nigrum (black currant) from six countries gave the same digestion pattern, which was distinct from the pattern for mites found on R. rubrum from Poland and Finland and for R. grossularia from the USA. This suggests that each Ribes species is host to a different mite species: C. ribis, C. selachodon and C. grossulariae, respectively. Two other mite samples from R. alpinum and R. aureum were identical but were distinct from each of the other species. PMID:7663755
Fenton, B; Malloch, G; Jones, A T; Amrine, J W; Gordon, S C; A'Hara, S; McGavin, W J; Birch, A N
Proteases are involved in the pathogenicity of allergy, increasing epithelial permeability and acting as adjuvants. Enzymatic activity is therefore important for the allergenicity of an extract and also affects its stability and safety. However, the enzymatic activity of extracts is not usually evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the most allergenic mite extracts and to investigate their allergenic properties. Extracts from nine allergenic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Glycyphagus domesticus (DeGeer), Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus, and Blomia tropicalis) were characterized. Protein and allergen profiles were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western-blot, respectively. Gelatinolytic activity was evaluated with a zymogram and the activity of other enzymes (cysteine, serine proteases, and esterases) was evaluated individually or with the API-ZYM system. The main differences in protease activity were found between house dust mites and storage mites. House dust mites presented higher cysteine protease activity while storage mites presented higher serine protease activity. These differences are in line with their trophic specialization. A wide range of different activities was found in all the extracts analyzed, reflecting the fact that the extracts preserve the activity of many enzymes, this being necessary for a correct diagnosis. However, enzymes may act as adjuvants and, therefore, could lead to undesirable effects in immunotherapies, making this activity not suitable for treatment products. Modified extracts with lower enzymatic activity could be more appropriate for immunotherapy. PMID:23427664
Morales, Maria; Iraola, Víctor; Leonor, Jose R; Carnés, Jerónimo
Fur mites are a persistent problem in contemporary laboratory mouse colonies. We conducted several studies to evaluate fur mite diagnostic methodologies and interpretation of results. Retrospective analysis of test results from sentinel mice exposed to soiled bedding collected from colonies infested with Myobia musculi and Myocoptes musculinus revealed the skin scrape test to be more reliable than pelt examination, provided that both the head and dorsal thoracolumbar regions were sampled. To assess their diagnostic accuracy, 3 commercial laboratories were sent positive control slides containing mites, mite parts, or eggs in sets of slides containing diagnostic skin scrapings in varying ratios. Laboratory B correctly identified the positive control slide. Laboratory A identified 1 of 3 positive control slides, whereas laboratory C failed to identify both positive control slides submitted. To determine the time required for a mouse to shed its entire hair coat, fur of Crl:CD1(ICR), BALB/cAnNCrl, and Crl:CFW(SW) albino mice was dyed black and the presence of dyed fur evaluated monthly for 8 mo. Limited dyed hair was still present at 8 mo; therefore, finding eggs or egg casings many months after treatment cessation does not necessarily imply treatment failure. To evaluate the effectiveness of soiled bedding sentinels for detection of fur mites in a mite-infested colony, we exposed naďve mice to varying amounts (100%, 50%, 25%, 2.5%, and 0%) of soiled bedding in clean bedding. As little as 2.5% soiled bedding resulted in detection of a positive sentinel within a 2-mo period.
Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J; Lipman, Neil S; Wolf, Felix R
Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem\\u000a seed product Mite-Stop® against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages\\u000a in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract
Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Hassan M. Sobhy; Saleh Al-Quraishy; Margit Semmler
Mites are small live organism that may result in a large number of allergenic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and asthma that may cause individuals' physical, social and mental health, adversely affects quality of life. Mites that can be found everywhere where people live are found in various foodstuffs. The purpose of this review is to examine the types of mites and possible illness result from mites can be found in stored foods especially cheese in terms of public health assessment. Finding mite in the stored foods except for some local cheeses is not desirable because of it's health risks. However, especially in cheese which is maturing in the open always to be the case of mite enfestation. In particular, this risk is much higher in some enterprises where have not taken measures enough in terms of food safety. Besides the lack of standarts related to cheese, fighting against mite in quality assurance systems have generally not been taken into consideration. Whereas mites in cheese consumed by individuals at any age, there is always a possibility of the potential cause of the allergic reactions seen in the consumer. Prevention of possible infestations in cheese, potential presence of storage mite and cheese mite in various stored foods and local cheese of Turkey should be investigated more comprehensive and protective measures should be developed in order to protect public health against mites. PMID:20954123
Cev?zc?, Sibel; Gökçe, Seher; Bostan, Kamil; Kaypmaz, Ay?e
Eggs of 13 species of common, economically important stored-product pest mites (Acarus siro, A. gracilis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, T. brevicrinatus, Tyroborus lini, Aleuroglyphus ovatus, Caloglyphus redikorzevi, C. oudemansi, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Glycyphagus domesticus, Aeroglyphus robustus, Chortoglyphus arcuatus and Carpoglyphus lactis) from four families (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae, Carpoglyphidae) were studied in order to build a diagnostic key. The morphological study dealt with shape, size and surface sculpturing of eggs. Morphological details were visualised using scanning electron microscopy. A key for distinguishing eggs at genus and species level was developed for the major stored-product mites. PMID:19252823
Kucerova, Zuzana; Stejskal, Vaclav
The saps of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), and the wine palm (Raphia hookeri), tapped and consumed locally as beverage, were analysed and processed into caramel by acid-heat treatment. The saps, rich in sugars were boiled for 1 h, diluted and filtered. The filtrates were acidified with 5% dilute sulphuric acid to pH between 2.0 and 3.0 and heated
S. C Umerie
The red palm weevilRhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (RPW) is the most serious pest of date palms in the Middle East. Weevil infestation was first detected in Israel\\u000a in the summer of 1999 in date plantations in the Jordan Valley, on the west bank of the Jordan River and in the northern area\\u000a of the Dead Sea. For 2 years following the
V. Soroker; D. Blumberg; A. Haberman; M. Hamburger-Rishard; S. Reneh; S. Talebaev; L. Anshelevich; A. R. Harari
This paper reports on ectoparasitic chigger mites found on small mammals in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Data were accumulated from 19 investigation sites (counties) between 2001 and 2009. A total of 10 222 small mammal hosts were captured and identified; these represented 62 species, 34 genera and 11 families in five orders. From the body surfaces of these 10 222 hosts, a total of 92 990 chigger mites were collected and identified microscopically. These represented 224 species, 22 genera and three subfamilies in the family Trombiculidae (Trombidiformes). Small mammals were commonly found to be infested by chigger mites and most host species harboured several species of mite. The species diversity of chigger mites in Yunnan was much higher than diversities reported previously in other provinces of China and in other countries. A single species of rodent, Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), carried 111 species of chigger mite, thus demonstrating the highest species diversity and heaviest mite infestation of all recorded hosts. This diversity is exceptional compared with that of other ectoparasites. Of the total 224 mite species, 21 species accounted for 82.2% of all mites counted. Two species acting as major vectors for scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi disease), Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium deliense, were identified as the dominant mite species in this sample. In addition to these two major vectors, 12 potential or suspected vector species were found. Most species of chigger mite had a wide range of hosts and low host specificity. For example, L. scutellare parasitized 30 species of host. The low host specificity of chigger mites may increase their probability of encountering humans, as well as their transmission of scrub typhus among different hosts. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that similarities between different chigger mite communities on the 18 main species of small mammal host did not accord with the taxonomic affinity of the hosts. This suggests that the distribution of chigger mites may be strongly influenced by the environment in which hosts live. PMID:23167491
Zhan, Y-Z; Guo, X-G; Speakman, J R; Zuo, X-H; Wu, D; Wang, Q-H; Yang, Z-H
This paper proposes a novel technique to generate an irrevocable cryptographic key from the biometric template. The biometric trait considered here is the palm vein. The technique proposed here utilises the minutiae features extracted from the pattern generated. The features include bifurcation points and ending points. Since other cryptographic keys are probable to theft or guess, keys generated from the
B. Prasanalakshmi; A. Kannammal
Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia . This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents , and more recently for biofuels . The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry . There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. PMID:25017207
Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2005 to 2007 to determine the effectiveness of different release times with the predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), for control of the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). The effect of N. californicus releases over time and on development of TSSM populations during a growing season were evaluated. Our hypothesis was that repeated applications of N. californicus, which is currently recommended by biological control companies, might be unnecessary to attain season-long control of TSSM. In greenhouse trials, three treatments consisting of releases of N. californicus at five-day intervals: day 0, day 5, and day 10, and an untreated control were evaluated. The treatment releases significantly reduced TSSM below the control within five days of each release. Neoseiulus californicus significantly reduced TSSM in treatments with high densities (leaflets with > or =40 TSSM) below that of treatments with lower densities (leaflets with < or = 10 TSSM) demonstrating that if released at a predator: prey ratio of 1:10, timing of release does not alter the effectiveness of N. californicus in controlling TSSM. However, we found that if the ratio of predator: prey remains adequate, N. californicus is a more efficient predator at high TSSM densities. Field studies included three treatments consisting of releases of N. californicus at one-month intervals. All treatments significantly reduced TSSM compared with the control plots (no releases). Releases applied early in the season sustained TSSM significantly below those in the control plots for the whole season. Our results indicate that one release of N. californicus is able to sustained control of TSSM in strawberry throughout a growing season if released when TSSM populations are low early in the season in the southeastern United States. PMID:17924197
Fraulo, Aimee B; Liburd, Oscar E
Records of domestic animals brought to the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory for diagnosis of suspected lice and mite infestation over a 10 year period were analysed. From a total of 794 suspected cases, 137 (17.3%) and 247 (31.1%) were positive for lice and mange mites respectively. The most common lice species recorded were Linognathus vituli (66.7%) on cattle, L. ovillus (83.3%) on sheep, Haematopinus suis (100%) on pigs and Menacanthus stramineus (54.5%) on poultry. Other lice species recorded included Haematopinus bovis and Solenopotes capillatus on cattle, Damalinia ovis on sheep, Linognathus stenopsis and Menacanthus stramineus on goats, Goniocotes sp. on a horse, Linognathus setosus and Menacanthus stramineus on dogs, Goniodes gigas, Lipeurus caponis, Menopon gallinae and Chelopistes meleagrides on poultry. The most common mite species were Demodex folliculorum on cattle (96.9%) and on dogs (80.8%), Sarcoptes scabiei on pigs (100%) and Notoedres cati (80.3%) on rabbits. Other mite species included Psoroptes communis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, Ornithonyssus gallinae and Dermanyssus gallinae. PMID:1305335
George, J B; Otobo, S; Ogunleye, J; Adediminiyi, B
The life history of the honey bee Apis mellifera and the bee mite Farroa jacobsoni and their interactions were modeled using a commercial software package known as Stella II. Stella II provides a non- mathematically intensive modeling technique that allows the user to generate a series of differential equations that can track a population through time with a minimum set
Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds
Jan Hubert; Václav Stejskal; Alena Kubátová; Zuzana Munzbergová; Marie Vá?ová; Eva Žd’árková
To evaluate the extent of personal exposure to airborne mite allergens, subjects were asked to carry a personal air sampler when in their houses. The level of Der 1 allergen trapped by the sampler was measured with a highly sensitive immunoassay. There were great variations in airborne Der 1 exposure in each subject. When used bedding was replaced with new
Masahiro Sakaguchi; Sakae Inouye; Reiko Sasaki; Michiko Hashimoto; Chizuru Kobayashi; Hiroshi Yasueda
A survey of small-mammal ectoparasites was conducted in 1968 and 1969 on mainland South Vietnam and Con Son Island. The ectoparasites collected were mesostigmatic and trombiculid mites, fleas, lice and ticks. This paper deals with the family Laelapidae. H...
T. R. Hadi W. P. Carney P. F. D. Van Peenen W. B. Hull
BackgoundHuman scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to
Cielo Pasay; Kate Mounsey; Graeme Stevenson; Rohan Davis; Larry Arlian; Marjorie Morgan; Diann Vyszenski-Moher; Kathy Andrews; James McCarthy; Cesar V. Munayco
Environ. Entomol. 16. 614-617 (1987) ABSTRACT Artificially inoculated spider mite foci increase in size at an exponential rate. Productivity was greatest on plants farthest from the center of each focus. Timing of initial infestation was shown, both experimentally and through simulation, to affect ultimate yield of cotton: the earlier the initiation of infestation, the lower the yield. These results as
L. T. WILSON; C. H. PICKETT; T. F. LEIGH; J. R. CAREY
The starting point for generating a pest control decision-making system is a conventional sampling plan. Because the mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Tetranychus bastosi are among the most important pests of the physic nut (Jatropha curcas), in the present study, we aimed to establish sampling plans for these mite species on physic nut. Mite densities were monitored in 12 physic nut crops. Based on the obtained results, sampling of P. latus and T. bastosi should be performed by assessing the number of mites per cm(2) in 160 samples using a handheld 20× magnifying glass. The optimal sampling region for T. bastosi is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the middle third of the canopy. On the abaxial surface, T. bastosi should then be observed on the side parts of the middle portion of the leaf, near its edge. As for P. latus, the optimal sampling region is the abaxial surface of the 4th most apical leaf on the branch of the apical third of the canopy on the abaxial surface. Polyphagotarsonemus latus should then be assessed on the side parts of the leaf's petiole insertion. Each sampling procedure requires 4 h and costs US$ 7.31. PMID:24682638
Rosado, Jander F; Sarmento, Renato A; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Galdino, Tarcísio V S; Marques, Renata V; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Picanço, Marcelo C
The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line independent of other cheyletoids. These mites possess the separate chelicerae and, therefore, can not be included to the superfamily Cheyletoidea. It is not quite clear whether they were skin parasites initially or they directly switched to parasitism from the predation. The phylogeny of sarcoptoid mites (Psoroptidia: Sarcoptoidea) is not developed, however, some hypotheses about origin and the following evolution of their morphoecotypes can be proposed. We belive that astigmatic mites inhabiting the mammalian respiratory tract transferred to parasitism independently of other sarcoptoids. The idiosoma of these mites is not so much flattened dorso-ventrally and has proportions which are similar to hose of free-living astigmatids. Moreover, in the most archaic species, the legs are not shortened or thickened as in the most parasites. The disappearance of many morphological structures in these mites, probably, happened parallely with some other sarcoptoids due to their parasitic mode of life. The skin inhabiting sarcoptoids belong to the "basic" morphoecotype, and all other sarcoptoid morphoecotypes, excluding respiratory mites, are derived from it. Some mites of this morphoecotype live on the concave surfaces of the widened spine-like hairs of the rodents belonging to the family Echimyidae (mites of the subfamily Echimytricalginae), in the mammalian ears (some Psoroptidae) or partially sink into the hair follicles (Rhynocoptidae). Finally, mites of the family Chirorhynchobiidae live on the bat wing edges attaching to them by their "ixodid-like" gnathosoma. The fur-sarcoptoids, probably, originated from the skin mites. This morphoecotype is divided onto two subtypes: mites with the dorso-ventrally flattened idiosoma (subtype I) and mites with the teretial idiosoma (subtype II). Each "fur-mite" family includes mites of the both subtypes. All mites of the first subtype belong to the early derivative lineages in their families. Among listrophorids such early derivative lineage is represented by the subfamily Aplodontochirinae (Bochkov, O
Bochkov, A V
Roses on commercial nurseries commonly suffer from attacks by the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, which have a negative influence on growth and quality. The aim of this project is to find natural enemies that are well adapted to roses, and may improve biological control. At different sites such as a plant collection garden, public parks and field boundaries, leaves were sampled from roses to identify the indigenous species of predatory mites. Amblyseius andersoni was amongst other species frequently found, which suggests that this species thrives well on roses. The possibility for biological control of spider mites with A. andersoni was investigated both in container roses outdoors and in glasshouses. In plots of outdoor roses artificially infested with spider mites, the following treatments were carried out: spider mites alone (untreated plot), Amblyseius andersoni Amblyseius andersoni and ice plants, Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus californicus and ice plants. There were four replications of the treatments. The ice plants, Delosperma cooperi, were added to some treatments to supply pollen as extra food for the predatory mites. Natural enemies such as Chrysoperla spp., Conwentzia sp., Orius sp., Stethorus punctillum, and Feltiella acarisuga occurred naturally and contributed to the control of spider mites. After one month the spider mites were eradicated in all treatments. At the end of the trial, predatory mites were collected from all plots for identification. The ratio of Amblyseius andersoni to Neoseiulus californicus was approximately 9:1. There was no obvious effect of the ice plants on the number of predatory mites. On a nursery, where new roses are bred and selected, Amblyseius andersoni was released in three glasshouses after one early treatment with bifenazate against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In two of these glasshouses Neoseiulus californicus was also released. Samples, which were taken in the summer months showed that the spider mites were kept at a very low level. Amblyseius andersoni was found, even if spider mites were absent. Rose plants infested with spider mites, that were brought in to the glasshouses later developed spider mite 'hotspots'. Phytoseiulus persimilis was introduced in the hot spots and contributed to the control along with Neoseiulus californicus, Amblyseius andersoni and naturally occurring Feltiella acarisuga. These observations showed that Amblyseius andersoni is a good candidate for preventing spider mite outbreaks, as it easily survives without spider mites. This predatory mite is able to survive on other food, including thrips and fungal spores. PMID:15759407
van der Linden, A
...Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter...Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take...
...Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: Comments and related...
...Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...
The role of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, in carrying conidia of Fusarium mangiferae, vectoring them into potential infection sites, and assisting fungal infection and dissemination was studied. Following the mite's exposure to a green fluorescent protein-marked isolate, conidia were observed clinging to the mite's body. Agar plugs bearing either bud mites or the pathogen were placed on leaves near the apical buds of potted mango plants. Conidia were found in bud bracts only when both mites and conidia were co-inoculated on the plant, demonstrating that the mite vectored the conidia into the apical bud. Potted mango plants were inoculated with conidia in the presence or absence of mites. Frequency and severity of infected buds were significantly higher in the presence of mites, revealing their significant role in the fungal infection process. Conidia and mite presence were monitored with traps in a diseased orchard over a 2-year period. No windborne bud mites bearing conidia were found; however, high numbers of windborne conidia were detected in the traps. These results suggest that A. mangiferae can carry and vector conidia between buds and assist in fungal penetration but does not play a role in the aerial dissemination of conidia between trees. PMID:19159307
Gamliel-Atinsky, E; Freeman, S; Sztejnberg, A; Maymon, M; Ochoa, R; Belausov, E; Palevsky, E
Predatory mites are important components of subterranean food webs and may help regulate densities of agricultural pests, including western corn rootworms (Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). Implementing conservation and/or classical biocontrol tactics could enhance densities of specialist or generalist predatory mites and lead to pest suppression, but first relevant mite species must be identified and their predatory capabilities evaluated. We conducted lab assays to quantify consumption of immature rootworms and oviposition rates of various mite species. Our study indicates that rootworms are a sub-optimal food source for the mite taxa tested. However, all mite species fed upon rootworms to some degree, although consumption by nematophagous Eviphis ostrinus was extremely low. Predators consumed more rootworm larvae than eggs, and mite size was correlated with prey consumption, with larger predators eating more prey. Four mite taxa (Gaeolaelaps sp., S. miles, Gl. americana, and G. aculeifer) had detrimental effects on survival of rootworm larvae, and the latter two species also had negative impacts on densities of pest eggs. Although it is unlikely that any of these mite species by itself has a major impact on rootworm control, the community of generalist soil-dwelling mites may play an important role in regulating immature rootworm populations in the field. PMID:21598089
Prischmann, Deirdre A; Knutson, Eric M; Dashiell, Kenton E; Lundgren, Jonathan G
Background Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acari: Astigmata) and Fusarium sp. co-occur in poorly managed grain. In a laboratory experiment, mite grazing resulted in significant reduction of fungal mycelium on cultivation plates. The destruction of mycelium appeared to be a result of an interaction between the mites, fungi and associated bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings A laboratory experiment was performed to simulate a situation of grain multiinfested by mites and Fusarium fungi. Changes of mite-associated bacterial community in T. putrescentiae were described in 3 habitats: (i) T. putrescentiae mites from a rearing diet prior to their transfer to fungal diet; (ii) fungal mycelium before mite introduction; (iii) mites after 7 day diet of each Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. poae and F. verticillioides. Bacterial communities were characterized by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. In total, 157 nearly full-length 16 S rRNA gene sequences from 9 samples representing selected habitats were analyzed. In the mites, the shift from rearing to fungal diet caused changes in mite associated bacterial community. A diverse bacterial community was associated with mites feeding on F. avenaceum, while feeding on the other three Fusarium spp. led to selection of a community dominated by Bacillaceae. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated changes of bacterial community associated with T. putrescentiae after shift to fungal diets suggesting selection for Bacillaceae species known as chitinase producers, which might participate in the fungal mycelium hydrolysis.
Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Kopecky, Jan
A sample of fourteen horse rugs and two saddle blankets stored in south western Sydney, Australia, an area of known high dust mite prevalence in the human environment, were analysed for the presence of house dust mites. Dust samples from the rugs, blankets and 16 control sites were collected using a vacuum cleaner with a modified attachment and filter. Dust mites were extracted using an adapted floatation technique. Eight rugs and all control samples were positive for mites, which were confirmed to be house dust mites of the genus Dermatophagoides. This study confirms that exposure to house dust mites from horse rugs can occur, indicating that house dust mite allergen reactivity on intradermal and serum allergy testing in atopic horses may represent true dust mite hypersensitivity. Nevertheless, quantification studies will be necessary to ensure that there is adequate mite exposure for development of hypersensitivity, and further evaluation of immunological responses, avoidance and provocation, and specific immunotherapy are required to confirm the clinical relevance. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to document the presence of house dust mites in the equine environment. PMID:20529010
Wallace, Jessica C; Vogelnest, Linda J
Examination of 165 rodents trapped in domestic, peridomestic, and feral biotopes of central and southern India revealed the presence of 1,359 mesostigmatid mites. Rodents in central India were infested with 1 species of mite, Laelaps nuttalli; 98% of these mites were recovered from the peridomestic rodent Bandicota bengalensis. Material from the burrow nest of a peridomestic rodent examined in central India revealed the mite, Hypoaspis miles. Rodents from the diverse biotopes of southern India were infested by 8 species of mites: L. nuttalli, Laelaps buxtoni, Laelaps myonyssognathus, Androlaelaps aduncus, Androlaelaps marshalli, Androlaelaps sp. A, Hypoaspis sp. 1, and Hypoaspis sp. 2. Sheep from nearby villages regularly graze in feral biotopes. From the hair of these sheep, 2 species of mesostigmatid mites were recovered, A. aduncus and A. marshalli. The sheep appeared to aid the dispersal of rodent-infesting mites passively. Laelaps nuttalli was the predominant mite species found on the peridomestic rodent B. bengalensis. In both central and southern India, the prevalence, mean intensity, and relative density of this mite were much higher on peridomestic rodents than on domestic and feral rodents. A significant negative correlation was found between the numbers of mites and fleas infesting rodents in central India. A highly significant positive association between A. marshalli and A. aduncus on the feral rodent Tatera indica was recorded. In southern India, the overall prevalence of the 8 species of mites was highest on Mus platythrix. However, the combined prevalence of these mites on 2 feral rodents T. indica and M. platythrix was lower than their prevalence on B. bengalensis. Similarly, the combined values for mean intensity and relative density of these mites on the 2 feral rodents were lower than on the peridomestic rodent B. bengalensis. PMID:10207385
Saxena, V K
House dust mite (HDM) allergy has different clinical and immunological patterns in different geographic regions. The impact of raw material of commercial Dermatophadoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mite bodies on the quality of allergen extracts for allergy diagnosis in the Serbian population has not been previously evaluated. House dust mite bodies obtained from manufacturers in Europe, South America and Australia were used in the preparation of allergen extracts for in vivo diagnosis and serological analysis in a group of 14 HDM-allergic adults. In the group of mite-allergic patients, there was no statistically significant difference in skin test reactivity (Wilcoxon matched pairs test) among the three HDM body extract preparations. In a CAP inhibition assay, two extracts (A and C) achieved maximum inhibition of >90%, whereas extract B demonstrated a different inhibition slope and lower inhibition potential (80%). However, a remarkable difference in immunoglobulin E reactivity using Western blot analysis with individual patients' sera was observed in one of the preparations (extract B). These findings emphasize the need for the careful selection of starting material for the preparation of HDM diagnostic reagents intended for use in patients from geographically distinct regions as these preparations can have implications on the selection criteria for patient-tailored immunotherapy of HDM allergy. PMID:20819152
Burazer, L; Milovanovic, K; Milovanovic, M; Vuckovic, O; Velickovic, T C; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, M
Many species of mites and ticks are of agricultural and medical importance. Much can be learned from the study of transcriptomes of acarines which can generate DNA-sequence information of potential target genes for the control of acarine pests. High throughput transcriptome sequencing can also yield sequences of genes critical during physiological processes poorly understood in acarines, i.e., the regulation of female reproduction in mites. The predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, was selected to conduct a transcriptome analysis using 454 pyrosequencing. The objective of this project was to obtain DNA-sequence information of expressed genes from P. persimilis with special interest in sequences corresponding to vitellogenin (Vg) and the vitellogenin receptor (VgR). These genes are critical to the understanding of vitellogenesis, and they will facilitate the study of the regulation of mite female reproduction. A total of 12,556 contiguous sequences (contigs) were assembled with an average size of 935bp. From these sequences, the putative translated peptides of 11 contigs were similar in amino acid sequences to other arthropod Vgs, while 6 were similar to VgRs. We selected some of these sequences to conduct stage-specific expression studies to further determine their function. PMID:20888830
Cabrera, Ana R; Donohue, Kevin V; Khalil, Sayed M S; Scholl, Elizabeth; Opperman, Charles; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Roe, R Michael
The goal of this study was to evaluate spider mite control efficacy of two dry-adapted strains of Neoseiulus californicus. Performance of these strains were compared to a commercial strain of Phytoseiulus persimilis on whole cucumber, pepper and strawberry plants infested with Tetranychus urticae at 50 +/- 5% RH. Under these dry conditions predators' performance was very different on each host plant. On cucumber, spider mite suppression was not attained by any of the three predators, plants 'burnt out' within 4 weeks of spider mite infestation. On strawberry, all predators satisfactorily suppressed spider mites yet they differed in short term efficacy and persistence. Phytoseiulus persimilis suppressed the spider mites more rapidly than did the BOKU and SI N. californicus strains. Both N. californicus strains persisted longer than did P. persimilis. The BOKU strain was superior to SI in population density reached, efficacy in spider mite suppression and persistence. On pepper, in the first 2 weeks of the experiment the BOKU strain was similar to P. persimilis and more efficacious in spider mite suppression than strain SI. Four weeks into the experiment the efficacy of P. persimilis dropped dramatically and was inferior to the SI and BOKU strains. Overall, mean predator density was highest on plants harbouring the BOKU strain, lowest on plants with P. persimilis and intermediate on plants with the SI strain. Implications for biocontrol of spider mites using phytoseiid species under dry conditions are discussed. PMID:18566897
Palevsky, E; Walzer, A; Gal, S; Schausberger, P
Malaysia, the leading producer of palm oil, is now also the major producer and exporter of processed palm oil (PPO). Since\\u000a 1977 she has been exporting PPO in increasing amounts. As a result about 50% of world production of palm oil is now traded\\u000a as PPO in the international market.\\u000a \\u000a Currently, Malaysia has processing capacity far exceeding her production of
M. S. A. Kheiri
Crude palm oil was fractionated using supercritical CO2 (SC–CO2) in a semi batch apparatus. The fractionation conditions studied were at 40, 50 and 60°C and at 110, 140 and 200 bars, respectively. System pressure was found to be more significant rather than temperature for increasing the solubility of palm oil triglycerides in SC–CO2. The solubility of crude palm in SC–CO2
Masturah Markom; Harcharan Singh; Masitah Hasan
Characterization of oil palm biomass namely empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm mesocarp fiber (PMF) and palm kernel shell (PKS) had been studied to determine its potential utilization for torrefaction. Torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment process to pretreat biomass at temperature range of 200–300°C under an inert atmosphere at low heating rate less than 50şCmin•1. The characterization included ultimate, proximate and
Muafah Abd Aziz; Yoshimitsu Uemura; Khalik M. Sabil
Background Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present. Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys. Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni. Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.
Badakhshan, Mehdi; Sadraei, Javid; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh
Altogether 445 bats, representing nine species, caught during swarming in the Lodowa Cave in Mount Ciemniak, Western Tatra Mountains, southern Poland, were examined for ectoparasitic mites. In total, 259 spinturnicid (Spinturnix mystacina, S. andegavinus, S. kolenatii, S. plecotinus and S. myoti) and 95 argasid (Carios vespertilionis) mites were collected from seven bat species, Myotis myotis, M. mystacinus, M. brandtii, M. daubentonii, Eptesicus nilssonii, Plecotus auritus, and Vespertilio murinus. There were sex-based differences in the prevalence of mites in some hosts but no differences in their mean intensity and there was no observed relationship between the number of mites and the condition of the bats. The prevalence of mites differed significantly between years in E. nilssonii. The results suggested a very low mite load on swarming bats that had no impact on the body condition of bats. PMID:22263314
Piksa, Krzysztof; Skwarek, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof
Key to understanding a protein’s biological function is the accurate determination of its spatial distribution inside a cell. Although fluorescent protein markers allow the targeting of specific proteins with molecular precision, much of this information is lost when the resultant fusion proteins are imaged with conventional, diffraction-limited optics. In response, several imaging modalities that are capable of resolution below the diffraction limit (~200 nm) have emerged. Here, both single- and dual-color superresolution imaging of biological structures using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) are described. The examples discussed focus on adhesion complexes: dense, protein-filled assemblies that form at the interface between cells and their substrata. A particular emphasis is placed on the instrumentation and photoactivatable fluorescent protein (PA-FP) tags necessary to achieve PALM images at ~20 nm resolution in 5 to 30 min in fixed cells.
White, Helen; Betzig, Eric
Red palm oil was tested for the reactivity of its components with CN-, and alkaline picrate as the color developing reagent. Palm oil components have a low-level absorbance at 490 nm which is reduced significantly (p=0.01) after reaction with CN-. Hydrolysis of palm oil components, and reaction of the hydrolysis products with CN- significantly increased the absorbance at 490 nm.
Peter O. Uvere
Agriculture is shifting from a production-driven to a consumer-driven industry, moving from a broad base to one with specialised product. The global trend is towards the industrialisation of agriculture. Palm oil and its associated products are important components of this trend. There are increasing consumer pressures to persuade trade bodies to include the environmental dimension in multi-lateral trade rulings. Concerns
Ong Kim Pin
Dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) has been prepared from palm oleic acid via catalytic reaction. In-vivo test confirmed that the use of DHSA at 5% and below is non-irritant. With two vicinal alcohol groups positioning at C9 and C10, DHSA has been found to be applicable in cosmetics as thickener or gelling agents. Stearic acid is known to be used as stick-gel
Zahariah Ismail; Salmiah Ahmad; Rosnah Ismail; Rigano Luigi
This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised) palm oil by evaluating the oil's transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH) by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering
Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila; Francisco José Sánchez Castellanos; Oscar Yesid; Suárez Palacios
Invasion ofVarroa mites into honeybee brood cells was studied in an observation hive, using combs with cell openings at one side only. The cell bottoms had been replaced by a transparent sheet, through which mites were clearly visible after invasion into a cell. Mites invaded worker cells from 15–20 h preceding cell capping, whereas they invaded drone cells from 40–50
Willem J. Boot; Johan N. M. Calis; Joop Beetsma
Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction forms the cornerstone for studies on Sarcoptes scabiei. Whilst the new science era took a shy leap into the different facets of mite studies, the cornerstone was almost entirely\\u000a neglected. Mite collection, cleaning, storage and DNA extraction were, basically, humble attempts to extrapolate, adapt, modify\\u000a or ‘pirate’ those existing methods to the peculiarities
S. Alasaad; L. Rossi; R. C. Soriguer; L. Rambozzi; D. Soglia; J. M. Pérez; X. Q. Zhu
Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larvae members of the family Trombiculidae, common called chigger mites. In this study is presented the first case of trombiculiasis caused by the infestation of chigger mite Eutrombicula in alpacas from Peru. Twenty-two alpacas of a total of 130 animals were infested by Eutrombicula sp. The chigger mite location was only in the face skin folds and around the eyes. In addition, all alpacas infested had alopecia and dermatitis in the infected zone. PMID:22770680
Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Olazabal, Juan; Lopez-Urbina, María T; Gonzalez, Armando E
Availability of mites is a recognized limiting factor of biological and genetic investigations of the genus Sarcoptes. Current methods of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from individual mites also need substantial improvement in efficiency\\u000a and operator friendliness. We have first developed a technique for efficient and safe extraction of living mites from scabietic\\u000a skin samples (crusts or deep skin scrapings). Its
Dominga Soglia; Luisa Rambozzi; Sandra Maione; Veronica Spalenza; Stefano Sartore; Samer Alasaad; Paola Sacchi; Luca Rossi
PALM-3000, the second-generation facility adaptive optics system for the 5-meter telescope at Palomar Observatory, successfully obtained first high-order correction on sky on UT June 21, 2011. Within PALM-3000, low-order wavefront correction is applied with a Xinetics, Inc. 349 (241 active) actuator deformable mirror reused from the 1999 PALAO system. High-order correction is applied with a new Xinetics, Inc. 4,356 (3,388 active) actuator deformable mirror based upon a 6 x 6 array of 11 x 11 actuator Photonex modules. The system also uses a new CCD50-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor camera and a novel real-time computer based upon a bank of commercial GPU's. Currently, the first of four planned wavefront sensor pupil sampling modes (N = 64 subapertures per pupil) has been tested, emphasizing early high-contrast exoplanet science with the PHARO coronagraphic imager and P1640 coronagraphic integral field spectrograph. We report on AO correction performance to date and our experience with the unique 66 x 66 actuator Xinetics, Inc. DM, as well as describe the PALM-3000 commissioning program and future plans.
Dekany, R.; Roberts, J.; Burruss, R.; Truong, T.; Palmer, D., Guiwits, S., Hale, D., Angione, J., Baranec, C., Croner, E., Davis, J. T. C., Zolkower, J., Henning, J., McKenna, D., Bouchez, A. H.
Feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Astigmata) feed mainly on secretions of the uropygial gland of birds. Here, we use analyses corrected for phylogeny and body size to show that there is a positive correlation between the size of this gland and mite abundance in passerine birds at an interspecific level during the breeding season, suggesting that the gland mediates interactions between mites and birds. As predicted on the basis of hypothesized waterproofing and antibiotic functions of uropygial gland secretions, riparian/marsh bird species had larger glands and higher mite loads than birds living in less mesic terrestrial environments. An unexpected pattern was a steeper relationship between mite load and gland size in migratory birds than in residents. If moderate mite loads are beneficial to a host but high loads detrimental, this could create complex selection regimes in which gland size influences mite load and vice versa. Mites may exert selective pressures on gland size of their hosts that has resulted in smaller glands among migratory bird species, suggesting that smaller glands may have evolved in these birds to attenuate a possible detrimental effect of feather mites when present in large numbers. PMID:18028353
Galván, I; Barba, E; Piculo, R; Cantó, J L; Cortés, V; Monrós, J S; Atiénzar, F; Proctor, H
The predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris is used for biological control of phytophagous mites and thrips on greenhouse cucumber and sweet pepper. In a previous study, N. cucumeris provided effective control of broad mite but was only rarely found on the sampled leaves, raising questions about the factors affecting N. cucumeris distribution. To determine the distribution of N. cucumeris, leaves of pepper plants were sampled three times per day: just after sunrise, at noon and just before sunset for two years and throughout a 24 h period in one year. The presence of other mites and insects was recorded. Biotic (pollen) and abiotic (temperature, humidity) factors were monitored from the three plant levels. The effect of direct and indirect sunlight on the mites was assessed. N. cucumeris was found primarily in flowers; however, the mite's distribution was affected by other predators (intraguild predation); in the presence of the predatory bug Orius laevigatus virtually no mites occurred in the flowers. Whereas temperature and humidity varied from the top to the lower level of the plants, apparently neither these factors nor the presence of pollen outside the flowers influenced mite distribution. N. cucumeris was found to be negatively phototropic; therefore N. cucumeris were pre-conditioned to light by rearing under light conditions for 4 months before being released. The light-reared mites were initially more numerous during the noon sampling period, however, rearing conditions caused only a temporary and non-significant change in distribution. PMID:17534730
Weintraub, Phyllis G; Kleitman, Sophia; Alchanatis, Victor; Palevsky, Eric
We collected 22,769 adult female mosquitoes, representing 27 species, from light traps in Norfolk, Virginia (2006-2007) and examined them to assess infestation by larval mites. Mosquitoes were parasitized by two species of aquatic (Acari: Arrenuridae: Arrenurus) and three species of terrestrial mites (Acari: Erythraeidae). The prevalence of infestation varied from 0.55% (2006) to 0.17% (2007). The mean intensity of parasitism ranged from 3.6 mites per host (2006) to 1.8 mites per host (2007). The most common host species for aquatic mites was Culex erraticus, while the most common host for terrestrial mites was Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors were investigated in an attempt to provide insight into temporal, spatial, and interspecific variation in mite-mosquito interactions. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the mode of attachment for larval mites. While the prevalence of aquatic mite parasitism was correlated for Culex erraticus, the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus, was never parasitized through the duration of the study. PMID:18807202
Milne, Marc A; Townsend, Victor J; Smelser, Penelope; Felgenhauer, Bruce E; Moore, Michael K; Smyth, Francis J
Samples of Mimolette (France) and Milbenkase (Germany) cheeses traditionally ripened by mites were analyzed to determine the mite species present on each sample. Scientific literature was reviewed to understand which mite species most commonly infest cheese. Morphological features possessed by mites were then studied to understand what unique characteristics are required to ensure accurate identification. After identification and compilation of a detailed key of stored food mites (subclass Acari, order Astigmata) and their delineating features, the mites were viewed through a cryogenic scanning electron microscope. It was determined that Mimolette cheese is inoculated with Acarus siro L. The features studied to identify this mite species included idiosomal length and shape, setae length and arrangement, leg size, placement of anus and genitals, and solenidia shape. The Milbenkase cheese is inoculated with Tyrolichus casei Oudemans, which was evident after viewing the same features used to identify A. siro and the supracoxal seta shape. With this knowledge, further research can be conducted on the 2 cheese varieties to understand what chemical, physical, and microbial changes occur within the cheeses because of mites. It is important to identify the mite species present on each cheese variety to improve our understanding of their role in creating the distinctive characteristics that set these cheeses apart from others. PMID:20655414
Melnyk, J P; Smith, A; Scott-Dupree, C; Marcone, M F; Hill, A
Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems. PMID:24292438
Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D
Seven species of phytoseiid mites were collected from citrus trees in the Mediterranean region during a survey in 1971.Amblyseius stipulatus\\u000a Athias-Henriot was the most abundant and widespread species in all countries surveyed (Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain).A. californicus (McGregor) was collected only in Spain;A. potentillae (Garman) andPhytoseiulus persimilis. A.-H. only in Italy.Typhlodromus talbii A.-H. was collected in Greece and Spain,T. athiasae
J. A. McMurtry
Water mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) are unusual among the typically cryptic freshwater fauna in that many species are brightly\\u000a colored red or orange, and also appear to be distasteful to fish. This apparent aposematism (use of color to warn predators)\\u000a has been previously explained as the evolutionary end-product of pressure from fish predation. The fish-predation argument\\u000a has been supported by observations
Heather C. Proctor; Neera Garga
\\u000a This study investigated the endosymbiotic bacteria living inside the poultry red mite collected from five samples of one commercial\\u000a farm from the UK and 16 farms from France using genus-specific PCR, PCR-TTGE and DNA sequencing. Endosymbiotic bacteria are\\u000a intracellular obligate organisms that can cause several phenotypic and reproductive anomalies to their host and they are found\\u000a widespread living inside arthropods.
Carlos J. De Luna; Claire Valiente Moro; Jonathan H. Guy; Lionel Zenner; Olivier A. E. Sparagano
This study investigated the endosymbiotic bacteria living inside the poultry red mite collected from five samples of one commercial\\u000a farm from the UK and 16 farms from France using genus-specific PCR, PCR-TTGE and DNA sequencing. Endosymbiotic bacteria are\\u000a intracellular obligate organisms that can cause several phenotypic and reproductive anomalies to their host and they are found\\u000a widespread living inside arthropods.
Carlos J. De Luna; Claire Valiente Moro; Jonathan H. Guy; Lionel Zenner; Olivier A. E. Sparagano
Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a form of perforating dermatoses, which has a characteristic clinical presentation of grouped keratotic papules coalescing into serpiginous or annular configurations. The majority of elastosis perforans serpiginosa cases are idiopathic; however, various etiologies have been postulated for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The authors present a unique case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa that developed focally secondary to a scabies mite. PMID:24155992
Kassardjian, Michael; Frederickson, Julie; Griffith, Jack; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David
Background The date palm is one of the oldest cultivated fruit trees. It is critical in many ways to cultures in arid lands by providing highly nutritious fruit while surviving extreme heat and environmental conditions. Despite its importance from antiquity, few genetic resources are available for improving the productivity and development of the dioecious date palm. To date there has been no genetic map and no sex chromosome has been identified. Results Here we present the first genetic map for date palm and identify the putative date palm sex chromosome. We placed ~4000 markers on the map using nearly 1200 framework markers spanning a total of 1293 cM. We have integrated the genetic map, derived from the Khalas cultivar, with the draft genome and placed up to 19% of the draft genome sequence scaffolds onto linkage groups for the first time. This analysis revealed approximately ~1.9 cM/Mb on the map. Comparison of the date palm linkage groups revealed significant long-range synteny to oil palm. Analysis of the date palm sex-determination region suggests it is telomeric on linkage group 12 and recombination is not suppressed in the full chromosome. Conclusions Based on a modified gentoyping-by-sequencing approach we have overcome challenges due to lack of genetic resources and provide the first genetic map for date palm. Combined with the recent draft genome sequence of the same cultivar, this resource offers a critical new tool for date palm biotechnology, palm comparative genomics and a better understanding of sex chromosome development in the palms.
The crystallization, thermal, physical, chemical and morphological properties of palm oil were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, polarized microscopy, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC). The palm oil was fractionated into various stearin and olein (with iodine values (IV)>63) fractions by means of a dry fractionation process. During the cooling sequence, samples were taken at regular intervals
O Zaliha; C. L Chong; C. S Cheow; A. R Norizzah; M. J Kellens
The feasibility of preparing activated carbons from extracted oil palm fibre, an abundant oil palm waste, was studied. Preliminary tests were conducted to investigate the influences of different operating parameters, such as initial material size, inert gas flow rate, heating rate, pyrolysis temperature and hold time, on the properties of the pyrolysed chars. The pyrolysed chars were characterized by a
Aik Chong Lua; Jia Guo
Brazil is one of the major worldwide palm oil (Elaus guineeusis) producers. It is a low cost oil, presenting some interesting industrial properties, such as glycerin and soap raw matter. Renewable resources and agro industrial residuals have been extensively used for biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas genus, nevertheless, no reports, to our knowledge, have been published with the use of palm
Fernando J. S. Oliveira; Leonardo Vazquez; Francisca P. de França
The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous
Simone Pereira de Souza; Sergio Pacca; Márcio Turra de Ávila; José Luiz B. Borges
This paper presents an innovative contactless palm vein recognition system. We design a hand sensor that could capture the palm vein image using low-resolution web camera. The design of the sensor is simple and low-cost, and we do not need to install specialized infrared sensor. We allow subjects to position their hands freely above the sensor and they can move
Goh Kah Ong Michael; Tee Connie; Lau Siong Hoe; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin
Hand vein patterns are among the biometric traits being investigated today for identification purposes, attracting interest from both the research community and industry. This paper presents a multimodal system that combines hand-palm vein and hand-dorsal vein biometrics information at the score level. The palm and dorsal veins are considered as texture samples being automatically extracted from the user's hand image.
Sanchit; Mauricio Ramalho; Paulo Lobato Correia; Luis Ducla Soares
In the palm oil mill, fresh fruit bunch (FFB) undergoes various thermal and mechanical treatments to produce the crude palm oil (CPO). FFB consists of many fruits attached to the spikelets that are spirally arranged on the main bunch stalk. Each fruit is made up of a nut enveloped by the fleshy mesocarp, which is reinforced by strands of fibers
Abdul Azis Ariffin; Rosnah Mat Soom; Huey-Chern Boo; Chia-Chun Loi; Yuen-Hwa Chai; S. M. AbdulKarim
The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 0 In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites per leaf. Overall, acetamiprid treatments had 4.6-fold higher mite densities than the standard organophosphate insecticide treatment. Of the treatments with high mite populations, Panonychus ulmi, the European red mite, and Tetranychus urticae, the twospotted spider mite, were the dominant species in roughly equal numbers of cases. Only 11.1% of the thiacloprid treatments exceeded 5 mites per leaf; these experimental treatments included eight applications, whereas the current label restricts the number of applications at the rate for C. pomonella to two applications. One out of six clothianidin treatments caused a significantly higher mite density than the standard treatment; however, this material appeared to suppress predatory mites. Neonicotinyl insecticides did not eliminate predatory mites, but they inhibited their ability to respond normally to increasing prey populations. In field trials designed specifically to examine mite population densities where neonicotinyl insecticides were used, significantly higher levels of tetranychid mites occurred in one or more acetamiprid treatments (one, two or four applications) in five out of six trials. In the sixth trial (in a commercial orchard), only two acetamiprid applications were made, and mite populations were low in all treatments. While elevated mite densities were more likely to occur with four applications, in one case it occurred following a single application. The predominant tetranychid mite species (either P. ulmi or T. urticae) varied from trial to trial; however, there was no apparent bias regarding stimulation of the two species. Horticultural mineral oil was used with acetamiprid in some trials in an attempt to mitigate mite outbreaks. However, the addition of oil did not counteract the tendency of acetamiprid to increase tetranychid mite populations, and in one trial, had a negative effect on predatory mite densities. Seasonal tetranychid mite density was positively related to the total grams AI (or number of applications) of acetamiprid, thus reducing the number of applications per season should lower the probability of mite outbreaks. Abbreviation: AI active ingredient CMD cumulative mite days
Beers, E. H.; Brunner, J. F.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.
House dust mites produce inhalant allergens of importance to allergic patients. We measured the major group 1 allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, from the house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farina, respectively in 100 randomly selected domestic homes from Cheonan, Korea. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming from the living room floor and 1 mattress in each home. Der p 1 and Der f 1 were measured by double monoclonal ELISA. Der p 1 levels were very low, with geometric mean levels for floors and mattresses being 0.11 µg/g (range: 0.01-4.05) and 0.14 µg/g (range: 0.01-30.0), respectively. Corresponding levels of Der f 1 were higher, 7.46 µg/g (range: 0.01-262.9) and 10.2 µg/g (range: 0.01-230.9) for floors and mattresses, respectively. D. farinae appears to be the dominant house dust mite in Cheonan.
Nam, Hae-Seon; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Park, Joon-Soo; Kim, Yong-Bae; Choi, Young-Jin; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian
Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and can affect egg layers worldwide. There is presently a lack of an ectoparasiticide in Europe for poultry which can assure a 0-day withholding period for eggs. In this study, ByeMite (phoxim 50%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health Division) was administered to treat a D. gallinae infestation in a poultry house stocked with egg-laying hens kept in a cage system. A layer house was sprayed twice within a 7-day interval using a solution containing 2000 ppm phoxim and a similar layer house was used as an untreated control unit. Specially developed D. gallinae traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density in both layer houses during a 49-day period after the treatment. In order to collect mites, the traps were placed on days--1, 2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 34 and 48 and always removed after 24 h. The collected mites were counted and differentiated according to their developmental stage (mite eggs, larvae, nymphs, adults). Three days after the first spray treatment, the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) was 96.1%, and from day 7 post-treatment until the end of the trial (day 49) the efficacy exceeded 99%. In contrast, in the untreated layer house (negative control group) the mite population showed a 400% increase. No treatment-related side effects in chickens were detectable. It is concluded that two administrations of ByeMite within a 7-day interval are highly effective against D. gallinae infestations in a stocked poultry house. PMID:17543456
Meyer-Kühling, Borris; Pfister, Kurt; Müller-Lindloff, Jürgen; Heine, Josef
We introduced a mass-reared pyrethroid-resistant strain of the predatory phytoseiid mite Amblyseius fallacis (Garman) into an Ontario peach orchard in an attempt to control populations of the phytophagous mites Panonychus ulmi Koch and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Releases of 1,000 and 2,000 mites per tree were made, at three different times. The release of 2,000 mites per tree in
P. J. Lester; H. M. A. Thistlewood; D. B. Marshall; R. Harmsen
The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P < 0,001). In the second experiment, 11 infested (average of 13 O. natricis per snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01). PMID:24063093
Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier
Functional and numerical responses of the predatory mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), infesting tea were determined in a laboratory on leaf discs. Prey consumption increased with increases in temperature and prey density. Handling time decreased and successful attack rate increased with increased temperature. N. longispinosus was more voracious on larvae and nymphs than on adults of O. coffeae. Handling time was higher on adult females than on larvae. Rate of predation leveled off at temperatures greater than 25° C. Functional responses to prey density at six temperatures and to each life stage of O. coffeae approximated the Holling type II model. The oviposition rate increased with prey consumption and temperature. On average, a predator consumed 1.62 adult female prey for every egg it laid. With a fixed number of prey available, predation rate per predator decreased with increased predator density.
Rahman, Vattakandy jasin; Babu, Azariah; Roobakkumar, Amsalingam; Perumalsamy, Kandasamy
Correlations among the twelve palm and sole interdigital ridge-counts were calculated for samples of Europeans of German, Austrian, Finnish and Polish ancestry, for Bantu speaking Black Africans from Angola and the Republic of South Africa, for Japanese and Tibetans and for Indians and Coloureds from the Republic of South Africa. Canonical correlation and factor analyses were used to discern patterning in the correlations. Generally, within palm and within sole correlations are stronger than palm-sole correlations. However, the results show an unequivocal positive relationship between palm and sole ridge-counts. A consistent feature was a stronger relationship of palm c-d counts to sole a-b counts. We suggest that this pattern of correlation may reflect early morphogenetic pattern formation prior to commitment of cells to hands and feet. PMID:2077775
Brehme, H; Jantz, R L
Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at
A. B. Nasrin; A. N. Ma; Y. M. Choo; S. Mohamad; M. H. Rohaya; A. Azali; Z. Zainal
Palm oil accounts for 21% and 47% of the global oil and fats production and trade respectively. Both Malaysia and Indonesia together are the world's largest producers and exporters of palm oil with 84% and 90% share of world palm oil production and export, respectively. The paper outlines the increasingly dominant role that palm oil has played in the world
Yusof Basiron; N Balu; D Chandramohan
Palm oil is currently world's most produced vegetable oil and oil palms yield more oil per hectare than any other commercial oil crop. Thereby, palm oil forms an interesting opportunity for large scale bio-oil production for energy purposes. However, the sustainability of palm oil production is still very much debated and has been associated with deforestation of tropical rainforest and
Kantor Taman; Fitrian Ardiansyah
Laminated veneer lumbers from oil palm trunk were manufactured using urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde, melamine urea formaldehyde, and phenol resorcinol formaldehyde adhesives. The density of the oil palm laminated veneer lumber was slightly higher than the solid oil palm trunk. The thickness swelling and water absorption of laminated veneer lumber of oil palm were higher than those made from rubberwood.
O. Sulaiman; N. Salim; R. Hashim; L. H. M. Yusof; W. Razak; N. Y. M. Yunus; W. S. Hashim; M. H. Azmy
Malaysia and Indonesia are the largest producers of palm oil product. The palm oil industry has contributed the biggest income to the countries for many years. Moreover, palm oils has emerged as one of the most important oils in the world’s oils and the market of fats. About 90% of palm oil is used as food related products worldwide, and
T. M. I Mahlia; M. Z Abdulmuin; T. M. I Alamsyah; D Mukhlishien
In Benin, the tarsonemid mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) is a key pest of gboma eggplant Solanum macrocarpon (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), a leafy vegetable on which it causes considerable damage to the plants and substantial reduction in yield. Predatory mites in the family Phytoseiidae have been successfully used in the biological control of numerous agricultural pests worldwide. In that respect, a population of the phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) has been identified as a potential predator of P. latus, and is now a candidate for release against this pest in Benin. The objective of the present study is to determine, through laboratory experiments, the predation rate and life table parameters of A. swirskii when feeding on P. latus or alternative food such as maize pollen. Under laboratory conditions the mean number of P. latus consumed by A. swirskii, and daily oviposition, significantly increased as the number of prey increased. Total development time of A. swirskii was significantly shorter when it fed on P. latus than on maize pollen. Net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, mean generation time and the finite rate of increase of A. swirskii were were all significantly lower on P. latus than on maize pollen. However, doubling time was significantly higher on maize pollen. This study shows that A. swirskii is a good predator of P. latus, and that maize pollen can efficiently sustain A. swirskii populations when P. latus densities on plants become low. Consequently, A. swirskii can be used for the biological control of the broad mite P. latus on gboma eggplant, and on other solanaceous crops in Benin and elsewhere.
Onzo, Alexis; Houedokoho, Arnaud F.; Hanna, Rachid
The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g\\/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm \\
Background: Dust mites have been shown to contain a serine protease distinct from the previously reported trypsin and chymotrypsin. The latter enzymes have been shown to be allergens, but the allergenic importance of the former is unknown. Objective: This study was performed to isolate and characterize the novel mite serine protease and determine its allergenicity. Methods: The mite serine protease
Cecile King; Richard J. Simpson; Robert L. Moritz; Gaven E. Reed; Philip J. Thompson; Geoffrey A. Stewart
Background and Aims The Arecoideae is the largest and most diverse of the five subfamilies of palms (Arecaceae/Palmae), containing >50 % of the species in the family. Despite its importance, phylogenetic relationships among Arecoideae are poorly understood. Here the most densely sampled phylogenetic analysis of Arecoideae available to date is presented. The results are used to test the current classification of the subfamily and to identify priority areas for future research. Methods DNA sequence data for the low-copy nuclear genes PRK and RPB2 were collected from 190 palm species, covering 103 (96 %) genera of Arecoideae. The data were analysed using the parsimony ratchet, maximum likelihood, and both likelihood and parsimony bootstrapping. Key Results and Conclusions Despite the recovery of paralogues and pseudogenes in a small number of taxa, PRK and RPB2 were both highly informative, producing well-resolved phylogenetic trees with many nodes well supported by bootstrap analyses. Simultaneous analyses of the combined data sets provided additional resolution and support. Two areas of incongruence between PRK and RPB2 were strongly supported by the bootstrap relating to the placement of tribes Chamaedoreeae, Iriarteeae and Reinhardtieae; the causes of this incongruence remain uncertain. The current classification within Arecoideae was strongly supported by the present data. Of the 14 tribes and 14 sub-tribes in the classification, only five sub-tribes from tribe Areceae (Basseliniinae, Linospadicinae, Oncospermatinae, Rhopalostylidinae and Verschaffeltiinae) failed to receive support. Three major higher level clades were strongly supported: (1) the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae and Cocoseae), (2) the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae and Sclerospermeae) and (3) the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae and Pelagodoxeae). However, new data sources are required to elucidate ambiguities that remain in phylogenetic relationships among and within the major groups of Arecoideae, as well as within the Areceae, the largest tribe in the palm family.
Baker, William J.; Norup, Maria V.; Clarkson, James J.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Dowe, John L.; Lewis, Carl E.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Savolainen, Vincent; Wilmot, Tomas; Chase, Mark W.
Performance Assessment Links in Math (PALM) is an online, standards-based resource bank of mathematics performance assessment tasks, indexed via the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The tasks have been collected from numerous sources. The description of each task includes student directions and response forms, administration procedures, scoring rubrics, examples of student work, and technical-quality data, calculated from field testing, when such testing has been conducted. Users may select standards and draw upon the collection of tasks to create assessment charts--matrices of tasks intended to test the standards--or select tasks to create a chart of standards that are addressed by those tasks.
Some bees and wasps that host mites have peculiar pocket-like structures called acarinaria. These have long been considered as morphological adaptations to securely transfer beneficial mites into nests, and thus are thought to be the product of a mutualistic relationship. However, there has been little compelling evidence to support this hypothesis. We demonstrated that the parasitic mite Ensliniella parasitica, which uses acarinaria, increases the reproductive success of its host wasp Allodynerus delphinalis by protecting it from parasitoid wasps. Every time the parasitoid Melittobia acasta accessed a prepupal or pupal wasp host cell, adult mites attacked it, continuously clinging to it and possibly piercing the intersegmental membrane of the parasitoid with their chelicerae. Subsequent mortality of the parasitoid depended on the number of attacking mites: an average of six mites led to a 70% chance of mortality, and 10 mites led to a 100% chance of mortality. In this way, parent mites protect the food source (juvenile wasps) for themselves and ultimately for their offspring. We propose that wasps evolved acarinaria to maintain this protective guarding behaviour.
Okabe, Kimiko; Makino, Shun'ichi
Leaflets from 11 L. esculentum x L. hirsutum F2 individuals were bioassayed with spider mites (Tetranychus urticae). Densities of Type I, Type III, Type IV, Type V, and Type VI trichomes and the intensity of red fluorescence of the Type VI trichome tip varied widely among the 11 F2 hybrids. Mite responses were analyzed in relation to these trichome characters
Catherine D. Carter; John C. Snyder
Leaves of plants of several families possess small cavities or tufts of hair where leaf veins bifurcate. These so-called acarodomatia are usually inhabited by predatory and fungivorous mites, which utilize domatia as shelter against adverse conditions or against other predators and cannibals. Plants may benefit from the presence of the mites through reduced densities of herbivores or plant-pathogenic fungi. It
Joăo A. M. Ferreira; Angelo Pallini; Claudinei L. Oliveira; Maurice W. Sabelis; Arne Janssen
his study compared the quality of allergenic extracts produced from pure mite bodies (PMBs) and spent mite medium (SMM) of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) and D. farinae (Df), with commercially available extracts (FDA, Greer, CSL). It also evaluated the use of glycerine as a preservative, the stability of these extracts under various temperatures, and the reactions of allergy patients to skin-prick
Vanna Mahakittikun; Sirichit Wongkamchai; Pattama Ekpo; John J Boitano; Chulaluk Komoltri; Chaiyaporn Manochnon; Kunda Kasetsinsombat; Pakit Vichyanond; Chaweewan Bunnag
The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most destructive parasite of managed honeybee colonies worldwide. Since V. destructor transfers pathogens to honeybees, it may be adaptive for bees to respond to mite infestation by upregulating their immune responses. Mites, however, may overcome the host's immune responses by suppressing them, which could facilitate the mite's ability to feed on hemolymph. A humoral immune response of bees parasitized by V. destructor may be detected by studying the expression levels of antibacterial peptides, such as abaecin and defensin, known to be immune-responsive. Expression levels for these two antibacterial peptides changed non-linearly with respect to the number of mites parasitizing honeybee pupae. Bees exposed to low or moderate number of mites had fewer immune-related transcripts than pupae that were never parasitized or pupae with high mite loads. Although many of the pupae tested indicated the presence of bacteria, no correlation with mite numbers or immune-response levels existed. All bees tested negative for acute paralysis and Kashmir bee viruses known to be vectored by V. destructor.
Gregory, Pamela G.; Evans, Jay D.; Rinderer, Thomas; de Guzman, Lilia
The broad mite,Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), is an important, and in some cases recent, pest of diverse crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Infested leaves become bronzed with down-curling margins, buds are aborted and flowers distorted, shoots grow twisted and fruit may be misshapen and russeted. Injuries, presumably due to toxins, occur even after the broad mite is killed by
The effect of imidacloprid on fecundity in twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, was investigated in laboratory experiments using individual females on bean leaf discs. Mites were directly exposed to spray formulations of imidacloprid or fed on discs cut from a systemically treated bean plant. Imidacloprid-treated T. urticae produced 10 Đ26% more eggs during the Ţrst 12 d of adult
David G. James; Tanya S. Price
Endosymbiotic bacteria that potentially influence reproduction and other fitness-related traits of their hosts are widespread in insects and mites and their appeal to researchers' interest is still increasing. We screened 20 strains of 12 agriculturally relevant herbivorous and predatory mite species for infection with Wolbachia, Cardinium and Spiroplasma by the use of PCR. The majority of specimens originated from Austria and were field collected or mass-reared. Eight out of 20 strains (40%) tested, representing seven of 12 mite species (58%), carried at least one of the three bacteria. We found Wolbachia in the herbivorous spider mites Tetranychus urticae and Bryobia rubrioculus, with the former also carrying Spiroplasma and the latter also carrying Cardinium. Cardinium was furthermore found in two populations of the predatory mite Euseius finlandicus and the spider mite Eotetranychus uncatus. Spiroplasma was detected in the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus. All bacteria positive PCR products were sequenced, submitted to GenBank and analyzed in BLAST queries. We found high similarities to complete identity with bacteria found in the same and different mite species but also with bacteria found in insect species like ladybirds, butterflies and minute pirate bugs, Orius. We discuss the significance of potential (multiple) infections with the investigated bacteria for biological control. PMID:17554631
Enigl, Monika; Schausberger, Peter
Passenger trains were surveyed for contamination with Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouesart) mites in Japan. A total of 492 dust samples were collected from upholstered seats in six commuter trains, one long-distance express train and three night trains in October, 1996 and January, April, and July, 1997. Mite antigen levels contained in fine dust fractions of these samples
Kozo Uehara; Yasuhiro Toyoda; Eiji Konishi
One of the major problems facing the beekeeping ind ustry in Saudi Arabia is the infestation of honeybee colonies with parasitic mite Varroa destru ctor. Bee breeders strive to reduce exposure of bees to pesticides by developing stocks of bees tha t resist the mites. The goal of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of eleven colon ies
S. A. Al-Otaibi
This study searched for biological and agricultural bases necessary in formulating suppressive measures of herbaceous mites occurring on perennial herbs in Korea. Of those tetranychids, the tea red spider mite (TRSM), Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida, mainly attacked the perennials and was believed to be of economic importance. Its annual abundances on 3 different herbs are presented and for Codonopsis lanceolata various
Tae-Heung Kim; Joon-Soo Kwak; Kyu-Hwan Choi
Nine Satsuma citrus orchards (seven conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) in southern Alabama were sampled (mainly leaf samples) for predacious mites at eight different sampling dates from March 2005 to February 2006. At least 29 species of predacious mites from nine families (Anystidae, Ascidae, Bdellidae, Cheyletidae, Cunaxidae, Erythraeidae, Eupalopsellidae, Phytoseiidae, and Stigmaeidae) were identiŢed. In addition, six primarily fungivorous species
Henry Y. Fadamiro; Yingfang Xiao; Monte Nesbitt; Carl C. Childers
Twelve field experiments and one laboratory experiment were conducted to determine the effects of furrow applied aldicarb and seed treatments of thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin), Aeris (imidacloprid + thiodicarb), and acephate on twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L. For the field experiments, data were pooled across all experiments for analysis. Aeris, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid treatments resulted in twospotted spider mite densities greater than those in the untreated check, aldicarb, and acephate treatments. However, cotton treated with Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin) had 34% fewer mites than other neonicotinoid seed treatments when infestations occurred near cotyledon stage. Untreated check and aldicarb treatments had the lowest mite densities. Only aldicarb reduced mite densities below that in the untreated check. In a laboratory trial, the fecundity of twospotted spider mite was measured. While neonicotinoid seed treatments increased mite densities in the field, they did not increase fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Foliar applied thiamethoxam slightly elevated average fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Increased use of neonicotinoid seed treatments instead of furrow applied aldicarb is likely at least partly responsible for recent increased twospotted spider mite infestations in seedling cotton across the mid-south. PMID:23786068
Smith, J F; Catchot, A L; Musser, F R; Gore, J
Palm oil production is one of the major industries in the south of Thailand. A study of the quantity and potential usage of palm oil mill wastes was carried out. Sixteen palm oil mills in the region generate 386,930 tons\\/yr 165,830 tons\\/yr and 110,550 tons\\/yr of empty fruit bunches, palm press fiber and palm kernel shell, respectively. In addition, 1,202,260
S. Prasertsan; P. Prasertsan
Gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to determine fatty acids and triglyceride\\u000a (TG) compositions of crude palm oil (CPO), refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) palm oil, RBD palm olein, and RBD palm\\u000a stearin, while their thermal profiles were analyzed by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The HPLC chromatograms showed\\u000a that the TG composition of CPO and RBD palm
Y. B. Che Man; T. Haryati; H. M. Ghazali; B. A. Asbi
A 31-year-old Saudi man was seen at an ear, nose, and throat clinic at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with bilateral itching in the external auditory canal. On otoscopic examination, the skin lining the ear canal was thickened with whitish sheets of sloughed cells and thick discharge. Large numbers of mites of an undescribed species closely related to members of the genus Loxanoetus (Histiostomatidae) were present. The patient underwent successive washings of the ear canal with saline and 70% ethanol at intervals of 2-3 months and was treated with antibiotics. Treatment with Eurax (crotamiton) ear drops for one week cleared the mite infestation. This represents the first reported case of human otoacariasis involving a histiostomatid mite. Based on the known biology of histiostomatid mites and the associated hosts of Loxanoetus and related genera, there is reason to speculate that the patient acquired the infestation while swimming in a lake or pond where this mite was present. PMID:17488924
Al-Arfaj, Ahmed M; Mullen, Gary R; Rashad, Rafiaa; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed; OConnor, Barry M; Alkhalife, Ibrahim S; Dute, Roland R
Stored-food and house-dust arthropods include many species of mites and beetles that affect human health. For diagnostic tests proteases such as trypsin are utilized as they are indicators of the presence of allergen contaminants in food. We recently characterized Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KPIs) from Solanum palustre. Here we studied biotechnological applications of KPI-B1 and -B4. We manufactured a protein chip with immobilized KPI-B1 and -B4 and showed trypsin/chymotrypsin-binding specificity, indicating that the recombinant proteins have protease selectivity. We employed the protein chip to capture mite proteins belonging to the protease family with polyclonal anti-mite antibodies. The mite diagnostic chip can be useful for detecting mite allergens. PMID:20518061
Poltronieri, Palmiro; Cimaglia, Fabio; Santino, Angelo; De Blasi, Marialuce Daniela; Krizkova-Kudlikova, Iva; Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Yifen
Worker honey bees from genetic strains selected for being resistant (R) or susceptible (S) to tracheal mites typically show large differences in infestation in field colonies and in bioassays that involve controlled exposure to infested bees. We used bioassays exposing newly emerged individuals to infested workers to compare the propensity for tracheal mites to infest queens, drones and workers from R and S colonies. In tests with queens, newly emerged R and S queens were either simultaneously confined in infested colonies (n = 95 and 87 respectively), or individually caged with groups of 5-20 infested workers (n = 119 and 115 respectively). Mite prevalence (percentage of individuals infested) and abundance (foundress mites per individual) after 4-6 days did not differ between R and S queens. In another test, five newly emerged drones and workers from both an R and an S colony, and a queen of one of the two strains, were caged in each of 38 cages with 20 g of workers infested at 60-96% prevalence. Infestations of the R queens (n = 17) and S queens (n = 19) did not differ significantly, but R workers had half the mite abundance of S workers, while R drones received about a third more migrating mites than S drones. In tests to evaluate possible mechanisms, removal of one mesothoracic leg from R and S workers resulted in 2- to 10-fold increase in mite abundance on the treated side, but excising legs did not affect infestation of the corresponding tracheae in drones. This suggests that differences in infestation between R and S workers, but not drones, are largely determined by their ability to remove mites through autogrooming. If autogrooming is the primary mechanism of colony resistance to tracheal mites, selection for resistance to tracheal mites using infestation of hemizygous drones may be inefficient. PMID:16323047
Villa, José D; Danka, Robert G
Toxigenic and allergen-producing fungi represent a serious hazard to human food and animal feed safety. Ninety-four fungal species were isolated from mite-infested samples of seeds taken from Czech seed stores. Fungi were isolated from the surface of four kinds of seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, and mustard) and from the gut and external surface of five species of mites (i.e., Acarus siro L., 1758, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides (Zachvatkin, 1973), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank, 1781), Tyrophagus putrescentnae (Schrank, 1781) and Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans 1903) separately. Multivariate analysis of fungi complex composition showed that the frequency of fungal was species significantly influenced by the kind of seed. Fungal frequencies differed between mites gut and exoskeleton surface and between the surfaces of mites and seeds. Three groups of fungal species were recognized: 1) mite surface-associated fungi: Penicillium brevicompactum, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus versicolor; 2) mite surface- and seed-associated fungi: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus flavus; and 3) seed-associated fungi: Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor dimorphosporus f. dimorphosporus, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium griseofulvum, and Eurotium repens. Mite-carried species of microfungi are known to produce serious mycotoxins (e.g., aflatoxin B1, cyclopiazonic acid, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxin A, and nephrotoxic glycopeptides) as well as allergen producers (e.g., A. alternata and P. brevicompactum). Storage mites may play an important role in the spread of some medically hazardous micromycetes. In addition, these mite-fungi associations may heighten the risk of occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed stuffs and cause mixed contamination by fungal and mite allergens. PMID:15666776
Hubert, J; Stejskal, V; Munzbergová, Z; Kubátová, A; Vánová, M; Zd'árková, E
The present study investigated the mite fauna and the relative abundance of mites present in foliage and litter of two adjacent and similar alfalfa fields, differing only in the number of cuttings, in Kopais Valley (Central Greece) through 2008-2010. We also examined the relationship between assemblage patterns of Mesostigmata, Oribatida and Prostigmata by comparing their population fluctuation, population density, species richness and diversity. Spatial distribution of common dominant and influent mite species was also estimated. Our results showed that both fields supported a very rich and similar mite fauna with eight new species records for alfalfa of Greece, although these species have been previously reported from other habitats in Greece. The pattern of population fluctuation in foliage was similar in both fields, unlike the fluctuation in litter. Population density significantly differed between fields, being higher in the less harvested field, except Prostigmata. Species richness in litter was higher in the less harvested field, whereas it was higher in the foliage of the more harvested field, apart from that of prostigmatic mites in litter, which was higher in the more harvested field, and that of oribatid mites in foliage, which was higher in the less harvested field. The diversity of mites was higher in the more harvested field, with the exception of prostigmatic mites. The spatial distribution of mites in foliage and litter was aggregated in both fields. Our results indicate that despite the considerable similarity of the study fields, the different harvesting frequency might have disturbed differently the mite communities hosted in foliage and litter. PMID:24072570
Badieritakis, Evangelos G; Fantinou, Argyro A; Emmanouel, Nikolaos G
This paper describes the development of rapid immunodiagnostic tests for the detection of storage mite infestations in cereals and cereal products. The study's first phase (proof of concept) involved the production of a species-specific enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the flour mite, Acarus siro (L.), a major pest of stored commodities. The specificity of this new assay was assessed against key stored product contaminants (13 species of mites of which three were predatory, five species of insects and five species of fungi) in the presence and absence of grain. The assay was species-specific (no cross-reactivity to other storage contaminants) and was unaffected by the presence of cereal antigens in the extract. In the study's second phase, species- and genera-specific ELISAs were developed for a range of key storage mite pests: the cosmopolitan food mite (Lepidoglyphus destructor), the grocers' itch mite (Glycyphagus domesticus), the grainstack mite (Tyrophagus longior), mites of the Tyrophagus and Glycyphagus generas, and all storage mites. All tests were demonstrably specific to target species or genera, with no cross-reactions observed to other storage pest contaminants or cereals. The final, validation phase, involved a comparative assessment of the species-specific A. siro and the genus-specific Tyrophagus ELISAs with the flotation technique using laboratory and field samples. Both ELISAs were quantitative (0-30 mites per 10 g wheat) and produced good comparative data with the flotation technique (A. siro r(2)=0.91, Tyrophagus spp. r(2)=0.99). PMID:18279566
Dunn, J A; Thind, B B; Danks, C; Chambers, J
The outer part of the skin, the epidermis, is specialized to protect the human body from its environment. Because of the high levels of physical stress experienced by the human hand in everyday use, the epidermis of the hand is especially toughened. In particular, the epidermis of the palm is highly specialized to resist mechanical trauma. Like the epidermis, the nails are composed of specialized epithelial cells and are especially strong. In recent years it has become apparent that the physical strength of epithelial cells comes from the keratin cytoskeleton – a dense meshwork of filaments extending throughout the cytoplasm. Keratins are a large family of intermediate filament proteins encoded by more than 50 distinct genes in humans. These different keratin genes are expressed in well-defined combinations in specific epithelial tissues. Several keratin genes are expressed in palmoplantar epidermis and in the stratified epithelia of the nail bed. Genetic mutations in these genes lead to fragility of these tissues and result in a range of genetic disorders characterized by blistering and thickening of palm and sole skin and/or nails. Study of these diseases has shed new light on the vital structural role of keratins in maintaining the integrity of epithelial cells.
McLean, WH Irwin
Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites (Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species (T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition. PMID:23093097
Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro
Fifty dust samples were collected from the mattresses and bedroom floors of 25 subjects with allergic asthma in Cartagena, Colombia, in order to identify house dust mites and quantitate Der p I, Der f I and Blomia tropicalis allergens. The geometric mean of the total mite density per gram of dust was 418 (range, 40-2280). Twenty-two samples (44%) had more than 500 mites and four, less than 100. B. tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were found in 96% and 90% of the samples, accounting for 40.1% and 35.7% of the total mites, respectively. Cheyletus malaccensis, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Pyroglyphus africanus, Oribatids, Grallacheles bakeri, Tarsonemus spp., Suidasia spp., Dermatophagoides farinae and unidentified mites accounted for the rest. The geometric mean of the total mites/gram of dust in mattresses (563.9) was significantly higher than in floor dust (309.1), P < 0.01. Allergen concentrations and mite numbers were analysed by Spearman rank correlations: B. tropicalis mites vs B. tropicalis allergen, r = 0.54, P < 0.001; D. pteronyssinus mites vs Der p I, r = 0.52, P < 0.001. A negative correlation was obtained between B. tropicalis mites and Der p I. Allergens derived from B. tropicalis and other domestic mite species may play an important role in sensitization and allergic symptoms in Cartagena, Colombia. PMID:8319126
Fernández-Caldas, E; Puerta, L; Mercado, D; Lockey, R F; Caraballo, L R
House dust mites (HDM) can be found worldwide where human beings live independent from the climate and are a major source of multiple allergens. Mite allergens sensitize and induce perennial rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis in a large portion of patients with allergic disease particularly children. There is convincing evidence that avoidance of mite allergen can effectively reduce allergic symptoms. This study examined dust from a military hospital and the private home of some nursing staff. A total of seven species of mites belonging to six genera were recovered. The commonest species was Dermatophagoides farinae followed by D. pteronyssinus and the lowest Laelaps nuttalli. Besides, the 7th mite or Parasitus consanguineous live free on dust as a bio-control agent of mites. The presence of mites in and out doors in a hospital and dwellings of medical personnel pave the way to consider HDM as occupational or nosocomial Allergens. PMID:24640866
Saleh, Ahmed Megahed Ahmed; Ali, Hisham Abd El-Raouf; Ahmed, Salwa Abdalla Mohamed; Mohammad, Naema Mahmoud; Morsy, Tosson A
Many aquatic insect species, including aquatic Hemiptera, are parasitized by water mite larvae. Although this situation may cause damaging impacts to the hosts, the mites can disperse and colonize new localities in this way. Little is known about the frequency of water mite ectoparasitism amongst the aquatic Hemiptera in Turkey. In this study, larval water mite parasitism on aquatic Hemiptera, which have been collected from different localities in Turkish Thrace, was evaluated. It was found that only nine individuals, belonging two different species in a total of 367 hemipteran specimens, were parasitized by larval water mites. Furthermore, variations in sizes and shapes of the mites on the waterscorpion Ranatra linearis Linne, 1758 and Nepa cinerea Linne, 1758 were determined. These are the first records for larval mite parasitism on R. linearis and N. cinerea in Turkish Thrace. PMID:23377913
Zawal, Andrzej; Çamur-Elipek, Belgin; Fent, Meral; Kirgiz, Timur; Dzierzgowska, Kinga
This survey was undertaken to determine the possible exposure of military personnel to house dust mites in ships, barracks, and homes in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia. During the period from April 1, 1982 through August 31, 1983, 524 dust samples were collected with vacuum cleaners. Mites were extracted from aliquots of dust, counted, and identified as to species and life stage. Dermatophagoides pterynssinus (European house dust mite) was more common in private homes, while Dermatophagoides farinae (North American house dust mite) was more common on ships. Berthing compartments had the highest density of mites of areas sampled aboard ships. There appears to be a trend between the density of personnel and mites. Ships had a smaller percentage of mite-infested samples than houses. PMID:2507967
King, M J; Betts, L S; Sonenshine, D E
This publication presents, for the first time, the data base on palm kernels, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel oil. Statistical sources include Agricultural Counselor and Attache reports, official statistics released by foreign governments, and trade pub...
It is expected that palm oil will reduce black smoke/particulates in exhaust gas from the diesel engine. Therefore, an investigation for practical application of palm oil is made on adaptability as a fuel oil and supply potential. For utilization of palm ...
The introduction of live insects into human food is rare in developed countries. However, we report, for the first time, an emerging risk that exists from dried fruit in Central Europe. Recently, massive and frequent infestation of dried fruit imported from the Mediterranean region by the mite, Carpoglpyhus lactis L. (Acarina: Carpoglyphidae), has been found. In 180 samples taken from supermarkets, 13% were contaminated; the contamination levels ranged from 0 to 660 mites per g of dried fruit. The contamination was found in dried apricots, figs, plums and raisins. To estimate the risks and food preferences of C. lactis, its growth rate was examined under laboratory conditions. Starting with a hypothetical population of 10 mites per g of dried fruit, the risk level of 1000 mites per g of dried fruit is reached at 42 days for dried figs, 49 days for dried pineapple and 63 days for dried apricots, dates and plums at 25 °C and 85% relative humidity. We found that mites are able to enter every dried fruit packing material tested, including polypropylene and aluminum foils. This indicates that mites can move from package to package in supermarkets. Mites are known as allergen producers and vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi. These findings indicate that an increased risk of C. lactis contamination exists in dried fruit. PMID:21793685
Hubert, Jan; Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Stejskal, Vaclav
Background. In the present study, quality and quantity of indoor dust mites was evaluated at the residence of 150 atopic allergic patients from four different districts of South Assam. Methods. Suspected patients with case history of allergic disease were selected for indoor survey. Dust samples (500?mg) were collected from the selected patient's house and were analyzed using standard methods. Results. About 60% of the selected patients were found suffering from respiratory disorders and rest 40% from skin allergy. The dominant mites recorded from indoor dust samples were Dermatophagoides followed by Blomia, Acarus, and Cheyletus while Caloglyphus was recorded in least number. The distribution of mites on the basis of housing pattern indicates that RCC type of buildings supports maximum dust mite's population followed by Assam type (semi-RCC) buildings, and the lowest count was observed in wooden houses. Environmental factors like temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity are found to determine the indoor mite's population. Severity of allergic attack in some of the typical cases was found to be proportional to the allergen load of mites in the dust samples. Conclusions. The economic status, housing pattern, and local environmental factors determine the diversity and abundance of dust mites in indoor environment. PMID:23724231
Sharma, Dhruba; Dutta, B K; Singh, A B
The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, induces an intensely pruritic exudative dermatitis which is responsible for restlessness, loss of appetite and weight loss. Within the first 24 h of infection, there is a rapid inflammatory influx of eosinophils and apoptosis of the keratinocytes at the site of infection. The former cell type is capable of a sustained respiratory burst, toxic products of which may directly damage the mite and also contribute to lesion formation. Analysis of a P. ovis expressed sequence tag (EST) database identified a number of antioxidant enzyme-encoding sequences, including peroxiredoxin (thioredoxin peroxidase EC 188.8.131.52), all of which may help the mite endure the potentially toxic skin environment. A full length sequence encoding Po-TPx, a protein of 206 amino acids which showed high homology to a peroxiredoxin from the salivary gland of the tick Ixodes scapularis, was amplified from P. ovis cDNA. Recombinant Po-TPx was expressed in bacteria and antiserum to this protein was used to localize native Po-TPx in mite sections. Peroxiredoxin was localized, amongst other sites, to a subpharyngeal region in mite sections. The recombinant protein was recognized by sera from sheep infested with the mite suggesting that it may be secreted or excreted by the mite and interact with the host immune response. PMID:19195412
McNair, C M; Nisbet, A J; Billingsley, P F; Knox, D P
Infestation by parasitic Psoroptes mites (Acari: Psoroptidae) is an important cause of economic loss and welfare problems in livestock in many areas of the world. At least five species within this genus have been recognized, based on the host infested, the infestation site and differences in length of the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Here the integrity of these species is considered by subjecting populations of mites from a range of host species and geographical locations to simultaneous morphological and molecular genetic analyses. Morphological analysis showed that there were significant differences in shape and size between mite populations from different hosts, and that length of the outer opisthosomal setae in males and the homologous seta in females were the most important distinguishing character in adults. However, considerable variation in outer opisthosomal seta length was evident within and between populations of mites, and differences were not clearly related to host-species or geographical origin and did not support the accepted species differences. Molecular characterization using sequence data from the mitochondrial second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) region and microsatellite markers found little or no consistent host-related variation between the mite population samples. The results suggest that there is no case for considering the Psoroptes mites from the different hosts examined as separate species and that the morphological variation observed therefore may represent phenotypic adaptation to the local microenvironment on particular species of host. PMID:16336304
Pegler, K R; Evans, L; Stevens, J R; Wall, R
Sheep scab is caused by the noninvasive mite, Psoroptes ovis, which initiates a profound pro-inflammatory skin response leading to lesion development. To investigate these early events between the skin and the parasite, primary ovine epidermal keratinocyte cultures were generated and challenged with mite derived antigens. The kinetics of the mRNA response of these cells were monitored by microarray. The results indicated that the cells responded within 1 h of challenge, with a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8. This result was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, and showed that IL-8 up-regulation was maximal at 1 h but declined to pre-stimulation levels at 24 and 48 h. The IL-8 mRNA response to mite wash antigens containing secretory and/or excretory proteins was also investigated and compared to the response to whole mite antigen. These studies revealed that the mite wash antigen, at a challenge dose of 10 microg/mL, was markedly more potent and induced significantly higher levels of IL-8 mRNA than the same concentration of whole mite antigen. These results are discussed in relation to mite establishment and survival on the ovine host. PMID:19493210
Watkins, C A; Mackellar, A; Frew, D; Mackie, C; George, A; Hopkins, J; Burgess, S T G; McNeilly, T N; Huntley, J F
Plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. However, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to different feeding guilds. Here, we report the interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants. Additional whitefly infestation of spider-mite infested plants resulted in a reduced attraction of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) compared to attraction to plants infested by spider mites only. This interference is shown to result from the reduction in (E)-?-ocimene emission from plants infested by both spider mites and whiteflies. When using exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application to mimic B. tabaci infestation, we observed similar results in behavioral and chemical analyses. Phytohormone and gene-expression analyses revealed that B. tabaci infestation, as well as SA application, inhibited spider mite-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production and reduced the expression of two JA-regulated genes, one of which encodes for the P. lunatus enzyme ?-ocimene synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of (E)-?-ocimene. Remarkably, B. tabaci infestation concurrently inhibited SA production induced by spider mites. We therefore conclude that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels.
Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zheng, Si-Jun; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Boland, Wilhelm; David, Anja; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel
The coconut mite Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae) is considered the most important pest of coconut fruits in Africa; however, quantitative knowledge about its distribution and abundance is lacking. We conducted four diagnostic surveys-three in Southern Benin and one along the coast of Tanzania-to determine the distribution of A. guerreronis and the severity of its damage to coconut fruits, as well as the diversity and abundance of other associated mites and potential natural enemies. Aceria guerreronis was found in all visited plantations with the percentage of damaged fruits varying considerably among plantations-67-85% in Benin and 43-81% in Tanzania. Overall, 30-40% of the fruit surfaces were damaged by A. guerreronis. Damage severity increased with fruit age and negatively affected fruit weight of 7- to 12-months-old fruits. Aceria guerreronis was by far the most abundant mite on coconut fruits but its abundance depended on fruit age. The highest densities of A. guerreronis were observed on 3- to 4-months-old fruits. Neocypholaelaps sp. (Ameroseiidae) was the most abundant mite on inflorescences. Three species of predatory mites (Phytoseiidae)-Neoseiulus baraki, N. neobaraki and N. paspalivorus-were the most commonly found predatory mites beneath the coconut bracts in association with A. guerreronis. Neoseiulus neobaraki was the prevailing predator in Tanzania while N. paspalivorus was the most frequent predator in Benin. Other mites found beneath the bracts were the herbivore Steneotarsonemus furcatus (Tarsonemidae) and the detritivore and fungivore Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae). PMID:21789564
Negloh, K; Hanna, R; Schausberger, P
Identification and eradication of murine fur mite infestations are ongoing challenges faced by many research institutions. Infestations with Myobia musculi and Myocoptes musculinus can lead to animal health problems and may impose unwanted research variables by affecting the immune and physiologic functions of mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and efficacy of soiled bedding sentinels in the detection of fur mite infestations in colony mice. Female young-adult CRL:CD1(ICR) mice (n = 140) were exposed over a 12-wk period to various volume percentages of soiled bedding (11%, 20%, 50%, and 100%) from fur-mite–infested animals. Mice were tested every 2 wk with the cellophane tape test to identify the presence of fur mite adults and eggs. At the end of 12 wk, all mice exposed to 11%, 20%, and 50% soiled bedding tested negative for fur mites. One of the 35 mice (3%) receiving 100% soiled bedding tested positive for fur mites at the end of the 12-wk follow-up period. These findings suggest that the use of soiled bedding sentinels for the detection of fur mite infestations in colony mice is unreliable.
Lindstrom, Krista E; Carbone, Larry G; Kellar, Danielle E; Mayorga, Melinda S; Wilkerson, James D
Heat and vibration are common host-generated cues that ectoparasites use to orient to hosts. Three experiments evaluated effects of heat and vibration on the movement of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Individual arrested mites in an isolation chamber always initiated movement (walking) after substrate vibration (7.8-min walking duration), but only initiated movement 50% of the time (2.8-min walking duration) upon exposure to a 3 degrees C heat fluctuation. Heat fluctuation in combination with vibration extended the period of activity by approximately 50% (11.6-min walking duration) compared with activity initiated by vibration alone. Mites with longer time off-host moved for shorter durations. In a choice test, individual mites consistently moved closer to a 35 degrees C heat source 1 or 6 mm away, but not to a heat source 11 mm away. In a circular arena, mites were able to orient accurately to a 35 degrees C heat source and reached the arena edge almost 4 times faster (11.2 s) than mites without a heat source (41.2 s). These results suggest that northern fowl mite is capable of directed thermo-orientation, as well as modulation of activity depending on the type of sensory information perceived. The adaptive significance of this orientation for a "permanent" ectoparasite is discussed. PMID:15535614
Owen, Jeb P; Mullens, Bradley A
The oil palm mesocarp contains an endogenous lipase which is strongly activated at low temperature. Lipase activity is thus very conveniently assayed by prior exposure of the fruits to low temperature. More than 100 oil palm samples from the germplasm collection of the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (now known as the Malaysian Palm Oil Board) were screened for non-esterified fatty acid activity using both the low-temperature activation assay and a radioactivity assay. The results showed good correlation between assay procedures. The different samples had a very wide range of lipase activity. Elaeis oleifera samples had significantly lower lipase activity compared with E. guineensis (var. tenera) samples. Even within E. guineensis (var. tenera), there was a wide range of activity. The results confirmed that lipase activity is genotype-dependent. Selection for lipase genotypes is thus possible and this will have obvious commercial value. PMID:11171201
Sambanthamurthi, R; Rajanaidu, N; Hasnah Parman, S
The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligate, non-burrowing ectoparasite of vertebrates, of particular economic importance in domestic sheep flocks where it causes clinical psoroptic mange. To help understand the behaviour which facilitates transmission via the environment, the responses of P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. Psoroptes cuniculi) to temperature and light were examined in the laboratory. On a vertical surface of uniform temperature, the presence and direction of illumination had a significant effect on the distance and direction moved by the mites. In darkness or with illumination from both above and below, the mites moved relatively little, but this movement was upwards. In contrast, with illumination from above only, mites moved downwards. When the direction of the illumination was reversed so that it came from below only, the mites moved upwards. On a vertical surface with a temperature gradient, in darkness or with illumination from both above and below, the mites moved up or down towards the area of highest temperature, depending on whether this was above or below, respectively. However, the movement of the mites in response to the temperature gradient was strongly displaced up or down by the presence of unidirectional illumination from above or below, respectively. The results indicate that the movement of these mites is strongly directed towards areas of high temperature but away from higher light intensity. These behaviours might be expected to maintain the position of the mites on a host animal and help them locate the skin surface of a new host when displaced into the environment. PMID:15285139
Pegler, K R; Wall, R
As part of a research programme designed to identify biological agents for the control of sheep scab, the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to Psoroptes mites in the presence of sheepskin and wool was examined in the laboratory. No inhibitory effects of skin and wool were observed and high levels of infection were recorded. Subsequently the pathogenicity of formulations of both M. anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to Psoroptes ovis was studied in vivo. For this, 36 batches of 20 adult female Psoroptes mites were confined in 25 mm diameter chambers which were attached to the backs of 6 scab-naive sheep. In some treatments, mites were exposed to the fungal pathogens for 48 h in vitro prior to being placed on the host, while other treatments involved mites with no prior exposure placed directly onto the skin of a host treated with a fungal pathogen. After 48 h on the host, mites were removed, incubated individually and all fungal infections were recorded. Fungal infection was observed in all treatments, except untreated controls. However, B. bassiana infected a significantly greater number of mites than M. anisopliae with all the formulations examined. Infection rates were highest when mites were exposed to dry conidia (>90%) and lowest with M. anisopliae in diatomaceous earth. Overall, the infection rate was not affected by whether or not the mites were given prior exposure to the conidia, before being placed on the sheep. The results demonstrate that Psoroptes mites can become infected by entomopathogenic fungi on the skin of sheep and provides a first demonstration of the potential of this technology for the control of sheep scab. PMID:17624674
Abolins, S; Thind, B; Jackson, V; Luke, B; Moore, D; Wall, R; Taylor, M A
Background Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001). Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%); inhibition of GST activity (73%) with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81%) with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.
Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James
Sensitization to domestic mites is common in Germany. The main objectives of this study were (1) to establish the rate of skin test sensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae in 512 consecutive patients evaluated for upper and/or lower respiratory complaints; (2) to verify how many of the patients with a positive skin test to at least one of the three storage mites were also skin test positive to D. pteronyssinus; and (3) to verify how many of the patients with at least one positive skin test to one of the storage mites previously mentioned were also sensitized, in vitro, to other mite species. A total of 512 consecutive patients with rhinitis and/or asthma, living in urban or rural areas of central Germany were skin tested with extracts of D. pteronyssinus, A. siro, L. destructor, and T. putrescentiae. In addition, specific IgE determinations to Euroglyphus maynei, Blomia tropicalis, Blomia tjibodas, Blomia kulagini, and Gohieria fusca were conducted in those individuals with a positive skin test to at least one of the storage mites used in skin testing. Of the 512 patients, 103 (20.1%; 77 urban dwellers and 26 farmers) reacted to at least one of the storage mites. From this latter group, 88 individuals (85.4%) also skin tested positive to D. pteronyssinus. In vitro specific IgE determinations revealed a high rate of sensitization to the other mite species studied. We conclude that sensitization to storage mites in Germany is frequently associated with sensitivity to D. pteronyssinus. Overall, skin test sensitivity to storage mites was greater in rural than in city dwellers. In vitro sensitization to B. tjibodas was also significantly greater in rural than in city dwellers. PMID:12530116
Müsken, Horst; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Marańón, Francisco; Franz, Jörg-Thomas; Masuch, Georg; Bergmann, Karl-Christian
Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects. PMID:22448521
Wyatt, Jeff; DiVincenti, Louis
The effect of dissolving ?-carotene into palm olein was experimentally investigated using time-resolved thermal lens spectroscopy. The thermal diffusivity of palm olein was measured, and the dependence on the concentration of the compounds was studied. The results show an enhancement in the thermal diffusivity by increasing the quantity of ?-carotene in the compounds. This behavior was interpreted on the basis of the electronic structure of the ?-carotene molecule.
de Freitas Cabral, A. J.; de Oliveira, P. C.; Moreira, S. G. C.; Alcantara, P.
The effect of different factors affecting the slip melting point of palm oil has been evaluated. The most important factor\\u000a appears to be the difference in tempering temperatures. The influence of different tempering temperatures on slip point values\\u000a is, however, dependent on the nature of the sample. For hydrogenated oils and for some high-melting palm stearins, tempering\\u000a has no effect.
K. G. Berger; W. L. Siew; Flingoh C. H. OH
In the search for economical cocoa butter alternatives, palm and lauric oils have emerged as important source oils in the\\u000a development of hard butters. Based on the method presented for categorizing hard butters, the lauric oils, primarily palm\\u000a kernel and coconut, can be modified by interesterification and hydrogenated to yield lauric cocoa butter substitutes (CBS)\\u000a which are both good eating
J. John Pease
Biosurfactants production by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using palm oil as a sole carbon source was investigated. The experiments were carried out in 500-mL conical flasks containing\\u000a 100 mL of mineral media supplemented with palm oil as the sole carbon source. The P. aeruginosa FR strain was able to reduce surface tension of three tested inorganic media. Rotation velocities
Fernando J. S. Oliveira; Leonardo Vazquez; Norberto P. De Campos; Francisca P. de França
Biosurfactants production by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using palm oil as a sole carbon source was investigated. The experiments were carried out in 500-mL conical flasks containing\\u000a 100 mL of mineral media supplemented with palm oil as the sole carbon source. The P. aeruginosa FR strain was able to reduce surface tension of three tested inorganic media. Rotation velocities
Fernando J. S. Oliveira; Leonardo Vazquez; NORBERTO P. DE CAMPOS; Francisca P. França
The slow pyrolysis of oil palm trunks was investigated in a lab-scale pyrolyzer at terminal temperatures from 450 to 800°C, and a heating rate of 10°C min. The oil palm trunk was first pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer to study the thermal characteristics, and to determine the kinetic parameters. The lab-scale pyrolysis results showed that as the terminal temperature increased,
K. H. Khor; K. O. Lim; Z. A. Zainal Alimuddin
In this work, a batch-type reactor system was used to prepare biodiesel from RBD palm oil in supercritical methanol without any catalyst. Experiments were carried out by changing the operation parameters such as temperature (200–400°C), the mole ratio of methanol to RBD palm oil (3–80) and reaction time (0.5–20min). The content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was analyzed using
Eun-Seok Song; Jung-won Lim; Hong-Shik Lee; Youn-Woo Lee
The occurrence of a large number of fossil woods having resemblance in anatomical features with the modern palm genus, Phoenix L in Deccan Intertrappean fossil flora of Maastrichtian-Danian age (i. e. Late Cretaceous and Earliest Tertiary (65-67 my)) indicates the most primitive record of date palm. Present discovery of biocompounds from fossil wood of Phoenix collected from Deccan Intertrappean having affinity with the biocompounds known from modern plant further exemplify the earliest documentation of Phoenix in Indian peninsula.
Sharma, Dinesh Chandra; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Khan, M Salman; Srivastava, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ashwini Kumar; Shukla, Ritu
Background House dust mites (HDMs) are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years) with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations.
Gelardi, Matteo; Peroni, Diego G; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Quaranta, Nicola; De Luca, Concetta; Barberi, Salvatore; Dell'Albani, Ilaria; Landi, Massimo; Frati, Franco; de Beaumont, Olivier
Arcaricidal properties of decoctions, infusions and macerates of dried flower heads of camomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in vitro against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi Delafond (Parasitiformes: Psoroptidae). This mite species is responsible for otoacariasis in domestic animals. Mites were exposed to the extracts for 24, 48 or 72 h. All the extracts tested showed highly significant acaricidal activity when compared with controls. Among them, a decoction of 10% was the only formulation which gave 100% activity at all the three observations times. PMID:15189247
Macchioni, F; Perrucci, S; Cecchi, F; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I; Pampiglione, S
The incidence of skin test and RAST positivity for Dermatophagoides farinae and storage mites (Glycyphagus privatus, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and Gohieria fusca) have been evaluated in children with bronchial asthma and positive prick test to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The storage mite with highest incidence of skin and RAST positivity was Gohieria fusca, which caused a positive response in more than 50% of the children evaluated. This antigen appears to possess allergenic determinants not present in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The sensitivity to this antigen might be considered in house dust mite-allergic children who do not improve after specific immunotherapy with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extracts. PMID:2742217
Boner, A L; Richelli, C; Vallone, G; Verga, A; Parotelli, R; Andri, L; Piacentini, G L
An evaluation of the associations of parameters related to the fall of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) from commercial honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies as tools for selective breeding for mite resistance.
Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman) trapped on bottom boards were assessed as indirect measurements of colony mite population differences and potential indicators of mite resistance in commercial colonies of Russian and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) by using 35 candidate measurements. Measurements included numbers of damaged and nondamaged younger mites, nymphs, damaged and nondamaged older mites, fresh mites, and all mites, each as a proportion of total mites in the colonies and as a proportion of all trapped mites or all trapped fresh mites. Several measurements differed strongly between the stocks, suggesting that the detailed characteristics of trapped mites may reflect the operation of resistance mechanisms in the Russian honey bees. Regression analyses were used to determine the relationships of these candidate measurements with the number of mites in the colonies. The largest positive regressions differed for the two stocks (Italian honey bees: trapped mites and trapped younger mites; Russian honey bees: trapped younger mites and trapped fresh mites). Also, the regressions for Italian honey bees were substantially stronger. The largest negative regressions with colony mites for both stocks were for the proportion of older mites out of all trapped mites. Although these regressions were statistically significant and consistent with those previously reported, they were weaker than those previously reported. The numbers of mites in the colonies were low, especially in the Russian honey bee colonies, which may have negatively influenced the precision of the regressions. PMID:24772529
Rinderer, Thomas E; De Guzman, Lilia I; Frake, Amanda M; Tarver, Matthew R; Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong
In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141
Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash
Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 possesses the highest carboxymethyl-cellulase, xylanase and ß-glucosidase activities under liquid and solid cultivations compared withMyceliophthora thermophila IFO 31843 and an isolate, F11. Palm cake proved to be a better substrate for enzyme production and saccharification than palm fibre. Saccharification of these two substrates, using crude enzyme solutions from three fungi and commercial enzymes, was investigated.
P. Prasertsan; S. Oi
The frying performance of an enzymatically transesterified palm stearin and palm kernel olein (1:1 by weight) blend was compared with its control (physical mixture or no enzyme added) and a commercial plastic frying shortening (CS). The samples were used as deep-fat frying media at 180°C for banana chips for seven consecutive days. The samples were then analysed for iodine value
B. S Chu; H. M Ghazali; O. M Lai; Y. B Che Man; S Yusof; M. S. A Yusoff
The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ? 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs. PMID:22414329
Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang
The coconut mite (CM), Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has spread to most coconut production areas worldwide and it has been considered one of the most notorious and important pests of coconut fruits in many countries. Although CM has been reported to damage coconuts for over 40 years in the Americas and Africa it continues to cause considerable losses in countries of these continents, and in the last 15 years it has also reached countries from southeast Asia-India and Sri Lanka. Several other countries of southeast Asia are also major coconut producers and the impact by the mite in currently affected areas suggests that the dispersion of CM to these major producers could lead to very heavy losses. Great advances about our knowledge on CM and its control have been achieved, especially in the last decade, after its introduction into Asia. However, much remains to be known to allow the design of efficient strategies to it. This paper brings together information on CM invasive history, distribution, hosts, morphology, biology, dispersal, colonization process, population dynamics, symptoms and injury, estimated losses, sampling techniques, control strategies and new perspectives for its control. PMID:23192330
Navia, Denise; Gondim, Manoel Guedes Correa; Aratchige, Nayanie S; de Moraes, Gilberto José
Although odour-mediated interactions among plants, spider mites and predatory mites have been extensively studied above-ground, belowground studies are in their infancy. In this paper, we investigate whether feeding by rust mites (Aceria tulipae) cause tulip bulbs to produce odours that attract predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris). Since our aim was to demonstrate such odours and not their relevance under soil conditions, the experiments were carried out using a classic Y-tube olfactometer in which the predators moved on a Y-shaped wire in open air. We found that food-deprived female predators can discriminate between odours from infested bulbs and odours from uninfested bulbs or artificially wounded bulbs. No significant difference in attractiveness to predators was found between clean bulbs and bulbs either wounded 30 min or 3 h before the experiment. These results indicate that it may not be simply the wounding of the bulbs, but rather the feeding by rust mites, which causes the bulb to release odours that attract N. cucumeris. Since bulbs are belowground plant structures, the olfactometer results demonstrate the potential for odour-mediated interactions in the soil. However, their importance in the actual soil medium remains to be demonstrated. PMID:15285135
Aratchige, N S; Lesna, I; Sabelis, M W
Miniature inverted–repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are predicted to play important roles on genome evolution. We developed a BLASTN-based approach for de novo identification of MITEs and systematically analyzed MITEs in rice genome. The genome of rice cultivar Nipponbare (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) harbors 178,533 MITE-related sequences classified into 338 families. Pairwise nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that individual MITE families were resulted from one or multiple rounds of amplification bursts. The timing of amplification burst varied considerably between different MITE families or subfamilies. MITEs are associated with 23,623 (58.2%) genes in rice genome. At least 7,887 MITEs are transcribed and more than 3,463 were transcribed with rice genes. The MITE sequences transcribed with rice coding genes form 1,130 pairs of potential natural sense/antisense transcripts. MITEs generate 23.5% (183,837 of 781,885) of all small RNAs identified from rice. Some MITE families generated small RNAs mainly from the terminals, while other families generated small RNAs predominantly from the central region. More than half (51.8%) of the MITE-derived small RNAs were generated exclusively by MITEs located away from genes. Genome-wide analysis showed that genes associated with MITEs have significantly lower expression than genes away from MITEs. Approximately 14.8% of loci with full-length MITEs have presence/absence polymorphism between rice cultivars 93-11 (O. sativa ssp. indica) and Nipponbare. Considering that different sets of genes may be regulated by MITE-derived small RNAs in different genotypes, MITEs provide considerable diversity for O. sativa.
Lu, Chen; Chen, Jiongjiong; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Qun; Su, Wenqing; Kuang, Hanhui
Antibiotic and nonpreference mechanisms are related in cucumber through the action of the bi gene and the absence of cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins attract cucumber beetles and cause feeding whereas they have an antibiotic effect on two-spotted mites. PMID:17839822
Da Costa, C P; Jones, C M
Antibiotic and nonpreference mechanisms are related in cucumber through the action of the bi gene and the absence of cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins attract cucumber beetles and cause feeding whereas they have an antibiotic effect on two-spotted mites.
Cyro P. da Costa; Charles M. Jones
Psoroptes ovis [Hering] mites and sucking lice (Linognathus vituli Linnaeus) were eliminated from light to heavily infested calves with a single subcutaneous injection of nifluridide in five separate experiments. The compound was incorporated in a copolymer vehicle in a sesame oil suspension. In the first two experiments, mites were eliminated within 10 days following a 20 mg kg-1 injection. Eight out of 9 calves were cleared of mites within 7 days post injection of nifluridide at 4, 6 and 9 mg kg-1 in the third experiment. At the end of the 65 day trial, no live mites were isolated from any of the treated animals. In the last two experiments nifluridide eliminated sucking lice populations at all dosage levels. Complete control of the biting lice (Bovicola bovis) was not obtained. No toxic signs were observed in treated calves. PMID:6891855
Boisvenue, R J; Clymer, B C
A breeding colony consisting of 250 different strains of mice was treated with the topical acaricide selamectin for the mouse fur mite Myocoptes musculinus, with no apparent ill effect, suggesting that this drug is safe for use in mice. To further evaluate their efficacy in treating Myocoptes spp., we compared selamectin with another acaricide, moxidectin, in a controlled manner. Infested mice were treated with selamectin or moxidectin at the time of cage change, and a subset of mice was retreated 10 d later. Mice underwent routine cellophane tape examination of the pelage for 1 y. Although no adult mites were found in any group at 1 mo after treatment, egg casings were found in the selamectin treatment group as late as 6 mo after treatment, prompting concern about its effectiveness. Moxidectin used in combination with cage changing was effective in eradicating mites, with mice negative for traces of mites on cellophane tape examination of the pelage from months 2 through 12 after treatment.
Mook, Deborah M; Benjamin, Kimberly A
Objective To determine whether patients with asthma who are sensitive to mites benefit from measures designed to reduce their exposure to house dust mite antigen in the home. Design Meta-analysis of randomised trials that investigated the effects on asthma patients of chemical or physical measures to control mites, or both, in comparison with an untreated control group. All trials in any language were eligible for inclusion. Subjects Patients with bronchial asthma as diagnosed by a doctor and sensitisation to mites as determined by skin prick testing, bronchial provocation testing, or serum assays for specific IgE antibodies. Main outcome measures Number of patients whose allergic symptoms improved, improvement in asthma symptoms, improvement in peak expiratory flow rate. Outcomes measured on different scales were combined using the standardised effect size method (the difference in effect was divided by the standard deviation of the measurements). Results 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis; 6 studies used chemical methods to reduce exposure to mites, 13 used physical methods, and 4 used a combination. Altogether, 41/113 patients exposed to treatment interventions improved compared with 38/117 in the control groups (odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 2.18). The standardised mean difference for improvement in asthma symptoms was ?0.06 (95% confidence interval ?0.54 to 0.41). For peak flow rate measured in the morning the standardised mean difference was ?0.03 (?0.25 to 0.19). As measured in the original units this difference between the treatment and the control group corresponds to ?3?l/min (95% confidence interval ?25?l/min to 19?l/min). The results were similar in the subgroups of trials that reported successful reduction in exposure to mites or had long follow up times. Conclusion Current chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to allergens from house dust mites seem to be ineffective and cannot be recommended as prophylactic treatment for asthma patients sensitive to mites. Key messagesCurrent chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to allergens from house dust mites seem to be ineffective; these methods cannot be recommended as prophylactic treatment for asthma patients who are sensitive to mitesIt is unlikely that a worthwhile effect has been overlooked in this meta-analysis since the confidence interval for the peak expiratory flow rate was quite narrowFuture studies should be much larger and more rigorous than those in this meta-analysis and should evaluate other methods of mite control than those used to date
G?tzsche, Peter C; Hammarquist, Cecilia; Burr, Michael
Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313
Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa
Wheat-Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur, hybrid lines were tested as potential sources of resistance to colonization by the wheat curl mite, the vector of wheat streak mosaic virus. Two lines, Add 6V-1 and Sub 6V-1, were found to be mite-resistant. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using total genomic DNA, from H. villosa in the presence of unlabelled wheat DNA, confirmed that Add
Q. Chen; R. L. Conner; A. Laroche
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H2O2 as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed.
Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Cambra, Ines; Martinez, Manuel; Pozancos, Clara; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Grbic, Vojislava; Castanera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel
The dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is a major cause of allergic disease in the Western world. Der p 1 is considered to be the most immunodominant allergen involved in the expression of IgE-mediated dust-mite hypersensitivity. Here, Farouk Shakib and colleagues suggest that it is the proteolytic effect of Der p 1 on CD23 and CD25 which makes it such a
Farouk Shakib; Oliver Schulz; Herb Sewell
Binomial sampling based on the proportion of samples infested was investigated for estimating mean densities of citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), and Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae), on oranges, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Data for the investigation were obtained by counting the number of motile mites within 600 sample units (each unit a 1-cm2 surface area per fruit) across a 4-ha block of trees (32 blocks total): five areas per 4 ha, five trees per area, 12 fruit per tree, and two samples per fruit. A significant (r2 = 0.89), linear relationship was found between ln(-ln(1 -Po)) and ln(mean), where P0 is the proportion of samples with more than zero mites. The fitted binomial parameters adequately described a validation data set from a sampling plan consisting of 192 samples. Projections indicated the fitted parameters would apply to sampling plans with as few as 48 samples, but reducing sample size resulted in an increase of bootstrap estimates falling outside expected confidence limits. Although mite count data fit the binomial model, confidence limits for mean arithmetic predictions increased dramatically as proportion of samples infested increased. Binomial sampling using a tally threshold of 0 therefore has less value when proportions of samples infested are large. Increasing the tally threshold to two mites marginally improved estimates at larger densities. Overall, binomial sampling for a general estimate of mite densities seemed to be a viable alternative to absolute counts of mites per sample for a grower using a low management threshold such as two or three mites per sample. PMID:17370833
Hall, David G; Childers, Carl C; Eger, Joseph E
In a study of 279 United Kingdom bakery workers a high prevalence of immunological response to storage mites was found. To determine whether this was the consequence of exposure to storage mites in bakery work, a population of salt packing workers was examined as a comparison group not at occupational risk of exposure to storage mites. Forty two per cent of both groups were atopic (had a positive skin prick response greater than negative controls to D pteronyssinus, grass pollen, or cat fur by 2 mm or more) and 33% had an immediate skin prick test response to at least one of four storage mites (L destructor, G domesticus, T putrescentiae, A Siro). A higher percentage of the salt packing workers than the bakery workers had a positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) (greater than or equal to 0.35 PRU) to D pteronyssinus and to the four storage mites. Logistic regression analysis identified atopy as the most significant variable for a positive skin test and RAST response to storage mites in both groups of workers. RAST inhibition was used to analyse extracted area and personal air samples. Analysis of static area samples for aeroallergen showed immunological identity with flour but L destructor was found in only one of seven exposed filters. The concentration of airborne flour was related to exposure rank of perceived dustiness and gravimetric measurement of total dust. Nineteen out of 32 filters from workers in jobs with higher dust exposure (rank >/=6) had a level of > 10 microgram/m(3) flour whereas this concentrations was exceeded in only one of 23 filters from workers in low dust exposure (< rank 6). It is concluded that storage mites are not of special significance in allergic responses in bakery workers. The development of immunological (and airway) responsiveness to inhaled flour dust is increased in those exposed to higher concentrations of airborne allergen, which appears to be predominantly flour and not storage mites. PMID:1515350
Tee, R D; Gordon, D J; Gordon, S; Crook, B; Nunn, A J; Musk, A W; Venables, K M; Taylor, A J
. Old carpets may be reservoirs of dust, lead (Pb), and dust mite allergen. The purpose of this study was to determine if\\u000a the dust, Pb, dust mite allergen, bacteria, and fungi on the surface of carpets could be reduced by 90% in 1 week with the\\u000a use of a Hoover Self Propelled Vacuum with Embedded Dirt Finder (HSPF). A
J. W. Roberts; W. S. Clifford; G. Glass; P. G. Hummer
This study provides the first quantitative analysis of the littoral and supralittoral insect and mite assemblages of sub-Antarctic\\u000a Marion Island. Seventeen mite species (126,203 individuals) from 11 families were found on the shore at Macaroni Bay. Three\\u000a families dominated the assemblages in both abundance and diversity: the Hyadesiidae, Ameronothridae and Halacaridae. Six insect\\u000a species from three orders were found on
R. D. Mercer; S. L. Chown; D. J. Marshall
The specific composition of gamasid mites from three species of voles (Microtus arvalis Pall., M. agrestis L., M. oeconomus Pall.) is given. Forest, field and flood-land groupings of the common vole having distinct phenotypical differences are characterized by differences in the structure of their parasite fauna. In the forest the number of meadow and meadow-field species decreases while that of forest species of mites regularly increases. PMID:2942832
Borisova, V I; Nazarova, I V
Eriophyoid big bud mites are key pests of hazelnut throughout the world, but they are difficult to control with chemicals\\u000a or other methods because they are protected inside the bud. The most effective time for control is during the relatively short\\u000a emergence period which is difficult for growers to predict. The key objectives of this study were to monitor mite
Janette Webber; R. Bruce Chapman; S. P. Worner
This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification. PMID:20861564
Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Rosli, Rozana; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ithnin, Maizura; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Tan, Soon-Guan; Singh, Rajinder
Adsorption of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) onto activated carbons derived from oil palm shell, an abundant solid waste from palm oil processing mills, by thermal or chemical activation method was investigated in this paper. Dynamic adsorption in a fixed bed configuration showed that the palm-shell activated carbons prepared by chemical activation (KOH or H2SO4 impregnation) performed better than the palm-shell activated
Jia Guo; Ye Luo; Aik Chong Lua; Ru-an Chi; Yan-lin Chen; Xiu-ting Bao; Shou-xin Xiang
Background, aim, and scope Globally, 45 million metric tonnes of palm oil has been produced in 2009. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t\\u000a of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average, processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 230 kg empty fruit bunches (EFB)\\u000a and 650 kg palm oil mill effluent (POME) as residues. These residues cause considerable environmental
Heinz Stichnothe; Frank Schuchardt
The Amazonian peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has been grown for heart-of-palm production under subtropical conditions. As we did not see any substantial study\\u000a on its photosynthesis under Amazonian or subtropical conditions, we carried out an investigation on the diurnal and seasonal\\u000a variations in photosynthesis of peach palms until the first heart-of-palm harvest, considering their relationship with key\\u000a environmental factors.
M. L. S. Tucci; N. M. Erismann; E. C. Machado; R. V. Ribeiro
The silk produced by the group-living mite Tetranychus urticae provides group protection and is used as an informative material during habitat settlement, egg laying, mating, and dispersal events. In this context, cues contained in the silk and other materials produced by mites [eggs, black faeces (BF) and white faeces + silk (WFS)] were investigated. Chemical compounds were extracted by hexane or methanol, and choice tests were used to determine the individual attractiveness of each extract. For both solvents, individuals did not respond to the extract from eggs and WFS. BF extracts were attractive for both solvents. After separating the BF methanol extract into four different chemical components using thin layer chromatography, no component was determined to be responsible for mite attraction. This work supports the evidence that the faeces of T. urticae do contain substances that promote behavioural changes. Not particular chemical compounds but combinations of them seem to induce the mites' preference. Moreover, the response of mites to chemicals seemed to be context dependent as mites belonging to populations with different densities differed in their attraction to BF extracts. PMID:24535123
Clotuche, Gwendoline; Yano, Shuichi; Akino, Toshiharu; Amano, Hiroshi
Background Some studies reported the possible induction of food allergy, caused by neo-sensitization to cross-reacting allergens, during immunotherapy with aeroallergens, while other studies ruled out such possibility. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of neo-sensitization to Pen a 1 (tropomyosin) as well as the appearance of reactions after ingestion of foods containing tropomyosin as a consequence of sublingual mite immunization. Materials and methods Specific IgE to Tropomyosin (rPen a 1) before and after mite sublingual immunotherapy in 134 subjects were measured. IgE-specific antibodies for mite extract and recombinant allergen Pen a 1 were evaluated using the immunoenzymatic CAP system (Phadia Diagnostics, Milan, Italy). Results All patients had rPen a 1 IgE negative results before and after mite SLIT and did not show positive shrimp extract skin reactivity and serological rPen a 1 IgE conversion after treatment. More important, no patient showed systemic reactions to crustacean ingestion. Conclusions Patients did not show neo-sensitization to tropomyosin, a component of the extract (namely mite group 10) administered. An assessment of a patient's possible pre-existing sensitisation to tropomyosin by skin test and/or specific IgE prior to start mite extract immunotherapy is recommended. Trial Registration This trial is registered in EudraCT, with the ID number of 2010-02035531.
Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs. PMID:24114337
Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino
The mite Psoroptes ovis is the causative agent of sheep scab. Although not usually fatal, the disease can spread rapidly and is a serious animal welfare concern. Vaccine development against ectoparasites has primarily focussed on two sources of candidate vaccine antigens – “exposed” antigens that are secreted in saliva during feeding on a host and “concealed” antigens that are usually expressed in the parasite gut and may be involved in digestion. Here, we sought to identify genes encoding proteins important for mite feeding and digestion by a subtractive suppressive hybridisation approach comparing mRNA transcript abundance in “fed” and “starved” mites. The study identified a variety of genes which are up-regulated by feeding mites. These included group 1, 5, 7 and 13 allergens including the previously described cysteine protease Pso o 1. In addition, numerous novel genes were identified here including some encoding potential salivary gland proteins and others encoding proteins which may facilitate feeding such as a serum opacity factor. An olfactory receptor-like protein was identified in the starved mite population which may help the mite to identify a host.
McNair, Carol M.; Billingsley, Peter F.; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Knox, Dave P.
The mite Psoroptes ovis is the causative agent of sheep scab. Although not usually fatal, the disease can spread rapidly and is a serious animal welfare concern. Vaccine development against ectoparasites has primarily focussed on two sources of candidate vaccine antigens - "exposed" antigens that are secreted in saliva during feeding on a host and "concealed" antigens that are usually expressed in the parasite gut and may be involved in digestion. Here, we sought to identify genes encoding proteins important for mite feeding and digestion by a subtractive suppressive hybridisation approach comparing mRNA transcript abundance in "fed" and "starved" mites. The study identified a variety of genes which are up-regulated by feeding mites. These included group 1, 5, 7 and 13 allergens including the previously described cysteine protease Pso o 1. In addition, numerous novel genes were identified here including some encoding potential salivary gland proteins and others encoding proteins which may facilitate feeding such as a serum opacity factor. An olfactory receptor-like protein was identified in the starved mite population which may help the mite to identify a host. PMID:19852923
McNair, Carol M; Billingsley, Peter F; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Knox, Dave P
Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack.
Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D
The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora.
Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan
Various applications of active ingredients of six fungicides and three insecticides and acaricides at normally recommended dosages were tested on two predatory mite species (Amblyseius andersoni Chant and Anthoseius bakeri Garman) from the family Phytoseiidae and on two predatory insect species (Coccinella septempunctata L. Chrysopa perla L.) dominantly present on apple trees. Small differences were found between fungicide treatments. On the trees treated with six fungicide applications the predatory mites and insects survived and increased to a high level, often 20-40 phytoseiids per 100 leaves and 4-8 predatory insects per sample unit. Only the active ingredients tolylfluanid and myclobutanil resulted in lower densities of predatory mites (10-20 phytoseiids per 100 leaves). One application of insecticides-acaricides (active ingredients: clofentezine, phosalone) showed no toxic effect on predatory mites and insects. Two applications of phosalone and one of alpha-cypermethrine were slightly or moderately toxic. Two applications of alpha-cypermethrine and eight routine sprays of various insecticides-acaricides and fungicides were very toxic and resulted in the lowest maximum number of predatory mites and insects, approximately 0-10 phytoseiids per 100 leaves and 1-4 predatory insects per sample unit. The toxicity of pesticides to predatory mites and insects is based on the toxicity of the pesticide' active ingredient and the spray frequency. The active ingredients of fungicides and only one or two applications of insecticides and acaricides were not or slightly toxic and could be used in integrated pest management. PMID:15269898
Raudonis, L; Surviliene, E; Valiuskaite, A
Soy beans dangerous pests are mites and thrips, that is why the present paper aims at the examination of the changes in their numbers and dominance relations of some varieties of different maturity groups. The small plot experiments were conducted in Kisalföld region with the following soybean varieties: early ripening Bólyi 38, Evans, McCall, middle ripening Bólyi 45 and late ripening Eszter, Zsuzsanna and Borza, in Mosonmagyaróvár. Mites and thrips were collected every week with Berlese-extractor. It was observed that Tetranychus urticae Koch, the dominant mite species on soybean, developed its peak-numbers at the end of August. The number of mites was 20 % higher on the late ripening varieties, than on the early ripening ones. Predatory mites (Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten, Amblyseius andersoni Chant) and thrips (Scolothrips longicornis Priesner, Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall) could not reduce the number of Tetranychus urticae due to their low density. Among the thrips Thrips tabaci Lindeman was the main pest of the soybean leaves, but Frankliniella intonsa Trybom was dominant in the flowers. The blooming of the soybean primarily influences the dynamics of phytophagous thrips. The peak-number of pests reached the highest rate a week later and more thrips were counted on the late varieties as well. Early ripening soybean varieties are recommended to be grown in the Kisalföld region since they are less affected by mites and thrips. PMID:15149112
Abrahám, R; Kuroli, G
A total of 9,281 larval chigger mites were collected from small mammals captured at Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do (Province) (2,754 mites from 30 small mammals), Asan city, Chungcheongnam-do (3,358 mites from 48 mammals), and Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do (3,169 for 62 mammals) from April-November 2009 in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) and were identified to species. Leptotrombidium pallidum was the predominant species in Hwaseong (95.8%) and Asan (61.2%), while Leptotrombidium scutellare was the predominant species collected from Jangseong (80.1%). Overall, larval chigger mite indices decreased from April (27.3) to June (4.9), then increased in September (95.2) and to a high level in November (169.3). These data suggest that L. pallidum and L. scutellare are the primary vectors of scrub typhus throughout their range in Korea. While other species of larval chigger mites were also collected with some implications in the transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi, they only accounted for 11.2% of all larval chigger mites collected from small mammals. PMID:24850971
Lee, In-Yong; Song, Hyeon-Je; Choi, Yeon-Joo; Shin, Sun-Hye; Choi, Min-Kyung; Kwon, So-Hyun; Shin, E-Hyun; Park, Chan; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A; Park, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Won-Jong
A total of 9,281 larval chigger mites were collected from small mammals captured at Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do (Province) (2,754 mites from 30 small mammals), Asan city, Chungcheongnam-do (3,358 mites from 48 mammals), and Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do (3,169 for 62 mammals) from April-November 2009 in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) and were identified to species. Leptotrombidium pallidum was the predominant species in Hwaseong (95.8%) and Asan (61.2%), while Leptotrombidium scutellare was the predominant species collected from Jangseong (80.1%). Overall, larval chigger mite indices decreased from April (27.3) to June (4.9), then increased in September (95.2) and to a high level in November (169.3). These data suggest that L. pallidum and L. scutellare are the primary vectors of scrub typhus throughout their range in Korea. While other species of larval chigger mites were also collected with some implications in the transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi, they only accounted for 11.2% of all larval chigger mites collected from small mammals.
Lee, In-Yong; Song, Hyeon-Je; Choi, Yeon-Joo; Shin, Sun-Hye; Choi, Min-Kyung; Kwon, So-Hyun; Shin, E-Hyun; Park, Chan; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Park, Kyung-Hee
Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 ?m to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.
Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.
Scabies continues to be an important parasitic disease of mammals. There remain, however, major gaps in the understanding of the human host immune response, and a simple diagnostic test is lacking. In contrast to human mites, red fox mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpis) can be collected easily and have been used, due to crossreactivity, for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies in dogs and pigs. We wanted to investigate the possibility that crossreactivity might also exist for the human mite, and determined titers against fox mite antigens by ELISA in 41 patients with scabies. Specific IgG was significantly higher in patients with scabies than in healthy controls (P=0.01). The sensitivity was, however, only 48%, although it increased slightly during treatment (P=0.86). A positive correlation was also noted between disease duration and severity of infestation (r=0.5), with specific IgG titers increasing in parallel with severity of symptoms (P=0.01). Patients with symptomatic scabies for more than 4 weeks had furthermore significantly higher IgG titers than patients with a shorter duration of disease (P=0.007). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate IgG antibodies in human scabies that crossreact with fox mite antigens, thus encouraging the search for improved ELISAs with more specific mite antigens to produce a more sensitive detection system for scabies in humans. PMID:15650895
Haas, N; Wagemann, B; Hermes, B; Henz, B M; Heile, C; Schein, E
Rosacea is a common dermatological condition that predominantly affects the central regions of the face. Rosacea affects up to 3?% of the world's population and a number of subtypes are recognized. Rosacea can be treated with a variety of antibiotics (e.g. tetracycline or metronidazole) yet no role for bacteria or microbes in its aetiology has been conclusively established. The density of Demodex mites in the skin of rosacea patients is higher than in controls, suggesting a possible role for these mites in the induction of this condition. In addition, Bacillus oleronius, known to be sensitive to the antibiotics used to treat rosacea, has been isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea and a potential role for this bacterium in the induction of rosacea has been proposed. Staphylococcus epidermidis has been isolated predominantly from the pustules of rosacea patients but not from unaffected skin and may be transported around the face by Demodex mites. These findings raise the possibility that rosacea is fundamentally a bacterial disease resulting from the over-proliferation of Demodex mites living in skin damaged as a result of adverse weathering, age or the production of sebum with an altered fatty acid content. This review surveys the literature relating to the role of Demodex mites and their associated bacteria in the induction and persistence of rosacea and highlights possible therapeutic options. PMID:22933353
Jarmuda, Stanislaw; O'Reilly, Niamh; Zaba, Ryszard; Jakubowicz, Oliwia; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej; Kavanagh, Kevin
The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora. PMID:20572792
Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan
A thorough review of the literature has identified the key factors and interactions that affect the growth of mite pests on stored grain commodities. Although many factors influence mite growth, the change and combinations of the physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity and/or moisture content) during the storage period are likely to have the greatest impact, with biological factors (e.g. predators and commodity) playing an important role. There is limited information on the effects of climate change, light, species interactions, local density dependant factors, spread of mycotoxins and action thresholds for mites. A greater understanding of these factors may identify alternative control techniques. The ability to predict mite population dynamics over a range of environmental conditions, both physical and biological, is essential in providing an early warning of mite infestations, advising when appropriate control measures are required and for evaluating control measures. This information may provide a useful aid in predicting and preventing mite population development as part of a risk based decision support system. PMID:22270112
Collins, D A
We investigated the rapid cold hardening (RCH) response in the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). On direct exposure, ?2 % of adult females survived -10 °C for 2 h. However, when acclimatized first at 5 °C for 1 h, 75 % of females survived. RCH could also be induced by acclimatization at 30 °C for 2 h or anoxia (oxygen-free nitrogen) for 1-2 h. All immature stages showed enhanced survival when acclimatized at 5 °C for 2 h before exposure to -10 °C. Acclimatization at 30 °C induced RCH only in eggs and deutonymphs, and anoxia was effective for eggs, larvae, and deutonymphs. The variability among immature stages may be attributed to the cost associated with the acclimatization treatments. Our findings suggest that RCH may promote the survival of N. californicus during unexpected changes in temperatures, and can be an important feature particularly when this natural enemy is introduced to non-native environments. PMID:24682616
Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Amano, Hiroshi
Abstract Nine eriophyoid mites, including two new species and five new records, from Iran are described and illustrated. They are Aceria acroptiloni Shevchenko & Kacalev, 1974, rec. n. on Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo (Asteraceae); Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa, 1892), rec. n. on Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Asteraceae); Aceria lactucae (Canestrini, 1893), rec. n. on Lactuca virosa L. (Asteraceae); Aceria pulicaris sp. n. on Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. (Asteraceae); Aceria tosichella Keifer, 1969 on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae); Eriophyes rotundae Mohanasundaram, 1983 on Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae); Aculops maroccensis Keifer, 1972, rec. n. on Mentha piperita L. (Lamiaceae); Aculus medicager sp. n. on Medicago sativa L. (Leguminosae); Tetra lycopersici Xue & Hong, 2005, rec. n. on Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae).
Xue, Xiao-Feng; Sadeghi, Hussein; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Sinaie, Samira
Little is known about the relationships between fossil oribatid mite assemblages in lake and mire sediments and the composition,\\u000a abundance, and richness of their living communities. Because oribatid mites are a relatively new area of palaeolimnological\\u000a study, there is a great lack of knowledge about the taphonomic processes that might affect fossil mite assemblages. The DOORMAT\\u000a (Direct Observation Of Recent
Arguitxu de la Riva-Caballero; H. John B. Birks; Anne E. Bjune; Hilary H. Birks; Torstein Solhřy
Control of the house dust mite allergen has received considerable attention owing to its importance in some allergic diseases.\\u000a One aspect of dust mites and their allergen-carrying faecal particles that has not been reported on, which may have allergen\\u000a control applications, is the electrostatic charge they carry in the natural environment. To promote tribo-electric charging,\\u000a household dust containing dust mite
P. T. Gaynor; J. F. Hughes
The results of a 5-year study on the relationships between spider mites and their predators in vineyards in Northern Italy\\u000a are reported. The efficacy of the two predatory mites appeared to be strongly affected by various factors (grape variety,\\u000a presence of macropredators, climatic condition, interspecific competition, phytoseiid strain).\\u000a \\u000a The phytoseiid mitesAmblyseius aberrans (Oud.) andTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten were released at three
C. Duso; C. Pasqualetto
In spring a population of the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri),a non-diapausing species, migrated to a Japanese pear orchard,\\u000a mainly from nearby Japanese holly trees, but in autumn most of the mites starved to death while the rest returned to the holly\\u000a trees. In the Japanese holly trees, the population of mites reached their maximum density in late May1993 and
Tetsuo Gotoh; Mitsuhiro Kubota
The insect juvenile-hormone analogue fenoxycarb (ethyl [2-(phenoxyphenoxy) ethyl] carbamate) has been shown to stimulate egg production in the flour miteAcarus siro L. Incorporation of fenoxycarb into mite food at 10 mg kg-1 and 100 mg kg-1 increased egg production by 43% and 99%, respectively. In addition, total mite populations were significantly higher in fenoxycarb-treated media than in controls. These results
B. B. Thind; J. P. Edwards
Demodex mites have been reported in the past as a cause of facial rash in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we report an interesting case of possible demodicosis associated with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. The association of mites with a fungus was detected on direct microscopic examination of the scrapings of a nasal ulcer. The mite and the fungus were identified as Demodex folliculorum and Apophysomyces elegans species complex, respectively. PMID:23475907
Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Kapoor, Rakesh; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke
Rodents are the natural hosts for Leptotrombidium mites that transmit Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus, a potentially fatal febrile human disease. Utilizing mite lines that included O. tsutsugamushi infected and non-infected Leptotrombidium species we investigated the varied infection response of outbred mice (ICR) exposed to L. chiangraiensis (Lc), L. imphalum (Li) and L. deliense (Ld). Each of six mite lines (Lc1, Lc5, Li3, Li4, Li7 and Ld) was separately placed in the inner ears of ICR mice either as a single individual (individual feeding, IF) or as a group of 2-4 individuals (pool feeding, PF). The species of infected chigger feeding on mice significantly affected mortality rates of the mice, with mite lines of Lc causing higher mean (±SE) mortality (90.7 ± 3.6 %) than mite lines of Li (62.9 ± 5.6 %) or Ld (53.6 ± 5.8 %). Mouse responses which included time to death, food consumption and total mice weight change depended on mite species and their O. tsutsugamushi genotype, more than on feeding procedure (IF vs. PF) except for mite lines within the Lc. Infected mite lines of Lc were the most virulent infected mites assessed whereas the infected Ld species was the least virulent for the ICR. Mice killed by various mite lines showed enlarged spleens and produced ascites. The results of this investigation of the clinical responses of ICR mice to feeding by various infected mite lines indicated that the different species of infected mites and their O. tsutsugamushi genotype produced different clinical presentations in ICR mice, a scrub typhus mouse model which mimics the natural transmission of O. tsutsugamushi that is critical for understanding scrub typhus disease in terms of natural transmission, host-pathogen-vector interaction and vaccine development. PMID:22527840
Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Monkanna, Taweesak; Leepitakrat, Surachai; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, Patrick W; Richards, Allen L
The apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae), is a main pest in apple-growing areas in Ankara, Turkey, and chemical control applications have\\u000a some limitations. Entomopathogenic fungi have a potential for biological control of mites. In this study, an entomopathogenic\\u000a fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes), was first isolated from the mite cadavers on Japanese crab apple leaves
Fikret Demirci; Evsel Denizhan
Two exotic phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii, are commercially available in Japan for the control of thrips and other pest insects. As part of a risk assessment of the non-target effects of releasing these two species, we investigated intraguild predation (IGP) between these exotic phytoseiid mites and an indigenous phytoseiid mite Gynaeseius liturivorus, which is promising as an indigenous natural enemy for the control of thrips in Japan. To understand IGP relations between the exotic and indigenous phytoseiid mites after use of the exotic mites for biological control, we investigated IGP between them in the absence of their shared prey. When an IG prey was offered to an IG predator, both exotic and indigenous females consumed the IG prey at all immature stages (egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph), especially at its larval stages. The propensity for IGP in a no-choice test was measured by the survival time of IG prey corrected using the survival time of thrips offered to the IG predator. There was no significant difference in the propensity for IGP between N. cucumeris and G. liturivorus, but the propensity was significantly higher in A. swirskii than G. liturivorus. The propensity for IGP in a choice test was measured by the prey choice of the IG predator when a conspecific and a heterospecific larva were offered simultaneously as IG prey. Both exotic females consumed the heterospecific larva only. The indigenous female preferentially consumed the heterospecific larva when the heterospecific larva was N. cucumeris, but consumed the conspecific larva when the heterospecific larva was A. swirskii. We concluded that further investigation would be necessary for the exotic mites' risk assessment, since the propensity for IGP of the two exotic females was similar to or higher than that of the indigenous female in both the no-choice and choice tests. PMID:21465332
Sato, Yukie; Mochizuki, Atsushi
The American house dust mite, Dermatophagoidesfarinae Hughes, and European house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Trouessart, are major pests of medical importance throughout the developed world, causing atopic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the behavioral responses of house dust mites toward volatiles from food sources could be assessed using a Y-tube olfactometer assay. The current study used this Y-tube assay to investigate house dust mite pheromones. A hexane extract of D.farinae, along with fractions of the extract prepared by microscale liquid chromatography over Florisil, were tested for behavioral activity. One of the chromatographic fractions was shown to be significantly attractive (P < 0.05) for D. farinae, compared with a solvent control. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of this behaviorally active fraction indicated that neryl or geranyl formate was the major component. Peak enhancement by gas chromatography, using authentic samples of the neryl and geranyl isomers prepared in high purity by chemical synthesis, confirmed the identity of the major peak as neryl formate. In Y-tube assays, male and female D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus both were significantly attracted to synthetic neryl formate at doses of 100 and 10 ng, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found for D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus when synthetic neryl formate and house dust mite extracts containing natural neryl formate were tested at the same level. Dynamic headspace collection of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus colonies showed that neryl formate was released as a volatile organic compound by both species. Our study shows that neryl formate is an aggregation pheromone for D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and has the potential to be used as part of a novel lure-and-kill system for house dust mite control. PMID:20939374
Skelton, A C; Cameron, M M; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A
Glycidyl esters (GE) are process contaminants generated during the deodorisation step of edible oil refining. In particular, GE are found in high abundance in refined palm oil. Palm oil is unique in that it contains a high amount of diacylglycerols (DAG, 4–12%). In the present study, a series of model reactions mimicking palm oil deodorisation has been conducted with pure
Frédéric Destaillats; Brian D. Craft; Mathieu Dubois; Kornél Nagy
Oil palm is widely grown in Malaysia. Palm oil has attracted the attention of researchers to develop an ‘environmentally friendly’ and high quality fuel, free of nitrogen and sulfur. In the present study, the catalytic cracking of palm oil to biofuel was studied over REY catalyst in a transport riser reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature (400–500°C),
Pramila Tamunaidu; Subhash Bhatia
? Abstract—The increased use of palm oil as feedstock for biodiesel production has been a focus of discussion due to several environmental problems. This paper presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of biodiesel from palm oil (PME). Alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios and fertilization types have been evaluated. A life-cycle inventory and modeling of palm plantation and oil extraction
Erica G. Castanheira; Fausto M. Freire
The effect of hydrogenated palm oil on lipid profiles and on activities of selected glutathione-dependent enzymes in rats was investigated. Male albino wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, fed on fresh palm oil (control) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) supplemented (5% by weight) diets respectively for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol, liver lipid peroxidation and daily excretion of triacyl
Godwin C. Ojieh; Georginah O. Idokpesi; George O. Eidangbe; Kingsley Omage; Olarewaju M. Oluba
Shortage of wood as a raw material has forced wood-based industries to find alternative local raw materials. Currently, oil palm biomass is undergoing research and development (R & D) and appears to be the most viable alternative. This work examines the conversion of oil palm trunk (OPT) and oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) into new plywood and analyses its
H. P. S. Abdul Khalil; M. R. Nurul Fazita; A. H. Bhat; M. Jawaid; N. A. Nik Fuad
The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular diseases has necessitateda growing research interest in palm oil, the second largest consumedvegetable oil in the world. Palm oil, obtained from a tropical plant, Elaeis guineensis contains 50% saturated fatty acids, yet it does notpromote atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. The saturated fatty acidto unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to
D. O. Edem
This work describes the modelling of a new supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process for palm oil refining. The aim is to develop the new, intensified and simpler palm oil refining process that is based on SFE technology that can overcome the limitations of the existing technology for palm oil refining. Two steps approach were used. Firstly, the phase equilibrium behavior
Z. A. Manan; C. S. Lim; N. S. Abd Rahman; S. R. Wan Alwi
The palm oil mills are characterized by the availability of considerable amounts of by-products of high-energy value such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), fibers, shells and liquid effluents with high content of organics called palm oil mill effluent (POME). A palm oil mill produces residues equivalent to almost three times the amount of oil produced by biomass, showing a huge
F. R. P. Arrieta; F. N. Teixeira; E. Yáńez; E. Lora; E. Castillo
...Docket No. 12-AWP-10] Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Twentynine Palms...SUMMARY: This action amends Class D and Class E airspace at Twentynine Palms...Airport, Twentynine Palms, CA. The Class D airspace and Class E airspace...
Sustainable management of water resources allocated to palm crops requires reliable tools for measuring palm water use. Thermometric sap flow methods developed for woody dicot plants hold great potential for use in palms, but there have been few investigations to determine whether such methods can be used successfully in ‘woody’ monocots. Here, we evaluate two sap flow methods for measuring
Wasantha S. Madurapperuma; Timothy M. Bleby; Stephen S. O. Burgess
Several species of the Raphia palm exists and are largely confined to tropical Africa, south of the Sahara, from sea level of about 2000m altitude. In Nigeria, it is found in the south-south geopolitical zone. It provides material for furniture, house construction, food, clothing, edible oil, and so on. Raphia palm is one of the most useful palms economically. The
F. I. Obahiagbon
Since 1971 there has been a revival of interest in the possibilities for cultivation of the true sago palm, Metroxylon spp. Agronomic and economic research shows that the palm can become an important starch producing crop. Many queries concerning the agronomy of the crop have been solved. The palm is especially suited to humid tropical lowlands. It is fairly salinity
M. Flach; D. L. Schuiling
Typically, Indonesian oil palm plantations rest on rolling topography. There is limited information on how topography affects soil fertility and oil palm yields. A study was conducted to evaluate these relationships in a commercial oil palm plantation located in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Two sites with differing past management history and fertility regimes were each partitioned into three topographic positions. At
S. K. Balasundram; P. C. Robert; D. J. Mulla; D. L. Allan
...Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...delay in the effective date of this rule would be...Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida....
...Class E Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard...SIAPs) have been developed at Palm Beach County Park Airport...operations within the West Palm Beach, FL airspace area. This...coordinates of the airport. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC,...
Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at
Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi
Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a relatively new food crop with great potential for the humid tropics. Native to tropical America, it is commercially grown to produce hearts-of-palm and, to a lesser extent, an edible fruit. Peach palm is well adapted to nutrient poor, acid soils, and is cultivated in Brazil and Costa Rica on highly weathered soils with
J. Deenik; A. Ares; R. S. Yost
Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.
Regioisomerism of triacylglycerols in lard, tallow, yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry.
Triacylglycerols (TAG) of lard, tallow, egg yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (82:18) were investigated by chemical ionization and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Accurate molecular level information of the regioisomeric structures of individual TAGs was achieved. When existing in a TAG molecule of lard, palmitic acid occupied 90-100% of the sn-2 position. Within the major fatty acid combinations in tallow TAGs, the secondary position sn-2 was preferentially occupied in the decreasing order by oleoyl > palmitoyl > stearoyl residues, the order in saturated TAGs being myristoyl > stearoyl = palmitoyl. TAGs in egg yolk were more asymmetric than in chicken skin, with linoleic acid highly specifically attached in the yolk sn-2 carbon. Nearly 50% of yolk TAGs contained 52 carbon atoms with two or three double bonds. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids were in the sn-2 location in decreasing quantities in palm oil and its fractions. Triacylglycerols of equal molecular weight behaved similarly in the fractionation process. Randomization of the parent oil TAGs was seen in the transesterified oil. The tandem mass spectrometric analysis applied provided detailed information of the distribution of fatty acids in individual combinations in TAGs. PMID:11453776
Kallio, H; Yli-Jokipii, K; Kurvinen, J P; Sjövall, O; Tahvonen, R
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have native exposure to a sign language such as American Sign Language (ASL) have received almost no scientific attention. This paper reports the first studies on a sample of five native-signing children (four deaf children of deaf parents and one hearing child of deaf parents; ages 4;6 to 7;5) diagnosed with ASD. A domain-general deficit in the ability of children with ASD to replicate the gestures of others is hypothesized to be a source of palm orientation reversal errors in sign. In Study 1, naturalistic language samples were collected from three native-signing children with ASD and were analyzed for errors in handshape, location, movement and palm orientation. In Study 2, four native-signing children with ASD were compared to 12 typically developing deaf children (ages 3;7 to 6;9, all born to deaf parents) on a fingerspelling task. In both studies children with ASD showed a tendency to reverse palm orientation on signs specified for inward/outward orientation. Typically developing deaf children did not produce any such errors in palm orientation. We conclude that this kind of palm reversal has a perceptual rather than a motoric source, and is further evidence of a "self-other mapping" deficit in ASD. PMID:22981637
Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P
Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.
Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi
Background The lack of genomic data available for mites limits our understanding of their biology. Evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies promise to deliver rapid advances in this area, however, estimates of genome size are initially required to ensure sufficient coverage. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate the genome sizes of the burrowing ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, the non-burrowing ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, and the free-living house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Additionally, the chromosome number of S. scabiei was determined by chromosomal spreads of embryonic cells derived from single eggs. Results S. scabiei cells were shown to contain 17 or 18 small (< 2 ?M) chromosomes, suggesting an XO sex-determination mechanism. The average estimated genome sizes of S. scabiei and P. ovis were 96 (± 7) Mb and 86 (± 2) Mb respectively, among the smallest arthropod genomes reported to date. The D. pteronyssinus genome was estimated to be larger than its parasitic counterparts, at 151 Mb in female mites and 218 Mb in male mites. Conclusions This data provides a starting point for understanding the genetic organisation and evolution of these astigmatid mites, informing future sequencing projects. A comparitive genomic approach including these three closely related mites is likely to reveal key insights on mite biology, parasitic adaptations and immune evasion.
The response of the predatory mite Amblyseius longispinosus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to the webnest of the spider mite Schizotetranychus nanjingensis (Acari: Tetranychidae) was examined using two-choice tests in the laboratory. A. longispinosus females were found significantly more often on leaves with webnests than on leaves without webnests and were often observed searching under the webbing. Because spider mites and their eggs were removed from the webnests before experiments, predators responded to stimuli associated with webbing, mite feeding damage and other residues in the webnests. PMID:11108388
Zhang, Y X; Ji, J; Zhang, Z Q; Lin, J Z
Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes. PMID:21151438
Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes.
Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
A process of infecting the chaffinch nestlings Fringilla coelebs with three analgoid feather mites, Analges passerinus L., 1758, Monojoubertia microphylla (Robin, 1877), and Pteronyssoides striatus (Robin, 1977), commonly occurred on this bird species was investigated. 15 nests contained totally 65 nestlings, from 2 to 6 individuals in a brood, have been examined from the day of hatching till 11th day. Observations were held in the neighbourhood of the bird banding station "Rybachy" (Russia, Kaliningrad Province) in June of 1982. Number of mites on alive nestlings taken temporarily from their nest was counted by means of binocular lens under the magnification x12.5 and x25. The nestlings receive the mites from the chaffinch female during the night time, when the female sits together with the young birds and heats them. In the condition of this prolonged direct contact the mites migrate from the female onto the nestlings. As it was shown in our study of seasonal dynamics of mites on the chaffinch (Mironov, 2000), the chaffinch female only gives its mites to young generation and looses about three quarter of its mite micropopulation during the nesting period (June), hile in the chaffinch males the number of mites continues to increase during all summer. The infections with three feather mite species happen in the second part of the nestling's stay in the nest. The starting time of this process, its intensity, and sex and age structure of mite micropopulations on the nestlings just before their leaving the nest are different in the mite species examined. These peculiarities of feather mite species are determined by the biology of examined species, and first of all by their morphological characteristic and specialisation to different microhabitats, i.e. certain structural zones of plumage. Pteronyssoides striatus (Pteronyssidae) is rather typical mite specialised to feathers with vanes. In adult birds with completely developed plumage this species occupies the ventral surface of the big upper coverts of primary flight feathers. This species appears on the chaffinch nestlings in a significant number on 7th day. The mites occupy the basal parts of primary flight feathers represented in that moment by the rods only. They sit on practically open and smooth surface of this microhabitat, which is uncommon for them, because the vanes of the big upper coverts are not yet open and also represented by thin rods. During the period of the last 5 days (from 7 to 11th day) the mean number of mites per one nestling increases from 2.3 +/- 0.5 to 17.1 +/- 1.8 mites. Just before the day, when the nestling leave the nest, the tritonymphs absolutely predominate (82.4%) in the micropopulation of P. striatus. Analges passerinus (Analgidae) is specialised to live in the friable layer formed by numerous not-engaged thread barbles of the down feathers and basal parts of the body covert feathers. Mites have special hooks on legs used for hard attaching to the barbles and for fast moving in the friable layer of feathers. On the chaffinch nestlings, these mites appear usually on 8th day, when the rod-like body covert feathers begin to open on apices and form short brushes; however some individuals occur on the skin of nestlings even on 6th day. The mean number of mites per nestling on the 11th day reaches 16.5 +/- 1.4 individuals. The micropopulation of A. passerinus is represented on the nestlings mainly by the females (45.5%), tritonymphs (23.6%) and males (11.5%). Monojobertia microphylla (Proctophyllodidae) is a typical dweller of feathers with large vanes. Mites of this species commonly occupy the ventral surface of primary and secondary flight feathers and also respective big upper covert feathers of wings. M. microphylla appears on the nestlings in a significant number (7.1 +/- 1.2 mites) on 9th day, only when the primary flight feathers already have short vanes about 10 mm in length. In next three days the number of mites increases very fast and reaches on 11th day 60.3 +/- 5.7 mites per nestling. In the micropopulation of this specie
Mironov, S V; Malyshev, L L
Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. We reviewed known examples of the use of eriophyid mites to control weedy plants to learn how effective they have been. In the past 13 years, since Rosenthal's 1996 review, 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation (Aceria genistae, A. lantanae, Aceria sp. [boneseed leaf buckle mite (BLBM)], A. salsolae, A. sobhiani, A. solstitialis, A. tamaricis, A. thalgi, A. thessalonicae, Cecidophyes rouhollahi, Floracarus perrepae, Leipothrix dipsacivagus and L. knautiae), but only four (A. genistae, Aceria sp. [BLBM], C. rouhollahi and F. perrepae) have been authorized for introduction. Prior to this, three species (Aceria chondrillae, A. malherbae and Aculus hyperici) were introduced and have become established. Although these three species impact the fitness of their host plant, it is not clear how much they have contributed to reduction of the population of the target weed. In some cases, natural enemies, resistant plant genotypes, and adverse abiotic conditions have reduced the ability of eriophyid mites to control target weed populations. Some eriophyid mites that are highly coevolved with their host plant may be poor prospects for biological control because of host plant resistance or tolerance of the plant to the mite. Susceptibility of eriophyids to predators and pathogens may also prevent them from achieving population densities necessary to reduce host plant populations. Short generation time, high intrinsic rate of increase and high mobility by aerial dispersal imply that eriophyids should have rapid rates of evolution. This raises concerns that eriophyids may be more likely to lose efficacy over time due to coevolution with the target weed or that they may be more likely to adapt to nontarget host plants compared to insects, which have a longer generation time and slower population growth rate. Critical areas for future research include life history, foraging and dispersal behavior, mechanisms controlling host plant specificity, and evolutionary stability of eriophyid mites. This knowledge is critical for designing and interpreting laboratory and field experiments to measure host plant specificity and potential impact on target and nontarget plants, which must be known before they can be approved for release. One of the more successful examples of an eriophyid mite controlling an invasive alien weed is Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, whose impact is primarily due to transmission of a virus pathogenic to the target, Rosa multiflora. Neither the mite nor the virus originated from the target weed, which suggests that using "novel enemies" may sometimes be an effective strategy for using eriophyid mites. PMID:19760101
Smith, L; de Lillo, E; Amrine, J W
Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.
Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.
Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.
Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn
Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a cultivated woody plant species with agricultural and economic importance. Here we report a genome assembly for an elite variety (Khalas), which is 605.4?Mb in size and covers >90% of the genome (~671?Mb) and >96% of its genes (~41,660 genes). Genomic sequence analysis demonstrates that P. dactylifera experienced a clear genome-wide duplication after either ancient whole genome duplications or massive segmental duplications. Genetic diversity analysis indicates that its stress resistance and sugar metabolism-related genes tend to be enriched in the chromosomal regions where the density of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is relatively low. Using transcriptomic data, we also illustrate the date palm’s unique sugar metabolism that underlies fruit development and ripening. Our large-scale genomic and transcriptomic data pave the way for further genomic studies not only on P. dactylifera but also other Arecaceae plants.
Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim S.; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Wanfei; Tan, Jun; Yu, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jiucheng; Pan, Linlin; Zhang, Tongwu; Yin, Yuxin; Xin, Chengqi; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Guangyu; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed M.; Huang, Dawei; Fang, Yongjun; Alnakhli, Yasser O.; Jia, Shangang; Yin, An; Alhuzimi, Eman M.; Alsaihati, Burair A.; Al-Owayyed, Saad A.; Zhao, Duojun; Zhang, Sun; Al-Otaibi, Noha A.; Sun, Gaoyuan; Majrashi, Majed A.; Li, Fusen; Tala; Wang, Jixiang; Yun, Quanzheng; Alnassar, Nafla A.; Wang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Al-Jelaify, Rasha F.; Liu, Kan; Gao, Shenghan; Chen, Kaifu; Alkhaldi, Samiyah R.; Liu, Guiming; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Haiyan; Yu, Jun
The occurrence of a large number of fossil woods having resemblance in anatomical features with the modern palm genus, Phoenix L in Deccan Intertrappean fossil flora of Maastrichtian-Danian age (i. e. Late Cretaceous and Earliest Tertiary (65-67 my)) indicates the most primitive record of date palm. Present discovery of biocompounds from fossil wood of Phoenix collected from Deccan Intertrappean having affinity with the biocompounds known from modern plant further exemplify the earliest documentation of Phoenix in Indian peninsula. PMID:24966541
Sharma, Dinesh Chandra; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Khan, M Salman; Srivastava, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ashwini Kumar; Shukla, Ritu
This paper presents a novel gender classification method based on geometry features of palm image which is simple, fast, and easy to handle. This gender classification method based on geometry features comprises two main attributes. The first one is feature extraction by image processing. The other one is classification system with polynomial smooth support vector machine (PSSVM). A total of 180 palm images were collected from 30 persons to verify the validity of the proposed gender classification approach and the results are satisfactory with classification rate over 85%. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed approach is feasible and effective in gender recognition.
Wu, Ming; Yuan, Yubo
The aim of the present study was to carry out comparative therapeutic effect of moxidectin pour on, doramectin and ivermectin on psoroptes infestation in buffalo. A total of 318 buffalo in 77 small scale herds suspected to have mange mites were examined clinically and parasitologically. Fifty-three (16.66%) buffalo in 25 herds were recorded to be infested; 51 (16.35%) with psoroptic mites, and two (0.31%) with chorioptic mites. Buffalo with psoroptic mites were randomly allocated into three groups (17 buffalo each). First group was treated with moxidectin pour on at a dose rate of 0.5 mg kg(-1). The second group received doramectin (200 microg kg(-1) twice subcutaneously, 14 days apart). The third group received ivermectin (200 microg kg(-1) twice subcutaneously, 14 days apart). Adjunct to each drug, deltamethrin was applied to the surrounding environment twice at a two week interval. Treatment outcomes of 51 buffalo with psoroptic mites showed that moxidectin pour on and doramectin had a significant higher effect on mite count reduction (MANOVA, P < 0.01; Walks' Lambda, P < 0.01) and clinical sum scores (MANOVA, P < 0.05; Walks' Lambda, P < 0.05) compared with injectible ivermectin. On clinical level, the number of clinically recovered buffalo in moxidectin and doramectin treated groups was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of ivermectin treated group. The result of the present study indicated that psoroptic mites are the main cause of mange in buffalo in Lower Egypt. This is the first report that describes the effect of moxidectin in buffalo. Moxidectin is a good alternative and easily applied drug for treatment of psoroptes infestation in buffalo. PMID:19347598
el-Khodery, Sabry A; Ishii, Mitsu; Osman, Salama A; Al-Gaabary, Magdy H
Glandular trichomes on the leaves of wild tomato, L. hirsutum f. hirsutum Mull, also known as Solanum habrochaites (Solanaceae), synthesize and accumulate high levels of methyl ketones (MKs). L. hirsutum accession LA 407, having high concentration of MKs, was grown from seeds under greenhouse conditions. Four MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, 2-tridecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) were screened for their toxicity to spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) develop a bioassay for testing MKs on spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality and (2) compare the efficacies of wild tomato leaf crude extracts and pure standard materials of MKs against spider mite and cowpea aphid mortality. Our results revealed that spider mites are most sensitive to 2-tridecanone (LC50 = 0.08 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) and least sensitive to 2-undecanone (LC50 = 1.5 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface) 4 h after treatment. Similarly, 2-tridecanone caused greatest mortality (LC50 = 0.2 ?mole cm(-2) of treated leaf surface), whereas 2-undecanone caused the lowest morality (LC50 = 0.48 ?mole cm(-2) of treated surface) of cowpea aphid. We concluded that all MKs tested in this investigation are toxic to spider mites and aphids. 2-Tridecanone is more effective in killing mites and aphids compared to other MKs. Toxicity of crude extracts, prepared from the leaves of L. hirsutum accession LA 407, to spider mites and cowpea aphids revealed greater mortality compared to a combined mixture of MKs standard material (used at the same concentration as found on LA 407 leaves). This indicates that in addition to MKs, other unidentified compounds in LA 407 leaf extract also have pesticidal properties. Accordingly, leaf extracts of LA 407 could be explored in crop protection, and they might open a new area of MK formulations and discovery of biorational alternatives for pest control in agricultural fields. PMID:24813988
Antonious, George F; Kamminga, Katherine; Snyder, John C
The study tested the effect of the chitin metabolic effectors, teflubenzuron, diflubenzuron, and calcofluor, and a combination of a chitinase and soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) on the population growth of eight species of stored product mites under laboratory conditions. The compounds were incorporated into the diets of the mites in concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 50 mg g(-1). The final populations of mites were observed after 21 days of growth in controlled conditions. Diflubenzuron and calcofluor suppressed the growth of all the tested species more effectively than the other compounds. The doses required to suppress the mite populations to 50% (rc(50)) in comparison to the control ranged from 0.29 to 12.68 mg g(-1) for diflubenzuron and from 1.75 to 37.7 mg g(-1) for calcofluor, depending on the mite species. When tested at the highest concentration (10 mg g(-1)), teflubenzuron also suppressed all of the tested mite species in comparison to the control. The addition of chitinase/STI into the diet influenced population growth in several ways. When the highest concentration of chitinase in a cocktail of chitinase and STI (12.5 mg g(-1) of diet) was compared to the control, populations of Acarus siro, Aleuroglyphus ovatus and Aëroglyphus robustus decreased significantly, whereas populations of Tyroborus lini and Sancassania rodionovi increased significantly. The sensitivity of species to the tested compounds differed among species. The most tolerant species was S. rodionovi, the most sensitive was A. ovatus. The results confirmed that calcofluor and diflubenzuron have a toxic effect on stored product mites. PMID:20229097
Stara, Jitka; Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan
Stored product mites commonly occur in agricultural work environments and sometimes in homes in significant numbers. They are a source of allergens that sensitize and induce allergic reactions. This may include atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the common species of storage mites are the sources of molecules that influence the function of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells that regulate the trafficking of inflammatory and immune cells into the dermis during allergic reactions and other skin diseases. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were challenged with varying doses of extracts of the storage mites Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), or Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and the secretion of cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules were measured. The role of endotoxin and protein in inducing these responses was evaluated. These stored product mite extracts induced secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor. Some of these effects were induced by protein present in the extracts, some were induced by endotoxin, and some were induced by other substances. C. arcuatus and T. putrescentiae extracts also down-regulated tumor necrosis factor a-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Stored product mite extracts contain an assortment of molecules, including endotoxins and proteins, which modulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the secretion of cytokines by microvascular endothelial cells. These modulating properties varied among mite species indicating that each mite species has a unique set of molecules that is responsible for its activity. PMID:23270170
Elder, B Laurel; Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G
The predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis is a potential biological control agent of the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on strawberry plants. Its ability to control TSSM was recently assessed under laboratory conditions, but its ability to locate and control TSSM under greenhouse conditions has not been tested so far. We evaluated whether P. macropilis is able to control TSSM on strawberry plants and to locate strawberry plants infested with TSSM under greenhouse conditions. Additionally, we tested, in an olfactometer, whether odours play a role in prey-finding by P. macropilis. The predatory mite P. macropilis required about 20 days to achieve reduction of the TSSM population on strawberry plants initially infested with 100 TSSM females per plant. TSSM-infested plants attract an average of 27.5 +/- 1.0% of the predators recaptured per plant and uninfested plants attracted only 5.8 +/- 1.0% per plant. The predatory mites were able to suppress TSSM populations on a single strawberry plant and were able to use odours from TSSM-infested strawberry plants to locate prey in both olfactometer and arena experiments. Hence, it is concluded that P. macropilis can locate and reduce TSSM population on strawberry plants under greenhouse conditions. PMID:19016335
Oliveira, Hamilton; Fadini, Marcos Antonio Matiello; Venzon, Madelaine; Rezende, Daniela; Rezende, Fernanda; Pallini, Angelo
The attack of phytophagous mites may induce plants to produce volatiles, which in turn may attract predators. The occurrence of multiple phytophagous infestations on plants may influence predator response. In this paper, we investigated whether the attraction of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) to phytophagous-infested plants would change with the simultaneous presence of two tetranichid mites Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) and Tetranychus urticae Koch. While the former species is rarely found on strawberry plants and is only occasionally found in association with P. macropilis, the latter is commonly found on strawberry plants and is frequently found in association with P. macropilis. Y-tube olfactometer test assays demonstrated that the predator preferred plants infested with T. urticae, avoided plants infested with O. ilicis, and had no preference for plants infested with both phytophagous mite species. These results indicated that the presence of a non-prey species (O. ilicis) on a given plant can alter the response of the predator to one of its prey (T. urticae). The consequences of the predatory behavior determined in this study on the predator ability to control T. urticae population on strawberry plants are discussed. PMID:20498963
Fadini, Marcos A M; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Hamilton; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F
Palm kernel oil, palm olein, crude palm oil and palm acid oil were used for the synthesis of poly\\u0009(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] by a mutant strain of Wautersia eutropha (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) harboring the Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene. Palm kernel oil was an excellent carbon source for the production of cell biomass and P(3HB-co-3HHx). About 87% (w\\/w) of the
Ching-Yee Loo; Wing-Hin Lee; Takeharu Tsuge; Yoshiharu Doi; Kumar Sudesh
The oil palm sector is one of the major plantation industries in Malaysia. Palm kernel cake is a byproduct of extracted palm\\u000a kernel oil. Mostly palm kernel cake is wasted or is mixed with other nutrients and used as animal feed, especially for ruminant\\u000a animals. Recently, palm kernel cake has been identified as an important ingredient for the formulation of
L. G. A. Ong; S. Abd-Aziz; S. Noraini; M. I. A. Karim; M. A. Hassan
The acaricidal activity of the neem product MiteStop was investigated for its potential use as a botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. This neem product is a special formulation of an extract of the seeds of the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The efficacy was tested under laboratory conditions as well as in poultry houses. Four different methods of application were used in a filter paper bioassay to evaluate contact and vapour phase toxicity tests. The neem product proved to be already active in very small doses. In order to investigate the efficacy under field conditions, a poultry house was sprayed twice within a 7-day period using 1:33 and 1:50 diluted MiteStop. Cardboard traps were used to assess the mite population before, during and after the treatment. The mite population could be reduced by 89%. In a second poultry house, the spraying of defined areas with a 1:30, 1:33 or 1:50 dilution of the acaricide proved to be highly efficacious against all mite stages. Three other field trials proved that MiteStop is highly active against the red poultry mite. The most efficient dilution is 1:33 with tap water and spraying two or three times at intervals of 7 days. PMID:20424858
Locher, Nina; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz
Papular urticaria (PU) is a clinical entity where various stages of bite reactions occur simultaneously on an individual who has been exposed to biting arthro pods for prolonged periods. PU is usually inflicted by fleas and midges, but sometimes by biting mites. The mite Cheyletus malaccensis is a predator of domestic mites and is found occasionally in homes, where its
Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.
Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented. PMID:24961009
Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M
Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental in vivo evidence supporting previous assumptions that establishment of pathogens follow scabies infection. Our findings provide an explanation for a biologically important aspect of the disease pathogenesis. The methods developed from this pig trial will serve as a guide to analyze human clinical samples. Studies building on this will offer implications for development of novel intervention strategies against the mites and the secondary infections.
Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja
Background Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1) was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD). Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL), the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. Conclusions/Significance This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the lectin pathway of the complement cascade. These initial findings indicate a novel role of scabies mite peritrophins in triggering a host innate immune response within the mite gut.
Holt, Deborah C.; Kemp, Dave J.; Fischer, Katja
Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage.
Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja
Eriophyoid mites, which are among the smallest plant feeders, are characterized by the intimate relationships they have with their hosts and the restricted range of plants upon which they can reproduce. The knowledge of their true host ranges and mechanisms causing host specificity is fundamental to understanding mite-host interactions, potential mite-host coevolution, and diversity of this group, as well as to apply effective control strategies or to use them as effective biological control agents. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge on host specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites, and to point out knowledge gaps and doubts. Using available data on described species and recorded hosts we showed that: (1) 80% of eriophyoids have been reported on only one host species, 95% on one host genus, and 99% on one host family; (2) Diptilomiopidae has the highest proportion of monophagous species and Phytoptidae has the fewest; (3) non-monophagous eriophyoids show the tendency to infest closely related hosts; 4) vagrant eriophyoids have a higher proportion of monophagous species than refuge-seeking and refuge-inducing species; (5) the proportions of monophagous species infesting annual and perennial hosts are similar; however, many species infesting annual hosts have wider host ranges than those infesting perennial hosts; (6) the proportions of species that are monophagous infesting evergreen and deciduous plants are similar; (7) non-monophagous eriophyoid species have wider geographic distribution than monophagous species. Field and laboratory host-specificity tests for several eriophyoid species and their importance for biological control of weeds are described. Testing the actual host range of a given eriophyoid species, searching for ecological data, genetic differentiation analysis, and recognizing factors and mechanisms that contribute to host specificity of eriophyoid mites are suggested as future directions for research. PMID:19789985
Skoracka, Anna; Smith, Lincoln; Oldfield, George; Cristofaro, Massimo; Amrine, James W
The side-effects of pesticides on predatory mites have been investigated at various levels and international teams (e.g., the IOBC/wprs Working Group "Pesticides and beneficial organisms") have selected a few species of predatory mites occurring in Central and Northern Europe as representative for such studies. Key biocontrol species occurring in Southern Europe have received much less attention. Kampimodromus aberrans is the most important predator of herbivorous mites in South-European vineyards treated with selective pesticides. The impact of pesticides on K. aberrans populations has been studied in field conditions whereas few toxicological tests have been conducted in the laboratory because of difficulties in rearing this species. A method for rearing K. aberrans in the laboratory has recently been set up allowing toxicological studies to be conducted. In this paper, a toxicological method to assess the effects of pesticides on K. aberrans is described and the effects of insecticides frequently used in European vineyards on two K. aberrans strains are reported. These strains were collected from vineyards treated with organophosphates. Insecticides characterized by different modes of action were selected for trials. Among these, etofenprox and spinosad were classified as harmful to predatory mites. Chlorpyrifos reduced predatory mite fecundity, and was classified as moderately harmful for both strains. The toxicity of thiamethoxam and flufenoxuron varied with the strain (low to moderate). Indoxacarb and methoxyfenozide appeared to be harmless or slightly harmful. Implications of this study for adopting IPM tactics with a reduced risk for K. aberrans are discussed. PMID:23856464
Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo
Otodectes cynotis, ear mite or ear canker mite, is the most common cause of otitis external in cats (approximately 50%) and to a lesser extent in dogs, foxes and ferrets. The mite is living on the epidermal surface of auditory canal without burrowing into the tissue and feeding on tissue fluids and debris. In most of the cases they induce hypersensitivity reactions in the host. Four puppies; Siberian husky, Cocker spaniel, Terrier and mixed Pekignese with different genders and ages were referred to the Small Animal Hospital, Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran for routine clinical examination just after they were imported from Thailand in a timeframe between June to August 2008. Clinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination, the specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Amitraz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders.
Maazi, N; Jamshidi, Sh; Hadadzadeh, HR
The effect of four avermectins on the population growth of pest mite Lepidoglyphus destructor was tested in laboratory experiments. The avermectins (abamectin, doramectin, emamectin-benzoate and ivermectin) of analytical purity were incorporated into an experimental diet at the same molar concentrations, ranging from 0.16 to 8 nmol/3 g of diet. Using an initial population of 50 mites, the population growth was recorded after 21 days at 85 % relative humidity and 25 °C; 12 repeats were performed per avermectin concentration and control. The diets containing the avermectins successfully suppressed the population growth of L. destructor. The EC(50) recalculated to ng of substance per g of diet showed different suppressive effects of the avermectins: doramectin (181 ng/g diet), abamectin (299 ng/g diet), emamectin-benzoate (812 ng/g diet) and ivermectin (992 ng/g diet). Of the tested avermectins, abamectin is registered for the control of phytophagous mites and ivermectin against parasitic mites, i.e., Psoroptes ovis. Although emamectin-benzoate and ivermectin were less effective on L. destructor, all of the tested avermectins are highly suitable compounds for the control of synanthropic mites. PMID:22527833
Erban, Tomas; Rybansky, Jakub; Hubert, Jan
Selamectin, a novel avermectin compound, was evaluated for its efficacy against naturally occurring infestations of Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei. A total of 42 New Zealand rabbits with psoroptic mange and 37 Angora rabbits with sarcoptic mange were used in the present study. On day 0, infested rabbits were treated topically with either selamectin at minimum dose of 6 mg kg(-1) (6-18 mg kg(-1) for New Zealand rabbits, n = 31 and 10-12 mg kg(-1) for Angora rabbits, n = 23) or vehicle only (control groups, n = 11 for New Zealand rabbits, n = 14 for Angora rabbits). The efficacy of selamectin was assessed both clinically and parasitologically by the presence or absence of viable mites. Rabbits were scraped for sarcoptic mites on days 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 and had otoscopeic and/or microscopic examination for the detection of Psoroptes mites on days 7, 14, 42 and 56. Fisher's exact test was used to assess differences between the vehicle and selamectin treatment in the number of rabbits without mites (cure rates) on each assessment date. It was found that significantly fewer selamectin-treated rabbits had mites detected on skin scrapings (for S. scabiei) or otoscopeic and/or microscopic examination (for P. cuniculi) (P < 0.01) than the vehicle group. Results of the present study suggest that selamectin is effective against naturally infestations of P. cuniculi and S. scabiei in rabbits. PMID:17222235
Kurtdede, Arif; Karaer, Zafer; Acar, Abuzer; Guzel, Murat; Cingi, C Cagri; Ural, Kerem; Ica, Anil
Seventy similar bungalows constructed between 1968 and 1970 in the same suburban area of Stockholm were investigated regarding the content of house dust mite allergen, absolute indoor humidity, type of ventilation and basement construction. Houses with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation had an indoor humidity above 7 g/kg less often than houses without this type of ventilation (Odds ratio 0.1, 95% confidence interval 0.0-0.2). Furthermore, only five of the 24 houses with exhaust and supply ventilation contained mattress dust mite allergen concentrations exceeding the median value (98.5 ng/g) compared with 30 of 46 hours which did not have such ventilation (odds ratio = 0.1, C.I. 0.0-0.5). Houses with both natural ventilation and crawl space basement harboured significantly less mattress mite allergen than houses having the same type of ventilation, but with a concrete slab basement. In a cold temperature climate, type of building construction and ventilation seem to be important for the occurrence of house dust mite allergens in dwellings. Our results indicate that modern energy-efficient houses should be equipped with mechanical exhaust and supply ventilation to reduce indoor air humidity during the dry winter months and the risk of mite infestation. PMID:8187025
Wickman, M; Emenius, G; Egmar, A C; Axelsson, G; Pershagen, G
In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, group 1 is cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6, and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin, and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6, and 9 through complex intra- or inter-molecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6, and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation, and interconnection.
Dumez, Marie-Eve; Herman, Julie; Campizi, Vincenzo; Galleni, Moreno; Jacquet, Alain; Chevigne, Andy
Anatomical injury of the leaves of the invasive species, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., caused by the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.), which is the only eriophyid mite that has been recorded on C. arvense worldwide, is described. The injury induced by the mite feeding on the leaves of C. arvense results in visible russeting and bronzing of the leaves. Other conspicuous deformations are folding and distortion of the leaf blade and curling of leaf edge, as well as gradual drying of leaves. The anatomical injury of the mature leaves of field-collected plants was limited to the epidermis of the lower leaf surface. However, on young leaves of experimentally infested plants, rust mite injuries extend to epidermal cells on both leaf surfaces and to those of deeper mesophyll layers. On these leaves, lesions on the lower leaf surface even affected the phloem of the vascular bundles. Leaf damage induced by A. anthocoptes is discussed with regard to the mite's potential as a biological control agent of C. arvense. PMID:16612668
Rancic, Dragana; Stevanovic, Branka; Petanovi?, Radmila; Magud, Biljana; Tosevski, Ivo; Gassmann, André
Objective To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Results Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.
Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima
Stored product mites can often infest stored products, but currently there is little information regarding the efficacy of pesticides that can be used for control. In this study we evaluated several common pesticides formulated from single active ingredients (a.i.) or commercially available mixtures (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, beta-cyfluthrin, and a combination of deltamethrin and S-bioallethrin), plus an acaricide composed of permethrin, pyriproxyfen and benzyl benzolate, for efficacy against Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. The pesticides were incorporated into the mite diets in a dose range of 10-1000 microg a.i. g(-1) diet. Concentrations for suppression of 50 and 90% population growth and eradication (rC0) of mites were fit to linear regression models. None of the tested pesticides gave complete eradication of A. siro, which was the most tolerant of the three mite species tested. The most effective pesticide Allergoff 175 CS was a combination product (a nano-capsule suspension of permethrin, pyriproxyfen and benzyl benzolate) labeled for dust mites, with rC0 range of 463-2453 microg a.i. (permethrin) g(-1) diet depending on the species. Least effective were chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin. PMID:17674127
Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Vaclav; Munzbergova, Zuzana; Hajslova, Jana; Arthur, Frank H
Analysis by one-dimensional (1-D) SDS-PAGE/Western blotting of whole mite extract (larval and adult stages) with sheep sera taken 0-84 days after infection with the sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis revealed a progressive IgE antibody response, with a dominant high molecular weight allergen (MW 180 kDa) detected early during infection. Further analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) SDS-PAGE/Western blotting with post-infection sera, revealed a more complex picture with numerous (> 20) IgE reactive spots. Trypsin digest and Maldi-ToF analyses of these spots identified two house dust mite allergen homologues, namely tropomyosin (Der p 10) and paramyosin (Der p 11), and analysis of a third spot indicated an apolipoprotein-like IgE reactive protein (Der p 14). Further 1-D and 2-D SDS/Western blotting, with specific antibodies to the house dust mite allergens Der p 10, 11, and to the IgE reactive peptide of the high molecular weight house dust mite allergen, Der p 14 (vitellogenin/apolipophorin), provided firm evidence for the presence of these three allergens in extracts of the Psoroptes mite. These studies show for the first time that homologues of the house dust mite 10, 11 and 14 group allergens are represented as immunodominant allergens of the sheep scab mite, and may represent important vaccine candidates. PMID:15679630
Huntley, J F; Machell, J; Nisbet, A J; Van den Broek, A; Chua, K Y; Cheong, N; Hales, B J; Thomas, W R
The influence of ectoparasitic water mite larvae (Arrenurus) on the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of forewing length and cell number in the foreweings of the damselfly Coenagrion puella has been investigated. We show a significant correlation between the FA of forewing length and the mite load. Most explanations for increases in FA implicate environmental stress combined with the inability of the
A. Bonn; M. Gasse; J. Rolff; A. Martens
Animals are commonly infested with ectoparasites which can be large relative to the host. Here a previously unrecognised consequence of infection for such hosts and for their parasites is examined. As a model host-parasite system the chironomid midge Paratrichocladius rufiventris and the hydracarinid mite Unionicola ypsilophora were adopted. Previous work has shown that mites have a profound effect on the
A. J. McLachlan; T. W. Pike; J. C. Thomason
Two new quill mite species parasitizing sunbirds (Nectariniidae) are described: Aulobia nectariniae sp. nov. from the Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis (L.), from the Black Sunbird Leptocoma sericea (Lesson), and Aulobia anthreptes sp. nov. from Plain-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis. The family Nectariniidae is a new host group for syringophilid mites.
Maciej Skoracki; Eliza G?owska
Although all known phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are predators of mites or small insects, many readily feed and reproduce on pollen as well. This ability to feed on food from plant origin increases their survival during periods when prey is locally sparse, but might occur at the expense of the ability to utilize food as efficiently as specialized predators. In
Paul C. J. Van Rijn; Lynell K. Tanigoshi
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed.
Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R.
The ectoparasitic Varroa destructor mite is a major contributor to the ongoing honey bee health crisis. Varroa interacts with honey bee viruses, exacerbating their pathogenicity. In addition to vectoring viruses, immunosuppression of the developing honey bee hosts by Varroa has been proposed to explain the synergy between viruses and mites. However, the evidence for honey bee immune suppression by V. destructor is contentious. We systematically studied the quantitative effects of experimentally introduced V. destructor mites on immune gene expression at five specific time points during the development of the honey bee hosts. Mites reproduced normally and were associated with increased titers of deformed wing virus in the developing bees. Our data on different immune genes show little evidence for immunosuppression of honey bees by V. destructor. Experimental wounding of developing bees increases relative immune gene expression and deformed wing virus titers. Combined, these results suggest that mite feeding activity itself and not immunosuppression may contribute to the synergy between viruses and mites. However, our results also suggest that increased expression of honey bee immune genes decreases mite reproductive success, which may be explored to enhance mite control strategies. Finally, our expression data for multiple immune genes across developmental time and different experimental treatments indicates co-regulation of several of these genes and thus improves our understanding of the understudied honey bee immune system. PMID:24829325
Kuster, Ryan D; Boncristiani, Humberto F; Rueppell, Olav
Background Scabies is a disease of worldwide significance, causing considerable morbidity in both humans and other animals. The scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows into the skin of its host, obtaining nutrition from host skin and blood. Aspartic proteases mediate a range of diverse and essential physiological functions such as tissue invasion and migration, digestion, moulting and reproduction in a number of parasitic organisms. We investigated whether aspartic proteases may play role in scabies mite digestive processes. Methodology/Principle Findings We demonstrated the presence of aspartic protease activity in whole scabies mite extract. We then identified a scabies mite aspartic protease gene sequence and produced recombinant active enzyme. The recombinant scabies mite aspartic protease was capable of digesting human haemoglobin, serum albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin, but not collagen III or laminin. This is consistent with the location of the scabies mites in the upper epidermis of human skin. Conclusions/Significance The development of novel therapeutics for scabies is of increasing importance given the evidence of emerging resistance to current treatments. We have shown that a scabies mite aspartic protease plays a role in the digestion of host skin and serum molecules, raising the possibility that interference with the function of the enzyme may impact on mite survival.
Mahmood, Wajahat; Viberg, Linda T.; Fischer, Katja; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.
Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19449050
Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L
The proposed scheme involves an idea of including three biometric traits of a person where in the sense even if one fails the other trait could be utilised for verification or identity.Moreover the concept of cryptosystem is involved , where one of the biometric trait - the palm vein itself acts as a key to utilise the stored template database.
B. Prasanalakshmi; A. Kannammal; R. Sridevi
In recent times there has been a growing research interest in palm oil, one of the major edible plant oils in the tropical countries, because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Obtained from a tropical plant, Elaesis guineensis, it has a polyunsaturated fatty acid\\/saturated fatty acid ratio close to unity and a high amount of antioxidant
P. E. Ebong; D. U. Owu; E. U. Isong
Palm oil industries play a significant role in the Indonesian economy, particularly in Sumatera provinces. Annual production in 2006 was 16 million tones from 6 million hectares plantation area and it has been growing at 12.5% per year since 1990. The plantation area is expected to grow up to about 18 million hectares mainly in the provinces of Sumatera, Kalimantan,
Soni Solistia Wirawan
The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560
Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A
We present a case study on the differing roles of temperate and tropical ex situ facilities in supporting the conservation of a major tropical plant group. The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections is reviewed by using (1) survey data from 35 collections in 20 countries, and (2) case studies examining the conservation value and utility of botanic garden
M. Maunder; B. Lyte; J. Dransfield; W. Baker
Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method
FARM YAN YAN; DUDUKU KRISHNIAH; MARIANI RAJIN; AWANG BONO
Bacterial leaf stripe caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. arecae is a disease of arecanut palm (Areca catechu L.) in Karnataka, India. Disease outbreaks are confined to the monsoon season, i.e., July to October. Studies on the epidemiology of bacterial leaf stripe showed that disease incidence and severity are high when there are more than ten rainy days per month in
S. N. S. Kumar