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1

First report of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), in Brazil.  

PubMed

The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, is reported for the first time in Brazil. This invasive mite was found in July 2009 infesting coconut palms and bananas in urban areas of Boa Vista, State of Roraima, in northern Brazil. Comments on the possible pathways of R. indica into the country, present and potential impact of its introduction and mitigating measures to prevent or to delay the mite spread in Brazil are presented. PMID:21710040

Navia, D; Marsaro, A L; da Silva, F R; Gondim, M G C; de Moraes, G J

2

MITES INHABITING DATE PALMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mites inhabiting date palms in Egypt were studied for two years (1998-2000). During this study, 16 species of mites belonging to 11 families were collected. These mites were classified according to their feeding habits into three categories: 7 species plant feeders, 6 species predacious and 3 species with miscellaneous feeding habits.

M. E. El-Halawany; M. A. Abdel-Samad; M. E. El-Naggar

3

Comparison of two populations of the pantropical predator Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for biological control of Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).  

PubMed

The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), was recently introduced in the Americas. It spread quickly throughout coconut palm growing areas, expanding considerably its host range. The invasion of this species has caused high economic impact in several countries. In Brazil, extensive areas are expected to be affected. For logistical reasons and other concerns, chemical control does not seem desirable for the control of this pest in most Latin American countries. Biological control of R. indica by introducing exotic natural enemies seems to be an important control measure to be considered. Surveys in many countries have shown that Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a very common predator on coconut palms. This study compared the biology of a population of A. largoensis found for a long time in association with R. indica in La Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) with a population from Roraima State (northern Brazil), where R. indica was first found about two and a half years ago. No significant differences were observed between populations in relation to the duration of different immature stages or total survivorship. However, the oviposition period, prey consumption and net reproductive rate were significantly higher for the La Reunion population, warranting further investigation to determine whether that population should be released in Roraima to control the pest. PMID:23100107

Domingos, Cleiton A; Oliveira, Leandro O; de Morais, Elisângela G F; Navia, Denise; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Gondim, Manoel G C

2012-10-26

4

Comparative Demography of the Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four Date Palm Varieties in Southwestern Tunisia  

PubMed Central

The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rates (Ro), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (rm = 0.103 day 1). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold.

Chaaban, Sameh Ben; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

2011-01-01

5

Comparative demography of the spider mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four date palm varieties in southwestern Tunisia.  

PubMed

The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (r(m)), net reproductive rates (R(o)), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (r(m) = 0.103 day (-1)). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

Ben Chaaban, Sameh; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

2011-01-01

6

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA: A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to quantify the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County, Florida's (the county) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal soli...

7

HOUSEHOLD HAZARDOUS WASTE CHARACTERIZATION STUDY FOR PALM BEACH COUNTY, FLORIDA - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the Household Hazardous Waste Characterization Study (the HHW Study) were to: 1) Quantity the annual household hazardous waste (HHW) tonnages disposed in Palm Beach County Florida?s (the County) residential solid waste (characterized in this study as municipal s...

8

Anti-allergic properties of a matured fruit extract of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in mite-sensitized mice.  

PubMed

The effects of oral ingestion of a hot water extract of matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on allergic responses were investigated in mite-sensitized mice. Sneezing and nose rubbing events in mice given a date extract-added diet were significantly lower than in those given an extract-free (control) diet. The serum total and mite antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and the number of spleen interleukin-4(+)CD4(+), IgE(+)B220(+) and Fc?RI?(+)CD117(+) cells was significantly lower in mice given the date extract-added diet than in those given the control diet. Chlorogenic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid significantly reduced the number of IgE(+)B220(+) cells, while chlorogenic acid and pelargonin significantly decreased the number of Fc?RI?(+)CD117(+) cells in mouse spleen cell cultures. These results suggest that some polyphenols in the date may reduce mite-induced allergic symptoms in mice via a decrease in the number of IgE-producing plasma cells and high-affinity IgE receptor-expressing mast cells. PMID:23132311

Karasawa, Koji; Otani, Hajime

2012-01-01

9

Mite immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae are the most common house dust mites and are among the most common sources of indoor allergens worldwide. These species are very common in humid regions, where most allergic individuals are sensitized to house dust mites. Specific immunotherapy with mite extracts has demonstrated clinical benefits in several double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that are included in recent reviews of subcutaneous immunotherapy, including pediatric and adult patients with rhinoconjunctivitis and or asthma. Most successful studies of mite immunotherapy have used native allergen extracts adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide, or chemically modified mite-allergen extracts. Several studies have also shown efficacy using sublingual immunotherapy in pediatric and adult patients with asthma and/or rhinitis. Additionally, the efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy has been demonstrated in patients with atopic dermatitis, although more double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are needed. Based on several studies, it cannot be concluded that mite immunotherapy is more dangerous or safer than immunotherapy with grasses, epithelia, or animal epithelia. Because the delivery of high doses of allergen carries with it the risk for immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated events, several methods have been developed to reduce specific IgE binding to mite-allergen extracts. An important challenge for future mite immunotherapy modalities is the delivery of relatively high doses without a significant risk for severe reactions. PMID:16899204

Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Iraola, Victor; Boquete, Manuel; Nieto, Antonio; Casanovas, Miguel

2006-09-01

10

Harvestman and mites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some mites use harvestmen for transportation only, while others use the harvestman as a food source. If the mites are feeding on the harvestman, this is a parasitic relationship because the mites gain food while the harvestman is harmed.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-09-17

11

Coccinellidae as predators of mites: Stethorini in biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Stethorini are unique among the Coccinellidae in specializing on mites (principally Tetranychidae) as prey. Consisting of 90 species in two genera, Stethorus and Parasthethorus, the tribe is practically cosmopolitan. The Stethorini are found in a diverse range of habitats, including many agricultural systems such as pome and stone fruits, brambles, tree nuts, citrus, avocadoes, bananas, papaya, palms, tea, cassava,

David J. Biddinger; Donald C. Weber; Larry A. Hull

2009-01-01

12

Socioeconomic and Livelihood Impact of Invasive Species on Marginal Homesteads: The Case of Aceria guerreronis on Coconut Palms in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alien invasive species are non-native organisms that occur outside their natural adapted habitat and dispersal potential. They are seen as a threat not only to biodiversity and ecosystems, but also to socioeconomic development, livelihood and human well-being. In India, the bioinvasion of coconut palms by an alien invasive mite species Aceria guerreronis, popularly known as ‘Coconut mite’ accounting for enormous

Sreejith Aravindakshan

2011-01-01

13

Palm Tissue Culture,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the economic importance of palms, little is known of palm morphogenesis and especially of means to induce their mass vegetative propagation. Limited suckering occurs among the species (for example, date palm), but numerous species cannot be vegeta...

B. Tisserat

1988-01-01

14

Palm cryobanking.  

PubMed

We describe the development of an efficient cryopreservation protocol for proembryogenic masses (PEMs) of date palm variety 'Barhee'. Proembryos were induced by inoculating small pieces of juvenile leaves on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg per liter 2,4-D. Application of these in vitro conditions led to true-to-type plants as observed after plant fructification. When compared to the standard vitrification protocol, the ultra-rapid droplet-vitrification technique proved to be superior. Sucrose preculture considerably increased post-cryopreservation recovery. The highest regeneration after cryogenic exposure reached 63.3 percent when PEMs were treated with PVS2 for 30 min at 0 degree C and 56.7 percent when PVS2 treatment lasted for 15 min at 25 degree C. The first signs of regrowth of cryopreserved PEMs were observed after 2 to 3 weeks. Cryopreservation did not affect the morphogenetic capacities of the plant material. Moreover, highly proliferating suspension cultures could be established from the cryopreserved material. The overall production of somatic embryos from 500 mg cryopreserved PEMs reached 1030 +/- 50 units after 1 month. The morphological study of date palms regenerated from cryopreserved material confirmed the stability of clonal material following cryopreservation. PMID:22227705

Fki, Lotfi; Bouaziz, Neila; Sahnoun, Nahed; Swennen, Rony; Drir, Noureddine; Panis, Bart

15

Mites and Wee Beasties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)|

Reed, George H., Jr.

1978-01-01

16

Occurrence and seasonal prevalence of the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis (Eriophyidae), and associated arthropods in Oman.  

PubMed

The coconut palm is an important crop in the sub arid coastal plain of Dhofar, Oman, for the high demand for its nut water and its use as ornamental plant. Damage of coconut fruits by the eriophyid mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer was first reported in that region in the late 1980s, but background information about the ecology of the pest in Oman was missing. Four surveys were conducted in different seasons from 2008 to 2009, to assess the distribution and prevalence of the coconut mite and its damage as well as the presence of natural enemies. Infestation by the coconut mite was conspicuous on most (99.7 %) palm trees, with 82.5 % damaged fruits. The average (± SE) density of coconut mites per fruit was 750 ± 56; this level of infestation led to the incidence of over 25 % of surface damage on more than half of the fruits. The mite appeared more abundant at the end of the cold season through the summer. No significant differences were observed between infestation levels on local varieties, hybrids and on dwarf varieties. Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), Cydnoseius negevi (Swirski & Amitai) and Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) were the predatory mites found under the bracts of over 30 % of the coconut fruits and on 68 % of the coconut trees. Considering all sampling dates and all varieties together, average (± SE) phytoseiid density was 1.4 ± 1.19 per fruit. Other mites found in the same habitat as A. guerreronis included the tarsonemids Steneotarsonemus furcatus De Leon and Nasutitarsonemus omani Lofego & Moraes. The pathogenic fungus Hirsutella thompsonii Fisher was rarely found infecting the coconut mite in Dhofar. Other fungal pathogens, namely Cordyceps sp. and Simplicillium sp., were more prevalent. PMID:23435864

Al-Shanfari, Abdulaziz; Hountondji, Fabien C C; Al-Zawamri, Hamid; Rawas, Hassan; Al-Mashiki, Yussef; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Moore, Dave; Gowen, Simon R

2013-02-23

17

Integrated palm oil processing  

SciTech Connect

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1983-12-01

18

Fowl Mite Management In Breeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three species of fowl mite are recurring pests of commercial breeders and layers. The chicken mite or red poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is an ectoparasite that remains hidden in the cracks and crevices of a poultry house during the day and comes out to feed on birds at night. Owing to its ability to survive for long periods without feeding

Mike Stringham

19

Palm-line detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm lines, which consist of principal lines and wrinkles, are stable and essential traits for palmprint-based individual identification and can be extracted in low-resolution images. However, the research on palm-line detection has done little. Due to special properties of palmprint, in addition to the structure feature, width of the palm-line, which generally reflects strength information, is important to identify palms

Laura Li Liu; David Zhang; Kuanquan Wang

2005-01-01

20

Integrated palm oil processing  

SciTech Connect

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

1983-01-01

21

Molecular identification of house dust mites and storage mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mites are known causes of allergic diseases. Currently, identification of mites based on morphology is difficult if only one\\u000a mite is isolated from a (dust) sample, or when only one gender is found, or when the specimen is not intact especially with\\u000a the loss of the legs. The purpose of this study was to use polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length

Shew Fung Wong; Ai Ling Chong; Joon Wah Mak; Jessie Tan; Suk Jiun Ling; Tze Ming Ho

22

Trombiculid Mites of Sunter, North Jakarta, Indonesia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of trombiculid mites was conducted in Sunter, North Jakarta, Indonesia. Trombiculid mites were collected by mammal trapping and black plating. Trapped in ricefields were 127 small mammals of four species of rodents and trombiculid mites were colle...

T. R. Hadi S. Sarbini

1985-01-01

23

Pesticide-induced mite outbreaks: pyrethroids and spider mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors inducing outbreaks of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) following use of pyrethroid insecticides are reviewed. Differentials in direct toxicity between spider mites and phytoseiid (Acari: Phytoseiidae) predators provide one explanation. Wide variation exists between pyrethroids in their direct toxicity toTetranychus urticae. The acaricidal action of pyrethroids is largely controlled by the amount of irritancy or repellency induced by the respective

D. R. Penman; R. B. Chapman

1988-01-01

24

Integrated Palm Oil Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: th...

A. L. Compere W. L. Griffith J. M. Googin

1983-01-01

25

Date Palm Germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews date palm genetic resources and their conservation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an important food crop in the Middle East and North Africa. Its center of origin and diversity most probably is the area near Iraq/Iran. From there, it spread throughout its present range...

26

Panicle Rice Mite Program Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Panicle Rice Mite Program Manual is used as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of this pest. If panicle rice mite (Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley) (PRM) is detected in the United States, PPQ ...

2009-01-01

27

Demodex mites: facts and controversies.  

PubMed

Because Demodex mites are ubiquitous, their potential as human pathogens has often been ignored. This contribution focuses on the growing body of evidence linking Demodex mites with various skin disorders. Histologically, spongiosis and lymphoid inflammation are regularly seen in follicles containing Demodex mites. In animals, they are well established as a cause of mange, and a human counterpart-demodectic alopecia-appears to exist. There is also a statistical association between Demodex mite density and rosacea, facial itching, and chronic blepharitis. Papulovesicular rosacealike lesions and spiny blepharitis often respond to agents that reduce Demodex numbers. Although these observations are not sufficient to fulfill Koch's postulates, Koch's postulates are also not fulfilled for the association between brown recluse spiders and dermal necrosis or the association between streptococci and guttate psoriasis. The evidence linking Demodex mites to human disease has implications regarding treatment. PMID:20797509

Elston, Dirk M

28

Fractionation of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its fatty acid composition, which includes 50% saturated and 50% unsaturated fatty acids, palm oil can readily\\u000a be fractionated, i.e. partially crystallized and separated into a high melting fraction or stearin and a low melting fraction\\u000a or olein.\\u000a \\u000a Three main commercial processes for fractionating palm oil are in use: the fast dry process, the slow dry process and

E. Deffense

1985-01-01

29

Oribatid Mites and Nutrient Cycling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Communities of oribatid mites (Cryptostigmata) in leaf litter and forest soils consist of an impressive number of individuals. Total populations of the order of 10 exp 5 oribatids per square meter are commonly reported from forest floors. Because of their...

D. A. Crossley

1976-01-01

30

Polymorphism of palm oil and palm oil products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil, palm stearin, hydrogenated palm oil (IV 27.5) and hydrogenated palm olein (IV 28) were crystallized at 5?C, temperature\\u000a cycled between 5 and 20?C, and kept isothermally at 5?C for 36 days. The polymorphic state of the fats was monitored by X-ray\\u000a diffraction analysis. Soft laser scanning of X-ray films was used to establish the increase in? crystal content.

Peck Hong Yap; J. M. de Man; L. de Man

1989-01-01

31

Enzymatic Glycerolysis of Palm and Palm Kernel Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycerolysis of palm and palm kernel oils were carried out using commercial lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435) and Mucor miehei (Novozym 388) as catalyst (500 units lipase\\/g oil) at 40°C and with an oil:glycerol molar ratio of 1:2 in a solvent-free system. Novozym 435 catalyzed the glycerolysis of palm and palm kernel oils giving reaction products in similar compositions.

H. Ay?e Aksoy

2005-01-01

32

A Palm Vein Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm vein pattern recognition is one of the newest bometric techniques researched today. This paper presents a palm vein recognition system that uses blood vessel patterns as personal identifying factor. The vein information is hard to duplicate since veins are internal to the human body. The design details of the palm vein capture device are researched, and preprocessing and feature

Huan Zhang; Dewen Hu

2010-01-01

33

Optimizing palm biomass energy though size reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solids oil palm biomass in the form of empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm press fibre (PPF), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm trunks and fronds has been identified as one of the main source of renewable energy with great potential in Malaysia. Recent development in the industry requires proper treatment of the palm biomass so that it generates clean energy. One

Mustafa Kamal Abdul Aziz; Noor Azian Morad; Noel Wambeck; Mohd Halim Shah

2011-01-01

34

Biodiversity of date palm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the dominant component upon which the sustainable biophysical and socio-economic structures of the oasis ecosystem are based; a fruit tree with unique nutritional, biochemical and biophysical characteristics, a rich source of aesthetic and cultural values, and ...

35

Date palm: Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The future of date palm, as a dioecious, monocot fruit tree largely depends on (1) developing advanced knowledge and information about the dynamics, management, and sustainability of the tree as a central component of the oasis agro-ecosystem, and (2) in-depth understanding of the genetic diversity ...

36

Interactions between phoretic mites and the Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus.  

PubMed

Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem. PMID:23448160

Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad

2012-01-01

37

Interactions between Phoretic Mites and the Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus  

PubMed Central

Oryctes agamemnon arabicus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is one of the main pests on date palm trees in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Two mite species were found associated with this beetle: Sancassania sp. (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) and Hypoaspis rhinocerotis Oudemans (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae). Sancassania deutonymphs (hypopi) were phoretic on O. a. arabicus adults and larvae. However, they were also necromenic, because once the host dies they feed on its carcass. The highest deutonymph load was found in the subelytral space of O. a. arabicus adult. The phoretic and necromenic interactions between Sancassania sp. and O. a. arabicus need to be investigated in more detail. H. rhinocerotis was recorded for the first time in UAE. Its role has not yet been studied in the date palm agricultural ecosystem.

Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Sharif, Eyas Mohammad

2012-01-01

38

Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa mites. In this thesis, individual mites, the population of mites

W. J. Boot

1995-01-01

39

Palm oil and palm kernel oil in food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) formulation, especially the compatibility of palm oil based CBE with cocoa butter, is of special\\u000a interest to chocolate manufacturers. Traditionally palm oil is fractionated to obtain high-melting stearin and olein with\\u000a a clear point of around 25 C, the latter serving as cooking oil. Recently, palm oil has been fractionated to recover an intermediate\\u000a fraction known

H. Traitler; A. Dieffenbacher

1985-01-01

40

Maintenance of predatory phytoseiid mites for preventive control of strawberry tarsonemid mite Phytonemus pallidus in strawberry plant propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective means for the control of the strawberry tarsonemid mite, Phytonemus pallidus, are needed for organic strawberry plant production. To study the effect of predatory mites as a preventive control tool of P. pallidus, four species of predatory mites were released on mite-free strawberry plants in a greenhouse experiment. Phytoseiid mites were fed by scattering cattail pollen on leaves until

T. Tuovinen; I. Lindqvist

2010-01-01

41

Can freshwater mites act as forensic tools?  

PubMed

Determination of post-mortem interval often employs analysis of age structure and diversity of saprophilic arthropods (including mites) that have colonized corpses. The majority of research has focused on decomposition processes in terrestrial situations, with relatively few studies on the utility of freshwater invertebrates as forensic agents. Most freshwater mites are predators, detritivores or algivores, and hence seem unlikely candidates as tools for aging or determining original placement of corpses or other bodily remains. The main exceptions to this are some aquatic Astigmata, which have occasionally been observed feeding on the tissues of moribund aquatic animals. Here I investigate Canadian law literature and published forensic research to determine how frequently freshwater mites are included in court cases or are found attending dead bodies. I found only one questionable report of aquatic mites in over 30 years of material from legal databases. Three published research papers reported mites associated with vertebrate flesh in fresh water. Only one paper provided an identification of mites finer than 'Acari' or 'water mites'. In this case, the mites were identified as Hydrozetes (Oribatida). In none of these papers were mites reported to be high in abundance or biomass, and in two of the three publications methodological problems and/or poor reporting of data raised doubts about interpretation of results. I conclude that based on their biology, there is little expectation that freshwater mites should be of great value as forensic tools, and this survey of legal and scientific literature supports my argument. PMID:19513807

Proctor, Heather C

2009-06-10

42

Efficacy of Curcuma aeruginosa rhizome and Adhatoda vasica plant extracts, on red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae in Livistona rotundifolia.  

PubMed

Queen palm, Livistona rotundifolia foliage contributes greatly in export industry. Red spider mite (RSM) (Tetranychus urticae) infests on the foliage and reduces its affordable market quality. T. urticae is found in dry environment and is one of the phytophagous mite belongs to family Tetranychidae. Different chemicals such as 80% sulphur + Diazinon @ (50g+12ml/10L) are recommended against red spider mite, but these have lesser effect on this tiny mite. Since these chemicals are not environment friendly, Green Farms Ltd., in Sri Lanka prefers to use biological agents for mite management. Extracts of Curcuma aeruginosa rhizome and Adhatoda vasica plant parts were studied separately causing mortality on T. urticae. Field experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of C. aruginosa extract for controlling RSM on L. rotundifolia leaves. Curcuma aruginosa was tested at concentrations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g/L and a control with equal amount of water. C aruginosa extracts of different concentrations were treated six times at five days interval on the palms separately. Living spider mites and eggs were pre-counted in marked leaves before applying C. aruginosa extracts. Next count was taken a day prior to next spraying. The result revealed that all the concentrations except 2 g/L were found to be effective compared to control. However there was no difference between the concentrations from 5 to 25 g/L. Hence C. aruginosa rhizome extract at its lowest concentration of 5 g/L is equally effective for the control of RSM on L. rotundifolia leaves. In another experiment extracts of Adhatoda vasica bark, leaves, and flower and water as control were applied thrice with three days interval. Pre treatment counting of living spider mites and eggs were taken in marked leaves. Post count was taken a day prior to next spraying. Third and forth counting were done after three days and four weeks from final spraying respectively. The results revealed that bark, flowers were found to be more effective compared to control. Flowers and bark were the best and hence there is no need of third sprayings as almost all the spider mites population were eradicated after second spraying. Flower extraction showed best performance until three months since final spraying. Flower and bark extracts showed higher acaricidal property and leaf showed moderate acaricidal property. PMID:21539258

Svinningen, A E; Rashani, K P; Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Mikunthan, G

2010-01-01

43

Biological control of Pacific mites and Willamette mites in San Joaquin Valley vineyards: part III. Role of tydeid mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the absence of spider mites, tydeids (Pronematus anconai\\u000a Baker andPronematus ubiquitus [Mc Gregor]) may serve as alternate prey to maintain good numbers of the predatory mite,Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acarina, Phytoseiidae), late in the season. This late-season predator and alternate prey relationship is necessary to stabilize\\u000a Pacific mite populations and perpetuate balance in San Joaquin Valley vineyards.\\u000a \\u000a Thriving laboratory colonies

Donald L. Flaherty; Marjorie A. Hoy

1971-01-01

44

Date Palm Germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) belongs to the genus Phoenix which is distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical areas of South Asia and Africa. The species are dioecious and\\u000a the fruits are drupes of varying sizes. P. dactylifera apparently originated in the area near the present Iraq and Iran, was domesticated in ancient times and spread into adjacent\\u000a regions having

R. R. Krueger

45

Factors influencing the clinical picture and the differential sensitization to house dust mites and storage mites.  

PubMed

Sensitization to house dust mites and storage mites has been studied in a number of papers, but several environmental factors and clinical conditions that differently affect sensitization to these mites are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of climatic conditions, occupation and patient age in the differential sensitization to house dust and storage mites, and also to search for possible different symptoms caused by each group of mites. Eighty patients sensitized to mites but not to other inhalant allergens were studied by case history and by skin prick test and serum IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Home conditions, including content of the allergens Der p 1, Der f 1, Lep d 2 and Tp, were determined for all patients. Human activities, such as farming or similar occupations, and humidity are conditions for preferential sensitization to storage mites, while we found no difference between living in rural or urban areas. Mean age for the onset of sensitization was 6.7 years for house dust mites and 18.7 years for storage mites. Conjunctivitis was more frequent in patients allergic to storage mites, whereas perioral syndrome (itching of the tongue and swelling of the lips) was only seen in patients sensitized to T. putrescentiae. We concluded that climatic and damp conditions and human activity, but not urban or rural living environments, influence the differential sensitization to house dust mites and storage mites. PMID:11039840

Boquete, M; Carballada, F; Armisen, M; Nieto, A; Martín, S; Polo, F; Carreira, J

46

Lotus japonicus Infested with Herbivorous Mites Emits Volatile Compounds That Attract Predatory Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lotus Japonicus   has an indirect defense mechanism against spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, we investigated the responses of predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, to volatile compounds released from T. urticae-infested L. japonicus in a Y-tube olfactometer. Plants infested with spider mites attracted more P. persimilis than did clean air. Uninfested plants and artificially damaged plants did not attract P. persimilis. When infested

Rika Ozawa; Takeshi Shimoda; Masayoshi Kawaguchi; Gen-ichiro Arimura; Jun-ichiro Horiuchi; Takaaki Nishioka; Junji Takabayashi

2000-01-01

47

Mite-induced inflammation: More than allergy  

PubMed Central

Clinical observations have suggested that there is an association of atopic conditions with hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This relationship has been especially present in patients allergic to mites. This study was designed to review clinical and experimental evidence linking atopy, mite allergy, and hypersensitivity to aspirin and NSAIDs and discuss the possible mechanisms explaining this association. A review of the medical literature concerning the association of atopic diseases, mite hypersensitivity, and intolerance to NSAIDs using PubMed and other relevant articles is presented. NSAID-sensitive patients are frequently atopic and allergic to mites, and patients who develop oral mite anaphylaxis (OMA) show an increased prevalence of NSAID hypersensitivity. The study of atopic, mite-sensitive patients, who experience urticaria and angioedema when exposed to NSAIDs and patients with OMA suggests an interesting interaction between atopic allergy and disorders of leukotriene synthesis or metabolism. Various mechanisms that could be involved in this interaction are presented, including genetic factors, inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1, and other effects (not related to IgE sensitization) of mite constituents on the immune system. The association of mite hypersensitivity with aspirin/NSAIDs intolerance has been confirmed and provides additional clues to various nonallergic pathways that may contribute to the acute and chronic inflammatory process observed in atopic, mite-allergic, individuals. The clinical relevance of these observations is presently under investigation.

Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; Caballero-Fonseca, Fernan

2012-01-01

48

[Recent experience with mites in stored products].  

PubMed

The A.A. refer a recent experience about the isolation and identification of same species of storaged timber mites. They believe that these mites are responsible of dermatitis at the trunk and the arms of timber workers. Mites are the most elderly living species on the earth, they can live and grow in different environments, such as plants, flowers, animals, men, earth, lake and sea waters, organical rubles, houses, mattresses, old books etc. There are free-living, saprophitic, parasitic and predator mites. Generally, primary mites live either freely or as commensals feeding on conserved foodstuff and on what they find available. Secondary mites, i.e. parasites and predators, live off primary mites and insects infesting foodstuff. Direct damage to foodstuff are not to be considered important, whereas indirect damages are more serious, due to the contamination of bodies and stools of mites that are rich in nitrogen. Some secondary mites may attack foodstuff workers causing characteristic dermatitis: they can act either directly, by sting and bites, or indirectly, provoking on allergic hypersensitivity. In this study the A.A. used the floating method to isolate timber mites, and then, these have been photographed at the microscope to obtain an easier and more complete identification. The A.A. describe a heterogeneous fauna consisting of both adult and larval-status insects, some species of free-living mites (Oribatula Tibialis) and, in particular, of two species secondary mites, predator, belonging to the Prostigmata sub-order. The Cheyletus Eruditus (Cheylatidae family) is a whitish mite feeding mostly on insect larva and primary mites living in foodstuff. When no prey is available, the Cheyletus Eruditus eats individuals of its own species. The Pyemotes Herfsi (Pyemotidae family) is a little white mite feeding on insect larva. It lives in conserved foodstuff and may attack man causing characteristic dermatitis such as those described by the A.A. The A.A. conclude dealing with the possible preventive and therapeutic measures tend to keep phisic-chemicals parameters of foodstuff and others conserved products afar from the values suitable for the growth of parasites (water content min. 13%, environmental humidity min. 60-65%, appropriate temperature etc.). Therapeutic procedure are based either on physical media: infra-red rays, gamma-rays, electric fields for the transformation of temperature or using chemical mixtures containing methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride and hydrogen sulphide. Among the therapeutic procedures, however, the biological pest control using chemical media associated with antagonist mites of the infesting species is to be preferred. PMID:2483070

Liguori, G; Ceccarelli, M T; Mellino, M; Marinelli, P

49

Palm Oil Prospects for 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last two decades, palm oil has emerged as the most traded edible oil and a major component of global oil consumption and production. The increase in palm oil's importance is due primarily to changes in the economics underlying the highly complex ed...

J. Castaneda M. Giordano

1995-01-01

50

[Control strategies against Varroa mites].  

PubMed

In many cases, the easiest way to control a pest or a pathogen is to resort to chemical treatments. In the short period this option is often the most convenient economically and usually does not require refined knowledge of the biology of the pest. Many efforts have been directed to develop chemical treatments against Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman. Nowadays, product based on organic acids, essential oils, pyrethroids, organophosphate, and formamidine are available. Resistance is serious problem in the chemotherapy of parasites and pathogens of the honeybee. High-level resistance to several active substances (the pyrethroids acrinathrin, flumethrin, fluvalinate; the organophosphate coumaphos; the formamidine amitraz) was detected with laboratory assays in different varroa populations and caused failure of the control in the field. At the end of the '80s, products based on pyrethroids, very effective against the mite, but without any appreciable side effect on bees, became available. Resistance to fluvalinate in Italy and later in other countries caused serious damage to beekeeping; early detection was crucial to reduce losses. The problem of developing suitable treatments was difficult in the case of the varroa mite because most substances active against V. destructor have unacceptable side effects on bees. The idea that the mite could be controlled indefinitely with these strategies began to gain ground. PMID:15305731

Lodesani, M

2004-06-01

51

In vitro efficacy of ByeMite® and Mite-Stop® on developmental stages of the red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present in vitro study shows the efficacy of two antimite products (ByeMite® = phoxim, Mite-Stop® = neem seed extract)\\u000a against all developing stages of the important red chicken mite Dermanyssus gallinae (obtained at two farms in France and Germany). While permanent contact with the active compound led to an efficacy of 100%\\u000a in the case of Mite-Stop® on mites

Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler; Khaled Al-Rasheid; Heinz Mehlhorn

2009-01-01

52

A Palm Pilot based pocket ECG recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype of a Palm Pilot based pocket ECG recorder has been developed. This device consists of a custom designed ECG acquisition module and a Palm Pilot running PalmECG, a custom designed software. Standard three-lead ECG signals (Leads I, II, III) are recorded and displayed in real time on the Palm Pilot's screen. The device also records the patient's information,

Yongning Zou; Zhenyu Guo

2000-01-01

53

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

PubMed

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

2003-01-01

54

Origin and Evolution of Feather Mites (Astigmata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feather mites are highly specialized plumage and skin ectoparasites that are variously adapted for inhabiting certain microhabitats on a bird's body. Different feather mite taxa of higher (familial) rank adapted to the same microhabitats display similar main morphological adaptations even if they are rather distantly related to one another. Hypotheses on the evolution of general adaptations in morphology of feather

JACEK DABERTa; Serge V. Mironov

1999-01-01

55

Global Status of Honey Bee Mites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Parasitic bee mites have become a major problem to both beekeepers and honey bees. This chapter updates the latest information we have on the three mite species, Acarapis (tracheal), Varroa and Tropilaelaps that are currently a threat to honey bees. It also updates the current information on the ...

56

Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.  

PubMed

Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

2008-10-11

57

Range of Choice in Palm Oil Processing Technologies for Cameroon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the ecological, agronomic, and industrial factors affecting the economics of palm oil production. It begins by describing the characteristics of palm oil and palm kernel oils, and the cultivation and harvesting of oil palm. The curren...

E. L. Hyman

1988-01-01

58

Cross-Antigenicity Between the Scabies Mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, and the House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated that antigens of the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei (SS) cross-react with antigens of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(DP). Crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CE) reaction of SS extract with rabbit anti-DP serum resulted in multiple immunoprecipitates. Reciprocal CIE reactions gave similar results. Immunoprecipitates from both reactions bound IgE in the sera of dust-mite – sensitive patients who had no

Larry G. Arlian; Diann L. Vyszenski-Moher; Salva G. Ahmed; Stephen A. Estes

1991-01-01

59

Design and implementation of a contactless palm print and palm vein sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative contactless palm print and palm vein recognition system. We design a hand sensor that could capture the palm print and palm vein image using low-resolution web camera. Both the visible and infrared images can be captured at the same time, and we do not need specialized infrared sensor to image the vein pattern. The design

Michael Goh Kah Ong; Connie Tee; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin

2010-01-01

60

The Eupodoid Mites of Alaska (Acarina: Prostigmata).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mites of the families Eupodidae, Penthalodidae and Rhagidiidae, collected primarily in central and northern Alaska, with small samplings from British Columbia and the McKenzie River Delta, N. W. T., Canada are described and illustrated. Described as new a...

R. W. Strandtmann

1971-01-01

61

Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

62

Genotypic variability and relationships between mite infestation levels, mite damage, grooming intensity, and removal of Varroa destructor mites in selected strains of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to demonstrate genotypic variability and analyze the relationships between the infestation levels of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, the rate of damage of fallen mites, and the intensity with which bees of different genotypes groom themselves to remove mites from their bodies. Sets of paired genotypes that are presumably susceptible and resistant to the varroa mite were compared at the colony level for number of mites falling on sticky papers and for proportion of damaged mites. They were also compared at the individual level for intensity of grooming and mite removal success. Bees from the "resistant" colonies had lower mite population rates (up to 15 fold) and higher percentages of damaged mites (up to 9 fold) than bees from the "susceptible" genotypes. At the individual level, bees from the "resistant" genotypes performed significantly more instances of intense grooming (up to 4 fold), and a significantly higher number of mites were dislodged from the bees' bodies by intense grooming than by light grooming (up to 7 fold) in all genotypes. The odds of mite removal were high and significant for all "resistant" genotypes when compared with the "susceptible" genotypes. The results of this study strongly suggest that grooming behavior and the intensity with which bees perform it, is an important component in the resistance of some honey bee genotypes to the growth of varroa mite populations. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:22465569

Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Emsen, Berna; Unger, Peter; Espinosa-Montaño, Laura G; Petukhova, Tatiana

2012-03-23

63

Can freshwater mites act as forensic tools?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of post-mortem interval often employs analysis of age structure and diversity of saprophilic arthropods (including\\u000a mites) that have colonized corpses. The majority of research has focused on decomposition processes in terrestrial situations,\\u000a with relatively few studies on the utility of freshwater invertebrates as forensic agents. Most freshwater mites are predators,\\u000a detritivores or algivores, and hence seem unlikely candidates as

Heather C. Proctor

2009-01-01

64

Behavioural studies on eriophyoid mites: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eriophyoid mites are excellent candidates for ethological research using the approaches of behavioural ecology and sociobiology.\\u000a These tiny haplodiploid mites are highly specialized plant parasites, producing galls, forming nests, inhabiting refuges or\\u000a living freely on plants. They reproduce via spermatophores deposited on a substrate and without pairing, which is a fascinating,\\u000a though still poorly understood, mode of reproduction widespread in

Katarzyna Michalska; Anna Skoracka; Denise Navia; James W. Amrine

2010-01-01

65

Lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin, soybean oil, corn oil and peanut oil by the commercial lipase fromCandida rugosa (formerly known asC. cylindracea) was studied. The optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of palm oil by the lipase were established. The lipase fromC. rugosa exhibits an optimal activity at 37 C and at pH 7.5. The optimal

H. T. Khor; N. H. Tan; C. L. Chua

1986-01-01

66

A Fast Palm Print Verification System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm print textures like principle lines, wrinkles and ridges contain discriminative information which can be extracted for verification purpose. In this paper, we aim to reexamine the competitive palm code scheme, and introduce some improvement over the proposed method. In order to reduce the computation complexity, we adopted wavelet transform to decompose the palm print image into lower resolution. We

Michael Goh Kah Ong; Tee Connie; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin; David Ngo Chek Ling

2006-01-01

67

Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

- The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

68

Physicochemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm-based diacylglycerol (P-DAG) oils were produced through enzymatic glycerolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil (PO), palm olein (POL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and palm stearin (PS). High purity DAG (83–90%, w\\/w) was obtained and compared to palm-based oils (P-oil) had significantly (P<0.05) different fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV) and slip melting point (SMP). Solid fat content

Amir Hossein Saberi; Beh Boon Kee; Lai Oi-Ming; Mat Sahri Miskandar

2011-01-01

69

Respiratory symptoms in arable farmworkers: role of storage mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage mites (acarid mites) are related to the house dust mite but are usually found in agricultural environments. They have been shown to cause allergic symptoms in Scottish farmworkers exposed to stored hay, but whether farmworkers who grow and store grain are also at risk is unknown. One hundred and one farmworkers on 22 Essex farms with grain storage facilities

A D Blainey; M D Topping; S Ollier; R J Davies

1988-01-01

70

SUPPRESSED MITE REPRODUCTION EXPLAINED BY THE BEHAVIOR OF ADULT BEES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Suppressed mite reproduction (SMR) is a heritable trait of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L) that can control the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not adult bees with the SMR trait affect mites in brood after cells are capped. Colonies with or w...

71

Mites (Acarina: Astigmata) associated with adult freshwater leeches (Hirudinea: Erpobdellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of mites (Astigmata: Acarina) were found crawling on the integument of cultured Nephelopsis obscura, a common North American leech. This is the first record of an association between mites and adult annelids. Histiostoma anguillarum (Histiostomatidae), previously described as an associate of farmed freshwater eels, were recorded in densities of 1–17 mites per leech, while an undescribed member of

H. C. Proctor; H. M. Gray; B. M. Oconnor

1997-01-01

72

Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.  

PubMed

In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light). PMID:20218530

Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

2009-01-01

73

Influence of environmental mite antigen on anti-mite antibody production in mice.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of environmental mite antigen on anti-mite antibody production in mice, a mite-free breeding system was established. The amount of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) antigen was measured using the ELISA inhibition method. Df antigen was detected in the wood-chip bedding used in our conventional breeding system for 1 week (2.55 +/- 0.79 micrograms/g sample) and 2 weeks (8.96 +/- 3.27 micrograms/g sample). Df antigen was also detected in the standard diet (0.4 micrograms/g sample) in the conventional system, whereas no antigen was detected in the case of the mite-free breeding system. Neither anti-Df IgE nor IgG antibody was detected before immunization, either in mice raised in the mite-free breeding system or in mice raised in the conventional system. Primary and secondary antibody production after immunizations with 1 or 10 micrograms Df antigen was studied in the mouse bred in the conventional and in the mite-free breeding system. Primary anti-Df IgE antibody response of the conventional group was greater than that in the mite-free group after immunization with either dose of 1 and 10 micrograms Df antigen. Primary anti-Df IgG antibody response was greater in the conventional than the mite-free group after immunization with 1 microgram Df antigen. Secondary IgE and IgG responses of the conventional group were greater than the mite-free group after immunizations with 10 micrograms Df antigen. These results suggest that anti-Df antibody production is enhanced by chronic exposure to Df antigen in the environment. PMID:7691296

Motegi, Y; Morikawa, A; Kuroume, T

1993-01-01

74

Diseases of the Oil Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty two diseases and disorders affecting the oil palm in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America are described with their distribution, economic importance, etiology and control. Of these, nine diseases are considered to be of major economic importance, 19 are of minor importance, and four are due to nutrient deficiencies. The major diseases causing serious economic losses are freckle (Cercospora

F. O. Aderungboye

1977-01-01

75

Developing Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conventional biological imaging, diffraction places a limit on the minimal xy distance at which two marked objects can be discerned. Consequently, resolution of target molecules within cells is typically coarser by two orders of magnitude than the molecular scale at which the proteins are spatially distributed. Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) optically resolves selected subsets of protect fluorescent probes within

Georges H. Patterson; Eric Betzig; Jennifer Lippincott-schwartz; Harald F. Hess

2007-01-01

76

Flight simulation on Palm OS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight simulation on a Palm device requires attention to the purpose of such a program, followed by selective inclusion of essential features. Performance considerations encourage some calculations ahead of time. Graphics also pose a challenge due to bitmap constraints in older OS versions and lack of polygon support.

Andrew S. Downs

77

Laboratory tests for controlling poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) with predatory mites in small ‘laying hen’ cages (Online First)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess their potential to control poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), we tested selected predaceous mites (Androlaelaps casalis and Stratiolaelaps scimitus) that occur naturally in wild bird nests or sometimes spontaneously invade poultry houses. This was done under laboratory conditions in cages, each with 2–3 laying hens, initially 300 poultry red mites and later the release of 1,000 predators. These

I. Lesna; M. W. Sabelis; Niekerk van T. G. C. M; J. Komdeur

2012-01-01

78

Stylostome formation in trombiculid mites (Acariformes: Trombiculidae).  

PubMed

Stylostomes of the trombiculid mite larvae Neotrombicula pomeranzevi (Schluger), Hirsutiella zachvatkini (Schluger), Miyatrombicula esoensis (Sasa and Ogata) and Euschoengastia rotundata (Schluger) (Acariformes: Trombiculidae), formed in the host skin during feeding of the parasites on their natural hosts (voles) were studied histologically and histochemically. A stylostome is a variously shaped tube formed of solidified mite saliva that extends from the mouthparts of the parasite through the epidermis into the dermis of the host, and allows the mite to obtain its liquid food. The first step of stylostome formation is deposition of an eosinophilic cone, to which the larva's chelicerae are glued. Organization of the stylostome depends on the mite species, and its walls may show weakly expressed longitudinal or transverse stratification. Histochemically, the stylostome is composed of complex glycoprotein with varying tinctorial properties through the width or the length of the stylostome's walls. Beneath the distal end of the stylostome, irrespectively of its localization either in the epidermis or in the dermis of the host, a feeding cavity is formed as a result of the action of the hydrolytic components of the mite's saliva forced through the stylostome into the wound. An inflammatory dermal reaction of moderate intensity is evolved during larval feeding and stylostome formation. It is manifested by the infiltration of the foci with neutrophiles, lymphocytes and macrophages and by dilation of capillaries of the terminal vessel bed and filling them by erythrocytes and other blood elements. Around the stylostome, necrosis of the epidermal cells occurs, leucocytes come to the damaged area and fuse with the necrotic epidermal cells, leading to the formation of the large scabs on the surface of the host's skin. In the case of E. rotundata, single capsules having a terminal opening and containing feeding larva are formed on the abdomen of the hosts. The walls of the capsules are composed of the mite's saliva flowing upon the surface of the host's skin. At the bottom of the capsule, a stylostome perforating the epidermis is also present. PMID:19370394

Shatrov, Andrew B

2009-04-16

79

1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue showing setting; 208 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue showing setting; 208 Palm at extreme left; note commercial intrusion at right; view to southwest. - T.J. Young Cottage, 208 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

80

Evaluation of storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food.  

PubMed

Storage mites may be considered important allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis. High sensitization rates to Tyrophagus, Acarus, and Lepidoglyphus species have been reported in atopic dogs, and dry pet food has been suggested as a potential source of storage mite exposure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate commercial dry dog food for contamination with storage mites, and how storage time and conditions could influence the risk of contamination. Ten different premium commercial dry dog foods formulated for skin disorders were selected. Food bags were opened and stored for 6 weeks under two different environmental conditions. At different time points, samples from each bag were collected and analysed by microscopy, guanine test, storage mite-specific traps, and a modified flotation technique. On opening, two storage mites identified as Acarus siro were isolated from one of the 10 bags by flotation technique, indicating that storage mites can be present in packaged dry dog food bags. After 5 weeks of storage under environmental conditions optimal for mite growth (23.2 +/- 2.1 degrees C and 71 +/- 5.6% of relative humidity), mites were detected by microscopic observation in nine of the 10 diets. When mites were identified by the flotation technique, Tyrophagus spp. were found to be the most common contaminating species. These results show that dry dog food can be a suitable substrate for storage mite reproduction, and that environmental and storage conditions may influence food contamination and mite development. PMID:18494758

Brazis, Pilar; Serra, Montserrat; Sellés, Alex; Dethioux, Fabienne; Biourge, Vincent; Puigdemont, Anna

2008-08-01

81

A fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method for determining butylated hydroxytoluene in palm olein and palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid, and direct FTIR spectroscopic method was developed for the determination of BHT content in refined, bleached,\\u000a and deodorized (RBD) palm olein and RBD palm oil. The method used sodium chloride windows with a 50-mm transmission path.\\u000a Fifty stripped oil samples of both RBD palm olein and RBD palm oil were spiked with known amounts of BHT concentrations

W. Ammawath; Y. B. Che Man; R. B. Abdul Rahman; B. S. Baharin

2006-01-01

82

Discrimination of palm olein oil and palm stearin oil mixtures using a mass spectrometry based electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

To discriminate mixing ratios for mixtures of palm olein oil and palm stearin oil, an electronic nose based on mass spectrometer\\u000a (MS-electronic nose) and GC were used. The intensities of each fragment from the palm olein oil and palm stearin oil by the\\u000a MS-electronic nose were used for discriminant function analysis (DFA). When palm olein oil is mixed with palm

Eun Jeung Hong; Sue Jee Park; Jin Young Choi; Bong Soo Noh

2011-01-01

83

[Spiny hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles].  

PubMed

Spiny hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles is a rare dermatosis presenting as multiple tiny keratotic plugs on the palms and soles. There are two different forms of spiny keratoderma of the palms and soles - the hereditary form and the acquired form. The latter is usually associated with internal malignancies or systemic disease. Since spiny hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles has been under-reported and under-diagnosed, it is important for dermatologists not to forget this disease in daily practice. We report this rare disease for the first time in the German literature. PMID:23247641

Baratli, J; Amann, P; Megahed, M

2012-12-01

84

Twospotted spider mite predator-prey model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents simulation models for the dynamics of a predator-prey system consisting of the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch as a prey and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. The percentage infestation of plant has been used as a basic unit for population densities of prey and predators. Parameter estimation has been done with the inclusion of diffusion and

Irina Kozlova; Manmohan Singh; Alan K. Easton; Peter Ridland

2005-01-01

85

False Spider Mites of Mexico ('Tenuipalpidae: Acari').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin includes descriptions and figures for 165 species of plant-feeding false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae) of Mexico, of which 65 are described as new to science. Less than one-third (48) of the Mexican tenuipalpids are distributed in 8 genera (Ae...

D. M. Tuttle E. W. Baker

1987-01-01

86

How to visualize the spider mite silk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brightener 28 ABSTRACT Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. Like spiders, every individual produces abundant silk strands and is able to construct a common web for the entire colony. Despite the importance of this silk for the biology of this worldwide species, only one previous study suggested how to visualize it.

G. Clotuche; G. Le Goff; A-C Mailleux; J-L Deneubourg; C. Detrain; T. Hance

2009-01-01

87

New eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) from Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of eriophyoid nothopodine mite from Australia is described and illustrated. Floracarus perrepaen. sp. causes leaf curling of the Old World climbing fern, Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. and Lygodium reticulatum Schk. (Schizaeaceae) in Queensland. This species was also collected from L. microphyllum in China and New Caledonia and is the first record of the genus from Australia.

Danuta K. Knihinicki; Jan Boczek

2002-01-01

88

MITEsâÂÂThe Ultimate Parasites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transposable elements (TEs) are fragments of DNA that can jump from one genome position to another, often producing extra copies of themselves in the process. Yang et al. show how a special type of TEs, called miniature inverted repeat transposable elements or MITEs, transpose and accumulate in the genome.

Josefa González (Stanford University;Department of Biology); Dmitri Petrov (Stanford University;Department of Biology)

2009-09-11

89

Studies in palm oil crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melting and crystallization behaviors of palm oil were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance, differential scanning calorimetry,\\u000a and plasticity measurements and were correlated with composition and chemical characteristics. Fractionation into high melting\\u000a and low melting components is adversely affected by increase in free fatty acids (FFA), diglyceride content, and degree of\\u000a oxidation, and hence, for an oil that is to

B. Jacobsberg; Oh Chuan Ho

1976-01-01

90

Minor constituents of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude palm oil contains about 1% of minor components including carotenoids, tocopherols, sterols, triterpene alcohols, phospholipids,\\u000a glycolipids and terpenic and paraffinic hydrocarbons. The nutritionally important components such as carotenes and tocopherols\\u000a also improve stability of the oil. Although a highly valued product, carotene unfortunately is bleached or destroyed in refining\\u000a because suitable recovery technology is not available. Thermal degradation of

S. H. Goh; Y. M. Choo; S. H. Ong

1985-01-01

91

Somaclonal Variation in Date Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The exploration of somaclonal variation is an approach that could provide date palm breeding programs with new genotypes.\\u000a Naturally occurring or induced variants may have superior agronomic quality and\\/or enhanced performance but could also harbor\\u000a new traits such as tolerance to drought and salinity or resistance to major diseases i.e. bayoud. This chapter summarizes\\u000a recent progress in terms of studying

A. El Hadrami; F. Daayf; S. Elshibli; S. M. Jain; I. El Hadrami

92

Vision 2020 - The Palm Oil Phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting the future performance of an export oriented commodity like palm oil is no easy task. The prediction has to take into account the long run past performance, resource constraints and challenges faced by the commodity at both the domestic and international fronts. This paper attempts to overview the palm oil industry; what it was in the past, its situation

Yusof Basiron; Mohd Arif Simeh

2005-01-01

93

Recovery of carotenoids from palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoids from palm oil were recovered through a two-stage process involving transesterification of palm oil followed\\u000a by molecular distillation of the ester. The carotenoid fraction contained more than 80,000 ppm carotenoids. ?- and ?-Carotenes\\u000a were the major components. Vitamin E and sterols were also present.

C. K. Ooi; Y. M. Choo; S. C. Yap; Y. Basiron; A. S. H. Ong

1994-01-01

94

Amazonian oil palms of promise: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a literature search offering a general background on palms with a high content of oil in their fruits. Most of the 25 species discussed are Amazonian. Since many species of palms are potentially valuable for commercial oil extraction, general information is included. A variety of papers on cultivation, extraction and production of oils have been consulted, 2

Michael J. Balick

1979-01-01

95

Diversity of Feather Mites (Acari: Astigmata) on Darwin's Finches.  

PubMed

Abstract :? Feather mites are a diverse group of ectosymbionts that occur on most species of birds. Although Darwin's finches are a well-studied group of birds, relatively little is known about their feather mites. Nearly 200 birds across 9 finch species, and from 2 locations on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos, were dust-ruffled during the 2009 breeding season. We found 8 genera of feather mites; the most prevalent genus was Mesalgoides (53-55%), followed by Trouessartia (40-45%), Amerodectes and Proctophyllodes (26-33%), Xolalgoides (21-27%), Analges and Strelkoviacarus (0-6%), and Dermoglyphus (2-4%). There was no evidence for microclimatic effects (ambient temperature and relative humidity) on mite diversity. Host body mass was significantly correlated with mean feather mite abundance across 7 of 8 well-sampled species of finches. Certhidea olivacea, the smallest species, did not fit this pattern and had a disproportionately high number of mites for its body mass. PMID:23691947

Villa, Scott M; Le Bohec, Céline; Koop, Jennifer A H; Proctor, Heather C; Clayton, Dale H

2013-05-21

96

Somatic embryogenesis in macaw palm ( Acrocomia aculeata) from zygotic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata) is an oleaginous palm tree that is highly productive and adapted to semiarid ecosystems, which oil can be used to produce biodiesel. Such characteristics make macaw palm a potential crop to be used by farmers from semi-arid regions, but its propagation is still problematic. This paper reports the first description of somatic embryogenesis for macaw palm

Elisa Ferreira Moura; Sérgio Yoshimitsu Motoike; Marília Contin Ventrella; Adauto Quirino de Sá Júnior; Mychelle Carvalho

2009-01-01

97

PERFORMANCE OF OIL BURNER SYSTEM UTILIZINGVARIOUS PALM BIODIESEL BLENDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an investigation on the performance of an oil burner system utilizing various palm biodiesel blends. Biofuel used in this study is a blend of diesel and palm olein, called palm biodiesel. The performance of burner system using palm biodiesel is based on its temperature profile and emissions generated such as nitrous oxide (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and

Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar

2009-01-01

98

Parthenogenesis in Oribatid Mites (Acari, Oribatida): Evolution Without Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) are an extraordinarily old and speciose group of chelicerate arthropods that probably originated\\u000a in Silurian times. A high number (?10%) of oribatid mite species reproduces via parthenogenesis, presumably by terminal fusion\\u000a automixis with holokinetic chromosomes and an inverted sequence of meiotic divisions. Several of the old taxa of oribatid\\u000a mites likely have radiated while being parthenogenetic.

Michael Heethoff; Roy A. Norton; Stefan Scheu; Mark Maraun

99

Mites associated with stored grain commodities in Benin, West Africa.  

PubMed

After insects, mites are the major arthropod pests that inhabit stored agricultural products worldwide. To determine the acarofauna that infests cowpea, maize, paddy rice and sorghum in Benin (West Africa), surveys were conducted in some principal markets (Dantokpa, Glazoue and Parakou) of this country. A total of 555 samples of grains and debris were collected in May and September 2011. More than 56 species belonging to 24 mite families were recorded in the four products. These mite species included predators, parasites, fungivorous, phytophagous and other groups whose feeding habits are not well known. The family Cheyletidae was the most prevalent and the most diverse predatory mite family encountered, in which Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most abundant species. Several families of mite pests and mites responsible for allergies (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Pyroglyphidae, Pyemotidae and Saproglyphidae) were also detected. The three most dominant and frequent species were C. malaccensis, Suidasia nesbitti (Hughes) and Suidasia sp. Statistical analysis showed that densities of these three mite species were higher in Parakou than in Glazoue and Dantokpa, on one hand, and higher in debris than in grains, on the other hand. The densities of S. nesbitti and Suidasia sp. decreased significantly during the dry season, whereas C. malaccensis remained stable throughout the two samplings. Of all grains, sorghum was the least infested with mites. This study shows that in Benin mites are present in stored agricultural products to which they cause serious damage, and may cause various allergies to people. PMID:23793792

Zannou, Ignace D; Adebo, Habib O; Zannou, Elisabeth; Hell, Kerstin

2013-06-22

100

Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid

Thiam Leng Chew; Subhash Bhatia

2008-01-01

101

The combined influence of immunotherapy and mite allergen reduction on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mite-sensitive asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encasings for mattresses, blankets and pillows in combination with mite allergen reduction on the floor have proved effective\\u000a in reducing bronchial hyperreactivity of mite-allergic children. We studied the effect of combining the use of encasings with\\u000a specific immunotherapy in comparison to the use of encasings alone (control group). Twenty mite-allergic children (Skin Prick\\u000a Test, RAST, mean age 10 years) with

K. Paul; U. Klettke; U. Wahn

1998-01-01

102

Susceptibilities of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acarina: Macronyssidae), and chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae), to selected acaricides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative toxicities of ten acaricides to northern fowl mite,Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken mite,Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), were determined simultaneously by holding the mites inside disposable glass Pasteur pipettes previously immersed in acetone solutions of various concentrations (w\\/v) of technical grade acaricides. The LC90s (parts per million) of the acaricides after 24 h exposure for the

M. G. Fletcher; R. C. Axtell

1991-01-01

103

Eczemas due to mites and microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a specific clinical, morphologic and microscopic reaction pattern of the skin. It has many causes, including external and internal chemicals and the action of various microorganisms--bacteria, fungi, yeasts, viruses and mites--and their products. Peripheral vesicles with undermined borders are a feature of all eczemas caused by fungi, yeasts and bacteria and are thus a useful diagnostic finding. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8

Jackson, R.

1977-01-01

104

Studies on eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea): VI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus and five new species of eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) are described from Thailand. Aceria sarmentosae Chandrapatya, n.sp. causing leaf galls on Azima sarmentosa (Salvadoraceae), Criotacus tetraspermae Chandrapatya n.sp. causing leaf edge rolling on Salix tetraspermae (Salicaceae), and Vasates leucopyri Chandrapatya n.sp. vagrant on Securinega leucopyrus (Euphorbiaceae) belong to Eriophyidae. The new genus Vimola is related to Vilaia,

Jan Boczek; Angsumarn Chandrapatya

1992-01-01

105

Temperature preference and respiration of acaridid mites.  

PubMed

The thermal preferences in a grain mass and respiration at various temperatures in mites (Acari: Acarididae) of medical and economical importance [Acarus siro (L. 1758), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes 1961, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank 1871), and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank 1781)] were studied under laboratory conditions. Based on the distribution of mites in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grain along a thermal gradient from 10 to 40 degrees C, L. destructor, D. farinae, and A. siro were classified as eurythermic and T. putrescentiae as stenothermic. The lowest preferred temperature was found for D. farinae (28 degrees C), followed by A. siro (28.5 degrees C), L. destructor (29.5 degrees C), and T. putrescentiae (31.5 degrees C). The relationship between the respiration rate and the temperature was similar for all four mite species. The highest respiration was found in the range from 31 to 33 degrees C. This is approximately 2 degrees C higher than the preferred temperature of these species. The lower temperature threshold of respiration ranged from 1 to 5 degrees C and the upper threshold ranged from 45 to 48 degrees C. Acclimatization of A. siro to temperature regimes of 5, 15, and 35 degrees C resulted in thermal preferences between 9 and 12 degrees C, 9 and 20 degrees C, and 28 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The respiration rate of acclimatized specimens increased with the temperature, reaching a maximum at 29.0 degrees C for mites acclimatized at 5 and 15 degrees C and a maximum at 33.7 degrees C for those acclimatized at 30 degrees C. PMID:21309251

Hubert, J; Pekár, S; Nesvorná, M; Sustr, V

2010-12-01

106

Enzymatic synthesis of fatty hydrazides from palm oils.  

PubMed

Fatty hydrazides (FH) have been successfully synthesized from palm oils by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The synthesis was carried out by treating the oils with hydrazine hydrate at neutral pH using an immobilized lipase, Lipozyme as the catalyst. The percentages of conversion of RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) palm oil (PO), RBD palm olein (POn), RBD palm stearin (PS) and RBD palm kernel olein (PKOn) into their fatty hydrazides are 95, 97, 97 and 99, respectively. PMID:18391474

Mohamad, Sharifah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Haron, Md Jelas; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Abd

2008-01-01

107

Phoretic mites associated with animal and human decomposition.  

PubMed

Phoretic mites are likely the most abundant arthropods found on carcases and corpses. They outnumber their scavenger carriers in both number and diversity. Many phoretic mites travel on scavenger insects and are highly specific; they will arrive on a particular species of host and no other. Because of this, they may be useful as trace indicators of their carriers even when their carriers are absent. Phoretic mites can be valuable markers of time. They are usually found in a specialised transitional transport or dispersal stage, often moulting and transforming to adults shortly after arrival on a carcase or corpse. Many are characterised by faster development and generation cycles than their carriers. Humans are normally unaware, but we too carry mites; they are skin mites that are present in our clothes. More than 212 phoretic mite species associated with carcases have been reported in the literature. Among these, mites belonging to the Mesostigmata form the dominant group, represented by 127 species with 25 phoretic mite species belonging to the family Parasitidae and 48 to the Macrochelidae. Most of these mesostigmatids are associated with particular species of flies or carrion beetles, though some are associated with small mammals arriving during the early stages of decomposition. During dry decay, members of the Astigmata are more frequently found; 52 species are phoretic on scavengers, and the majority of these travel on late-arriving scavengers such as hide beetles, skin beetles and moths. Several species of carrion beetles can visit a corpse simultaneously, and each may carry 1-10 species of phoretic mites. An informative diversity of phoretic mites may be found on a decaying carcass at any given time. The composition of the phoretic mite assemblage on a carcass might provide valuable information about the conditions of and time elapsed since death. PMID:19557527

Perotti, M Alejandra; Braig, Henk R

2009-06-26

108

Immunomodulation of Skin Cytokine Secretion by House Dust Mite Extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Skin contact with house dust mites may contribute to atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. We sought to determine if molecules from house dust mites could influence the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts grown in a human skin equivalent (HSE) model. Methods HSEs consisting of an epidermis of keratinocytes with stratum corneum over a dermis of fibroblasts in a collagen matrix were challenged with Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Euroglyphus maynei mite extracts. Results HSEs secreted interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, cutaneous T cell-attracting chemokine, transforming growth factor-?, granulocyte/macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors and vascular endothelial cell growth factor in response to at least 1 mite extract. Extracts of different mite species stimulated HSEs to release different cytokines. Therefore, extracts of different species contained different molecules or different concentrations of similar molecules. The cytokine release profiles of cells in the HSEs were not the same as for monocultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Conclusions Molecules from house dust mites are capable of inducing the release of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines from epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Avoiding skin contact with house dust mites would reduce the possibility of mite-induced inflammation in the skin. Therefore, measures to reduce contact with mite molecules such as frequent vacuuming of upholstered furniture and carpets and laundering of clothing and bedding to remove mite molecules and allergens could reduce skin contact with mite molecules and diminish exacerbations of skin inflammation in patients with atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases.

Arlian, Larry G.; Morgan, Marjorie S.

2011-01-01

109

Tyrophagus putrescentiae mites grown in dog food cultures and the effect mould growth has on mite survival and reproduction.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to determine whether the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, could survive and thrive on dog food and if mould growth was important to their survival. All of the chambers (n = 42) were started with 10 female mites and evaluated every other day for mite survival and for the spontaneous development of mould. Ten chambers tested the effect of low moisture on mite survival. Eight chambers were used as positive and negative controls (n = 4 each); positive control mites were fed Fleischmann's((R)) yeast and negative controls had no food source. Three dog foods were evaluated in the same manner. Four chambers had food but mould development was limited by replacing the food kernel every 48 h and four chambers were allowed to grow mould. Mites grown in chambers without moisture died from desiccation within 5 days. The termination point was day 34 when all mites in the negative control group (moisture but no food) died. Although T. putrescentiae survived and grew on all three commercial dog foods, there was no statistically significant difference in mites counts among the dog foods (P < 0.10). Mite counts in the 'no' mould and mould groups ranged from 8 to 11 and 144 to 245, respectively, and differences were significant (P < 0.0001). This study found that T. putrescentiae is a fungivorous storage mite that can grow and flourish on dog food. The study demonstrated that the presence of mould positively influences mite viability, while low relative humidity can result in detrimental consequences for T. putrescentiae. PMID:19719462

Canfield, Michael S; Wrenn, William J

2010-02-01

110

Resurgences of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) induced by synthetic pyrethroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causes of spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) population resurgences consequent upon exposure to synthetic pyrethroid (SP) treatments are reviewed. Resurgences may be seen as soon as 1 week, or even as late as a whole season, post-treatment. Synthetic pyrethroids vary in their adverse effects on spider mites, and also differ in their ability to invoke resurgences of different spidermite species on

Uri Gerson; Ephraim Cohen

1989-01-01

111

A European study on the genetics of mite sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Sensitization to mite allergens represents a prominent feature of atopy and an important predictor of bronchial asthma. Objective: It was the intention of this study to define genetic loci linked to mite sensitization because these could represent the genetic basis of the important atopic component of asthma. Methods: We studied a multiethnic white population of 99 families, including 224

Thorsten Kurz; Konstantin Strauch; Andrea Heinzmann; Sandra Braun; Martin Jung; Franz Rüschendorf; Miriam F. Moffatt; William O. C. M. Cookson; Filipe Inacio; Anna Ruffilli; Gitte Nordskov-Hansen; Gabriel Peltre; Johannes Forster; Joachim Kuehr; André Reis; Thomas F. Wienker; Klaus A. Deichmann

2000-01-01

112

Characterization and Immunobiology of House Dust Mite Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examination of house dust mite extracts has indicated that over 30 different proteins can induce IgE antibody in patients allergic to the house dust mite. There are however dominant specificities especially the group 1 and 2 allergens which can account for much of the allergenicity of extracts. Of the 19 denominated allergens, the major IgE binding has been reported

Wayne R. Thomas; Wendy-Anne Smith; Belinda J. Hales; Kristina L. Mills; Richard M. O’Brien

2002-01-01

113

Prenatal Chemosensory Learning by the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus californicus  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal or embryonic learning, behavioral change following experience made prior to birth, may have significant consequences for postnatal foraging behavior in a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, and molluscs. However, prenatal learning has not been previously shown in arthropods such as insects, spiders and mites. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined prenatal chemosensory learning in the plant-inhabiting predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus. We exposed these predators in the embryonic stage to two flavors (vanillin or anisaldehyde) or no flavor (neutral) by feeding their mothers on spider mite prey enriched with these flavors or not enriched with any flavor (neutral). After the predators reached the protonymphal stage, we assessed their prey choice through residence and feeding preferences in experiments, in which they were offered spider mites matching the maternal diet (neutral, vanillin or anisaldehyde spider mites) and non-matching spider mites. Predator protonymphs preferentially resided in the vicinity of spider mites matching the maternal diet irrespective of the type of maternal diet and choice situation. Across treatments, the protonymphs preferentially fed on spider mites matching the maternal diet. Prey and predator sizes did not differ among neutral, vanillin and anisaldehyde treatments, excluding the hypothesis that size-assortative predation influenced the outcome of the experiments. Conclusions/Significance Our study reports the first example of prenatal learning in arthropods.

Peralta Quesada, Paulo C.; Schausberger, Peter

2012-01-01

114

Reflectance assessment of mite effects on apple trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflectance measurements were conducted in field plots of Golden Smoothee 2038 apple cultivar subjected to different levels of mite attack (from 0 to 500 cumulative mite days) over a 2-year period. Chlorophyll concentration decreased and carotenoid\\/chlorophyll a ratio increased with increasing level of attack. Classical reflectance indices such as red edge wavelength or the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index were unable

J. Penuelas; I. Filella; P. Lloret; F. Munoz; M. Vilajeliu

1995-01-01

115

CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

116

Some physiological effects of spider mite infestation on bean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using autoradiography it was shown that saliva ofT. urticae injected into the plant was transported to the growing regions. Indications were found that the two-spotted spider mite has an active phosphate metabolism. A local mite infestation on a bean plant caused an increased transport of phosphates to the top leaves and the roots.

J. J. H. Storms

1971-01-01

117

Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever\\/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely

Katja Fischer; Christopher G. Langendorf; James A. Irving; Simone Reynolds; Charlene Willis; Simone Beckham; Ruby H. P. Law; Sundy Yang; Tanya A. Bashtannyk-Puhalovich; Sheena McGowan; James C. Whisstock; Robert N. Pike; David J. Kemp; Ashley M. Buckle

2009-01-01

118

Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

119

Parasitic Mites of Honey Bees: Life History, Implications, and Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hive of the honey bee is a suitable habitat for diverse mites (Acari), including nonparasitic, omnivorous, and pollen-feeding species, and para- sites. The biology and damage of the three main pest species Acarapis woodi, Varroa jacobsoni, and Tropilaelaps clareae is reviewed, along with detection and control methods. The hypothesis that Acarapis woodiis a recently evolved species is rejected. Mite-associated

Diana Sammataro; Uri Gerson; Glen Needham

2000-01-01

120

Trichomes and spider-mite webbing protect predatory mite eggs from intraguild predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predaceous arthropods are frequently more abundant on plants with leaves that are pubescent or bear domatia than on plants with glabrous leaves. We explored the hypothesis that for some predatory mites this is because pubescence affords protection from intraguild predation. In laboratory experiments, we tested whether apple leaf pubescence protected Typhlodromus pyri eggs from predation by western flower thrips, Frankliniella

A. Roda; J. Nyrop; M. Dicke; G. English-Loeb

2000-01-01

121

Prey preference of the phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus pyri 1. Response to volatile kairomones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Y-tube olfactometer, a study has been made of the response of females of the predatory miteTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) to volatile kairomones of three prey species: the European red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)), the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) and the apple rust mite (Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa)).

Marcel Dicke

1988-01-01

122

Patterns of parasitism by tracheal mites (Locustacarus buchneri) in natural bumble bee populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic mites are among the most destructive enemies of social bees. However, aside from mites of honey bees, virtually nothing is known about the prevalence and effects of parasitic mites in natural bee populations. In this paper, we report on parasitism of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) by the tracheal mite Locustacarus buchneri Stammer in south-western Alberta, Canada. Parasitism of bumble

Michael Christopher; Troy Lorne

123

Plants are better protected against spider-mites after exposure to volatiles from infested conspecifics  

Microsoft Academic Search

When infested by herbivorous mites, cotton seedlings produce volatile cues that elicit attraction of predatory mites. Experiments were carried out to elucidate how downwinduninfested conspecific seedlings are affected by these volatiles. It was found that the rate of oviposition of herbivorous mites was reduced on seedlings exposed to volatiles from infested seedlings. Moreover, predatory mites were attracted by exposeduninfested seedlings.

J. Bruin; M. Dicke; M. W. Sabelis

1992-01-01

124

Geotaxis and leaf-surface preferences mitigate negative effects of a predatory mite on an herbivorous mite.  

PubMed

Reproductive success and population growth of an herbivorous mite are limited by activities of phytoseiid predators. However, occurrences on upper versus lower leaf surfaces are sometimes mismatched between these prey and predators. The mismatch potentially mitigates predation risk for the prey species. We assessed factors that affect mite distributions on leaf surfaces, testing whether the presence of the phytoseiid mite Phytoseius nipponicus alters the leaf-surface distribution and reproductive success of the herbivorous false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus. The host plant was Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (Adoxaceae). Leaves were set in natural (TRUE) and reversed (upside down; INVERTED) orientations using experimental devices. Both surfaces were accessible to mites. We detected lower and abaxial leaf-surface preferences in P. nipponicus. In contrast, upper and adaxial surfaces were preferred by B. obovatus. Thus, prey and predatory mites accumulated on different sides of leaves. Presence of the predator also indirectly decreased egg production in B. obovatus. Brevipalpus obovatus females actively avoided leaf surfaces with elevated predator numbers; these females shifted their distributions and changed oviposition sites to leaf surfaces with fewer predators. In consequence, B. obovatus eggs on the upper sides of leaves were less frequently preyed upon than were those on lower sides. We suggest that upper leaf-surface exploitation in this particular herbivorous mite species mitigates predation risk from phytoseiid mites, which prefer lower leaf surfaces. PMID:23011108

Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

2012-09-26

125

Causes of mite pest outbreaks in bamboo forests in Fujian, China: analyses of mite damage in monoculture versus polyculture stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage caused by the phytophagous mites Schizotetranychus nanjingensis Ma & Yuan, Aponychus corpuzae Rimando and\\/or Aculus bambusae Kuang to the moso bamboo (Phyllostaychs pubescens) was examined for ten pairs of mono- culture versus polyculture forests at six locations in Fujian, China. Mite damage in the monoculture forests (35%) was on average twice as high as that in the polyculture forests

YANXUAN ZHANG; ZHI-QIANG ZHANG; LU-XING TONG; QIAOYUN LIU; MEIGUAN SONG

2000-01-01

126

Comparative toxicity of some acaricides to the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis and the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative toxicity of someacaricides to the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis and the twospottedspider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) wasevaluated in laboratory. Five of theacaricides tested, including bifenazate,acequinocyl, chlorfenapyr, flufenoxuron andfenbutatin oxide, were much less toxic to adultfemales and immatures of P. persimilisthan to those of T. urticae, and adultfemale predators treated with these fiveacaricides produced 84±96% as many

Sang Soo Kim; Sang Sun Yoo

2002-01-01

127

MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY  

EPA Science Inventory

We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

128

Refuge use by the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis: Fine scale distribution and association with other mites under the perianth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tiny size of eriophyoid mites is a key feature regarding their status as herbivorous pests. Many eriophyoid species are highly host specific and live in concealed sites (refuges) on their hosts, which are difficult to access by natural enemies. We explored the spatial refuge used by one of the most important coconut pests, the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis Keifer

L. M. Lawson-Balagbo; M. G. C. Gondim; G. J. de Moraes; R. Hanna; P. Schausberger

2007-01-01

129

CERATOCYSTIS PARADOXA IN OIL PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS PALM (ELAEIS GUINEENSIS PALM ( ) FRUIT EXTRACT MEDIA ELAEIS GUINEENSIS) FRUIT EXTRACT MEDIA ELAEIS GUINEENSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Ceratocystis paradoxa, a pathogen of the oil palm and other economic crops, grows well in vitro on the oil palm fruit extract media (solid and liquid forms). A stock culture of the fungus (IMI specimen no. 79166) was used in this study, and its growth in oil palm fruit basal medium, potato dextrose and corn meal media were

A. P. O. DEDE; F. I. OKUNGBOWA

2007-01-01

130

Date Palm Cell and Protoplast Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the current status of cell and protoplast cultures in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Critically important steps toward plant regeneration from recalcitrant date palm protoplasts have been achieved in the\\u000a recent past. Callus regeneration was achieved in commercial cvs. Deglet Noor, Takerboucht, Barhee and Zaghloul. The use of\\u000a feeder layer was the main factor for inducing cell

A. Assani; D. Chabane; H. Shittu; N. Bouguedoura

131

Effect of antioxidants on refined palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkali refined palm oil and hydrogenated cotton-seed oil were stabilized with butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole,\\u000a and tertiary butylhydroquinone. Under bulk storage temperatures significant reductions in the peroxide formation of palm oil\\u000a were obtained only with tertiary butyl-hydroquinone. The reduction in peroxide formation with tertiary butylhydroquinone was\\u000a much greater than anticipated from the active oxygen method results. The stability improvement of

C. W. Fritsch; V. E. Weiss; R. H. Anderson

1975-01-01

132

Palm oil in margarines and shortenings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil has become used increasingly as a raw material in soaps, edible fat-based products and confectionary. This paper\\u000a deals specifically with applications in margarines and shortenings. Properties of palm oil are described, indicating both\\u000a the special characteristics that make it suitable for such applications and its limitations. Modification techniques which\\u000a can minimize or eliminate the disadvantages and hence broaden

Malcolm L. Duns

1985-01-01

133

Human Identification Using Palm-Vein Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two new approaches to improve the performance of palm-vein-based identification systems pre- sented in the literature. The proposed approach attempts to more effectively accommodate the potential deformations, rotational and translational changes by encoding the orientation preserving features and utilizing a novel region-based matching scheme. We systematically compare the previously proposed palm-vein identification approaches with our proposed ones

Yingbo Zhou; Ajay Kumar

2011-01-01

134

Water recycling from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia is the largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Palm oil processing is carried out in palm oil mills where oil is extracted from a palm oil fruit bunch. Large quantities of water are used during the extraction of crude palm oil from the fresh fruit bunch, and about 50% of the water results in palm oil mill effluent

Abdul Latif Ahmad; Suzylawati Ismail; Subhash Bhatia

2003-01-01

135

New initiatives for managment of Red Palm Weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

136

Managing Amazonian palms for community use: A case of aguaje palm ( Mauritia flexuosa) in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amazonian palms are prime candidates for sustainable management of non-timber forest products and yet useful species are often harvested destructively. This paper examines a promising management initiative for one of the most useful Amazonian palms –Mauritia flexuosa – in a rural community of northeastern Peru. Based on data from household surveys (n=57), filmed in-depth interviews, focus groups and participant observation,

Maya Manzi; Oliver T. Coomes

2009-01-01

137

Dermatophagoides farinae mite allergen and specific immunotherapy in Shanghai.  

PubMed

Studies on mite allergy had been launched by the Shanghai First Medical College since 1970's in this country. The preparations of SMU-Df from the local specimens of Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) in Shanghai have been shown the highest allergenic potency in comparison with that of the foreign ones, including the Df preparations from USFDA, VUS and ALK. Similar patterns of the protein curves were yielded by gel filtration, indicating almost similar allergenicities with both Df pure mite body and its spent culture medium. Around 80% of the allergic cases were sensitive to mite allergen and can be diagnosed by skin prick test, nasal provocation test and serum IgE level assay. Seasonal classic immunotherapy for allergic patients by Injection Dermatophagoides farinae, the first commercial allergen licensed by the Chinese government, achieved significant effect in relieving symptoms of allergic disorders in majority of cases, and long lasting effect of mite specific immunotherapy was also documented with minimal adverse reactions. Modifications of the Df crude extract and various modes of treatment have been studied. Studies on sublingual mite vaccine for mite allergic disorders developed synchronously with foreign trend since 1992. Sublingual drops were well acceptable by child cases almost without age restriction with higher efficacy. Rush schedule of mite immunotherapy led to a quick relief of allergic symptoms and long lasting curative effects. The Df allergen induced immunological regulation of human beings was established not only among the atopic patients, but also in healthy persons. PMID:20066974

Wen, Ting-Huan

2009-10-01

138

Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.  

PubMed

Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed. PMID:22286142

Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

2012-01-29

139

Mite fauna of dust from passenger trains in Glasgow.  

PubMed

The mite fauna of dust from cloth-covered seats of four passenger trains and bedding from a British Rail linen store in Glasgow was investigated; 22 samples containing 4488 mg of dust from a total surface area of 5.5 m2 were taken. Sixteen samples were positive for mites and 33 specimens belonging to 10 species were found. The most common species were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart), Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer), G. destructor (Schrank) and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman). The species composition bore considerable resemblance to that of house dust (although the density of mites was far lower) and the mites have probably been transported from homes via clothing and pets. Only five intact specimens, which may have been alive at the time of sampling, were found. The dust from trains consisted mostly of particles of soot. Very few skin scales, the food source of house dust mites, were detected. The small numbers of intact mites found and the absence of an identifiable food source make it unlikely that permanent populations of mites survive in upholstered seats on trains. PMID:3556435

Colloff, M J

1987-02-01

140

Enzymatic glycerolysis of palm oil fractions and a palm oil based model mixture: Relationship between fatty acid composition and monoglyceride yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil, palm stearin, palm olein and mixtures of palm stearin with rapeseed oil were reacted with glycerol at low moisture content using lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens as catalyst. The content of monoglyceride (MG) in the reaction mixture at equilibrium was found to be higher at lower temperatures except for palm stearin where a higher diglyceride (DG) content was obtained.

Gerald P. McNeill; Ralf G. Berger

1993-01-01

141

A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.  

PubMed

Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test. PMID:24020263

Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

2013-08-01

142

Allergic sensitization to domestic mites in Corpus Christi, Texas.  

PubMed

Corpus Christi, TX, is a Gulf Coast city with high humidity levels year-round. There is little available data on mite species in mattress dust, allergen levels, and sensitization to different mite species in allergic patients. This study was designed to determine skin sensitization and specific serum IgE to Dermatophagoides spp. and Blomia tropicalis in patients attending an allergy clinic and to explore the mite fauna and allergen content of their mattresses. Skin-prick tests to Dermatophagoides spp. and B. tropicalis along with mite-specific IgE in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ImmunoCAP tests were performed in allergic patients attending an outpatient allergy clinic in Corpus Christi, TX. Mite species and allergen levels were determined in mattress dust. Forty-five consecutive patients were evaluated; 10 patients had positive skin tests to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and B. tropicalis, 32 patients reacted only to D. pteronyssinus, and 3 patients reacted exclusively to B. tropicalis. Increased titers of D. pteronyssinus- and D. farinae-specific IgE were present and B. tropicalis-specific IgE titers were lower. Significant amounts of mites were observed in 79.5% of dust samples, with a predominance of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Other mite species, such as B. tropicalis, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus spp., Tyrophagus putrescientiae, Cheyletus spp., and Oribatidae were also observed. Greater levels of Der p and Der f 1 than of Blo t 5 were present in the mattresses. D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae are the prevalent mite species in houses of allergic patients from Corpus Christi, TX. Other mite species are also found. PMID:19463206

Caplin, James; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; Iraola, Victor; Pinto, Helder; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; de los Santos, Gloria; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique

143

Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata): Its fibres, polymers and composites.  

PubMed

Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) is a multipurpose palm species from which a variety of foods and beverages, timber commodities, biofibres, biopolymers and biocomposites can be produced. Recently, it is being used as a source of renewable energy in the form of bio-ethanol via fermentation process of the sugar palm sap. Although numerous products can be produced from sugar palm, three products that are most prominent are palm sugar, fruits and fibres. This paper focuses mainly on the significance of fibres as they are highly durable, resistant to sea water and because they are available naturally in the form of woven fibre they are easy to process. Besides the recent advances in the research of sugar palm fibres and their composites, this paper also addresses the development of new biodegradable polymer derived from sugar palm starch, and presents reviews on fibre surface treatment, product development, and challenges and efforts on properties enhancement of sugar palm fibre composites. PMID:23121967

Ishak, M R; Sapuan, S M; Leman, Z; Rahman, M Z A; Anwar, U M K; Siregar, J P

2012-08-03

144

Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm is one of the world's most rapidly expanding equatorial crops. The two largest oil palm-producing countries—Indonesia and Malaysia—are lo- cated in Southeast Asia, a region with numerous endemic, forest-dwelling species. Oil palm producers have asserted that forests are not being cleared to grow oil palm. Our analysis of land-cover data compiled by the United Nations Food and Agriculture

Lian Pin Koh; David S. Wilcove

2008-01-01

145

Performance of a diesel generator fuelled with palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure palm oil may be employed in diesel engines as an alternative fuel. Engine performance and emissions were influenced by basic differences between diesel fuel and palm oils such as mass based heating values, viscosity, density and molecular oxygen content. The high viscosity of palm oil resulted in poor atomisation, carbon deposits, clogging of fuel lines and starting difficulties in

Silvio C. A. de Almeida; Carlos Rodrigues Belchior; Marcos V. G. Nascimento; Leonardo dos S. R. Vieira; Guilherme Fleury

2002-01-01

146

DATE PALMS OF ARABIA: A MULTIFUNCTIONAL GENETIC RESOURCE [ABSTRACT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arabia Deserta is a part of the center of origin and constitutes a sizable part of the center of diversity of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Cultivated date palm is closely related to a variable aggregate of wild and feral palms distributed over the southern, warm and dry Middle East as well a...

147

Date Palms of Arabia: A Multifunctional Genetic Resource  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arabia Deserta is a part of the center of origin and constitutes a sizable part of the center of diversity of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Cultivated date palm is closely related to a variable aggregate of wild and feral palms distributed over the southern, warm and dry Middle East as well a...

148

An innovative contactless palm print and knuckle print recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an innovative contactless palm print and knuckle print recognition system. We present a novel palm print and knuckle print tracking approach to automatically detect and capture these features from low-resolution video stream. Besides, we introduce a simple yet robust directional coding technique to encode the palm print feature in bit string representation. The bit string representation offers

Michael Goh Kah Ong; Connie Tee; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin

2010-01-01

149

Ecology of Economically Important Palms in Peruvian Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most palm species are used by Amazonian natives and provide a variety of products, such as edible fruits, oil, palm heart, building materials, and basketry. However, only a few species have significant economic potential. These palms occur essentially in seasonal swamp forests on waterlogged soils covering vast areas in Peruvian Amazonia, or on sandy soils. Three especially promising species- Jessenia

FRANCIS KAHN

150

Synthesis and characterization of palm oil alkyd emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preparation of palm oil alkyd emulsions. The palm oil alkyds were first synthesized by fusion cooks by using palm kernel oil (PKO), phthalic anhydride (PA) and glycerol (Gly). The resulting alkyds were then converted into emulsions through emulsion inversion point (EIP) method by adding water and surfactants. These emulsions could be blended with natural rubber (NR)

Lee Siang Yin; Gan Seng Neon

151

Oribatid Mites as Potential Vectors for Soil Microfungi: Study of Mite-Associated Fungal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of soil-living oribatid mites to disperse fungal propagules on their bodies was investigated. Classical plating\\u000a methods were applied to cultivate these fungi and to study their morphology. Molecular markers were used for further determination.\\u000a The nuclear ribosomal large subunit and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer of DNA extracts of the cultured\\u000a fungi as well as total DNA

C. Renker; P. Otto; K. Schneider; B. Zimdars; M. Maraun; F. Buscot

2005-01-01

152

Biological control of broad mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) with the generalist predator Amblyseius swirskii  

PubMed Central

The broad mite is a serious pest of a variety of crops worldwide. Several phytoseiid mites have been described to control these mites. However, broad mites are still one of the major pest problems on greenhouse pepper in South-eastern Spain. The generalist predatory mite A. swirskii is widely used against other pests of pepper plants such as thrips and whiteflies, the latter being a vector of broad mites. We assessed the potential of A. swirskii to control broad mites. The oviposition rate of A. swirskii on a diet of broad mites was lower than on a diet of pollen, but higher than oviposition in the absence of food. Population-dynamical experiments with A. swirskii on single sweet pepper plants in a greenhouse compartment showed successful control of broad mites.

van Maanen, Roos; Vila, Enrico; Sabelis, Maurice W.

2010-01-01

153

Physical properties of Pseudomonas and Rhizomucor miehei lipase-catalyzed transesterified blends of palm stearin:palm kernel olein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of Pseudomonas and Rhizomucor miehei lipase-catalyzed transesterified blends of palm stearin:palm kernel olein (PS:PKO), ranging from 40% palm stearin to 80%\\u000a palm stearin in 10% increments, were analyzed for their slip melting points (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), melting thermograms,\\u000a and polymorphic forms. The Pseudomonas lipase caused a greater decrease in SMP (15°C) in the PS:PKO (40:60)

O. M. Lai; H. M. Ghazali; C. L. Chong

1998-01-01

154

Multimodal approach to treatment for control of fur mites.  

PubMed

Ectoparasites pose numerous research, health, and management problems for researchers and institutions. Our facility management experience was complicated by recurrence of murine fur mite (Radfordia affinis) infestation after several rounds of single-mode fur mite treatment with dichlorvos in the cage bedding. Subsequently, we successfully eradicated the fur mites using a multidrug therapeutic protocol. Over an 8-wk treatment period, 2 applications of topical selamectin were administered in conjunction with amitraz- and fipronil-treated nestlets changed weekly. Mice tolerated the therapy well with no side effects noted, and to date there has been no recrudescence. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe combined use of these specific therapeutic agents to control fur mite infestation in laboratory mice. PMID:16884176

Bornstein, Danielle A; Scola, Jennifer; Rath, Ami; Warren, Henry B

2006-07-01

155

Environmental parameters determining water mite assemblages in Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ecological analysis of the water mite fauna of 350 streams, rivers, springs and standing waters from\\u000a all main regions, ecosystems and elevations in Costa Rica. From 509 sample sites about 20,000 water mites representing 74\\u000a genera in 21 families were collected. 17 habitat types were distinguished and 11 further environmental parameters were measured.\\u000a The significance of

Tom Goldschmidt

2002-01-01

156

Phoretic mites associated with animal and human decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phoretic mites are likely the most abundant arthropods found on carcases and corpses. They outnumber their scavenger carriers\\u000a in both number and diversity. Many phoretic mites travel on scavenger insects and are highly specific; they will arrive on\\u000a a particular species of host and no other. Because of this, they may be useful as trace indicators of their carriers even

M. Alejandra Perotti; Henk R. Braig

2009-01-01

157

Transformation of oil palm using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

PubMed

Transgenic oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantlets are regenerated after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli derived from young leaves of oil palm. The calli are transformed with an Agrobacterium strain, LBA4404, harboring the plasmid pUBA, which carries a selectable marker gene (bar) for resistance to the herbicide Basta and is driven by a maize ubiquitin promoter. Modifications of the transformation method, treatment of the target tissues using acetosyringone, exposure to a plasmolysis medium, and physical injury via biolistics are applied. The main reasons for such modifications are to activate the bacterial virulence system and, subsequently, to increase the transformation efficiency. Transgenic oil palm cells are selected and regenerated on a medium containing herbicide Basta. Molecular analyses revealed the presence and integration of the introduced bar gene into the genome of the transformants. PMID:22351008

Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul

2012-01-01

158

Birds defend oil palms from herbivorous insects.  

PubMed

Top-down forces are expected to be important in regulating herbivore populations in most agricultural systems where primary productivity is high and species diversity is low. Under such conditions, trophic cascades are predicted to occur when predator populations are reduced or removed. Studies on how predator removal indirectly affects herbivory rates in agricultural systems are lacking. Through a bird-exclosure experiment, I test the hypothesis that insectivorous birds indirectly defend oil palms (Elaeis guineensis) from herbivorous insects. Results show that bird exclusion significantly increased herbivory damage to oil palms, and that the size of this exclusion effect increased with bird density, although the latter result was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that insectivorous birds deliver a natural pest control service for oil palm agriculture, which is important not only for the direct benefits it delivers for human welfare, but also in strengthening the economic justifications for conserving the remaining natural habitats and biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. PMID:18536244

Koh, Lian Pin

2008-06-01

159

Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Recent findings Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Summary Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions.

Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

2010-01-01

160

Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour  

PubMed Central

Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the anti-predator response studied most intensively in spider mites has been the avoidance of patches with high predation risk. Less attention has been given to the dense web produced by spider mites, which is a complex structure of silken threads that is thought to hinder predators. Here, we investigate the effects of the web produced by the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard, on its interactions with the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes Evans. We tested whether female spider mites recognize predator cues and whether these can induce the spider mites to produce denser web. We found that the prey did not produce denser web in response to such cues, but laid more eggs suspended in the web, away from the leaf surface. These suspended eggs suffered less from predation by P. longipes than eggs that were laid on the leaf surface under the web. Thus, by altering their oviposition behaviour in response to predator cues, females of T. evansi protect their offspring.

Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sabelis, Maurice W.

2010-01-01

161

Plant–eriophyoid mite interactions: cellular biochemistry and metabolic responses induced in mite-injured plants. Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is a comprehensive study of recent advances related to cytological, biochemical and physiological changes induced\\u000a in plants in response to eriophyoid mite attack. It has been shown that responses of host plants to eriophyoids are variable.\\u000a Most of the variability is due to individual eriophyoid mite–plant interactions. Usually, the direction and intensity of changes\\u000a in eriophyoid-infested plant organs

Radmila Petanovi?; Malgorzata Kielkiewicz

2010-01-01

162

Plant–eriophyoid mite interactions: cellular biochemistry and metabolic responses induced in mite-injured plants. Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This review is a comprehensive study of recent advances related to cytological, biochemical and physiological changes induced\\u000a in plants in response to eriophyoid mite attack. It has been shown that responses of host plants to eriophyoids are variable.\\u000a Most of the variability is due to individual eriophyoid mite–plant interactions. Usually, the direction and intensity of changes\\u000a in eriophyoid-infested plant organs

Radmila Petanovi?; Malgorzata Kielkiewicz

163

Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Twospotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae  

PubMed Central

The prey preference of polyphagous predators plays an important role in suppressing different species of pest insects. In this study the prey preference of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined between nymphs of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and first instar larvae of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), as well as between active and chrysalis spider mite protonymphs and active and chrysalis spider mite deutonymphs. The study was done in the laboratory on bean leaf discs at 25 ± 1° C and 70 ± 5% RH. Amblyseius swirskii had a clear preference for thrips compared to both spider mite protonymphs and deutonymphs. About twice as many thrips as spider mites were consumed. Amblyseius swirskii did not show a preference between active and chrysalis stages of spider mites.

Xu, Xuenong; Enkegaard, Annie

2010-01-01

164

Caramel production from saps of African oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) and wine palm ( Raphia hookeri) trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saps of the African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), and the wine palm (Raphia hookeri), tapped and consumed locally as beverage, were analysed and processed into caramel by acid-heat treatment. The saps, rich in sugars were boiled for 1 h, diluted and filtered. The filtrates were acidified with 5% dilute sulphuric acid to pH between 2.0 and 3.0 and heated

S. C Umerie

2000-01-01

165

The effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of palm diesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude and distilled palm oil methyl esters conveniently known as palm diesel have been successfully evaluated as diesel substitute. Crude palm oil methyl esters are produced from transesterification of crude palm oil with minor components such as carotenes and vitamin E still intact and they are reddish in colour. The distilled palm oil methyl esters are obtained after the recovery

Yung Chee Liang; Choo Yuen May; Cheng Sit Foon; Ma Ah Ngan; Chuah Cheng Hock; Yusof Basiron

2006-01-01

166

Induction of direct and indirect plant responses by jasmonic acid, low spider mite densities, or a combination of jasmonic acid treatment and spider mite infestation.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) and the octadecanoid pathway are involved in both induced direct and induced indirect plant responses. In this study, the herbivorous mite, Tetranychus urticae, and its predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were given a choice between Lima bean plants induced by JA or spider mites and uninduced control plants. Infestation densities resulting in the induction of predator attractants were much lower than thus far assumed, i.e., predatory mites were significantly attracted to plants that were infested for 2 days with only one or four spider mites per plant. Phytoseiulus persimilis showed a density-dependent response to volatiles from plants that were infested with different numbers of spider mites. Similarly, treating plants with increasing concentrations of JA also led to increased attraction of P. persimilis. Moreover, the duration of spider mite infestation was positively correlated with the proportion of predators that were attracted to mite-infested plants. A pretreatment of the plants with JA followed by a spider mite infestation enhanced the attraction of P. persimilis to plant volatiles compared to attraction to volatiles from plants that were only infested with spider mites and did not receive a pretreatment with JA. The herbivore, T. urticae preferred leaf tissue that previously had been infested with conspecifics to uninfested leaf tissue. In the case of choice tests with JA-induced and control leaf tissue, spider mites slightly preferred control leaf tissue. When spider mites were given a choice between leaf discs induced by JA and leaf discs damaged by spider mite feeding, they preferred the latter. The presence of herbivore induced chemicals and/or spider mite products enhanced settlement of the mites, whereas treatment with JA seemed to impede settlement. PMID:14969353

Gols, Rieta; Roosjen, Mara; Dijkman, Herman; Dicke, Marcel

2003-12-01

167

[Preliminary analysis of chigger mite community on Eothenomys miletus in 19 counties of Yunnan province].  

PubMed

Eothenomys miletus were captured in 19 counties of Yunnan Province. The distribution of species-abundance and the species-plots relationship between E. miletus and chigger mites were analyzed by using ecological statistic method. There were totally 40,052 chigger mites collected from the body surface of 1741 E. miletus. 111 species of chigger mites were identified. The species-abundance distribution showed that with the increase of mite individuals, the number of chigger mite species gradually decreased. Most mite species were rare ones. Species-plot relation indicated that with the number of mouse plots (samples of E. miletus) increasing, the number of chigger mite species increased. E. miletus collected quantity up to date still could not reflect the exact species richness of chigger mite. PMID:21826908

Zhan, Yin-zhu; Guo, Xian-guo; Zuo, Xiao-hua; Wang, Qiao-hua

2011-04-30

168

Palm oil from the belgian congo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The chemical and physical characteristics of a sample of palm oil from the Belgian Congo, Africa, have been determined. The\\u000a oil was found to contain 44.33 per cent of saturated and 50.55 per cent of unsaturated acids.

George S. Jamieson; Robert S. McKinney

1929-01-01

169

Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.  

PubMed

The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit. PMID:14506000

Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

2003-01-01

170

Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile

A. S. M. A. Haseeb; H. H. Masjuki; C. T. Siang; M. A. Fazal

2010-01-01

171

Palm cooling does not improve running performance.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a combination of exercise and environmental heat stress. Twelve subjects completed two randomly ordered time-to-exhaustion runs at 75% VO2max, 30 °C, and 50% relative humidity with and without palm cooling. Time to exhaustion runs started once the warm-up had elicited a core temperature of 37.5 °C. Heart rate, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Feeling Scale, and core temperature were recorded at 2-min intervals during each run. Time to exhaustion was longer in control than treatment (46.7±31.1 vs. 41.3±26.3 min, respectively, p<0.05); however, when warm-up time was included in analysis, there was no difference between trials for total exercise time (52.5±24.2 vs. 54.5±31.4 min, respectively). The rate-of-rise of core temperature was not different between control and treatment (0.047 vs. 0.048 °C · min-1, respectively). The use of the BEX Runner palm cooling device during a run in hot conditions did not eliminate or even attenuate the rise in core temperature. Exercise time in hot conditions did not increase with the use of the palm cooling device and time to exhaustion was reduced. PMID:23444094

Scheadler, C M; Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Devor, S T

2013-02-26

172

A secure cryptosystem from palm vein biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel technique to generate an irrevocable cryptographic key from the biometric template. The biometric trait considered here is the palm vein. The technique proposed here utilises the minutiae features extracted from the pattern generated. The features include bifurcation points and ending points. Since other cryptographic keys are probable to theft or guess, keys generated from the

B. Prasanalakshmi; A. Kannammal

2009-01-01

173

SURVEYING MITES (ACARINA) PHORETIC ON THE SOUTHERN PINE BEETLE (COLEOPTERA: SCOLYTIDAE) WITH STICKY TRAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can. ~nt. 108: 809-8 13 i 1976) Sticky traps caught large numbers of mites that adhere tightly or ride in protected places on attacking southern pine beetles and retr~eved some of the mites that are loosely attached. Of the 2539 beetles surveyed, only 39.6% carried mites. Seven species of phoretic mites were found; the two most common, Tursorrernus krur~rzi and

John C. Moser

1976-01-01

174

Effects of climate, natural enemies and biocides on three citrus mites in coastal New South Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestations of the citrus rust mitePhyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), the brown citrus rust miteTegolophus australis Keifer, and the citrus red mitePanonychus citri (McGregor), did not cause economic damage to orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) in two coastal New South Wales orchards during a three-year study. The seasonal abundance of the mites and their phytoseiid and coccinellid predators was defined using periodic

G. A. C. Beattie; E. A. Roberts; C. L. Vanhoff; L. K. Flack

1991-01-01

175

Stigmaeid-phytoseiid interactions and the impact of natural enemy complexes on plant-inhabiting mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions within the natural enemy complex of plant-inhabiting mites are of practical interest. There are frequently several predatory mite species present or available for introduction and it is difficult to tell whether a single species or combination of species should provide the most effective means of biological control. We used a simulation model to examine the interactions between predatory mites

David R. Clements; Rudolf Harmsen

1992-01-01

176

Review. When to leave the brood chamber? Routes of dispersal in mites associated with burying beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most nests of brood-caring insects are colonized by a rich community of mite species. Since these nests are ephemeral and scattered in space, phoresy is the principal mode of dispersal in mites specializing on insect nests. Often the mites will arrive on the nest-founding insect, reproduce in the nest and their offspring will disperse on the insect's offspring. A literature

Horst H. Schwarz; Stella Koulianos

1998-01-01

177

Effects of herbivory and plant conditioning on the population dynamics of spider mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants vary in their resistance to tetranychid spider mites, and this can have profound effects on spider-mite population dynamics. Such variation can be attributable to many factors. In this review, however, we focus on how previous or concurrent feeding by phytophagous hervivores influences expression of plant resistance to spider mites.

Richard Karban; Greogory M. English-Loeb

1988-01-01

178

Leaf pubescence and two-spotted spider mite webbing influence phytoseiid behavior and population density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoseiid mites, both in agricultural and natural systems, can play an important role in the regulation of herbivorous mites. Host plant traits, such as leaf pubescence, may influence the dynamics between predator and prey. In this study, we examined the influence of leaf surface characteristics (leaf pubescence and two-spotted spider mite webbing) on the behavior of two species of predatory

A. Roda; J. Nyrop; G. English-Loeb; M. Dicke

2001-01-01

179

Control of Powdery Mildew in Wild and Cultivated Grapes by a Tydeid Mite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf surface of woody perennials is inhabited by an extraordinary diversity of mites. Although a majority of these mite species are thought to feed on fungi or other microbes, their ability to control plant pathogens has not been rigorously investigated. We present experimental evidence that a tydeid mite,Orthotydeus lambi,can suppress the development of grape powdery mildew on wild and

Greg English-Loeb; Andrew P Norton; David M Gadoury; Robert C Seem; Wayne F Wilcox

1999-01-01

180

Ultrastructure and bacterial infection of wounds in honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) pupae punctured by Varroa mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damage to western honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies caused by the originally Asian ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is mainly a consequence of the infestation of host bee pupae. In the capped brood cell, female mites puncture the host's integument at preferred sites in order to suck haemolymph. Due to repeated feeding by the mother mite and her progeny, these

G. Kanbar; W. Engels

2003-01-01

181

A population model for the ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni in honey bee ( Apis mellifera) colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. presently poses one of the most serious problems faced by keepers of honeybees Apis mellifera L. To help understand why the mite has become such a serious problem a population dynamics model using recently published data has been constructed. The simulation model has been built by linking together various aspects of the mites’ biology

Stephen Martin

1998-01-01

182

Influence of spatio-temporal resource availability on mushroom mite diversity.  

PubMed

Although biodiversity in nature is of fundamental importance because it improves the sustainability of ecosystems, communities of microscopic organisms are generally excluded from conservation targets for biodiversity. Here, I hypothesize that mushroom mite species richness is correlated with both spatial (i.e., mushroom size) and temporal (i.e., longevity of fruiting bodies) resource availability. I collected fruiting bodies in an old-growth forest over 4 years to collect mites and insects inhabiting the mushrooms. Mites were collected from 47 % of the fruiting bodies and approximately 60 % of the mite species were collected only once. Mite species richness was significantly correlated with the availability of long-lasting fruiting bodies. For example, bracket fungi contained more mite species than ephemeral fruiting bodies. Insect presence was also correlated with mushroom mite richness, probably as phoretic hosts and food resources for predacious mites. On the other hand, mushroom size seemed to be less important; small fruiting bodies sometimes harbored several mite species. Although mite species richness was correlated with mushroom species richness, mushroom specificity by mites was not clear except for a preference for long-lasting fruiting bodies. Therefore, I suggest that a constant supply of coarse woody debris is crucial for maintaining preferred resources for mushroom mites (e.g., bracket fungi) and their associated insects (mycophilous and possibly saproxylic insects). PMID:23613030

Okabe, Kimiko

2013-04-24

183

An association between the Antarctic mite Alaskozetes antarcticus and an entomophthoralean fungus of the genus Neozygites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fungal pathogen provisionally identified as Neozygites cf. acaridis has recently been isolated from the Antarctic oribatid mite Alaskozetes antarcticus. The identification of the fungus is discussed with reference to recent changes in the taxonomy of Neozygites. The potential role of the fungus in the Antarctic mite populations is considered in relation to the known mite life cycles,\\u000a and the

P. D. Bridge; M. R. Worland

2008-01-01

184

Herbivorous mites as ecological engineers: indirect effects on arthropods inhabiting papaya foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the potential of a leaf roller to indirectly influence a community of arthropods. Two mite species are the key herbivores on papaya leaves in Hawaii: a spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval, and an eriophyid mite, Calacarus flagelliseta, which induces upward curling of the leaf margin at the end of the summer when populations reach high densities. A survey

Valérie Fournier; Jay A. Rosenheim; Jacques Brodeur; Lee O. Laney; Marshall W. Johnson

2003-01-01

185

Prevalence of fur mites (Acari: Atopomelidae) in non-human primates of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites have been investigated for some New World primates; however, very little is known about ectoparasites and specifically fur mites. In this study, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri oerstedii, and Ateles geoffroyi monkeys from different areas of Costa Rica were searched for fur mites. A total of 276 monkeys were evaluated, and 51 of them were positive for mites of

Adriana Troyo; Mayra E. Solano; Ólger Calderón-Arguedas; Misael Chinchilla; Rónald Sánchez; Gustavo A. Gutiérrez-Espeleta

2009-01-01

186

Predictions of summer diapause in the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae), in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prediction for the onset of a summer diapause in the eggs of the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, was developed for Australia. In this species diapause eggs pass the summer in the cadavers of adult female mites. Adult female mites were collected for several weeks from pastures in spring at 18 sites in south-western Australia and dissected to determine

James Ridsdill-Smith; Celia Pavri; Egbert De Boer; Darren Kriticos

2005-01-01

187

Quantification of house dust mite allergens in ambient air.  

PubMed

The house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae are important sources of indoor allergens. In sensitized patients, house dust mites induce and exacerbate diseases like asthma bronchiale, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis. The most significant exposure of persons occurs overnight in bed and to a lesser extent, during the daytime while performing activities like vacuum cleaning or bed making. In general, house dust mite antigens are quantified in samples of reservoir dust of carpets or beds. Yet, assessing allergens in ambient air would better represent human exposures because inhalation is the main route of uptake, and a close correlation between levels of floor and air antigens has not yet been proved. Unfortunately, because of extremely low airborne particle concentrations, analyses are difficult to perform and depend on sophisticated sampling strategies, as well as on sensitive immunometric detection assays. Using monoclonal immunoassays, house dust mite antigens, quantified in undisturbed conditions in ambient air, are found at pg/m3 levels. The disturbance of reservoir dust by vacuum cleaning or bed making increases the airborne allergen levels up to ng/m3 concentrations. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the analysis of airborne house dust mites in both undisturbed and disturbed ambient air. The advantages and disadvantages of different sampling strategies are outlined. PMID:11354542

Paufler, P; Gebel, T; Dunkelberg, H

188

Biosynthesis of linoleic acid in Tyrophagus mites (Acarina: Acaridae).  

PubMed

We report here that Tyrophagus similis and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) have the ability to biosynthesize linoleic acid [(9Z, 12Z)-9, 12-octadecadienoic acid] via a ?12-desaturation step, although animals in general and vertebrates in particular appear to lack this ability. When the mites were fed on dried yeast enriched with d31-hexadecanoic acid (16:0), d27-octadecadienoic acid (18:2), produced from d31-hexadecanoic acid through elongation and desaturation reactions, was identified as a major fatty acid component of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) in the mites. The double bond position of d27-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) of PCs and PEs was determined to be 9 and 12, respectively by dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) derivatization. Furthermore, the GC/MS retention time of methyl 9, 12-octadecadienoate obtained from mite extracts agreed well with those of authentic linoleic acid methyl ester. It is still unclear whether the mites themselves or symbiotic microorganisms are responsible for inserting a double bond into the ?12 position of octadecanoic acid. However, we present here the unique metabolism of fatty acids in the mites. PMID:23973745

Aboshi, Takako; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Yuji; Honda, Yoshiyuki; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Amano, Hiroshi; Mori, Naoki

2013-08-20

189

77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter...Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World Championship, a high speed power boat race. The Palm Beach World Championship is scheduled to take...

2012-10-17

190

How to visualize the spider mite silk?  

PubMed

Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a phytophagous mite that forms colonies of several thousand individuals. Like spiders, every individual produces abundant silk strands and is able to construct a common web for the entire colony. Despite the importance of this silk for the biology of this worldwide species, only one previous study suggested how to visualize it. To analyze the web structuration, we developed a simple technique to dye T. urticae'silk on both inert and living substrates. Fluorescent brightener 28 (FB) (Sigma F3543) diluted in different solvents at different concentrations regarding the substrate was used to observe single strands of silk. On glass lenses, a 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide solution was used and on bean leaves, a 0.1% aqueous solution. A difference of silk deposit was observed depending the substrate: rectilinear threads on glass lenses and more sinuous ones on bean leaves. This visualizing technique will help to carry out future studies about the web architecture and silk used by T. urticae. It might also be useful for the study of other silk-spinning arthropods. PMID:19322898

Clotuche, G; Le Goff, G; Mailleux, A-C; Deneubourg, J-L; Detrain, C; Hance, T

2009-09-01

191

Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning.  

PubMed

Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B; Arondel, Vincent

2011-06-27

192

Quill mites in Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes).  

PubMed

The primary and secondary feathers of 170 Brazilian psittacine birds (Aves: Psittaciformes) were examined in order to identify feather quill mite fauna. Birds were held captive in two locations in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), and two in the state of Espirito Santo (ES). The quills were cut longitudinally and were examined under optical microscopy. The genus of quill mites most frequently found was Paralgopsis (Astigmata: Pyrogliphidae), followed by Cystoidosoma (Astigmata: Syringobiidae). Astigmata: Syringophilidae mites were sporadically observed. After analyzing the data using logistic regression models, it was determined that there was higher infestation risk for psittacines in ES state, as compared with those in MG, and a significant increase in risk depending on the psittacine host species. However, the location of captivity did not have a significant effect. Lesions were observed in infested feathers. Cystoidosoma sp. and Paralgopsis sp. were always observed together, with parts of Paralgopsis found inside Cystoidosoma sp., suggesting thanatochresis or predation. PMID:23082514

Jardim, Cassius Catão Gomes; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Rezende, Leandro do Carmo; Teixeira, Cristina Mara; Martins, Nelson Rodrigo da Silva; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

2012-09-01

193

Orchestrating house dust mite-associated allergy in the lung  

PubMed Central

House dust mites (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) are one of the commonest aeroallergens worldwide and up to 85% of asthmatics are typically HDM allergic. Allergenicity is associated both with the mites themselves and with ligands derived from mite-associated bacterial and fungal products. Murine models of allergic airways disease for asthma research have recently switched from the use of surrogate allergen ovalbumin together with adjuvant to use of the HDM extract. This has accelerated understanding of how adaptive and innate immunity generate downstream pathology. We review the myriad ways in which HDM allergic responses are orchestrated. Understanding the molecular pathways that elicit HDM-associated pathology is likely to reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

2012-01-01

194

Development of a Permeability Model for Palm Fruit Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation was carried out on the effect of processing conditions such as temperature, pressure and porosity on permeability of palm fruit cake. It was observed that increasing the temperature of the crude palm oil from 30 to 75°C, pressure from 2.88 to 3.82 kPa and porosity from 9.2 to 27.3% increases the permeability of the palm fruit cake. The statistical

O. K. Owolarafe; G. A. Badmus; M. O. Faborode

2006-01-01

195

Continuous supercritical carbon dioxide processing of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude palm oil was processed by continuous supercritical carbon dioxide. The process reduces the contents of free fatty acids,\\u000a monoglycerides and diglycerides, certain triglycerides, and some carotenes. The refined palm oil from the process has less\\u000a than 0.1% free fatty acids, higher carotene content, and low diglycerides. Solubility of palm oil in supercritical carbon\\u000a dioxide increased with pressure. A co-solvent

C. K. Ooi; A. Bhaskar; M. S. Yener; D. Q. Tuan; J. Hsu; S. S. H. Rizvi

1996-01-01

196

The livelihood impacts of oil palm: smallholders in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodiversity and climate consequences of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) expansion across South East Asia have received considerable attention. The human side of the issue, highlighted with reports\\u000a of negative livelihood outcomes and rights abuses by oil palm companies, has also led to controversy. Oil palm related conflicts\\u000a have been widely documented in Indonesia yet uptake by farmers has also

Lucy Rist; Laurène Feintrenie; Patrice Levang

2010-01-01

197

A novel approach of palm-line extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm-lines, including the principal lines and wrinkles, can describe a palmprint clearly. This paper presents a novel approach of palm-line extraction for the online palmprints. This approach is composed of two stages: coarse-level extraction stage and fine-level extraction stage. In the first stage, morphological operations are used to extract palm-lines in different directions. In the second stage, for each extracted

Xiangqian Wu; Kuanquan Wang; David Zhang

2004-01-01

198

Introduction: Date Palm Biotechnology from Theory to Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Date palm has been a cultivated tree crop for at least 5,000 years. Early date palm-specific technologies were developed to\\u000a enhance crop productivity and fruit quality by means of selecting superior female palms and their propagation by offshoots.\\u000a Other old innovations included crop and water management, segregation of trees by gender, artificial pollination, naming of\\u000a cultivars and the characterization of

D. V. Johnson

199

Treatment and Eradication of Murine Fur Mites: II. Diagnostic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Fur mites are a persistent problem in contemporary laboratory mouse colonies. We conducted several studies to evaluate fur mite diagnostic methodologies and interpretation of results. Retrospective analysis of test results from sentinel mice exposed to soiled bedding collected from colonies infested with Myobia musculi and Myocoptes musculinus revealed the skin scrape test to be more reliable than pelt examination, provided that both the head and dorsal thoracolumbar regions were sampled. To assess their diagnostic accuracy, 3 commercial laboratories were sent positive control slides containing mites, mite parts, or eggs in sets of slides containing diagnostic skin scrapings in varying ratios. Laboratory B correctly identified the positive control slide. Laboratory A identified 1 of 3 positive control slides, whereas laboratory C failed to identify both positive control slides submitted. To determine the time required for a mouse to shed its entire hair coat, fur of Crl:CD1(ICR), BALB/cAnNCrl, and Crl:CFW(SW) albino mice was dyed black and the presence of dyed fur evaluated monthly for 8 mo. Limited dyed hair was still present at 8 mo; therefore, finding eggs or egg casings many months after treatment cessation does not necessarily imply treatment failure. To evaluate the effectiveness of soiled bedding sentinels for detection of fur mites in a mite-infested colony, we exposed naïve mice to varying amounts (100%, 50%, 25%, 2.5%, and 0%) of soiled bedding in clean bedding. As little as 2.5% soiled bedding resulted in detection of a positive sentinel within a 2-mo period.

Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J; Lipman, Neil S; Wolf, Felix R

2010-01-01

200

Species identification of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) from different Ribes species and countries using molecular genetics.  

PubMed

Cecidophyopsis mites were studied by PCR amplification of parts of their ribosomal DNA, followed by restriction enzyme analysis. Mite specimens on Ribes nigrum (black currant) from six countries gave the same digestion pattern, which was distinct from the pattern for mites found on R. rubrum from Poland and Finland and for R. grossularia from the USA. This suggests that each Ribes species is host to a different mite species: C. ribis, C. selachodon and C. grossulariae, respectively. Two other mite samples from R. alpinum and R. aureum were identical but were distinct from each of the other species. PMID:7663755

Fenton, B; Malloch, G; Jones, A T; Amrine, J W; Gordon, S C; A'Hara, S; McGavin, W J; Birch, A N

1995-06-01

201

Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

2013-03-01

202

Mite Infestations of Man Contracted from Dogs and Cats  

PubMed Central

Acarine infestations of the dog and cat are transmissible to man. The relation between age incidence in the host, duration of disease, and circumstances under which the animal is kept are stated. Fifty out of 65 human contacts at risk to 42 infected dogs and cats showed lesions of mite infestation; 48% of these lesions were confined to the arms and torso. It is important to consider animal mite infestation in the differential diagnosis of human pruritic and papular skin disease. ImagesFig. 1

Thomsett, L. R.

1968-01-01

203

Field study on the efficacy of an extract of neem seed (Mite Stop®) against the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae naturally infecting poultry in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and affects egg and meat production worldwide. The effects of the neem\\u000a seed product Mite-Stop® against the red poultry mite were investigated. Five primitive poultry farms in two small villages\\u000a in the Nile Delta and Giza district were selected for the study. The neem extract

Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Hassan M. Sobhy; Saleh Al-Quraishy; Margit Semmler

2008-01-01

204

Photoactivated Localization Microscopy (PALM) of adhesion complexes.  

PubMed

Key to understanding a protein's biological function is the accurate determination of its spatial distribution inside a cell. Although fluorescent protein markers allow the targeting of specific proteins with molecular precision, much of this information is lost when the resultant fusion proteins are imaged with conventional, diffraction-limited optics. In response, several imaging modalities that are capable of resolution below the diffraction limit (?200 nm) have emerged. Here, both single- and dual-color superresolution imaging of biological structures using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) are described. The examples discussed focus on adhesion complexes: dense, protein-filled assemblies that form at the interface between cells and their substrata. A particular emphasis is placed on the instrumentation and photoactivatable fluorescent protein (PA-FP) tags necessary to achieve PALM images at ?20 nm resolution in 5 to 30 min in fixed cells. PMID:23456603

Shroff, Hari; White, Helen; Betzig, Eric

2013-03-01

205

Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) of adhesion complexes.  

PubMed

Key to understanding a protein's biological function is the accurate determination of its spatial distribution inside a cell. Although fluorescent protein markers allow the targeting of specific proteins with molecular precision, much of this information is lost when the resultant fusion proteins are imaged with conventional, diffraction-limited optics. In response, several imaging modalities that are capable of resolution below the diffraction limit (approximately 200 nm) have emerged. Here, both single- and dual-color superresolution imaging of biological structures using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) are described. The examples discussed focus on adhesion complexes: dense, protein-filled assemblies that form at the interface between cells and their substrata. A particular emphasis is placed on the instrumentation and photoactivatable fluorescent protein (PA-FP) tags necessary to achieve PALM images at approximately 20 nm resolution in 5 to 30 min in fixed cells. PMID:19085989

Shroff, Hari; White, Helen; Betzig, Eric

2008-12-01

206

Wheat curl mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) dispersal and its relationship with kernel red streaking in maize.  

PubMed

Wheat curl mites, Aceria tosichella Keifer, dispersing from wheat (Triticum spp.) to nearby corn (Zea mays L.) fields play a role in the development of kernel red streaking in corn. These studies were undertaken to verify the relationship of wheat curl mite to kernel red streaking, to determine whether wheat is the main source of curl mites dispersing into corn and to determine whether planting corn in temporal or spatial isolation of wheat is a valid management strategy. These studies were conducted on farm fields using sticky traps to monitor mites, followed by sampling mature grain for kernel streaking in southwestern Ontario from 1999 to 2002. The dominant source mites were winter wheat. Mite dispersal occurred during the first 3 wk of winter wheat maturation after the wheat had reached Zadoks stage 87. Mite dispersal corresponded to prevailing winds in the area with the lowest number of mites and the lowest severity of kernel red streaking occurring 60 m from wheat fields planted to the north, south, and east of cornfields and 90 m from wheat fields planted to the west of cornfields. The severity of kernel red streaking was positively correlated with the density of wheat curl mites in corn; however, the correlation was weak and kernel red streaking was still high in many cornfields when few or no mites were present. These findings suggest that wheat curl mite migration into corn is not entirely predictive of the incidence and severity of kernel red streaking. PMID:16334327

Liu, J; Lee, E A; Sears, M K; Schaafsma, A W

2005-10-01

207

Thermal analysis of palm stearine by DSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition and thermal properties of palm stearine have been investigated. The sample consists of triglycerides\\u000a containing mainly the fatty acid residues: palmitic (P) 51.4%; oleic (O) 32.7%; linoleic (L) 8.3% and stearic (S) 5.0%. The\\u000a sample melts as almost two independent components in separate temperature ranges. DSC analysis and analogy with the work of\\u000a Persmarket al. (1) indicate

W. Ken Busfield; Peter N. Proschogob

1990-01-01

208

Building Palm Vein Capturing System for Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palm vein pattern is unique to individuality which pattern does not change over time apart from size. This feature makes it suitable for one-to-many matching, for which fingerprint and face recognition may not be robust. In this paper, we set up a creatively vein-image capturing system and present a novel framework, composed of image enhancement, feature extraction, noise removal,

Jing-Wein Wang; Tzu-Hsiung Chen

2011-01-01

209

First detection in Israel of fluvalinate resistance in the varroa mite using bioassay and biochemical methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the extent of varroa mite resistance to fluvalinate in Israel and to determine the underlying biochemical mechanism. Assays at different apiaries indicated varroa mite resistance at three of the five sites tested. Dose response assays conducted with tau-fluvalinate on mites obtained from different sites indicated uneven resistance. A monooxygenase assay revealed an increased rate (approximately 20-fold) of activity in mites that were not controlled by the pesticide, as compared to activity in mites from untreated colonies. A minor, 1.5-2.5 fold, increase of esterase activity was also noted in the resistant mites. This first demonstration of a fluvalinate-resistance mechanism in varroa mites points to the need for more vigorous resistance management practices to control the pest. PMID:10823355

Miozes-Koch, R; Slabezki, Y; Efrat, H; Kalev, H; Kamer, Y; Yakobson; Dag, A

2000-01-01

210

Palm-3000 on-sky results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PALM-3000, the second-generation facility adaptive optics system for the 5-meter telescope at Palomar Observatory, successfully obtained first high-order correction on sky on UT June 21, 2011. Within PALM-3000, low-order wavefront correction is applied with a Xinetics, Inc. 349 (241 active) actuator deformable mirror reused from the 1999 PALAO system. High-order correction is applied with a new Xinetics, Inc. 4,356 (3,388 active) actuator deformable mirror based upon a 6 x 6 array of 11 x 11 actuator Photonex modules. The system also uses a new CCD50-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor camera and a novel real-time computer based upon a bank of commercial GPU's. Currently, the first of four planned wavefront sensor pupil sampling modes (N = 64 subapertures per pupil) has been tested, emphasizing early high-contrast exoplanet science with the PHARO coronagraphic imager and P1640 coronagraphic integral field spectrograph. We report on AO correction performance to date and our experience with the unique 66 x 66 actuator Xinetics, Inc. DM, as well as describe the PALM-3000 commissioning program and future plans.

Dekany, R.; Roberts, J.; Burruss, R.; Truong, T.; Palmer, D., Guiwits, S., Hale, D., Angione, J., Baranec, C., Croner, E., Davis, J. T. C., Zolkower, J., Henning, J., McKenna, D., Bouchez, A. H.

2011-09-01

211

Abundances and host relationships of chigger mites in Yunnan Province, China.  

PubMed

This paper reports on ectoparasitic chigger mites found on small mammals in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Data were accumulated from 19 investigation sites (counties) between 2001 and 2009. A total of 10 222 small mammal hosts were captured and identified; these represented 62 species, 34 genera and 11 families in five orders. From the body surfaces of these 10 222 hosts, a total of 92 990 chigger mites were collected and identified microscopically. These represented 224 species, 22 genera and three subfamilies in the family Trombiculidae (Trombidiformes). Small mammals were commonly found to be infested by chigger mites and most host species harboured several species of mite. The species diversity of chigger mites in Yunnan was much higher than diversities reported previously in other provinces of China and in other countries. A single species of rodent, Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae), carried 111 species of chigger mite, thus demonstrating the highest species diversity and heaviest mite infestation of all recorded hosts. This diversity is exceptional compared with that of other ectoparasites. Of the total 224 mite species, 21 species accounted for 82.2% of all mites counted. Two species acting as major vectors for scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi disease), Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium deliense, were identified as the dominant mite species in this sample. In addition to these two major vectors, 12 potential or suspected vector species were found. Most species of chigger mite had a wide range of hosts and low host specificity. For example, L. scutellare parasitized 30 species of host. The low host specificity of chigger mites may increase their probability of encountering humans, as well as their transmission of scrub typhus among different hosts. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that similarities between different chigger mite communities on the 18 main species of small mammal host did not accord with the taxonomic affinity of the hosts. This suggests that the distribution of chigger mites may be strongly influenced by the environment in which hosts live. PMID:23167491

Zhan, Y-Z; Guo, X-G; Speakman, J R; Zuo, X-H; Wu, D; Wang, Q-H; Yang, Z-H

2012-11-20

212

Checklist of mites from moso bamboo in Fujian, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a report of 45 species of mites from the moso bamboo ( Phy- llostachys pubescens) in Fujian province, China. They belong to 23 genera in 9 families. Some of the Tetranychidae (e.g. Aponychus copuzae Rimando and Schizotetranychus nanjingensis Ma et Yuan) and Eriophyidae (e.g. Aculus bambusae Kuang), either alone or in mixed populations, cause serious injury to

JIANZHEN LIN; ZHI-QIANG ZHANG; YANXUAN ZHANG; QIAOYUN LIU; JIE JI

2000-01-01

213

Plant feeding by a predatory mite inhabiting cassava.  

PubMed

Plant feeding by arthropod predators may strongly affect the dynamics of bi-and tri-trophic interactions. We tested whether a predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo, feeds upon its host plant, cassava. This predator species is an effective biological control agent of Monoychellus tanajoa (the cassava green mite or CGM) a herbivorous mite specific to cassava. We developed a technique to detect plant feeding, based on the use of a systemic insecticide. We found that T. aripo feeds upon plant-borne material, while other predatory mite species, Neoseiulus idaeus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, do not. Subsequently, we measured survival of juveniles and adult females of T. aripo and N. idaeus, both cassava-inhabiting predator species, on cassava leaf discs. Survival of T. aripo was higher than that of N. idaeus. Thus, T. aripo was able to withstand longer periods of prey scarcity. Because CGM populations fluctuate yearly and are heterogeneously distributed within plants, plant feeding may facilitate the persistence of populations of T. aripo in cassava fields and its control of CGM outbreaks. PMID:12593510

Magalhães, S; Bakker, F M

2002-01-01

214

Mites (family Trombiculidae) parasitizing birds migrating from Africa to Europe  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of dissemination of arthropod-borne human and animal pathogens are of considerable interest to the epidemiologist, veterinarian and biologist. Birds which are hosts to such pathogens and their arthropod vectors could transport them over long distances during their spring and autumn migratory flights. In April 1961, birds migrating from Africa to Europe were collected in south-western Spain and examined for ectoparasites and antibodies to arboviruses. Fully engorged larvae of two species of trombiculid mites unknown in Europe (genera Neoschoengastia and Blankaartia) but found in Africa were collected from two of the migrating birds (redstart and little bittern), suggesting that the birds were carrying the mites from Africa to Europe. Trombiculid mites are the proven vectors of scrub typhus; they have also been implicated in the transmission of human haemorrhagic nephroso-nephritis. The finding of the mite larvae on migrating birds is therefore of some epidemiological interest and underlines the importance of obtaining more data on the dispersal of trombiculids by migrating birds.

Varma, M. G. R.

1964-01-01

215

Modeling Of Honey Bee And Varroa Mite Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of the honey bee Apis mellifera and the bee mite Farroa jacobsoni and their interactions were modeled using a commercial software package known as Stella II. Stella II provides a non- mathematically intensive modeling technique that allows the user to generate a series of differential equations that can track a population through time with a minimum set

Roger Hoopingarner

216

Laelapid Mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) From Mammals of South Vietnam.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of small-mammal ectoparasites was conducted in 1968 and 1969 on mainland South Vietnam and Con Son Island. The ectoparasites collected were mesostigmatic and trombiculid mites, fleas, lice and ticks. This paper deals with the family Laelapidae. H...

T. R. Hadi W. P. Carney P. F. D. Van Peenen W. B. Hull

1976-01-01

217

Negative Evidence of Wolbachia in the Predaceous Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytoplasmically inherited bacterium Wolbachia is widespread in arthropod species and has been repeatedly detected in the predaceous mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Our original goal was to assess the prevalence of Wolbachia infection in P. persimilis and the potential fitness consequences for this host. To accomplish that goal, seven P. persimilis strains were obtained from Europe, Africa and the USA and

M. Enigl; E. Zchori-Fein; P. Schausberger

2005-01-01

218

Successful Feeding Experiments with an Adult Trombiculid Mite (Order Acarina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH certain species of Trombiculid mites belonging to the sub-family Trombiculinae have long been suspected of being the carriers of tsutsugamushi disease, now more commonly referred to as scrub typhus, it is only recently that Blake et al.1 have demonstrated the presence of Rickettsia orientalis in Trombicula fletcheri Womersley and Heaslip. In their paper., which contains a valuable review of

S. H. Jayewickreme; W. J. Niles

1946-01-01

219

Elastosis Perforans Serpiginosa in Association with Scabies Mite  

PubMed Central

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a form of perforating dermatoses, which has a characteristic clinical presentation of grouped keratotic papules coalescing into serpiginous or annular configurations. The majority of elastosis perforans serpiginosa cases are idiopathic; however, various etiologies have been postulated for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The authors present a unique case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa that developed focally secondary to a scabies mite.

Frederickson, Julie; Griffith, Jack; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

2013-01-01

220

Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mägi, E., T. Järvis, I. Miller: Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 283-287. The objective of this study was to determine the antiparasitic efficiency of herbal-based products. Four medicinal plant species extracts in 10% ethanol solutions (hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., tansy Tanacetum vulgare L., wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.),

E. Mägi; T. Järvis; I. Miller

2006-01-01

221

[Beehive social organisation and biology of the Varroa mite].  

PubMed

In this paper we deal with the social structure of a honeybee colony. Kind of interactions among the individuals of the three castes relatively to their task (queen, drone, workers) are recorded. Moreover taxonomic and biological information is given on the Varroa mite, Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and its interaction with the host. PMID:15305730

Mazzone, P

2004-06-01

222

Prediction of precocity in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precocity in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is defined, for the purpose of this study, as the percentage of palms bearing female or hermaphrodite inflorescences 36 months after germination. A method of calculating breeding values for precocity is described and it is shown that the character is predictable. An upper limit for heritability (h2) of 0.68 and a correlation

R. Blaak

1972-01-01

223

Investigation of important odorants of palm wine ( Elaeis guineensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm wine (Elaeis guineensis) was sensorially evaluated and the key odorants were investigated by means of high resolution gas chromatography–olfactometry and mass spectrometry of solvent extracts as well as headspace samples. A total of 41 compounds were identified, 32 of them previously unknown in palm wine. From these, a total of 13 compounds were quantified by means of stable isotope

Olusegun Lasekan; Andrea Buettner; Monika Christlbauer

2007-01-01

224

Resistivity of carbon from oil palm bunches: percolation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because they are cheap and available in very large quantities as a waste material from palm oil mills, oil palm empty fruit bunches can be seen as a potentially valuable starting material for manufacturing solid carbon products, which are widely used in the field of electrical engineering. In this context it was therefore important to study the electrical properties of

M. Deraman

1994-01-01

225

Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwrit- ten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about histori- cal documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This

Olarik Surinta; Rapeeporn Chamchong

2008-01-01

226

Design and implementation of a contactless palm vein recognition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an innovative contactless palm vein recognition system. We design a hand sensor that could capture the palm vein image using low-resolution web camera. The design of the sensor is simple and low-cost, and we do not need to install specialized infrared sensor. We allow subjects to position their hands freely above the sensor and they can move

Goh Kah Ong Michael; Tee Connie; Lau Siong Hoe; Andrew Teoh Beng Jin

2010-01-01

227

Preprocessing of palm image based on wavelet modulus maximum value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Authentication technology based on geometric characteristics of hand image has the advantages of high speed and easy operation. So handkey becomes another biological characteristics authentication system as fingerprint key. Palm image preprocessing is the basic of hand shape recognition system. Denoising is a necessary preprocessing before edge detection of palm image. The paper introduces a denoising method, wavelet modulus maximum

Dong Jingwei; Sun Yan; Huang Yaping; Hu Silue

2011-01-01

228

Biometric identification through palm and dorsal hand vein patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand vein patterns are among the biometric traits being investigated today for identification purposes, attracting interest from both the research community and industry. This paper presents a multimodal system that combines hand-palm vein and hand-dorsal vein biometrics information at the score level. The palm and dorsal veins are considered as texture samples being automatically extracted from the user's hand image.

Sanchit; Mauricio Ramalho; Paulo Lobato Correia; Luis Ducla Soares

2011-01-01

229

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) protoplasts: isolation, culture and microcallus formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are deseribed for the efficient isolation of protoplasts from a variety of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissues. Various factors including donor source, composition of enzyme mixture and culture medium affected the yield and viability of the protoplasts Polyembryogenic cultures of oil palm were the most suitable starting material in terms of yield, viability and metabolic competence. Pectolyase Y-23

Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi; Siti Hasnah Parman

1996-01-01

230

Amblyseius andersoni Chant (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a successful predatory mite on Rosa spp.  

PubMed

Roses on commercial nurseries commonly suffer from attacks by the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, which have a negative influence on growth and quality. The aim of this project is to find natural enemies that are well adapted to roses, and may improve biological control. At different sites such as a plant collection garden, public parks and field boundaries, leaves were sampled from roses to identify the indigenous species of predatory mites. Amblyseius andersoni was amongst other species frequently found, which suggests that this species thrives well on roses. The possibility for biological control of spider mites with A. andersoni was investigated both in container roses outdoors and in glasshouses. In plots of outdoor roses artificially infested with spider mites, the following treatments were carried out: spider mites alone (untreated plot), Amblyseius andersoni Amblyseius andersoni and ice plants, Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus californicus and ice plants. There were four replications of the treatments. The ice plants, Delosperma cooperi, were added to some treatments to supply pollen as extra food for the predatory mites. Natural enemies such as Chrysoperla spp., Conwentzia sp., Orius sp., Stethorus punctillum, and Feltiella acarisuga occurred naturally and contributed to the control of spider mites. After one month the spider mites were eradicated in all treatments. At the end of the trial, predatory mites were collected from all plots for identification. The ratio of Amblyseius andersoni to Neoseiulus californicus was approximately 9:1. There was no obvious effect of the ice plants on the number of predatory mites. On a nursery, where new roses are bred and selected, Amblyseius andersoni was released in three glasshouses after one early treatment with bifenazate against two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In two of these glasshouses Neoseiulus californicus was also released. Samples, which were taken in the summer months showed that the spider mites were kept at a very low level. Amblyseius andersoni was found, even if spider mites were absent. Rose plants infested with spider mites, that were brought in to the glasshouses later developed spider mite 'hotspots'. Phytoseiulus persimilis was introduced in the hot spots and contributed to the control along with Neoseiulus californicus, Amblyseius andersoni and naturally occurring Feltiella acarisuga. These observations showed that Amblyseius andersoni is a good candidate for preventing spider mite outbreaks, as it easily survives without spider mites. This predatory mite is able to survive on other food, including thrips and fungal spores. PMID:15759407

van der Linden, A

2004-01-01

231

Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues  

SciTech Connect

The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.)

2009-08-07

232

Spatial associations of insects and mites in stored wheat.  

PubMed

The spatial association pattern of insect and mite populations in a steel bin containing stored wheat, Triticum durum Desf., in central Greece, was studied using the Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE). The monitoring was carried out for 7 mo by using grain trier samples and probe traps. The most abundant insect species were Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). For mites, the most abundant species were the phytophagous Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) (Acari: Glycyphagidae) and the predator Blattisocius tarsalis (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Ascidae). Both for P. interpunctella and C. ferrugineus, trap catches were associated with numbers of individuals in the trier samples, but the overall association index calculated among trap and sample counts was significant only in the 33% of trap-sample pairs of values. Generally, P. interpunctella had the main patch areas in the central part of the bin, with few exceptions, during the entire monitoring period. Similar trends also were noted in the case of C. ferrugineus, which was clearly aggregated in the center of the grain mass. Spatial association maps indicated a stable positive association in the central part of the bin, but in most of the other sampling zones the association was negative. However, distribution of L. destructor, based on trier samples, indicated increased presence in peripheral zones of the grain sampling area. Moreover, B. tarsalis presented the most dispersed distribution among all four species. For each species, the association between two consecutive samplings was significant in the majority of cases, indicating a stable spatial pattern. Finally, B. tarsalis was spatially associated to a higher degree with the insects found rather than with L. desctructor. Moreover, there was no association of insect and mite presence with grain temperature and moisture content. The results of the current study suggest that the coexistence of insects and mites in bulked grain follows a complex pattern, with significant interactions, especially in the case of mite predators, which are spatially associated with insect species. PMID:22066207

Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Sciarretra, Andrea; Palyvos, Nickolas E; Trematerra, Pasquale

2011-10-01

233

Interaction of the mite Aceria mangiferae with Fusarium mangiferae, the causal agent of mango malformation disease.  

PubMed

The role of the mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, in carrying conidia of Fusarium mangiferae, vectoring them into potential infection sites, and assisting fungal infection and dissemination was studied. Following the mite's exposure to a green fluorescent protein-marked isolate, conidia were observed clinging to the mite's body. Agar plugs bearing either bud mites or the pathogen were placed on leaves near the apical buds of potted mango plants. Conidia were found in bud bracts only when both mites and conidia were co-inoculated on the plant, demonstrating that the mite vectored the conidia into the apical bud. Potted mango plants were inoculated with conidia in the presence or absence of mites. Frequency and severity of infected buds were significantly higher in the presence of mites, revealing their significant role in the fungal infection process. Conidia and mite presence were monitored with traps in a diseased orchard over a 2-year period. No windborne bud mites bearing conidia were found; however, high numbers of windborne conidia were detected in the traps. These results suggest that A. mangiferae can carry and vector conidia between buds and assist in fungal penetration but does not play a role in the aerial dissemination of conidia between trees. PMID:19159307

Gamliel-Atinsky, E; Freeman, S; Sztejnberg, A; Maymon, M; Ochoa, R; Belausov, E; Palevsky, E

2009-02-01

234

Photo-orientation regulates seasonal habitat selection in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae.  

PubMed

Non-diapausing spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) live on the undersurface of host leaves during summer, but diapausing mites overwinter in dark hibernacula. The light environments of these habitats differ: visible radiation (VIS) but not ultraviolet radiation (UV) reaches the undersurface of leaves, but neither enters dark hibernacula. Thus, mites of either seasonal form could locate their preferred habitat by photo-orientation responses to UV and VIS. To investigate this possibility, we analysed the mites' locomotion behaviour on a virtual field with a programmed chequered pattern of light and dark patches in a micro-locomotion compensator. Both non-diapausing and diapausing mites moved away from UV-illuminated patches into dark patches. Non-diapausing mites moved towards VIS-illuminated patches, whereas diapausing mites did not show a preference. Our results show that non-diapausing mites avoid UV and are attracted to VIS, suggesting that this can guide them beneath a leaf. Diapausing mites simply avoid UV. The lack of a preference for VIS during diapause could be due to changes in carotenoid metabolism, which also involve orange pigmentation of diapausing mites. We consider that a diapause-mediated switch of the response to VIS, together with regular avoidance of UV, plays a key role in the seasonal change of habitat selection in this species. This seasonal polyphenism involves alterations in not only reproductive state and pigmentation, but also in photo-spectral responses. PMID:23197101

Suzuki, Takeshi; Kojima, Takeshi; Takeda, Makio; Sakuma, Masayuki

2012-11-29

235

Palm Power Free-Piston Stirling Engine Control Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prototype 35We, JP-8 fueled, soldier-wearable power system for the DARPA Palm Power program has been developed and tested by Sunpower. A hermetically-sealed 42We Sunpower Free-Piston Stirling Engine (FPSE) with integral linear alternator is the prime mover for this system. To maximize system efficiency over a broad range of output power, a non-dissipative, highly efficient electronic control system which modulates engine output power by varying piston stroke and converts the AC output voltage of the FPSE into 28Vdc for the Palm Power end user, has been designed and demonstrated as an integral component of the Palm Power system. This paper reviews the current status and progress made in developing the control electronics for the Palm Power system, in addition to describing the operation and demonstrated performance of the engine controller in the context of the current JP-8 fueled Palm Power system.

Keiter, Douglas E.; Holliday, Ezekiel

2007-01-01

236

Mesostigmatid mite infestations of rodents in diverse biotopes of central and southern India.  

PubMed

Examination of 165 rodents trapped in domestic, peridomestic, and feral biotopes of central and southern India revealed the presence of 1,359 mesostigmatid mites. Rodents in central India were infested with 1 species of mite, Laelaps nuttalli; 98% of these mites were recovered from the peridomestic rodent Bandicota bengalensis. Material from the burrow nest of a peridomestic rodent examined in central India revealed the mite, Hypoaspis miles. Rodents from the diverse biotopes of southern India were infested by 8 species of mites: L. nuttalli, Laelaps buxtoni, Laelaps myonyssognathus, Androlaelaps aduncus, Androlaelaps marshalli, Androlaelaps sp. A, Hypoaspis sp. 1, and Hypoaspis sp. 2. Sheep from nearby villages regularly graze in feral biotopes. From the hair of these sheep, 2 species of mesostigmatid mites were recovered, A. aduncus and A. marshalli. The sheep appeared to aid the dispersal of rodent-infesting mites passively. Laelaps nuttalli was the predominant mite species found on the peridomestic rodent B. bengalensis. In both central and southern India, the prevalence, mean intensity, and relative density of this mite were much higher on peridomestic rodents than on domestic and feral rodents. A significant negative correlation was found between the numbers of mites and fleas infesting rodents in central India. A highly significant positive association between A. marshalli and A. aduncus on the feral rodent Tatera indica was recorded. In southern India, the overall prevalence of the 8 species of mites was highest on Mus platythrix. However, the combined prevalence of these mites on 2 feral rodents T. indica and M. platythrix was lower than their prevalence on B. bengalensis. Similarly, the combined values for mean intensity and relative density of these mites on the 2 feral rodents were lower than on the peridomestic rodent B. bengalensis. PMID:10207385

Saxena, V K

1999-02-01

237

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue

Eng-Ti L Low; Halimah Alias; Soo-Heong Boon; Elyana M Shariff; Chi-Yee A Tan; Leslie CL Ooi; Suan-Choo Cheah; Abdul-Rahim Raha; Kiew-Lian Wan; Rajinder Singh

2008-01-01

238

Probing protein heterogeneity in the plasma membrane using PALM and pair correlation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) is a powerful approach for investigating protein organization, yet tools for quantitative, spatial analysis of PALM datasets are largely missing. Combining pair-correlation analysis with PALM (PC-PALM), we provide a method to analyze complex patterns of protein organization across the plasma membrane without determination of absolute protein numbers. The approach uses an algorithm to distinguish a single

Prabuddha Sengupta; Tijana Jovanovic-Talisman; Dunja Skoko; Malte Renz; Sarah L Veatch; Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz

2011-01-01

239

Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB), frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME). For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study

Chow Mee Chin; Bandar Baru Bangi; Nor Kartini Abu Bakar

2009-01-01

240

An alternative energy source from palm wastes industry for Malaysia and Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia and Indonesia are the largest producers of palm oil product. The palm oil industry has contributed the biggest income to the countries for many years. Moreover, palm oils has emerged as one of the most important oils in the world’s oils and the market of fats. About 90% of palm oil is used as food related products worldwide, and

T. M. I Mahlia; M. Z Abdulmuin; T. M. I Alamsyah; D Mukhlishien

2001-01-01

241

DNA Fingerprints of Three Different Forms of the Red Palm Weevil Collected from Egyptian Date Palm Orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three morphologically different forms of the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) were collected from infected date palm fields. The morphological variations detected among different forms included the spotting patterns of black spots on thorax. DNA fingerprinting based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was performed. Nine random primers, which gave sufficient amplification products with weevil genome as well as

H. S. Salama; M. M. Saker

2002-01-01

242

Life-history of predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on four spider mite species as prey, with special reference to Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially available strains of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the biological control agent of Tetranychus urticae Koch, perform poorly in the Western Mediterranean, probably because they are not well adapted to local climatic conditions. For that reason, efforts are being focused on the development of a biological control programme using native phytoseiid mites. Four species of red spider mites can be

L. A. Escudero; F. Ferragut

2005-01-01

243

The Involvement of Volatile Infochemicals from Spider Mites and from Food-Plants in Prey Location of the Generalist Predatory Mite Neoseiulus californicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated volatile infochemicals possibly involved in location of the generalist predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus to plants infested with spider mites in a Y-tube olfactometer. The predators significantly preferred volatiles from lima bean leaves infested with Tetranychus urticae to uninfested lima bean leaves. Likewise, they were attracted to volatiles from artificially damaged lima bean leaves and those from T. urticae

Takeshi Shimoda; Rika Ozawa; Kota Sano; Eizi Yano; Junji Takabayashi

2005-01-01

244

Performance Assessment Links in Math (PALM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Performance Assessment Links in Math (PALM) is an online, standards-based resource bank of mathematics performance assessment tasks, indexed via the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). The tasks have been collected from numerous sources. The description of each task includes student directions and response forms, administration procedures, scoring rubrics, examples of student work, and technical-quality data, calculated from field testing, when such testing has been conducted. Users may select standards and draw upon the collection of tasks to create assessment charts--matrices of tasks intended to test the standards--or select tasks to create a chart of standards that are addressed by those tasks.

245

Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Fibre Reinforced Epoxy for Building Short Span Bridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm industries generate at least 30 million tonnes of lignocellulosic biomass annually in the form of oil palm trunks\\u000a (OPT), empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm fronds (OPF) and palm pressed fibres (PPF). At present, the biomass is either left\\u000a to rot in the plantations to provide organic nutrients to the oil palm trees (mulching) or used as solid

Mimi Azlina Abu Bakar; Valliyappan D. Natarajan; Anizah Kalam; Nor Hayati Kudiran

246

Polymorphic stability of hydrogenated canola oil as affected by addition of palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil was added to canola oil before and after hydrogenation and the effect of this addition on the polymorphic stability\\u000a of the hydrogenated oils was investigated. Palm oil was added to canola oil at two levels to produce hydrogenated canola and\\u000a palm oil blends containing 5 and 10% palm oil. The levels of palm oil added to hydrogenated canola

P. H. Yap; J. M. deMan; L. deMan

1989-01-01

247

Biomass residues from palm oil mills in Thailand: An overview on quantity and potential usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil production is one of the major industries in the south of Thailand. A study of the quantity and potential usage of palm oil mill wastes was carried out. Sixteen palm oil mills in the region generate 386,930 tons\\/yr 165,830 tons\\/yr and 110,550 tons\\/yr of empty fruit bunches, palm press fiber and palm kernel shell, respectively. In addition, 1,202,260

S. Prasertsan; P. Prasertsan

1996-01-01

248

Colorimetric determination of total tocopherols in palm oil, olein and stearin  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a preliminary heat-bleach at 250 C the Emmerie-Engel method has been adapted for the determination of total tocopherols\\u000a (including tocotrienols) in crude as well as refined palm oil, olein and stearin. Total tocopherol contents found were: Crude\\u000a palm oil, 794 ppm (n=10); RBD palm oil, 563 ppm (n=13); RBD palm olein, 643 ppm (n=40); RBD palm stearin, 261

M. L. Wong; R. E. Timms; E. M. Goh

1988-01-01

249

Determination of mono- and diglycerides in palm oil, olein and stearin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial glycerides are important constituents of palm oil and can have significant effects on the physical properties of products\\u000a containing palm oil or on the fractionation of palm oil. A method is described for their routine determination in palm oil.\\u000a By analysis of 28 weekly composite samples of crude palm oil the following results were obtained: free fatty acids, mean=3.76%,

E. M. Goh; R. E. Timms

1985-01-01

250

The First Report of Eustigmaeus johnstoni (Acari: Stigmaeidae) Parasitic Mite of Phlebotominae Sand Flies from Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Stigmaeids mites have been recorded only on Phlebotominae sand flies up to now. Five species of Eustigmaeus, and three of Stigmaeus were reported on infested sandflies in different country up to the present. Methods: Sand flies collection was done using CDC light trap and sticky paper. The mites were isolated from infested specimens, mounted in Puri’s medium and identified using reliable keys. Results: A mite infested Phlebotomus papatasi was observed during a study on sandflies of one of the southern provinces of Iran, near to the Persian Gulf. Several scars resulting from mite attachment were found on abdominal tergites of this female sand fly. The mites were identified as Eustigmaeus johnstoni. Conclusion: This parasitic mite is one of the eyeless species, which has a great distribution over the world, reported from Tunisia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Cyprus and Palestine. But, this is the first record of this species from Iran.

Badakhshan, Mehdi; Sadraei, Javid; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh

2013-01-01

251

Argasid and spinturnicid mite load on swarming bats in the Tatra Mountains, Poland.  

PubMed

Altogether 445 bats, representing nine species, caught during swarming in the Lodowa Cave in Mount Ciemniak, Western Tatra Mountains, southern Poland, were examined for ectoparasitic mites. In total, 259 spinturnicid (Spinturnix mystacina, S. andegavinus, S. kolenatii, S. plecotinus and S. myoti) and 95 argasid (Carios vespertilionis) mites were collected from seven bat species, Myotis myotis, M. mystacinus, M. brandtii, M. daubentonii, Eptesicus nilssonii, Plecotus auritus, and Vespertilio murinus. There were sex-based differences in the prevalence of mites in some hosts but no differences in their mean intensity and there was no observed relationship between the number of mites and the condition of the bats. The prevalence of mites differed significantly between years in E. nilssonii. The results suggested a very low mite load on swarming bats that had no impact on the body condition of bats. PMID:22263314

Piksa, Krzysztof; Skwarek, Magdalena; Siuda, Krzysztof

2011-11-01

252

Contamination of passenger trains with Dermatophagoides (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) mite antigen in Japan.  

PubMed

Passenger trains were surveyed for contamination with Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouesart) mites in Japan. A total of 492 dust samples were collected from upholstered seats in six commuter trains, one long-distance express train and three night trains in October, 1996 and January, April, and July, 1997. Mite antigen levels contained in fine dust fractions of these samples were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Most samples obtained from commuter trains showed relatively high mite antigen levels of > 10 microgm(-2) (corresponding to > 100 mites). Express and night trains showed lower antigen levels per square meter, but higher mite antigen levels per gram of fine dust than commuter trains, indicating relatively high mite antigen densities. Seasonal comparisons indicated that commuter trains showed the highest mean antigen level per square meter in winter (January), whereas the highest antigen level per gram of fine dust was observed in summer (July) in express and night trains. PMID:11227829

Uehara, K; Toyoda, Y; Konishi, E

2000-01-01

253

Pollen consumption by flower mites in three hummingbird-pollinated plant species.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies suggest that pollen consumption by flower mites may decrease the male fitness of the plant by reducing the available pollen for dispersal. Here we assessed pollen consumption by flower mites under natural conditions in three plant species with long-lived, protandrous flowers, Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae), Lobelia laxiflora and L. cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). Total pollen mass was measured after 24 and 48 h in flowers exposed to flower mites and excluded from hummingbirds, flowers exposed to mites and hummingbird visitation, and in flowers recently opened with dehisced anthers. Compared with recently opened flowers, pollen availability was reduced about half in the presence of flower mites and the same effect was observed in the three plant species. Our results suggest that flower mites are removing a great deal of pollen and the reduction of pollen implies the possibility of direct impact on pollen transfer. PMID:19763848

Velázquez, Tonatiuh; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

2010-02-01

254

Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents. PMID:20653561

Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

2010-06-01

255

Effects of pesticides on mite predators (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and colonization of apple trees by Tetranychus urticae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year survey of mite populations and pesticide use was carried out in Nova Scotia, Canada, in apple orchards where the\\u000a two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) was the dominant phytophagous mite. Fungicides were the only class of pesticides that affected cumulative number ofT. urticae-days per leaf in tree canopies and colonization success — the ratio ofT. urticae-days to number

John M. Hardman; Jeffrey L. Franklin; Klaus I. N. Jensen; Debra L. Moreau

2006-01-01

256

Trombiculiasis caused by chigger mites Eutrombicula (Acari: Trombiculidae) in Peruvian alpacas.  

PubMed

Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larvae members of the family Trombiculidae, common called chigger mites. In this study is presented the first case of trombiculiasis caused by the infestation of chigger mite Eutrombicula in alpacas from Peru. Twenty-two alpacas of a total of 130 animals were infested by Eutrombicula sp. The chigger mite location was only in the face skin folds and around the eyes. In addition, all alpacas infested had alopecia and dermatitis in the infected zone. PMID:22770680

Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Olazabal, Juan; Lopez-Urbina, María T; Gonzalez, Armando E

2012-06-19

257

Leaf age affects composition of herbivore-induced synomones and attraction of predatory mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the olfactory response of the predatory mitePhytoseiulus persimilis to cucumber leaves infested with prey, the herbivorous spider miteTetranychus urticae. The predators responded to volatiles from young rather than old infested cucumber leaves. GC-MS analysis of the head-space of spider mite-infested, artificially damaged and undamaged cucumber plants showed that herbivore-induced plant volatiles were present among the volatiles of both

J. Takabayashi; M. Dicke; S. Takahashi; M. A. Posthumus; T. A. Van Beek

1994-01-01

258

Temperature-dependent predator-prey mite ecosystem on apple tree foliage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The biological control of the McDaniel spider mite, which is a pest on apple tree foliage, by a predacious mite species, which\\u000a feeds upon it, is represented by a continuous-discrete time hybrid model incorporating temperature effects explicityland mite\\u000a metamorphosis implicitly. The results of this model can be shown to provide good agreement when compared with relevant field\\u000a data.

D. J. Wollkind; J. A. Logan

1978-01-01

259

Differential periods of Varroa mite invasion into worker and drone cells of honey bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasion ofVarroa mites into honeybee brood cells was studied in an observation hive, using combs with cell openings at one side only. The cell bottoms had been replaced by a transparent sheet, through which mites were clearly visible after invasion into a cell. Mites invaded worker cells from 15–20 h preceding cell capping, whereas they invaded drone cells from 40–50

Willem J. Boot; Johan N. M. Calis; Joop Beetsma

1992-01-01

260

Immune Reactivity to Mite Allergens in Nonatopic Subjects: Immune Deviation or Immune Ignorance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most subjects without IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus do not have IgG to Der p 1 or Der p 2 (as measured by RIA). However, by immunoblot or ELISA, IgG reactivity (mostly IgG1) to mite components is easily detectable. This discrepancy is caused largely by immune reactivity to mite components with a high molecular weight under native conditions (possibly mite gut

Rob C. Aalberse; Ellen Vermeulen

2001-01-01

261

Contrasting evolutionary patterns and target specificities among three Tourist -like MITE families in the maize genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non autonomous DNA elements that are widespread and abundant\\u000a in plant genomes. The high sequence and size conservation observed in many MITE families suggest that they have spread recently\\u000a throughout their respective host genomes. Here we present a maize genome wide analysis of three Tourist-like MITE families, mPIF, and two previously uncharacterized families,

Tatiana Zerjal; Johann Joets; Karine Alix; Marie-Angèle Grandbastien; Maud I. Tenaillon

2009-01-01

262

THE USAGE OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB) AND PALM PRESSED FIBRE (PPF) AS SUBSTRATES FOR THE CULTIVATION OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present Malaysia is the largest exporter of palm oil in the international market. In the process of extraction of palm oil from oil palm fruit, biomass materials such as palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm pressed fibre (PPF) are generated as waste products. This research was undertaken to evaluate the use of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and shredded

AMAL NAFISSA MOHD TABI; FATHIE AHMAD ZAKIL; WAN NUR FAUZAN MOHD FAUZAI; NOORHALIEZA ALI; ONN HASSAN

263

NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report: HETA No. 2004-0334-3017, Transportation Security Administration: Palm Beach International Airport, West Palm Beach, Florida, October 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On July 22, 2004, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) received a health hazard evaluation (HHE) request from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at the Palm Beach International Airport in West Palm Beach, Florida...

2006-01-01

264

Global honey bee viral landscape altered by a parasitic mite.  

PubMed

Emerging diseases are among the greatest threats to honey bees. Unfortunately, where and when an emerging disease will appear are almost impossible to predict. The arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite into the Hawaiian honey bee population allowed us to investigate changes in the prevalence, load, and strain diversity of honey bee viruses. The mite increased the prevalence of a single viral species, deformed wing virus (DWV), from ~10 to 100% within honey bee populations, which was accompanied by a millionfold increase in viral titer and a massive reduction in DWV diversity, leading to the predominance of a single DWV strain. Therefore, the global spread of Varroa has selected DWV variants that have emerged to allow it to become one of the most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet. PMID:22679096

Martin, Stephen J; Highfield, Andrea C; Brettell, Laura; Villalobos, Ethel M; Budge, Giles E; Powell, Michelle; Nikaido, Scott; Schroeder, Declan C

2012-06-01

265

Some predaceous mites [ Phytoseiidae ] on citrus in the mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of phytoseiid mites were collected from citrus trees in the Mediterranean region during a survey in 1971.Amblyseius stipulatus\\u000a Athias-Henriot was the most abundant and widespread species in all countries surveyed (Turkey, Greece, Italy, Spain).A. californicus (McGregor) was collected only in Spain;A. potentillae (Garman) andPhytoseiulus persimilis. A.-H. only in Italy.Typhlodromus talbii A.-H. was collected in Greece and Spain,T. athiasae

J. A. McMurtry

1977-01-01

266

Predation and mycophagy by endeostigmatid mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endeostigmatid mitesAlicorhagia fragilis andAlycus spp. are nematophages. Nematodes are cut up by the chelicerae or ingested whole, but are difficult to recognize as gut contents.Alycus roseus is a strict predator and does not consume microphytes.Alicorhagia fragilis is an omnivore. When nematodes are not available, adult females consume more fungi, but lay significantly fewer eggs, and cultures eventually decline to

David Evans Walter

1988-01-01

267

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa in association with scabies mite.  

PubMed

Elastosis perforans serpiginosa is a form of perforating dermatoses, which has a characteristic clinical presentation of grouped keratotic papules coalescing into serpiginous or annular configurations. The majority of elastosis perforans serpiginosa cases are idiopathic; however, various etiologies have been postulated for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The authors present a unique case of elastosis perforans serpiginosa that developed focally secondary to a scabies mite. PMID:24155992

Kassardjian, Michael; Frederickson, Julie; Griffith, Jack; Shitabata, Paul; Horowitz, David

2013-10-01

268

Dust mite allergen avoidance as a preventive and therapeutic strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma is a global health problem with genetic and environmental components. Indoor allergens have a major impact on asthma,\\u000a and exposure in sensitized subjects can compromise lung function. A reduction in allergen exposure would seem a logical facet\\u000a to treatment. Methods for reducing mite allergen levels that are effective in the laboratory may not work in the home and\\u000a may

Aida Semic Jusufagic; Angela Simpson; Ashley Woodcock

2006-01-01

269

House dust mite control measures in the treatment of asthma  

PubMed Central

Sensitization to the house dust mite (Dermataphagoides pteronyssinus) (HDM) is the most common risk factor associated with the development of asthma in adults and children. The effectiveness of HDM control measures in the treatment of asthma is not yet proven. The strategies for control for avoidance depend on our understanding of the biology of the HDM. The evidence suggests a favorable effect of transferring allergic asthmatic children to naturally low dust mite environments, such as at altitude or in hospital, but little to suggest that this can be replicated in general practice by simple practical measures such as mattress covers. However, a recent multi-allergen reduction approach has suggested benefits may be achievable. HDM densities tend to be high in warm, humid conditions in the home, which may be modified by external factors, such as ventilation. However, ventilation control to reduce indoor humidity has had inconsistent effects on dust mite levels and asthma. The challenge is to further refine the interventions in large placebo-controlled trials such that clinical outcomes may be more easily demonstrated.

Vallance, Gillian; McSharry, Charles; Wood, Stuart; Thomson, Neil C

2006-01-01

270

SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers\\u000a for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs.\\u000a Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting

Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

2010-01-01

271

Fungal contaminants of the oil palm tissue culture in Nigerian institute for oil palm research (NIFOR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five species of fungi belonging to 14 genera were identified as fungal contaminants of the oil palm tissue culture materials (explant, callus\\/embroid and plantlets). Of these genera Penicillium sp. occurred most frequently (40.8%), followed by Curvularia sp. (14.5%) Cladosporium sp. (13.4%), Aspergillus sp. (10.1%), Acremonium, Fusarium and Alternaria spp. (4.5%) respectively. Rhizopus (3.4%), Trichoderma, Pestalotia and Helminthosporium spp. (1.1%) respectively.

I. B. Omamor; A. O. Asemota; C. R. Eke; E. I. Eziashi

272

Palm yu kara no yusoyo bio fuel jitsuyoka kanosei chosa. (Research on possibility of utilization of palm methylester for diesel engines).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is expected that palm oil will reduce black smoke/particulates in exhaust gas from the diesel engine. Therefore, an investigation for practical application of palm oil is made on adaptability as a fuel oil and supply potential. For utilization of palm ...

1993-01-01

273

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control  

PubMed Central

The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 0 In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites per leaf. Overall, acetamiprid treatments had 4.6-fold higher mite densities than the standard organophosphate insecticide treatment. Of the treatments with high mite populations, Panonychus ulmi, the European red mite, and Tetranychus urticae, the twospotted spider mite, were the dominant species in roughly equal numbers of cases. Only 11.1% of the thiacloprid treatments exceeded 5 mites per leaf; these experimental treatments included eight applications, whereas the current label restricts the number of applications at the rate for C. pomonella to two applications. One out of six clothianidin treatments caused a significantly higher mite density than the standard treatment; however, this material appeared to suppress predatory mites. Neonicotinyl insecticides did not eliminate predatory mites, but they inhibited their ability to respond normally to increasing prey populations. In field trials designed specifically to examine mite population densities where neonicotinyl insecticides were used, significantly higher levels of tetranychid mites occurred in one or more acetamiprid treatments (one, two or four applications) in five out of six trials. In the sixth trial (in a commercial orchard), only two acetamiprid applications were made, and mite populations were low in all treatments. While elevated mite densities were more likely to occur with four applications, in one case it occurred following a single application. The predominant tetranychid mite species (either P. ulmi or T. urticae) varied from trial to trial; however, there was no apparent bias regarding stimulation of the two species. Horticultural mineral oil was used with acetamiprid in some trials in an attempt to mitigate mite outbreaks. However, the addition of oil did not counteract the tendency of acetamiprid to increase tetranychid mite populations, and in one trial, had a negative effect on predatory mite densities. Seasonal tetranychid mite density was positively related to the total grams AI (or number of applications) of acetamiprid, thus reducing the number of applications per season should lower the probability of mite outbreaks. Abbreviation: AI active ingredient CMD cumulative mite days

Beers, E. H.; Brunner, J. F.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

2005-01-01

274

Potential of the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii to suppress the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus on the gboma eggplant, Solanum macrocarpon.  

PubMed

In Benin, the tarsonemid mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) is a key pest of gboma eggplant Solanum macrocarpon (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), a leafy vegetable on which it causes considerable damage to the plants and substantial reduction in yield. Predatory mites in the family Phytoseiidae have been successfully used in the biological control of numerous agricultural pests worldwide. In that respect, a population of the phytoseiid mite Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) has been identified as a potential predator of P. latus, and is now a candidate for release against this pest in Benin. The objective of the present study is to determine, through laboratory experiments, the predation rate and life table parameters of A. swirskii when feeding on P. latus or alternative food such as maize pollen. Under laboratory conditions the mean number of P. latus consumed by A. swirskii, and daily oviposition, significantly increased as the number of prey increased. Total development time of A. swirskii was significantly shorter when it fed on P. latus than on maize pollen. Net reproduction rate, intrinsic rate of increase, mean generation time and the finite rate of increase of A. swirskii were were all significantly lower on P. latus than on maize pollen. However, doubling time was significantly higher on maize pollen. This study shows that A. swirskii is a good predator of P. latus, and that maize pollen can efficiently sustain A. swirskii populations when P. latus densities on plants become low. Consequently, A. swirskii can be used for the biological control of the broad mite P. latus on gboma eggplant, and on other solanaceous crops in Benin and elsewhere. PMID:22962997

Onzo, Alexis; Houedokoho, Arnaud F; Hanna, Rachid

2012-01-01

275

Cheyletus eruditus (taurrus): an effective candidate for the biological control of the snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis).  

PubMed

The most commonly encountered ectoparasite in captive snakes is the hematophagous snake mite (Ophionyssus natricis). Infected snakes often exhibit lethargy, dysecdysis, pruritus, crusting dermatitis (sometimes progressing to abscesses), and behavioral changes (increased bathing time, rubbing against objects). Anemia and septicemia are occasional complications. Eliminating snake mites from a collection is frustrating. Insecticidal and acaricidal compounds used in mammals can be used against O. natricis infestation in reptiles, but they all are potentially neurotoxic to reptiles. The use of a biological agent to control the snake mite was first developed by using the predatory mites Hypoaspis miles and Hypoaspis aculeifer. However, no data are available regarding the potential of these mites to control O. natricis. Furthermore, the survival and predatory behavior of H. aculeifer and H. miles decreases above 28 degrees C, which is the lower value of the optimal temperature zone range required for rearing snakes. The aim of this study is to identify the ability of the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus to control O. natricis. In the first experiment, 125 O. natricis mites where placed in separate plastic tubes together with the same number of C. eruditus mites. After 48 hr, the survival rate of snake mites was 6% compared with 92% in the control group (n = 125, P < 0,001). In the second experiment, 11 infested (average of 13 O. natricis per snake) ball pythons, with an average of 13 O. natricis per individual, were placed in separate cages with 1,000 C. eruditus mites + vermiculite After 15 days, only an average of two mites per snake remained, compared with 48 per snake in the control group (t-test, P < 0,01). PMID:24063093

Schilliger, Lionel H; Morel, Damien; Bonwitt, Jesse H; Marquis, Olivier

2013-09-01

276

Leaf domatia and foliar mite abundance in broadleaf deciduous forest of north Asia.  

PubMed

Plant morphology may be shaped, in part, by the third trophic level. Leaf domatia, minute enclosures usually in vein axils on the leaf underside, may provide the basis for protective mutualism between plants and mites. Domatia are particularly frequent among species of trees, shrubs, and vines in the temperate broadleaf deciduous forests in north Asia where they may be important in determining the distribution and abundance of mites in the forest canopy. In lowland and montane broadleaf deciduous forests at Kwangn;akung and Chumbongsan in Korea, we found that approximately half of all woody species in all forest strata, including many dominant trees, have leaf domatia. Pooling across 24 plant species at the two sites, mites occupied a mode of 60% (range 20-100%) of domatia and used them for shelter, egg-laying, and development. On average, 70% of all active mites and 85% of mite eggs on leaves were found in domatia; over three-quarters of these were potentially beneficial to their hosts. Further, mite abundance and reproduction (expressed as the proportion of mites at the egg stage) were significantly greater on leaves of species with domatia than those without domatia in both forests. Effects of domatia on mite abundance were significant only for predaceous and fungivorous mite taxa; herbivore numbers did not differ significantly between leaves of species with and without domatia. Comparable patterns in broadleaf deciduous forest in North America and other biogeographic regions suggest that the effect of leaf domatia on foliar mite abundance is general. These results are consistent with several predictions of mutualism between plants and mites, and indicate that protective mutualisms may be frequent in the temperate zone. PMID:21684881

O'Dowd, D; Pemberton, R

1998-01-01

277

Screening for lipase activity in the oil palm.  

PubMed

The oil palm mesocarp contains an endogenous lipase which is strongly activated at low temperature. Lipase activity is thus very conveniently assayed by prior exposure of the fruits to low temperature. More than 100 oil palm samples from the germplasm collection of the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (now known as the Malaysian Palm Oil Board) were screened for non-esterified fatty acid activity using both the low-temperature activation assay and a radioactivity assay. The results showed good correlation between assay procedures. The different samples had a very wide range of lipase activity. Elaeis oleifera samples had significantly lower lipase activity compared with E. guineensis (var. tenera) samples. Even within E. guineensis (var. tenera), there was a wide range of activity. The results confirmed that lipase activity is genotype-dependent. Selection for lipase genotypes is thus possible and this will have obvious commercial value. PMID:11171201

Sambanthamurthi, R; Rajanaidu, N; Hasnah Parman, S

2000-12-01

278

VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING ROYAL PALMS ALONG THE STREET. VIEW FACING EAST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

279

Steam (physical) refining deodorizer for malaysian palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of Malaysian palm oil is expected to increase 20% per year for the next 5 yr. Already planted are more than\\u000a a million acres which will start to produce in the next few years. Recent plantings of new strains will produce 2400 to 3000\\u000a lb of palm oil per acre. Palmex Industries, Penang, Malaysia started in operation in

Arnold M. Gavin; K. T. Toeh; G. Carlin

1977-01-01

280

Continuous transmethylation of palm oil in an organic solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil was transmethylated continuously at 70C in an organic solvent with sodium methoxide as a catalyst. The optimum ratio\\u000a of toluene to palm oil is 1?1 (v\\/v). When the methanol-to-oil molar ratio was 13?1, transmethylation was 96% complete within\\u000a 60 seconds. At higher molar ratio (17?1), transmethylation was 99% complete in 15 seconds. For lower molar ratios of methanol-to-oil

Kanit Krisnangkura; Ratchadaporn Simamaharnnop

1992-01-01

281

Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate

G. Panchal; P. D. Bridge

2005-01-01

282

Confectionery fats from palm oil and lauric oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for economical cocoa butter alternatives, palm and lauric oils have emerged as important source oils in the\\u000a development of hard butters. Based on the method presented for categorizing hard butters, the lauric oils, primarily palm\\u000a kernel and coconut, can be modified by interesterification and hydrogenated to yield lauric cocoa butter substitutes (CBS)\\u000a which are both good eating

J. John Pease

1985-01-01

283

Date Palm Tissue Culture: A Pathway to Rural Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Date palm, being a crop of the arid and marginal lands, has an integral relationship with the life of the rural people. It\\u000a has excellent potential for improving the rural sector, and contributing to the economic, social and cultural aspects of rural\\u000a areas. Various primary and secondary products of date palm add to the economic and social security of the

K. Rajmohan

284

The LCA Approach to Illustrate Palm Oil's Sustainability Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the LCA technique and computing for the different industry practices, the green house gas emission from nursery to mill with six other product flows, was estimated to range from ~650 - 1,300 kg CO2\\/ton CPO. Allocation of the CO2 by weight to two other co-products, namely palm kernel feed and palm kernel oil reduce the green house gas load

S. S. Chen

285

Evaluation of possible arrestant-aggregation pheromones in the American house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (astigmata: Pyroglyphidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We wanted to determine if a chemical substance was responsible for cluster formation by adults of the American house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, which are significant agents of dust allergy in humans. Behavioral responses to an extract of aggregated mites were compared to 30 common mite attractants identified in cuticular lipids, excretory products and mammalian skin in a refined

Emmett V. Glass; Jay A. Yoder; Glen R. Needham

2001-01-01

286

Host specificity and permanence of associations between mesostigmatic mites (Acari: Anactinotrichida) and burying beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Nicrophorus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the host specificity of mesostigmatic mites associated with sympatric species of burying beetles. Using field collections we established attachment patterns, prevalence and intensity of the mites phoretic on the beetles, and tested for host-specific differences. Further, to test whether the mites have established permanent associations and reproduce in the brood chamber of the beetles, we performed breeding experiments.

H. H. Schwarz; M. Starrach; S. Koulianos

1998-01-01

287

Influence of leaf trichomes on predatory mite density and distribution in plant assemblages and implications for biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-glandular trichomes on leaves or stems are strongly positively correlated with the abundance of many predatory phytoseiid mite species. Some perennial fruit crops have few or no trichomes and overcoming this limitation of leaf habitat for natural enemy mites could improve biological control of pest mites in agricultural crops. This study evaluated whether juxtaposing plants with and without trichomes will

R. Loughner; K. Wentworth; G. Loeb; J. Nyrop

2010-01-01

288

Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of viruses. Since the mites were first observed in Java, Indonesia in 1904, they

Juliette R. Ongus

2006-01-01

289

How Species-Specific is the Phoretic Relationship Between the Broad Mite, Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), and Its Insect Hosts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), is a serious plant pest in tropical and subtropical regions. Phoretic associations between broad mite and two genera of whiteflies (Insecta: Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), namely Bemisia and Trialeurodes, have been reported from different parts of the world. Our purpose was to determine the specificity of the association between the mite and its phoretic hosts. Two

F. Abo-Moch; U. Gerson

2001-01-01

290

The palm wine trade: occupational and health hazards.  

PubMed

The palm wine trade is an important economic activity for many tropical rural areas worldwide. In West Africa, palm wine holds high sociocultural and traditional values. Wine tappers often climb very tall trees with rudimentary equipment to harvest palm sap and risk severe injuries in the event of a fall. Furthermore, the wine quickly ferments beyond the desired taste and alcohol content, reducing the market power of these tappers. Therefore, to maximize benefits or to enhance shelf life, a variety of components are added to the palm tree sap, introducing the possibility of deadly contaminants. This paper highlights the public health implications of uncontrolled palm wine production and the relative neglect of the wine tapper. We draw from the limited published literature and use Cameroon as a case study. The palm wine trade can be more productive and safe if tappers work in cooperatives to improve their market power. Public health authorities need to monitor the quality of this cheap and common source of alcohol and enact regulations to protect wine tappers from the current level of occupational hazards. There are varying levels of progress to control quality and ensure safety in different parts of the world. Legislation and collaboration with traditional structures may offer a framework for change. PMID:23022866

Mbuagbaw, L; Noorduyn, S G

2012-10-01

291

Broad Mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) infestation and injury in watermelon and potential sources of resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During the summer of 2006, we observed severe broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) injury and infestations on watermelon plant introductions (PI) and commercial cultivars grown in the field in Charleston, SC. Broad mites have previously not been reported on watermelons in the U.S.A. However, the...

292

Exposure to house dust mite allergens and the clinical activity of asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: House dust mite allergens play an important role in inducing IgE-mediated sensitization and the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. This study investigated the relationship between mite allergen exposure and the clinical activity and severity of asthma. Methods: Nonsmoking adult patients with asthma (n = 53) were randomly recruited from the asthma registry of two large family practitioner

Adnan Custovic; Simon C. O. Taggart; Helen C. Francis; Martin D. Chapman; Ashley Woodcock

1996-01-01

293

Grape downy mildew Plasmopara viticola, an alternative food for generalist predatory mites occurring in vineyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalist phytoseiids are often observed for long periods on plants in the absence of prey, feeding on alternative foods and reaching high population levels. The persistence of generalist predatory mites on plants with a scarcity or absence of prey is a requirement for successful biocontrol strategies of herbivore mites. The importance of pollen as an alternative food for the support

Alberto Pozzebon; Carlo Duso

2008-01-01

294

Microhabitat selection and coexistence in feather mites (Acari: Analgoidea) on Alaskan seabirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of feather mites, Alloptes (A.) sp. and Laronyssus martini, coexisted on the flight feathers of kittiwakes, while Alloptes (C.) sp. occurred alone on murres. All three species were found mostly on the ventral surface of mid-wing regions. On individual feathers, the mites were attached to the distal sides of barbs on the trailing vanes. The two species coexisted

Jae C. Choe; Ke Chung Kim

1989-01-01

295

A remarkable example of predation in the parasitic mite family Macronyssidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undescribed genus and species of Macronyssidae has been found in guano of the bat Eptesicus fuscus in Indiana, USA, and in guano of an unidentified bat in Brazil. Unlike all other macronyssids, the new mite is predaceous on other mites in the guano and has no direct feeding relationship with the bat. We believe this is the first known

Frank J. Radovsky; G. W. Krantz; J. O. Whitaker Jr

1997-01-01

296

On interacting bee\\/mite populations: a stochastic model with analysis using cumulant truncation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitism by the Varroa mite has had recent drastic impact on both managed and feral bee colonies. This paper proposes a stochastic population dynamics model for interacting African bee colony and Varroa mite populations. Cumulant truncation procedures are used to obtain approximate transient cumulant functions, unconstrained by the usual assumption of bivariate Normality, for an assumed large-scale model. The apparent

James H. Matis; Thomas R. Kiffe

2002-01-01

297

Effects of aldicarb and neonicotinoid seed treatments on twospotted spider mite on cotton.  

PubMed

Twelve field experiments and one laboratory experiment were conducted to determine the effects of furrow applied aldicarb and seed treatments of thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin), Aeris (imidacloprid + thiodicarb), and acephate on twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on cotton, Cossypium hirsutum L. For the field experiments, data were pooled across all experiments for analysis. Aeris, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid treatments resulted in twospotted spider mite densities greater than those in the untreated check, aldicarb, and acephate treatments. However, cotton treated with Avicta (thiamethoxam + abamectin) had 34% fewer mites than other neonicotinoid seed treatments when infestations occurred near cotyledon stage. Untreated check and aldicarb treatments had the lowest mite densities. Only aldicarb reduced mite densities below that in the untreated check. In a laboratory trial, the fecundity of twospotted spider mite was measured. While neonicotinoid seed treatments increased mite densities in the field, they did not increase fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Foliar applied thiamethoxam slightly elevated average fecundity in the laboratory experiment. Increased use of neonicotinoid seed treatments instead of furrow applied aldicarb is likely at least partly responsible for recent increased twospotted spider mite infestations in seedling cotton across the mid-south. PMID:23786068

Smith, J F; Catchot, A L; Musser, F R; Gore, J

2013-04-01

298

Immunologic Characterization and Allergenicity of Recombinant Tyr p 3 Allergen from the Storage Mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The involvement of the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae in allergies has been increasingly reported in many countries. Molecular analysis has shown that group 3 mite allergens are homologous to trypsin. Similar allergens have not been identified in T. putrescentiae. Our aims were to characterize group 3 allergens in T. putrescentiae and to investigate their significance in allergenicity. Methods: cDNAs

En-Chih Liao; Err-Lieh Hsu; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Chau-Mei Ho

2009-01-01

299

Population dynamics of thrips prey and their mite predators in a refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey refuges are expected to affect population dynamics, but direct experimental tests of this hypothesis are scarce. Larvae\\u000a of western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis use the web produced by spider mites as a refuge from predation by the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris. Thrips incur a cost of using the refuge through reduced food quality within the web due to spider

Sara Magalhães; Paul C. J. van Rijn; Marta Montserrat; Angelo Pallini; Maurice W. Sabelis

2007-01-01

300

NEGLECTED COMPONENTS OF BIODIVERSITY: SOIL ORIBATID MITES, COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND SOIL RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

Oribatid mites are an abundant and diverse component of soils in regional pine forests, and are valuable in characterizing the biodiversity of these forested lands. We sampled oribatid mites using soil cores and leaf litterbags, in young aggrading forest stands. Comparing these...

301

A Scientific note on Varroa mites found in East Africa; Threat or Opportunity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Varroa mites have devastated Apis mellifera L. honeybee populations wherever they co-occur around the world, yet in East Africa these mites may have finally met their match. Varroa destructor Anderson and Truman (Acari:Varroidae) was found in Kenya and Tanzania for the first time in early 2009, but...

302

Induced Resistance and Interspecific Competition between Spider Mites and a Vascular Wilt Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae was less likely to cause symptoms of verticillium wilt on cotton seedlings that had been previously exposed to spider mites than on unexposed cotton seedlings. Conversely, populations of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae grew less rapidly on seedlings that had been inoculated with V. dahliae than on uninoculated controls. Changes caused by pathogen or herbivore

Richard Karban; Rodney Adamchak; William C. Schnathorst

1987-01-01

303

Grazing impacts on soil mites of semi-arid chenopod shrublands in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research describes the effects on the soil mite fauna of two sheep-grazing intensities applied to chenopod shrublands in both good and poor conditions. Soil was sampled from within and between bluebush (Maireana polypterygia) accretion mounds, 9 and 18 months following a 10-year grazing trial. There were major differences in the mite assemblages associated with the grazing treatments. Heavily grazed

Adrianne Kinnear; David Tongway

2004-01-01

304

Incidence of the endosymbionts Wolbachia, Cardinium and Spiroplasma in phytoseiid mites and associated prey.  

PubMed

Endosymbiotic bacteria that potentially influence reproduction and other fitness-related traits of their hosts are widespread in insects and mites and their appeal to researchers' interest is still increasing. We screened 20 strains of 12 agriculturally relevant herbivorous and predatory mite species for infection with Wolbachia, Cardinium and Spiroplasma by the use of PCR. The majority of specimens originated from Austria and were field collected or mass-reared. Eight out of 20 strains (40%) tested, representing seven of 12 mite species (58%), carried at least one of the three bacteria. We found Wolbachia in the herbivorous spider mites Tetranychus urticae and Bryobia rubrioculus, with the former also carrying Spiroplasma and the latter also carrying Cardinium. Cardinium was furthermore found in two populations of the predatory mite Euseius finlandicus and the spider mite Eotetranychus uncatus. Spiroplasma was detected in the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus. All bacteria positive PCR products were sequenced, submitted to GenBank and analyzed in BLAST queries. We found high similarities to complete identity with bacteria found in the same and different mite species but also with bacteria found in insect species like ladybirds, butterflies and minute pirate bugs, Orius. We discuss the significance of potential (multiple) infections with the investigated bacteria for biological control. PMID:17554631

Enigl, Monika; Schausberger, Peter

2007-06-07

305

Kaolin as a possible treatment against lepidopteran larvae and mites in organic fruit production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few control methods are available in Norwegian organic fruit production that can prevent damage by early and late larvae. Also phytophagous mites are difficult to control without harming the beneficial mites. Proc- essed kaolin function by coating trees and thus creating a physical barrier to infestation, impeding move- ment, feeding and egg-laying. Kaolin may reduce feeding and movement of over-wintering

G. Jaastad; D. Røen; Å. M. Helgheim; B. Hovland; O. Opedal

306

Characterization of a Group of MITEs with Unusual Features from Two Coral Genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs), which are common in eukaryotic genomes, are small non-coding elements that transpose by utilizing transposases encoded by autonomous transposons. Recent genome-wide analyses and cross-mobilization assays have greatly improved our knowledge on MITE proliferation, however, specific mechanisms for the origin and evolution of MITEs are still unclear. Principal Findings A group of coral MITEs called CMITE were identified from two corals, Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata. CMITEs conform to many common characteristics of MITEs, but also present several unusual features. The most unusual feature of CMITEs is conservation of the internal region, which is more conserved between MITE families than the TIRs. The origin of this internal region remains unknown, although we found one CMITE family that seems to be derived from a piggyBac-like transposon in A. millepora. CMITEs can form tandem arrays, suggesting an unconventional way for MITEs to increase copy numbers. We also describe a case in which a novel transposable element was created by a CMITE insertion event. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of identification of MITEs from coral genomes. Proliferation of CMITEs seems to be related to the transposition machinery of piggyBac-like autonomous transposons. The highly conserved internal region of CMITEs suggests a potential role for this region in their successful transposition. However, the origin of these unusual features in CMITEs remains unclear, and thus represents an intriguing topic for future investigations.

Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Meyer, Eli; Matz, Mikhail V.

2010-01-01

307

Genetic variability in mite-resistant honey bee usi ng ISSR molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems facing the beekeeping ind ustry in Saudi Arabia is the infestation of honeybee colonies with parasitic mite Varroa destru ctor. Bee breeders strive to reduce exposure of bees to pesticides by developing stocks of bees tha t resist the mites. The goal of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of eleven colon ies

S. A. Al-Otaibi

308

Predatory — prey relationships in subtropical zooplankton: water mite against cladocerans in an Argentine lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a small lake in northern Argentina pelagic water mite Piona sp. had the maximum of population density in January following with a five-day delay after the peak of zooplankton dominant — Daphnia laevis. The mite density was highly predicted by the previous variations of Daphnia density during 4 months of observation (December–March). Daphnia density was a negative delayed function

V. F. Matveev; C. C. Martinez; S. M. Frutos

1989-01-01

309

FIRST REPORT OF LECANICILLIUM MUSCARIUM ATTACKING MITES ON COFFEE IN BRAZIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Entomopathogenic fungi are important biocontrol agents against pest insects and mites. This report, which resulted from a study of mite diversity on coffee plants, was conducted on the Fazenda Boa Esperança, Jeriquara, northeastern Sao Paulo State. From May 2001 to February 2003, we demonstrated th...

310

Parasitic Varroa destructor mites influence flight duration and homing ability of infested Apis mellifera foragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study confirmed that infestation by Varroa destructor is lower in foragers returning to the colony than in those leaving the colony and explored causes of mite loss. Video recordings of bees at the flight entrance revealed that some mites may get lost from foragers but also showed that infested bees stay outside the colony longer. Returning tests of foragers

Jasna Kralj; Stefan Fuchs

2006-01-01

311

New findings of mesostigmatic mites from rodents in the territory of Afghanistan.  

PubMed

A survey is given of mesostigmatic mites collected in Afghanistan from 7 species of rodents. From a total of 11 mite species identified Laelaps echidninus, L. nuttalli, Haemogamasus gyrinodes and Androlaelaps longipes were found in Afghanistan for the first time. PMID:6662413

Bukva, V; Amin, A

1983-01-01

312

Leaf domatia do not affect population dynamics of the predatory mite Iphiseiodes zuluagai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of plants of several families possess small cavities or tufts of hair where leaf veins bifurcate. These so-called acarodomatia are usually inhabited by predatory and fungivorous mites, which utilize domatia as shelter against adverse conditions or against other predators and cannibals. Plants may benefit from the presence of the mites through reduced densities of herbivores or plant-pathogenic fungi. It

João A. M. Ferreira; Angelo Pallini; Claudinei L. Oliveira; Maurice W. Sabelis; Arne Janssen

2010-01-01

313

Reproductive biology of varroa mites in colonies of Africanized honey bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the reproductive biology of V. destructor in Africanized honeybees (AHB) in Central American conditions, specifically in Costa Rica. Attention was paid to mite fertility and production of viable female mites in worker and drone brood cells. Other reproduction parameters, like fecundity, production of only immature offspring, production of only female or only male offspring and no reproduction at

R. A. Calderon Fallas

2009-01-01

314

Cospeciation between the nasal mite Ptilonyssus sairae (Acari: Rhinonyssidae) and its bird hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic nasal mite Ptilonyssus sairae Castro has been classified as one species, but we find that significant sequence divergence exists between host-specific mite populations. The low level of gene flow between conspecifics is probably a result of the parasites' low rate of dispersal among different bird host species. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene

MARCO MORELLI; GREG S. SPICER

2007-01-01

315

Contamination of Passenger Trains with Dermatophagoides (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) Mite Antigen in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passenger trains were surveyed for contamination with Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouesart) mites in Japan. A total of 492 dust samples were collected from upholstered seats in six commuter trains, one long-distance express train and three night trains in October, 1996 and January, April, and July, 1997. Mite antigen levels contained in fine dust fractions of these samples

Kozo Uehara; Yasuhiro Toyoda; Eiji Konishi

2000-01-01

316

“Inert” Formulation Ingredients with Activity: Toxicity of Trisiloxane Surfactant Solutions to Twospotted Spider Mites (Acari: Tetranychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organosilicone molecules are important surfactant ingredients used in formulating pesticides. These methylated silicones are considered inert ingredients, but their superior surfactant properties allow them to wet, and either suffocate or disrupt important physiological processes in mites and insects. Aqueous solutions of the trisiloxane surfactants Silwet L-77, Silwet 408, and Silwet 806 were bioassayed against adult female twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus

R. S. Cowles; E. A. Cowles; A. M. McDermott; D. Ramoutar

2000-01-01

317

[Breeding control and immobilizing effects of wood microingredients on house dust mites].  

PubMed

The possible effects of essential oils as wood microingredients on house dust mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were investigated. 1. Whether small pieces of 5 types of wood had any control effect on mite breeding was studied. Mite breeding using only normal feed was compared with breeding using feed mixed with small pieces of wood. In addition, mite breeding using feed mixed with small pieces of wood with no essential oil was studied. 2. Effects of 6 different wood essential oils in immobilizing mites were studied with regard to respired and contact toxicities. 3. The immobilizing effects of 10 ingredients in Hinoki oil were also specifically studied with regard to contact toxicity. The results of the 3 experiments were as follows: 1) It was confirmed that the small pieces of Hinoki, cedar, pine and Lauan had control effects on mite breeding. However, the small pieces of spruce did not demonstrate an effect. Woods which had no essential oils had reduced or no breeding control effects. 2) It was confirmed that the 6 different wood essential oils had mite immobilizing effects associated with respired and contact toxicities. Rosewood oil, White Pine oil and Taiwan Hinoki oil had strong immobilizing effects. Hinoki oil, however, had only a weak effect. 3) Among the 10 ingredients of Hinoki oil, specifically Linalool, Geranyl acetate and alpha-Terpineol had strong mite immobilizing effects. PMID:7949285

Ando, Y

1994-08-01

318

The plant MITE mPing is mobilized in anther culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transposable elements constitute a large portion of eukaryotic genomes and contribute to their evolution and diversification. Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) constitute one of the main groups of transposable elements and are distributed ubiquitously in the genomes of plants and animals such as maize, rice, Arabidopsis, human, insect and nematode. Because active MITEs have not been identified, the transposition mechanism

Kazuhiro Kikuchi; Kazuki Terauchi; Masamitsu Wada; Hiro-Yuki Hirano

2003-01-01

319

Effect of enzymatic transesterification with flaxseed oil on the high-melting glycerides of palm stearin and palm olein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of enzymatic transesterification on the melting behavior of palm stearin and palm olein, each blended separately\\u000a with flaxseed oil in the ratio of 90?10 and catalyzed by various types of lipases, were studied. The commercial lipases used\\u000a were Lipozyme IM, Novozyme 435, and myceliumbound lipases of Aspergillus flavus and A. oryzae. The slip melting point (SMP) of the

K. Long; I. Zubir; A. B. Hussin; N. Idris; H. M. Ghazali; O. M. Lai

2003-01-01

320

Assessment of Immune Activation in Mice before and after Eradication of Mite Infestation  

PubMed Central

Mite infestation of mice remains a persistent problem for many institutions, leading to numerous health problems and creating unknown and unwanted variables for research. In this study, mice with mite infestation demonstrated significantly higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, both at draining lymph nodes (axillary) and systemically, as compared with mice without mites. In addition, histologic evaluation revealed significant inflammation in mite-infested mice. Inflammatory changes were still present in the skin of mice at 6 to 8 wk after treatment, despite absence of detectable infestation at that time. Because these significant and lasting local and systemic changes have the potential to alter research findings, eradication of mites infestations should be an important goal for all institutions.

Johnston, Nancy A; Trammell, Rita A; Ball-Kell, Susan; Verhulst, Steven; Toth, Linda A

2009-01-01

321

Reduction of contact sensitivity reactions to oxazolone in mite-infested mice.  

PubMed Central

Oxazolone-sensitized mite-infested (SWR-M) and mite-free (SWR-J) mice were challenged with oxazolone on the skin of the neck and shoulder. The migration of radioactively labeled cells to the site of contact sensitivity reaction to oxazolone was significantly less in SWR-M than in SWR-J mice. Serum obtained from SWR-M mice suppressed the extravasation of cells into the skin site of SWR-J mice challenged with oxazolone. The decrease in cellular influx in SWR-M mice occurred in areas of mite infestation (skin of neck and shoulder) as well as in areas not infested with mites (the ears). SWR-M mice also gave evidence of enhanced vascular permeability. A possible role for histamine in the inhibition of contact sensitivity in mite-infested mice is discussed. Images

Laltoo, H; Kind, L S

1979-01-01

322

The plant MITE mPing is mobilized in anther culture.  

PubMed

Transposable elements constitute a large portion of eukaryotic genomes and contribute to their evolution and diversification. Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) constitute one of the main groups of transposable elements and are distributed ubiquitously in the genomes of plants and animals such as maize, rice, Arabidopsis, human, insect and nematode. Because active MITEs have not been identified, the transposition mechanism of MITEs and their accumulation in eukaryotic genomes remain poorly understood. Here we describe a new class of MITE, called miniature Ping (mPing), in the genome of Oryza sativa (rice). mPing elements are activated in cells derived from anther culture, where they are excised efficiently from original sites and reinserted into new loci. An mPing-associated Ping element, which has a putative PIF family transposase, is implicated in the recent proliferation of this MITE family in a subspecies of rice. PMID:12520303

Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Terauchi, Kazuki; Wada, Masamitsu; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

2003-01-01

323

Identification of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and biogenesis of their siRNAs in the Solanaceae: New functional implications for MITEs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small RNAs regulate the genome by guiding transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing machinery to specific target sequences, including genes and transposable elements (TEs). Although miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are closely associated with euchromatic genes, the br...

324

The Hibiscus Erineum Mite, Aceria hibisci (Acari: Eriophyidae) a New Introduction in the Caribbean and a Potential Threat to Florida's Hibiscus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hibiscus erineum mite (=hibiscus erinose mite, hibiscus leaf-crumpling mite) was originally described as Eriophyes hibisci (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae) in the Fiji islands by Nalepa (1906) and later transferred to the genus Aceria (Keifer 1966). Feeding by this mite deforms young leaves and developing vegetative buds. Nalepa (1909) reported A. hibisci from the Samoan Islands with

Cal Welbourn; Jose Carlos Rodrigues; Jorge E. Peña

325

Comparison of Cultivars of Ornamental Crop Gerbera jamesonii on Production of Spider Mite-Induced Volatiles, and Their Attractiveness to the Predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether volatiles produced by spider mite-damaged plants of four gerbera cultivars differ in attractiveness to Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialist predator of spider mites, and how the mite-induced odor blends differ in chemical composition. The gerbera cultivars differed in resistance, as expressed in terms of spider mite intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). In order of increasing resistance these

O. E. Krips; P. E. L. Willems; R. Gols; M. A. Posthumus; G. Gort; M. Dicke

2001-01-01

326

Ectoparasitic mites (Acari) of sympatric Brazilian free-tailed bats and big brown bats in Alabama.  

PubMed

Seven species of mites were recovered from 133 Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis, and 94 big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, from February through November 1990 in colonies that shared roosting space in east-central Alabama. The macronyssid Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing) was the most common mite on T. brasiliensis (964 mites, 87% of bats infested) and on E. fuscus (109 mites, 29% of bats infested). However, C. rubustipes normally is a specific parasite of T. brasiliensis. The macronyssids Steatonyssus ceratognathus (Ewing) and S. occidentalis (Ewing) were recovered from both species of bats in low numbers. S. ceratognathus is not a typical parasite of either species of bat, but S. occidentalis normally is specific to E. fuscus. Predictably, S. occidentalis was most frequently collected from E. fuscus (16 mites, 9% of bats infested), but two specimens were recovered from T. brasiliensis. Five specimens of the laelapid Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese) (a mite that is frequently associated with rodents) and one specimen of the myobiid mite Ewingana (Doreyana) longa (Ewing) (a specific ectoparasite of T. brasiliensis) were also recovered from T. brasiliensis. Singletons of the rosensteiniids Mydopholeus sp. and Nycteriglyphites pennsylvanicus Fain, Lukoschus & Whitaker were the only additional mites collected from E. fuscus; both of these mites have previously been collected from bats or their guano but are recorded here from Alabama for the first time. With respect to ectoparasite cross-infestations, E. fuscus appears to be at greater risk from sharing roots with T. brasiliensis. This is highlighted by the comparatively large numbers of C. robustipes that occurred on E. fuscus and the low numbers of S. occidentalis on T. brasiliensis. Although mites were the only arthropods recovered from bats in this study, a separate survey in 1991 revealed that the bat bug Cimex adjunctus Barber infested some other colonies of T. brasiliensis and E. fuscus in Alabama. PMID:1625301

Durden, L A; Best, T L; Wilson, N; Hilton, C D

1992-05-01

327

Conditions for isolation and regeneration of viable protoplasts of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts were isolated from cell cultures of oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis). The protoplasts were cultured on a “nurse” medium containing oil palm cells in the presence of which protoplasts formed cell walls and divided to form cell cultures.

Alice Bass; William Hughes

1984-01-01

328

Risk levels for mite allergens. Are they meaningful?  

PubMed

Allergens found in house dust are among the most common environmental antigens to which man is naturally exposed. Standardized methods for measuring allergen exposure are essential for assessing the relationship between exposure, sensitization, and the severity of asthma. Monoclonal antibody-based assays are the most widely used method for assessing allergen exposure. In the effort to define the best "index of exposure" to mite allergens, several factors need to be investigated, including: 1) whether allergen should be measured in reservoir dust or airborne 2) whether the results of reservoir measurement should be expressed as recovered allergen per unit weight or per unit area. As yet, airborne sampling is insufficiently sensitive to produce reliable and repeatable results. Therefore, measurement of house-dust-mite allergen concentration in reservoir dust should be regarded as the best-validated index of exposure. The results should be expressed and reported both per unit weight (concentration) and per unit area. The strongest predictor of chronic symptoms and acute exacerbation of asthma is sensitization to indoor allergens. A simple dose-response relationship between IgE-mediated hypersensitivity and allergen exposure has been established. For example, exposure to more than 2 microg Group 1 mite allergen/g dust should be regarded as a risk factor for the development of IgE antibody and asthma in susceptible children. The quantitative relationship between exposure and symptoms in patients already sensitized is complex due to a number of possible confounding factors (e.g., other allergens, viruses, asthma medication). A simple threshold level for provocation of asthmatic symptoms has not been clearly defined. PMID:10096813

Custovic, A; Chapman, M

1998-01-01

329

Variability of house-dust-mite allergen levels within carpets.  

PubMed

Sensitization and exposure to house-dust-mite allergens is an important cause of asthma. Standardized, reliable, and reproducible methods for measuring exposure are essential for the assessment of the relationship between exposure, sensitization, and asthma. This study investigated the variability of the house-dust-mite allergen Der p 1 concentration in reservoir dust collected within whole carpets in living rooms and bedrooms. The carpets of nine bedrooms and 11 living rooms were sampled. Each room was divided into 1 m2 areas measured from wall to wall where the carpet was accessible. Reservoir dust samples were collected by vacuuming each 1 m2 area for 2 min. Der p 1 was assayed by a two-site monoclonal-antibody-based immunometric ELISA. Der p 1 was detectable in the carpets of all nine bedrooms and six of the 11 living rooms. Within these 15 rooms, there was a wide range of Der p 1 levels. The smallest range of allergen within a single room was 0.9 microgram Der p 1/g dust (0.2 and 1.1 micrograms/g; 5.5-fold difference), and the largest was 149.2 micrograms Der p 1/g dust (0.8 and 150 micrograms/g; 192-fold difference). The mean range of allergen levels in the living rooms was 11.5 micrograms Der p 1/g of dust, and the mean coefficient of variation of these rooms was 80.2%, illustrating the huge variation of mite allergen levels within each room. The variation within bedrooms was also large, with a mean coefficient of variation value of 88.7%. The coefficient of variation was significantly lower around soft furnishings or beds (57%) than in the rest of the room (89.3%), with the mean difference being 32% (95% CI 2-63%; P = 0.04). In conclusion, this study has shown that there is a great variation of Der p 1 levels between areas within a room. No consistent pattern of distribution of mite allergen within a room was found. Der p 1 levels in areas around soft furnishings and beds varied less than the levels in the rest of the room. PMID:9689342

Simpson, A; Hassall, R; Custovic, A; Woodcock, A

1998-06-01

330

Torrenticolid water mites from Korea and the Russian Far East  

PubMed Central

Abstract New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae Piersig, 1902 (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in South Korea and the Russian Far East are presented. Detailed descriptions or redescrptions are provided for eight species of the genera Torrenticola Piersig, 1896 and Monatractides K. Viets 1926. Two species are described as new to science: Torrenticola kimichungi sp. n. and Monatractides abei sp. n. Five species are reported as first records from Korea: Torrenticola brevirostris (Halbert, 1911); Torrenticola dentifera Wiles, 1991; Torrenticola recentis Tuzovskij, 2003; Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1934); and Torrenticola turkestanica (Sokolow, 1926). Torrenticola nipponica (Enami, 1940) is reported for the first time from Russia.

Pesic, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia A.; Lee, Wonchoel

2013-01-01

331

Vulnerability and behavioral response to ultraviolet radiation in the components of a foliar mite prey-predator system.  

PubMed

Ambient ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation impacts plant-dwelling arthropods including herbivorous and predatory mites. However, the effects of UVB on prey-predator systems, such as that between the herbivorous spider mite and predatory phytoseiid mite, are poorly understood. A comparative study was conducted to determine the vulnerability and behavioral responses of these mites to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. First, we analyzed dose-response (cumulative irradiance-mortality) curves for the eggs of phytoseiid mites (Neoseiulus californicus, Neoseiulus womersleyi, and Phytoseiulus persimilis) and the spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) to UVB radiation from a UV lamp. This indicated that the phytoseiid mites were more vulnerable than the spider mite, although P. persimilis was slightly more tolerant than the other two phytoseiid mites. Second, we compared the avoidance behavior of adult female N. californicus and two spider mite species (T. urticae, a lower leaf surface user; Panonychus citri, an upper leaf surface user) in response to solar UV and visible light. N. californicus actively avoided both types of radiation, whereas P. citri showed only minimal avoidance behavior. T. urticae actively avoided UV as well as N. californicus but exhibited a slow response to visible light as well as P. citri. Such variation in vulnerability and avoidance behavior accounts for differences in the species adaptations to solar UVB radiation. This may be the primary factor determining habitat use among these mites on host plant leaves, subsequently affecting accessibility by predators and also intraguild competition. PMID:23093097

Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

2012-10-24

332

SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies.  

PubMed

This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification. PMID:20861564

Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Rosli, Rozana; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ithnin, Maizura; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Tan, Soon-Guan; Singh, Rajinder

2010-08-01

333

Regulation of the external mycoflora of the giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach, gromphadorhina portentosa , by its mite associate, gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi , and its implications on human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach,Gromphadorhina portentosa, and its mite associate,Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi, constitute an intimate commensalistic symbiosis. While the mite’s very survival is dependent by feeding on cockroach saliva\\u000a and associated organic debris, the degree that the cockroach benefits from this association is unclear. We investigated the\\u000a mite’s potential role at regulating surface fungi on the exoskeletons of this insect. Numbers of

Jay A. Yoder; Michael J. Chambers; Michael R. Condon; Joshua B. Benoit; Lawrence W. Zettler

2009-01-01

334

Exploring chemical analysis of vermicompost of various oil palm fibre wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the physical and chemical properties of different oil palm wastes, viz. empty fruit bunch\\u000a (EFB), oil palm frond (OPF) and oil palm trunk (OPT). A study (84 days duration) was conducted to evaluate the efficiency\\u000a of an exotic earthworm species (epigeic-African Nightcrawler (Eudrilus euginae)) for the decomposition of different types of oil palm

Z. Nahrul Hayawin; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil; M. Jawaid; M. Hakimi Ibrahim; A. A. Astimar

2010-01-01

335

Microsatellite-based high density linkage map in oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microsatellite-based high-density linkage map for oil palm ( Elaeis guinensis Jacq.) was constructed from a cross between two heterozygous parents, a tenera palm from the La Mé population (LM2T) and a dura palm from the Deli population (DA10D). A set of 390 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed in oil palm from microsatellite-enriched libraries and evaluated for polymorphism along

N. Billotte; N. Marseillac; A.-M. Risterucci; B. Adon; P. Brottier; F.-C. Baurens; R. Singh; A. Herrán; H. Asmady; C. Billot; P. Amblard; T. Durand-Gasselin; B. Courtois; D. Asmono; S. C. Cheah; W. Rohde; E. Ritter; A. Charrier

2005-01-01

336

The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDate palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), a member of Arecaceae family, is one of the three major economically important woody palms—the two other palms being oil palm and coconut tree—and its fruit is a staple food among Middle East and North African nations, as well as many other tropical and subtropical regions. Here we report a complete sequence of the data

Meng Yang; Xiaowei Zhang; Guiming Liu; Yuxin Yin; Kaifu Chen; Quanzheng Yun; Duojun Zhao; Ibrahim S. Al-Mssallem; Jun Yu; Jonathan H. Badger

2010-01-01

337

Interpretation of Sound Tomography Image for the Recognition of Ganoderma Infection Level in Oil Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm caused by a group of decaying fungi called Ganoderma is considered as the most serious disease faced by the oil palm plantations in SouthEast Asia [1]. Significant yield losses\\u000a can be observed when the number of palms infected by the fungus increases in the plantation as the infected palms will produce\\u000a less

Mohd Su'ud Mazliham; Pierre Loonis; Abu Seman Idris

338

Fusion of the Textural Feature and Palm-Lines for Palmprint Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are many features on a palm and different features reflect the different characteristic of a palmprint. Fusion of multiple\\u000a palmprint features may enhance the performance of palmprint authentication system. In this paper, we investigate the fusion\\u000a of the textural feature (PalmCode) and the palm-lines. Several fusion strategies have been compared. The experimental results\\u000a show that the original PalmCode scheme

Xiangqian Wu; Fengmiao Zhang; Kuanquan Wang; David Zhang

2005-01-01

339

Comparison of different treatment options for palm oil production waste on a life cycle basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Globally, 45 million metric tonnes of palm oil has been produced in 2009. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t\\u000a of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average, processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 230 kg empty fruit bunches (EFB)\\u000a and 650 kg palm oil mill effluent (POME) as residues. These residues cause considerable environmental

Heinz Stichnothe; Frank Schuchardt

2010-01-01

340

Male Aggregation Pheromone of Date Palm Fruit Stalk Borer Oryctes elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm fruit stalk borer, Oryctes elegans, and to develop pheromone-based trapping in Eastern Iran. Adults of both sexes feeding on date palm pieces attracted conspecifics, whereas date palm alone was minimally attractive. Males were twice as attractive as females. More beetles were captured at

Didier Rochat; Kazem Mohammadpoor; Christian Malosse; Arman Avand-Faghih; Martine Lettere; Josiane Beauhaire; Jean-Paul Morin; Adeline Pezier; Michel Renou; Gholam Abbas Abdollahi

2004-01-01

341

Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein

Zazali Alias; Irene K. P. Tan

2005-01-01

342

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seed system in Benin (Online first)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in the OPSS and to assess the performance of the OPSS from

E. Akpo; P. V. Vissoh; R. C. Tossou; T. Crane; D. K. Kossou; P. Richards; T. J. Stomph; P. C. Struik

2012-01-01

343

Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the

S. Sumathi; S. P. Chai; A. R. Mohamed

2008-01-01

344

Hydrogenation impairs the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of palm oil in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrogenated palm oil on lipid profiles and on activities of selected glutathione-dependent enzymes in rats was investigated. Male albino wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, fed on fresh palm oil (control) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) supplemented (5% by weight) diets respectively for 10 weeks. Serum cholesterol, liver lipid peroxidation and daily excretion of triacyl

Godwin C. Ojieh; Georginah O. Idokpesi; George O. Eidangbe; Kingsley Omage; Olarewaju M. Oluba

2009-01-01

345

Wireless System for Temperature Monitoring in Oil Palm Bio-laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia is known as the main producer of palm oil in the world. In order to maintain a good quality of palm oil product, the tissue culture process that carried out in the laboratory must be maintained at certain temperature values. Temperature is one of the important parameters that could affect the oil palm growth. A good temperature monitoring environment

Noor Hafizah Abdul Aziz; Kama Azura Othman; Suzi Seroja Sarnin; Yuhaini Idayu Mohd Ali

2009-01-01

346

PESTICIDE RESIDUE ANALYSIS OF DATE PALM FRUITS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticides are being used indiscriminately to control insect pests of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) such as red palm weevil, dubas bug, and mealy bug. The commercial formulation of several pesticides usually applied on date palm as root treatment, or injection into trunk, or as spray on foliage during flowering and fruiting stages to control insect pests. Green fruits of date

A. J. Khan; K. M. Azam; S. A. Razvi

347

A study on the development and exports outlook of palm biodiesel in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a comprehensive analysis on the use of palm biodiesel in Malaysia and its exports outlook in the world market. The Malaysian government planned to introduce processed palm oil blends with diesel for domestic use under a mandatory ruling with methyl ester, derived from palm oil, for exports. The domestic market is far from ready as proper policy

Peck Yean Gan; Zhi Dong Li

2008-01-01

348

Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from gut of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver is one of the insects that attack date palm trees directly and cause its death. This infection poses serious economical consequences in Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries. RPW assimilates the components of palm tree tissues. Significant amount of microbiota in the gut of RPW may contribute to success of its pathogenesis. This

Mohammad Khiyami; Essam Alyamani

349

PROCESSES TO DEVELOP AN INTEGRATED AND MULTIFUNCTIONAL COASTAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PALM BEACH, GOLD COAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite ongoing nourishment and groyne construction over 3 decades, the central section of Palm Beach is still very vulnerable to storm erosion. Palm Beach is in the central area of Gold Coast City and despite narrow beaches, these beaches and surf attract a large number of users and supports 3 surf clubs. The Palm Beach Beach Protection Strategy (PBBPS) has

R. Tomlinson; J. McGrath; L. A. Jackson; G. Stuart; A. Robertson; M. DaGata; B. Corbett

2003-01-01

350

Revival of an ancient starch crop: a review of the agronomy of the sago palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1971 there has been a revival of interest in the possibilities for cultivation of the true sago palm, Metroxylon spp. Agronomic and economic research shows that the palm can become an important starch producing crop. Many queries concerning the agronomy of the crop have been solved. The palm is especially suited to humid tropical lowlands. It is fairly salinity

M. Flach; D. L. Schuiling

1988-01-01

351

ILALA PALM (HYPHAENE PETERSIANA) USE IN SOUTHERN ZIMBABWE: SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING SUSTAINABILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic ecological model, calibrated with field data from the communal lands of southern Zimbabwe where Shangaan and Ndebele people live, shows the ilala palm, Hyphaene petersiana, to be resilient to a wide range of harvesting regimes. The degree of use determines the plant population structure but not the palm's continued existence. Ilala palm sap for wine and leaves for

A. L. FOOTE; N. T. KROGMAN; I. M. GRUNDY; N. NEMARUNDWE; B. M. CAMPBELL; J. GAMBIZA; L. GIBBS

2003-01-01

352

Management of biomass residues generated from palm oil mill: Vermicomposting a sustainable option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid waste management is one of the challenging problems worldwide and it is becoming more complex by the increase in population and subsequently the waste generated. In Malaysia, among industrial solid waste palm oil mill waste (POMW) contributes the highest share. Wastes from the oil palm mill includes palm oil mill effluent (POME), decanter cake, empty fruit bunches, seed shells

R. P. Singh; A. Embrandiri; M. H. Ibrahim; N. Esa

2011-01-01

353

Chemical Composition, Morphological Characteristics, and Cell Wall Structure of Malaysian Oil Palm Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the determination of chemical composition and the study of morphological and cell wall structure of oil palm fibers. Cellulose is the main constituent in oil palm fibers, and oil palm trunk (OPT) fiber exhibited the highest content of extractives and lignin. Fiber morphological determination also showed that OPT fibers have the highest fiber length, diameter, and

H. P. S. Abdul Khalil; M. Siti Alwani; R. Ridzuan; H. Kamarudin; A. Khairul

2008-01-01

354

Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little

Theresa Sinicrope Talley; Kim-Chi Nguyen; Anthony Nguyen

2012-01-01

355

Palm oil: Biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological and toxicological aspects: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between dietary fats and cardiovascular diseases has necessitateda growing research interest in palm oil, the second largest consumedvegetable oil in the world. Palm oil, obtained from a tropical plant, Elaeis guineensis contains 50% saturated fatty acids, yet it does notpromote atherosclerosis and arterial thrombosis. The saturated fatty acidto unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to

D. O. Edem

2002-01-01

356

A study of the efficacy of using Wavelet Transforms for Palm Print Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm Print Recognition is a vital technique in the burgeoning Biometrics industry as an answer to security and identity threats. In this paper we analyze the various details associated with Palm Print Recognition and devise an algorithm to do so that works with Discrete Wavelet Transforms. Palm Prints, being easily discernable and permanent features of the human body, can be

H. B. Kekre; Tanuja; K. Sarode; Aditya A. Tirodkar

2012-01-01

357

Factors impacting the formation of Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters during palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, organic and inorganic chlorinated compounds were detected in crude and commercially refined palm oils. Further, the predominant formation mechanism of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) diesters at high temperatures (>170–180°C) was revealed. The present study involved the development and comparison of solutions to mitigate MCPD diester levels in oils from various stages of palm oil production. Partially refined palm oil samples and

Brian D. Craft; Kornél Nagy; Laurence Sandoz; Frédéric Destaillats

2012-01-01

358

Factors impacting the formation of Monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters during palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, organic and inorganic chlorinated compounds were detected in crude and commercially refined palm oils. Further, the predominant formation mechanism of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) diesters at high temperatures (>170–180°C) was revealed. The present study involved the development and comparison of solutions to mitigate MCPD diester levels in oils from various stages of palm oil production. Partially refined palm oil samples and

Brian D. Craft; Kornél Nagy; Laurence Sandoz; Frédéric Destaillats

2011-01-01

359

Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner. PMID:21279347

Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

2011-01-29

360

Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm  

PubMed Central

Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

2010-01-01

361

Whiteflies interfere with indirect plant defense against spider mites in Lima bean.  

PubMed

Plants under herbivore attack are able to initiate indirect defense by synthesizing and releasing complex blends of volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivore. However, little is known about how plants respond to infestation by multiple herbivores, particularly if these belong to different feeding guilds. Here, we report the interference by a phloem-feeding insect, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, with indirect plant defenses induced by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants. Additional whitefly infestation of spider-mite infested plants resulted in a reduced attraction of predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis) compared to attraction to plants infested by spider mites only. This interference is shown to result from the reduction in (E)-beta-ocimene emission from plants infested by both spider mites and whiteflies. When using exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application to mimic B. tabaci infestation, we observed similar results in behavioral and chemical analyses. Phytohormone and gene-expression analyses revealed that B. tabaci infestation, as well as SA application, inhibited spider mite-induced jasmonic acid (JA) production and reduced the expression of two JA-regulated genes, one of which encodes for the P. lunatus enzyme beta-ocimene synthase that catalyzes the synthesis of (E)-beta-ocimene. Remarkably, B. tabaci infestation concurrently inhibited SA production induced by spider mites. We therefore conclude that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels. PMID:19965373

Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zheng, Si-Jun; van Loon, Joop J A; Boland, Wilhelm; David, Anja; Mumm, Roland; Dicke, Marcel

2009-11-24

362

Soiled bedding sentinels for the detection of fur mites in mice.  

PubMed

Identification and eradication of murine fur mite infestations are ongoing challenges faced by many research institutions. Infestations with Myobia musculi and Myocoptes musculinus can lead to animal health problems and may impose unwanted research variables by affecting the immune and physiologic functions of mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and efficacy of soiled bedding sentinels in the detection of fur mite infestations in colony mice. Female young-adult CRL:CD1(ICR) mice (n = 140) were exposed over a 12-wk period to various volume percentages of soiled bedding (11%, 20%, 50%, and 100%) from fur-mite-infested animals. Mice were tested every 2 wk with the cellophane tape test to identify the presence of fur mite adults and eggs. At the end of 12 wk, all mice exposed to 11%, 20%, and 50% soiled bedding tested negative for fur mites. One of the 35 mice (3%) receiving 100% soiled bedding tested positive for fur mites at the end of the 12-wk follow-up period. These findings suggest that the use of soiled bedding sentinels for the detection of fur mite infestations in colony mice is unreliable. PMID:21333164

Lindstrom, Krista E; Carbone, Larry G; Kellar, Danielle E; Mayorga, Melinda S; Wilkerson, James D

2011-01-01

363

Dust mites population in indoor houses of suspected allergic patients of South assam, India.  

PubMed

Background. In the present study, quality and quantity of indoor dust mites was evaluated at the residence of 150 atopic allergic patients from four different districts of South Assam. Methods. Suspected patients with case history of allergic disease were selected for indoor survey. Dust samples (500?mg) were collected from the selected patient's house and were analyzed using standard methods. Results. About 60% of the selected patients were found suffering from respiratory disorders and rest 40% from skin allergy. The dominant mites recorded from indoor dust samples were Dermatophagoides followed by Blomia, Acarus, and Cheyletus while Caloglyphus was recorded in least number. The distribution of mites on the basis of housing pattern indicates that RCC type of buildings supports maximum dust mite's population followed by Assam type (semi-RCC) buildings, and the lowest count was observed in wooden houses. Environmental factors like temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity are found to determine the indoor mite's population. Severity of allergic attack in some of the typical cases was found to be proportional to the allergen load of mites in the dust samples. Conclusions. The economic status, housing pattern, and local environmental factors determine the diversity and abundance of dust mites in indoor environment. PMID:23724231

Sharma, Dhruba; Dutta, B K; Singh, A B

2011-06-07

364

Recent amplification and impact of MITEs on the genome of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.)  

PubMed Central

Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a particular type of defective class II transposons present in genomes as highly homogeneous populations of small elements. Their high copy number and close association to genes make their potential impact on gene evolution particularly relevant. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the MITE families directly related to grapevine “cut-and-paste” transposons. Our results show that grapevine MITEs have transduplicated and amplified genomic sequences, including gene sequences and fragments of other mobile elements. Our results also show that although some of the MITE families were already present in the ancestor of the European and American Vitis wild species, they have been amplified and have been actively transposing accompanying grapevine domestication and breeding. We show that MITEs are abundant in grapevine and some of them are frequently inserted within the untranslated regions of grapevine genes. MITE insertions are highly polymorphic among grapevine cultivars, which frequently generate transcript variability. The data presented here show that MITEs have greatly contributed to the grapevine genetic diversity which has been used for grapevine domestication and breeding.

Benjak, Andrej; Boue, Stephanie; Forneck, Astrid

2009-01-01

365

Emerging risk of infestation and contamination of dried fruits by mites in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

The introduction of live insects into human food is rare in developed countries. However, we report, for the first time, an emerging risk that exists from dried fruit in Central Europe. Recently, massive and frequent infestation of dried fruit imported from the Mediterranean region by the mite, Carpoglpyhus lactis L. (Acarina: Carpoglyphidae), has been found. In 180 samples taken from supermarkets, 13% were contaminated; the contamination levels ranged from 0 to 660 mites per g of dried fruit. The contamination was found in dried apricots, figs, plums and raisins. To estimate the risks and food preferences of C. lactis, its growth rate was examined under laboratory conditions. Starting with a hypothetical population of 10 mites per g of dried fruit, the risk level of 1000 mites per g of dried fruit is reached at 42 days for dried figs, 49 days for dried pineapple and 63 days for dried apricots, dates and plums at 25 °C and 85% relative humidity. We found that mites are able to enter every dried fruit packing material tested, including polypropylene and aluminum foils. This indicates that mites can move from package to package in supermarkets. Mites are known as allergen producers and vectors of mycotoxin-producing fungi. These findings indicate that an increased risk of C. lactis contamination exists in dried fruit. PMID:21793685

Hubert, Jan; Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Stejskal, Vaclav

2011-07-27

366

Soiled Bedding Sentinels for the Detection of Fur Mites in Mice  

PubMed Central

Identification and eradication of murine fur mite infestations are ongoing challenges faced by many research institutions. Infestations with Myobia musculi and Myocoptes musculinus can lead to animal health problems and may impose unwanted research variables by affecting the immune and physiologic functions of mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and efficacy of soiled bedding sentinels in the detection of fur mite infestations in colony mice. Female young-adult CRL:CD1(ICR) mice (n = 140) were exposed over a 12-wk period to various volume percentages of soiled bedding (11%, 20%, 50%, and 100%) from fur-mite–infested animals. Mice were tested every 2 wk with the cellophane tape test to identify the presence of fur mite adults and eggs. At the end of 12 wk, all mice exposed to 11%, 20%, and 50% soiled bedding tested negative for fur mites. One of the 35 mice (3%) receiving 100% soiled bedding tested positive for fur mites at the end of the 12-wk follow-up period. These findings suggest that the use of soiled bedding sentinels for the detection of fur mite infestations in colony mice is unreliable.

Lindstrom, Krista E; Carbone, Larry G; Kellar, Danielle E; Mayorga, Melinda S; Wilkerson, James D

2011-01-01

367

Oxalic acid: a prospective tool for reducing Varroa mite populations in package bees.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have investigated using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa mites in honey bee colonies. In contrast, techniques for treating package bees with OA have not been investigated. The goal of this study was to develop a protocol for using OA to reduce mite infestation in package bees. We made 97 mini packages of Varroa-infested adult bees. Each package contained 1,613 +/- 18 bees and 92 +/- 3 mites, and represented an experimental unit. We prepared a 2.8% solution of OA by mixing 35 g OA with 1 l of sugar water (sugar:water = 1:1; w:w). Eight treatments were assigned to the packages based on previous laboratory bioassays that characterized the acute contact toxicity of OA to mites and bees. We administered the treatments by spraying the OA solution directly on the bees through the mesh screen cage using a pressurized air brush and quantified mite and bee mortality over a 10-day period. Our results support applying an optimum volume of 3.0 ml of a 2.8% OA solution per 1,000 bees to packages for effective mite control with minimal adult bee mortality. The outcome of our research provides beekeepers and package bee shippers guidance for using OA to reduce mite populations in package bees. PMID:19184581

Aliano, Nicholas P; Ellis, Marion D

2009-01-31

368

Effect of Stored Product Mite Extracts on Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Stored product mites commonly occur in agricultural work environments and sometimes in homes in significant numbers. They are a source of allergens that sensitize and induce allergic reactions. This may include atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the common species of storage mites are the sources of molecules that influence the function of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells that regulate the trafficking of inflammatory and immune cells into the dermis during allergic reactions and other skin diseases. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells were challenged with varying doses of extracts of the storage mites Acarus siro L., Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), or Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and the secretion of cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules were measured. The role of endotoxin and protein in inducing these responses was evaluated. These stored product mite extracts induced secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor. Some of these effects were induced by protein present in the extracts, some were induced by endotoxin, and some were induced by other substances. C. arcuatus and T. putrescentiae extracts also down-regulated tumor necrosis factor ?-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Stored product mite extracts contain an assortment of molecules, including endotoxins and proteins, which modulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the secretion of cytokines by microvascular endothelial cells. These modulating properties varied among mite species indicating that each mite species has a unique set of molecules that is responsible for its activity.

ELDER, B. LAUREL; MORGAN, MARJORIE S.; ARLIAN, LARRY G.

2012-01-01

369

Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes.

Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2010-01-01

370

The Effect of Insecticide Synergists on the Response of Scabies Mites to Pyrethroid Acaricides  

PubMed Central

Background Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001). Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%); inhibition of GST activity (73%) with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81%) with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James

2009-01-01

371

Research on the synthesis and performances of a new biodiesel, propylene glycol methyl ether palm oil monoester  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new biodiesel, propylene glycol methyl ether palm oil monoester?ƒ PGMEPOM?? was synthesized with propylene glycol methyl ether and palm oil as reagents and Na as catalyst. Under the optimum synthesis test conditions (molar ratio of propylene glycol methyl ether to palm oil was 10:1, mass content of Na to palm oil was 1.2%, reaction temperature was

WANG Wenguo WANG; Xuanjun Wang; Hejun Guo; Dayong Jiang; Jian Zhang

2011-01-01

372

Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): Win–win strategies toward better environmental protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD)

Man Kee Lam; Keat Teong Lee

2011-01-01

373

Design and Development of the MITEE-B Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies of compact, ultra-lightweight high performance nuclear thermal propulsion engines have concentrated on systems that only deliver high thrust. However, many potential missions also require substantial amounts of electric power. Studies of a new, very compact and lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine that provides both high propulsive thrust and high electric power for planetary science missions are described. The design is a modification of the MITEE nuclear thermal engine concept that provided only high propulsive thrust. In the new design, MITEE-B, separate closed cooling circuits are incorporated into the reactor, which transfers useful amounts of thermal energy to a small power conversion system that generates continuous electric power over the full life of the mission, even when the engine is not delivering propulsive thrust. Two versions of the MITEE-B design are described and analyzed. Version 1 generates 1 kW(e) of continuous power for control of the spacecraft, sensors, data transmission, etc. This power level eliminates the need for RTG's on missions to the outer planets, and allowing considerably greater operational capability for the spacecraft. This, plus its high thrust and high specific impulse propulsive capabilities, makes MITEE-B very attractive for such missions. In Version 2, of MITEE-B, a total of 20 kW(e) is generated, enabling the use of electric propulsion. The combination of high open cycle propulsion thrust (20,000 Newtons) with a specific impulse of ~1000 seconds for short impulse burns, and long term (months to years), electric propulsion greatly increases MITEE's ?V capability. Version 2 of MITEE-B also enables the production and replenishment of H2 propellant using in-situ resources, such as electrolysis of water from the ice sheet on Europa and other Jovian moons. This capability would greatly increase the ?V available for certain planetary science missions. The modifications to the MITEE multiple pressure tube/fuel element assembly to achieve bi-modal capability are modest. Small diameter coolant tubes are bonded to the surface of the MITEE cold frits that enclose the fuel elements. When the MITEE-B is not operating with H2 propellant to generate high thrust, the reactor continues to operate at low thermal, which is transferred to the closed coolant circuit. Three electric power generations are examined for MITEE-B: closed Brayton, Stirling, and a conventional steam cycle with a mini-turbine. The Stirling and steam cycles have the lowest specific masses in kg/kW(e). Both appear practical for MITEE-B.

Paniagua, John C.; Powell, James R.; Maise, George

2003-01-01

374

Mites (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with sigmodontinae rodents in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina.  

PubMed

The richness, diversity, abundance and prevalence of mite species associated with sigmodontine rodents of different species in Entre Ríos province, Argentina are studied. Five of the six species of mites were reported for the first time in the study area. The richness and diversity of mites was higher on Oligoryzomys flavescens and O. delticola than on Akodon azarae. Androlaelaps rotundus was dominant and exhibited higher values of mean abundance and prevalence on A. azarae, Mysolaelaps microspinosus on O. flavescens and Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis on O. delticola. PMID:11784942

Abba, A M; Udrizar Sauthier, D E; Bender, J B; Lareschi, M

2001-11-01

375

[Nest ectoparasites (gamasid mites) as vectors for rickettsia under experimental conditions].  

PubMed

The author gives a review of occurrence of rickettsiae (Coxiella burnetii, R. slovaca, R. sibirica, R. prowazekii, R. mooseri, R. akari) in gamasid mites, investigated in laboratory or in nature. The results of our experiments and from literature also are summarized in tables. The experimental infection with C. burnetii was investigated by natural route of infection in the following species of mites: Haemogamasus nidi, H. hirsutus, Androlaelaps casalis. We found C. burnetii in smears, stained with Gimenez and IMF, with whole bodies as well as in their excrements. The white mice injected with the suspension from these mites gave the positive serological response. PMID:2485310

Kocianová, E

1989-01-01

376

Acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of camomile flowers, Matricaria chamomilla, against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi.  

PubMed

Arcaricidal properties of decoctions, infusions and macerates of dried flower heads of camomile, Matricaria chamomilla L. (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in vitro against the mite Psoroptes cuniculi Delafond (Parasitiformes: Psoroptidae). This mite species is responsible for otoacariasis in domestic animals. Mites were exposed to the extracts for 24, 48 or 72 h. All the extracts tested showed highly significant acaricidal activity when compared with controls. Among them, a decoction of 10% was the only formulation which gave 100% activity at all the three observations times. PMID:15189247

Macchioni, F; Perrucci, S; Cecchi, F; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I; Pampiglione, S

2004-06-01

377

BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

2009-04-01

378

The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

2010-05-01

379

Effect of lipid physical state of palm derivatives on ?-carotene bleaching.  

PubMed

This research was addressed to study the effect of lipid physical state on bleaching kinetics of ?-carotene. To this aim, ?-carotene was added to palm oil and palm stearin and the samples were stored at increasing temperatures allowing different degree of crystallization. Phase transition properties of palm derivatives were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and synchrotron X-ray diffraction, whereas ?-carotene bleaching kinetics were followed by measuring color changes. Bleaching proceeded at comparable rate in palm oil and palm stearin containing systems stored at 20 and -18 °C, whereas the color changes showed a maximum rate at 4 °C in palm stearin samples and at -7 °C in palm oil systems. Arrhenius plot clearly highlighted deviations from the linearity underlining the crucial role of lipid physical properties in determining the bleaching rate. The location and the compartmentalization of ?-carotene in the fat lattice could affect its chemical stability. PMID:23488868

Calligaris, Sonia; Manzocco, Lara; Da Pieve, Sara; Arrighetti, Gianmichele; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

2013-03-11

380

Classification of the sand-mite family Walchiidae (Acariformes: Trombiculoidea).  

PubMed

The priority of Walchiinae Ewing, 1946 based on Walchia Ewing, 1931 or Gahrliepiinae Womersley, 1952 based on Gahrliepia Oudemans, 1912 as Walchia regarded as subgeneric taxon had been a controversy for almost half a century since 1952. Both genera are valid now. Wen (1999) redefined both subfamilial characters and in turn promoted Walchiinae to a full familial status. Walchiidae (Ewing, 1946) Wen, 1999 is characterized by SIF=4B/4Bs/5B/6B-N/B-3/2-2(1)1(0)1(0)0.0000, small to large sized sand-mites, IP=320 - 1220. Scutum is small to large size, extending backward over part of dorsum, and pentagonal with acuminate posterior angle or tongue-shaped. The scutum is never provided with anteromedian setae (AM or vi) and anteromedian projection (A or N=0). Scutal setae have AL and PL pairs basically, frequently in addition with 2 -40 accessories (PPLs), and rarely 1 - 2 pairs of intermedial setae (IM). Sensillae (Sn or sci) are short and expanded. Leg segments are 7.6.6 always without variations. Casting off the anteromedian setae on scutum, increasing the leg segments and reducing the tactile body setae are the plesiomorphic characters of sand-mites, that means Walchiidae in higher advance of evolution than both Trombiculidae (Ewing, 1929) and Leeuwenhoekiidae (Womersley, 1944). It is rationally to unify three families of vertebrate parasitic larvae into a single superfamily, Trombiculoidea nec Welbourn (1991), that separable from superfamily Trombidioidea of arthropod parasitic larvae and standing at most advanced evolution of Parasitengona. Family Walchiidae has 2 subfamilies, Walchiinae Ewing, 1946 sensu Wen 1999 and Gahrliepiinae Womersley, 1952, sensu Wen 1999. Each subfamily contains two tribes, Walchiini (Ewing, 1946) Wen 1984 and Schoengastiellini Wen 1984 for Walchiinae, and Gahrliepiini sensu Wen 1984 and Intermedialiini Wen, 1984 for Gahrliepiinae. Currently this family has 18 genera and 28 subgenera, 248 nominated species and subspecies. Walchiid sand-mites are essentially an Old World family and best developed in the Oriental Region with the center of development in Southeast Asia. PMID:15281459

Wen, Ting-huan

2004-04-30

381

Purification and characterization of 31-kDa palm pollen glycoprotein (Ela g Bd 31 K), which is recognized by IgE from palm pollinosis patients.  

PubMed

A basic glycoprotein, which was recognized by IgE from oil palm pollinosis patients, has been purified from oil palm pollen (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a strong allergen and causes severe pollinosis in Malaysia and Singapore. Soluble proteins were extracted from defatted palm pollen with both Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.8) and Na-acetate buffer (pH 4.0). The allergenic glycoprotein was purified from the total extract to homogeneity with 0.4% yield by a combination of DEAE- and CM-cellulose, SP-HPLC, and gel filtration. The purified oil palm pollen glycoprotein with molecular mass of 31 kDa was recognized by the beta1-2 xylose specific antibody, suggesting this basic glycoprotein bears plant complex type N-glycan(s). The palm pollen basic glycoprotein, designated Ela g Bd 31 K, was recognized by IgE of palm pollinosis patients, suggesting Ela g Bd 31 K should be one of the palm pollen allergens. The preliminary structural analysis of N-glycans linked to glycoproteins of palm pollens showed that the antigenic N-glycans having alpha1-3 fucose and alpha1-2 xylose residues (GlcNAc(2 to approximately 0)Man3Xyl1Fuc(1 to approximately 0)GlcNAc2) actually occur on the palm pollen glycoproteins, in addition to the high-mannose type structures (Man(9 to approximately 5)GlcNAc2). PMID:12036055

Kimura, Yoshinobu; Maeda, Megumi; Kimupa, Mariko; Lai, Oi Ming; Tan, Siang Hee; Hon, Sook Mei; Chew, Fook Tim

2002-04-01

382

[The phenomenon of phylogenetic synhospitality in acariform mites (acari: acariformes)--the permanent parasites of vertebrates].  

PubMed

The term synhospitality means the association of two or more closely related parasite species with one host species (Eichler, 1966). The cases of two or three synhospitalic species are known from the same host species, and especially ones where parasites were recorded from different parts of the host range, are quite common. The most ordinary reason causing synhospitality in permanent parasites is the host switching. Nevertheless, there are a number of synhospitality cases, where the parasite complex is monophyletic because evolved on a single host species. The special term--"phylogenetic synhospitality" (FS) is proposed for these cases of synhospitality. Most known cases of FS in acariform mites, permanent parasites of vertebrates, are analysed. It is found out that both astigmatan and prostigmatan parasite mites demonstrate a numbers of FS. The majority of these examples represent parasitism of two or three synhospitalic parasite species. Impressive examples of FS involving a number of synhospitalic species is shown by only astigmatan mites inhabiting the fur of mammals or plumage of birds. Most known examples involving four or more mite species are discussed: 51 mite species of the genus Schizocarpus (Chirodiscidae) parasitizing Castor fiber and C. canadensis (Castoridae); 6 species of Listrophorus spp. (Listrophoridae) from Ondatra zibethicus (Cricetidae); 23 species of Listrophoroides s. 1. (Atopomelidae) from Maxomys surifer (Muridae); 21 species of Cytostethum (Atomelidae) from Potorous tridactylus (Potoridae); 4 species of Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) from Malacomys longipes (Muridae); 7 species of Fainalges (Xolalgidae) from Aratinga holochlora (Psittacidae); 4 species of Zygepigynia (Pteronyssidae) from Chrysocolaptes lucidus (Picidae). The main reason of FS is that, in spite of the Fahrenholz's rule, the speciation of many parasites proceeds much more intensively than in their hosts because of the more rapid replacement of the parasitic generations. The first factor causing FS is the mite speciation it temporary segregated populations of the host (allopatric speciation). In this case, the "multispecies complexes" appeared after the subsequent reintegration of the host populations formerly isolated. The second factor is the speciation due to the specialization of mites to local microhabitats in the fur or plumage of host (sympatric or synxenic speciation). The second way of speciation is most characteristic for mites with highly specialized attaching structures. The phenomenon of FS more resides in ectoparasites of mammals rather than in feather mites in spite of much more structural complicacy of plumage rather than the fur. The high mobility of birds and wide dispersion of their new generations probably embarrass the process of sympatric speciation in their parasites. As a rule, only really significant geographical barriers play role for population isolation in birds. Thus, it could be concluded that two independent factors or their combination lead to FS. (i) The complex and/or disjunctive host range giving a possibility for allopatric speciation in parasites. (ii) The deep mite specialization to local microhabitats on the host body causing sympatric (synxenic) speciation. Fur of mammals and plumage of birds are very complicated in structure and microconditions and provide a considerable number of different microhabitats for mites inhabiting them. The prevalence of one of these two factors depends on the biological peculiarities of both parasites and their hosts. In mites with lesser specialized attaching organs, for example in atopomelids, allopatric speciation dominates. In mites with strongly specialized attaching organs, for example in listrophorids or chirodiscids, both pathways of speciation may take place. In feather mites, sympatric speciation should be more probable due to quite complicate and various structure of feathers in avian hosts. In fur mites, sympatric speciation is more likely in mites parasitizing hosts with peculiar ecology, for example in semiaquatic rodent

Bochkov, A V; Mironov, S V

383

Health-Economic Analyses of subcutaneous Specific Immunotherapy for grass pollen and mite allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo investigate the health and monetary consequences of treating allergy with specific immunotherapy (SIT) compared with symptomatic treatment\\/standard care among patients with grass pollen or mite allergy.

K. D. Petersen; D. Gyrd-Hansen; R. Dahl

2005-01-01

384

New mite species of the cohort tarsonemina (Trombidiformes, Acarina) of the fauna of Turkmenistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five mite species of the family Pygmephoridae (Pygmephorus dashoguzensis Chydyrov sp. n., Petalomium margushensis Chydyrov sp. n., Petalomium messori Chydyrov sp. n., Scutacarus berdyevi Chydyrov sp. n., and Scutacarus monstrificus Chydyrov sp. n.) from different localities of Turkmenistan are described.

P. R. Chydyrov; Petalomium messori Chydyrov

2007-01-01

385

Use of Selamectin and Moxidectin in the Treatment of Mouse Fur Mites  

PubMed Central

A breeding colony consisting of 250 different strains of mice was treated with the topical acaricide selamectin for the mouse fur mite Myocoptes musculinus, with no apparent ill effect, suggesting that this drug is safe for use in mice. To further evaluate their efficacy in treating Myocoptes spp., we compared selamectin with another acaricide, moxidectin, in a controlled manner. Infested mice were treated with selamectin or moxidectin at the time of cage change, and a subset of mice was retreated 10 d later. Mice underwent routine cellophane tape examination of the pelage for 1 y. Although no adult mites were found in any group at 1 mo after treatment, egg casings were found in the selamectin treatment group as late as 6 mo after treatment, prompting concern about its effectiveness. Moxidectin used in combination with cage changing was effective in eradicating mites, with mice negative for traces of mites on cellophane tape examination of the pelage from months 2 through 12 after treatment.

Mook, Deborah M; Benjamin, Kimberly A

2008-01-01

386

Intercepting aliens: insects and mites on budwood imported to South Africa.  

PubMed

South Africa imports plant budwood (dormant cuttings for propagation) from various countries. Phytosanitary measures, including inspections at points of entry, are implemented to minimize the chance of a pest being introduced on the budwood. This study presents the inspections and interceptions of mites and insects on budwood imported to South Africa from 2004 to 2011. The study presents crops and countries from which South Africa imports budwood, and gives data on the type of imports more often infested with arthropods. Interceptions of insects and mites are reported, including interceptions of phytosanitary, economically important and nonphytophagous mites. The arthropod taxa intercepted are listed, and it is noted that the majority of interceptions are of mites, particularly of Eriophyoidea. These data are discussed in the context of quarantine and research. PMID:23865182

Saccaggi, Davina L; Pieterse, Welma

2013-06-01

387

Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) Have Been Accumulated through Amplification Bursts and Play Important Roles in Gene Expression and Species Diversity in Oryza sativa  

PubMed Central

Miniature inverted–repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are predicted to play important roles on genome evolution. We developed a BLASTN-based approach for de novo identification of MITEs and systematically analyzed MITEs in rice genome. The genome of rice cultivar Nipponbare (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) harbors 178,533 MITE-related sequences classified into 338 families. Pairwise nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that individual MITE families were resulted from one or multiple rounds of amplification bursts. The timing of amplification burst varied considerably between different MITE families or subfamilies. MITEs are associated with 23,623 (58.2%) genes in rice genome. At least 7,887 MITEs are transcribed and more than 3,463 were transcribed with rice genes. The MITE sequences transcribed with rice coding genes form 1,130 pairs of potential natural sense/antisense transcripts. MITEs generate 23.5% (183,837 of 781,885) of all small RNAs identified from rice. Some MITE families generated small RNAs mainly from the terminals, while other families generated small RNAs predominantly from the central region. More than half (51.8%) of the MITE-derived small RNAs were generated exclusively by MITEs located away from genes. Genome-wide analysis showed that genes associated with MITEs have significantly lower expression than genes away from MITEs. Approximately 14.8% of loci with full-length MITEs have presence/absence polymorphism between rice cultivars 93-11 (O. sativa ssp. indica) and Nipponbare. Considering that different sets of genes may be regulated by MITE-derived small RNAs in different genotypes, MITEs provide considerable diversity for O. sativa.

Lu, Chen; Chen, Jiongjiong; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Qun; Su, Wenqing; Kuang, Hanhui

2012-01-01

388

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report for California: A Tree Trimmer Dies When He is Crushed by Palm Tree Branches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self-employed tree trimmer died while trimming the palm branches from an 80-foot palm tree in the yard of a private residence. The victim climbed the palm tree and got underneath the palm branches to trim them off the tree. As he cut the dead palm branc...

2010-01-01

389

Temperature-dependent population growth of three species of stored product mites (Acari: Acaridida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pest potential of stored product mites depends on the reproduction rate that is affected by the environmental conditions.\\u000a In this study we investigated the effect of temperature, ranging from 5 to 35°C, on the population growth of three important\\u000a mite species, Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Auleroglyphus ovatus at 85% r.h. Starting with 10 individuals the population increase of

Gamila Aspaly; Vaclav Stejskal; Stano Pekár; Jan Hubert

2007-01-01

390

A mite subversive: cleavage of CD23 and CD25 by Der p 1 enhances allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is a major cause of allergic disease in the Western world. Der p 1 is considered to be the most immunodominant allergen involved in the expression of IgE-mediated dust-mite hypersensitivity. Here, Farouk Shakib and colleagues suggest that it is the proteolytic effect of Der p 1 on CD23 and CD25 which makes it such a

Farouk Shakib; Oliver Schulz; Herb Sewell

1998-01-01

391

The control of eriophyoid mites: state of the art and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superfamily of the Eriophyoidea is a large and diverse group of mites, including a number of species of economic importance,\\u000a mainly on perennial plants in agriculture and forestry. This review focuses on the economic importance and pest status of\\u000a this group of mites, with emphasis on some genera. The available acaricide portfolio is reviewed and the influence of EU

Thomas Van Leeuwen; Johan Witters; Ralf Nauen; Carlo Duso; Luc Tirry

2010-01-01

392

Two-spotted spider mite in Cyprus: ineffective acaricides, causes and considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growers of greenhouse roses in Cyprus have recently reported failures of several acaricides against two-spotted spider mite\\u000a (Tetranychus urticae Koch). To verify the cause of these failures we evaluated the effectiveness of seven acaricides against two rose and two\\u000a cucumber spider mite populations in the laboratory. The acaricides included in our study represented the most important mode\\u000a of action groups

M. C. Stavrinides; M. Hadjistylli

2009-01-01

393

Effectiveness of eriophyid mites for biological control of weedy plants and challenges for future research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eriophyid mites have been considered to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. We\\u000a reviewed known examples of the use of eriophyid mites to control weedy plants to learn how effective they have been. In the\\u000a past 13 years, since Rosenthal’s 1996 review, 13 species have undergone some degree of pre-release evaluation (Aceria genistae, A.

L. Smith; E. de Lillo; J. W. Amrine Jr

2010-01-01

394

Digestive function of lysozyme in synanthropic acaridid mites enables utilization of bacteria as a food source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of lysozyme, the enzyme that hydrolyzes peptidoglycan in G+ bacterial cell walls, was detected in whole mite extracts (WME) and in spent growth medium extracts (SGME) of 14 species\\u000a of synanthropic mites (Acari: Acaridida). The adaptation of lysozyme for digestive activity and bacteriophagy was based on:\\u000a (i) high lysozyme activity in SGME, and (ii) the correlation of maximum

Tomas Erban; Jan Hubert

2008-01-01

395

Pollen consumption by flower mites in three hummingbird-pollinated plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies suggest that pollen consumption by flower mites may decrease the male fitness of the plant by reducing\\u000a the available pollen for dispersal. Here we assessed pollen consumption by flower mites under natural conditions in three\\u000a plant species with long-lived, protandrous flowers, Moussonia deppeana (Gesneriaceae), Lobelia laxiflora and L. cardinalis (Lobeliaceae). Total pollen mass was measured after 24 and

Tonatiuh Velázquez; Juan Francisco Ornelas

2010-01-01

396

Gene Pyramiding of Peptidase Inhibitors Enhances Plant Resistance to the Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae  

PubMed Central

The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is a damaging pest worldwide with a wide range of host plants and an extreme record of pesticide resistance. Recently, the complete T. urticae genome has been published and showed a proliferation of gene families associated with digestion and detoxification of plant secondary compounds which supports its polyphagous behaviour. To overcome spider mite adaptability a gene pyramiding approach has been developed by co-expressing two barley proteases inhibitors, the cystatin Icy6 and the trypsin inhibitor Itr1 genes in Arabidopsis plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The presence and expression of both transgenes was studied by conventional and quantitative real time RT-PCR assays and by indirect ELISA assays. The inhibitory activity of cystatin and trypsin inhibitor was in vitro analysed using specific substrates. Single and double transformants were used to assess the effects of spider mite infestation. Double transformed lines showed the lowest damaged leaf area in comparison to single transformants and non-transformed controls and different accumulation of H2O2 as defence response in the leaf feeding site, detected by diaminobenzidine staining. Additionally, an impact on endogenous mite cathepsin B- and L-like activities was observed after feeding on Arabidopsis lines, which correlates with a significant increase in the mortality of mites fed on transformed plants. These effects were analysed in view of the expression levels of the target mite protease genes, C1A cysteine peptidase and S1 serine peptidase, identified in the four developmental mite stages (embryo, larvae, nymphs and adults) performed using the RNA-seq information available at the BOGAS T. urticae database. The potential of pyramiding different classes of plant protease inhibitors to prevent plant damage caused by mites as a new tool to prevent pest resistance and to improve pest control is discussed.

Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Cambra, Ines; Martinez, Manuel; Pozancos, Clara; Gonzalez-Melendi, Pablo; Grbic, Vojislava; Castanera, Pedro; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel

2012-01-01

397

Effects of high copper concentrations on soil invertebrates (earthworms and oribatid mites)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data in the literature on the toxicity and uptake of copper by soil invertebrates are contradictory. Copper toxicity and bioaccumulation studies were therefore performed using earthworms and oribatid mites. Field-simulating experiments in soil-filled plastic containers showed that earthworms try to escape moderately toxic situations and that they are much more sensitive than oribatid mites to temporary high Cu2+ concentrations in

Bruno Streit

1984-01-01

398

[Gamasid mites of common voles in the central Volga River region].  

PubMed

The specific composition of gamasid mites from three species of voles (Microtus arvalis Pall., M. agrestis L., M. oeconomus Pall.) is given. Forest, field and flood-land groupings of the common vole having distinct phenotypical differences are characterized by differences in the structure of their parasite fauna. In the forest the number of meadow and meadow-field species decreases while that of forest species of mites regularly increases. PMID:2942832

Borisova, V I; Nazarova, I V

399

Brevipalpus mites Donnadieu (Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae) associated with ornamental plants in Distrito Federal, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brevipalpus mites colonize a great number of fruit and ornamental plants. Mite species belonging to this genus have been associated with many plant viruses. Citrus leprosis (CiLV) is the most economically important virus transmitted by B. phoenicis mites. It has recently been shown that ornamental plant species can be alternative hosts of this virus. The high volume of trade and frequent movement of live ornamental plants make them efficient pest disseminators. Because of this, it is desirable to expand knowledge of potential pests aiming to guide the adoption of quarantine measures. This work reports ornamental plant hosts of Brevipalpus mites in the Distrito Federal (DF), as well the occurrence of symptoms consistent with Brevipalpus-borne plant viruses in these same hosts. Between July and September of 2005, five surveys were carried out in 14 localities within DF. Leaves and branches of fifty-five ornamental plant species were sampled. The species Pithecellobium avaremotemo Mart. is for the first time reported as a host for B. phoenicis (Geijskes), B. californicus Banks and B. obovatus Donnadieu species. Additionally, seven new species are reported as hosts for Brevipalpus within South America. New hosts are also listed for individual mite species. Typical symptoms of Brevipalpus-borne viruses were observed in Ligustrum sinense Lour., Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. and orchids (Dendrobium and Oncidium). The results of this work emphasize the potential role of the ornamental plants as vehicles for dissemination of Brevipalpus mites. PMID:17934626

Miranda, Letícia C; Návia, Denise; Rodrigues, José C V

400

Intensity of parasitic mite infection decreases with hibernation duration of the host snail.  

PubMed

Temperature can be a limiting factor on parasite development. Riccardoella limacum, a haematophagous mite, lives in the mantle cavity of helicid land snails. The prevalence of infection by R. limacum in populations of the land snail Arianta arbustorum is highly variable (0-78%) in Switzerland. However, parasitic mites do not occur in host populations at altitudes of 1290 m or higher. It has been hypothesized that the host's hibernation period might be too long at high elevations for mites and their eggs to survive. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally infected snails and allowed them to hibernate at 4°C for periods of 4-7 months. Winter survival of host snails was negatively affected by R. limacum. The intensity of mite infection decreased with increasing hibernation duration. Another experiment with shorter recording intervals revealed that mites do not leave the host when it buries in the soil at the beginning of hibernation. The number of mites decreased after 24 days of hibernation, whereas the number of eggs attached to the lung tissue remained constant throughout hibernation. Thus, R. limacum survives the winter in the egg stage in the host. Low temperature at high altitudes may limit the occurrence of R. limacum. PMID:22444479

Haeussler, E M; Pizá, J; Schmera, D; Baur, B

2012-03-23

401

Water Mites (Acari: Hydrachnida) of Ozark Streams - Abundance, Species Richness, and Potential as Environmental Indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 ?m to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.

Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.

2005-05-01

402

Tasty but protected--first evidence of chemical defense in oribatid mites.  

PubMed

Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) represent one of the most abundant and speciose groups of microarthropods in the decomposer food webs of soils, but little is known of their top-down regulation by predators. Oribatids are relatively long-lived and have numerous morphological defensive adaptations, and so have been proposed to live in 'enemy-free space'. Most also possess a pair of large exocrine oil glands that produce species-specific mixtures of hydrocarbons, terpenes, aromatics, and alkaloids with presumably allomonal functions, although their adaptive value has never been tested empirically. We developed a protocol that discharges the oil glands of the model oribatid species, Archegozetes longisetosus. and offered 'disarmed' individuals as prey to polyphagous Stenus beetles (Staphylinidae), using untreated mites as controls. Stenus juno fed on disarmed mites with behavioral sequences and success rates similar to those observed when they prey on springtails, a common prey. In contrast, mites from the control group with full glands were almost completely rejected; contact with the gland region elicited a strong reaction and cleaning behavior in the beetle. This is the first evidence of an adaptive value of oribatid mite oil gland secretions for chemical defense. The protocol of discharging oil glands should facilitate future studies on top-down control of oribatid mites that aim to differentiate between morphological and chemical aspects of defensive strategies. PMID:21898169

Heethoff, Michael; Koerner, Lars; Norton, Roy A; Raspotnig, Günther

2011-09-06

403

A review on the factors affecting mite growth in stored grain commodities.  

PubMed

A thorough review of the literature has identified the key factors and interactions that affect the growth of mite pests on stored grain commodities. Although many factors influence mite growth, the change and combinations of the physical conditions (temperature, relative humidity and/or moisture content) during the storage period are likely to have the greatest impact, with biological factors (e.g. predators and commodity) playing an important role. There is limited information on the effects of climate change, light, species interactions, local density dependant factors, spread of mycotoxins and action thresholds for mites. A greater understanding of these factors may identify alternative control techniques. The ability to predict mite population dynamics over a range of environmental conditions, both physical and biological, is essential in providing an early warning of mite infestations, advising when appropriate control measures are required and for evaluating control measures. This information may provide a useful aid in predicting and preventing mite population development as part of a risk based decision support system. PMID:22270112

Collins, D A

2012-01-22

404

Prevalence of fur mites (Acari: Atopomelidae) in non-human primates of Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Parasites have been investigated for some New World primates; however, very little is known about ectoparasites and specifically fur mites. In this study, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri oerstedii, and Ateles geoffroyi monkeys from different areas of Costa Rica were searched for fur mites. A total of 276 monkeys were evaluated, and 51 of them were positive for mites of the family Atopomelidae. Listrocarpus alouattae was identified on 22.3% of A. palliata; Listrocarpus capucinus on 12.8% of C. capucinus; and Listrocarpus costaricensis on 36.8% of S. oerstedii; No fur mites were found on A. geoffroyi. Sex was not considered a determinant of mite infestation, but prevalence was significantly higher in the Central Volcanic Mountain Range Conservation Area for L. alouattae (p=0.01) and in the Central Pacific Conservation Area for L. capucinus (p=0.002). These primate fur mites are highly host-specific. Differences in the geographical distribution may be due to monkey behavior and history, as well as to environmental conditions. PMID:19637712

Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Chinchilla, Misael; Sánchez, Rónald; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A

405

Determination of pH in Regions of the Midguts of Acaridid Mites  

PubMed Central

The pH of the guts of mites strongly affects their digestive processes. This study was carried out to determine the pH in the guts of 12 species of stored product and house dust mites. Eighteen pH indicators were chosen and offered to the mites in the feeding biotest. Based on the color changes of the indicators, the gut contents of acaridid mites were determined to be within a pH range of 4 to neutral. The gut contents showed a gradient in pH from the anterior to the posterior part. The anterior midgut (ventriculus and caeca) of most species had a pH ranging from 4.5 to 5, or slightly more alkaline for most of the species, while the middle midgut (intercolon/colon) had a pH of 5 to 6. Finally, the pH of the posterior midgut (postcolon) was between 5.5 and 7. Except for Dermatophagoides spp., no remarkable differences in the pH of the gut were observed among the tested species. Dermatophagoides spp. had a more acidic anterior midgut (a pH of 4 to 5) and colon (a pH of 5) with postcolon (a pH of below 6). The results characterizing in vivo conditions in the mite gut offer useful information to study the activity of mite digestive enzymes including their inhibitors and gut microflora.

Erban, Tomas; Hubert, Jan

2010-01-01

406

Selection of Apis mellifera workers by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor using host cuticular hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most important threat for apiculture in most bee-keeping areas of the world. The mite is carried to the bee brood cell, where it reproduces, by a nurse bee; therefore the selection of the bee stage by the parasite could influence its reproductive success. This study investigates the role of the cuticular hydrocarbons of the European honeybee (Apis mellifera) in host-selection by the mite. Preliminary laboratory bioassays confirmed the preference of the varroa mite for nurse bees over pollen foragers. GC-MS analysis of nurse and pollen bees revealed differences in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the two stages; in particular, it appeared that pollen bees have more (Z)-8-heptadecene than nurse bees. Laboratory experiments showed that treatment of nurse bees with 100 ng of the pure compound makes them repellent to the varroa mite. These results suggest that the mite can exploit the differences in the cuticular composition of its host for a refined selection that allows it to reach a brood cell and start reproduction. The biological activity of the alkene encourages further investigations for the development of novel control techniques based on this compound. PMID:20152062

Del Piccolo, F; Nazzi, F; Della Vedova, G; Milani, N

2010-02-15

407

Utilization of palm oil fuel ash in concrete: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrolled dumping of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) not only occupies valuable land but also creates environmental pollution and health hazard. These problems can be reduced to a large extent by using POFA in concrete. A number of research works have been carried out to investigate the potential of POFA for use as a supplementary cementing material in normal, high

Mohd Zamin Jumaat

2011-01-01

408

Physical Property of Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residual  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fuel briquette was produced, by using the bunches and fiber of oil palm with grain side about 1 mm and 3 mm, respectively, by cold press method about 10 MPa and moisture content about 13% db . Experiments are carried out to determine the physical properties and thermal energy potential. The results shows that the 8 formulas produced briquettes

Suwit Phethuayluk; Chat Polnak; Phachita Plaoleh

409

Modeling of Oil Expression from Palm Kernel ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture content , duration and temperature of roasting are some of the critical parameters influencing oil expression. Effects of these parameters on palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were determined to develop model equations. A 4 x 4 x 4 factorial design was used in the test resulting in a total of 64 samples. Each sample at moisture content 4.5, 5.9,

L. K Bankole

410

Contact sensing palm for the Salisbury robot hand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes work performed on Tasks 5 and 6 under Sandia Contract Number 75-2608. Task 5 involves the design and development of a palm for the Salisbury robot hand and Task 6 is an investigation and incorporation of contact sensors into the pal...

D. L. Brock

1990-01-01

411

Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.  

PubMed

The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments. PMID:23917560

Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

2013-05-01

412

NUTRITIONAL DYNAMICS OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaves and fruit of date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. 'Deglet Noor' grown under commercial conditions were assessed during the course of an entire growing season for nutrient levels of most macro- and micro-nutrients. The different nutrients showed various patterns in the different organs thro...

413

Attalea crassispatha, a rare and endemic Haitian palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic history of the poorly known Haitian endemic palmAttalea crassispatha is given. Morphology and pollen morphology are described and illustrated. A discussion is given concerning its position within\\u000a the Attaleinae. In particular, staminate flower morphology of the subtribe is discussed.

Andrew Henderson; Michael Balick

1991-01-01

414

On Migrating a Legacy Application to the Palm Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handheld computing devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and the latest mobile phones are becoming widespread, so migrating desktop applications to these platforms is of great interest to developers. However, little information is available to guide the novice especially for the palm OS, the,most popular platform in the PDA and smartphone arena. This paper highlights the migration challenges involved

Andrew Foss; Kenny Wong

2004-01-01

415

A sample database used in a palm OS programming course  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a database whose data is taken from the Nutrition Facts labels required on food and drink containers. We also present a program which acts on such a database, which we call NuFax. This program illustrates a large number of Palm OS concepts, such as scrolling lists and tables, scroll bars and scroll buttons, application preferences, categories, beaming, and

W. Douglas Maurer

2003-01-01

416

VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF DATE DRIVE, SHOWING DATE PALMS. NOTE TRELLIS ON TYPE 11 FACILITY, FACILITY 808. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - CAMP H.M. SMITH AND NAVY PUBLIC WORKS CENTER MANANA TITLE VII (CAPEHART) HOUSING, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

417

Cocoa butter equivalent through enzymic interesterification of palm oil midfraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a cocoa butter equivalent (CBE) through enzymic interesterification of palm oil midfraction (POMF) with stearic acid in a solvent free system using Novo lipase Lipozyme™ as a catalyst was analyzed. A two level factorial design was used to study the effect of the initial ratio of stearic acid–POMF, initial humidity of the enzyme preparation and the enzyme–substrate

Daniel Undurraga; Andrés Markovits; Sonia Erazo

2001-01-01

418

Use of palm-mat geotextiles for rainsplash erosion control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil detachment by raindrop action (rainsplash erosion) is a very important subprocess of erosion by water. It is a particular problem in the UK as most soils are sandy or loamy sand in texture and lands have gentle to medium slope. However, few studies report potential rainsplash erosion control options under field conditions. Hence, the utilization of palm-mat geotextiles as

R. Bhattacharyya; M. A. Fullen; K. Davies; C. A. Booth

2010-01-01

419

The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a case study on the differing roles of temperate and tropical ex situ facilities in supporting the conservation of a major tropical plant group. The conservation value of botanic garden palm collections is reviewed by using (1) survey data from 35 collections in 20 countries, and (2) case studies examining the conservation value and utility of botanic garden

M. Maunder; B. Lyte; J. Dransfield; W. Baker

2001-01-01

420

Influence of palm oil ( Elaesis guineensis) on health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times there has been a growing research interest in palm oil, one of the major edible plant oils in the tropical countries, because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Obtained from a tropical plant, Elaesis guineensis, it has a polyunsaturated fatty acid\\/saturated fatty acid ratio close to unity and a high amount of antioxidant

P. E. Ebong; D. U. Owu; E. U. Isong

1999-01-01

421

Motion invariant palm-print texture based biometric security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric based identification is an emerging technology that can solve many security problems. Although systems based on fingerprint and eye features have so far achieved the best matching performance, human hand also contains a wide variety of features, e.g. shape, texture and principal palm lines etc. This feature of the human hand is quite stable and hand images can be

Rohit Kumar; Ratnesh P. Keshri; C. Malathy; K. Annapoorani Panaiyappan

2010-01-01

422

Multimodal Biometric Cryptosystem Involving Face, Fingerprint and Palm Vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed scheme involves an idea of including three biometric traits of a person where in the sense even if one fails the other trait could be utilised for verification or identity.Moreover the concept of cryptosystem is involved , where one of the biometric trait - the palm vein itself acts as a key to utilise the stored template database.

B. Prasanalakshmi; A. Kannammal; R. Sridevi

2011-01-01

423

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF EGYPTIAN DATE PALM: 11.RAPD FINGERPRINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RAPD fingerprints were performed on DNA extracted trom the internal leaves of the offshoots of five date palm cultivars (Samanie, Seaweae, Hyeane, Amhat and Zaghlool). Two random primers (OPC2 and OPD16) out of ten were selected on the basis of the number and frequency of polymorphic bands produced. Distinguishable RAPD fingerprints among the different varieties were obtainable if suitable primers

Mahmoud M. Saker; Hamdy A. Moursy

424

Gating transitions in the palm domain of ASIC1a.  

PubMed

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric cation-selective proton-gated ion channels expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The pore-forming transmembrane helices in these channels are linked by short loops to the palm domain in the extracellular region. Here, we explore the contribution to proton gating and desensitization of Glu-79 and Glu-416 in the palm domain of ASIC1a. Engineered Cys, Lys, and Gln substitutions at these positions shifted apparent proton affinity toward more acidic values. Double mutant cycle analysis indicated that Glu-79 and Glu-416 cooperatively facilitated pore opening in response to extracellular acidification. Channels bearing Cys at position 79 or 416 were irreversibly modified by thiol-reactive reagents in a state-dependent manner. Glu-79 and Glu-416 are located in ?-strands 1 and 12, respectively. The covalent modification by (2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl) methanethiosulfonate bromide of Cys at position 79 impacted conformational changes associated with pore closing during desensitization, whereas the modification of Cys at position 416 affected conformational changes associated with proton gating. These results suggest that ?-strands 1 and 12 contribute antagonistically to activation and desensitization of ASIC1a. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the lower palm domain contracts in response to extracellular acidification. Taken together, our studies suggest that the lower palm domain mediates conformational movements that drive pore opening and closing events. PMID:23300086

Della Vecchia, Margaret C; Rued, Anna C; Carattino, Marcelo D

2013-01-08

425

Improved tRNA prediction in the American house dust mite reveals widespread occurrence of extremely short minimal tRNAs in acariform mites  

PubMed Central

Background Atypical tRNAs are functional minimal tRNAs, lacking either the D- or T-arm. They are significantly shorter than typical cloverleaf tRNAs. Widespread occurrence of atypical tRNAs was first demonstrated for secernentean nematodes and later in various arachnids. Evidence started to accumulate that tRNAs of certain acariform mites are even shorter than the minimal tRNAs of nematodes, raising the possibility that tRNAs lacking both D- and T-arms might exist in these organisms. The presence of cloverleaf tRNAs in acariform mites, particularly in the house dust mite genus Dermatophagoides, is still disputed. Results Mitochondrial tRNAs of Dermatophagoides farinae are minimal, atypical tRNAs lacking either the T- or D-arm. The size (49-62, 54.4 ± 2.86 nt) is significantly (p = 0.019) smaller than in Caenorhabditis elegans (53-63, 56.3 ± 2.30 nt), a model minimal tRNA taxon. The shortest tRNA (49 nt) in Dermatophagoides is approaching the length of the shortest known tRNAs (45-49 nt) described in other acariform mites. The D-arm is absent in these tRNAs, and the inferred T-stem is small (2-3 bp) and thermodynamically unstable, suggesting that it may not exist in reality. The discriminator nucleotide is probably not encoded and is added postranscriptionally in many Dermatophagoides tRNAs. Conclusions Mitochondrial tRNAs of acariform mites are largely atypical, non-cloverleaf tRNAs. Among them, the shortest known tRNAs with no D-arm and a short and unstable T-arm can be inferred. While our study confirmed seven tRNAs in Dermatophagoides by limited EST data, further experimental evidence is needed to demonstrate extremely small and unusual tRNAs in acariform mites.

2009-01-01

426

Influence of temperature on the reproductive and demographic parameters of two spider mite pests of vineyards and their natural predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the influence of temperature on demographic parameters of two common vineyard pests, the Pacific spider mite,\\u000a Tetranychus pacificus McGregor, and the Willamette spider mite, Eotetranychus willamettei (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Additionally, we investigated the effects of temperature on their shared predator, the\\u000a western predatory mite, Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). The intrinsic rate of increase (r\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a ) was

Menelaos C. Stavrinides; Nicholas J. Mills

2011-01-01

427

Demodex mite infestation of unknown significance in a patient with rhinocerebral mucormycosis due to Apophysomyces elegans species complex.  

PubMed

Demodex mites have been reported in the past as a cause of facial rash in immunosuppressed patients. Here, we report an interesting case of possible demodicosis associated with rhinocerebral mucormycosis. The association of mites with a fungus was detected on direct microscopic examination of the scrapings of a nasal ulcer. The mite and the fungus were identified as Demodex folliculorum and Apophysomyces elegans species complex, respectively. PMID:23475907

Hallur, Vinaykumar; Singh, Gagandeep; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Kapoor, Rakesh; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

2013-03-08

428

Factors affecting the potential of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biocontrol agents in North-Italian vineyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a 5-year study on the relationships between spider mites and their predators in vineyards in Northern Italy\\u000a are reported. The efficacy of the two predatory mites appeared to be strongly affected by various factors (grape variety,\\u000a presence of macropredators, climatic condition, interspecific competition, phytoseiid strain).\\u000a \\u000a The phytoseiid mitesAmblyseius aberrans (Oud.) andTyphlodromus pyri Scheuten were released at three

C. Duso; C. Pasqualetto

1993-01-01

429

Paecilomyces lilacinus , a potential biocontrol agent on apple rust mite Aculus, schlechtendali and interactions with some fungicides in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple rust mite Aculus schlechtendali (Nal.) (Acari: Eriophyidae), is a main pest in apple-growing areas in Ankara, Turkey, and chemical control applications have\\u000a some limitations. Entomopathogenic fungi have a potential for biological control of mites. In this study, an entomopathogenic\\u000a fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes), was first isolated from the mite cadavers on Japanese crab apple leaves

Fikret Demirci; Evsel Denizhan

2010-01-01

430

[Possible evolutionary scenarios in the parasitengona mites (Acariformes: Parasitengona) based on anatomical peculiarities of their digestive system].  

PubMed

Five possible evolutionary scenarios of the higher acariform mites from the cohort Parasitengona are proposed on the basis of the detailed examination of anatomy of the excretory organ and midgut in the representatives of terrestrial mite families Trombiculidae and Microtrombidiidae, and in freshwater mite families Teutoniidae and Pionidae, on different developmental stages including parasitic larva. These scenarios explain possible ways of evolutionary transformation within the Parasitengona from one or several ancestor with the open digestive tract. PMID:21427964

Shatrov, A B

431

Importance of ambient saturation deficits in an epizootic of the fungus Neozygites floridana in cassava green mites ( Mononychellus tanajoa )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana Fisher (Entomophthorales: Neozygitaceae) is considered to have potential for the biological control of the cassava green\\u000a mite, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar). However, its activity is sporadic and laboratory data suggest a strong dependence on night-time saturation deficits\\u000a for transmission. We report on an epizootic of this fungus in a mite population in northeastern Brazil. During the

Sam L. Elliot; Gilberto J. De Moraes; John D. Mumford

2002-01-01

432

Population dynamics of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Japanese pear orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring a population of the citrus red mite (Panonychus citri),a non-diapausing species, migrated to a Japanese pear orchard,\\u000a mainly from nearby Japanese holly trees, but in autumn most of the mites starved to death while the rest returned to the holly\\u000a trees. In the Japanese holly trees, the population of mites reached their maximum density in late May1993 and

Tetsuo Gotoh; Mitsuhiro Kubota

1997-01-01

433

Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on apple trees and in surrounding vegetation in southern Finland. Densities and species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf samples were collected from sprayed (n=29) and unsprayed (n=19) apple orchards, from the surrounding vegetation (n=58) and from one arboretum (n=12), altogether from 46 plant species (1–5 samples each). The density of phytoseiid mites averaged 1.2 mites\\/leaf on unsprayed apple trees, but only 0.06 mites\\/leaf on sprayed trees. The phytoseiid density exceeded 1\\/leaf onAesculus hippocastani, Aristolochia macrophylla, Corylus avellana,

T. Tuovinen; J. A. H. Rokx

1991-01-01

434

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

2010-05-01

435

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

2010-01-01

436

Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems.  

PubMed

Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined. PMID:23221497

Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A

2012-12-05

437

Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm  

PubMed Central

Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ?880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ?140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ?4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ?660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ?20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ?12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia.

Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2011-01-01

438

The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) from cat, Felis catus in peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The cat fur mite, Lynxacarus radovskyi Tenorio, 1974 (Acarina: Astigmata: Listrophoridae) is reported from cats, Felis catus from three sites in peninsular Malaysia. The first site is a Malay village, Kampong Menteri in Taiping, Perak, where the mites were found on local pet cats. The other two sites are urban cities of Kuala Lumpur, in the Federal Territory and Georgetown, in the island of Penang. Mites from the urban areas were collected from stray cats. Although several ectoparasites (fleas, mites, ticks and lice) have been previously reported, L. radovskyi is recorded herein for the first time on cats from peninsular Malaysia. PMID:22735855

Jeffery, J; Norhidayu, S; Mohd Zain, S N; Noor Hayati, M I; Nurazila, B

2012-06-01

439

Long term dynamics of dermanyssus gallinae in relation to mite control measures in aviary systems for layers.  

PubMed

1. The dynamics of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, in aviary systems for layers were studied in an empirical study in Sweden between 1994 and 1997. Fluctuations were monitored with mite traps at monthly intervals during 3 laying cycles at each of 2 commercial poultry farms. 2. When mites were first detected in the system it then took about 5 months for the populations to reach equilibrium levels around which they fluctuated. Within flocks when the population growth was unaffected by temporary control activities, it was demonstrated that the mite populations were significantly denser in summer than in winter. 3. Current control methods had limited effects as mite populations were only temporarily suppressed. One exception was the control achieved with permethrin impregnated plastic strips, which reduced the population at equilibrium level to approximately 22%, compared with the previous flock. 4. The distribution of mites was patchy horizontally, along the aviary system, at low burden wlhereas it became more evenly dispersed at equilibrium. 5. Significant differences in vertical mite distributions that correlated with the hybrids used and their rearing conditions were also observed. In flocks with brown hens, mites gathered at the lower tiers, whereas they were found at the highest tiers in association with white hens. As the hens are attacked mainly at night-time the most likely explanation is that the mites adjust their behavioural pattern to the birds' roosting behaviour. PMID:11201430

Nordenfors, H; Höglund, J

2000-12-01

440

Quantitative PCR-based genome size estimation of the astigmatid mites Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of genomic data available for mites limits our understanding of their biology. Evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies promise to deliver rapid advances in this area, however, estimates of genome size are initially required to ensure sufficient coverage. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate the genome sizes of the burrowing ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, the non-burrowing ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, and the free-living house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Additionally, the chromosome number of S. scabiei was determined by chromosomal spreads of embryonic cells derived from single eggs. Results S. scabiei cells were shown to contain 17 or 18 small (< 2 ?M) chromosomes, suggesting an XO sex-determination mechanism. The average estimated genome sizes of S. scabiei and P. ovis were 96 (± 7) Mb and 86 (± 2) Mb respectively, among the smallest arthropod genomes reported to date. The D. pteronyssinus genome was estimated to be larger than its parasitic counterparts, at 151 Mb in female mites and 218 Mb in male mites. Conclusions This data provides a starting point for understanding the genetic organisation and evolution of these astigmatid mites, informing future sequencing projects. A comparitive genomic approach including these three closely related mites is likely to reveal key insights on mite biology, parasitic adaptations and immune evasion.

2012-01-01

441

Adaptation in the asexual false spider mite Brevipalpus phoenicis: evidence for frozen niche variation.  

PubMed

Because asexual species lack recombination, they have little opportunity to produce genetically variable offspring and cannot adapt to changes in their environment. However, a number of asexual species are very successful and appear to contradict this general view. One such species is the phytophagous mite Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), a species that is found in a wide range of environments. There are two general explanations for this pattern, the General Purpose Genotype (GPG) and Frozen Niche Variation (FNV). According to the GPG model, an asexual species consists of clones that can all survive and reproduce in all the different niches. Alternatively, the FNV model postulates that different clones are specialized to different niches. We have performed a test to distinguish between these models in B. phoenicis. Mites from three populations from three different host plant species (citrus, hibiscus and acerola) were transplanted to their own and the two alternative host plants and mite survival and egg production were measured. Additionally, the mite populations were genotyped using microsatellites. Fitness was seriously reduced when mites were transplanted to the alternative host plant species, except when the alternative host was acerola. We concluded that B. phoenicis clones are specialized to different niches and thus the FNV best describes the broad ecological niche of this species but that there is also some evidence for host plant generalization. This conclusion was strengthened by the observations that on each host plant species the native mite population performed better than the introduced ones, and that three microsatellite markers showed that the mite populations are genetically distinct. PMID:16132731

Groot, Thomas V M; Janssen, Arne; Pallini, Angelo; Breeuwer, Johannes A J

2005-01-01

442

USE OF RADIATION TO STERILIZE TWO-SPOTTED SPIDER MITE (ACARI: TETRANYCHIDAE) EGGS USED AS A FOOD SOURCE FOR PREDATORY MITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One-, 2- and 3-day old two-spotted spider mite eggs were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0-280 Gy. Percent egg hatch decreased as radiation increased for each age group; however, older eggs required higher doses of radiation to prevent egg hatch than did younger eggs. B...

443

Oil palm BVOC emissions and their potential for aerosol formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During ambient measurements at oil palm plantation (OP3/ACES projects) which took place from May to June 2008 we recorded by direct eddy covariance technique with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) large emission fluxes of isoprene (mid-day mean 8.6 mg m-2 h-1), estragole (0.81 mg m-2 h-1), acetone (0.1 mg m-2 h-1), hexanals (0.05 mg m-2 h-1) and remaining compounds (~ 1 mg m-2 h-1). However, secondary products of isoprene oxidation such as MVK+MACR exhibited high deposition rates (1 cm s-1) which were close to maximal theoretical values. In addition, methanol and, to some extent, other VOC compounds exhibited negative fluxes during the day. Despite several times higher emissions of isoprene from oil palm than from a nearby rainforest, it is uncertain how these differences would impact on the formation of aerosols. There have been recently many speculations about actual contribution of isoprene emissions to aerosol formation, for example whether they could inhibit the creation of aerosols due to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, in contradiction to an earlier OH-radical recycling hypothesis. Regardless, mass aerosol yields from isoprene have been thought low (up to ~2%), which can however make up significant overall loading at large emissions such as encountered at oil palm. Although oil palm was not found to be a monoterpene emitter, it appears that the largest contributor to aerosol production from oil palms might be floral emissions of estragole with its aerosol yield from photooxidation of this compound being similar to that of monoterpenes (~40%). In addition, other VOCs might have also an effect. We show the parameterisation for emission and deposition of particular VOCs and relate them to aerosol yields found in literature. Overall, it seems that the net aerosol formation potential with regards to VOCs emitted from oil palm may not be much different to that of rainforest, despite differences in the VOC mix emitted by these land uses.

Misztal, Pawel K.; Nemitz, Eiko; Cape, J. Neil; Langford, Ben; Phillips, Gavin J.; Dimarco, Chiara; Coyle, Mhairi; Owen, Susan; Heal, Mathew R.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

2010-05-01

444

Synthesis and Properties of a Novel Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Palm Oil Monoester biofuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Palm Oil Monoester (EGMEPM) was synthesized through transesterification with palm oil and Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether(EGME). Through L9(3) orthogonal experiments, optimum transesterification conditions were gained as: n(EGME):n(palm oil) = 10:1, w(metal sodium) = 1.2% total amount of alcohol at 70 °C for 120 min. EGMEPM yielded 85.7%. The new biofuel had a high Cetane Number (77),

Jian Zhang; Xuanjun Wang; Hejun Guo; Shenghua Liu; Jing Ma

2012-01-01

445

SEM Study on Early Stages of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Somatic Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is a plant with highest productivity of oil among others oil-producing plants with total product per year is 5-6 ton\\/ha. Micropropagation of oil palm by somatic embryogenesis has several advantages: homogenous plants, higher production of fresh fruit bunches and larger amount of high quality seeds in a relatively shorter time. Oil palm 635 clone (15

Totik Sri Mariani

446

Mapping palm extractivism in Ecuador using pair-wise comparisons and bioclimatic modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The native palm flora of Ecuador consists of 129 taxa, including at least 69 species used by rural people, 19 of which are\\u000a exploited commercially. This paper integrates bioclimatic modeling of palm distribution and quantitative ranking through pair-wise\\u000a comparisons of species as a tool to evaluate and map the importance of 14 taxa of commercially exploited palms in Ecuador\\u000a based

Henrik Borgtoft Pedersen; Flemming Skov

2001-01-01

447

Determination of anisidine value in thermally oxidized palm olein by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with transmission cell is described to predict anisidine value of palm olein.\\u000a The calibration set was prepared by mixing the thermally oxidized palm olein and the unoxidized palm olein with certain ratios\\u000a (w\\/w) covering a wide range of anisidine values. A partial least square (PLS) regression technique was employed to construct\\u000a a calibration model. This

Y. B. Che Man; G. Setiowaty

1999-01-01

448

Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.  

PubMed

The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1) oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2) orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features. PMID:24147137

Livingston, George; Jha, Shalene; Vega, Andres; Gilbert, Lawrence

2013-10-17

449

Influence of processing and palm oil on the carbonyls and fatty acids in Nigerian cassava foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocarbonyls, free fatty acids and total fatty acids were determined for traditionally and mechanically processed gari, lafun,\\u000a and crude palm oil. n-Alkanals and 2-alkanones were most abundant in the cassava foods, and unsaturated aldehydes contributed\\u000a by palm oil to yellow gari were observed to a limited extent. 2-Alkanones were not found in the palm oil, which indicated\\u000a that they arise

M. O. Abe; R. C. Lindsay

1979-01-01

450

Determination of GHG contributions by subsystems in the oil palm supply chain using the LCA approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  With increasing attention on sustainable development, the environmental and social relevance of palm oil production are now\\u000a important trade issues. The life cycle assessment (LCA) study of Malaysian oil palm products from mineral soils including\\u000a palm biodiesel was aimed to provide baseline information on the environmental performance of the industry for drawing up policies\\u000a pertaining to the sustainable production. The

Yuen May Choo; Halimah Muhamad; Zulkifli Hashim; Vijaya Subramaniam; Chiew Wei Puah; YewAi Tan

451

Testing the Effects of an Introduced Palm on a Riparian Invertebrate Community in Southern California  

PubMed Central

Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA), the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis). The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm’s effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the palm on a riparian invertebrate community in June 2011 by comparing the faunal and environmental variables associated with palm and willow canopies, trunks and ground beneath each species. The palm invertebrate community had lower abundance and diversity, fewer taxa feeding on the host (e.g., specialized hemipterans), and more taxa likely using only the plant’s physical structure (e.g., web-builders, oak moths, willow hemipterans). There were no observed effects on the ground-dwelling fauna. Faunal differences were due to the physical and trophic changes associated with palm presence, namely increased canopy density, unpalatable leaves, trunk rugosity, and litter accumulations. Palm presence and resulting community shifts may have further ecosystem-level effects through alteration of physical properties, food, and structural resources. These results were consistent with a recent study of invasive palm effects on desert spring arthropods, illustrating that effects may be relatively generalizable. Since spread of the palm is largely localized, but effects are dramatic where it does occur, we recommend combining our results with several further investigations in order to prioritize management decisions.

Talley, Theresa Sinicrope; Nguyen, Kim-Chi; Nguyen, Anthony

2012-01-01

452

Landscape Ecological Approach In Oil Palm Land Use Planning And Management For Forest Conservation In Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm industry is one of the major revenue for economic development in Malaysia. Oil palm was introduced to Malaysia in\\u000a 1911 and the first commercial planting began in 1917. Since then and combined with increasing demand of its product both at\\u000a the local and international market, areas planted with oil palm has been expanded throughout the nation. In 2004,

S. A. ABDULLAH; N. NAKAGOSHI

453

Use of palm-mat geotextiles for soil conservation: I. Effects on soil properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite geotextile-mats having the potential for soil conservation, field studies on the effects of geotextiles on soil properties are limited. Hence, the utilization of palm-mat geotextiles as a potential soil conservation technique was investigated at Hilton, east Shropshire, U.K. (52°33?5.7? N, 2°19?18.3? W). Geotextile-mats constructed from Borassus aethiopum (Borassus palm of West Africa) and Mauritia flexuosa (Buriti palm of South

R. Bhattacharyya; M. A. Fullen; C. A. Booth; T. Smets; J. Poesen; A. Black

2011-01-01

454

Nutritional value of palm wine from Hyphaene coriacea and Phoenix reclinata (Arecaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage consumed by rural people in Maputaland, Natal, South Africa. Nutritional information on\\u000a the nutrient content of palm wine fromHyphaene coriacea andPhoenix reclinata was obtained in order to provide more detailed nutritional data than were previously available. The results showed that while\\u000a palm wine is an important source of nicotinic acid and vitamin C, previous

A. B. Cunningham; A. S. Wehmeyer

1988-01-01

455

Enzymatic Interesterification of Palm Oil and Fractions: Monitoring the Degree of Interesterification using Different Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interesterification is an important modification technique for fats and oils resulting in the redistribution of the fatty\\u000a acids among the glycerol backbone and thus changing the physico-chemical properties of the modified fat. In this study palm\\u000a oil, palm olein and soft palm mid fraction (PMF) were subjected to both enzymatic (batchwise) and chemical interesterification.\\u000a The reaction products were characterized before,

Nathalie De Clercq; Sabine Danthine; Mai Tuyet Nguyen; Veronique Gibon; Koen Dewettinck

456

Conservation Value and Permeability of Neotropical Oil Palm Landscapes for Orchid Bees  

PubMed Central

The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1) oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2) orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

Livingston, George; Jha, Shalene; Vega, Andres; Gilbert, Lawrence

2013-01-01

457

Novel Scabies Mite Serpins Inhibit the Three Pathways of the Human Complement System  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage.

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L.; Mohlin, Frida C.; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M.; Pickering, Darren A.; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C.; Pike, Robert N.; Blom, Anna M.; Kemp, David J.; Fischer, Katja

2012-01-01

458

Scabies Mite Peritrophins Are Potential Targets of Human Host Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

Background Pruritic scabies lesions caused by Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing in the stratum corneum of human skin facilitate opportunistic bacterial infections. Emerging resistance to current therapeutics emphasizes the need to identify novel targets for protective intervention. We have characterized several protein families located in the mite gut as crucial factors for host-parasite interactions. Among these multiple proteins inhibit human complement, presumably to avoid complement-mediated damage of gut epithelial cells. Peritrophins are major components of the peritrophic matrix often found in the gut of arthropods. We hypothesized that a peritrophin, if abundant in the scabies mite gut, could be an activator of complement. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel full length scabies mite peritrophin (SsPTP1) was identified in a cDNA library from scabies mites. The amino acid sequence revealed four putative chitin binding domains (CBD). Recombinant expression of one CBD of the highly repetitive SsPTP1 sequence as TSP-hexaHis-fusion protein resulted in soluble protein, which demonstrated chitin binding activity in affinity chromatography assays. Antibodies against a recombinant SsPTP1 fragment were used to immunohistochemically localize native SsPTP1 in the mite gut and in fecal pellets within the upper epidermis, co-localizing with serum components such as host IgG and complement. Enzymatic deglycosylation confirmed strong N- and O-glycosylation of the native peritrophin. Serum incubation followed by immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody against mannan binding lectin (MBL), the recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of human complement activation, indicated that MBL may specifically bind to glycosylated SsPTP1. Conclusions/Significance This study adds a new aspect to the accumulating evidence that complement plays a major role in scabies mite biology. It identifies a novel peritrophin localized in the mite gut as a potential target of the lectin pathway of the complement cascade. These initial findings indicate a novel role of scabies mite peritrophins in triggering a host innate immune response within the mite gut.

Holt, Deborah C.; Kemp, Dave J.; Fischer, Katja

2011-01-01

459

Novel scabies mite serpins inhibit the three pathways of the human complement system.  

PubMed

Scabies is a parasitic infestation of the skin by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei that causes significant morbidity worldwide, in particular within socially disadvantaged populations. In order to identify mechanisms that enable the scabies mite to evade human immune defenses, we have studied molecules associated with proteolytic systems in the mite, including two novel scabies mite serine protease inhibitors (SMSs) of the serpin superfamily. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that within mite-infected human skin SMSB4 (54 kDa) and SMSB3 (47 kDa) were both localized in the mite gut and feces. Recombinant purified SMSB3 and SMSB4 did not inhibit mite serine and cysteine proteases, but did inhibit mammalian serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin, albeit inefficiently. Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation. SMSB4 inhibited mostly the initial and progressing steps of the cascades, while SMSB3 showed the strongest effects at the C9 level in the terminal pathway. Additive effects of both serpins were shown at the C9 level in the lectin pathway. Both SMSs were able to interfere with complement factors without protease function. A range of binding assays showed direct binding between SMSB4 and seven complement proteins (C1, properdin, MBL, C4, C3, C6 and C8), while significant binding of SMSB3 occurred exclusively to complement factors without protease function (C4, C3, C8). Direct binding was observed between SMSB4 and the complement proteases C1s and C1r. However no complex formation was observed between either mite serpin and the complement serine proteases C1r, C1s, MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3. No catalytic inhibition by either serpin was observed for any of these enzymes. In summary, the SMSs were acting at several levels mediating overall inhibition of the complement system and thus we propose that they may protect scabies mites from complement-mediated gut damage. PMID:22792350

Mika, Angela; Reynolds, Simone L; Mohlin, Frida C; Willis, Charlene; Swe, Pearl M; Pickering, Darren A; Halilovic, Vanja; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Pike, Robert N; Blom, Anna M; Kemp, David J; Fischer, Katja

2012-07-11

460

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

461

Use of palm trees as a sleeping site for hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Hamadryas baboons sleep on cliffs throughout their range, and this can be attributed to the safety cliffs provide against predators in the absence of tall trees. In this paper, we report the first documented occurrence of hamadryas baboons sleeping in doum palm trees rather than on cliffs. Data derive from a study of hamadryas baboons at the Filoha site in lowland Ethiopia. During all-day follows, data were collected on travel patterns, band activity, and location. Variation in the baboons' home range was characterized using vegetation transects. We discovered that one band in this population, Band 3, occasionally slept in doum palm trees (Hyphaene thebaica). The palm tree sleeping site differed from other palm fragments in the baboons' home range in that it contained a higher density of palm trees. Possible factors influencing this unique use of palm trees as a sleeping site include access to palm fruit, avoiding contact with Afar nomads, avoiding sharing sleeping cliffs with other bands, protection from predators, and the lack of cliffs in a section of the baboons' home range. Evidence from this study suggests that the palm tree sleeping site is used because it affords better protection from predators than other palm fragments in an area of the band's home range that does not contain cliffs. PMID:17701992

Schreier, Amy; Swedell, Larissa

2008-02-01

462

Pollen availability for predaceous mites on apple: spatial and temporal heterogeneity.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that an abundance of alternate food early in the spring may be critical to the ability of generalist predaceous mites to suppress spider mite pests. One alternate food that is typically very abundant in spring is wind-dispersed pollen. Here we investigate, at several spatial scales, the heterogeneity in the availability of pollen to predaceous mites on apple. We found pollen to be abundant on apple leaves very soon after they opened (> 100 grains/cm2), and that the dominant pollen types at this time were wind-dispersed tree pollens (Betulaceae and Pinaceae). We found that most of the spatial variation in pollen abundance occurred at either small spatial scales (within trees) or very large spatial scales (among orchard blocks). Variability among orchards was clearly influenced by the surrounding vegetation, and probably also by the management regime (frequency of mowing). Spatial heterogeneity in pollen availability may affect the build-up of predatory mite populations in the spring, as we found early season abundances of Typhlodromus pyri (Phytoseiidae) and Zetzellia mali (Stigmaeidae) to be better correlated with early season pollen density than with abundance of mite prey (Aculus schlechtendali). PMID:10823353

Addison, J A; Hardman, J M; Walde, S J

2000-01-01

463

Feather mites, pectoral muscle condition, wing length and plumage coloration of passerines.  

PubMed

I compared the feather mite (Acari, Proctophyllodidae) loads of moulting birds with features of the new plumage that they were growing. I examined 21 samples, each sample containing individuals of the same species, sex and age class (juvenile, yearling or adult). I used nine species: wren, Troglodytes troglodytes; dunnock, Prunella modularis; robin, Erithacus rubecula; blue tit, Parus caeruleus; great tit, P. major; chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs; greenfinch, Carduelis chloris; linnet, C. cannabina; and yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella. As previously reported for the house finch, Carpodacus mexicanus, birds with more feather mites grew duller plumage and relatively shorter wings than less infested individuals of the same sex and age class. They also had lower protein reserves judged by the shape of their pectoral muscle. Mite load was usually a better predictor of coloration than pectoral muscle score, but the opposite was true for changes in wing length. In contrast to house finches, birds whose plumage was dull before moult had higher mite loads while moulting. Even if feather mites do not cause dull plumage or short wings, they appear to be a good indicator of birds in poor physiological condition. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10479371

Harper

1999-09-01

464

Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction: the lost realm of the neglected parasite.  

PubMed

Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction forms the cornerstone for studies on Sarcoptes scabiei. Whilst the new science era took a shy leap into the different facets of mite studies, the cornerstone was almost entirely neglected. Mite collection, cleaning, storage and DNA extraction were, basically, humble attempts to extrapolate, adapt, modify or 'pirate' those existing methods to the peculiarities of Sarcoptes research. These aspects usually constituted few lines, bashfully mentioned, in the materials and methods section of some papers, which arose in unique problems concerning cost-effectiveness, time profitability, safety and even worse, the credibility of the results, creating contradictory conclusions in some cases. This 'noisy' situation encouraged us to collect, classify and review, for the first time to our knowledge, some aspects relating to studies on Sarcoptes mite from collection to DNA extraction, which will be useful for further studies on Sarcoptes, and have implications for the effective control of the diseases Sarcoptes mite causes. Further studies are needed, especially to compare the profitability, safety, sensibility and specificity of the different methods of this neglected realm of the ubiquitous ectoparasite. PMID:19159955

Alasaad, S; Rossi, L; Soriguer, R C; Rambozzi, L; Soglia, D; Pérez, J M; Zhu, X Q

2009-01-22

465

Use of selamectin for the treatment of psoroptic and sarcoptic mite infestation in rabbits.  

PubMed

Selamectin, a novel avermectin compound, was evaluated for its efficacy against naturally occurring infestations of Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei. A total of 42 New Zealand rabbits with psoroptic mange and 37 Angora rabbits with sarcoptic mange were used in the present study. On day 0, infested rabbits were treated topically with either selamectin at minimum dose of 6 mg kg(-1) (6-18 mg kg(-1) for New Zealand rabbits, n = 31 and 10-12 mg kg(-1) for Angora rabbits, n = 23) or vehicle only (control groups, n = 11 for New Zealand rabbits, n = 14 for Angora rabbits). The efficacy of selamectin was assessed both clinically and parasitologically by the presence or absence of viable mites. Rabbits were scraped for sarcoptic mites on days 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 and had otoscopeic and/or microscopic examination for the detection of Psoroptes mites on days 7, 14, 42 and 56. Fisher's exact test was used to assess differences between the vehicle and selamectin treatment in the number of rabbits without mites (cure rates) on each assessment date. It was found that significantly fewer selamectin-treated rabbits had mites detected on skin scrapings (for S. scabiei) or otoscopeic and/or microscopic examination (for P. cuniculi) (P < 0.01) than the vehicle group. Results of the present study suggest that selamectin is effective against naturally infestations of P. cuniculi and S. scabiei in rabbits. PMID:17222235

Kurtdede, Arif; Karaer, Zafer; Acar, Abuzer; Guzel, Murat; Cingi, C Cagri; Ural, Kerem; Ica, Anil

2007-02-01

466

Ear mite infestation in four imported dogs from Thailand; a case report.  

PubMed

Otodectes cynotis, ear mite or ear canker mite, is the most common cause of otitis external in cats (approximately 50%) and to a lesser extent in dogs, foxes and ferrets. The mite is living on the epidermal surface of auditory canal without burrowing into the tissue and feeding on tissue fluids and debris. In most of the cases they induce hypersensitivity reactions in the host. Four puppies; Siberian husky, Cocker spaniel, Terrier and mixed Pekignese with different genders and ages were referred to the Small Animal Hospital, Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran for routine clinical examination just after they were imported from Thailand in a timeframe between June to August 2008.Clinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination, the specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Amitraz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders. PMID:22808403

Maazi, N; Jamshidi, Sh; Hadadzadeh, Hr

2010-12-31

467

Ear Mite Infestation in Four Imported Dogs from Thailand; a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Otodectes cynotis, ear mite or ear canker mite, is the most common cause of otitis external in cats (approximately 50%) and to a lesser extent in dogs, foxes and ferrets. The mite is living on the epidermal surface of auditory canal without burrowing into the tissue and feeding on tissue fluids and debris. In most of the cases they induce hypersensitivity reactions in the host. Four puppies; Siberian husky, Cocker spaniel, Terrier and mixed Pekignese with different genders and ages were referred to the Small Animal Hospital, Veterinary Faculty of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran for routine clinical examination just after they were imported from Thailand in a timeframe between June to August 2008. Clinical examinations showed an excessive dark brown discharge in both ears. No signs of other clinical situations were observed. White moving mites were seen during otoscopy examination, the specimen of ear discharge was sent to parasitology laboratory for precise identification of genus and species. Mites were identified as Otodectes cynotis and the presence of concurrent yeast and bacterial infection was showed by laboratory examinations. Topical Amitraz solution in combination with otic antibacterial and antifungal agents were administered as the treatment. Since, all the reported cases were imported from Thailand, careful clinical examination and quarantine strategies are highly recommended at the borders.

Maazi, N; Jamshidi, Sh; Hadadzadeh, HR

2010-01-01

468

The effect of insecticides on the non-target predatory mite Kampimodromus aberrans: Laboratory studies.  

PubMed

The side-effects of pesticides on predatory mites have been investigated at various levels and international teams (e.g., the IOBC/wprs Working Group "Pesticides and beneficial organisms") have selected a few species of predatory mites occurring in Central and Northern Europe as representative for such studies. Key biocontrol species occurring in Southern Europe have received much less attention. Kampimodromus aberrans is the most important predator of herbivorous mites in South-European vineyards treated with selective pesticides. The impact of pesticides on K. aberrans populations has been studied in field conditions whereas few toxicological tests have been conducted in the laboratory because of difficulties in rearing this species. A method for rearing K. aberrans in the laboratory has recently been set up allowing toxicological studies to be conducted. In this paper, a toxicological method to assess the effects of pesticides on K. aberrans is described and the effects of insecticides frequently used in European vineyards on two K. aberrans strains are reported. These strains were collected from vineyards treated with organophosphates. Insecticides characterized by different modes of action were selected for trials. Among these, etofenprox and spinosad were classified as harmful to predatory mites. Chlorpyrifos reduced predatory mite fecundity, and was classified as moderately harmful for both strains. The toxicity of thiamethoxam and flufenoxuron varied with the strain (low to moderate). Indoxacarb and methoxyfenozide appeared to be harmless or slightly harmful. Implications of this study for adopting IPM tactics with a reduced risk for K. aberrans are discussed. PMID:23856464

Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Duso, Carlo

2013-07-12

469

Retained subretinal date palm tree thorn in a child.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old boy presented with severe eye pain and nausea after colliding with a date palm tree branch. Examination under anesthesia revealed a self-sealed corneal laceration and traumatic cataract in his left eye. Cultures were taken and the patient received prophylactic subconjunctival, intravitreal, and systemic antibiotics because of the high risk of endophthalmitis. A thorn from the same tree grew Bacillus cereus. Examination after 2 weeks of the injury revealed a subretinal foreign body (a palm tree thorn), although there were no signs of endophthalmitis or retinal detachment. The patient underwent cataract extraction and laser demarcation of the subretinal foreign body, which was not removed. He was fitted for an aphakic contact lens. With alternate patching, his best-corrected visual acuity improved to 20/30. PMID:24160979

Modi, Yasha; John, Vishak; Warman, Roberto; Hess, Ditte; Murray, Timothy G; Berrocal, Audina M

2013-10-01

470

Biology and management of palm dynastid beetles: recent advances.  

PubMed

Coconut, oil, and date palms are important crops in the tropics and are attacked by dynastids that cause loss of production or death of hosts. Knowledge of their breeding sites has been extended since a previous review in 1980. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has potential as a biopesticide against immature stages in friable breeding sites. The molecular biology and ultrastructure of Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus (OrNV), disseminated by adults, have been studied, and this pathogen can reduce O. rhinoceros populations and damage when introduced into new locations, especially where damage had been high. New PCR techniques may enable reliable quantification of dosages ingested and hence virulence of different isolates. Male-produced aggregation pheromones have been identified in several species, for which they may have management potential, having been used commercially for trapping O. rhinoceros in oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia, and tested against O. monoceros in Africa. PMID:23317044

Bedford, Geoffrey O

2013-01-01